Page 1

The Responsible and Sustainable

Tourism Handbook

tou Southern & East Africa Volume 1 The Essential Guide


“Luxury Summed up in Three Words”

FOR RESERVATIONS, RATES, SCHEDULES AND SPECIAL PACKAGES PLEASE CONTACT US: PRETORIA” TEL: +27 (0) 12 334-8459/60, FAX: +27 (0) 12 334-8464/8081 CAPE TOWN: TEL: +27 (0) 21 449-2672, FAX: +27 (0) 21 449-2067 E-MAIL: INFO@BLUETRAIN,CO,ZA

In the heart of Big 5 malaria-free Madikwe Game Reserve on the northern border of South Africa, lies Tau Game Lodge, an oasis of tranquillity and hospitality, where you can relax, revitalise and rejuvenate your body, mind and soul in uniquely African surroundings. Overlooking a natural waterhole, the thirty luxury chalets offer excellent views of animals approaching from the opposite bank all day long. Add to that the luxurious Tau Spa Oasis and a fully equipped Convention Centre, as well as the Tau Cubz Club, and you have the ideal corporate or family destination in the serenity of the untouched bush and wildlife. Madikwe Game Reserve has the distinction of being one of the few game reserves in the world to be proclaimed purely on the grounds of being the most appropriate and sustainable land use for an area, run as a joint venture between the state, the private sector and local communities, thus involving the local communities directly in the benefits of wildlife tourism and the protection of the natural environment. Madikwe boasts year-round game viewing and is one of the few reserves where one can view a wide variety of fauna from the Big 5 to Spotted and Brown Hyena, the endangered Wild Dog, not to mention a bird population of over 250 different species.

In addition university sponsorships are granted to students who show academic potential. After the great success of the Tau Tree Fund, started to allow visitors our guests an opportunity to plant protected tree species and to learn a little about the trees that they are planting, thereby playing an active role in conservation through the re-establishment of trees into the lodge area, where they were originally cleared out many years ago to build the lodge, we have begun greening the local village of Supingstad one tree at a time. Through actively recycling glass, cans and plastic, Tau is also able to support the Mmasebudule Recycling Company, and as an extension of the Mmasebedule community project the task of supplying trees to lodges in the Madikwe Reserve was initiated, to teach the community to collect seeds and germinate indigenous trees for resale both within and outside of the game reserve. This project has already gained significant success, which has obtained valuable funds to be used within the greater scheme of the waste management solution, not to mention the benefit of planting over 300 trees in otherwise barren areas of the game reserve.

At the current rate of poaching, fuelled mainly by a magnanimous demand from the Asian traditional medicine trade, the Rhino’s situation is deemed to be dire. Over the past 6 years rhino poaching statistics have worsened dramatically, to the point of a current crisis situation. In October 2012 Tau was one of the 1st companies to support the Rhinose Foundation by making the Rhinose available in our curio shop and by fitting each of our game drive vehicles with its own Rhinose. In 2013 Tau has chosen to express how committed we are to continued support of this worthy cause by becoming a formal sponsor of the Rhinose project. In line with the philosophy behind the creation of the Madikwe Reserve, The Tau Foundation was set up with an eye to funding community development. This social responsibility programme is delivering tangible results, including the fencing and safe keeping of the school properties and upgrading of the school sports fields and play grounds, as well as the renovation of school buildings and facilities, setting up of vegetable gardens, computer rooms, creating a borehole and installing guttering and water tanks and toilets with running water at the high school.

For any additional information, please feel free to contact us on +27 11 314 4350 or Alternatively, please view our website:

Classifed Safaris is a mobile safaris tour operator based in Kasane(Botswana). We do camping trips into all of Botswana’s national parks,covering Chobe national park,Savuti,Moremi game reserve,Okavango delta, Central Kalahari game reserve. Nxai & Makgadikgadi pans national parks. Our package includes tented accomodation,comfortable bedding,fexible daily game drives with a professional safari guide,all meals & drinks Our trip duration ranges from 1 to 21 days or more enabling you to cover and see different areas. We are still fexible to tailor make your safari according to your expectations. DAILY ACTIVITIES: Chobe NP game drives,Sunset boat cruise, fishing photographic tours,Victoria Falls day trips, Educational & Cultural tours,bird watching trips, Local & overland transfers CONTACTS P.O. BOX 236 KASANE(BOTSWANA) (+263)71421153/71691259/72537162

Dedicated to nature

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ALIVE2GREEN PEER REVIEW PROCESS The Publisher and the Editor allocate a reviewer to an article and then send it to the reviewer who is well acquainted with the topic. Reviewers return an evaluation of the work to the Editor, noting weaknesses or problems along with suggestions for improvement. The Editor notes the reviewer’s recommendations and will either publish the article without changes, request that the author amend the article in accordance with recommendations or reject the article but encourage revision and invite resubmission.

The Editor evaluates reviewer submissions and is under no obligation to accept recommendations. The Editor may also add his or her opinions and recommendations to those of the reviewer before passing these back to contributors. Peer reviewed articles may not necessarily have incorporated all recommendations made by the reviewer but are likely to have been amended from the original version.

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THE SUSTAINABILITY SERIES HANDBOOKS More than fifty thousand people in South Africa will read at least one of the Handbooks in the ‘Sustainability Series’ this year. The 5 Handbooks in the series are published by alive2green in a high quality A5 format and are available for purchase online at The Sustainability Series Handbooks tackle the key areas within the broader context of sustainability and include contributions from South Africa’s best academics and researchers. The Handbooks are designed for government and business decision makers and are produced in Volume format where each new Volume builds on the previous Volume without necessarily replacing it. The Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook and the Green Building Handbook deal with two sectors that are the largest contributors to greenhouse gasses .The Water and Energy Handbooks tackle the issues and solutions that South African’s face with two of our most important Resources and finally the Waste Handbook deals with the principles concerned with Waste minimization and ultimately Waste eradication. The Handbooks also profile some of the top companies and organisations that are represented in the each important sector.


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The Responsible and Sustainable

Tourism Handbook

Southern & East Africa Volume 1 The Essential Guide

SALES ADMINISTRATION Wadoeda Brenner PROJECT LEADER Gerhardt Burger ADVERTISING EXECUTIVES Robin Temmers, Caryn-Lee Engelbrecht, Sindile Mavundla, Nazeem Hoosen, Elna Willemse

EDITOR Niki Glen CONTRIBUTORS Niki Glen, Prof Kevin Mearns, Jennifer Seif, Caroline Ungersbock, Heidi van der Watt Nombulelo Mkefa, Wayne Duvenage, Reynette Coetzee, Steven Barnard, Lorraine Jenks, Mientjie Steyn, Peter Fabricius, Louis Nel, Dr Muriel Chinoda, Chris van Zyl

CHIEF EXECUTIVE Gordon Brown DIRECTORS Gordon Brown Andrew Fehrsen Lloyd Macfarlane

LAYOUT & DESIGN Kurt Daniels




ADMIN MANAGER Suraya Manuel DIGITAL MARKETING MANAGER Cara-Dee Carlstein The Sustainability Series Of Handbooks PHYSICAL ADDRESS: Wynberg Mews Cloete House Brodie Road Wynberg Cape Town South Africa 7824 TEL: 021 447 4733 FAX: 086 6947443 Company Registration Number: 2006/206388/23 Vat Number: 4130252432

SBN No: 978 0 620 45240 3. Volume 4 rst Published February 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or in any form without the prior written consent of the publisher. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the Publisher or the Editor. All editorial contributions are accepted on the understanding that the contributor either owns or has obtained all necessary copyrights and permissions. IMAGES AND DIAGRAMS: Space limitations and source format have a ected the size of certain published images and/or diagrams in this publication. For larger PDF versions of these images please contact the Publisher. CHAPTER IMAGES,,, www.,,, www., Endorsers:


Established in 1999 Mozambique Tourism is a leading Wholesaler Tour Operator specializing in Mozambique .Our mission is to deliver the highest quality of service and professional assistance. Let us assist you with your Individual, Honeymoons , family holidays, Incentives, groups, and special events packages. We will tailor make packages to suit your client’s requirement and budgets. With our excellent rates and great service your agency and your client are in good hands.

Some of our current specials are:

BAZARUTO LODGE Bazaruto Island FLY IN PACKAGE Package includes: Flights Johannesburg/Vilanculos Return on LAM or SAA, Departure airport taxes, Plane transfers from Vilanculos to Bazaruto / Return, Welcome Drink ,Accommodation at Bazaruto Lodge in a SUPERIOR ROOM ,Fully inclusive Basis ( Breakfast, Lunch & Dinner) House Wines ,House Beers, Soft Drinks, Coffee and tea making facilities in rooms ,A wide range of non-motorised water sports, Free internet access 5 x Nights 1,880.00 USD per person sharing 7 x Nights 2,280.00 USD per person sharing

MEDJUMBE PRIVATE ISLAND FLY IN HONEYMOON PACKAGE Package includes: Flights Johannesburg /Pemba Return on LAM or SAA, Departure airport taxes ,Plane transfers from Pemba Airport to Medjumbe/Return, Accommodation in a Beach Chalet @ Medjumbe ,Accommodation on a Full Board Basis ( Breakfast , Lunch & Dinner) ,House Wines, local brand spirits & beer, bottled water ,Tea/ coffee, soft drinks ,Laundry ,Non-Motorized Water sports & Marine Reserve Fees, Fruit Platter and Bottle of Wine in room on arrival ,Honeymoon surprise gift ,One three course Dinner for two, including wine, either on room patio or on beach, One authentic Sunset cruise for two, One snorkelling trip for two 5 x Nights 2,560.00 USD per person sharing 7 x Nights 3,280.00 USD per person sharing

EXCLUDES: Visas ( if needed), any item and or service not on the above packages. Rates are subject to availability and change due to currency fluctuations Specials valid until 05 January 2014 For information or quotes please contact us on or check out our web site

Editors note I attended a conference at the Sandton Convention Centre not so long ago. I had the pleasure of meeting Thebetheni Tsheka and Phindile Sobhuza. They attracted my attention, as they were dressed in beautiful matching outfits, made from traditional fabrics, and they were wearing interesing accessories. After introductions, they explained to me that they had come all the way from a rural village to this conference in Johannesburg, in the hope that someone will listen to their story and help them to make positive changes. They were over the moon when I told them that I had been to their village only a few months ago – very surprised that anyone had even heard of the town, let alone visited it. Here is their story. This story captures 1) the desire of many South Africans wanting to make their places better places to visit and 2) the frustration in struggling achieve this. “A local collaborative tour organisation was formed by a number of tourism product owners in 2004. This tour organisation is owned by three members. The company mainly researches and groups together places of interest. This rural area, comprising 15 villages, has incredible attractions. The local tour organisation organises tours around the area for local and international tourists and schools. Their initiatives benefits a large number of people. Since they started they’ve never received any financial support from any local government department. They have tried their best with the cents they have to move forward the tourism industry in their area to benefit business owners, traditional dancers, crafters, story tellers, and others. Amongst their greatest attractions is a local cave in one of the villages, which is the most popular now. A number of archealogists, researchers and other tourists have commented that this cave is the biggest rock art cave in South Africa, after the Kamberg Rock Art Site in KZN. This cave is +/- 75m long. As much as this industry is fun to work in, it hasn’t been an easy road for the owners of the company for many reasons. − Lack of Accommodation: this hinders a good flow of tourists in the area and prevents longer stays; − Most of the attractions are natural. However, they are being destroyed everyday and the people in power are not doing anything to stop that. For

Story of a remote village in South Africa By Niki Glen, relating communications from Thebetheni Tsheka and Phindile Sobhuza

example: burning of the veld which damages wetlands and as a result Flora and Fauna are either killed or move away. − Community members are responsible for this damage, and unless they are eductated and made aware of their possible negative and positive impacts, very little will change. − Infrastructure: roads, water and electricity to the villages that have attractions are poor and badly maintained. There is not enough support from the district nor the local municipality as far as marketing and development of our ideas due to lack of knowledge about the importance of tourism by the political heads. “We wish to market our side of Drakensberg, so that we may be recognised. This will make it easier for the product owners with limited funds to advertise the attractions. It pains us to hear that thousands of tourists are flowing through South Africa every month but in our area, as amazing as it is, we get 2 tourists every 2 or 3 months. This happens because tourists that come to South Africa come already having a programme including areas like Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, East London and Port Elizabeth and nothing in the rural areas, because they don’t even see it on the map.” “We got an opportunity to exhibit at Easter Cape Parks and Tourism Agency. This was not very successful for us, because people that came to the exhibition, already knew what they wanted: a Safari, Table Mountain, Robben Island (the well advertise attractions) and were not interested in what we offered them because they haven’t heard about us anywhere.” Thank You The Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme would like to thank Alive2Green and their team for providing us with the opportunity to make a truely significant contribution to raising awareness of Responsible Tourism and its core principles. We would also like to thank all the contributors for agreeing to provide their input to create a collection of perspectives which will have a significant impact on the main-streaming of Responsible and Sustainable Tourism Practices. We would also like to thank all the sponsors for their much need contribution in spreading awareness and providing access to products and services to assist tourism businesses to move forward. The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


contents Contributors Profiles 16 Chapter 1 22 Introduction to Responsible Tourism Chapter 2 28 The Sustainable Tourism Certification Alliance Africa Chapter 3 34 Stakeholder Alignment - The Value of a Tourist Chapter 4 42 Responsible Tourism and Local Government Chapter 5 50 Tourism Planning and Marketing Chapter 6 60 Taking Responsibility for Tourism:The Journey of the City of Cape Town Chapter 7 68 Sustainable Consumption & Production:Lessons from Faritrade Chapter 8 76 Service Excellence - The Ultimate Goal for Survival and Growth Chpater 9 84 Authentic Tourism Experience Chapter 10 90 Biodiversity and Tourism

contents Chapter 11 100 Local Community Empowerment through Tourism Chapter 12 108 Purchasing For Your Establishment Chapter 13 114 Managing Resources In Daily Operations Chapter 14 122 Marketing Strategy and Social Media Chapter 15 130 Marketing Tourism - Web and Media Chapter 16 138 Business Risks Chapter 17 144 The “No-Regret Paradox” of Sustainability Chapter 18 150 Case Study- Waste reduction –Vineyard Hotel & Spa

Biliography 156 Index of Advertisers 160

contributors NIKI GLEN is the cofounder and Programme Director of the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme. Niki started her career as a Civil and Structural Engineer. After completing her MBA in 2000, she became a programme Manager for international companies, including Absa, Barclays, Standard Bank and Liberty Life, running mass scale programmes stretching over 11 African Countries. Her interest has always been in sustainability and environmental and social

preservation. She left her 18 year corporate career to pursue sustainability in tourism and business. After consulting for Green Leaf Environmental Standard and completing Travelife training, she joined forces with the Caroline Ungersbock from the NAA-SA in early 2012 to establish the ground breaking programme, which has received many accolades in it short period of existence, including support from industry and government and achieving runner up in the Eskom ETA awards (Awareness). Niki is also studying to attain her Doctorate in Environmental Management and Responsible Tourism. Niki’s passion for finding solutions has taken her to develop the core of the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme.

CAROLINE UNGERSBOCK is the President of the National Accommodation Association of South Africa, and member of The Tourism Technical Committee SABS (for Responsible Tourism Standard SANS 1162:2011 launched on 12 September 2011 and Service Excellence in Tourism SANS 1195:2012 launched on 28 March 2012);FEDHASA Large Hotel Group Committee; TGCSA – Tourism Grading Council of South Africa–Awards Committee; Excellence Forum – National Department of Tourism; Tourism Growth and Development (Chair) – NTSS – National Tourism Sector Strategy –

includes Responsible Tourism and Service Excellence; CEO’S Forum, Board Member and Director – TBCSA – Tourism Business Council of South Africa. Caroline is an entrepreneur and owner of several businesses, including a construction company (focused on green developments), a telecommunications company and guest house owner. She is passionate about sustainable tourism and is seen in the industry as a leader in driving awareness and implementation amongst the NAA-SA members and affiliated members. Caroline is a co-founder of the Non-Profit Organisation, the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme, the focus of which is to drive change across the entire industry thus making it more sustainable.

ADV LOUIS NEL studied at the universities of Stellenbosch, UCT, Wits, Tulane (New Orleans, USA) and London. He holds the degrees B. Comm, Ll.B and Ll.M, completed the Wits EDP and Executive Negotiator Courses, holds diplomas in Marketing and Industrial Relations and is an admitted attorney and advocate. After 15 years with Rennies he set up his own consultancy in 1997 focusing on travel & tourism as well as the Small, Micro & Medium Enterprise (’SMME’) market. Advocate Louis Nel is a regular contributor to Travel News Weekly, TravelInfo, BTN, Tattler, Tourism Update, TIR, TIR 360 Galileo eNews, Field News, Automobil, Anytime, Career Success,

Entrepreneur, Status Quo & JFM Transport Facilities Hospitality Marketplace, The Event and conducts regular countrywide roadshows. He has appeared on a number of Now Media webinars & on national television (‘Your Own Business’+ ‘Right & recourse’ + ‘Agri TV’), Kyknet: Landbousake as well as 702 ‘Talk Radio’ and Radio Jakaranda. He has furthermore presented papers at the International Federation for Travel Advocates’ conferences in Monte Carlo & Malta, as well as annually at conferences held by BNI, IIB, ABTA, ACTE, ASATA, SATSA, SAACI, HWTSA, Sure Travel, SATC, SITE, CMP and Travel Counsellors and monthly at the Wanderers Club covering an array of topics. He offers the travel & tourism industry & SMME market the following an intimate (30 YEAR!) knowledge thereof, regular talks at various forums and works closely with the various travel consortia.

contributors Heidi van der Watt is a founding director of the International Centre for Responsible Tourism – South Africa and owner of ED/GE Tourism Solutions. Heidi is a qualified town and regional planner and has spent her entire career working in tourism. She started off working for SA’s national tourism organisation, then lectured at a tertiary education institution, moved on to one of SA’s biggest auditing and advisory firms, and finally created an independent tourism strategy consulting practice in 2006. She’s had the good fortune to work on tourism projects in India, Seychelles, Gabon, Cameroon, Botswana, Swaziland, Lesotho, Mozambique, Nigeria, Russia, Tanzania and throughout South Africa. She is a published author of academic texts, with two titles under Oxford University Press, and several Wayne Duvenage was born in 1960, educated in Kwa-Zulu Natal - (BSc) University of Natal in 1982. 28 years experience in the travel and tourism industry, Wayne’s experience is that of a hands background in operations and in 1996, he was appointed as the Operations Director for Avis Southern Africa. Taking a break for the corporate world in 2001, Wayne developed a new country guest lodge family business, whilst also managing the car rental industry’s affairs as General Manager for SAVRALA from 2003 to 2006. Returning

Corporate Choices is the initiative of Mientjie Steyn, a former journalist, editor and publisher, who has conceptualised and published two of her own magazines. She has her own marketing, public relations and advertising agency and has developed and implemented various marketing and communications strategies and media plans for

chapters in other books. Heidi is a board member of the Global Sustainable Tourism Council, chairs the Tourism Sector Working Group of the African Union’s African Ecolabelling Mechanism (AEM), and serves on the Technical Board of the African Ecolabelling Mechanism and the SABS Technical Committee on Tourism (TC 228). Heidi has been involved in Responsible Tourism in South Africa since 2002, and contributed to the national Responsible Tourism Guidelines, developed and implemented a national Responsible Tourism training programme for provincial and local government, developed Cape Town’s Responsible Tourism Policy and Action Plan, lead the development of national Minimum Standards for Responsible Tourism, and most recently a National Strategy for Responsible Tourism, for the national Department of Tourism. Heidi is regularly asked to present the case for and progress on responsible tourism in destinations in South Africa.

to Avis Rent a Car in 2006, Wayne was appointed as Chief Executive in 2007 and notes the highlights over the next five years to 2012, were the company’s achievements in the areas of process change, sustainability and customer satisfaction. During this period, Avis received a number of awards for its environmental sustainability initiatives and service excellence program. In August 2012, with new opportunities beckoning, Wayne left Avis to pursue work in the space of civil activism and entrepreneurial ventures in consulting and leadership. Wayne has also filled the following roles: -Board Member – Tourism Marketing SA (TOMSA) President – SAVRALA Chairman - OUTA (Opposition to Urban Tolling Alliance)

various companies, as well as organising events for government departments and organisations. Her marketing portfolio includes guest houses, law firms, beauty therapists, industrial products and government departments. Mientjie was also actively involved in running and marketing of a guest houses and she gained tremendous experience in the day-to-day activities. She has since studied social media marketing in-depth and currently consults and trains small businesses, from amongst others, the tourism and hospitality industry.

contributors Jennifer Seif is a nationally and internationally recognised Fairtrade advocate and sustainable tourism expert who has led Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa (FTTSA) since its inception as a non profit organisation in July 2001. She holds a number of academic qualifications in economics (Georgetown), history (Boston University), social anthropology (University of Chicago) and business administration (University of South Africa).

Prior to embarking on her career in tourism development, Jennifer worked in academia in South Africa and the USA. She serves on various boards on behalf of FTTSA and in her personal capacity including the Tourism Business Council of South Africa (TBCSA), Fairtrade Label South Africa (FLSA), the international Tourism Child-Protection Code of Conduct and holds the Certification Observer seat on the Global Sustainable Tourism Council board of directors. She is also an elected member of the Steering Committee of the Global Partnership for Sustainable Tourism. In 2001 and again in 2003 Jennifer was recognized by the Ashoka Citizens Base Initiative, for excellence in non-profit resource mobilization.

Rynette Coetzee has a National Diploma in Nature Conservation as well as a National Diploma in Laboratory Animal Technology. In 2007, whilst employed by the Gauteng Department of Agriculture Conservation and Environment (GDACE) she complete her education as an Environmental Management Inspector (EMI). Rynette is currently employed as a Project

Executant in the Law and Policy Programme of the Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT-L&PP).Projects include Compliance and Enforcement of South Africa’s Environmental Legislation; Social media campaign for the Rhino Project; Training in wildlife trade and environmental legislation; Awareness campaigns regarding issues for example: the threats and status of South Africa’s endemic cycads; threats to rhinos and elephants, cranes, reptiles and other bird species as well as the illegal trade in South Africa’s indigenous fauna and flora; and currently developing a responsible tourism project for the EWT.

Lorraine Jenks is an awardwinning, activist for greener practices, responsible living and sustainable hospitality. Teacher, traveller and facilitator, Lorraine has worked in the UK, Canada and the USA, where she worked with environmentalists the 1970s - the early days of the Environmental Protection Agency.

Operating Equipment, FF&E, Food and Beverage, Maintenance and Services, Housekeeping and Capital Equipment. During her 15 year tenure, she tried to implement “greener” procurement practices, but the industry had not yet embraced the greening initiatives being implement overseas. In 2001, Lorraine launched; the first free online directory of hospitality suppliers and services to share her database with the industry. In 2006, Lorraine left Southern Sun and launched the link which identifies eco or green versions of everything in her original corporate Purchasing Manual. She has subsequently completed the training at the CSIR for the NCPC (National Cleaner Production Centre) and EU Flower Eco Label under the auspices of the UN Environmental Programme. Driven by a mission to demonstrate how simple it is to go green, to debunk the myths and demystify the jargon, Lorraine runs workshops around the country, presents at conferences, consults and has been honoured with several awards for her work.

Back in South Africa she worked as Purchasing and Contracts Manager for the Southern Sun Hotel Group for 15 years, where she completed both the Purchasing and Supply Chain Diploma and the International Purchasing Diploma. Lorraine was responsible for contract tendering and the selection of preferred suppliers for all the

contributors Nombulelo Mkefa serves as a Director on the Board of Cape Town Tourism as well as trustee of the District Six Museum. Ms Mkefa leads the City’s mandate for local tourism that encompasses not only the City’s strategic partnerships for marketing initiatives and for visitor services but also destination management in ensuring that Cape Town can and is ready to receive visitors. Ms Mkefa, with her vast experience in Community Based Tourism and in Local Government has a vision to lead Cape Town in becoming a Responsible

Tourism Destination. In pursuit of that the culmination of the 1st International Conference on Responsible Tourism in 2002 was a destination milestone.

Kevin Mearns is a Professor in the Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of South Africa. Kevin’s specialist area of research involves the application of sustainable tourism indicators to tourism ventures across Southern Africa. One of Kevin’s on-going areas of interest lies in the development of a series

of Southern African benchmarks or baselines that will provide a local measurement instrument for comparative purposes which is suited to local conditions in Southern Africa. Kevin received his academic training both locally at the University of Johannesburg and abroad in the United Sates and the United Kingdom in Environmental Design and Management as well as Geography. Kevin is an active scholar which has published more than 18 peer reviewed scholarly papers and chapters.

Steve Barnard. After starting his career as a soldier in 1976, Steve resigned from Defence Force in 1990 and started his business career with SANLAM as a Branch Manager. During his time with SANLAM he worked in the townships of Port Elizabeth assisting stokvel groups with investment planning and black entrepreneurs with business development. He was then recruited by Midland Chamber of Commerce as Business Development Manager before the 1994 elections to head up the Job Creation Forum for the Regional Economic Development Forum of the Eastern Cape. Steve was instrumental in the designing, development and implementation of the Community Self-Employment Centre in Port Elizabeth that has been successfully operating for the last 18 years.

