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Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



Water Resource Handbook

South Africa Volume 3

The Essential Guide

South Africa Volume 3 www.alive2green.com/water www.alive2green.com/water


Lately, the media has been running headlines about the “Water Crisis” in South Africa and although some of the arguments are based on concrete facts and thorough analysis, we simply cannot overcome these challenges unless we work collectively. The Overseas Development Institute broadly explains  global water crisis as follows: “Three quarter’s of the world’s fresh water is frozen in glaciers and icebergs.  Less than 1% flows in rivers and lakes.  That which does, together with the 20% lying underground, faces increasing pressure as global population grows and demand for water rises”.  South Africa is the 30th driest country in the world and faces the challenges of a growing population and economy.  As a water stressed country, It is therefore a frightening reality to know that we do not have enough of this precious resource. It is also clear that if we continue to waste and pollute increasingly limited water resources at our disposal, we will aggravate the shortage and plunge our country into a severe crisis. The South Africa Government has come a long way since 1994 by becoming one of the first countries to proclaim access to running water as a constitutional right for all citizens but unless we work together, South Africa will be forever vulnerable to threats of fresh water resources due to population growth, food insecurity, urbanisation, industrialisation, pollution of water, poor management structures and the lack of necessary scientific and technical expertise that is so crucial to the sustainability of water.  It is in light of these challenges that we choose to endorse The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook as it serves to equip water industry professionals and stakeholders with the knowledge and skills to bring us towards a more sustainable future. 

THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


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Editor’s Note

Water Efficiency - the glass half full. Water is the source of life. However, water is not necessarily located in the same spatial areas as its demand to sustain life. South Africa is ranked as the 27th most water scarce country in the world. Water scarcity and stress can take many forms, i.e. from countries that have abundant supply but struggle to physically access the water e.g. through dams like Japan, or poor development of infrastructure such as many developing countries in Africa; or the other end of the scale where the actual supply of water is severely limited, such as the Middle East and Namibia. The common measure for water scarcity for a country is a measure of the volume of water available per capita population of a country per annum. The threshold for scarcity is 1 000m3/capita/annum. By comparison, South Africa’s quota is 997.3 m3/ capita/annum. South Africa suffers from both low water supply­and the disjunction between locations of supply and areas of demand. In light of the scarcity of water facing the world, much advancement has been made to transfer water from areas of abundance to areas of demand, however, there is a nick point to this engineering, where eventually the cost of “transfer” exceeds the ability to pay and the price of the water becomes unaffordable to the greater population. To exacerbate the situation further, climate change and poor water quality further reduces the availability of water. Coupled to the degree of scarcity is the need to prioritise water allocations and assurances of supply to the various users. In South Africa, the 2004 National Water Strategy identifies priority water uses as, firstly the Basic and Environmental Reserve, secondly International Agreements (South Africa is party to 6 shared watercourses), thirdly water for social needs such as poverty reduction and future needs, fourth is water for strategic users (e.g. Eskom for power generation), and only then for commercial consumptive use.

Samantha Braid Integrated Water Management Specialist Aurecon South Africa

In terms of sector utilisation, the measure of efficiency is usually measured against the GDP contribution per cubic metre of water, where agriculture provides the lowest economic contribution per cubic metre of water and mining provides the greatest. Whereas agriculture provides life giving sustenance; the historically poor management of mining activities in the country has resulted in, together with the malfunctioning of wastewater treatment works, these being the leading contributors of the most pollution to water resources in the country, and further reducing available water. However, one man’s waste is a another man’s resource, and new developments have seen the successful reclamation of acid mine drainage to potable standards, which is not only a relief from ecological degradation but a potential source of clean drinking water.

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook





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publisher’s Note

As government grapples with the challenges of providing sufficient and sustainable sources of potable water to all corners of our country, current consumers must expect to feel the implications of this challenge in their pockets. This was one of the key messages emanating from recent public statements by Minister Edna Molewa. R573 billion will be required across the entire value chain over the next decade, Moelwa added, and less than half of this amount will be funded. Many commentators are using words like ‘crisis’ to illustrate the seriousness of this situation and yet in many ways there will be genuine opportunities for the private sector in years to come, under headings such as water efficiency, communication and education, innovation and technology and services. Sector stakeholders must engage with Government to ensure that the best possible solutions are considered and implemented – this will also have the effect of providing valuable economic growth, skills and jobs in the sector. Edited by Samantha Braid, Volume 3 of the Sustainable Water Resource Handbook seeks to tackle the various water issues that are highest on our country’s agenda right now, and provides readers with a selection of peer reviewed articles that have been contributed by some of South Africa’s leading experts and researchers. The publication has a growing subscriber base and is increasingly requested by sector stakeholders and tertiary institutions. I am grateful to the Editor, and to all the writers, reviewers and advertisers who have contributed to what I feel is a highly relevant and practically applicable Volume of content. We welcome your feedback, particularly any information that relates to ideas and opportunities for partnership in the sector. Yours sincerely Lloyd Macfarlane Publishing Editor

THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook




Water Resource Handbook

South Africa Volume 3

The Essential Guide

Sales Manager Louna Rae

Editor Samantha Braid

Advertising Sales Tichaona Meki

Publisher Lloyd Macfarlane

Images Graeme Williams, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com, 123rf.com

Editorial Manager Siann Silk Contributors Adv. Peter Ramsden, Dirk Versfeld, Dr Bernard Talbot, Dr Mao Amis, Dr Mike Shand, Felix Reinders, Herman Wiechers, Jane Burt, Jeremy Westgarth-Taylor, Johan van Rooyen, Justin Smith, Kerri Savin, Marco Lotz, Robert Berold, Water Research Commission Peer Reviewers Samantha Braid, Jane Burt

Directors Lloyd Macfarlane- Publisher Gordon Brown Andrew Fehrsen Principal for Africa & Mauritius Gordon Brown Principal for United States James Smith PUBLISHER

Marketing Manager Cara-Dee Carlstein Accounts and Administration Wadoeda Brenner Suraya Manuel

www.alive2green.com www.alive2green.com/water

The Sustainability Series Of Handbooks

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ISBN No: 978-0-620-45065-2. Volume 3 first published in August 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or in any form without the prior written consent of the publisher. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the Publisher or the Editor. All editorial contributions are accepted on the understanding that the contributor either owns or has obtained all necessary copyrights and permissions. IMAGES AND DIAGRAMS: Space limitations and source format have affected the size of certain published images and/or diagrams in this publication. For larger PDF versions of these images please contact the Publisher.





Contents Section 1 The Economics of Water 16 Chapter 1 Water Resources: Do we have enough? 30 Chapter 2 Economic Efficiency and water pricing

Section 2 Sector Efficiency 42 Chapter 3 Water Use Efficiency in South African Industry 50 Chapter 4 Water Recycling - Here’s how to brew beer without water 58 Chapter 5 Water in the commercial sector - Woolworths water programme 64 Chapter 6 The Status and Use of Potable Water Efficient Devices in the Domestic and Commercial Environments in South Africa 76 Chapter 7 Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South African research excellence 92 Chapter 8 Forestry as a user of water

Section 3 Infrastructure and Technology 100 Chapter 9 Water Disclosure alone is not Enough to manage water risk 106 Chapter 10 Ageing Infrastructure 116 Chapter 11 Technologies available to use less water 126 Chapter 12 The United Nations (UN) Global Compact ’s Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Water Mandate 132 Chapter 13 How do we know if water knowledge resources are effective? THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


THE SUSTAINABILITY SERIES HANDBOOKS More than fifty thousand people in South Africa will read at least one of the Handbooks in the ‘Sustainability Series’ this year. The 6 Handbooks in the series are published by Alive2green in a high quality A5 format and are available for purchase online at www.alive2green.com/handbooks. The Sustainability Series Handbooks tackle the key areas within the broader context of sustainability and include contributions from South Africa’s best academics and researchers. The Handbooks are designed for government and business decision makers and are produced in Volume format where each new Volume builds on the previous Volume without necessarily replacing it. The Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook and the Green Building Handbook deal with two sectors that are the largest contributors to greenhouse gasses .The Water and Energy Handbooks tackle the issues and solutions that South African’s face with two of our most important Resources and finally the Waste Handbook deals with the principles concerned with Waste minimization and ultimately Waste eradication. The Handbooks also profile some of the top companies and organisations that are represented in the each important sector.


Green Building Handbook South Africa

The Essential Guide






Transport & Mobility South Africa

The Essential Guide



Water Resource


Sustainable Handbook South Africa

The Essential Guide

Handbook enquiries: info@alive2green.com Advertising enquiries: sales2@alive2green.com

Energy Efficiency South Africa

The Essential Guide

Waste Revolution


South Africa


The Guide to Sustainable Waste Management

South Africa

Renewable Energy The Essential Guide

Peer Review Alive2green has introduced and is committed to peer reviewing a minimum number of published chapters in all Sustainability Series handbooks. The concept of Peer review is based on the objective of the publisher to provide professional, academic content. This process helps to maintain standards, improve performance, and provide credibility.

ALIVE2GREEN PEER REVIEW PROCESS The Publisher and the Editor allocate a reviewer to an article and then send it to the reviewer who is well acquainted with the topic. Reviewers return an evaluation of the work to the Editor, noting weaknesses or problems along with suggestions for improvement. The Editor notes the reviewer’s recommendations and will either publish the article without changes, request that the author amend the article in accordance with recommendations or reject the article but encourage revision and invite resubmission.

The Editor evaluates reviewer submissions and is under no obligation to accept recommendations. The Editor may also add his or her opinions and recommendations to those of the reviewer before passing these back to contributors. Peer reviewed articles may not necessarily have incorporated all recommendations made by the reviewer but are likely to have been amended from the original version.