After moving back to Pretoria in 1998, he has been involved in the fields of Business Consulting and Restructuring, Socio Economic Development and the Property Industry. He is presently CEO and owner of VNet investment Holdings, a group of companies which includes VNet Properties (Property Management and Development), Rainmaker International (Business and Socio- Economic Development Consulting) and VNet Technologies (Web and WAP based and Programme Development). Steve has established the IRCD (Institute for Rural and Community Development) with the Augment Group as a mechanism for creation and implementation of programmes for the development of rural and peri-urban communities. Garden of Life is one of the programmes that has successfully implemented in various centers in South Africa and Botswana. Retail group, SPAR has to date used the Garden of Life programme in 78 projects in Botswana. -

Peter Fabricius is an e-Tourism consultant and the co-founder of Springnest - an inclusive, simple and affordable online marketing solution for tourism and hospitality businesses. He holds a Degree in Tourism Management and a qualification in digital design, a combination which has shaped his career and one he is very passionate about.

combining knowledge and top quality web tools. Through Springnest’s online marketing package, tourism business of all sizes and online competency can benefit from professional websites, mobile websites and Facebook applications.

Springnest’s vision is to put the power of online marketing and branding in the hands of the tourism trade by

In 2004 her work on Community Based Tourism Development won her an Impumelelo Award (Silver) that recognizes excellence and innovative work in the public sector. In the same year the City adopted the Tourism Development Framework. The City of Cape Town also gained recognition in 2009 by being awarded Best destination by Virgin Holidays’ Responsible Tourism Awards at World Travel Market in London.

Peter believes that tourism businesses should have access to a service that grows and improves with the fast-paced and ever-changing web and by doing so remain at the forefront of online marketing standards.

Introduction to Responsible Tourism

chapter 1

Introduction to Responsible Tourism By Niki Glen & Kevin Mearns

“We were paying very little, if anything, for admission to their cultural heritage sites and national parks. As ecotourism began to take off, the backpackers’ adage of “take only photographs, leave only footprints” started to appear in more and more parks. I was concerned, and then irritated, by the prevalence of the view that such an exploitative approach was acceptable.” (Goodwin, 2009) This short story, which we used as an introduction to the Responsible Tourism Handbook, epitomises the struggle that many rural, and for that matter small tourism ventures have. These challenges need to be addressed through various interventions to ensure that the tourism industry can deliver the promised benefits to a much greater pool of beneficiaries than only the mainline tourism attractions. The challenge remains: How can the network of collaboration be leverage to spread the blanket of benefits much broader to incorporate more people? While South Africa’s tourism growth rate in 2012 was three times that of the average international growth rate (Market Line, 2012), the country faces serious challenges in alleviating poverty, reducing crime and increasing employment rates. South Africa is a country filled with wonders, which attracts tourists with vastly different needs from across the globe. Here are 15 reasons to visit South Africa or to travel around in South Africa: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Richness in fauna, flora and biodiversity; Beautiful beaches; Vast mountain ranges; Several wildlife reserves with big 5; Splendid selection of walks and hiking trails; Eleven different languages from many different cultures which provides a variety of…. 7. entertainment, 8. ….arts and crafts as well as…. 9. Food, wine and beer. 10. Accommodation that suits a range of needs, from low-end camping right up to 5 star excellence; 11. Good quality goods at affordable prices for shoppers; 12. Excellent medical facilities and skills at affordable prices for specialist treatments;

13. World class conferencing facilities at affordable prices; 14. First world businesses, universities and educational facilities; 15. Other niche tourism opportunities e.g. hunting, language tourism fashion tourism and sport tourism; In order to ensure that all of the above reasons remain valid, we need to protect our tourism assets. The tourism industry can only continue growing at sustainable levels if tourists, tourism businesses and tourism stakeholder understand the positive and negative impacts of their actions on South Africa’s tourism assets, i.e. our environment, our people and our economy. On a day-to-day basis, Tourism Business owners and managers grapple with compliance to various costly standards and regulations. While larger businesses can employ teams of people to look after compliance, smaller businesses have very low margins and battle to keep their costs down in the face of rising utility, food and transport costs. Larger businesses can employ economies of a large scale to overcome these challenges, while smaller businesses struggle to maintain constant streams of customers and occupancy rates throughout the year due to seasonality and often physical location. Larger businesses (often parts of a group) have greater market access through their brand strength and are generally located close to urban centres, or as in the case of establishments such as Sun City, they can become a destination of their own. Smaller businesses suffer most when the tourism industry has a down turn, and in 2010 / 2011, many Smaller Accommodation Establishments had to close their doors to business. In regulation formulation, by-laws and various other systems, little distinction is made between a Small The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


chapter 1

Introduction to Responsible Tourism

Accommodation Establishment and a Large Hotel, even though they have distinctly different business models (Glen, 2012). It is recognised internationally that smaller tourism businesses play a critical role in the achievement of tourism industry sustainability, as they are perceived in many instances as a catalyst for local economic development and growth, especially in rural areas. According to Bastakis et. al. (2004), “In every European country small, independent and flexible accommodation establishments dominate the market, and play a vital role not only in structural terms but also in terms of contribution to national and European GDP and to tourism employment. SMTEs provide a very diverse range of tourism products and services, facilitate rapid infusion of tourism spending into local economies, while in leisure tourism they usually shoulder the distinctive function to offer a local character to the increasingly homogenised tourism packages…”. In their article on the factors that contribute to the business success services industry, Montoro-Sánchez et. al (2008) highlights that in the European context, small and mediumsized enterprises are critical contributors to the tourism industry as a result of 1) their contributions to employment 2), distribution of wealth 3) economic value as well as 4) being viewed as more innovative than larger businesses. Is this the case with Southern African Smaller Tourism Businesses and is this the role that they need to play to contribute to sustainable growth and development of the tourism sector? Wood (2007) argues that there is great potential for sustainable development of tourism in developing countries (or Lesser Developed Countries – LDCs). Due to the nature of tourism, i.e where the customer ‘buys’ directly from the place visited, tourism presents better opportunities for small businesses to participate through uniqueness of offerings. As part of their “One Billion Tourists: One Billion Opportunities” campaign, UNWTO (2012) highlighted a number of actions that tourists can take to help the tourism industry become more sustainable. These included respect for local culture and heritage as well as buying local goods when travelling. In the South African context, these are key elements of SANS 1162:2011 and by definition include support of local SMMEs and SAEs, especially tourism businesses in rural South Africa. The South African Tourism Marketing Growth Strategy of 2008 - 2010 (2008), identifies 8 key areas of delivery which will contribute to sustainable growth across the industry, i.e. Transformation, Safety, Product & SMME, Marketing & Branding, Quality Assurance, Incentives & Investments, Transport and Skills & Service Levels. It was with all these inputs in mind that the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme was created. The was 24

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook

established as a collaborative framework to address the requirements of Responsible Tourism holistically and to create the linkages between basic economics, compliance requirements, environmental best practice, conservation, skills development, job creation, local community beneficiation and stakeholder collaboration for Smaller Accommodation and Smaller Tourism Business sector. The programme is designed to involve and mobilise tourism communities at a large scale, rather than single business-to-business interventions, thus addressing both the demand and the supply side of building sustainability into smaller tourism businesses. The contributors to this handbook are all in one way or the other connected and committed to working with the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme, whether as Directors of the Non-Profit Company, Patrons, Partners or Collaborative Relationships. By providing their contributions, the contributors endorses philosophy of the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme, i.e. “all of us are better than one of us”, The aim of this handbook is to provide product owners, whether it be large or small tourism businesses, with information and practical tools to assist them in making the changes that are required to move the tourism industry forward in a sustainable manner. While many of the chapters speak to the requirements of an accommodation establishments, the key principles are relevant to all stakeholders within the industry. Jennifer Seif provides an overview of initiatives currently on-going in the area of responsible tourism certification. This chapter provides the reader with some perspectives of what support networks are already active in the field which could be leveraged towards achieving greater responsibility and sustainability amongst tourism ventures and stakeholders. Caroline Ungersbock’s chapter puts into perspective the value of a tourist. This is a fundamental departure point in Responsible Tourism implementation, as it highlights the fact that responsible tourism is everybody’s responsibility. Following on from Caroline’s chapter, Heidi van der Watt puts into perspective the critical role of local government in creating and enabling environment for Responsible Tourism Implementation. A key theme, which is also evident from the previous chapters, is the Responsible Tourism can only be achieved through collaborative efforts from all tourism stakeholders, including the tourists themselves.

Prof Kevin Mearns provides some insights a new way of looking at tourism industry planning and performance. His research shows that traditional measures used to assess the state of the tourism industry, is no longer relevant. New generation indicators should 1) be relevant to the business and 2) reflect the health of tourism in the context of environmental, social & cultural as well as economic. Nombulelo Mfeka showcases the Journey of the City of Cape Town in implementing Responsible Tourism. While this programme has faced many challenges, the City of Cape Town needs to be recognised as a leader in boldly adopting Responsible Tourism as a guiding principle in planning and decision making. The learnings and successes achieved can only benefit the rest of Africa in their implementation of Responsible Tourism, which in most cases are lagging far behind that of City of Cape Town’s. Jenifer Seif, in her second chapter, demonstrates the criticality of Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) which leads the empowerment of people and development towards a greener economy. The principles related in this chapter is foundation of sustainable development and critical to the implementation of Responsible Tourism. The next set of chapters aim to provide practical tools, which can be incorporated into the planning and implementation of Responsible Tourism. The chapters collectively assist the tourism business to achieve Responsible Tourism through basic business principles, i.e. − Reduce Cost − Increase Income − Manage business risk − Be a good employer − Protect your assets (people, planet and place) − Contribute to local prosperity

1162:2011, is used as a guideline for Responsible Tourism implementation, creates a strong case for protection of biodiversity assets and empowerment of our human assets and the potential it has to generate revenues through tourism. Rynette Coetzee demonstrates that the Responsible Tourism journey should enable tourists and tourism businesses to empower themselves with the right information to ensure that our resource base, upon which tourism is dependent, is not destroyed. Steve Barnard provides solutions for tourism businesses act as a catalyst for local economic development, through creating demand for locally produced products, while addressing concerns about food security and costs. Purchasing of products and services are an important way in which the entire supply chain of the tourism industry can be made more responsible, as Lorraine Jenks takes us through some easy steps to relook at our purchasing behaviours and decisions, so that we can lower our carbon footprint, lower our environmental impact Niki Glen then provides a few easy hints and tips for reducing costs through daily operations as well as ideas on how to become a better employer and make use of local assets. The last few chapters then looks at some of the ways in which we can brand ourselves, protect our brands and communicate these to our market. Again looking at SANS 1162:2011, Responsible Tourism includes criteria for communication of efforts to the market. Implementation of Responsible Tourism Principles and demonstrating your commitment ethically is fast becoming a key success factor for tourism sustainability, and early adopters may find that they are able to leverage their efforts, translating it into greater market share if it becomes part of their marketing philosophy. We hope you enjoy this first of its kind overview to responsible tourism debates in South Africa.

Wayne Duvenhage demonstrates how to become a good employer through the achievement of service excellence. As he states “service excellence is a journey” that has to be driven by all the members of an organization form the top right through to the structure and members of an organisation. Everybody should be empowered through the business, and everybody shares the responsibility collectively to achieve service excellence. Service excellence forms the core to providing authentic tourism experiences, and Niki Glen emphasises the importance of this in making sure that all the promises made in marketing are delivered by the experiences we provide. Tourism ventures need to not only talk the talk but also need to walk the walk. We then take a look at how SANS The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Karibu (welcome) to Salama Island Tours! We are a locally owned and operated licensed tour company that connects you to the people and places of Zanzibar. We work to make this interaction mutually beneficial by donating 10 per cent of our annual income to community-run pre-schools supported by the Zanzibar Madrasa Association. This money is used to purchase class room materials like paper, pencils, books, desks; playground equipment; and cover the costs of maintaining the school structure and sanitation facilities. Our excursion options cater to different budgets, interests and occasions. These include honey moon packages, home stay options and individual tours through Stone Town, the spice farms and beyond! We also arrange transport to and room and board in over 100 hotels, guest houses, hostels and bed and breakfasts across Zanzibar, and book local flights to and from Dar es Salaam. When you partner with Salama, you not only receive professional tours that best match your interests, budget and schedule. You also invest in Zanzibar’s future by supporting the educational development of its children. That’s the Salama difference. Contact us to book your Zanzibar experience today! Hemed Khamis Mohammed Executive Director Salama Island Tours P.O. Box 1401 Zanzibar, Tanzania Mobile: +255 777 845 651/+255 718 108 089 e-mail: Web: 26

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook

Care for Zanzibar by letting us care for you! We offer a range of tour excursions and packages for all budgets and interests, and use a portion of our earnings to support local community run preschools. From exploring the alleyways of Stone Town to enjoying a sunset cruise on a dhow, let Salama Island Tours help plan your Zanzibar getaway.

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


The Sustainable Tourism Certification Alliance Africa

chapter 2

The Sustainable Tourism Certification Alliance Africa By Jennifer Seif

Over the past two decades, the sustainable tourism certification sector has grown considerably and there are currently some 150+ sustainability standards and certificates targeting the travel and tourism industry (Bien, 2011 ). Some schemes are international or regional in scope, while the majority operate nationally, targeting primarily accommodation but also tour operators and other types of businesses. Most schemes are owned and operated privately, often by NGOs, and the vast majority struggle with the same challenges: financial sustainability, low market penetration and a lack of evidence to illustrate the business and development cases for certification. In addition, many schemes are characterised by weak governance and there is a tendency to combine certification with other services, for example training and consultancy, which leads to potential conflict of interest and is contrary to the principles of good practice in certifying products and services as defined by the International Standards Organization (2011) . The Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GST-Council) was established in 2010, marking the culmination of various processes to harmonise and professionalise standard-setting and certification in sustainable tourism. The GST-Council is today the custodian of the Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria (GST-Criteria), a worldwide holistic definition of sustainability in tourism comprised of 40 criteria (GSTC, 2012). The GSTCouncil operates various services to quality assure the content, management and governance of sustainable tourism certification systems, which seek to assist both industry and consumers to navigate the “label jungle” and guard against “greenwash”.

standards and for building the capacity of national certification systems to meet international norms and expectations. Three regional networks – in Europe, Latin America and Africa – stand out as examples of best practice over the past decade. The Voluntary Initiatives for Sustainability in Tourism (VISIT) association was established in Europe during 2001-2004, supported financially by the European Union. VISIT created a platform for leading European sustainable tourism certification schemes to share best practice and improve coordination. The seven founding certificates were drawn from the Netherlands, Italy, Denmark, Latvia, United Kingdom, Switzerland and Luxembourg; together, they represented over 3,200 certified tourism enterprises. VISIT became less active after 2008 during the run-up to launch of the GST-Council (VISIT, 2012). Commencing in 2003, the Rainforest Alliance, a global NGO working in sustainable forestry, agriculture and tourism, led the establishment of the Sustainable Tourism Certification Network of the Americas, in an attempt to harmonise sustainable tourism standards and certification systems throughout Latin America. The Network of the Americas brought together 150 organisations operating in 23 countries and created new capacity amongst its members to align their systems with the GST-Criteria. Since 2010 the Network

“Greenwash” is defined as a form of spin in which green PR or green marketing is deceptively used to promote the perception that an organisation’s aims and policies are environmentally friendly. Whether it is to increase profits or gain political support, greenwashing may be used to manipulate popular opinion to support otherwise questionable aims wiki/Greenwash. In parallel to the establishment of the GST-Council, regional cooperation has emerged as an important mechanism for harmonising sustainable tourism The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


The Sustainable Tourism Certification Alliance Africa

chapter 2

the Tourism Indaba. Alliance members volunteer time and information towards an annual work plan, while the costs of the secretariat are currently subsidised by donor funding. The long-term sustainability of the Alliance will depend on establishing a strong value proposition for members and on their willingness to share real and opportunity costs amongst each other.

became inactive, to some extent because it had achieved its initial objectives but also because the Rainforest Alliance ceased to act as the secretariat. Nonetheless, many Network members joined the GSTCouncil and the initiative created improved trust and coordination amongst its members. The Sustainable Tourism Network of Southern Africa (STNSA) was established in 2007 to create a platform for improved coordination between sustainable tourism stakeholders located in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The STNSA operated informally, bringing together tourism boards and ministries, certification programmes and NGOs to share best practice and respond to trends in the external environment. The STNSA served as a focal point for its members to engage with the GST-Council, particularly with regard to the design of its quality assurance systems. The STNSA became inactive in 2010, due to a lack of resources as well as a lack of consensus as to what should be the strategic focus of the Network. However, the Network was re-launched in May 2012 as the Sustainable Tourism Certification Alliance Africa, with clearer membership criteria and a narrower focus on the sustainable tourism certification enabling environment. The Alliance currently provides services to assist its members to meet GST-Council norms and standards, develop robust business models and collaborate more effectively with one another. The Alliance is organised into four working groups, led by an elected Executive Committee and supported by a secretariat (Fair Trade Tourism (FTT) is the elected Alliance secretariat until May 2015). Since its establishment in May 2012, 25 organisations drawn from 12 countries have formally joined the Alliance. The Alliance convenes a conference and general meeting each May in Durban, during the run-up to

These three examples of regional networks in Europe, Latin America and Africa demonstrate the value of peer-exchange, joint advocacy and other types of networking as both a lever and counterpart for collaboration at a global level. The success of institutions like the GST-Council requires a diversity of members who are informed, connected and empowered. All networking and membership organisations run the risk of becoming overdependent on one or more organisations to drive activities (usually the secretariat) and/or over-reliant on external funding.

In sum, networks only “work� when members get value from them and are prepared to contribute to the real costs of services. This imperative pertains to all types of membership organisations, be they local associations or international ones like the GST-Council. Indeed, the GST-Council is currently transitioning from a donordependent organisation to a leaner, fee-for-services model. Significantly, certification organisations around the world remain prepared to pay for GST-Council services, signalling their commitment to a business environment characterised by transparency, good governance and a triple-bottom line approach to defining and measuring sustainability in tourism. For more information on the Alliance, visit

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


RIVER CROSSING LODGE River Crossing is 3km from Windhoek on the airport road being only 5 minutes from the heart of Windhoek and is located on a pristine 6500 hectare game reserve. Rediscover the nuances of a bygone era of farm life and offer the discerning traveller all the modern amenities. The main lodge building comprises a dining room, a centrally situated bar, a lounge with fireplace, a wellness room, a curio corner, and a conference room seating up to 65 delegates. Nestled outside between the lounge and dining area is the pool (great for swimming lengths – it really is quite long!) The elevated wooden deck offers a fairytale view of Windhoek. The Lodge and the rooms have been designed to emulate old German farm houses – think ‘stoep’ with ‘afdakkie’ and pots of geraniums. The 20 guest chalets consist of 14 twin chalets and 6 double chalets (all chalets have en suite bathrooms with showers, loos and basins). Two of the chalets have been designed with honeymooners in mind and have baths instead of showers …of course all rooms have the feather duvets wrapped in 100% cotton, the environmentally friendly guest amenities and the unparalleled service and hospitality to consider too. 6 chalets offer views of Windhoek and 14 face east offering superb sunrise views of the Moltkeblick Mountain. We also train aspirant Namibians to make a cutting edge contribution in lodge operations... in fact there’s very little that’s not possible at River Crossing. What to do at River Crossing Besides our accommodation we also offer a host of activities including game drives, horse riding, guided or self guided walks and mountain biking. We have a selection of function venues and would love to host your 60th birthday bash, your 25th wedding anniversary or any other occasion you can think of. The game drives morning and afternoon are engaging... the views are superb, the flora varied and the game abundant. Nineteen different species roam the reserve, including roan, sable, giraffe and wildebeest... leopard and cheetah are also seen from time to time. The reserve can also be explored on foot... in the company of one of our guides or on your own. 32

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook

Footpaths will be laid out soon, but roads and game tracks make the going good. The reserve is very hilly, so a basic level of fitness is required. Mountain bikes will be introduced at a future date (the hills have been mentioned!) – many mountain bikers from Windhoek know the property well and have ridden here in the past. Horses are also a very eco friendly way of exploring the lie of the land... quiet and un-invasive, the horses allow guests to get a lot closer to the game than in a vehicle. The wellness centre run by Claire Liebenberg offers tired and aching limbs (either from driving our gravel roads or stress from work or sports related injuries) a soothing way to rehabilitate. Shop till you drop at the Windhoek markets and malls. Contact us at River Crossing P O Box 97448 Windhoek T: +264 61 246 788 - Reservations T: +264 61 401 494 - Lodge F: +264 61 243 079

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Stakeholder Alignment - The Value of a Tourist

chapter 3

Stakeholder Alignment The Value of a Tourist

By Caroline Ungersbock

In my capacity as the president of the National Accommodation Association of South Africa (NAA-SA) as well as various other portfolios within the tourism sector, I have been able to witness the working relationships amongst a range of different stakeholders. Many tourism related forums are made of both private business reperesentative and civil servants. Most representatives are in some or other way involved in tourism directly or indirectly, e.g. tourism associations, businesses that supply goods and services to the industry or tourism policy formulation This chapter deals with the importance of tourism and hospitality stakeholders working together in order to achieve the sustainability in the industry. By looking at the needs of a tourist (domestic or international) when arriving at a destination, this chapter will creates a strong case for collaboration amongst all in the tourism value chain – even those that think that they do not run tourist related businesses or ever interact with a tourist.

The Tourist’s Experiece

A tourists arrives in a town renowned for its natural beauty and cultural history. Stakeholder in the Tourism Value Chain

Activity 1

After a few hours of driving, the tourist family car needs petrol to travel further

Service Station


Someone is hungry and requires a snack

Local Cafe/ Service Station


They have booked at a place to stay for a few nights in order to reach places of interest, and have opted for a bed and breakfast with a self catering component


Now the family needs to purchase a few basics which they did not want to pack before the journey, e.g. eggs, milk and some more snacks



After checking in, they decide that they need to plan their next day of activities in the town, and realise they do not have updated information or a road map (this was not available at the establishment)

–– Office Visitor Infomation Center


After visiting the tourism information office, they walk on foot to explore some of the towns attractions. They pass a curio shop. The kids are hugely excited and decide to spend some of their pocket money on toys made of wood and recycled tins by local community members.

Community curio shop


In the evening, instead of making food at the accommodation establishment, the tourist and his family seeks out a local restaurant for a meal.



The next morning, after breakfast, they get ready for their day’s outing and realise that they had left the sunscreen at home.



Next they set off for their day’s adventure and arrives at the local National Park. At the gate, local arts and crafts are on display, and mom decides she would like to beautiful wooden salad bowl.


Local crafters

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Stakeholder Alignment - The Value of a Tourist

chapter 3


They sign in and pay at the gates and go on their outing

National Park


The next day,after spending all their cash on fun and memorabiliam they need to draw some money.



They decide to go on a Local Tour of the Area

Local Tour Guide


Dad needs airtime or has left his cell phone charge at home

Cellphone shop

As illustrated, during his first 24 hours in town, the tourist has had interactions with at least 13 different stakeholders directly, and many more indirectly. Following the tourist around and understanding where he has spent his money, allows stakeholders to identify opportunities to improve the experience of the tourist. What is critical, however is that there are a number of indirect services that is absolutely taken as a given. These are basic requirements, which is the responsibility of not only the tourism businesses, but all stakeholders providing some product or service to the tourism business and other businesses. These include: 1. Tourist needs to go to the toilet: these require water, electricity and a good sewerage system. responsibility of the local municipality 2. Tourist throws away wrapper from the sweets bought. Waste separation and waste management is key, so that the waste does not land up on the streets or in landfill. If the area was littered with garbage (see picture below taken at a town in South Africa – guesthouse is behind the photographer). Keeping streets and public spaces clean and safe is not only the repsonsibility of the local municipality, but also the responsibility of each and every community member, whom the tourist will never meet. 3. Eats at the restaurant and NEVER meets the chef. The chef needs to be trained and his equipment needs meet health and safety requirements. 4. The tourist moved around and many took in many sights, such as the church, national monuments, street and sidewalks. If the sights were pleasing to the eye and information including names and history was available, the tourists will have had a positive experience. The maintenance and upkeep of these sights are the responsibility of the local municipality – stakeholder that the typical tourist very seldom, if ever, interacts with. Depending on the nature of the tourists interaction with each and every stakeholder, his observations and his feelings, he will have formed an opinion about: 1. The specific business / stakeholder 2. The town 3. The region 4. The country

The presence of the tourist creates a number of op portunities for stakeholders within any community. These include: 1. Delivering across the board Excellent Service; 2. Enticing the tourist to spend more money; 3. Enticing the tourist to come back for more visits (return business); 4. For the tourist to become a marketer for the area through word-of-mouth (telling friends, colleagues and acquaintances about his experience); Conclusion Everyone in a community has a role to play. The community need to be included in what is going on in the town. They need to understand the Value of a Tourist and What Tourism can do for their community. Once the various stakeholders in one commu nity, including businesses, local municipality, local informal sector and individuals realise the potential monetary impact of a tourist, and the value that a tourist spreads to each stakeholder directly or indirectly, actions can be formulated and collaborative partnerships can be formed. These actions will be the responsibility of each and every member of the host community, and will include: 1. Communication skills; 2. Collating and sharing of local information; History of the town, artists in the area, places of Interest, where to go to eat and buy locally made products 3. Provision of adequate municipal services; water, electricity, responsible refuse removal 4. Provision of a Great Tourism Experience, good service, service with a great smile and efficient delivery on a promise. We need to look at things with open eyes. We often forget to do so. We need to communicate with each other and we will all win. This is the foundation upon which the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme operates, and I wish for each and every National Accommodation Association member and each and every Association Member under the Tourism Business Council of South Africa to start col laborating in this manner.