Alive2green is proud to have embarked on the journey of peer review and now strives to achieve certain objectives in this process which include, but are not limited to: • Extremely high standards of published material • Acceptance of handbooks in academic institutions, including as prescribed text books • Increased publicity and exposure for handbooks in global academic circles • Increased exposure for contributors and editors within academic, industry and peer-review circles • Increased quality of learning texts for Alive2green online learning modules which are based on handbook content. • Relevant and extensive coverage for advertisers within the handbooks and online.



The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



D.B. Versfeld Natural Resources and Forestry Consultant

J.A van Rooyen Director: National Water Resource Planning Department of Water Affairs


The South African National Water Resources Strategy of 2004 carries the sobriquet “our blue print for survival”. With an average rainfall of 450 mm/a, well below the world average of 860 mm/a, the country’s water resources are, in global terms, “scarce and extremely limited” (NWRS, 2004). How has South Africa responded to this, and how do we stand in 2012?


The total available water yield for the country was estimated at 13 227 million m3, and total use at 12 871 million m3 in the NWRS (2004). The total national water requirement was therefore only marginally less than the total availability. In reality some water management areas, catchments, and metropolitan water supply systems were in deficit, whilst others had a small surplus. The challenge has always been always to balance the water requirement with supply everywhere – and to always remain one step ahead. Estimates in the NWRS were that ‘reliable local yield’ would be developed to between 14 166 and 14 940 million m3 by 2025, with a potential for further development of 5 410 million m3. This will be necessary to meet the anticipated growth in requirements - expected primarily in urban, rural, mining, and bulk industrial use as the population continues to grow, as past imbalances are redressed, and as the country seeks to expand its economic base. Irrigation use is being strictly managed, with expansion primarily achieved from water saved through efficiency measures. New afforestation will be limited to catchments where water cannot easily otherwise be put to use, or where forestry is clearly the most efficient user. Significant savings have already been achieved in forestry through environmental efficiency measures. New power stations are being constructed but these are drycooled, using only 10% of the water required by older wet-cooled stations. Phasing out of older power stations will, in the longer term, mean a lower demand on water for power generation. Water balance data is summarised in the tables below: Table 1.1: How much water do we have? (NWRS, 2004)


Volume (million m3)

Mean Annual Runoff: Storage capacity major dams: Available yield Surface water Groundwater Usable return flow Total available yield:

49 040 32 412 10 240 1 088 1 899 13 227

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



Table 1.2: How much water do we use? (NWRS, 2004)

User sector

Water requirement

Irrigation (agriculture) Urban and urban industrial Rural Mining and bulk industrial Power generation Afforestation


(%) 62 23 4 6 2 3 100

(million m3) 7 920 2 897 574 755 297 428 12 871

The ecological Reserve was estimated at 9 545 million m3, or approximately 20% of natural flow, in 2004.

Understanding the numbers

Volumes of water were standardised at a 98% assurance of supply in the National Water Resource Strategy. This means that these volumes were ‘normalised’ to the water that could be supplied with reasonable certainty on average 49 years out of every 50. This standardisation allows for comparative analysis. Planning for urban and domestic users is based on supplying water at this 98% level of assurance. In the case of power generation the assurance of supply must be as close as possible to 100% and sufficient water must be held in reserve for a worst-case drought scenario. For agriculture the situation is somewhat different. Irrigation farmers would obviously like an assured supply – but this could only be achieved year on year if far less water was allocated and used, and far more held in dams, in order to be reasonably certain that there would be enough in the following year. A compromise has been to allocate agricultural water at a far lower assurance – often 75%. Actual allocated volumes are then greater than the 98% assurance volumes. This means that more water can be used in any given year but also that there is a greater chance of failure in the following year. Available yield is the volume of water that can be provided to users on an annual basis, at an agreed assurance of supply. This includes water in dams, but also water than can be reliably drawn from rivers or abstracted from groundwater aquifers. Available yield is therefore not the total amount of water in a system but is the available volume that can safely be allocated and used in any one year, in the expectation that it will be replenished, thus without compromising the assurance of supply that accompanies that water. Yield can be increased by building more dams but only if there is enough runoff to fill and re-fill those dams fairly quickly. The ecological Reserve The importance of ecosystems has been legislated for in terms of the ‘ecological Reserve’. This is a recognition that rivers should be kept in an environmentally healthy state. Preliminary estimates were that the Reserve would require some 20% of the natural flow, and there is an emphasis on ensuring maintenance of dry season flows. Getting more water back into rivers that have been over-exploited is a slow and difficult process, but the recognition of the need for a Reserve has certainly had a major impact. Firstly the allocation of water to new users must take account of the needs of the Reserve and this has done much to protect our waters from further exploitation. Secondly releases from dams must be, and are, made to keep rivers flowing satisfactorily, although these releases are sometime inadequate in stressed situations. Bringing heavily used rivers back to a reasonable state is a statutory requirement that must be met as and when water becomes available. So, additional water from the construction of dams may not be allocated to other users until the Reserve has received its share. 18

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook

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An important step in fully and publicly documenting our understanding of South Africa’s water resources was the compilation of the first National Water Resource Strategy (NWRS, 2004). This was followed by more detailed strategies or “perspectives” of the resources for each or the 19 Water Management Areas, and since then a series of Water Resource Reconciliation Studies has been undertaken for all the major metropolitan and water supply systems. Added to this is a study that has documented the situation for each town or cluster of villages across the country. (All of these studies can be accessed on the DWA website). These studies have demonstrated the limits of our resources, and recommend strategies to ensure that we do not run into serious trouble. The overwhelming message is that South Africa does have enough water but if, and only if, on the one hand major savings are achieved, and on the other steps are taken to develop new sources in time. This message is re-iterated by the National Planning Commission in its National Development Plan of 2011 (NPC, 2011). The economic importance of Gauteng and the Mpumalanga Highveld mining and power generation has meant that water resources from the Orange and Thukela Rivers will continue to be routed towards the Vaal System and it will be possible to meet projected needs here until 2040 and beyond. But it remains an imperative that serious attention be paid to Water Conservation and Water Demand Management if we are to stay ahead of the projected demand curve until new dams are constructed and come on stream. With additional water requirements outstripping supply the only way of slowing down the growth curve, and keeping the supply curve ahead, is to reduce unnecessary losses and to improve efficiencies in our use of water. This will also allow for additional interventions to be implemented in time.


Water Conservation and Water Demand Management (WC/WDM)

This is the first line of defence against water shortages, and failure to save water will mean failure to achieve a positive water balance reconciliation in many South African situations. Management, maintenance and replacement of infrastructure, and the education and motivation of users will have to be stepped up if required efficiencies are to be achieved and risks of water shortages reduced. Water Conservation and Water Demand Management is applicable at all points in both the supply and user chains: • Bulk infrastructure supply canals and pipelines – with losses of up to 50% reported. • System operating rules: tightening up on the effectiveness of releases to downstream users. • Urban infrastructure. Ageing municipal infrastructure is one of the key causes of urban losses. Pressure management is a basic and most effective tool. • Domestic savings: Behaviour patterns. Poor plumbing in low-cost housing results in unnecessary losses. • Agriculture – from crop selection to irrigation systems. With 60% of the water in the country used for irrigation, even small savings made by the agricultural sector can make large volumes of water available for additional use and particularly for the redressing of inequities in this sector. Municipalities or other users could invest in water efficiency measures in irrigation in order to “convert” the savings for other urgent use. • Mining – increasing the use of groundwater, so often seen only as a problem to mines • Power generation – dry cooling • Forestry planning and practice • The clearing of invasive alien plants from rivers and catchments (Working for Water) In the water resource reconciliation strategies undertaken by DWA for large systems, it has been found that urban water use could be reduced by up to 30% through WC/WDM, but a target of 15% has generally been set. The City of Cape Town, Tshwane, eThekwini Municipality and others have already made progress with implementation but in all metros this is slower than anticipated and significantly more resources, both human and financial, will have to be put to this. The situation in the 20

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


smaller towns is even more severe, with losses often estimated at 50% or even higher. Very few towns measure water use properly and thus municipalities have a very limited knowledge of their water use, not to mention losses. Very often these towns now want to solve the problem of water “shortage” by developing additional resources, often at a very high cost, when this shortage is entirely induced by water losses that can be reversed.


Surface water

The capacity of South Africa’s major dams is approximately 66% of mean annual runoff. 32% of this dam storage is estimated to be the yield available for use every year – this being 21% of mean annual runoff. This is economically and environmentally very close to the maximum feasible limit of all surface water that can be captured, stored and used. More dams can be built, and some will, including the Polihali Dam on the Senqu River (Lesotho Highlands, Phase 2) and the Spring Grove Dam on the Mvoti River. Others are long-term possibilities – as on the Orange River (Boskraai Dam) and the Mkomazi River. The Mzimvubu River is virtually unregulated but too remote for any large dam to be economically viable at this stage. The Zambezi is just too far away. New dams offer an ever-decreasing benefit: cost ratio (MS Basson et al, 2010). Some water can never be captured, some cannot be used effectively, and some water must and will always run to sea.


The NWRS lists groundwater use at 1088 million m3/year. More recent assessments place this at closer to 2 000 million m3. Although a seemingly major difference this does not affect the final water balance as all abstracted groundwater is also assumed to be used and the use, or requirement, increases by the same amount. In fact there is much more groundwater that could still be used. Middleton and Bailey (2009) estimate the total potentially utilisable groundwater at 7 500 million m3. With 2 000 million m3 already in use there is still unutilised potential of 5 500 million m3/a. It is the more conservative considered opinion of groundwater experts within the Department of Water Affairs that at least 3 500 million m3 of additional groundwater (this is still almost double the volume already in use) should minimally be utilisable and could thus be considered ‘available’ from a planning perspective. This water is distributed in a very thin “layer” over much of the country, not concentrated in big “dams” close to urban or industrial demand centres. Its significance therefore lies in its distributed availability and its potential for supplying many towns and villages across the country without the need for long supply lines. (See also the DWA Groundwater Strategy (DWA, 2010)).


The principle objection to desalination is that the process is energy demanding – but Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) has become a relatively efficient technology, greatly reducing energy demand. A large-scale desalination plant in Perth requires 21 MW of energy to produce 52 million m3 of water per year and the plant compensates the national grid for all the power it uses through wind power generation (Stover and Crisp, 2008). The power requirement for desalination could halve again if the electro-dialysis technology promised by Siemens meets expectations (The Economist, 3 September 2011). It is overall cost and not energy that continues to control decisions in South Africa. At about R12/m3 the cost of desalination does not yet outcompete other options still available to the country (re-use, WC/WDM, groundwater) but desalination will need to be seriously weighed against the economic and environmental costs of developing our few remaining surface water resources Opportunities for desalination include: • seawater desalination • treatment of brackish surface water, groundwater, and saline effluent • treatment of municipal effluents and return flows to discharge standards • treatment of mining and industrial effluents (typically acid mine drainage and cooling water from power stations) The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



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Significant volumes of polluted groundwater have accumulated in the gold and coal mine workings across the Highveld. The desalination of mining and industrial effluent discharges can bring this water back into use and will reduce the need for fresh water releases to provide dilution. Desalination is now a serious option for coastal cities and this availability of water may, in the longer term, lead to water demanding industries moving to coastal locations.

Water re-use

The beneficial use of previously-used water from a range of sources such as irrigation return flow, mine dewatering, industrial effluents and sewage discharges, with or without further treatment, is termed ‘water re-use’. and this is becoming an increasingly important water reconciliation strategy. In many cases, desalination is required in remediation as part of water re-use schemes. Water can be purified and re-used any number of times, depending on the efficacy of the cleaning process although some water is always lost with each cycle. Industrial and urban domestic wastewater can be re-used for further industrial or irrigation use, or may even be brought back to drinking water quality. Purification will depend on the degree of contamination, but can certainly be cost-effective from wastewater treatment works. The re-use of water at present accounts for about 14% of all available water. This could be significantly increased with more re-use of coastal return flows.

Rainwater Harvesting (RWH)

Rainwater harvesting involves the collection and storage of rainwater for later use. Rainwater can be harvested using infiltration bunds, swales and ditches to improve soil moisture and groundwater, or diverted to dams, tanks or containers. South Africa’s rainwater harvesting programme was initially focused on the construction of aboveand below-ground rainwater storage tanks by rural households for food gardens and other productive water uses. The scope is now expanding to commercial and industrial applications. Roof rainwater tanks for domestic use have been found to be particularly effective when used conjunctively with other water supplies (de Lange, 2011). Rainwater harvesting at homesteads can have a profound impact on the livelihoods of the poor, and is an increasingly important strategy in South Africa. Even with full-scale adoption by households it is unlikely to be of a scale that impacts significantly on catchment water balances as has been found in India (CH Batchelor et. al. 2003).

Catchment rehabilitation and the clearing of invasive alien plants

There are a number of actions that can be undertaken to optimise rainfall – both at catchment and at household level. Programmes need to be aimed at maximising infiltration into soil and groundwater and also at reducing wasteful evaporation from unproductive plants – thus increasing beneficial water yield.

Changing use

Water may be moved from a less efficient to a more efficient use, traded from low value to high value use, or there can be a switch from a high consumption use to a less demanding requirement. These are changes that can affect whole sectors and there may be unintended consequences – but sometimes this may be the only way to provide water where it is most needed.

Use of virtual water

Allowing our food crops to be produced by our regional neighbours could be the cornerstone of changing water use. The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook




Water quality

Water quality deterioration from agricultural, industrial, mining and settlement pollution, may be the country’s most serious threat by rendering water unusable. The discharge of industrial pollutants into the Vaal System requires that more fresh water must be released from upstream dams to dilute the river and keep the quality at an acceptable level. Salinity in the Fish-Sundays rivers in the Eastern Cape, resulting from irrigation return flows, also requires that more water must be released to flush these systems. Settlement pollution from inadequate sanitation results in contamination of groundwater aquifers on which those settlements rely. An increasing problem is also the poor management of wastewater treatment works in many municipalities, contaminating rivers and supply to downstream users. The decanting of mine-polluted groundwater into surface systems is one of the greatest challenges although desalination and re-use of this water now offers an opportunity to solve a supply problem as well as a quality problem.


Sedimentation is not a threat to the national water supply although it does slowly whittle away at storage capacity. This is accounted for in resource assessments. The problem manifests far more quickly in smaller dams, and some towns have been severely impacted. Catchment management is essential in reducing sediment in runoff.

Efficiency means less return flow

A conundrum is that greater efficiency in use – both urban and agricultural – means that less water gets to rivers as ‘return flow’. This becomes an issue where downstream users have become reliant on these return flows. One example would be where flow in the Crocodile West River largely comprises urban return flows from Johannesburg / Tshwane. Upstream (urban) efficiencies, including recycling and re-use, may mean that the river is less able to supply its downstream dependants.

Climate change

Greater climatic extremes and increasing variability in rainfall will demand greater storage and bigger buffers if the level of assurance of supply is to be maintained. The possible negative effects of climate change are being factored into supply scenarios in water resource planning, with strategies to ensure that the expected future impacts of climate change can be mitigated – as and when these begin to manifest.


Way back, in 2004, the NWRS stated that “In general, sufficient water can be made available at all significant urban and industrial growth points in the country for water not to be a limiting factor to economic development”. To achieve this, a number of reconciliation interventions were listed: • demand management • water resource management • managing groundwater resources • re-use of water • control of invasive alien vegetation • re-allocation of water • development of surface water resources and inter-catchment transfers. Surface water resource development, so long the mainstay of South Africa’s water resource thinking, is still important, but is no longer the primary option. These conclusions have been reinforced by the Water Management Area studies (the ‘Internal Strategic Perspectives’), the large system reconciliation 24

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


studies, and the ‘All Towns water resources reconciliation studies that have since been undertaken by the Department of Water Affairs. In summing up these studies van Rooyen et al., (2009) concluded that: • Water use efficiency measures (Water Conservation and Water Demand Management) must be implemented as a matter of urgency. For many of the systems investigated no other measure can be implemented in time to prevent shortages over the medium term. If water is not used more efficiently, shortages will develop and water restrictions will become inevitable. There is still enough time to implement structured programmes to achieve greater efficiency, provided these are well managed and given political support. • The re-use of water has been identified as a major potential source of water for coastal cities. In some inland areas this now also becomes a necessity. • Groundwater resources are of particular importance, not only for smaller towns, but also for larger cities, such as Cape Town. • Desalination is increasingly being recognised as a viable option and may ultimately result in waterdemanding industries being located near the coast. • Further development of surface water resources also has to happen. What has changed since 2004 is the growing imperative of water conservation as a fundamental part of demand management. Groundwater, reuse, and re-allocation are all strategies that have increased in importance. Rainwater harvesting has been added to the basket. The technological improvements made in desalination over the past 10 years have also changed the landscape significantly – with this becoming a more realistic option in the treatment acid mine drainage, salinized irrigation water, and the sea itself.


Basson, MS., Combrinck, A., Schroder, J.H., and Rossouw, J.D., 2010. Assessment of the ultimate potential and future marginal cost of water resources in South Africa. Department of Water Affairs, Report P RSA 000/00/12610. Batchelor, CH, Rama Mohan Rao, MS, and Manohar Rao, S (2003) Watershed development: A solution to water shortages in semi-arid India or part of the problem? Land Use & Water Resources Res., 3, pp1-10. De Lange, M, 2011. Assessment of the potential of rainwater harvesting as a water resource in the Mzimvubu development zone DWA water resource study in support of the Asgisa-EC Mzimvubu development project. DWA website. http://www.dwa.gov.za/documents DWA, 2010 – Statistical overview of the water sector. DWA, 2010. Groundwater Strategy. http://www.dwa.gov.za/Groundwater/gs.aspx Middleton, B.J., and Bailey A.K., 2009. Water Resources of South Africa, 2005 Study (WR2005). WRC Report TT380/08, Water Research Commission, Pretoria. National Planning Commission, 2011. National Development Plan, Chapter 4, Water Resources and Services, (pp 154-161). NWRS, 2004. National Water Resource Strategy, First Edition. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. September 2004. Stover, R., and Crisp, G., 2008. Environmentally sound desalination at the Perth seawater desalination plant. Enviro ’08, Australia’s Environmental and Sustainability Conference and Exhibition, Melbourne, Australia, May 5-7, 2008 van Rooyen, J.A., van Niekerk, P., and Versfeld, D.B., 2009. Strategic planning for water resources in South Africa. Journal of the South African Institute of Civil Engineers, SAICE. Van Rooyen, J.A., and Versfeld, D.B., 2009. Strategic Planning for Water Resources In South Africa: A Situation Analysis Department of Water Affairs, Report No: P RSA 000/00/7809. Van Rooyen, J.A., and Versfeld, D.B., 2010. Integrated Water Resource Planning for South Africa: A Situation Analysis 2010 . Department of Water Affairs, Report No: P RSA 000/00/12910.