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Essque Zalu Zanzibar Nestled in a natural cove on the north east coast of Zanzibar, Essque Zalu Zanzibar combines contemporary lifestyle with minimalist luxury to offer its guests an ostentatious ambience and sense of place. This boutique hotel has the turquoise waters of the Indian Ocean to one side and lush green forest to the other, with just a tint of spice in the warm and fragrant tropical air. Unique by design, Essque Zalu Zanzibar is where the quintessence of minimalist luxury, contemporary ambience and splashes of local Swahili decor come together to offer an eclectic array of experiences to our bespoke guests. All these experiences coupled together enhances the sense that luxury is no longer just about material wealth, but has more to do with personal space, freedom to do what one feels like doing and the inclination to enjoy the flair and panache the location has to offer. Since its debut in June 2011, the hotel has rapidly emerged as the name that defines the boutique hotel experience for travellers visiting Zanzibar – Personalized service, memorable experiences, intimate surroundings and the highest level of quality is our forte when dealing with our respected guests. The

recent award of being Zanzibar’s Leading Hotel 2012 by World Travel Awards is testimony that the Essque Zalu Zanzibar is continuously exceeding guests’ expectations by meeting their personal needs to guarantee 100% guest satisfaction. The experience at Essque Zalu can be classified into four categories - Classic, Design, Chic and Contemporary – encompassing diverse attributes of redefined luxury into one product, Essque Zalu Zanzibar. Essque Zalu is proudly affiliated with Preferred Boutique™, which is an elite collection of intimate hotels and resorts all over the world. The hotel has 40 suites and 9 three and four-bedroom villas, making it easy for staff to offer a bespoke and personalised service to their guests. Forget arduous hotel check-ins; any formalities will be completed at guests’ leisure in the comfort of their own suite or villa since we have moved on from the normal “reception” concept and guests are checked-in prior to their arrival and taken straight to their accommodations without wasting any valuable time. Each suite has a large en-suite master bedroom, a generous lounge and outside terrace or balcony overlooking the gardens, pool or ocean, while each villa also has its own private pool, massage


The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook

room as well as dining and kitchen facilities where guests can prepare their own meals. All rooms in the villas have en-suite bathrooms, private television and wardrobe hence offers complete privacy in all the rooms. There are three distinctive restaurants which include The Market Kitchen which will serve fresh local organic produce in a deli themed ambience; the A La Carte Fine Dining restaurant offering delectable fine dining cuisine found nowhere else on the island; and the more relaxed Jetty Restaurant, where guests can dine al fresco enjoying succulent Middle Eastern mezzes with the turquoise Indian Ocean as its milieu – a perfect location for a romantic rendezvous with your loved one. Parents who need a little ‘me-time’ will be reassured to know they will be leaving their offspring in a safe, fun and creative environment. Essque has employed kid’s club experts PetitVip ( ) to train their own co-ordinators and to manage the kids club in VIP style. At our renowned Spa, embark on a blissful and tranquil journey of the senses with our professional spa therapists using traditional African treatments

where the basis of each treatment has its emphasis on spiritual re-alignment and revitalisation of the senses. In line with our commitment to the local community, Essque is instrumental in promoting local artistic talent at the in-hotel Art Gallery which will include paintings, sculptures, photographs and glassworks from local, regional and international artists. Zanzibar’s based ‘unknowns’ and ‘established’ local artists are to be showcased regularly at this art gallery. Overall, Essque Zalu Zanzibar’s chic and contemporary ambience offers its guests a multitude of distinctive and personalised service elements; revitalising of the senses and a stimulating atmosphere with prominence on vast open spaces and the uninterrupted flow of natural air – enticing to the mind, body and soul!

Essque Hotels PO Box 3151 Zanzibar, Tanzania T: +255 778 683 960 E: The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Responsible Tourism and Local Government

chapter 4

Responsible Tourism and Local Government

By Heidi van der Watt

The significance of local areas and local government Local areas are the proverbial “coalface” of tourism. The “tourism experience” consists of a combination of attractions and activities that draw tourists to an area and tourism and associated products that provided services and goods – accommodation, food, petrol, vehicle repair, mementoes and memorabilia - that tourists need when they visit a local area. The impacts of tourism, negative or positive – income for crafters, farmers; shops and tourism businesses; traffic congestion; adherence to or disrespect for cultural practices and sanctions - are felt within local areas. Various stakeholders are involved in or affected by tourism in a local area. These include accommodation providers, attraction and activity operators, retailers,

Municipal functions

garages, employees of tourism and other businesses, residents, civil society organisations, schools, colleges and other educational institutions, and officials of local, provincial, national government entities. South African policy for local government and tourism assign substantial responsibility for tourism to municipalities. Although primary responsibility for the execution of the function of tourism is often allocated to a specific line department within a municipality, the function is affected by the actions of other line departments. As an example, the following table outlines the various municipal functions needed to host a festival/special event showcasing the culture of the area at a municipally owned sport facility:


− Local tourism

− Marketing of the event − Assistance to emerging crafters with product development

− Firefighting services

− Overtime payment to emergency personnel on duty for event − Reaction in the event of fire

− Billboards /advertisements in public places

− Approval for temporary signage advertising the event

− Trading regulations − Control of undertakings that sell liquor to the public − Licensing etc for the selling food to the public

− Licensing of food and liquor stall holders − Permissions for trading by crafters

− Cleaning

− Refuse removal after the event

− Local sport facilities

− Approval for the use of the facility

− Traffic and parking

− Street closures for parade

The above example is not exhaustive, but rather aims to demonstrate that a range of functions other than tourism influence the successful hosting of an event. Likewise, the tourism line department’s efforts to attract investment in tourist accommodation and attractions will be influenced by decisions related to

e.g. planning approvals and Environmental Impact Assessments or the municipality’s competency in relation to waste management will directly affect the efforts of the tourism department and local tourism organisation to promote recycling amongst tourism businesses. Clearly, the decisions and actions of The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


chapter 4

Responsible Tourism and Local Government

municipalities determine whether tourism thrives or flounders in a local area. The tourism roles of local government South Africa’s Constitution allocates functions to the different spheres of government, and also obligates local government to take a developmental role (SA Constitution, 1996) Local government is often referred to as the sphere that is closest to the people, and hence viewed as a key facilitator of and actor in local development. The core concept in the 1998 White Paper on Local Government is developmental local government, expressed as follows: “Developmental local government is local government committed to working with citizens and groups within the community to find sustainable ways to meet their social economic, and material needs and improve the quality of their live” (DPLG, 2009) Our constitution gives all spheres of government responsibility for tourism destination management. While national and provincial tourism departments and organizations are chiefly responsible for the design and implementation of tourism strategies and national and international marketing campaigns, it is local government that shoulder the responsibility for developing and managing tourism in local areas. The National Tourism Sector Strategy (NTSS) sets out clear roles for national, provincial, regional and local tourism bodies (NDT, 2012). The NTTS specifies that local government should perform the following functions: − Establish, and provide financial support to, the Local Tourism Bureaux (LTB); − Upkeep and development of public tourist attractions (e.g. historical, cultural and environmental); − Provide public infrastructure; − Provide public amenities, such as parking, ablution facilities and public transportation, in support of the tourism industry; − Conduct spatial planning in support of tourism, and allocate land and infrastructure for tourism development; − Plan and provide local road signs; − Maintain the general safety, upkeep, cleanliness and beautification of the local area; and − Assist the LTB in implementing the provincial registration and minimum standards system by providing health and safety inspection services. The local authority’s line function departments is also responsible for all integrated development matters, and responsible for consulting with the LTB in the planning and implementing phases of local tourism development plans. The wide range of functions 44

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook

in relation to tourism, contrasted with a limited view that the responsibility of local government for tourism begins and ends with funding to local tourism organisations, is worth noting. The detailing of the tourism role of local government in sector-based policies and plans is set within the overarching responsibility of developmental local government. So, municipalities are required to carry out tourism functions in way that it is consistent with the developmental role. In the context of ‘developmental local government’, the ‘local tourism’ function of municipalities must be interpreted as ‘developmental tourism at a local level’. Developmental tourism is the process through which: • partners from the public, business, labour and civic sectors work together to identify sustainable ways to utilise and harness location-specific resources; • to grow and transform the economy in specific local areas; and • to implement programmes and projects that build on and showcase opportunities and/or address economic empowerment constraints. The aim of developmental tourism is to increase local incomes and to create job opportunities through enhancing the community’s ability to create enterprises. Local Tourism Bureaux (LTBs), jointly funded and representing the local government and private business in the local area, are given the following functions (NDT, 2012) • Manage the information office(s) of the local area, and feed into the provincial information system; • Market specific events, conferences and meetings that occur in the local area; • Act as a first point of registration for tourism businesses in respect of the provincial registration system, and monitor minimum standards maintained by registered businesses in the local authority area; • Receive and channel applications for local road signs from members to the municipality; • Promote tourism awareness, a culture of hospitality, and involvement in tourism among the local population; and • Keep a general watch over tourism matters, and advise the municipal authority regarding tourism development requirements. The White Paper on Local Government (DPLG, 2009) requires that a municipality exercises municipal powers and functions in a manner which maximises their impact on social development and economic growth. Where municipal powers and functions are outsourced to delivery agents, those delivery agencies

Responsible Tourism and Local Government

are obliged to also fulfil a developmental role. Responsible Tourism aims to achieve sustainable development through tourism that betters the quality of life of residents, protects and improves natural environments and respects and showcases local cultures. The similarity between the ambitions of developmental government, developmental tourism and Responsible Tourism is obvious. Effectively, local government responsibility for Responsible Tourism is established in the Constitution and local government framework policies and legislation. By implication, government-funded Local Tourism Bureaux should grow tourism in the destination in a way that provides sustainable economic, social and environmental returns to communities. The re-orientation of local government from provider of infrastructure and municipal services to facilitator of development has not been easy and is by no means complete. This fact is recognized by various studies of local government capacity (DPLG, 2009). Many municipalities are barely able to deliver basic services, let alone grow their economies (DPLG2009a; DPLG, 2009b). Difficulties with the delivery of the local economic development and tourism function are part of this challenge. The strengthening of governance, leadership and financial competence in local government is the role of the Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs. In recognition of the central role of local government in tourism, the Department of Tourism has developed the Local Government Tourism Development and Growth Support Programme in partnership with the South African Local Government Association ( Minister van Schalkwyk, 2013). The programme consists of four components; capacity-building for tourism practitioners and policymakers, provision of technical support for tourism planning and development, facilitation of stakeholder dialogues and peer learning platforms, and facilitation of strategic partnerships for funding opportunities (NDT, 2012). Given the policy context, Responsible Tourism should feature as key concept in the delivery of the identified components. The state of Responsible Tourism in local areas The concept of responsible tourism has been a key ingredient in South Africa’s tourism policy since 1996. It is also a cornerstone of both the National Tourism Sector Strategy (NDT, 2012) and Tourism Bill (NDT, 2011). Local governments have a central role in driving the developmental and responsible tourism agenda in local areas. Some municipalities have done exemplary work on bringing about more responsible practices within the destination’s tourism sector, notably through the creation of information resources and information sessions & training for tourism businesses and citizens.

chapter 4

On the private sector side, various individual tourism businesses have taken up the challenge to become more environmentally, socially and economically responsible, and have reaped the rewards of cost savings and increased market profile. Key tourism sector organizations, such as SATSA and FEDHASA, have galvanized action amongst their members by identifying initiatives to contribute to or offering recognition for outstanding practices, e.g. the Imvelo Awards. Various local tourism organisations have hosted member information sessions and advocate Responsible Tourism amongst tourists through codes of conduct and highlighting related experiences in marketing materials. Despite the gains noted above, a close look at the current state of Responsible Tourism in local areas reveals the following main weaknesses: − local government policies and planning frameworks, e.g. Integrated Development Plans, and strategies have limited reference to responsible tourism as an approach to destination management, or the national Responsible Tourism Guidelines; − there is a general lack of awareness of Responsible Tourism and its meaning amongst politicians and public officials outside of tourism line departments, and hence the terminology and associated principles are not widely used in local government; − local government do not compel tourism businesses providing goods and services to municipalities to demonstrate actions and progress towards responsible tourism; − publicly-owned and/or managed tourism facilities do not adhere to the principles of Responsible Tourism and no plans to ensure eventual compliance with the National Minimum Standard for Responsible Tourism are in place; − local tourism organization strategies, plans and activities pay no or little attention to responsible tourism as a responsibility of LTOs, as a differentiator for local area marketing, or the National Minimum Standard for Responsible Tourism (SANS 116:2011) as a benchmark for its members; − local tourism organisations funded by the local government are not required to demonstrate their commitment to and implementation of Responsible Tourism, and hence do not measure their performance in relation to their contribution to economic, social and environmental sustainability; − although individual tourism businesses and tourism sector organisations are advocating for and working towards the principles of responsible tourism, these individual efforts do not form part of an overarching strategic approach by destinations; − many tourism businesses and tourism organisations still see responsible tourism as synonymous The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Responsible Tourism and Local Government

chapter 4

with “green tourism”, hence focusing actions on environmental sustainability only; − many government entities and initiatives narrowly focus on the “community-beneficiation” element of Responsible Tourism, to the exclusion of mainstream tourism businesses and the other pillars of responsible tourism; − a significant portion of the tourism sector are not working towards Responsible Tourism, most likely due to a lack of information about and practical tools and incentives to enable adoption of Responsible Tourism practices; − residents and citizens are generally not aware of Responsible Tourism, its meaning and benefits, and the responsibilities of the destination at large; and − existing and potential tourists receive limited information about destination efforts related to responsible tourism and tourism businesses that offer more responsible experiences and products. Towards Responsible Tourism in Local Destinations Achieving Responsible Tourism in local areas will require the following: − drawing local government attention to the fact that the mandate for responsible tourism is rooted in the Constitution and policies that govern local government; − emphasizing the developmental responsibility of government-funded tourism organisations; − re-focusing attention on the interrelated and interdependent parts of responsible tourism; − creating more awareness for Responsible Tourism in the sector and the destination at large; − equipping the different spheres of government, industry bodies and tourism businesses with practical toolkits; − increased co-operation and more partnerships between different line departments in municipalities, i.e. a joined-up government approach to responsible tourism; − increased co-operation and more partnerships between local government and local stakeholders; − creating opportunities for stakeholder dialogues and peer learning platforms; − sensitizing tourists to a different way of travelling and how their choices can make a difference. Most importantly, the solution to achieve Responsible Tourism at a local a level is not in more policies, but in planning and undertaking initiatives in collaboration across internal government organisational silos and with destination stakeholders.

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Eskom is committed to powering sustainable tourism With South Africa globally renowned for its extensive and unrivalled destinations, Eskom fully supports businesses in the hospitality sector to install and implement energy efficient technologies and solutions as measures against rising operating costs. Empowering an industry Eskom is strategically committed to empowering owners of B&Bs, guest houses, lodges and hotels through access to funding and knowledge of how to optimise energy usage, reduce operating costs and lessen the impact of their operations on the environment. Improved energy efficiency - in all sectors of the economy – assists Eskom to maintain the delicate balance between the supply and demand of electricity. Building partnerships Escalating costs and an emphasis on environmental sustainability are putting businesses in the hospitality industry under increasing pressure to improve the energy, resource and operational efficiencies of their establishments.

Since inception, the awards programme has helped generate awareness of environmental management issues in the tourism industry, and is in line with the National Minimum Standard for Responsible Tourism and the UN World Tourism Organisation’s code of ethics. Imvelo is also supported by the Heritage Environmental Rating Programme. Eskom and Eskom also partners with, an online directory of products and services for the hotel industry, in presenting a series of informational workshops across South Africa. aims to empower establishments with tools, tips and solutions to optimise their energy efficiency and eco-friendliness. Topics covered in the workshops include reducing energy consumption and costs through behavioural change and the

Through partnerships with, the Federated Hospitality Association of Southern Africa (FEDHASA) - the custodian of the Imvelo Awards – and the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme (STPP), Eskom strives to increase awareness of energy efficient technologies, practices and solutions and assist establishments to save electricity, reduce operating costs and aim towards environmental bestpractice. The company has a range of rebate programmes specifically developed to fund B&Bs, guest houses, lodges and hotels who aim to switch from energy intensive technologies and processes to energy efficient solutions. Eskom and FEDHASA Eskom is a partner of FEDHASA’s annual Imvelo Responsible Tourism Awards Programme. Held annually, the awards identify and honour businesses that make a real, measurable and sustained contribution to responsible tourism in South Africa. 48

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook

deployment of energy efficient technologies; water conservation; alternative energy; waste management; ‘green’ procurement of goods and services; ‘green’ design and construction; benchmarking practices and operations against industry standards; and obtaining Green Tourism Certificates.

solar water heating systems, heat pumps, and energy and water saving shower heads. • Projects may be undertaken by establishments themselves or an Energy Services Company (ESCo) on their behalf. • A new, streamlined, approval process takes less than 2 weeks from project submission. The Standard Offer pays large establishments, who use electricity for at least 16 hours a day between 6am and 10pm on weekdays, for verified energy savings. • Achieved savings need to be in the 50 kW to 5 MW range, and will be verified by an authorised, independent, measurement and verification company. • Establishments will be paid for verified savings at a fixed amount per kWh over a period of three years; this includes an initial payment of 70% of the total project incentive on completion. The partnership with has assisted owners of several establishments to conduct energy audits with Eskom and obtain funding through the company’s rebate programmes to replace energy intensive technologies and systems with energy efficient and electricity smart solutions. Eskom and the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme (STPP) The Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme (STPP) is Eskom’s newest partner in support of tourism in South Africa. The STPP – a roadshow of workshops - was established to facilitate the implementation of sustainable tourism practices in smaller establishments in the rural areas of South Africa. Eskom, by partnering these workshops, aims to enable owners of small establishments to power their businesses through optimal energy usage and reduced costs per room by utilising the funding benefits of the company’s rebates programmes. Eskom rebate programmes The Standard Product is specifically designed to cater for establishments whose retrofit projects achieve energy savings greater than 1kW and greater than 2MWh per annum. • Funding under this programme is capped at R1, 875 million per project. • Only technologies that have been approved by Eskom will be considered, including specific ‘off-theshelf’ products such as energy efficient light fittings,

Case study The Manderson Hotel and Conference Centre in Stutterheim in the Eastern Cape conducted a retrofit with funding through Eskom’s Standard Product programme. • The project achieved a drop from R 41.77 to R 39.37 in the average cost per occupied room; when calculated at 50% occupancy, this amounts to an energy saving of R 14 892.00 or 6.1%. Read the Manderson story and get detailed information on Eskom’s full range of energy efficiency rebate solutions at Eskom’s energy advisers can be contacted on 08600 37566. The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Tourism Planning and Management

chapter 5

Tourism Planning and Management By Prof. Kevin Mearns

“Putting tourism on a sustainable path is a major challenge, but one that also presents a significant opportunity” Klaus Topfer, UNEP Executive Director. Changes in the market forces, as well as the move towards more environmentally sensitive and sustainable forms of tourism, have led to significant changes in tourism. The emergence of sustainable development has been a major driving force in this change towards a new form of tourism. The negative economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts resulting from tourism’s rapid and unplanned developments associated with mass tourism led to calls for a new or alternative form of tourism. Sustainable or responsible tourism is one such alternative approach to tourism that has been embraced by the tourism industry in an attempt to respond to the changing market conditions. The concept of sustainability has had a profound influence on the world and the way in which the tourism industry, and in fact all business, conducts itself. Business now has to concern itself not only with economics but also with social and environmental issues, referred to as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Careful consideration must be given to the minimization of negative environmental impacts while enhancing the positive impacts. Responsible tourism is being advocated by the tourism industry to achieve equity, responsibility and sustainability. The Cape Town Declaration on Responsible Tourism (2002) was the result of the Cape Town Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations organized by the Responsible Tourism Partnership as a side event preceding the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002. The conference addressed ways in which stakeholders can work together to take responsibility for achieving the aspirations of the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) Global Code of Ethics and the principles of sustainable tourism. According to the Cape Town Declaration (2002) responsible tourism has the following characteristics: − It minimizes negative economic, environmental and social impacts. − It generates greater economic benefits for local people and enhances the well-being of host communities, and improves working conditions and

access to the industry. − It involves local people in decisions that affect their lives and life chances. − It makes positive contributions to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage, as well as to the maintenance of the world’s diversity. − It provides more enjoyable experiences for tourists through more meaningful connections with local people, and a greater understanding of local cultural, social and environmental issues. − It provides access for physically challenged people. South Africa committed itself to the principle of responsible tourism in its 1996 White Paper on the Development and Promotion of Tourism in South Africa. The principles of responsible tourism were, however, later elaborated on (DEAT, 2002) Responsible tourism is about enabling communities to enjoy a better quality of life through increased socio-economic benefits and an improved environment. It is also about providing better holiday experiences for guests and good business opportunities for tourism enterprises. But how do we measure how well or how badly we are doing in terms of our responsibility or sustainability targets? “Indicators have been identified as desirable instruments and/or measuring rods to assess and monitor the progress towards sustainable development” (Tsaur, Lin, & Lin, 2006) Indicators are defined by Hart (2013) as “something that helps you understand where you are, which way you are going and how far you are from where you want to be”. An indicator also has the ability to reduce a large quantity of information to its simplest form, without losing the essential information in order to answer questions being asked. Indicators are therefore variables that summarize relevant information to make visible phenomena of interest. Whereas statistics provide raw data with no meaning attached, indicators of sustainable development provide meaning that extends beyond the attributes directly associated with the data. The use of sustainable tourism indicators was The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


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Tourism Planning and Management

developed to help tourism managers obtain and use information in support of better decision making in the sustainable development of tourism. Indicators are proposed to be the building blocks for sustainable tourism and they are intended to be used as tools that respond to issues most important to managers of tourism destinations. The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, 2004) explains that indicators are: measures of the existence or severity of current issues, signals of upcoming situations or problems, measures of risk and potential need for action, and a means to identify and measure the results of our actions. Indicators are information sets which are formally selected to be used on a regular basis to measure changes that are of importance for tourism development and management. They can measure: a) changes in tourism’s own structures and internal factors, b) changes in external factors which affect tourism and c) the impacts caused by tourism. Both qualitative and quantitative information can be used for sustainability indicators.” “Used properly, indicators can become key management tools – performance measures which supply essential information both to managers and all stakeholders in tourism. Good indicators can provide in-time information to deal with pressing issues and help guide the sustainable development of a destination” (UNWTO, 2007) According to the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO, 2004) some of the benefits of good indicators are the following: − better decision making – lower risks and costs − identification of emerging issues – allowing prevention − identification of impacts – allowing corrective action when needed − performance management of the implementation of plans and management activities – evaluating progress in the sustainable development of tourism − reduced risk of planning mistakes – identifying limits and opportunities − greater accountability – credible information for the public and other stakeholders of tourism fostering accountability for its wise use in decision making − constant monitoring that can lead to continuous improvement – building solutions into management The tourism industry has monitored destination performance for many years by using conventional tourism indicators such as arrival numbers and tourist expenditure. In the same way as GDP has been found 52

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook

to be an inadequate measure of human welfare, conventional indicators can be seen as inadequate measures of tourism’s true performance. Indicators are those sets of information chosen because they are meaningful to our decisions and can be supported in a way that provides us with the information when needed. The UNWTO process was designed to assist tourism managers in identifying which information was key to their decisions. This would help them reduce the risks to their enterprise, the community and the environment. Consequently, the UNWTO identified a core set of indicators which are likely to be useful in almost any situation which needs additional indicators critical for management in a particular ecosystem or type of destination (UNWTO, 2004). Indicators are not an end in themselves. They become relevant only if used in tourism planning and management processes, and ideally they become effective in creating better and more sustainable decisions. The UNWTO (2004) indicates a series of applications in which indicators support tourism planning and management: Indicators and policy: Indicators are helpful in identifying the key policy issues that need to be addressed during the development process to achieve effective and responsible management. Using indicators to strategically plan for tourism: Planning is about knowing what you want, how you will get there and how you will know if you have achieved it. Indicators are useful in all three of these phases of planning for continual improvement, as they provide the means to measure how close the tourism venture is to the desired state or outcome. Indicators and regulation: Most regulations are based on the achievement of a specific standard. Indicators assist in measuring adherence to these desired standards. Carrying capacity and limits to tourism: Indicators can be very useful in monitoring whether specific limits or carrying capacities which may affect the sustainability of tourism are being reached. Public reporting and accountability: The information collected through indicators needs to be shared with the public in order to ensure transparency and accountability. Indicators and certification programmes: Indicators

Tourism Planning and Management

are used to monitor and measure the adherence to a series of criteria as prescribed by the certification authority or programme. Performance measurement and benchmarking: Tourism ventures are increasingly being called upon to measure their performance in relation to other tourism ventures and benchmarks. Indicators play a critical role in determining both benchmarks and baselines for comparison as well as the performance of tourism venture in relation to one another and the predetermined benchmarks. In order to understand how well we are performing in terms of our sustainability targets we need to continuously monitor our performance. Monitoring should be kept simple and feedback should be obtained from visitors, tour operators and local people. Simpson (2008, p.263) supports this need for ongoing monitoring by stating that “[t]he importance of ongoing monitoring cannot be understated in order to refine strategies, mitigate costs, maximize benefits to communities and ensure long-term sustainability of individual tourism initiatives”. The results of indicator monitoring are not always self-evident and will be of little value if they cannot be accurately interpreted and understood. Baselines, thresholds, targets and benchmarks provide valuable tools to assist in the interpretation of the results obtained from indicator measurement. Baselines normally represent the agreed starting point of the monitoring process, often being the first year for which data has been collected. The indicator results are then interpreted based on the degree of variance from the baseline. This tool works well as long as it is clear that the baseline may not necessarily represent a desired state, as a critical limit may already have been exceeded. A baseline, as the first tool used in the interpretation of results, does not always indicate what action is necessary and it will only indicate if a previous level has been exceeded. Additional tools for the interpretation need to be used in conjunction with the baseline data. These tools are thresholds, targets and benchmarks. Thresholds indicate a critical point or threshold that should not be passed. Thresholds often act as an early warning system which if reached should trigger some form of management action to ensure that the issue is resolved or remediated. Targets and benchmarks provide a focus or an aim of a desired subjective state that would like to be achieved. These targets and benchmarks continuously drive management actions towards the attainment of the target. Baseline data therefore forms a critical component in the interpretation of indicator results.

chapter 5

Sustainable tourism indicators have been identified as valuable tools for determining and monitoring sustainability. Indicators have also been said to operationalise sustainability by providing social, economic and environmental information that supports more effective and holistic tourism planning, management and decision making. Now the question arises which indicators should be used? Before selecting the indicators to use, two other important questions needed to be answered: How many indicators need to be selected? Clearly there was no ideal number of indicators to select. Any attempt to address all the aspects of sustainability using too few indicators would leave important gaps, while too many indicators in turn could overwhelm users and the collection of information for the numerous indicators could become too complex and time-consuming. According to the UNWTO (2004, p. 41) “[m]ost practitioners agree that it is essential to prioritize issues and the indicators that correspond to them, to help create a shorter list”. Furthermore, “practitioners agree 12-24 indicators are optimal” (UNWTO, 2004). Which issues do the indicators need to address? Issues that need to be addressed when measuring and monitoring the sustainability of a tourism venture need to include the new triple bottom line of sustainability reporting namely social, economic and environmental sustainability, or otherwise stated as people, profit and planet. The World Tourism Organization (2004) identified 12 baseline issues and their associated baseline indicators which served as an important point of departure for the identification of indicators (Table 1). The list of baseline indicators covers a range of social, economic and environmental issues likely to be found in most destinations. In Table 1 the social, economic and environmental sustainability dimension has been added in square brackets for each baseline issue.