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Maintenance Free

KROHNE WATERFLUX 3070 C, a battery powered, and maintenance-free electromagnetic water meter. The WATERFLUX3000 combined with the IFC070 battery powered converter made of polycarbonate housing is suitable for submersion in flooded measurement chambers and is protected to IP68 /NEMA 6P. No inlets and outlets, maintenance free thanks to RILSAN®-lined measuring tube without moving measuring inserts and no need for repair therefore reducing the operating cost. Meter complies with (SABS) now NRCS approval for billing. John Alexander • johna@krohnesa.co.za • 011 314 1391


Krohne (Pty) Ltd With headquarters in Germany Duisburg, the KROHNE group has extended its business into a wide spread of operations, establishing itself in 18 countries and represented in more than 30 locations. The manufacturing operations in Germany, Netherlands, the UK, France, China and India, it came into the Sub-Saharan African region more than 40 years ago. KROHNE is a leading system provider in the field of industrial process measurement instrumentation. KROHNE provides flow and level metering systems and solutions to industry customers all around the globe mainly in the offshore, pipeline, petrochemical, food and beverage, Oil and Gas and water and infrastructure sectors. KROHNE offers commissioning, calibration and maintenance services. KROHNE South Africa has branches in Midrand (Head office), Durban, Klerksdorp as well as Cape Town under the General Manager/CEO Mr John Boxley; while sub-distributors have been appointed in, Port Elizabeth, Lephalale, Witbank (Emalahleni), Sasolburg and Secunda. We provides full sales, service and support through our sales reps, distributors as well as field service technicians who repair and calibrate instruments at our head office in Midrand. Having built strong operational base in the country but with the rapid growth and opportunities in the rest of Africa it has since established offices on Angola, Nigeria, and also operates in Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Mozambique and further north in Tanzania, Malawi, Uganda, Kenya and South Sudan and in West Africa Liberia and Ghana. As a company we are committed to serving our customers, providing solutions that are unique to the geographical environment and doing so in a sustainable manner. KROHNE stands for innovation and maximum product quality and is one of the market leaders in industrial process measuring technology.

Our Vision

KROHNE is a global leader in design, development and manufacturing of innovative and reliable process instrumentation; providing measurement solutions to all industries worldwide.

Our Customers

Our products and services will exceed our customer’s requirements and expectations for value, quality and service. We will create confidence in our customers by being a fair and reliable partner.

Our Employees

Our employees are our greatest asset. We value the individual creativity of all employees and foster an environment conducive to individual initiatives and ideas.

Our Independence

We shall generate sufficient profit to finance corporate growth and to secure the financial independence of the company for the benefit of our customers, employees and shareholders.


Our Future

We are at the advent of a new industrial era. We will anticipate changing market needs, adapting our processes through modern tools and innovative technologies

Facts & Figures Total Sales 413 million Euros *

No. of employees 2758 Equity-to-assets ratio 42% Ownership KROHNE is 100% owned by the Rademacher-Dubbick family. Corporate Executive Team Michael Rademacher-Dubbick Stephan Neuburger Founded 1921 *) incl. Joint Ventures


Over 90 years KROHNE - over 90 years milestones in measuring technology 1921 1952 1953 1954 1959 1960 1961 1966 1972 1978 1979 1980 1985 1990 1994 1996 1996 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2004 2006 2007 2009

LUDWIG KROHNE & SOHN founded. Production of variable-area flowmeters. First electromagnetic flowmeter for industrial applications (TOBI 1952 / KROHNE Altometer 1962) Precision forming of cylindrical glass tubes into high accuracy tapered measuring tubes First inductive transducers for variable area flowmeters in Germany Level indicator with float and magnetic coupling Introduction of an accurate conversion method for variable area flowmeters, subsequently adopted as VDI Code First electromagnetic flowmeter as a product of the KROHNE Group (ALTOMETER) Construction of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest calibration rig in Sliedrecht/Netherlands Development of the pulsed DC field for electromagnetic flowmeters Development of double-beam ultrasonic flowmeters Construction of a still bigger and more accurat calibration rig in Sliedrecht/NL First delivery of an ultrasonic flowmeter to Shell for crude oil measurements Development and production of the Coriolis mass flowmeter First microwave radar (FMCW) level gauge for level measurement First straight-tube Coriolis mass flowmeter First electromagnetic flowmeter for partially filled pipes (TIDALFLUX). ALTOSONIC V is the first ultrasonic liquid custody transfer meter in the world. Commissioning of an eleventh calibration rig, the largest and most accurate in the world, at KROHNE Altometer, 43 metres high calibration tower, calibration volume uncertainty < 0.013% First electromagnetic 2-wire flowmeter with full process application compatibility, intelligent power optimization, high dynamic The new generation of massflow meters with straight tube, OPTIMASS. First 3-beam ultrasonic flowmeter for the chemical industry, UFM 3030. New Generation electromagnetic flowmeters OPTIFLUX with built-in diagnostics for process, accuracy and meter integrity. The new generation Level Radar OPTIWAVE and guided Radar OPTIFLEX with unique wizard-driven operating concept Most efficient clamp-on ultrasonic flowmeter OPTISONIC 6300 OPTISWIRL 4070 C first vortex flowmeter with integrated pressure and temperature compensation in 2-wire technology ALTOSONIC V12 combines, for the first time in an ultrasonic flowmeter, the advantages of the parallel chord concept and the reflection technique, setting a new standard in ultrasonic custody transfer gas metering.


HEAD OFFICE 8 Bushbuck Close, Corporate Park South, Randtjies Park, Midrand, Gauteng P.O Box 2069/2078.Midrand, 1685 Email: sales@krohnesa.co.za Tel: 0861 KROHNE Tel +27(0) 11 314 1391 Fax: +27 (0) 11 314 1681

chapter 2: Economic Efficiency and water pricing


The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook

chapter 2: Economic Efficiency and water pricing

Economic Efficiency and water pricing

Adv Peter Ramsden Pr Eng


According to economic theory the most efficient price of water is determined at that point where the market supply and demand curves for water intersect, and in a perfect market that will be the point of equilibrium. According to cost accounting theory profit is maximised when the marginal cost of production is equal to the marginal price that the consumer will pay, and in a perfect monopoly that will be the point of natural equilibrium.According to current engineering practice the fact that economic equilibrium of demand and supply is about to be achieved is a signal to start planning the next supply. And perhaps, in the South African water economy which is somewhere between a market and a monopoly, and with the occasional timeous intervention of engineers, we could for a while continue to oscillate between water prosperity (oversupply) and water depression (water restrictions). However, there is a growing consensus that the yield of the surface water resources of South Africa would be fully utilised somewhere towards the middle of this century, should all else remain equal. In 1798, Malthusi famously predicted such a scenario, ie that failing wars of the Napoleonic variety that decimated populations, population growth pressure would eventually be such that humans would fully utilize all of the resources available to them until there was so little resource available per capita that they verged on starvation. It would not surprise the reader to learn that Malthus, a messenger carrying such bad tidings, is still today a hugely unpopular economist, and it is perhaps dangerous to dwell too long on his theory. But Malthus did raise an alternative possibility, in his words only ‘hietherto unconceived improvement’ could save humans from their fate. Perhaps the way South Africa and the world manages its water resources is in need of ‘hietherto unconceived improvement’, ie a different approach. This chapter discusses price theory as it relates to the efficient allocation of water, the limits on the use of that theory and how desalination of sea water, the re-use of effluent, the environmental and social reserves, and low agricultural water prices and free basic water supply fit within that theory.

A definition of Price and Cost

Price and cost are sometimes used interchangeably and there are many definitions depending on the context in which the terms are used. In this chapter specific definitions are given to these terms. ‘Price’ is used as shorthand for ‘selling price’ and means the rate or tariff in Rand per kl at which water is sold. ‘Cost’ is used as shorthand for ‘cost of production’ and means the expenditure in Rand per kl incurred in producing the water that is sold. Cost includes both capital and operating and maintenance costs. Capital costs can be accounted for in various ways depending on whether a private or government institution funds the works and can include a combination of some of the following items: interest charges, loan redemption charges, depreciation charges, return on asset charges.ii Costs can also include procurement inefficiencies, corruption, wasteful and unnecessary overheads etc. The price (selling price) of water is not always equal to its cost (cost of production). The price of water may be set higher than its cost, lower than its cost, or equal to its cost.

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chapter 2: Economic Efficiency and water pricing

Demand v supply

In a perfect market the reaction of sellers to price increases differs from the behaviour of buyers. The higher the price that sellers can get for water, the greater the quantity of water the sellers in aggregate will be prepared to supply. However, buyers are deterred by an increase in the price of water and the demand for water will reduce with an increase in price. Over time the demand grows with increases in population and economic activity. The volume of the demand of buyers and the supply of sellers can be plotted against price as shown in Figure 2.1 below.

Figure 2.1: Perfect market demand and supply graph

If the price of water is too high, say R6.00 per kl, then the supply will exceed demand and some water will remain unsold. The suppliers/sellers will compete with each other and the price will drop, ie expensive suppliers will leave the market. If the price of water is too low, say R4.00 per kl, then the demand will exceed supply and there will be unmet demand, ie users who cannot access water. The users will compete with each other and the price will rise. Eventually, in a perfect market, the price will find equilibrium at the point where supply and demand curves intersect, say R4.00 per kl. But the water market is not a perfect market. The table below compares some of the characteristics of a perfect market with the water market in South Africa. This comparison holds true for many countries. Perfect market which equates to perfect efficiency in price and quantity sold Many buyers and sellers who can trade freely

There is only one market price

The product can be supplied in small increments, ie there is a smooth supply curve There is no ceiling price because an economic product is in limited supply.