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Tel: +256 (0) 312 100 065 • +256 (0) 755 465 020 • Email:

Tourism Planning and Management

chapter 5

Table 1: Baseline issues and baseline indicators for monitoring the sustainable development of tourism (adapted from UNWTO, 2004) [type of indicator]

This list of indicators merely provides a basis upon which the sustainability performance of tourism ventures could be measured and monitored. The selected list of indicators need to be adapted to suite local conditions and the tourism product being monitored in order to provide valuable information to guide sustainability decision making that is relevant to the product and local conditions. As tourists become more aware of their impacts on the environment, they

are demanding more sustainable tourism experiences. In an attempt to respond to these changing market trends the tourism industry has to embrace responsible tourism. Responsible tourism in turn can only be achieved if all the relevant role players are able to take collective responsibility for achieving sustainable tourism in order to create better places for people to live in and to visit. The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Bookings & Enquiries Tel. 00264 64 464144 • Fax 00264 64 464155 E-Mail:

Eningu Clayhouse Lodge Namibia’s top award-winning lodge. Just an hour’s drive from Windhoek International Airport. Well-appointed rooms & all amenities. Caring for our precious environment. Taking nothing for granted… The uniquely styled buildings of Eningu Clayhouse Lodge blend with the russet-coloured Kalahari sands of their surroundings. A rugged, natural, soulful and liberating experience! Eningu Clayhouse Lodge is synonymous with Namibia’s tranquil and intimate style, combining high levels of comfort, hospitality and serenity. Vibrant Kalahari tones, rich textures and raw materials help fuse the simple design and décor, both inside and out into a harmonious, sensual whole. Unusual artworks and sculptures abound, and floors are clad in handwoven karakul wool rugs featuring rich ethnic designs. Built of 120000 handmade clay bricks and creatively decorated, Eningu invites you with its rustic, comfortable atmosphere to relax. While hiking on our trails, you can have close encounters with a variety of game and birds and learn about our wildlife from information boards along the way. Enjoy a large swimming pool with a heated whirlpool, a rooftop deck, an archery range, as well as exquisite fresh cooking and a wine cellar filled with selected South African wines. – Close-by attractions include a visit to internationally recognized sculptor Dörte Berner in her atelier or the exploration of the largest and longest cave Namibias – the Arnhem Caves. At Eningu Clayhouse Lodge you will discover a tranquil place of solitude and reflection. The dead silence of the desert, the stars at night and the emptiness that stretches to the horizon … the kind of place that touches the soul.

Eningu The Clayhouse Lodge: Tel. 00264 62 581880 Fax 00264 62 581577 E-Mail: 58

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Taking Responsibility for Tourism: The Journey of the City of Cape Town

chapter 6

Taking Responsibility for Tourism: The Journey of the City of Cape Town By Nombulelo Mkefa Responsible Tourism is an approach to the management of tourism aimed at maximising benefits (economic, social and environmental) and minimizing costs to destinations. Simply put, Responsible Tourism is a tourism “that creates better places for people to live in, and better places to visit (Goodwin, Cape Town Declaration, 2002). The distinguishing characteristic between responsible tourism and sustainable tourism is that the focus of the approach is on the responsibility of role players (individuals, organisations, authorities and businesses) in the tourism sector and the destination. Role players are expected to take responsibility for their actions and related impacts. The White Paper on the Development and Promotion of Tourism (1996) identifies Responsible Tourism (RT) as the most appropriate concept and guiding principle for tourism development in South Africa. Since the Cape Town Declaration in August 2002, the City has adopted a Tourism Development Framework with Responsible Tourism being a key principle. The City of Cape Town adopted a Responsible Tourism Policy and Action Plan (2009) that provides a strong framework for the management of tourism and the implementation of Responsible Tourism in Cape Town. The City of Cape Town distribution and authority has over the years been recognised by industry and has won international Responsible Tourism accolades. A Responsible Tourism Communication strategy and subsequent products developed are key to reaching target audiences to drive objectives of the framework. A public commitment by the Executive Mayor and Chairpersons of Tourism Industry Associations charted the beginning of an important journey for Cape Town towards being a Responsible destination. By signing of the Cape Town Responsible Tourism Charter the city and the industry committed to responsible tourism behaviour and practises. A bold step was to tackle the aspect of how to measure, what to measure, how to verify performance or savings in a sector so diverse. This has birthed a Pilot Project with the aim to monitor and report on Responsible Tourism practices and measure progress in the destination over a two year period from September 2011-2013. Even though there are challenges the roll-out of the Responsible Tourism initiative, the project is proving to be useful and informative. Responsible Tourism Policy The City of Cape Town Responsible Tourism Policy

development process was a multi- stakeholder one. There was industry involvement and joint public sector participation. Representatives from these guided the development of the Responsible Tourism Policy and Action Plan. These included: Cape Town Tourism (CTT), the Federated Hospitality Association of South Africa (FEDHASA), South African Association for the Conference Industry (SAACI), Southern Africa Tourism Services Association (SATSA), the Association of South African Travel Agents (ASATA), South African National Parks (SANParks), Cape Nature, Iziko Museums, University of Cape Town (UCT), University of Western Cape (UWC) and the Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT). The City’s Responsible Tourism Policy compels all departments to incorporate Responsible Tourism in their planning, decision making and in development and management of the City, to contribute to the sustainability of the City for future generations. The Policy and its Action Plan implementation is also found fertile ground in that there is increasing market demand for responsible holidays from tourists. This enables Cape Town to put into place the conditions that are required to brand and position the City as a responsible destination. The Policy is applicable to the entire City of Cape Town as a local government structure and the entire municipal area as a tourism destination. It is structured to convey the general principles applicable to the management of tourism in Cape Town and sets out certain powers that enable Council to deal with the management of tourism in the destination and explains the mechanism required to implement the policy. The Responsible Tourism policy is compliant with the Tourism Sector Codes as it is aligned to 4 of the 7 pillars of the BBBEE Score Card that is Skills Development, Preferential Procurement, Social Responsibility as well as Enterprise Development. The Responsible Tourism Policy incorporates the following levers for responsible tourism in the destination: − Minimises negative economic, environmental and social impacts; − Makes positive contributions to the conservation of natural and cultural heritage embracing diversity[ − Provides more enjoyable experiences for tourists through more meaningful connections with local people and a greater understanding of local cultural, social and environmental issues[ The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


chapter 6

Taking Responsibility for Tourism: The Journey of the City of Cape Town

− Is culturally sensitive, encourages respect between tourists and hosts and builds local pride and confidence; − Generates greater economic benefits for local people and enhances the well-being of host communities; − Provides accurate information about accessibility of facilities and infrastructure for people with disabilities to customers; − Involves local people in decisions that affect their lives and life chances, and − Improves conditions and access to the industry; The 6 Responsible Tourism levers for Change within the Powers of the CoCT The ultimate goal of the Responsible Tourism Policy is responsible tourism, meaning the planning, development and management of the destination to achieve sustainability. A major focus of this achievement is the full integration of Responsible Tourism into the planning, development and management of the City. The six key levers of planning, regulation, use of City’s immovable property, financial contributions by the City, supply chain management, and performance management are identified for change: Planning - the CoCT conducts various planning processes in the various sectors from city-wide to site level. Examples are the Integrated Development Plan, the Integrated Transport Plan, Spatial Development Frameworks and Plans, Water Services Management Plan, Environmental Management Frameworks, and so on. The principles of the Responsible Tourism Policy should be reflected in these plans where they affect tourism. Regulation - the CoCT controls numerous regulatory processes including various by-laws, land use approvals, rezoning, road signage, trading licenses, building plan approvals, filming and events. Commitment to the principles of Responsible Tourism by the applicant and by the Council in its decision-making criteria should be included. Use of City’s Immovable Property - the CoCT makes available immovable property, such as buildings and sites for use by tour organisations and/or tourism operators. Tourism organisations and operators renting or occupying City property, or conducting activities/ business should be required to adhere to the principles of the Responsible Tourism Policy. Financial Contributions by the City - various organisations are funded by the CoCT. Commitment to the principles of the Responsible Tourism Policy should be included in the contractual arrangements. Where funding is on-going, commitment to improving the organisation’s performance should be required. 62

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook

Supply Chain Management – the CoCT is a significant procurer of products and services supplied by the tourism and related sectors, including accommodation, transport, meeting and conference venues, consultancy services, catering, marketing, website development and so on. The Responsible Tourism Policy provides the basis for the development of targets and standards drawing on Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment targets and the City’s Green Procurement Policy. Performance Management - A series of tools can be used to help business units and individual staff implement the principles and practices in the policy, for example: Setting Responsible Tourism objectives, targets and indicators for performance management; Establishing an Responsible Tourism Barometer and other tools to assess performance and progress within the City; Providing information and best practice documentation, and Providing Responsible Tourism Awards organisationally for the business unit and staff members with the greatest progress and contribution. Action Plan The Responsible Tourism Action Plan brings together the various initiatives of the destination into a synchronised campaign and creates awareness about Responsible Tourism within the City of Cape Town, its citizens as well as tourists. It gathers information for the monitoring and reporting of the destinations performance concerning Responsible Tourism. In addition, it sets indicators for activities of stakeholders and role-players as well as creates consumer awareness of Cape Town as a responsible destination. It incorporates responsibilities for the City of Cape Town and for the industry at large. Communication Strategy A Responsible Tourism Communication Strategy has been prepared to promote and publicise the Responsible Tourism Policy Framework. It forms one of the key actions outlined in the Responsible Tourism Action Plan. The Communication Strategy aims to create awareness of Cape Town as a responsible tourism destination to both the international, national and local tourism community. The Communication Strategy preparation included the departments of the City of Cape Town, the tourism industry partners, associations and other key organisations. The Communication strategy is supported by the preparation of communication products which included an RT website, logo, booklet, DVD, image library and exhibition. Responsible Tourism Charter The City, in partnership with other leading tourism associations in South Africa, signed a Cape Town

Taking Responsibility for Tourism: The Journey of the City of Cape Town

Responsible Tourism Charter, which commits the City and the Tourism industry to responsible tourism behaviour and practises. The partners include, the Federated Hospitality Association of South Africa (FEDHASA), The South African Association for the Conference Industry (SAACI) Cape Town Tourism (CTT) as well as the Southern Africa Tourism Services Association (SATSA). Pilot Project The Responsible Tourism Pilot Project includes a range of tourism businesses (participants), City Officials and key role players. The primary objective is to monitor, measure and report on Responsible Tourism best practices in the destination over a two year period (September 2011-2013). Progress made is measured in indicators across the ‘triple bottom line’ (environment, social and economic) and the seven areas mentioned above. The long term outcome of the pilot projects is to build a barometer for the City and establish a Responsible Tourism management system for tourism stakeholders to report and self-monitor performance. The participants in the project are required to submit Responsible Tourism policies and individual profile statements as an endorsement and to show commitment to Responsible Tourism and the Pilot Project. The pilot project participants have met quarterly to report on progress, discuss practice and share new ideas. There are approximately 20 members currently participating on the Responsible Tourism Pilot Project. The Pilot Project has been a learning experience for both the City and the businesses involved. For the various businesses that have taken up the challenge of implementing and monitoring Responsible Tourism practices there has been the benefit of cost saving and increased market profile. Opportunities to Address Measurement Participation on the Responsible Tourism Pilot Project is on a voluntary basis. Participants need to set up systems, measure and report on the progress of Responsible Tourism practices. The approach is to let the businesses share their experiences of what works in their context. The department has supplied templates to assist with the capturing and collating of information. A key requirement was to determine baselines and identifying the source of currently accessible information on consumption and usage such as billing information. The larger businesses that have been reporting as part of the BBBEE scorecard, have been helpful to the smaller businesses that do not currently have the necessary infrastructure and monitoring systems in place to demonstrate tangible results be it the general use (water and energy), social development and waste management categories. Based on scale, some enterprises do not have the necessary skills, capacity and financial resources to put systems in place, monitor and report on a regular basis. Baseline data

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and monitoring and evaluation across all the indicator areas are what the pilot is about. Reporting is still scattered and encouragement and mentoring of those who still need to start reporting is on-going. However, monitoring and evaluation is an essential component of Responsible Tourism management practices and in order to avoid “green-washing” businesses need to develop or strengthen existing monitoring plans in order to evidence Responsible Tourism practices. A Responsible Tourism management system needs to be developed by the City of Cape Town to monitor Responsible Tourism business practices in the industry and for the purposes of commitment to Responsible Tourism via a Charter. A key challenge is in finding a place for compliance management and enforcement. Should it be linked to grading or another mechanism? Successes − Winner: Virgin Holidays Responsible Tourism Award in the Best Destination category; − Responsible Tourism Policy and Action Plan approved to guide the tourism industry and the City; − Responsible Tourism logo produced for marketing and endorsement purposes; − Cape Town Responsible Tourism events including the ‘e’ conference at Indaba and events at the Vineyard Hotel and at Table Mountain Cableway facility; − Responsible Tourism website developed and a twitter account created to keep the tourism industry informed regarding Responsible Tourism; − Responsible Tourism image library developed for industry utilise; − Responsible Tourism Charter signed with industry associations to show commitment to Responsible Tourism; − Responsible Tourism Pilot Project launched with approximately 20 tourism businesses participating; − Electronic Responsible Tourism ‘How-To Guide’ for the tourism industry made available on Responsible Tourism website; − RT booklet developed for information and distribution; − Responsible Tourism in Cities’ ‘e’ Conference hosted at Indaba 2011; − Responsible Tourism Charter for businesses developed and being signed; − Responsible Tourism week, hosted annually including February 2013; − Posting of Responsible Tourism practices, including the Pilot Project and others, on Responsible Tourism website.

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


IDUBE GAME LODGE AND LUKIMBI SAFARI LODGE Idube Game Lodge in the Sabi Sand Game Reserve opened its doors in 1989. It is a small family owned lodge consisting of 8 safari chalets and 2 Makubela suites. It caters for both international and local guests with many returning time after time. The guides are very knowledgeable and all the staff very friendly and guests are greeted with smiles from the time of arrival until they depart. Guests enjoy two safaris per day and being in the Sabi Sand, the game viewing is amazing with regular sightings of leopard and lion. However, guests do not have to go out on safari to see animals. For years, Idube’s lawn has been host to nyala (antelopes), warthogs and vervet monkeys.

In 2000 when SANParks offered the public the opportunity of running private concessions within the national parks, the owners of Idube decided to take advantage of this and tendered for the Lwakahle concession in the south of the Kruger National Park. Once the tender was awarded and before the lodge was built, Marilyn and Louis Marais – the owners – surveyed the entire concession on foot accompanied by Idube staff members and Kruger Park rangers. Once the site had been chosen, a ceremony was held to bless the land and to ask permission from the ancestors to build on the property. Only then did the building of Lukimbi Safari Lodge commence.


The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


When Louis Marais the owner of Idube Game Reserve designed and built the lodge in 1983, he built it on sound ecologically friendly principles. Firstly, nothing was removed or chopped down. The lodge was built around the existing trees and termite mound. Today the knobthorns (acacia nigrescens) and the jackalberry (diospyros mespiliformis) ,which tops the termite mound ,are huge and keep the garden shaded during summer. When the jackalberry is in fruit, it attracts a host of animals and birds. The lawn is an important part of the lodge and in order to keep it green summer and winter, Louis designed


The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook

a project to recycle the grey water for reuse. This was one of the first of its kind in the Sabi Sand and was used as the prototype for many in the area. During the devasting fire in the Sabi Sand in 1998, 90% of Idube’s land was burnt. Immediately after the fire, indigenous grass seeds were sown and these germinated during the early spring rains. Today it is only the owners who actually know where and what was burnt. The land recovered quickly but it took approximately 10 years before the smaller animals and reptiles returned.

Lukimbi was completed in 2002. Again it was built by Louis along the banks of the Lwakahle River. We were responsible for finding water and making the roads. The 15 000 hectare area was a former wilderness area and there were no buildings on the property at all. The construction of the lodge was built under strict regulations laid down by SANParks. In order to ensure that these are maintained, quarterly ecological audits are conducted. The lodge has scored an average of 95.6% over the last ten years. Lukimbi caters for international and local guests. It has a reputation for excellent food and the wine cellar stocks the finest of South African wines. The 16 suites stretch 850 metres along the river, each

suite has a view over the river and the open plains beyond. There is a conference centre with four breakaway rooms. And in the grounds, is the private chapel of St Francis in the Veld. Guests enjoy two safaris per day and a daily walk down to the hippo pools on the Crocodile River. Off road sightings are permitted for exceptional sightings. Booking Office PO Box 2617 Northcliff 2115 South Africa Tel: +27 11 431 1120 • Fax: +27 11 431 3597 Email: The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Sustainable Consumption & Production: Lessons from Fairtrade

chapter 7

Sustainable Consumption & Production: Lessons from Fairtrade By Jennifer Seif World Responsible Tourism Day 2011 was opened in London by Harriet Lamb, then Director of the very successful UK Fairtrade Foundation and now the Chief Executive Officer of Fairtrade International. Lamb spoke passionately about the power of Fairtrade to transform the ordinary act of doing the household shopping into extraordinary benefits for agricultural producers in the Global South (Lamb, 2011). Fairtrade is a worldwide trading partnership that creates market access for sustainably produced goods. The first Fairtrade organisation was Max Havelaar in the Netherlands, established in November 1988 to give small-scale agricultural producers in Africa, Latin America and Asia a foothold in the Dutch market. Today there are 24 national Fairtrade organisations, primarily in developed countries although consumers in emerging markets like South Africa are also able to purchase Fairtrade products. The worldwide Fairtrade system is managed under the auspices of the Fairtrade Labelling Organisations (FLO), also known as Fairtrade International. There are currently sixteen categories of Fairtradecertified products including coffee, tea, sugar, cocoa and composite products like confectionaries. South Africa is a leading exporter of Fairtrade, most notably wine. Global sales of Fairtrade products were measured at €4.9 billion in 2011, up by 12% since 2010, demonstrating resilience even in difficult economic times (Fairtrade International, 2012). Impressively, the international Fairtrade label is recognized by 96% of British, 90% of Swiss, 86% of Dutch and 69% of German consumers (Globescan, 2011). On the supply side, over 1.2 million farmers and workers in 66 countries are affiliated to the Fairtrade system (Fairtrade International, 2012), which affords them higher revenue (based on fair prices), long-term commitment from trading partners as well as access to new resources for socio-economic development based on the Fairtrade premium (a portion of the retail price that is reserved for producer empowerment). According to Fairtrade International, a total of 1.2 billion people benefit from Fairtrade directly and indirectly (Fairtrade International, 2011). Fairtrade is but one example of what can broadly be defined as Sustainable Consumption and Production

(SCP). SCP is a cornerstone of the Rio+20 process and related efforts to promote a more equitable and greener global economy (UN, 2012). Successes achieved in agriculture and other sectors are based on a range of instruments including voluntary standards, corporate social responsibility (CSR) tools, sustainable/ ethical supply chain management practices and sustainability labels. Some instruments are targeted at the private sector (Business to Business) while others aim to encourage more informed decision-making by consumers when purchasing goods and services. Efforts to stimulate SCP in travel and tourism follow similar trajectories. Despite notable success stories at firm and destination levels, the net impact of tourism initiatives remains limited. About 4.2% of all beds globally carry any type of sustainability label, with higher percentages visible in Europe (Bien A. , 2013) and the percentage of international arrivals that can be categorised as “responsible travel” is much less (TripAdvisor, 2009). The value-action gap in sustainable tourism (the difference between what travellers aspire to and how they actually spend their money) is not yet well understood empirically, and more detailed market intelligence and consumer insight is needed. Many studies suggest that travellers aspire to travel responsibly, but how does this translate into actual purchasing behaviour? There are obviously many parallels between Fairtrade and sustainability standards and labels in tourism as well as the trend towards travellers’ philanthropy. A critical success factor of Fairtrade lies in strong coordination between national Fairtrade organisations. Other success factors manifest in continual diversification of the Fairtrade product portfolio, campaigning and partnerships with retailers to raise public awareness and the use of a single, well known and highly trusted label. During 2006-2009, Fairtrade International conducted feasibility research that demonstrated strong potential demand for fairly traded travel and tourism (Zonneveld, 2008). That tens of millions of loyal consumers of Fairtrade products reside in Europe and North America is food for thought for developing countries that depend on these markets for international tourism arrivals. The fact that consumers residing in emerging markets like South Africa are gaining easier access to Fairtrade The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


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Sustainable Consumption & Production: Lessons from Fairtrade

products also creates opportunities to grow domestic and regional tourism more equitably and sustainably. Since 2003, Fair Trade in Tourism South Africa (FTTSA) has operated a national certification programme based on the principles and modalities of Fairtrade. FTTSA and its many partners around the world believe that tourism is a Fairtrade problem; that tourism can learn from Fairtrade, and vice versa; and that concept and principles of Fair Trade must become more firmly entrenched in the sustainable tourism lexicon. In particular, there are opportunities to leverage the success of Fairtrade to speak to consumers about sustainable tourism in a language they know and understand. But the salience of Fairtrade for tourism lies beyond its success in penetrating markets. Strong emphasis on the “green” aspects of tourism over the past decade or so must be balanced with equal attention to labour standards, human rights and trade and climate justice. Tourism growth and development, especially rapid growth, carries social and environmental costs to people living in destinations. Travel and tourism is natural, cultural and human resource-dependent and in addition to its environmental impacts, tourism can create social and other problems that damage destinations and communities, to the detriment of the economically poor. Research by advocacy organizations shows that labour standards in tourism are amongst the worst in the world, and that human rights challenges are on the rise, linked for example to competition over land, water, energy and other resources. Moreover, sustainability standards and labels in tourism have yet to address the trade in tourism services, which tends to disadvantage suppliers in destinations, especially small businesses. High price competition in tourism negatively impacts wages in destinations and North-South inequalities result in often high levels of economic leakage to the detriment of local economic development. Sustainability in tourism urgently requires attention to the commercial relationships between suppliers, traders and retailers. If not, “responsible” hotels and other tourism products will continue to be sold to consumers in a manner that reinforces rather than transforms structural imbalances in the worldwide trade in tourism services. If trade justice is not pursued, the real costs of sustainability will not be equitably distributed throughout tourism value chains and will rest squarely on the shoulders of local destination stakeholders and consumers who are told they must pay more for travelling responsibly.

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tourism products to market: the concept of a “Fair Trade holiday”. The packaging of holidays is audited according to trade criteria that ensure fair pricing, pre-payment, equitable risk sharing, transparency and commitment to sustainable trade. Fair Trade Tourism is now expanding beyond South Africa, to embrace other destinations in Africa and stimulate demand in ten markets (France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, USA, Canada, Australia and South Africa – countries where Fairtrade is well established and which are important tourism source markets for southern and East Africa) This expansion will enable tour operators (trading partners) to offer consumers holidays to multiple destinations, which in turn will enable FTTSA, FLO and other stakeholders to evaluate the commercial potential for tourism as a Fairtrade product. While Fairtrade is good for tourism to think with, FTTSA also believes that tourism can generate many lessons for Fairtrade. That Fair Trade Tourism is led from southern Africa by local organisations seeking high levels of coordination is historically and politically significant both for the Fairtrade movement and for sustainable tourism certification more generally. Any future marriage between Fairtrade and tourism must be based on a cooperative approach that respects international good practice while speaking to the needs and expectations of local destination stakeholders. Another opportunity that Fairtrade affords tourism development lies in the potential for experiential agritourism. Agri-touism is defined as tourism that is based on any type of agricultural experience and can include farm-stays, tourist participation in harvesting and agroprocessing activities and the purchase of agricultural products. Demand for agri-tourism is increasingly globally along with demand for authentic experiential travel and community-based tourism. The growth of Fair Trade Tourism can and should incorporate income diversification opportunities for Fairtrade agricultural producers, based on capacity building and product development support. This type of agritourism will also support the broader development of SCP as it enables tourists to participate in harvesting and agro-processing, which will translate into stronger support for sustainable products “at home” while also empowering producers to better understand their end customers.