Market for water There is one big seller of water, government. National Government is the custodian of the water resources of the country, water boards or government public entities supply bulk potable water and municipalities or water services authorities supply retail water. The environment does not pay for water. A portion of the water is retained for indigent domestic users who also do not pay for their Free Basic Water supply. Currently agricultural tariffs are only a fraction of domestic/industrial tariffs. There are huge economies of scale in supplying raw and bulk potable water. One large dam is cheaper than many smaller dams. The ceiling price for water is the cost of desalinating sea water of which there is, for all practical purposes, an unlimited supply.

Demand supply curve in the South African â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;water marketâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

The impact of these aspects of the efficient pricing and use of water are discussed below with the aid of a theoretical supply â&#x20AC;&#x201C;demand graph for the Vaal River System. 32

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Figure 2.2: Demand and supply in the Vaal River System Note that the prices are only given by way of example and do not reflect actual prices.

Government sets the price at the cost of supply

Because Government has a monopoly and because government does not wish to make a profit on water, government traditionally sets the tariff or price of water at the cost of supplying water. Government first builds the cheapest schemes for supplying water to an area and as demand exceeds the supply of that scheme government build the next cheapest scheme and so on. From Figure 2.2 above it can be seen that in year 2010 the demand and supply are in equilibrium at a price of R3.00 per kl and that this is also the cost to government of supplying water from LHWP. If the price were set at a tariff of higher than R5.00 per kl then the demand would fall to such an extent that the LHWP would not be required. If the price were set at R2.00 then the demand would grow to such an extent that Thukela Ph 2 would be required to supply the demand. Government could manipulate demand by changing the price of water.

Desalination of sea water is the ceiling price of supply

It is possible to desalinate sea water, ie remove the salts of sea water, either through evaporation and condensation (distilling) or by filtering through membranes, the latter approach currently being the cheaper. Let us assume for example that the cost of desalinating sea water and conveying it to the Vaal River system along the same route as the Durban â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Jhb oil pipeline is R10.00 and that desalinated sea water is a perfect substitute for Vaal River Water. While the cost of supplying surface water resources is below the cost of desalinating sea water there would be no incentive to desalinate sea water. No buyer would in 2010 want to pay R10.00 per kl for sea water while water is available at R3.00 per kl. However in say 2050 a buyer who has the choice of paying R12.00 for water from the Congo River or R10.00 for sea water would choose sea water. Desalination of sea water is for all practical purposes unlimited. The cost of desalinating sea water is accordingly the ceiling price for water in South Africa. Desalination will however not proceed until the cost of desalinating sea water is competitive with the cost of surface water supply. If government wishes to promote desalination (perhaps because it wants to protect the riverine environment) then it can intentionally set the price of surface water at the cost of desalinating sea water. Government is a perfect monopoly and can manipulate the price of water (as opposed to the cost of water production) to achieve a desired behaviour. Government could for example charge more for water and less for tax.

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



Sika- helping to build for the future around the world Sika is a global company with a total of 120 Production and Marketing companies in over 76 countries. Sika is active in the field of specialty chemicals dividing its activities into two business areas; the Construction Division and the Industry Division. The company has a strong innovative tradition, constantly striving for new levels of excellence. This means developing innovative technologies that will open up new opportunities for the company, its employees, and its partners in trade and industry.


Sika develops solutions that optimize customers’processes, make future-oriented, top-notch quality construction achievable, and lower costs. We work in close collaboration with architects, engineers and specialist contractors to achieve excellence in the areas of Sealing & Bonding, Flooring & Lining, Grouting & Fixing, Protective Coating, Roofing, and Waterproofing.

Sika Technology and Waterproofing

Sika is committed to proven and economic water-tight solutions for even the most challenging requirements. Sika’s waterproofing technologies include: •Integrated “White Box” concept which is a water-tight concrete and joints waterproofing •High-quality flexible PVC and FPO membranes with unique compartment system •Polyurea, polyurethane and epoxy coatings •Complete injection systems •Mortars and renderings and more.

Sika supports each project with unique services: •Wide range of tailor-made guarantee concepts •Analysis of leaks in existing structures •Concepts, specifications and detailing •Site specific solutions, application training and on-site support • Proven quality control systems

Project Reference:

One of Sika’s innovative & environmentally products, Sikalastic-841 ST, came to the fore when a unique marine ecosystem was threatened by erosion. Sikalastic-841 ST was used to waterproof 44 polystyrene pontoons which were subsequently encapsulated and then enclosed in a galvanized steel reinforcement, to protect the mangrove swamps. These pontoons were hauled 100m out to sea so that the destructive action of the waves would occur further away from the affected shoreline. Sikalastic-841 ST was Sika’s solution for saving this irreplaceable ecosystem. For more information on Sika products and systems, visit zaf.sika.com

chapter 2: Economic Efficiency and water pricing

Re-use of waste water

Just as sea water can be desalinated, so can waste water. The technologies differ slightly from sea water and may include chemical precipitation, acid neutralisation and filtration. User, for example a city, a number of mines and a steel factory, may decide on own account to treat its waste water and re-use that water. The effect of that action is to reduce the demand of water as shown in the figure 2.3 below.

Figure 2.3: Re-use of water

The Re-users have effectively reduced the demand for water and reduced the market price for water. In practice this would be achieved by delaying the need for the next scheme, eg by postponing the Thukela Phase 2 scheme in the Vaal System or the Mkomazi Scheme in the Umgeni Water supply area. The Re-users are paying more for its water in that it carries the cost of the re-use scheme. All other users (the Free Riders) are however benefitting because the market Price has moved from P(normal) to P(re-use). There is a case to be made for government to increase the price of water of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Free Ridersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; to D(normal) and to share some of the benefits of desalination with the Re-users. This could be achieved by giving Re-users a rebate on its reduction of pollution or charging the other users who do not re-use their water for their pollution.

Loss reduction

On average municipalities lose approximately 35% of their water through losses in the system (leakages and other unaccounted for water). A municipality that buys water from a water board pays for water that it on-sells to customers and also for the water that is unaccounted for. Normally water loss reduction is treated as a demand side solution. However, if water loss reduction is treated as an alternative to the water board supply then the economic solution becomes apparent.

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chapter 2: Economic Efficiency and water pricing

Figure 2.4: Treat water loss reduction as an alternative supply

The municipality’s demand curve for loss reduction is the price at which it buys water from the water board. The municipality should be prepared to pay that price for any alternative to the water supplied from the water board, up to the volume that it currently loses. The supply curve is the cost of reducing the losses. Some losses are cheap to remedy, others are more expensive. In the example the municipality should be prepared to pay up to R4.00 per kl of losses reduced and by so doing the municipality could save up to 100 000 kl. It would not be worth undertaking loss reduction techniques or loss reduction programmes that cost more than R4.00 per kl of water saved as it would be cheaper to pay the water board that plug those last few losses. If however government felt sorry for the poor municipality with the high water losses and insisted that the water board only charged R3.00 per kl then it would of course not make sense for the municipality to repair 100 000 kl worth of losses, but only say 80 000 kl of losses. Net present value calculations could be used to equate the capital and operations cost of fixing a leak with a price per kl of the water saved.

Environmental and social reserve and water for agricultural use

For environmental, social-economic and food and employment security reasons government has taken a number of supply decisions. Firstly the National Water Act 36 of 1998 requires an environmental and social reserve. This allocation to the environment and for poor basic water supply is provided free of charge. Secondly government has in the National Water Pricing Strategy set the price for agricultural use at the Operations and Maintenance cost of supply, which excludes the Capital cost of supplying water. In order for government to break even it needs to recover the cost of the environmental and social reserves and the agricultural subsidy from the other users. The other users are in fact subsidising the agricultural users.

Irrigable land as the proxy price for water

It is fair to assume that there are some high potential agricultural users (say grape farmers) who are prepared to pay more for water than government’s operations and maintenance cost; but they still cannot access water because the agricultural allocation is fixed and the way that water is registered or licenced does not facilitate the free trading of water up and down the river course. The market cannot clear the excess demand by increasing the price of water so it clears the excess demand by capitalising the price of water into the price of land. The price of land with access to water and grape production potential will increase relative to the price of land without water until 36

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chapter 2: Economic Efficiency and water pricing

the excess demand is priced out of the market. Lucerne farmers will sell to grape farmers or they will reduce their lucerne lands and plant grapes unit there is again equilibrium or they will improve their irrigation practices to gain more benefit from the land with its water allocation.

Figure 2.5: Difference in price of land as a proxy for water subsidy

If government attempts to control both the price of water and the price of land and stifles the market then the price of land and water will be such that inefficient practices can continue.

Subsidisation of free basic water

The price of free basic water is zero. The cost of production is the same as producing water for any other use. Government subsidises the cost of production. Government has a choice. It can either pay the subsidy to the municipality, eg an equitable share, or it can pay the subsidy to the indigent household. The different approaches are shown in the graph below:

Figure 2.6: The price signals of subsidising a basic water supply

The market can only work when the user/buyer feels the price signal. If government pays the subsidy directly to the household with the understanding that the household will pay for the water then the users will feel price P(household subsidy) and demand the volume Q(household subsidy). With the equitable share approach there is a conflict of interests. The municipality will try to contain consumption to Q(household) which is all that it can afford. Households on the other hand feel zero price, or price P(equitable share) and demand Q(equitable share).

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



THE CHEMICAL AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES’ ASSOCIATION The Chemical and Allied Industries’ Association (CAIA) was established in 1994 to promote a wide range of interests pertaining to the chemical industry. These include fostering South Africa’s science base; seeking ways to promote growth in the sector; promoting the industry’s commitment to a high standard of health, safety and environmental performance; and consulting with government and other role players on a wide variety of issues. Membership is open to chemical manufacturers and traders as well as to organisations which provide a service to the chemical industry, such as hauliers and consultants.

CAIA is the South African custodian of the international Responsible Care initiative, which has been adopted by 54 countries worldwide. This is a key component of the work of the Association. CAIA obtains guidance on the implementation of the initiative through its principal, the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA). Over 150 members are now signatories to Responsible Care in South Africa. Responsible Care is an initiative of the global chemical industry in which companies, through their national associations, commit to work together to continuously improve the health, safety and environmental performance of their products and processes, and so contribute to the sustainable development of local communities and of society as a whole. It encourages companies and associations to inform the public about what they make and do, about their performance including reporting performance data, and about their achievements and challenges. This has resulted in a decrease of 30% of water usage per tonne of production when comparing 2010 with 2006 levels. CAIA promotes a proactive relationship with government. Advocacy efforts are primarily channelled through Business Unity South Africa (BUSA) which represents business in the National Economic Development and Labour Council (NEDLAC).

Contact details

M D Booth, Director Information Resources Tel: 011 482 1671; E-mail: caiainfo@iafrica.com

chapter 2: Economic Efficiency and water pricing

If the municipality loses the battle against the market signal then it will go into administration (bankruptcy or insolvency) as many municipalities have. The free basic market (the consumers) do not accept any action by the municipality that opposes the zero price market signal. Under the equitable share approach a municipality that fights too hard to control consumption against an incorrect market signal could end up in the Constitutional Court defending its position.i


The market reflects human nature and the outcome of a perfect market is an economically efficient price and quantity. The water market is far from perfect. When government regulates the market, as it must to protect the environment, the poor and the producers of food it and to promote water conservation and re-use and loss reduction, it can either do so in a way that accommodates the price signals or it can do so in a way that ignores the price signals. Whichever route government choses it cannot blunt the twin scissors blades of demand and supply. Users will continue to view the price of water as a market signal and will behave accordingly.

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


Water is our most precious resource. Our water security is under severe threat from all over and for a wide variety of reasons. This cannot be allowed to continue. We need to act now by firstly protecting what we have, and then prioritise research and development towards finding sustainable methods of sanitation and waste water treatment. A new paradigm, away from disposing this waste into our precious water resources, towards using it as a valuable product, needs to be at the core of such research and development.

“Unless we change, we’ll end up where we are heading for” – Albert Einstein

4 2 G O L D MA N S T R E E T, F LO R I DA , G AU T E N G Te l : 0 1 1 4 7 2 - 3 6 0 0 Fa x : 0 1 1 6 7 4 - 4 0 5 7 Website: www.uasa.org.za



The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



Herman Wiechers Dube Ngeleza Wiechers Environmental Consultancy (Pty) Ltd

Introduction and Background

A study is in progress by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) and the National Economic Development and Labour Council (Nedlac), which is investigating Water Use Efficiency in various Industry Sectors with a view to inform company and site level targets in industry sub-sectors (DWA/ NEDLAC, 2012). The study is being carried out in five phases, as follows: 1. A literature review (complete). 2. A preliminary water use assessment of seven industrial sectors (complete); 3. Detailed water audits of three selected industrial sectors (in progress) ; 4. Based on the detailed water audits, appropriate water use protocols will be developed. 5. Based on the experience with these water use protocols, a Water Use Saving Plan will be developed for the long-term institutionalization of the findings of this study. This article reports on the first two completed phases of the project.

International Experiences

Water use efficiency in industry is considered a priority in both developed and developing countries. Typical examples are given below: East Bay Municipal Utility District in Oakland California (EBMUD, 2008): The East Bay Municipal Utility District uses a water audit system, known as WaterSense, which is an excellent way to understand current water use and future water savings (EBMUD, 2008). The water audit provides a detailed description of their water use, and identifies potential water and financial savings, and recommends various water efficiency upgrades. The EBMUDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Global Water Tool is an easy-to-use tool for companies and organizations to map their water use and assess risks relative to their operations and supply chains. Furthermore, commercial water saving devices which meet the WaterSense criteria for water efficiency and performance can carry a special promotion label. Water Use Efficiency in Industry, Buildings, and Agriculture in the Arab World (AFED, 2010): The AFED identified opportunities to increase water use efficiency in industry, buildings, and agriculture in their publication Water Efficiency Handbook. Water in the Arab world is a precious and limited resource. There are a number of strategies to achieve water security in a sustainable manner, but none is more significant than improving water efficiency. This handbook was developed to assist water users identify and prioritize cost-effective water efficiency opportunities. It targets water use in residential and commercial buildings, industrial plants, and agricultural farms. The handbook offers practical and proven methods to cut water consumption, and water costs, without sacrificing production, reliability, or comfort. By making this handbook available, industries will be better informed about water efficiency retrofit opportunities, and will, therefore, be better prepared to develop a plan to take advantage of water savings.

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



South African Experiences

South African experiences and guidelines for water use efficiency include, the experiences of: The South African Breweries; the Chemical and Allied Industries Association; The National Cleaner Production Centre (NCPC) of the Department of Trade and Industry (the dti). South African Breweries: Water is a global sustainable development priority for South African Breweries (SAB), one of the world’s biggest breweries (NEPAD, 2009). SAB’s Water Strategy is driven by the company’s Sustainable Development Priority to ‘make more beer, using less water’. The strategy takes on a comprehensive risk-based approach in managing water within the business and value chain and is based on the five all important ‘R’s’ framework, pRotect, Reduce, Re-use, Recycle and Redistribute. To date, the company has made good progress on this front with water efficiency improving by 8% over the past three years to an average of 4.1 litres of water per 1 litre of beer produced. Key imperatives in driving water efficiency for SAB include: • Reducing water ratio from 4.1 to 3.6 by 2015, a further 13% reduction; • Improving effluent discharge quality to meet river discharge quality standards; and • Engaging with key suppliers to understand their manufacturing water efficiency relative to best-inclass and their improvement plans. Water efficiency: The South African Breweries (SAB) is systematically working to improving water efficiency at all its breweries. For example, through cascading water in Alrode brewery from one process to another the company maximises usage. Using 90% returnable bottles dramatically reduce SAB’s carbon footprint, but has an implication for water use. Clean water from the final rinse is circulated for pre-wash, thus recycling water but avoiding contact with the product. Cascaded water from the bottle washers is pumped to a dissolved air floatation purification systems to clarify the water. This water is used to wash crates and floors. The company is exploring a range of opportunities such as optimising water use in boilers, steam accumulators, condensate recovery, etc. The operating philosophy is based on systematic metering of water use in different parts of the brewing process, thus driving accountability in the different sections, e.g. bottling washing, brewing and packaging halls. Water stewardship: SAB was one of the first companies to undertake a detailed water foot-printing study. The footprint revealed that more than 90% of water used across the value chain of a beer rests in the agricultural supply chain. SAB brought together key stakeholders in the water-risk landscape within which the SAB hops farms operate. Working closely with the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Council for Industrial and scientific Research (CSIR) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), a water-risk assessment was undertaken, and the implications arising from the likely future scenarios developed. Careful attention is taken to understand the implications of the local hydrology, climate change patterns, socio-economic development and agronomic realities. SAB is also working closely with small-scale farmers in Taung to ensure optimal irrigation through the measurement of soil moisture. Research is also being undertaken with the University of the Free State to determine a crop factor for barley and develop a computerised irrigation strategy exclusively for barley. Improved irrigation scheduling for barley will enhance the sustainability of producers by cutting on costs for unnecessary irrigation water and electricity. The NCPC: Water Audits for Key Industries: The National Cleaner Production Centre in South Africa has funded various studies into the efficient use of water in industry. One such study was for the Clothing Manufacture Industry, where a study was undertaken of water use efficiency in the wash house and 44

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


laundry sections. Several clothing manufacturers have laundries or wash houses for processing their garments. These wash houses offer excellent opportunities for improved environmental management and reduction in costs. Both reduced resource usage and reduction in pollution caused are achievable. Water costs are currently escalating in South Africa although our water costs are still below many water rich European Countries. Therefore the management of water use is becoming an economic as well as environmental necessity. Potential water use reductions will be in line with textile dye house savings with opportunities for savings of up to 50% of water use. It should also be noted that in the majority of processes, whenever water is saved, chemicals and energy are also saved.

Chemical and Allied Industries

SASOL: Water use by Sasol’s operations varies widely depending largely on feedstock, technology choice and the age of the facility. A gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant has a much smaller water demand than a coal-to-liquids (CTL) process whose greater water demand is driven by larger cooling requirements. Both GTL and CTL processes generate useful quantities of process water that is beneficially re-used. New designs are well over 30% more water efficient. Various technological advancements in effluent recycling, cooling, pre-treatment of water for steam generation and solids handling have paved the way for significantly improved zero liquid effluent discharge designs which are being developed irrespective of water availability or pricing. Benchmarking water use needs to consider geographical location, feedstock type and technology choices. Sasol utilises roughly 3,5% of the Vaal system’s supply capability but this supply has not always been secure. The consequences of the severe drought that occurred in the mid 1980’s are to most a distant memory. Recent investments have been made to improve water security following a water supply shortfall identified in 2004 for the Sasol Secunda operations. The R2,7 billion Vaal River Eastern Subsystem (VRESAP) pipeline project, in which Sasol has a 40% share, is being commissioned and will provide an additional reliable supply of water from the Vaal Dam to both the Sasol Secunda operations and for use by the electricity utility Eskom. A significant water conservation initiative was realised when a capital investment of about R0,5 billion was undertaken at the Sasol Secunda complex to install a series of water treatment processes to recover effluent. The water recovery project has resulted in a saving of approximately 18 Ml/d or about 5% on the total raw water intake to the Secunda complex.