Having taken part in the Fairtrade tourism feasibility study, FTTSA set about developing a system to monitor, assess and certify the full tourism value chain. Pilot-testing during 2009-2010 resulted in the establishment of a new mechanism to bring Fair Trade The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook



Cape Town is renowned for its sandy beaches, vibrant nightlife and surrounding winelands. This experience is further enriched by the opportunity to view a plethora of wildlife in their natural habitat on a Big Five safari at Inverdoorn Game Reserve and Iziba Safari Lodge, just two and a half hours from the bustling metropolis. Amplified by the vastness and wild wonder of the Ceres Karoo, the reserve awaits to envelop you with its promise of calm tranquillity.

Game drives are led by skilled rangers, motivated by their passion for wildlife and conservation. They assist guests in searching for the Big Five as well as a host of other animals including giraffe, zebra, springbok, kudu and a variety of birdlife. During ideal conditions guests

The history of Inverdoorn begins with free-roaming white rhinos, African buffalos and illusive Cape Leopards and continues with the rescue of Robby the male lion, who was fated for a future in canned hunting until his relocation to Inverdoorn with two female companions. Since then the sprawling 10 000 hectares that make up Inverdoorn have welcomed the return of many species and today is home to over 1 200 animals. The acquisition of two male elephants completed the game reserve as a Big 5 safari destination and marked an important step in conservation, re-introducing the species into the region for the first time in 150 years.

are even allowed to step out of the safari vehicle and walk amongst the giraffes. Overnight guests will experience the glory of the setting sun when they embark on a sunset safari, which culminates with a trip to the Western Cape Cheetah Conservation. Founded in 2001, the centre aims to rescue and rehabilitate cheetahs. Due to human interference and competition with other predators the population has drastically declined, forcing them to interbreed and resulting in a weakening of their genes, posing a further risk to their survival. The centre runs a breeding programme, pairing up unrelated cheetahs in an effort to strengthen the gene pool and the cheetah runs form a vital component of these programmes, because the female cheetah’s body must reach a temperature of 40ŽC in order to ovulate. Guests are invited to watch 74

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook

them run, witnessing the fastest land animal on Earth reach speeds of up to 120km/h. Cheetah interactions are also offered, inviting guests to meet tame cheetahs and find out more about cheetah conservation. As is evident from the centre, conservation is at the heart of everything Inverdoorn does. In 2011 the team founded another wildlife initiative, called RhinoProtect. After neighbouring game reserves’ rhinos were attacked by poachers, the team knew something drastic had to be done to protect their rhinos. Consequently, a revolutionary treatment was developed which would be injected into the rhinos’ horns. Consisting of a barium-laced dye, it colours the horn internally, makes it X-ray detectable and unfit for human consumption. The procedure takes merely 40 minutes and does not affect the rhino. RhinoProtect further branched out the initiative by establishing an orphanage at the reserve after rescuing two calves whose mothers were killed by poachers. RhinoProtect seeks to reach out to the global community to inform them about the rhino’s plight and invite them to join the battle against poaching. This effort was encapsulated with the Stand Up concert in 2012, which featured the legendary reggae act The Wailers. The rhino orphanage is located behind the 5-star Luxury Chalets and Ambassador Suite, allowing guests to pay the calves a visit. Overnight guests have a variety of accommodation options to choose from. In addition to the 5-star options, there are seven, 4-star chalets ideal for couples, while the charming guesthouses are perfect for families and big groups.

A swimming pool allows guests to relax and stave off the heat in summer, while meals are served here too or around the boma, complemented by South African warmth and hospitality. The lodge organises transfers from Cape Town to Inverdoorn. Guests may also self-drive and this is a great opportunity to explore more of South Africa as the route wends through glorious mountain passes and winelands. Various scenic routes are possible including the magnificent Bain’s Kloof Pass, while other routes are dotted with historic towns – giving you plenty more to see and do along the way to a once-ina-lifetime Cape Town safari. The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Service Excellence – The Ultimate Goal for Survival and Growth

chapter 8

Service Excellence – The Ultimate Goal for Survival and Growth By Wayne Duvenage “Mediocrity is known to be the death knell for service excellence.” When profits are your only goal, customer satisfaction generally is not. Yet, if customer satisfaction is your ultimate goal and this is conducted within a set of standards, along with a mindset of minimized costs and wastage, your business will be competitive, desirable and profitable.

Two home truths. Every marketing course worth its salt, will tell you that no marketing campaign, advertising medium or methodology is more successful than word of mouth, i.e. the experience as relayed by people who have ‘been there’, to others who seek or desire to ‘be there’.

Increased profitability will follow the truly customer centric business, largely because of three matters:-

All things being equal, excellent service costs your organisation nothing more.

These entities attract more customers.

Good service starts with being service oriented To provide great customer service, generally requires acceptance of the need for business leaders and their people to be service oriented. Working in a service industry is best done by people who enjoy serving others, who are humble and service minded i.e. “To be a servant”. Too often, someone’s dignity or pride does not enable them to be comfortable in a ‘servant’ role. The best advice for them is not to work in the service industry and not serve others. This applies to people who work in the back office of service organisations, as everyone working in a service oriented business is either serving a customer, or is serving (helping) someone who is serving a customer.

They spend less money advertising to their potential market (because their past customers do a lot of that for them) and Sometimes (not always), they are able to attract higher yields, rates or margins for the higher service quality provided. There is no doubt that systems and processes are very important to run a successful business and that these elements are also correlated to service output. However, it is the matter of customer satisfaction that is most fundamental to business sustainability and success. In saying this, one does not advocate for one minute that systems and processes are not important, but all things being equal, the business high in service excellence will ultimately win. There are numerous examples of businesses with superior systems and processes above their competitors, yet without excellent customer service, they are less successful and often fail. Conversely, there are many businesses with inferior systems and processes, yet with a high customer satisfaction levels, are able to thrive and grow. When a business is able to combine the two elements (best in systems and processes with high levels of customer satisfaction), a world class organization begins to develop and lead amongst its competitors. Much is written on the subject of service excellence, but all too often the subject is overcomplicated to the extent that many business leaders and owners give up and settle for mediocrity. This article aims to provide an understanding of a few home truths and provides insights from whence every owner or leader of a service oriented business should start:-

What does it mean to service oriented:Being engaging: which is to be polite, genuinely caring and interested in helping, acknowledging and listening. People who have high empathy and caring add value in the service industry. Executing with meaning: i.e. to exercise genuine patience when explaining and advising (telephonically or face-to-face); checking availability, finding the best solution, producing the required standards in the preparation of a setting (for example room, meal or vehicle). Being expeditious: being sensitive to customers’ time in queues. Being prompt and proactive in helping to speed up the process. Brand experience: Ensuring the setting and design of what your business / brand stands for is present. This is where consistency of output, cleanliness and the character of your brand is felt -, the stuff which The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


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Service Excellence – The Ultimate Goal for Survival and Growth

customers see and are put at ease by. Walking into an untidy, unkempt environment, lights or signage on the blink, papers lying around or uniforms untidy, are not good for making people feel special. Problem resolution: resolving a customer’s problems or complaints and compensating when the ‘ball is dropped’ or things go wrong. Displaying a genuine reaction to recover the situation means thanking the customer for the complaint and then taking ownership of the problem and rectifying the situation to the customer’s satisfaction. Many a potentially disgruntled customer is often turned into a loyal supporter of a brand, just because an employee ‘fixed the problem’ and provided them with peace of mind. Excellent service is about ‘being in tune’ with your customer’s experience of your business Being a service oriented company leads to good service, but to truly display consistent service excellence and be a world class customer centric business, you need to “be in tune” with how your customers feel about your service, continuously. In getting to good service, a business will firstly have introduced acceptable systems and processes then they will have recruited and trained the talent (people) who serve their customers in the manner as spelled out above. Having come this far gets you to a “good service” level, but to move into the realm of service excellence, the next step is obtaining your customer’s true feelings about their experience of your brand, at every interface. Being ‘in tune with how customer’s feel’ about your service, means making it easy for your customers to tell you how they feel. Taking this a step further, means inviting customers and the public to complain about your service. This may sound strange and is generally an uncomfortable space for leaders and employees to be in. We are all uncomfortable receiving complaints about our business, so why would we want to invite customers to complain? In order to take a truly customer centric stance, business leaders and all their staff need to be genuine in their approach to ‘help and invite customers to complain’ so as to:Establish where the weaknesses of service exist in their business, e.g. is it front office, with accounts, sales, vehicle or room quality?. Establish what the specific issues or root causes of the problems are e.g. systems, processes, people, or a combination of these.


The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook

Implement process, people or structure changes and improvements which will permanently rectify the root cause and barrier to excellent service. By taking these steps, the business leader sets out to build a truly customer centric business. In seeking the information about the customer’s opinion or experience of the business, the leader needs to select and implement a method(s) of ‘invitation to complain’ and must do so with the understanding and involvement of the rest of the staff. The entire business needs to know what is being measured and why this exercise / business practice in being conducted. Generally speaking, if the process of customer engagement from service excellence point of view is undertaken with sincerity and transparency, all staff will be committed and supportive of the programme. In my experience, people generally intend to provide good service and have a desire to do well. Their standards are, however, set by; (a) how they are treated and (b) how genuine and sincere the company is about providing good service and (c) the company’s ability to empower the employee with the right tools (systems, processes and training) to do their job efficiently. There are a number of ways for a company to gather input and feedback from customers about their experience with a brand. These generally fall into two main categories:Inviting customer’s input: Sending an e-Mail or SMS shortly after the interaction, asking the customer to rate the service. Rating a call center experience by asking the customer to rate their service at the end of the phone call (e.g. press 1 for poor, 2 for …). Cards or forms which invite customers to ‘rate the service experience.’ These can for example be placed in rooms, cars, airline seats, magazines or on counters where the customer will be served. Placing a prominent “Tell Us” tab on the company’s Web or Facebook page, which links the customer to a questionnaire to complete. Erecting placards or signs requesting customers to provide feedback, in prominent places where customers interact with the business. An example is a request to “call this number to tell us how you feel about the service”. Fetching customer’s input: Face-to-face interviews with customers at the

Service Excellence – The Ultimate Goal for Survival and Growth

‘coal face’, directly after or during their interaction / experience with the business.

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driven from the highest position within the business, and accepted and understood by everyone else throughout the business.

Telephonic interview about the recent service experience, soon after their interaction / experience with the business. The differences in the two categories are as follows: Methods in the ‘inviting’ category, are easier to apply and are therefore the most commonly practiced. In these instances, the business gives the customer the choice to interact or not, which normally elicits reactions or feedback from those customers who were either ecstatic about a great experience, or from those who were very upset about a negative encounter. However the “invite” methods do not elicit a full picture of the range of customers’ experiences. Methods in the “fetch” category, if done properly, are the most scientific and accurate method of gauging levels of service excellence within your business. While it may be a slightly more costly method, the benefits for building a strong customer service ethos throughout the business far outweigh the cost. Success can be achieved when questioning is done by a recognized research company that employs appropriately trained field workers to conduct the interviews and incorporate the following principles: − Customers are randomly selected to interview. − It is done continuously, e.g. on a monthly basis (but never less than quarterly). − Sample sizes are statistically representative. − Questions are pertinent and relevant to the experience. − Interviews are short (5 to 10 questions and no more than 7 minutes). The information is captured in an appropriate electronic tool, which provides the company with information (e.g. tables, graph and scores) which can be used for benchmarking, communication and remuneration purposes. In conclusion service excellence improvement starts when business leaders use the results of ongoing; statistically sound “customer satisfaction” research to benchmark the lowest performing areas against the highest performing areas. The customer centric leader will then take appropriate actions to address and uplift the areas of lowest customer satisfaction and move them toward the highest customer satisfaction levels. Actions could include training, performance management, remuneration or other incentives or a combination of these. Service Excellence is a journey. For it to become a reality, it has to be grasped and The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Forest Camp

Accomodation and full catering for 22 people at the foot of the Drakensberg ● Birding and guided game walks

Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre Daily tours Successful breeding programmes Management course for game farming ●

Mountain View

Accomodation for 28-plus peopl ● B&B, full catering Guided bird and wildlife bush walks, night drives ●

Ya Mati

5x luxurious chalets on the bank of the Blyde River. Self-catering or full catering ● Wedding facilities for up to 120 people ●

For more info and bookings: Forest Camp & Rehabilitation Centre: Tel: +27 (0)15 795-5236 覺 Fax: +27 (0)15 795-5333 Mountain view: Cell: 082 907 5983 Ya Mati: Cell: 072 191 2024 / 084 511 3000 Fax: +27 (0)12 348 4926 E-mail:

Moholoholo Forest Camp & Rehabilitation Centre The Moholoholo Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre was established in 1991. A businessman from Pretoria in South Africa, Mr Strijdom, owns the farm on which the Centre is situated, and he in turn asked Brian Jones to establish and run the rehabilitation centre for him. Brian already had a Crowned Eagle in his possession and his reputation for the work he did with wild animals had spread rapidly. Brian Jones has been helping and caring for injured and orphaned animals from the age of four and thus he brought a great deal of knowledge and experience to the establishment of this rehabilitation centre Very soon a variety of animals were being brought to him that were either orphaned, injured or poisoned and in need of help. The plight of Africa’s animals and our natural system has always been the main concern at Moholoholo and the philosophy is that awareness must be spread if we are to save our wildlife. With Mr Strijdom’s dedicated support the Centre has expanded tremendously over the years and as a result Brian has, on numerous occasions, been invited to give talks all over the country and in various states in the USA to spread the message and inform people of the predicament our wildlife faces today. In 2003 Dr Ian Player nominated Brian Jones for the Terra Nova Award and Moholoholo’s work has been featured in many TV programmes and series, such as ‘Wild Orphans’, which have been screened far and wide including on the National Geographic Channel. At Moholoholo we are often faced with the difficult decision of what to do with an injured or poisoned animal which will not be able to be released back into the wild. As a result, we have a number of ‘permanent residents’ that reside at the centre at our own cost and are used as ‘ambassadors’ for their species. Members of the public are therefore able to get an ‘up close and personal’ experience of these incredible creatures, while we have the ability to practically demonstrate 82

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to the public the problems that wildlife is facing as well as being able to share information about each animal here at the Centre. Moholoholo receives 1 000 school children and adults on average per month. They visit the Rehabilitation Centre where they attend a guided tour during which they hear about these problems and the challenges associated with conservation and habitat protection. We often receive calls which require Brian to go out and rescue animals such as baby rhinos that have been abandoned by their mothers, or leopards, cheetah and hyena that have been hit by cars, caught in snares or poisoned. The costs involved in caring for these animals are absorbed by Moholoholo in an attempt to convey the message that it is not necessary to shoot such animals, but that they can, in fact, recover after treatment and be relocated at no inconvenience to the inhabitants of the area. Moholoholo is also actively involved in ‘problem animal’ control on farms and in tribal areas. The animals are removed from the area where they are unwanted and relocated to an area where they are welcome. This too is done at Moholoholo’s expense and is primarily done to save them from an often painful and gruesome demise. We are involved in a research forum which investigates the movement of leopards. To date we have captured and collared a number of leopards for this research and the results have been astounding. We are often called to remove a ‘problem leopard’ and we use such opportunities to gain more information on the species. Where funds allow this, we can release them fitted with GPS collars. Our research also extends to a number of vulture species. We have tagged and released hundreds of vultures whose movements are subsequently monitored. Many vultures are brought to us due to poisoning and we have been able to fit tracking harnesses to a few before releasing them – we have been astounded by the range of some of their movements. Here at Moholoholo we run a successful Serval breeding programme. In the Eastern Cape, Nature Conservation officials claimed Servals had become extinct in the area about 80 years ago and were beyond redemption. However, we have released 69 Servals there over the past eight years – 19 in the Shamwari Nature Reserve alone. The main aim of our efforts is to raise awareness regarding our dying environment, not only in our own country but worldwide. Hopefully, when the world sees the Rehabilitation Centre on their TV screens, or when they visit our venues, they too might recognise that they have a problem in their own countries and that the wildlife of this world depends on humans to speak out on their behalf.

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Authentic Tourism Experience

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Authentic Tourism Experience By Niki Glen In Kenya, as in many other parts of Africa the development of Tourism has changed over the decades since the early 20th century ( Akama & Ondimu, 2007). While wildlife Safaris and Hunting dominated the first half of the century, Beach Tourism and other forms of mass tourism emerged in the 70s, where travellers were relatively unconcerned about the culture or environment to which they travelled. Since the late 1980s, tourists globally started to seek more unique experiences while travelling and this impacted the tourism to Africa negatively, as what was on offer, did not quite meet the needs of the new generation of tourists:- “…more people are, particularly, interested in culture and other forms of consumption that differ from contrived forms of tourist experiences that are being marketed.” The past 20 years have seen a significant growth in cultural tourism, adventure tourism, heritage tourism and ecotourism amongst others. Tourists are becoming adept and aware of their impact on the environment and societies, and seek out more authentic and meaningful experiences (Sharpley & Tefler, 2008). The modern tourist needs, present a plethora of opportunities for developing countries, creating an attractive industry for development and investment. However, development often fails to empower the target population of poor and underdeveloped communities and environments, and benefits those who least need it. This is what is referred to as the “tourism dilemma” by Sharpley and Tefler, 2008). As a tourist, I fall into the category of modern tourists, expecting to gain a better understanding of the local culture as well as a high degree of respect for people and environment when I arrive at my destination – whether it be for leisure or business travel. Authenticity in tourism, is about being passionate and honest and genuine - and to create an expectation in line with what you have to offer. The creation of a truly authentic tourism experience starts with a truly authentic business leadership. There is nothing worse than having an expectation, based on what I’ve read in a magazine or seen on the internet, and arriving to something completely unexpected. I have had experiences of arriving at a game farm, advertising itself as “an eco-estate situated

in the sensitive biosphere of the Waterberg”, and being faced with rolling lawns of kikuyu grass, exotic invasive and some (non-African) wattles adorning the gardens. Once, I arrived at a so called eco-hotel in the Natal Midlands, that even sported their environmental policy on their web-site. Their newly renovated chalets, kitted out with incandescent light bulbs, electric geysers high flow shower heads, buck weed growing all the way up the mountain, and really unfriendly staff. On a recent business trip, I arrived at a guesthouse in a relatively small rural town, and was fascinated by the prevalence of CCTV cameras in all public areas. Upon further enquiry, I was told that the cameras are merely to keep an eye on staff, so as to ensure that they do their jobs properly at all times. No apologies for the fact that I, as a tourist, was feeling really creepy from being watched all the time. This collection of experiences shows us that many ventures in South Africa ‘talk green’ and responsible but their ‘walk’ is not green or responsible. Sustainable tourism, by definition, promotes the preservation of all that makes tourism possible. Cohen (2010) argues that the term sustainability, like the term eco-tourism, may be used by tourism entrepreneurs to express a desired outcome amongst tourists, without real application thereof in host communities. A sustainable tourism paradox is created when economic value created from developing tourism areas threaten the preservation of local culture and natural environment. My interpretation of this is that when my expectations are met or exceeded when I arrive at my destination, my experience is authentic. While each area has its own uniqueness, including history, cuisine, culture, architecture, natural beauty, climate, people and biodiversity, tourists expect certain “hygiene factors” including certain levels of comfort, safety, security, ease of communication, familiarity and availability of food as well as certain basic facilities such as transport and financial services. While the uniqueness is what will enhance the tourist’s experience, lack of these basic hygiene factors is what could destroy the experiences for all but the most adventurous and lase fair tourist. Any form of exploitation, whether it will be of the people or the local environment detract significantly from the tourist experience of authenticity, as information is shared, staff is skilled and friendly and the tourist expectations The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


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are met. According to Maira and Laing (2013) tourism creates and opportunity to encourage sustainable behaviour. Short Story of an authentic tourist experience – 20 quick steps A tourist arrives at a guesthouse close to St Lucia and is greeted by the person on duty at reception. She is a lady from the local community.

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18. At breakfast next morning, the guest is greeted with a big smile by Simon and ushered to his table. The guest is offered coffee or tea, which Simon points out, is from a fair trade source. 19. The table is set with little glass jars for butter and confectionary, which was sourced in bulk and placed into the re-usable jars. 20. The jars all carry small labels informing the guest that it is ‘home made’ from seasonal fruit by a local community member.

1. She introduces herself as Fikile, and welcomes the tourist with a big happy smile, and thanks him for his choice of the establishment and location. 2. Fikile informs the tourist that the St Lucia Wetland is one of South Africa’s top tourist destinations and a world heritage site. 3. She further explains that it plays a vital role in biodiversity conservation as well as 4. job creation and localised economic development. 5. The guest is checked in swiftly, after completing all the correct forms 6. and is then provided with a quick familiarisation of the establishment and its surrounding area. 7. Fikile informs the guest that the establishment supports sustainable business practices, and makes every effort to conserve water, energy and to look after their sensitive environment. 8. In addition, the Fikile informs the guest that local arts & craft are a large source of income for the community, and provides the guest with 9. a list of local attractions he may want to visit 10. Fikile hands the guest a re-usable water bottle, and points out the water dispensers, which are situated conveniently throughout the establishment for him to re-fill his bottle. She then shows the guest to his room. 11. Upon arrival the rooms is lit by natural light coming through the window, as the curtains are drawn. 12. The bed is beautifully decorated with scatter cushions made by a local community of women and 13. walls are hung with photographs of the wetland taken by a local photographer. 14. Fikile shows the guest around the room, and points out that the amenities are organic and environmentally friendly, and that some are 15 .made by a local community. 16. She points out that all products are available for purchase from reception, together with local arts, crafts and memorabilia, should the guest wish to take some home. 17. Fikile further informs the guest that breakfast is served from 7 in the morning, and wishes him a wonderful stay. The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Biodiversity and Tourism

chapter 10

Biodiversity and Tourism By Rynette Coetzee

South Africa stands proud as one of the world’s most biologically diverse countries in the world. Some 18,000 vascular plants species occur within its boundaries, of which 80 percent occur nowhere else. In addition, South Africa is the 24th richest country in the world and the 5th richest in Africa in terms of number of mammal, bird, reptile and amphibian species, which occur only in this country (Notice 1095, 1997 ). Examples of such endemic species include the threatened Knysna Warbler (Bradypterus sylvaticus) (SANBI, 2010) the near threatened African Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus moquini); the critically endangered Riverine Rabbit (Bunolagus monticularus) (EWT, 2004) the vulnerable Samango Monkey (Cercopithecus mitis labiatus); the vulnerable Cape Mountain Zebra (Equus zebra zebra); the critically endangered Brenton Blue butterfly (Orachrysops niobe); the threatened Paulseni Horned Baboon Spider (Ceratogyrus paulseni); the endangered Western Leopard Toad (Amietophrynus pantherinus); the critically endangered White Hot Poker (Kniphophia leucocephela); and the critically endangered Geometric Tortoise (Psammobatus geometricus). The majority of these species are under threat from urban developments, agricultural activities, deforestation, water and soil pollution and illegal harvesting for the pet trade. It is therefore of paramount importance that any activities involving South Africa’s biodiversity must adhere to sound conservation principles and all relevant legislation. For the purposes of this document the definitions of biodiversity and conservation are as follows: ‘Biodiversity means the variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part and also includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems (SA Government, 2004). ‘Conservation means the protection, preservation, management, or restoration of natural environments and the ecological communities that inhabit them. Conservation is generally held to include the management of human use of natural resources for current public benefit and sustainable social and economic utilization’ (Various, 2012). South Africa’s biodiversity supports the provision of

ecosystem services such as the production of clean water, prevention of erosion, carbon storage and clean air, economic growth and development through its supply of resources to industries such as fishing, horticulture, agriculture and tourism. In addition, it contributes to people’s wellbeing through the provision of food and recreational, aesthetic, cultural and spiritual needs (King et al, 2006). Our biodiversity is one of our country’s greatest tourism attractions and as such the tourism industry and every tourist, both local and international, must be encouraged to become integrally involved in the protection and conservation of our biodiversity (King & et al, 2006). The National Department of Tourism (NDT) is currently striving to create awareness regarding responsible tourism within all stakeholder groups involved in the South African tourism sector. In 2011, the NDT launched National Minimum Standard for Tourism – Requirements, SANS 1162:2011 (SABS, 2011). Chapter 5.4 deals with environmental criteria as it relates to responsible tourism. In line with this, the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme and the Endangered Wildlife Trust are collaborating to create awareness and understanding regarding the implications of responsible tourism in terms of our biodiversity. Tourism and biodiversity Tourism and biodiversity are mutually dependant. Some of the top ten reasons why tourists visit South Africa, as listed by the NDT include the viewing our wildlife (biodiversity) the fact that South Africa is the adventure capital of the world (adventure activities include shark cage diving and whale watching), and of course South Africa’s beautiful scenic attractions, for example, Table Mountain and other world heritage sites such as Mapungubwe National Park, the floral kingdom of the Western Cape province and the Kruger National Park. Wildlife based tourism activities can have both negative and positive impacts on biodiversity and the conservation of species. Facilities such as zoos, game reserves, adventure tourism activities and other similar facilities can play an extremely important role in educating visitors regarding in situ and ex situ conservation programmes, threats against the various species. Such threats can include, but is not The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


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limited to illegal wildlife trading; poaching; urban developments; deforestation; air, water and soil pollution; illegal removal of animals from the wild and the negative impacts of over-crowded game viewing activities. Facilities that responsibility for wildlife and to stress the role they are playing in contributing to and ensuring the conservation of our biodiversity should be acknowledged and supported. However, tourists and tourism businesses should be aware that some facilities are involved in illegal activities such as the removal of wild animals for trading purposes, for breeding animals in ex situ facilities, water pollution, soil pollution, incorrect keeping of animals or subjecting animals to continuous contact with people, which has proven to be stressful and harmful to certain animal species. It is therefore critical that all stakeholders involved in tourism in South Africa equip themselves with the correct knowledge to ensure the following: i. Strict adherence to all relevant legislation that pertains to environmental and biodiversity legislation; ii. The purpose and legality of in situ and ex situ conservation of South Africa’s indigenous fauna and flora; iii. Ensuring the safety and welfare of animals at all times; iv. Ensuring the safety and welfare of staff and visitors at all times; and v. Being responsible regarding the quality and accuracy of information shared with the visitors. Checklist Tourists, the hospitality sector and all other relevant stakeholders making use of wildlife based tourism attractions, should ask the following pertinent questions: • What is the purpose of the facility in the context of conservation? • In the event that the facility is involved in hunting, ask about the type of hunting activities, for example: green hunting, recreational hunting, trophy hunting or can hunting to determine compliance with all relevant legislation and whether the hunting activities are humane and ethical? 92

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Biodiversity and Tourism

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• Are other activities offered conducive to animal welfare and safety of animals? • What is the purpose is of breeding animals such as large predators and primates, e.g. petting zoos, feeding the animals, or walking with the animals? Determine compliance with all relevant legislation; • Are the owners or managers able to provide proof of required permits authorising any restricted activity; • Does the facility comply with any published, recognised standard, for example the SANS – Responsible Tourism Requirements; and • Has the facility been endorsed by any recognised conservation or tourism body and can the manager or owner provide proof of such endorsements. In conclusion, as with many other aspects of Responsible Tourism, conservation efforts need to include all tourism stakeholders in your area. Work with the local tourism association and conservation department to ascertain which regulations and suites of legislation are relevant to your town and region. Share this information with other tourism businesses as well as the tourists, and strive towards increased collaboration and cooperation in the eradication of illegal and destructive wildlife activities NOTE FROM EDITOR TO READERS: I was recently requested by a local Zoo to participate in a charity event. I was not sure of the credentials of the Zoo, so I contacted the Endangered Wildlife Trust for more information. It turned out that this particular Zoo had been on their watch list for a while, and was involved in questionable activities. It is critical for a tourism business to ascertain the credentials of facilities before they recommend these to their guests. In this way, a strong base for Responsible Tourism and Conservation is established.