Water resources in South Africa are of crucial importance to the country’s economic growth and prosperity. Because of its very limited and stressed water resources, all means possible for the optimal use of these resources need to be pursued. Water-use efficiency in industry is one avenue which is currently being studied, as reported in this paper. Preliminary results have been reported, with more detailed findings being available in the latter half of 2012. It is clear from the work to date that there is scope for improved water use efficiency in industry at a reasonable cost. In the longer term more expensive options will have to be investigated, such as water transfer from neighbouring counties, and, application advanced technologies such as sea-water desalination.


AFED (2010) Water Efficiency Handbook: Identifying opportunities to increase water use efficiency in industry, buildings, and agriculture in the Arab world, Arab Forum for Environment and Development, Beirut, Lebanon, 2010 DWA (2012), SA Saving Water, http://www.savingwater.org.za/index.php?option=com_content &task=view&id=3&Itemid=6, Department of Water Affairs, Pretoria, June 2012 DWA/NEDLAC (2012) Water Use Efficiency in Industry Study, Department of Water Affairs and Nedlac EBMUD (2008) A Water-Use Efficiency Plan-Review Guide for New Businesses: Water Smart Guidebook, East Bay Municipal Utility District, Oakland CA, 2008 NCPC (2012) Make Every Drop Count: Water Efficiency Assessments, National Cleaner Production Centre, Pretoria, South Africa, NEPAD (2009) Closing the Water Gap by 2030, Strategic Water Partners Network South Africa, Department of Water Affairs, Water Resources Group, NEPAD Business Foundation, 2009 The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



City of Ekurhuleni Ekurhuleni, a Tsonga word meaning â&#x20AC;&#x153;a place of peaceâ&#x20AC;? symbolic of the diversity of the city and its vision of an equitable and progressive community. The region has approximately 2.7 million residents and comprises some 190 000 hectares of land. The City of Ekurhuleni serves its water consumers through an infrastructure of 71 reservoirs, 32 towers, 181 bulk connections and 9 901km of pipes.

2012 National Water Conservation Awards

Deputy Minister of Water and Environmental Affairs announced the 2012 winners of the Water Conservation and Water Demand Management Sector Awards at Gallagher Convention Centre, Midrand, on 23 March 2012. The award was presented in recognition of the Top 500 Consumer Meter project to improve the metering and billing of water supply to bulk-water consumers, thus reducing nonrevenue water (NRW) for the municipality. This is the largest bulk meter management undertaken in Africa, with savings achieved through a decrease in NRW and an increase in revenue for the municipality. A total of 242 properties were involved in the project scope, as well as bulk consumers, with designs completed at 213 properties and 165 new bulk-meter installations fully commissioned. To date, the decrease in NRW from the monthly billing (calculated from only 20% of the bulk consumers) amounts to R731 901, 60 or close to R9 million a year. When extrapolating the increases in revenue received to date to include the full extent of consumers investigated, the total increase in revenue expected from the project is estimated at close to R44 million a year. The project has been highly successful in identifying numerous broken or missing water meters, which have since been replaced or repaired . In this manner, the City of Ekurhuleni intends to ensure that all water supplied to its large consumers is properly measured and billed each month. Increase in revenue from this exercise is such that it has a pay-back period of between six months to a year, making it one of the most effective water demand management interventions in the overall WDM programme.


2012 Blue Drop Certification Awards

Blue Drop Certification is the Department of Water Affairs’ incentive-based regulation programme that acknowledges the management of drinking water quality according to the risk management principles endorsed by the World Health Organisation, and in line with the legislative requirements of Section 62 of the Water Services Act. This implies that Blue Drop Certification does not only reflect on the actual quality of the tap water but also the ability of the municipality to sustain the quality, as well as preparedness to deal with any incident that may pose a health risk to the public. This prestigious certification is only awarded to municipalities that achieve a score above 95% of the Blue Drop certification programme criteria. These criteria are: (1) Water Safety Planning, (2) Drinking Water Quality Process Management and Control, (3) Drinking Water Quality Compliance, (4) Management, Accountability and Local Regulation, and (5) Asset Management. Municipalities are assessed on all the criteria and they must comply. Through the City of Ekurhuleni’s dedication to providing its consumers with excellent water services, the City has managed to obtain the certification for the fourth consecutive year since the Blue Drop Certification was introduced. The City of Ekurhuleni was, therefore crowned, as the top scoring municipality in South Africa and awarded a Platinum Blue Drop Award by the Department of Water Affairs during the release of the 2012 Blue Drop report. The City of Ekurhuleni made it to the number one spot for its drinking water quality management with an impressive score of 98.95%, followed by the City of Johannesburg with 98.92% and Mogale City with 98.79%. In all, 153 of South Africa’s 287 municipalities and 931 water systems were audited for this year’s report. It’s persistence and continual improvement to ensure clean and quality tap water was applauded by Minister of Water and Environmental Affairs, Edna Molewa, who made the announcement during the Water Institute of Southern Africa (WISA) Conference at the Cape Town International Convention Centre on 7 May 2012.

Deputy Minister of Water and Environmental Affairs presenting the City of Ekurhuleni (Water Services Authority) and Rand Water (Water Services Provider) as the top achievers in the country. Figure 1: Deputy Minister of Water Affairs, Ms Rejoice Mabudafhatsi, presenting the City of Ekurhuleni (WSA) and Rand Water (WSP) as the top achievers in the country.

profile The table below indicates the Performance Log of the Municipal Blue Drop Scores for 2012 and 2011.

City of Ekurhuleni has been in the top 10 of the Blue Drop Certification recipients and the Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Blue Drop score has progressively increased since the inception of the certification programme, as indicated in Figure 2 below. The Platinum Blue Drop status and the constantly increasing Blue Drop scores achieved by the City of Ekurhuleni are indicative of the Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s efficiency to overall management of drinking water quality.

Figure 2. Trend Analysis of Ekurhuleni Blue Drop Score and Top 10 National Achievement


Ekurhuleniâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Blue Drop Task Team, from left to right: Albert Kgogome, Hendrik Groenewald, Smuts Marais, Annamarie Maurizi, Dumisani Gubuza, Galaletsang Malebana, Johan Vorster and Dannie van der Merwe.

The Chief Director of the Water and Sanitation Department, Slindokuhle Hadebe, attributes the success of obtaining the Blue Drop and being the top achiever in the country to dedication and team work by the Blue Drop task team, involving the Planning, Operations and Revenue sections, that co-ordinates all aspects regarding Water Quality Management.

The Department of Water Affairs stated the following in the Blue Drop report:

Ekurhuleni gave a magnificent performance indeed. This water services authority had many challenges to face as their services area stretches over varied areas but they held true to their endeavour towards excellence and ultimately achieved. The extraordinary team effort can be regarded as the most remarkable attribute to this commendable Blue Drop performance. The citizens of Ekurhuleni can have the greatest of confidence in the manner drinking water quality is being managed in the area they reside.

Contact Details:

Call Centre - 0860 543 000 Website: www.ekurhuleni.gov.za



The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


WATER RECYCLING - HEREâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S HOW TO BREW BEER WITHOUT WATER Dr Bernard Talbot Director Talbot & Talbot

Effluent should be recycled back into brewery operations with less reticence than is currently the case. Throughout Africa and many other parts of the world we encounter areas or entire regions where water is scarce and water quality not to the required standards. In these situations beer quality is often compromised and production schedule disrupted. The use of properly treated effluent presents the brewer with a safer option and greater security of supply. There is little doubt that today technology exists to remove all pollutants from brewery effluent streams in a way that is cost effective. And, thereby, we can produce a water quality that is chemically safe for human consumption as well as a chemistry entirely compliant with even the most stringent of compliance schedules. Routinely produced recycled water at African breweries is generally superior in quality compared with the stringent SANS-241 (South African National Standard for drinking water). The biggest argument for reusing treated effluent is that its chemical quality far exceeds that encountered in most borehole abstraction schemes and in fact is closer to that of water used in hospitals for kidney dialysis. It is not uncommon on the eastern seaboard of the African continent and elsewhere to find borehole water high in the BTEX complex (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene residual mix) that ingress into the groundwater from leaching diesel pollution, in addition to the frequent presence of elevated nitrate and faecal coliforms that betrays the ingress of percolated domestic sewage. Many large cities in the developing world, with populations in the several millions, do not have basic sewage treatment and disposal systems or landfill facilities. A large portion of this waste load ends up in the groundwater, making the shallow coastal freshwater aquifers along the African eastern seaboard, for example, very prone to being heavily polluted, chemically and pathogenically. In urban and peri-urban coastal environments, excessive groundwater abstraction results in coning, a process whereby salt water upwells from the underlying denser saline aquifer to dramatically increase sodium and chloride concentrations in the groundwater. Where water is supplied by the local councils in developing countries, availability can be an issue. Rampant urbanisation often negates any advances made in bulk water supply and distribution. Very commonly, the microbiology can be far from safe and introduces an unknown human health risk to the brewer through the presence of pathogens. The treatment train required to achieve the necessary water quality for reuse in brewery operations has developed rapidly over the last 20 years. While there are still reasonable variations in the field, the industry benchmark currently has settled on the following format. The first step is undeniably biological and over the last 5 to 10 years this has been a dual step of anaerobic and aerobic treatment arranged in series. The anaerobic treatment is classically of the UASB (Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed) configuration and the aerobic phase is preferably of the MBR (Membrane Biological Reactor) type where clarification is achieved using ultra-filtration membranes to produce ahigh-quality intermediate water. (see middle beaker in Figure 4.1). A small amount of this water can be reused in specific user points where the water quality required is appropriate.