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


COASTLANDS UMHLANGA HOTEL & CONVENTION CENTRE The four star Coastlands Umhlanga Hotel and Convention Centre is extraordinaire beyond expectation promising the highest standards of luxury yet to be experienced in Kwa Zulu Natal. The Hotel is situated in Gatemax, a commercial, retail and Hotel complex boasting fine architecture, sharp definition and unmistakable features of perfection. The hotel has the most desired, captivating and breath-taking views of Umhlanga and the ocean overlooking the Dolphin Coast. Coastlands Umhlanga is a mere 15 minute drive from King Shaka International Airport and is a stone throw away from the largest shopping mall in the Southern Hemisphere, Gateway, the main Umhlanga promenade and beachfront. The Hotel boasts 136 bedrooms. Our Conference Centre is popular for conferences, banquets, weddings and exhibitions. Saffron restaurant overlooks the sea and is opened daily for breakfast, lunch and dinner. The hotel also has a Gym and Spa. 329 Umhlanga Rocks Drive, Umhlanga Telephone: +27315146525

Local Community Empowerment through Tourism

chapter 11

Local Community Empowerment through Tourism By Steve Barnard Tourism, in the context of the world economy, is a critical industry for the alleviation of poverty. Tourism provides one of the greatest employment multipliers. While sustainable tourism interventions requires tourism businesses to source produce locally and involve local communities in their own business activities, this is not always possible in areas where local communities are not geared towards the tourism supply chain. The bottom line with every community is however, people need jobs and people need to eat! The question is:

Gardeners and Guest House Owners), unemployed and under-nourished. The GARDEN OF LIFE PROGRAMME creates support structures and finance in a coordinated and formalized programme, to train and develop members of communities to become micro farmers. These farmers are self-sufficient and have a means to create wealth The following factors are critical for the successful implementations implementation of the GARDEN OF LIFE PROGRAMME (GOL).

“How do we optimise the tourism opportunity as a mechanism to ensure employment creation and sustainable living conditions for community members?”

The Garden of Life Project has been designed to create sustainable income generating and food production mechanisms for members of the communities. This is achieved through the implementation of self -sustainable food production programmes with a micro vegetable farming methodology, namely GARDEN OF LIFE. Micro farming systems, some of which originated in Brazil, was initiated in South Africa as a sustainable means to provide nutrition and develop wealth for emerging farmers in rural and urban areas. Generally, these communities do not have access to large areas of land or a farming support infrastructure. The success of projects such as GARDEN OF LIFE is ascribed to: − simplicity in application − potential for participation in groups who were previously seen as non-farmers e.g. children, pensioners, HIV/AIDs sufferers and urban communities. The focus of the programme is to create an opportunity for community members who are presently employed in the tourism industry (e.g.

Training and support Governments and support organisations have launched various programmes for developing persons who wish to farm. There is however limited agricultural training for these people and no existing support infrastructure to assist them in initiating farming projects which are sustainable. The GOL is structured to provide not only the training, but also the support required. This is done through utilising existing technology and simplistic training methods. Ecological impact Land is continually being made available for farming projects by national governments and donor organisations. In many cases this land eventually becomes an ecological problem to the relevant authorities because it is not farmed productively. The trains participants in the methods of soil management in such a way that it ensures the ecological survival and enrichment of the land being used. Size of Land Most farming projects require large areas of land to initiate agricultural activities. With the GOL programme, an average family can be sustained with a 2,000 m2 piece of land, as shown in figure 1 below. Key components include: − An affordable house − A Chicken Run − A Toolshed and Nursery for chicks to hatch − A Catchment The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


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Figure 1: 2,000m2 Garden of Life Set-up


The 2,000m2 units can be clustered in order to share and fully utilise services created for the community. The objective is to eventually establish a community as a economically viable system operating in its own micro-economy.

the specific areas requirements and economic viability. The GARDEN OF LIFE Management utilise the support of local expertise and strategic partners such as farming organizations who can provide support for the programme.

Costs It is often perceived that farming is capital intensive and requires the purchase of tractors and other farming equipment. The GOL unit, which includes training, stock and tools, normally requires an investment of no more than R750 (house excluded). The full micro farm can be established and turned into a productive and sustainable resource within the first 12 weeks, depending on the conditions and the environment. Exact requirements are finalised once a detail site survey, cost analysis and business plan have been completed in a specific location.

Training The training of the participants in the GOL Programme can be initially presented at the site of the community. Training centres are established in the community together with a local organization, e.g. schools, churches or tourism associations. These organizations becomes a coordination centre as soon as the first groups of micro farmers have been trained and their farms established.

Planning Financial institutions and donor organizations are often cautious to become involved in farming projects, as these projects historically have not yielded the desired result. However, the GOL provides each participant with the relevant business planning training and support structures to make their farm a success. Farmers are empowered to plan and manage their farming and business activities.

Project Implementation The project is implemented in a process which will be discussed, agreed to and communicated to all the relevant stakeholders. A detailed project flowchart is used as a management and communication tool. Up to 50 persons per week can be trained in a specific region. The farms in that area will then be established for the period of 4 weeks thereafter under the guidance of the project management team from GARDEN OF LIFE. The capital required per group of 50 persons will be determined per site requirement after a site inspection is done per project site.

Programme structure and support The structure of the programme is planned according to

Benefits to the government, community and the private sector.

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Local Community Empowerment through Tourism

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Table 1: Benefits matrix for The Garden of Life Programme

EDITORS NOTE TO READERS: The fact that a restaurant, accommodation establishment or other tourism business will be able to tell the tourist a story of empowerment when through products consumed, ads a whole new dimension to authentic tourism experience

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Community business structures It is imperative that formal business structures are implemented in each community. This ensures that goods produced by each individual and /or the communal farming projects are accounted for and that the correct governance and business management of the project are in place. A local business in the form of a guest house/ hotel / local store will create a relationship with a local community member/organization from where an Independent Business Opportunity (IBO) is run. The IBO is the vehicle through which the training and co-ordination of the project takes place in the specific community. The relationship between the IBO and business is not limited and may be multiplied with several community/individual structures. The IBO should preferably be located in close proximity to the participating business to limit the requirement for transport cost as well as improve communication. The envisaged structures for the IBO is presented in the diagram below:

Figure 2: Independent Business Opportunity

Potential markets for the IBO can include : − Guest houses − Hotels − Shebeens & restaurants − Butchers & vegetable shops − Street vendors − Government feeding programmes − Local residents Project implementation process The project will be implemented through a formal process that will be co-ordinated closely with the community and business. The process includes steps below: 104

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Funding The pressure on local, regional and national government in terms of providing platforms for job creation and poverty alleviation requires massive funding. It is therefore essential that the private sector as well as the public sector work hand in hand in finding solutions to the funding requirements need for a project of this nature. A detailed budget will be compiled for the project indicating the various costs and funding requirements for the project. Funding for the GARDEN OF LIFE Project can therefore be derived from the following sources: Local, Regional and National funding programmes for youth development, Aids Programmes, SMME development programmes and agricultural development programmes.

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The project is supported by the INSTITUTE FOR RURAL AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT (IRCD) which can assist in sourcing funds for the project and it’s participants from local and national businesses. In collaboration with it’s partners, In South Africa, Section 18(a) status for the project can be obtained, so that contributions to the project are tax deductible. In addition, the programme adds to BBBEE scorecards. For further detail on the mechanisms and requirements for funding, contact Steve Barnard from the Garden of Life Programme.  

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


BUFFALO CITY the warm heart of the Eastern Cape Promoting a sustainable and responsible tourism industry for the benefit of all its citizens. Touch down in balmy Buffalo City and you’ll immediately be struck by our warm and friendly welcome, by the wealth of our diversity and by the unique richness of our spectacular natural landscapes. As the geographical hub of the Eastern Cape, Buffalo City is the natural gateway to the mellow seaside resorts of the Sunshine Coast and the majestic beauty of the Wild Coast, as well as to a hinterland that boasts iconic mountain retreats, hidden gems of nature and cultural treasures waiting to be discovered. Located in a province of unrivalled historical significance as the frontier of conflict between colonial expansion and indigenous resistance, the region claims with justified pride the badge of home to South Africa’s centuries-long struggle for freedom, equality and human dignity. Some facts and figures Established as a municipality in 2000 and elevated to metro status in 2012, Buffalo City’s geographical footprint extends to over 2,700 square kilometres. The region has one of South Africa’s most diverse populations, with the home language of the majority of residents being isiXhosa and substantial minorities speaking English or Afrikaans. The metro’s manufacturing sector boasts world-class enterprises in the automotive and pharmaceutical sectors, regarded as critically important to addressing the twin challenges of job creation and poverty alleviation in the eastern half of the province. These are complemented by substantial employment in the public and services sectors. With a largely pristine coastline of 68 kilometres, 10 tidal estuaries, numerous nature and game reserves, a large number of sites of great historical and anthropological interest and a climate that has blessed residents and 106

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visitors with 300 days of sunshine a year, Buffalo City takes seriously its mandate to promote local economic development through sustainable and responsible management of local tourism. Towards a Responsible Tourism Development Strategy In an economic environment in which the challenge of job creation remains paramount, the City has recognised and acted upon its responsibility to focus its efforts on developing a robust, equitable and sustainable tourism sector. For Buffalo City, responsibility and equity go hand in hand: a priority of the City is therefore to direct its support to nurturing emerging tourism enterprises with the ultimate goal of creating a sustainable tourism

sector in which the benefits of increased tourism-spend are distributed as widely as possible. The City actively encourages participation from historically-marginalised communities in existing and emerging tourism ventures, both as partners or selfstanding entrepreneurs. A mentorship programme has been established to nurture emerging enterprises, access to funding support is facilitated for community tourism projects, while every effort is made to encourage and incentivise broader representation in the supply-side of the sector. Community Engagement and Participatory Management In line with the Department of Tourism’s Responsible Tourism Manual for South Africa, Buffalo City seeks to ensure the active involvement of communities that benefit from tourism, including their participation in planning and decision-making and the establishment of meaningful economic linkages. Buffalo City’s tourism stakeholders have subscribed wholeheartedly to the core values of responsible tourism, participating enthusiastically in a broad consultation process aimed at developing an updated and inclusive Tourism Master Plan. Buffalo City is also committed to engaging in campaigns to minimise the potentially negative

impacts of increased tourism such as environmental degradation, while encouraging the positive impacts such as cultural engagement and awareness, ecological sensitivity and economic development. Extending Your Horizons For the richness of its heritage and the wealth of its diversity, Buffalo City can claim pride of place as a destination like no other. Its cultural, political, military and natural history provide fascinating insights into South Africa’s past for any visitor. The numerous monuments and memorials to those who sacrificed their lives in past conflicts – such as the newly-completed Steve Biko Centre in Ginsberg Township – invite all visitors to broaden their horizons in reflecting on the meaning of our history and its relevance to the challenge of building a common future for all our city’s and country’s people.

Contact us For more information, visit us at , Or e-mail Call us at +27 (0)43 705 1162, +27 (0)43 705 211, +27 (0)43 705 1167, +27(0)40 656 2062 (Dimbaza) + 27 ( 0)43 7363019 (Airport) The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Purchasing for Your Establishment

chapter 12

Purchasing for Your Establishment By Lorraine Jenks Everything each of us does, every day, has an impact on the environment – everything we wear, eat, walk, sit and sleep on, decorate with, entertain ourselves with, travel by, write on, communicate via, play with throughout a 24 hour day impacts on forests, the air, our water systems, natural resources and landfill challenges. For example, an area of pristine rainforest the size of two soccer fields (Greenpeace, 2009) is destroyed in every minute to clear space for growing palm oil for thousands of products and soy to feed cattle for our meat and dairy products. The ocean has become a soup of plastic (AFP, 2012) which is killing off marine life and birds. As South Africans, imagine the impact of 8,000,000 tourists visiting us every year. Imagine what a golden opportunity our tourism industry has to make a paradigm shift towards reducing the negative impact, simply through our educated, responsible purchasing decisions. As discussed in the introductory chapters of this book, South Africa is a leader in conservation and eco-tourism initiatives. The purpose of this chapter is to provide guidelines which will assist establishment owners and/or tourism businesses to begin initiating greener and more sustainable purchases for their dayto-day operations; the goods and services required. There is a growing trend amongst well informed tourists to request greener products and services from the places they patronise and this trend is driving hospitality managers to demand greener products within their own supply chains. The companies that have already started making changes will gain competitive advantage. Here are some key principles: − When a tourism business tenders for goods and services or purchases goods and services, requirements and policies need to change radically to include green specifications; a sound understanding of 1) why and what must change, 2) how to change and 3) where to find solutions. − Take ownership. Responsible tourism by definition demands that each person or business in the tourism supply chain needs to take responsibility for their actions, without being prompted by Government regulation and legislation. What is responsible or green procurement? Responsible, green procurement means selecting

products and services that have the lowest negative impact on the environment as well as the highest positive impact on communities and people. Challenges To Green Procurement There are unfortunate misconceptions about the price of eco products (however, often there is no real difference), corporate resistance (watching the current bottom line instead of considering a long-term analysis), limited availability, misinformation, conflicting research, controversy and constantly evolving definitions of green criteria. And, unfortunately, at the moment we have little, if any, comprehensive eco labelling in South Africa. There are hundreds of eco labels overseas (all representing different aspects of “green”). Stay abreast of the latest research and opinions on • deforestation, • toxic chemicals • pollution during manufacture, transport, use or disposal of a product • depletion of resources both marine and on land • serious plastic pollution of the oceans • slave labour • factory farming Different experts have differing opinions and different countries have different legislation. Keep an eye on which products or ingredients are being banned overseas and do your own research. Green washing Green-washing is rife in South Africa. Greenwashing refers to organisations providing misleading information about the “greenness” of a product whether it is deliberate or unintentional, due to lack of knowledge or ambiguous research. Examples include: hidden trade-offs, no proof for claims, vagueness, and irrelevance, full-on fibbing, the lesser of two evils, or false labelling. There are three reasons for Green washing: 1. Firstly the buyer is uninformed and easily mislead by clever, dishonest marketing 2. Secondly, too often the manufacturers, themselves, are unaware of the established definitions of green or eco-friendly products and processes. 3. In many cases actual research to support green credentials is lacking The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


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Purchasing for Your Establishment

Please note: Whilst Green washing is an issue worldwide, consumers and businesses should continue to improve their green behaviours, regardless. Sometimes buying a product with a few green credentials is a better option than buying from producers who have made no attempt to reduce their products’ environmental and social impacts. Where to Start? Need Vs Want: First and foremost, buy less. Ask your team, “is it a “must have” or a “nice to have” purchase? Would the purchase enhance the tourists’ experiences in a positive way and endorse your greening initiatives, or would it affect their decision to choose to support your business? Your Green Team: A key priority in is to identify the green champion in your organisation or your town. The person who is passionate about going green and who will motivate other stakeholders, whether they are staff or other tourism organisations. The champion is someone who can work with local associations to get more people in your community interested and committed. Then implement staff training and awareness. To achieve commitment, staff or community members should be involved in all aspects of learning, decision making, and setting of standards. Everyone needs to understand why going green is necessary, what to do and how to do it. Very often, if people understand how making changes will impact their own lives, they will be more committed to work together to bring about change. Carbon Audit: Simplistically, carbon footprint is a measure of the amount of carbon and other greenhouse gasses that are put into the atmosphere as a result of your day-to-day activities. Carbon footprint calculations include activities such as energy consumption, travelling and waste generated. Measuring your business’s carbon footprint is voluntary, but it is often a good place to start because 1) reduction of your carbon footprint is easily measurable once you have a baseline and 2) it presents excellent cost saving benefits which will encourage further good behaviour. Companies like the Heritage Environmental Management Company of SA and Green Leaf Environmental Standard will assess your energy consumption, travel behaviours and waste management, benchmark these, then help you manage these more efficiently. Green Management, Operations and Procurement: Of great importance, and sadly neglected, is the greening of everything else. That is, everything single thing that gets bought, used or consumed in your establishment every day. A good place to start here is to make a list of all the 110

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products and services that you buy on a daily, weekly, monthly and occasional basis e.g. cleaning products, stationery, staff uniforms, bedding, guest amenities, food, gardening aids. Then work through the list systematically and next time you shop for that specific product, seek out a greener alternative. If you are unsure, find organisations that you can trust, such as (a free online directory) that has endeavoured to select “greener” or the “greenest” versions of all products used in hospitality and will run workshops to explain the rationales and criteria applied to green credentials. Each product we purchase should be selected based on its overall green attributes, its LCA (Lifecycle Analysis). That is, evaluating the environmental and social consequences of a product through all the different stages of its life, also called “cradle to grave”, or better still, “cradle to cradle”. Consideration of where and how raw materials are sourced, the manufacturing process, handling transport, safety, and finally, the disposal of the product need to be taken into account. Learn the meaning of, and research the latest thinking on biodiversity, deforestation, organic food, toxins, and pollutants. Buy Local: Buy locally because that will enhance the economic and social health of a region, promote small economies instead of corporate institutions, and negate large carbon footprints for transport. − Find local manufacturers, social upliftment projects, arts and crafts − Identify local SMMEs (small, medium and micro enterprises) − Look for other regional development initiatives and involve everyone − Mentor local suppliers to become part of your regular supply chain (organisations such as the tourism enterprise partnership and the sustainable tourism partnership programme are good sources to assist with local economic development) − Support sustainable food production, processing, distribution, and consumption A major shift in buying habits requires resolve, education and considerably more effort. While larger businesses have their own sourcing departments that can design policies relating to greener procurement, smaller businesses often lack the knowhow or resources to make greener decisions. There are, however, many organisations, of which www., is an example, where information about various products and services that have been researched for their green credentials, is available. Find a resource that works with you. On the other hand, it is also critical that you find suppliers in your area that can provide you with goods produced by local community upliftment projects. Items can include, for example, organic vegetables, locally produced jams, local arts and crafts to furnish your establishment, uniforms,

Purchasing for Your Establishment

bathrobes, slippers and many other products. A survey done by the United Nations World Tourism Organisation ( (UNWTO, 2012).

Figure 1: - UNWTO survey on buying local Supply Chain Monitoring: Manufacturers of products should be able to furnish you with information on the level of green compliance at each stage of their supply chain and they should continue to monitor these for as long as their companies remain preferred suppliers. For example, for new developments or during refurbishments, any wood used in furnishing should have an internationally recognized sustainability label, like FSC (Forest Stewardship Certification). Your supplier should be able to trace the journey of that piece of furniture right back to the forest where the tree was cut down. And, because of rampant land-grabbing and fraud, he will need to continue to demand current certification. Motivate your suppliers: Help the manufacturers you are targeting by recommending that they get advice from qualified advisors on how to make their manufacturing processes and/or products greener. The management of energy, water and waste at factory level should be addressed with the help of services like Greenstuff or the NCPC (National Cleaner Production Centre).

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associates will help to ensure continued commitment and mutual motivation.

Change Habits And Mindsets – Cost versus Price: Greening hospitality in South Africa is not about cost. It is about the price our children will pay for our apathy. It is not about being better than your competitor. It is about everyone collaborating to clean up our industry. Share information. Use free online directories and ask for advice from people like Lorraine Jenks, the author of this document. And, if you find a product worthy of consideration, share the discovery with your colleagues and let Greenstuff know so that they can add it to their website. Conclusion Above all, remember this is Africa. Bend the rules. Find new ways. We do not need to copy the European, American or Australian models. Unlike other parts of the world, in South Africa our most critical sustainability criteria are: 1. 2. 3. 4.

water security job creation food security and then the rest

Then, of course of prime importance, these advisors will help manufacturers develop greener components and ingredients used in the end products.

Be the Green Champion. Don’t wait for perfection. Start somewhere; anywhere. It’s actually easier than you think.

There are many manufacturers that have acceptable green credentials and by switching to those, you will encourage their competitors to adopt more ecofriendly practices in order that they may stay abreast, or ahead, of market demand.

“If you think you’re too small to make a difference, try going to bed with a mosquito in the room.” - African proverb.

It is imperative that your suppliers understand your rationales for implementing greener procurement practices and it is suggested that suppliers be included when setting our company’s green policies. Inclusivity of your different departments, suppliers and other The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Managing Resources in Daily Operations

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Managing Resources in Daily Operations By Niki Glen Responsible Tourism, as the phrase suggests, is the responsibility of each and every individual and business, and applying its principles is not difficult. Smaller Accommodation Establishments (SAEs) and Smaller Tourism Businesses are ideally placed to start making a change. They are by nature much more flexible than large businesses and have fewer staff train and involve in Responsible Tourism efforts. In addition, measuring consumption can assist a business owner to track changes, and when this is converted into monetary value, every person involve will be more excited. The Sustainable Tourism Partnership ProgrammeTM recommends the following easy steps to make a start. Step 1: Make a start - join an association There are many associations in Southern Africa. Some represent accommodation establishments only, some represent different types of tourism businesses in a community, and some represent all businesses in a community. Establish which association will work best for your location as well as the type and size of establishment or business. Through an association, members can: − Share information about the area which they operate in − Collectively address challenges which establishments and businesses have in common e.g. service delivery, rates or waste management; − Talk to business and government through various forums which exist at industry level; − Receive information that is pertinent to tourism businesses and disseminated in easily accessible ways e.g. businesses do not have to individually try to make sense of new legislation, changes in bylaws, changes in health and safety regulation and changes in home affairs requirements; − Benefit from collective bargaining on various offerings such as TV Licences, Short and Long Term Insurance, Medical Aid, Hospitality Supplier Discount, Financial Services and better Marketing Opportunities; − Benefit from collective purchasing power, which in turn allows for the setting of standards, specifying requirements and creation of demand; − Gather better local knowledge, which in turn can be decimated consistently to tourists; − Help and support each other to build a sense of pride in their community and as a tourism destination.

Step 2: Gather information Within your association, start making sense of what Responsible Tourism is and how it impacts your business. The SANS1162:2011 provides a good guideline. Set up a workshop with other businesses, including competitors and share information about how to conserve energy and water, where to purchase ecofriendly products and what compliance requirements apply to your businesses. Set up a working group and set S.M.A.R.T. goals: SMART GOALS − S: Simple − M: Measurable − A: Achievable − R: Realistic − T: Timebased Adapted by N. Glen from Paul J. Meyer’s S.M.A.R.T. goals in Attitude is Everything Step 3: Basic compliance There are a number of basic compliance requirements that need to be adhered to before a tourism business or accommodation establishment is allowed to operate. Part of being a responsible tourism business, is to know what these are and to start implementing them as soon as possible. Belonging to an association (step 1 above) will be helpful as other members may already have gone through the requirements. You can then work on achieving compliance in step 2. In areas where you ‘get stuck’, you may find that other members have the same challenges, and that it is possible to address these ‘collectively’. The list below provides some of the key things that could be required, but it is the responsibility of the establishment owner / manager to ascertain that an exhaustive list is drawn up. Send a request to the Sustainable Tourism Partnership ProgrammeTM to put together a workshop, should there be a specific need. » Municipal by-laws and zoning requirements; » Business registration with CIPC; » VAT Registration – dependent on turnover; » PAYE Registration with SARS if you employ full time staff » Health and Safety regulation compliance, including signage and procedures; » SAMRO registration if applicable; » SAMPRO registration if applicable; The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


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» » » » » » »

Managing Resources in Daily Operations

Public Liability insurance up to date; Consumer Protection Act compliance; Television Licences (if applicable); Liquor Licences (if applicable); Tourism Grading (Voluntary); TOMSA Levy (Voluntary); BBBEE Certification (Voluntary);

Step 4: Pick the ‘low hanging fruit’ There are a number of practical and procedural actions which an establishment can take to get off the ground with Responsible Tourism Practices. Once the establishment has commenced with internal practices that will save cost and foster more positive spirit amongst staff, bigger interventions can be undertaken. Here are a few simple things to start with: Incentivise staff: The STPPTM believes that Responsible Tourism is not a ‘management intervention’, but rather something in which each and every person within business can participate in – even the tourist. Staff is responsible for the smooth day-to-day operation of an establishment or business. Well trained and enthusiastic staff is indispensable as pointed out by Wayne Duvenhage on his chapter on service excellence.


The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook

It is important to empower staff to make changes through illustrating the benefits change at home and at work. Illustrating in ‘Rands & Cents’ what difference it will make to switch of an electrical geyser during the day, 1) provides them with an incentive to do the same at home and save money and 2) provide them with a possible incentive implement this at your establishment if you are willing to share the savings achieved through pay increases or bonuses. Start measuring: Prof Kevin Mearns’ chapter deals extensively with planning, measuring and monitoring progress. To make a start, measuring what you use and consume should suffice. Before you start any intervention, you should decide how you are going to assess improvement over time. The easiest place to start is to do 6 basic measurements to calculate the average ‘consumption’ over the number of bed nights. A bed night is the actual number people staying in your establishment each night, and should include permanent residents and live-in staff as well. The following table provides detail on what, how and why to measure.

Managing Resources in Daily Operations

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Back to Basics: Responsible Tourism will start making sense if you are able to link your activities back to basic economics. The STPPTM uses the model below to highlight opportunities to engage with partners and suppliers in order to assist establishments increase their margins.

Basic Economic Model linked to RT criteria Celebrate wins: Going green and behaving responsibly is a journey, not an event. It may take years before an establishment is fully ‘responsible’. As part of your road-map, consider what you want to achieve over which period. If you are aiming for a certification, then ascertain that you understand the requirements of the certification body, and align your efforts accordingly. If you want to be a responsible tourism operator, decide what are the most important things to get you there first, and communicate to your market your intentions, efforts and your progress. The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Sun downing beside the deck, looking out over the tranquil lake

Reservations • Tel1: + 255 759 356505 - Tel2: +255 769 356504 Email: • Web:

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Here are 10 Quick Tips: 1. Use solar lighting for outside areas; 2. Install movement censors in areas with little foot traffic, e.g. pantries and restrooms; 3. Install geyser blankets and pipe insulation; 4. Use Wonderbags, solar cookers or induction cookers for food preparation; 5. Avoid as far as possible re-heating of food. Prepare to be ready to serve; 6. Install low flow shower heads and aerators or low flow taps in basins; 7. Start your own compost heap or worm farm for organic kitchen waste; 8. If you live in a country with good quality tap water, provide water dispensers for filtered tap water throughout premises. Avoid bottled water. 9. Provide bins for waste to separated (either in rooms or in a designated area on your premises) for recyclables (tin, glass, plastic), compost & hazardous. This only works if your municipality is committed and manages waste properly; 10. Use airtight containers to store bulk purchased items in, instead of individually wrapped sugars teas, coffee, jams and cereals;

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Explore the City that Sparkles An overview on Kimberley

Kimberley is a city in South Africa, and the capital of the Northern Cape. It is located near the confluence of the Vaal and Orange Rivers. The town has considerable historical significance due its diamond mining past and siege during the Second Boer War. Notable personalities such as Cecil Rhodes, made their fortune here, and the roots of the De Beers Corporation can also be traced to the early days of the mining town. The city of Kimberley is the major centre of the Sol Plaatje Municipality which includes Beaconsfield, Kenilworth, Modder River, Ritchie, Riverton, Ronald’s Vlei and Spytfontein. The Sol Plaatje Municipality is, in turn, within the Frances Baard District Municipality (often marketed as the Diamond Fields), the smallest yet most densely populated region of the Northern Cape. The Sol Plaatje Municipality is named after the first Secretary-General of the African National Congress and writer, Solomon ‘Sol’ Tshekisho Plaatje. Steeped in exciting history, Kimberley boasts many traces of the past in its architectural heritage, historic sites, museums, heritage sites, and an incredible number of monuments. Geographical & demographical information The City of Kimberley is situated in the Northern Cape Province the largest Province in South Africa which occupies roughly a third of the countries landmass, and at 362000 square kilometres the province is nearly the size of the American State of Montana and slightly larger than Germany. the Province is sparsely populated creating large distances between towns. The Karoo basin dominates the province that consists of sedimentary rocks and Dolerite. The south eastern corner of the province is high lying at between 1250m – 1900m the Namaqualand region occupies the west of the province which has gathered worldwide fame for its spring flowers. The central areas are generally flat with interspersed salt pans. Kimberlite 120

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intrusions punctuate the Karoo rocks, giving the province its most precious natural resource, Diamonds. The north is primarily Kalahari Desert, characterised by parallel red sand dunes and acacia tree dry savannas. The Province also borders four of the countries nine provinces including Namibia and Botswana. With the Orange River or Gariep River as the major river system in the province spilling in to the Atlantic Ocean Northern Capes shoreline that has attracted a lot of alluvial mining along the river and into the ocean itself. Background The Statistics for the Year 2012, from the Tourism Information Centre (Front desk) of Sol Plaatje Local Municipality These statistics are captured from the number of tourist coming to the Tourist Information Centre. It includes Domestic and International arrivals Kimberley Tourism Infomation Centre 121 Builtfontein Road Kimberly 8301 Phone: 053 830 6779/6272/6271 Fax: 086 568 6413

The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Marketing Strategy and Social Media

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Marketing Strategy and Social Media By Mientjie Steyn Marketing should be one of the biggest priorities on any company’s to-do list. Without marketing a business may just as well remain the top secret! Marketing is a fundamental expense. While marketing can be challenging, once a strategy and a budget is in place, there should be no reason to avoid marketing in a business. Marketing Strategy Every business, even those that operate within the same sector, are unique. There is no quick recipe, template, or a “one-size-fits-all” approach that suits all businesses. Each and every business has to start from scratch with their marketing efforts. Step 1: Identify the potential clients and place them in different categories. These categories will include: • Location (e.g. regional, provincial, national or international), • Type of business (e.g. tour operator, accommodation establishment or retailer ), • Age group (e.g. the youth market for backpackers or an older generation for special tours) • Typical requirements (e.g. bed and breakfast, short stays vs long stays, special physical needs, good quality food), and • Other information that sets the potential clients apart (e.g. tourists vs corporate travellers). Then, take each group within the various categories and find out: • what the potential clients’ needs are, • who the decision maker is, • where would they most likely find the information they need, and • who influences their decisions. The above information allows a business to determine what the best possible means of marketing would be for a particular business or establishment. Step 2: Research the potential markets and make a list of the marketing opportunities that will most likely reach the different types of potential clients. It is very important that each group of potential clients is addressed individually. The list could include typical marketing channels such as: • Local business associations, clubs or chambers; • Printed media advertising,

• • • •

Online advertising, Outdoor advertising, Word of mouth, Direct marketing and others.

EXAMPLE 1 An accommodation establishment wants to target potential clients that travel from Cape Town to Johannesburg for business. That establishment should use a medium that will reach specific businesses in that area. The ultimate form of marketing will be to effectively communicate the offering to the travel coordinators of particular businesses that regularly requires staff to travel to and spend the night in Johannesburg EXAMPLE 2 If a Cape Town business wants to attract back packers from Europe, then that business should market on international websites that are read by back packers and other travellers. Before moving on to the next step in the strategy, determine what amount is available to the marketing budget. It is important to work out what is affordable and then to stick to the amount. Once the income and profits increase, business owners or managers can relook their marketing budget and adjust it accordingly. Step 3: Draw up a wish list of potential marketing methods with an approximate cost next to it (factoring in time and materials costs) and then prioritise the methods according to the potential clients’ information needs. Compare the priority list to the marketing budget amount available and determine from there where the marketing budget should be spent. EXAMPLE 1 When an accommodation establishment in Sandton, Gauteng, decides to market to international clients, that establishment should concentrate on online activities and in particular websites with readers that travel to South Africa, and especially Sandton. Such an establishment won’t attract international clients by distributing pamphlets at the local airport, or by placing street pole advertising boards in the main streets of Sandton. Then again, direct marking in the immediate area to obtain local corporate business will be advisable if the establishment wants to focus on obtaining local corporate business. The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


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Marketing Strategy and Social Media

Step 4: Choose a Corporate Identity (CI). In short, the CI determines what the corporate branding looks like, i.e. − The precise colours of the brand; − The logo; − The slogan/pay-off line; − What the brand stands for; − The “brand personality”. This is extremely important for the social media platforms and for instance describes whether the business should be perceived as formal or informal, level of professionalism and the level of humour. EDITORS NOTE TO READERS: Please refer chapter 16 on trademarks and trade mark registrations to gain a better understanding of the importance of these. Step 5: This step is extremely important in any marketing strategy. Determine what makes the business unique. Aspects such as ‘good service’ are not unique. Every business claims to deliver excellent service. Really brainstorm this and weigh it up against other businesses – do they claim to offer the same? If so, then those aspects are not unique to the business. In the case of accommodation establishments, their most unique point is likely to be location. Compare the list of unique selling points to the competitors’ selling points and ask the question: what are the similarities? If there are too many similarities, then the original points are not unique features at all and it will be necessary to rethink this list. Tap into the local tourism information (obtainable from the local tourism information office) about the town for a couple of reasons: 1. Find out what the town’s unique selling points decide how to use these points in the marketing strategy, 2. Find opportunities to work with competitors that share the same unique selling points. Working together with competitors instead of against the opposition, for instance within associations, could form strong business relationships to assist each other in future concerns and problems. 3. Where associations are strong, businesses will work together on the collective points of uniqueness within the town, region or area where the business is located. This will strengthen tourism to the entire region, which will benefit each and every individual business. The unique selling point should be the main message in the marketing strategy. But, before creating any marketing material, think about the next point: What is in it for the client? Be realistic about this point – why would any client make use of this business instead of another? Once this point is clarified, then work on the slogan and the marketing message, to tie in with what the clients need. 124

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More importantly, stop “selling” the product and/ or service to the client and rather engage with the clients and offer valuable information that will bring them back for more. Once clients have experienced excellent services or products, which is in line with or exceeds their expectations, they will return and the likelihood is that they will bring or tell other people about their experience. This is called word-of-mouth advertising, which remains the best form of advertising. STEP 6: All this information must be recorded in a database, which could be an Excel spread sheet. Typical information should include: • Contact name, • Mobile number, • Company name, • Email address, • Physical address (even if it is only the town), • And possibly a landline as well • Crucial information such as any preferences or special requirements the client may have. This will allow you to service these needs the next time the client arrives. EXAMPLE 2 An example would be where a tour guide and an accommodation establishment team up with a local restaurant and places of interest in the immediate area to offer potential clients affordable packages. Be creative and brainstorm new ideas, and work with service providers in the area to create excellent experiences for clients. The database makes it easy to communicate with the existing clients on information such as special offers and congratulating them on their birthdays. It is much easier to market to existing clients than it is to market to new clients. Where possible, get potential clients to agree to receive an electronic newsletter or at least special offers and invent excuses to communicate with them. Also, work with local suppliers in the same industry to offer potential clients a one-stop-service. With others, think of special offers and discounts, or compile packages that will make it worth their while to make use of the business. Social media marketing Throughout the ages, it has become clear that wordof-mouth advertising is the most reliable form of marketing. Although it is the slowest form of advertising, it remains the best. These days a business can create its own word-of-mouth advertising through social media marketing. Platforms such as Facebook and Twitter offer businesses the opportunity to interact with existing and potential clients, do some research and surveys, and also offer customer service.

Marketing Strategy and Social Media

Before any business commences with social media efforts, it is crucial to ensure that the website is practical and fully functional, because social media isn’t only Facebook and Twitter, it is all the online activities combined, which starts and ends with the website

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User age distribution on Facebook in South Africa

Websites A website should first of all be marketed in every possible way, from brochures, business cards, email signatures, to all the social media platforms. All the social media platforms should include links to the website and the website should include links to all the social media platforms. Ensure that the website is practical and contains the most crucial information, such as: 1. Pictures of the service and/or products, 2. A full description of the services and/or products, 3. Make it interesting and creative, 4. Get to the point as soon as possible, 5. Be clear and honest – don’t make any false claims or suggestions that will leave the potential client under false pretences, 6. Contact details, 7. An option to do business on the website, (e.g. booking accommodation online) 8. Links to social media platforms, (e.g. Facebook and Twitter) and 9. Most importantly – include the unique selling points as keywords. Google uses keywords to do searches in a process that changes frequently and which is too long to describe here. When the specific keywords are typed in the Google search, certain websites and social media platforms will appear. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the keywords are as unique to the business as possible. Email marketing One extremely important online activity that should not be ignored is email marketing. Ensure that the email signature includes the website URL and links to all the social media platforms. Also, ensure that the email message is short and to the point with the relative information. Give the email recipients the option to gain more information, if they need it, rather than to send an extensive message with too much information. Social media platforms Currently, there are a multitude of social media platforms to choose from. The most known and favourable platforms are Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn. Each of these platforms is unique and should be approached differently. Where LinkedIn is a far more professional platform, Twitter concentrates on news and events, and Facebook is almost like a scrapbook where a business can portray its products and service and share valuable information.

The above chart illustrates that the age groups 18 to 34 year olds dominate the Facebook platforms. One should keep in mind that this age group already has a lot of buying power and will overtake the current generation in a few years’ time. It is therefore very important to market to this age group via social media. Profile Ensure that the profile on any social media platform includes all the keywords as well. Update the profile regularly and make sure that the information remains current. Always use the best possible pictures and be aware what is posted, stated or tweeted on any of the platforms, because once it appears on the internet, it will stay on the internet. Stay clear of any political, religious and sexual comments, as they may offend certain potential customers. Pictures and videos are extremely important on social media – it is pictures that draw the attention to an article, just like in a newspaper. Don’t just use any pictures and photographs. Ensure that the photographer gives permission to use the photographs and also get the people’s permission that appears in the picture. Content The type of content that is posted on any social media platform is extremely important – this is what will draw potential customers or chase them away. The content used should tie in with the brand personality, be relevant to the products and/or service and most importantly, be informative. Keep in mind that the internet contains a magnitude of information that is easily accessible by just about everyone, making people much more knowledgeable than years ago. The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Molapo Crossing Ground Floor PO Box 502609 Gaborone Republic of Botswana Cell: +267 716 12 267 (24 HRS) +267 738 12 267

Kindly contact us for your trips to Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Kenya ,Dubai, Zanzibar, Mozambique for groups, corporate travel or family and friends. Our services include -Transport hire ,mobile safaris. corporate travel, team building, chauffer services ,air ticket and accomodation , air charter, game drives, boat cruises, elephant & horse back safaris, hot air ballooning Contact Ms Wapula Pule-Matshambane CEO-Footprints africa safaris Molapo crossing mall Ground floor Western by pass Entrance Email • Email Cell+26771612267 cell • Skype footprints •

Marketing Strategy and Social Media

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ANALOGY Don’t underestimate people’s knowledge – for instance don’t tell people that an apple is round, as everybody knows this. Also, don’t tell people that apples come in green, red and yellow – that too is common knowledge. Rather tell people what they can do with the apples – be creative and informative. The easiest way of handling content is to plan in advance what message will be related to which audience on which day. Start off by tying up themes with the brand personality and the keywords and use a theme a month. Then choose a weekly theme that will tie in with the monthly theme and create a message for each day. EXAMPLE 1 This is an example of a boutique’s plan just before a winter month. On the first Monday, the boutique will discuss what the shoe trend for the coming winter is, what it should look like and how to wear it. They will also include an accompanying picture of the shoes. On the Tuesday the boutique will do the same with the handbags and at the end of the week, the boutique will round up the week with the message of the availability from the boutique.

Likes vs share It is good to have many likes or followers on the social media platforms, but it is more important to create conversations where people interact with the business. Encourage people to share a comment or a post, as this will create awareness to other people that may not be aware of the business’ social media efforts. It is favourable to have more shares of conversations than to have many likes. This means you are adding value to the lives of your potential client base. Time management Another important factor to consider with social media marketing is time management. Decide in advance how much time is available to spend on the social media platforms on a daily basis and stick to it. Where some businesses may spend an hour a day in total with their social media efforts, other businesses may employ a person to work on the social media all day long. It all depends on the business’ available budget and marketing strategy. Social media is here to stay, whether we want to know it or not. Businesses that don’t incorporate social media into their marketing strategy will miss out on business in the near future. There is no point in waiting until it is too late. To conclude, don’t rush in with any marketing efforts, plan ahead and stick to the plan. Focus on one element at a time and ensure that the efforts are the best possible and most cost effective. INDUSTRY EXAMPLE: Mango Airlines had a few hundred likes in April 2011, when they started to concentrate on their social media efforts. Just over a year later, the company had over 14,000 likes. The best part of it all is that the company’s revenue increased by 50% directly as a result of their social media actions (Mango Airlines CEO, 2011). The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Marketing Tourism – Web and Mobile

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Marketing Tourism – Web and Mobile By Peter Fabricius The Internet has forever changed the way in which tourism is communicated, marketed and sold. As a tourism product or service provider, it is crucial to understand the value of making a shift away from traditional marketing and sales techniques and gradually embracing the power of technology and the Internet to market your business. In this chapter we take a practical look at online marketing and selling your tourism product in a digital age. Understanding a new generation of travellers In a 2012 study, Google finds that 83% of leisure travellers and 73% of business travellers use the Internet to plan and book their trips. Apart from using the Internet as a research tool, we see that these travellers rely on technology and online communication during each phase of their journey (Google, 2012). The ability to browse, filter and compare destinations or tourism products online is ideal for today’s traveller who is driven by choice, price, authenticity and the ability to customise experiences according to their own preferences and tastes. To top it off they receive personalised and up-to-date recommendations from people they trust via social networks and review sites such as Tripadvisor. In our experience, the digital traveller values four key requirements of an electronic medium i.e. Speed: The Internet has increased the pace at which travellers expect information, personal responses and the availability of products. Responsible travel: Research (Cook) has shown that today’s educated and conscious traveller shows concern for the impact of travel on the environment and communities of the destinations they visit. Quality visuals: The digital traveller wants to be shown, not told. It is becoming increasingly important to utilise images and videos as tourism marketing tools. Authenticity and honesty: Above all, the digital traveller values authentic and honest information. With this information at their fingertips, your guests are less likely to respond to generic and cliché marketing messages. Tourism is becoming increasingly competitive. More than likely, you operate in an area where many businesses offer a similar product or service to yours. This, combined with the increasing cost of travel and your guests’ demand for authentic experiences, make it critical to communicate the unique story of your tourism product or service. Your unique story tells guests how you do things differently from your competitors and that you can offer them value.

The Internet is the perfect platform for this; it enables you to communicate inspirational information about your business, through a number of channels, at a low cost. Telling your story through your website Your website is the online face of your business. It is a hub for all your online activity and a powerful tool for interacting with clients and generating bookings. It is important to grasp that the expected sophistication and functionality of your website has evolved beyond a static, digital version of your printed brochure. Before thinking about the design or ‘look and feel’ of your website, you willl need to ensure that it is easy to find (especially on search engines such as Google) and simple to use. The information on your website should be accurate and up to date. Incorrect rates, an outdated blog or a lack of photographs can steer potential clients away from your web-site. Be sure to work with a web designer or marketing agency who understands the tourism industry and the specific needs of your business. Your service provider should be able to add third-party services such as Tripadvisor and Facebook to your website in a responsible manner and ideally grant you the ability to update your own website. Telling your story through mobile devices Terry (2012) states that 3 out of 4 travellers use a mobile device when on the move. The activities of travellers include booking accommodation, reading travel reviews and finding flights information, all from their cellular phones or tablet computers. Making your unique story accessible through mobile devices is an important part of online marketing success. The simplest way to do this is through a mobile version of your website. When viewing your website on a mobile device, visitors should ideally have access to the same information and functionality as they would when viewing it on a computer, but with the website’s design and layout adapting to fit the size of the mobile screen. Telling your story through social media The Internet has changed rapidly in recent years due to the rise of what has become known as ‘social media’. In essence, social media refers to the way in which people share, manage and consume stories, events and media The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


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through the Internet. Social networks such as Facebook, Twitter and Youtube have made it possible for anyone to easily share their opinions or experiences with those they choose to. It is not surprising that this new method of communication, often referred to as ‘word-of-mouth marketing on steroids’ has had a massive influence on the tourism industry. Besides giving travellers the ability to instantly publish information about the destinations or products they visit, social media has also changed the way in which travel is researched and bought. When used effectively, social media can be a powerful way of sharing your unique story with potential guests and building customer loyalty for your business. As much as your story can be told through your own Facebook page, Twitter account or Youtube channel, it is also told through the social media profiles of any person who publishes a comment, photo or review about your business.

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EDITOR’S NOTES TO THE READER: Refer to chapter 14 for more detail on Social Media and how it can help your business While marketing your own business is a key requirement for reaching your market, it is also critical to understand that you are one of many business in your area that will provide a product or service to the same traveller (refer to chapter 3 for more on the “value of the tourist”). It is therefore critical to work with other local tourism stakeholders, e.g. local tourism associations, to do a marketing plan for your area. This should include information about the natural environment, the culture and history as well as activities that travellers may want to partake in. Information about the traveller’ responsibility in looking after your assets is required.

Turning your story into business Without necessary planning, online marketing can become time consuming and difficult to measure. It is important to constantly evaluate how your online marketing initiatives will result in bookings and the loyalty of your guests. Work with a marketing agency who can provide you with information on your website’s performance and make an effort to regularly think about how your business benefits from the time you spend online. Making use of a real-time availability and booking services are practical ways of managing reservations and online payments from guests. Your booking system should be linked to your website in a professional manner, making it easy for travellers to buy your product while using your website as a source of information and inspiration. Having a “click-book-pay” facility on your website makes it easier for clients to finalise their arrangements. Becoming a digital business or organisation is about more than updating your website or posting information on social networks. It also does not mean that you need to instantly change the way you run your business. It is about acknowledging a rapid change in the way that travellers are researching, buying and recommending your product or service and being open to the innovation that will help you turn them into guests. Web design and social marketing service Springnest is an online marketing agency offering web design, mobile design and social media services for all tourism and hospitality businesses, no matter what their size or level of online skill and competence. For more information visit or contact Peter Fabricius: The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


ABOUT KARIBU TRAVEL & TOURISM FAIR • Is the premier East Africa’s Travel Market Show. • Provides a platform for showing casing diverse local and regional tourism Products. • Participants exchange ideas,build alliances,network locally,regionally & internationally. • It attracts hundreds of exhibitor’s ad thousands of visitors. • The Fair is well covered by local, regional and international media. Exhibitors & Visitors Exhibitors include regional in- bound tour operators,tourist boards,camping and safari campanies,wildlife lodges and hotels and hotels as well as equipment manufactures and support services in the travel and tourism industry. Visitors do enjoy the benefit of having access to private corporate cocktail party and taking in the hosted buyer programme among other benefits. Registration Registration is online with simple instructions provides on the booking form. Ensure that you entre the correct details as the information will be used on the website, catalogue and CD rom. Early registration for exhibitors assures you of the best choice of location and a presence on the website. While for the visitors, it secures the limited available chances of taking part in the hosted buyer programme. Please visit us on for more details! PO Box 6162 Arusha Tanzania Tel: + 255 27 254 5633 Fax: +255 27 254 5633 The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


kindoc yas


Business Risks

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Business Risks By Adv Louis Nel

Each business has a Critical Transactional Path (CTP), from inception to liquidation or sale. The CTP starts well before the first day’s trading. The seed of a project, business or venture, is often sowed long before it starts operating. More often than not, much, if any thought is given to physical structures and requirements and actions are fueled by the burning desire that drives entrepreneurs: “not a moment to be wasted, the customers and success is visualized and risks ignored!” The primary risk for any entrepreneur is that of balancing the wish to share the brilliant idea with friends and family with the danger of doing so and losing the initiative due to a lack of ‘intellectual ring-fencing’. It is hard to convince any entrepreneur that his friend today can be his foe tomorrow and that money changes people. It is therefore a good idea early in these exciting days of the birth of a new idea and business to take cognizance of the wise words of Julius Caesar: ‘Festina Lente’ – ‘Hasten Slowly’! Budding entrepreneurs, who ignore these wise words and endeavour to launch their projects as a matter of extreme urgency, will in most cases regret that approach and have lots of time to repent at leisure. The very seed, thought or concept that ultimately gives rise to the enterprise is what is known as intellectual property (‘IP’). IP is a non-tangible that must be protected at all cost. This must be done before any information is shared, even with your closest friend or relative. Prematurely sharing information will not only place the concept at risk but may well result in entrepreneurs not being able to protect their IP, which could include copyright, trademarks, designs or patents. Novelty is the very foundation of such protection and this could be lost by making the concept public too soon, be that verbally or by means of any other form of communication. How then do entrepreneurs protect the novelty of their concepts? Here are some guidelines: Be cautious: do not share it with anybody until you have taken the steps we will be discussing in this document. Write is down: copyright does not apply to ideas, only to matters that are recorded on paper (or electronically). Any such written document must display the required ‘marking’ such as ‘©’ and/or ‘™’ or ® (where applicable – see below) in order to provide the owner of the concept with the necessary protection and to advise outsiders that the owners have identified as their IP. Sign a Non-disclosure Agreement: It is strongly suggested that in conjunction with that the entrepreneurs require each and every person with

whom they discusses their concept to sign a nondisclosure and confidentiality agreement (‘NDA’). An effective NDA can be as short as one page – the crucial issue is to have one and to have it signed before any information is shared. The challenge of course is when you as the entrepreneur (‘Mr’ Small Guy’) go to see the ‘big guns’ for funding, investment. Who are you to ask them to sign anything – you must be joking! Well here are some alternative approaches or a combination thereof: (1) advise the parties to the meeting at the outset that the meeting is held in the strictest confidence and the ideas your about to share with them is your intellectual property; (2) The aforesaid and ask them to sign a NDA; (3) #1 & if they refuse to sign a NDA, send them an e-mail immediately after the meeting (with a ‘read receipt’) confirming #1 The entity that will house your business You need to decide what kind of ENTITY you want to house this new venture in and, where required, REGISTER it. You can choose to be a sole trader, a partnership (a joint venture, which is essentially the same thing), a trading trust, a close corporation or a nonprofit company (detail and pros/cons of each format in later paragraphs). For now it is important to note that: The latter three need to be registered (see below) It is imperative that you have a (written and signed!) mutual agreement that will direct the relationship between the parties, i.e. a partnership agreement, a trust deed, an association agreement (for c.c.) or a shareholders agreement (company); You must NOT work on TRUST ALONE – it is one of the quickest ways of destroying a good idea and/or a friendship Registration of the entity is imperative; however, a few variances need to be noted: In South Africa, the offices of the close corporation registrar (‘the CC Registrar’), company registrar (‘the CO Registrar’) and the trademark registrar (‘the TM Registrar’) do not ‘talk each other’ and, believe it or not, they and their databases are not linked electronically! This means that when you apply for the registration of either of the three the other two offices are ‘not aware’ of your application and ‘conflicting’ applications could therefore be approved independently e.g. a close corporation application could be approved, even though it clearly ‘clashes’ with a registered trademark or company name (and vice versa)! If you (or your lawyer) do not read The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


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the Government Gazette when the trademark or close corporation or company application is advertised and object within the period allowed, you’ve ‘missed the boat’ and either party will ‘have to live with’ the conflict (or attempt to change it at great expense); It is therefore imperative that when you buy a close corporation, you also do a search in the companies and trademark’s office and vice versa before your start any branding. AND, whichever of the two you ultimately choose as your ‘vehicle’, you MUST also register a defensive name (provide definition of a defensive name) in the office in which you do not register e.g. if you register a close corporation, you must register a defensive name in the companies office to avoid another party registering a company with the same or similar name as your close corporation. AND you must also register a trademark (see below) Protect your brand - protect your name It is great fun brainstorming a new idea, which often happens at a social gathering rather than a business meeting. Quickly thoughts are jotted down, a seed it sown and off we go – a new business is born! Unfortunately, the idea is only 1% (if that) of the end product. When we start a new business concept, we need to take one step back, decide why we are doing it, what the long-term objective is and how we are going to get there. I like to refer to it as a ‘jigsaw puzzle’, and for a jigsaw puzzle to be complete, all the pieces must be there – if one piece is missing, however small, the product is incomplete. The ultimate aim for any business should be to build a brand, which you can sell in due course. The brand includes, amongst others, your business name, trademarks (name, buy-line, get-up), copyright, domain name (these collectively constitute your intellectual property or ‘IP’) and business contracts (which should ALWAYS be recorded in writing and signed by BOTH parties). Success starts on day one and a solid foundation is required. So, before you rush off to the advertising agency and the printer with the nice name and logo you and your team have conjured up, here are some hints and tips. 1. Keep the idea to yourself! An idea cannot be patented and is not protected (as such) by copyright AND, any protection you may have had will be eroded by verbalizing the concept to all and sundry. This includes not only the detail of your concept but also the name and logo. 2. You, your friends and anyone you deal with MUST sign a CONFIDENTIALITY AND NON-DISCLOSURE AGREEMENT (‘CNDA’). This will protect not only the concept, but also all the time, effort and money 140

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you are going to put into your venture trying to get it off the ground. Bear one thing in mind: Money changes people! Most people like doing business with friends: make sure you separate your friendship and your business relationship – that way both will stay intact. 3. During ALL THIS TIME, you must protect your INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY i.e. copyright, trademark(s) and domain name and not forgetting your invention. This you do by: Copyright your work Agree who the copyright belongs to - all of you, or the entity to be formed? At the end of the written document and at the bottom of each page insert ‘© …………………[name copyright holder] and the date AND, where it is a more extensive and permanent document, appropriate and more detailed wording regarding copying and, use is required. When you rush off to the advertising agency (AFTER you have done the necessary regarding your trademark and entity registration – see below), make sure they SIGN an agreement that the copyright in your nice new name, logo, buy-line, sketch, drawing, film, video or computer production and programme vests in and remains vested in you/your entity (‘Copyright Ownership Agreement’) – if you do not do that, the copyright may well be theirs! The latter is especially true in the case of video, film and computer productions. The Copyright Act of South Africa does protect computer software (which cannot be patented), but the protection is limited, easy to circumvent, difficult to prove e.g. only where there has been a ‘direct copy of the source code’ or if ‘there has been a direct adaptation of the source code’ and NOT if the party has merely ‘copied the concept underlying the computer program (Dixon, 2004). Trademark A trademark is anything that distinguishes your product or service. It could be a name, a word, a logo or shape, etc provided it is distinctive and is capable of visual presentation. You identify and warn other parties about your trademark by using the letters ‘TM’ initially and, once the trademark is registered, the letter ‘®’ – Note that it is illegal to use the latter until the trademark is in fact registered. It is imperative that you conduct a search in the office of the Trade Mark Registrar before you embark on registration: The reason for that is twofold it will give you an indication of whether you can go ahead with registration and use or not or how you may have to adapt your trademark; It is cheaper (by about 60%) than simply going ahead with an application and then being told by the TM Registrar that you ‘cannot have it’

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Once registered, your trademark is protected for 10 years and can thereafter be renewed for a nominal amount for 10 years every 10 years indefinitely. Note that you do not have to register a trademark to have protection, e.g. the use of a word, a name or a logo will result in such name or logo acquiring distinctiveness and therefore common law rights. You may & MUST also use the letters ‘TM’ with such a name or logo or any other distinctive marking. However the benefits of a registered trademark are inter alia ease of proof (i.e. simply produce trademark certificate), enhancing the value of your brand upon sale of business and 10 years’ statutory protection. Domain name The purpose of a domain name is to identify your website. Note that a domain name is NOT a trademark, although court decisions may ‘narrow the divide’ in due course. If you are doing business internationally, it is recommended that you register ‘’ or ‘.net’ as well as ‘.com.’ Dispute resolution as an alternative to litigation can be conducted locally via: − The South African Institute for Intellectual Property Law for at − There is also provision for arbitration via World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and ‘Internet Corporation for Assigned Namesa and Numbers (ICANN ) in terms of its Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) for .com disputes − and the mechanism provided for the Electronic Communications and Transactions Act (‘ECT’ or ‘ACTA’) for disputes. As suggested above, domain name registration is imperative and goes hand in hand with trademark and entity registration.

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In the green valleys and hills of rural Mthatha, is an unexpected surprise destination on the N2: Dan’s Country Lodge. Rising out of the countryside, the Sprawling Estate is set against clear blue skies and crystal white clouds. Rolling mists can be seen in the distance, as you look across the valley to the rolling green hills. The beautiful natural setting can only be described as something out of a storybook. Applauded by many travellers as an ‘Oasis in the Desert’, the Estate is just 10min away from the bustling city of Mthatha, the birth place of Nelson Mandela. Within 10 minutes, you are able to trade the hustle & bustle of City Life for the calm tranquillity of the countryside, offering you a complete escape into the country. We are a 4 star resource by choice, but boldly boast 5 star quality in the facilities and service that we offer.

Contact Tel: +27 (0) 47 532 7920 • Fax: +27 (0) 47 532 7921 • Mobile: +27 (0) 83 475 8307 Email:


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WASTE REDUCTION Chris van Zyl Group Environmental, Manager and Horticulturist, Vineyard Hotel The Vineyard Hotel & Spa is a privately owned Hotel, situated in the leafy Southern Suburbs of Cape Town. The Hotel has 207 guest rooms, a spa and a health & fitness centre. In addition to this the Hotel also has four restaurants (the Square, Garden Lounge, Splash Café and Myoga), an indoor and outdoor swimming pool and a conference centre with seven conferencing rooms. The Hotel is situated in 7.5 acres of magnificent gardens. Our Green Vision is: We work in harmony with the environment and the community, and in partnership with our stakeholders. We Value: Sustainable Growth, Profitability & Success - Long term success through partnership with employees, guests and the community. Aim The main aim of the Hotel’s waste policy is to reduce the volume of waste that goes to landfill to a minimum with the end goal being zero waste to landfill. The period of this submission is July 2011 to June 2012. This has been a process since 2003 hence we have included some of our history. We have managed to reduce our waste to landfill in April 2003 from 336 wheelie bins and 58 loose bags to197 bins to landfill in April 2007 and 53 bins to landfill in June 2012.This equates to in excess of 96% reduction in waste to landfill in 9 years while our average occupancy has constantly been growing and we have added an additional 41 rooms over this period. Waste reduction is an intergral part of our sustainabilty policy.

waste reduction initiatives Waste Minimisation Facility • In April 2003 our waste removal company removed 336 x 240 litre waste bins and 58 loose bags and in June 2003 they removed 255 x 240 litre bins and 30 loose bags. The contractor was visiting our site 7 days per week and removing almost 12 bins per day. • In September 2003 we contracted a waste minimization company SaveAll. Prior to this we were doing a minimum amount of recycling. • When SaveAll started we implemented a rigorous recycling programme which has reduced our waste to landfill significantly. By January 2004 we had reduced the pickups from 7 per week to 4 per week and the volumes had dropped significantly to 132 x 240 litre bins. The cost of removing the 336 bins was very close to the new rate with 4 pickups per week and the cost of having a permanent person in the waste room 7 days per week. • As of March 2007 we have established a good working relationship with pig farmer who now removes all green food waste 7 days per week. • In June 2009 SaveAll, our waste minimization company, was absorbed by WastePlan. They provide a more inclusive service which includes a live website to view your waste and recyclable figures, management of the site and regular visits, on-site weighing of the waste, disposal of hazardous waste and recycling of e-waste. • June 2012 53 bins has been sent to landfill and 96% of our waste recycled. • Signage was installed in the facilty with a flow chart explaing exactly where all the different recyclables must be dropped off. • We communicate our waste minimisation to our guests by: The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


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- The battery and the cork collection boxes in the foyer. - Living green facebook page and the green TV channel in the rooms. - Information in the guest folder in the rooms. Compact fluorescent and fluorescent bulbs are collected and crushed on-site. When the crusher is full WastePlan will take this hazardous waste and have it disposed of at a recognised landfill site and a safe disposal certificate will be issued. This is also available to our staff and the community for the disposal of their spent CFL bulbs from home.

We now report on the kilograms of hazardous waste sent for safe disposal i.e. fluorescent tubes, fabric, foil, i.e. e-waste, bread tags / security tags, are captured and measured. Also due to the additional training by WastePlan of their staff working in the facility and a reward system, our waste statistics have improved ongoingly.

Microbial solution called EM (Effective Microbes). This is dosed into the fat traps and drains and it digests and breaks down the fats in the pipes thus keeping the pipes clean of blockages, free from odour and it prevents fats from entering the municipal sewerage line. This is also used to spray on the waste to reduce odours and for cleaning of the bins. Batteries are collected from the Hotel, staff and guests and removed from site by WastePlan for safe disposal and a certificate is issued. Our waste area is in a very visible area and we advertise on the external wall how many kilograms of waste were recycled the previous month. WastePlan has erected signage in the waste room to further simplify the process and so improve the recycling of our waste. All staff has recieved training in the waste policy at induction explaining exactly how the waste should be seperated at source and then transported to the waste facility.

waste monitoring 2011-2012

Target: Waste recycled 2013, average of 94% Current: Waste recycled average of 89% We compared our waste figures from July 2010 to June 2011 to the submission dates between July 2011 to June 2012, we improved our waste recycled percentage from 85% to 89%. Over this 12 month period the volume of recycling at the Hotel prevented the emission of 397.11 metric tons of CO2 per ‘wet weight’ ton of material recycled. This figure is calculated based on the difference in energy and therefore carbon dioxide emissions between manufacturing material from raw materials and recycling that material. We managed to achieve these results due to on-going staff training, signage the presence of a waste minimisation company on-site and other initiatives. 148

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• A trio-bin system is operated in the Hotel’s staff canteen, Banqueting and restaurant areas separating the wet waste from the dry with one bin for wet organic waste, one for dry paper type waste and one for plastic, glass bottles and tins. In the kitchen the waste bins are separated into dry waste, green organic trimmings and protein contained waste. • Procurement - a green procurement document has been designed, the main aim being to ensure that whereever possible articles purchased have a recyclable content and chemicals have to be checked to confirm that they are safe for the environment. This department also collects used paper and sorts this to send it to the departments for in-house printing. • Recycling signage and information posters have been designed and are displayed on all bins in Food & Beverage areas. • Stainless steel twin bins with wet and dry waste signage present in all banqueting outlets for the guests to separate their waste. • All SAB bottles which can be returned are collected from the various outlets and collected by Peninsula Beverages and refunds are obtained. • Glass jam jars from the restaurants are returned to the suppliers and refunds are obtained. • Used cooking oil is returned to the supplier Fry More Oils and the hotel is compensated for the used oil. This oil is then passed on to a company called Cape Used Cooking Oil which uses the old oil


in the manufacture of BIODIESEL. From July 2011 till June 2012 the Hotel has purchased 11,900 litres and recycled 5,790 litres for biodiesel. • All our protein contaminated waste is recycled via the Bokashi process which is odour free and this waste is turned into compost in 4 - 8 weeks. • All plastic mineral water bottles were replaced with glass bottles with a 23% recycled content, except at the pool where we still use plastic for safety reasons. All bottles are sent for recycling. In our Conferencing Department we have installed water filters which include the ice making machines and we encourage the conference organizers to make use of water carafes on the tables instead of bottled water all together. • Material Safety Data Sheets have been obtained for all the chemicals used in the Hotel and where possible chemicals that are harmful to staff and the environment have been replaced with environmentally compliant ones. New chemicals are first checked by a chemical engineer before they are introduced. • A BES water saving device has been installed in the canopy over the cooking area. This device has a timer and solenoid valve controlling the water usage. This has reduced the water consumption which would otherwise have landed up in the sewerage system. In one year this simple device saves us 678,024 kilolitres of water. • LaserFische system installed in our Front Office, thus reducing on paper usage by 21% and reducing our waste generation. • Vivreau water filtrate system installed to further reduce the volume of bottled water required in a lounge and restaurant. This system filters tap water and generates either still or carbonated water which is then bottled in high quality reusable glass bottles thus reducing the carbon footprint and waste generated from the bottles we normally send for recycling. • Plastic picnic hamper containers have been replaced with biodegradable cutlery and containers made from bagasse with explanatory signage indicating to return to the Hotel to be sent for composting. • In June 2012 we started to outsource our canteen lunches and suppers. This should reflect positively on the generation of waste in the kitchen.

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social projects linked to waste reduction Uncorked Initiative Wine bottles corks have also been removed from the waste stream and are now being collected in collaboration with Amoram Cork. An initiation was launched where every 10,000 corks collected Amoram would supply 10m² of free cork flooring. To date 90,000 corks have been collected and 24m² of cork flooring has been laid at the Eerste River Empowerment Centre. To read more on the Uncorked initiative please visit under our Living Green & Social Awareness page. • Left over bread rolls are frozen and collected once a week by St Paul’s Brown’s Farm Soup Kitchen or distribution to the homeless.

Packaging returned in the kitchen: • Tydstroom chicken supplier takes back their boxes. • Milk suppliers as well as all fruit and vegetables suppliers take back their crates. • All ice cream containers are reused in the kitchen. • All egg boxes are sent for recycling.

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Bread Tags • As part of our ‘Jump On’ staff participation campaign this year two managers chose to raise awareness regarding the collection of bread tags sent for recycling to raise funds to purchase wheelchairs. These tags collected are mostly from staff as we bake our own bread on-site. This had lead us to investigate the recycling of our security tags to confirm if these could also be added to the bread tags (made from the same material) adding 2 kg to the volume per month. • 50 Kg of bread tags have already been collected

Puro Fair-trade bags • The Puro Fair-trade coffee foil containers are being collected and upcycled and sent back to the Puro coffee company where they have engaged the local community to make shopping bags out of these and generate an income. These were previously going to a landfill site. Definition of Upcycling: “Upcycling is the process of converting waste materials or useless products into new materials or products of better quality or a higher environmental value.” – Wikipedia Waste reduction linked to rooms: • Towel and linen policy used in rooms: Towels are only laundered on long staying guests when they throw them in the bath or leave them on the floor. Linen is also only changed for long staying guests when they leave the “please change my linen card on 150

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the pillow”. This has reduced our water and chemical consumption. • Energy saving bulbs have been installed in rooms, public areas and the Conference Centre whereas possible. The average dichroic downlighter or incandescent bulb lasts for 3 months where as the energy saving CFL bulb lasts for 5,000 hours thus saving on energy, waste to landfill and labour to change the bulbs. In our newly constructed wing we have used LEDs as well which have an even longer 25,000 hour plus life span even further saving on waste and energy. • Room amenity bottles are refilled by our housekeeping staff. • Dual Flush toilet cisterns reduce our volume of water effluent going to waste. • Washable fabric hand towels are provided in public area restrooms eliminating the need to use paper towels. • LaserFische system installed at reservations and Front Office Department, thus reducing on printing by 21% and reducing our waste generation. • Used soap is donated to the Noah Community Project. Noah project

• Used soap is donated to the Independent FundRaising Professional called the Noah Project. • We have supplied 100 kg of soap to the Noah Project. We have also bought back from the project and use it as gifting for guests. • This is an environmental and socially sound initiative which started in Khayelitsha in 2010. • This is a job creation project where used soap is cleaned and broken up into new soap using glycerine to bind it. • The members divert soap from landfill sites and recycle the ingredients of high quality soap creating a beautiful and ecofriendly bar of soap. • This innovative social and environmental income generation initiative for older persons in Khayelitsha has allowed the Noah participants to earn an extra R230 per month.


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Offices • Twin bins were installed in our offices thus ensuring that the wet waste stays separate from the dry waste. • Used paper is used for internal printing and memos thus getting maximum use out of this resource before it goes for recycling. • E-waste in the form of old printers, monitors, keyboards, etc are removed by WastePlan our waste minimisation company who dismantle the equipment and what they can’t re-use is disposed of in an environmentally safe manner. • Used printer cartridges are returned and we get a refund on them. • 272 Kg of e-waste was recycled over this period. Laundry • All the washing machines were recalibrated to reduce our chemical and water usage. • Old linen and towels are donated to staff and charities. • Bleach was replaced by oxygenated bleach which is less harmful. Garden • A small percentage of the gardenwaste that the Hotel generates on-site is turned into compost on site. • The heavy duty green waste is collected by a reputable waste contractor U-SaveWaste and delivered to the closest municipal transfer site where it is turned into mulch and compost. We in turn buy back the organic compost from Soil & More Reliance who manage the transfer sites thus closing the loop. • When tree fellers are on site, the cut material is sent through a chipper and this is used as mulch on site. • Cigarette bins have been installed in the garden and patio areas which enable guests to safely dispose of their cigarette butts in a way that does not pollute the environment. Only organically certified compost and fertilizers are used so there is no leaching of chemicals into the groundwater or the Liesbeek River which runs through our property. • Zero to Landfill Organics remove our soft garden waste, between 1 and 2 bakkie loads per week. This is mixed on their site with food waste to generate compost and we have bought some of this product back. community initiative We have made our recycling facilities available to the local community to especially recycle items such as Tetra Pack and other general recyclables, but also for batteries which need to be sent for disposal as hazardous waste. We currently have 13 community members who regularly deposit their recycling at the Hotel.

Conclusion It is the intention of the Vineyard Hotel & Spa to constantly improve on its green procurement and waste policy to a point where everything is biodegradable or recycled and where we have a very small volume of waste going to landfill. The Responsible and Sustainable tourism handbook


Bibliography Akama, J., & Ondimu, K. (2007). Tourism Product Development and the Changing Consumer Demand: A Case Stufy of Kenya. theAsia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research Volume 6 Issue, 56-62.


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Established in 1894, the hotel is believed to be one of the oldest hotels in East Africa and has undergone many transformations to emerge today as one of the leading hotels in the fast growing city of Arusha. Situated in 4 acres of beautifully manicured grounds boasting a wealth of exotic flora and fauna, the hotel has provided a haven of calm for over a century to travelers on their journeys from Cape to Cairo. Located in the centre of a town overlooked by the majestic shadow of Mount Meru, the hotel is only a few minutes’ walk from the Arusha International Conference Centre, the craft markets and attractions of the town. The Arusha Hotel boasts 86 elegantly appointed rooms including 4 Suites, 22 Executive Deluxe rooms and 60 Superior rooms. Food and Beverage facilities include Parachichi a la carte restaurant serving Eurpean, African and Asian cuisine overlooking the lush tropical gardens, The Hatari Tavern, so named after the 1960 film epic “Hatari” as the bar the chosen watering hotel of its leading man John Wayne, and the Lounge serving refreshments and light meals 24 hours. The Arusha Hotel is without question one of the region’s finest meeting and conferencing venues accommodating up to 150 conference delegates. Other conveniences include wireless internet throughout the hotel, a fully equipped gymnasium manned by qualified trainers, a business centre and coffee shop.

Index of advertisers COMPANY PAGE B Blue Train IFC, 1 Buffalo City Metropolitan 106,107 Coastlands 96, 97 Classified Safaris 4 Danâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Coutry Lodge 148,149 Eningu Clayhouse Lodge 56. 57, 58, 59 Eskom 46, 48,49 Essque Zalu Zanzibar 9, 10, 11, 12 Footprints Africa Safaris 126 Idube Game Reserve & Lukimbi Safari Lodge 64, 65, 66, 67 Inspiring Africa 70 Inverdoorn Private Game Reserve 72, 73, 74, 75 Karibu Travel Trade Fair 134, 135 Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality 128, 129 Kindoc Airways 136, 137 Lake Duluti Lodge 118 Mangwanane African Guest Spa 98, 99 Moholoholo 80, 81, 82, 83 Mozambique Tourism 8 Ngwenya Glass 88, 89 Northern Cape Tourism 112, 113 Responsible and Sustainable Tourism Seminar IBC Rivercrossing Lodge 32, 33 Salama Island Tours 26, 27 Sani Valley Lodge 132 Sol Plaatjie Local Municipality 120, 121 Sunny Adventure Safaris 10,11 Sunny Safaris 30 Sustainability Week 94 Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme OBC Tanzania Private Select Safaris 7 Tatanca Safari and Tours 14, 15 Tau Game Lodge 2, 3 Terra Africa Hospitality 20, 21 The Arusha Hotel 158, 159 Viva Safaris 54 Wilderness Safaris 86 Zan Air 142, 143

Responsible Tourism Dialogue

25 July 2013 Sandton Convention Centre

The tourism industry provides the most direct connection between the environment, culture, and the economy. All economic sectors are connected to issues, tourism however leverages the environment and culture to achieve a business objective. Consequently the business case for adopting sustainability as a key strategy in tourism businesses and the imperative for environmental protection, is also more direct. Add to this that at a cost level there is a direct correlation between business efficiency and environmental protection â&#x20AC;&#x201C; for example reducing demand for electricity is good for business and reduces C02 emissions â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and while this is true of all building operators, tourism buildings are usually owner-operated, and so investments in energy efficiency give rise to direct operational savings. Having made investments, tourism businesses are able to benefit further by declaring to prospective visitors that their establishments are sustainably operated â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a consideration that is becoming more important in the buying decision of tourists, be they business or private travellers. Join fellow tourism businesses, tourism policy makers and thought leaders for the Sustainable Tourism Dialogue at Sandton Convention Centre on 25 July 2013, to gain a greater understanding of why you should act to green your tourism business, how to achieve in the most effective way, and how to leverage these actions to grow your business!

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The Responsible and Sustainable Tourism Handbook Vol 1 - Alive2green

The Responsible and Sustainable Tourism Handbook Vol 1 - Alive2green