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



Typically, this ultra-filtration water needs further treatment. Elevated concentrations of various inorganic species in the effluent make it necessary to follow the biological steps with reverse osmosis (RO). RO membranes are used to split the effluent into two streams; a permeate and a brine. The permeate stream is largely made up of water molecules with only trace levels of ions such as sodium, low levels of ammonia and practically no organic residuals (see beaker 3 in Figure 4.1). The membranes act as an absolute biological barrier to any living organisms in whatever form, removing them with 100% efficiency. The brine contains the Figure 4.1: Progressive cleaning up of brewery effluent into rest of the chemical and biological components high quality reusable water. and needs to be discharged to the environment. This permeate water is not yet usable and requires a few post treatment steps. We usually recommend the use of activated carbon as a precautionary measure. Activated carbon filters will mop up any small traces of ammonia, colour, odour or taste that may end up in the permeate stream. Cooling is often required in tropical environments where the treated effluent could still be in excess of 35 deg C. This water is now suitable for user points that require very soft water such as boiler feed. The rest of the water requires disinfection to prevent downstream microbiological contamination and/or conditioning to ensure appropriate hardness and conductivity. An advantage of the beer industry is that brewery effluent lacks troublesome pollutants such as mercury, harmful pathogens or hormonal and pesticide residues. The above described treatment train effectively removes all pollutant groups present in a brewery effluent. So, if the consensus among water scientists is that existing technology can produce a demonstrably safe water supply, why the visceral opposition still clearly in evidence throughout the industry? Why, scientists want to know, the emotive preoccupation with the history rather than the chemistry of the water supply? The worsening water crisis in many parts of the world is expected to increasingly challenge these traditional and often archaic sentiments against recycled effluent. After all, even in nature, all water is recycled. Besides, is it not common for entire cities in both developing and developed countries to rely to some degree on recycled wastewater for their bulk water supply. We do not hear of a consumer backlash against the use of contaminated groundwater. That practice itself constitutes, in part, the recycling of wastewater. Where it is practised formally, it even has a name – aquifer recharge. A bit of ‘out-of-sight out-of-mind’. It’s also accepted as “normal” that a Londoner will open his tap to water that could have been used and cleaned several times. Much work is needed to unravel the actual perceptions of the general public that taps into this irrational fear. There are sporadic reports of studies that have strived to explain the “yuk” factor that fuels the consumer’s dread of one recycled water supply but leaves him or her unphased of another. This psychology is also encountered in arid towns in Australia where formidable resistance to treated sewage has hampered critical development of wastewater reuse. And the thesis of this argument does not even go anywhere near domestic sewage. The thesis of this article is that we should reuse effluent with no domestic sewage. 52

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


There are many up sides to the practice of water recycling in breweries besides improving security of supply, reducing water ratios and the resultant reduction in its environmental footprint. Part of the treatment train, anaerobic digestion, reduces about 85% of the organic content of the effluent by converting it first to volatile fatty acids and then to methane. This not only affords the opportunity to replace around 10% of the fossil fuel use in the boilers, but also reduces the need to consume electricity in downstream municipal or collective treatment plants. A 1 Mhl/yr brewery can produce as much as 0.46 MW of power from the anaerobic digestion of its effluent, and in addition save a further 0.11 MW of power utilisation at downstream municipal sewage treatment plant, giving a net advantage of 0.57 MW. Treatment also removes nuisance nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphate and prevents them from entering the receiving environment. Furthermore, recycled water is typically produced on the brewery site itself Figure 4.2: Biogas produced and operated and maintained by staff that is either employed, or at least from anaerobic digestion. sanctioned, by the brewery. This provides an element of control that could be a tangible relief in environments where the operational and maintenance control of the water utility companies are poor or non-existent. Many breweries today are setting their sights audaciously on ever diminishing water ratios, some as low as 2.2 hl:hl. This cannot be achieved solely by shutting taps, fixing leaks and internal recycling. In fact such targets are not achievable without aggressive recycling of treated effluent. A 20 year old brewery with old equipment but a reasonable water management programme may achieve a water ratio of 4.2 hl:hl. Recycling 65% of the brewery’s effluent leads to an approximate 50% reduction in the volume of water that needs to be brought on site and has the prospects of reducing the water ratio to 2.2 hl:hl. A further advantage of this recycling programme is that it leads to reductions in specific water usage at certain user points. The softness of the recycled water or low TDS of the RO water at around 15 mg/l tolerates more concentration cycles in the boiler feed, condensers and cooling towers before requiring blow down. This reduction in water usage takes on extreme significance in breweries that are embedded in water scarce communities. A typical 1.5 Mhl/yr brewery at a water ratio of 7 hl:hl will consume the equivalent water of 35 700 people and can be conceived as an irresponsible guzzler. Put another way, that same brewery will consume in one day what a developing world family will consume in 14 years. In these circumstances it is difficult for the brewery management to claim good environmental performance without demonstrable evidence of water recovery. There is little doubt that returning treated effluent back into the brewery operations should be practised with great care. Besides ensuring stringent operating procedures and rigorous quality assurance programmes, there are numerous qualifiers that need to accompany the reuse programme. Possibly chief among them is the strict need to prevent ingress of domestic sewage into the effluent reticulation. Exhaustive testing needs to be done using a variety of techniques including dye tracer studies to verify that streams emanating from ablutions facilities are kept segregated and discharged separately from the effluent. The extent of recycling needs to be tempered for a number of reasons. Experience in several breweries suggests that, as a rule of thumb, recycling should be limited to 60-65% of the effluent volume generated. There is a very good reason for this. As water flows through the brewery it picks up substantial quantities of sodium, chlorides, sulphates as well as other species. Many of these are The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



conservative, i.e. they flow right through the biological treatment steps unaltered and end up in the RO membranes where they are separated from the water and end up in the brine for discharge. The balance of the effluent that is not reused, or 35% 40% has to be the carrier for practically all the inorganic component of the full effluent stream. In this way, the lower this discharged volume, the higher the concentration of the inorganic species such as sodium and chloride. Sodium is a classic example: We find this cation entering the brewery at Figure 4.3: Water recovery plant showing anaerobic digester (left) and <100 mg/l, but leaving around 500 mg/l to 600 mg/l. All of this works its way through membrane biological reactor (right) the anaerobic and aerobic treatment steps and ends up going through the membranes. Almost all of it is retained in the membrane and discharged with the brine. Here its concentration increases to 1400 mg/l to 1800 mg/l. At this point, the discharged stream has the potential to become problematic. If the river water is used for irrigation, for example, sodicity problems can be become apparent. It could be counter argued that the water recovery programme does not increase the amount (load) of sodium released to the river, but only the concentration. However, sodium will have an impact due to concentration alone. Where the brewer is assured of a secured supply of good water quality the drivers for water recovery largely disappear due to the higher capital and operating costs associated with the required treatment steps. These added costs, combined with added operating and maintenance complexities will otherwise limit treatment to anaerobic and aerobic treatment. Unlike the GHG crisis, the water crisis is far more of a regional phenomenon and cannot on its own merit further treatment that is required for safe release of the effluent to its receiving environment. The resultant increase in process complexity with components such as ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis is very real. These are engineering processes and equipment that are often foreign to the brewer. It is not surprising that we find such treatment trains are best operated and maintained on an outsourced basis by a specialist utility company. Operational experience is key not only in treatment area, but also in managing events within the brewery so as to ensure appropriate quality of the brewery effluent. A properly crafted wastewater management plan can anticipate and successfully mitigate all these difficulties so as to safeguard the realisation of a water recycling programme. The brewery industry can afford the luxury of debating whether beer can be brewed without malt – but it cannot escape the simple fact that beer cannot be brewed without water. With proper care, reuse of treated effluent can alleviate the constraints of poor water supply, as is already the case in a few breweries around the world. All this will demand a shift in attitude. Over the last 50 years we have moved from the general consensus that water was an infinite resource to our current understanding. Now is the time to bury the “yuk” factor once and for all. It is high time that one of the larger beer producers takes the bold step of producing a beer that is proudly presented as a genuine, fully recycled drink and marketed as a green product. Others will follow. Maybe we will yet produce beer without water – at least without freshwater – whatever that might be. The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



SENTER 360 Senter 360 is a privately owned South African company situated in Klerksdorp in the North West Province. We have been in the irrigation industry for more than 20 years, specialising in surveying, system design, installation and the commissioning of irrigation systems, with centre pivot irrigation always being a major part of our business. The Senter 360 centre pivot was born in 1994 from many years of practical field experience. We now have growing business interests throughout South Africa, Africa and other countries. We provide a complete service, which includes project development - from feasibility studies to implementing and project management. The trust placed in our company and its product was recently illustrated by the awarding of a South African government tender to erect 55 pivots for the Taung irrigation project. This includes upgrading the Taungâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current irrigation system.

Our Products

Designed and built in South Africa since 1994, Senter 360 centre pivots are known for their superior quality of construction and strength that top industry standards. But it is not only about the strength of the structure, the detail counts.

Structural stability Senter 360 uses pipe trussing, which makes the structure much stronger and lighter. Our pivots therefore provide extremely strong resistance in stormy weather. The standard 4.5 m long heavy-duty base beam (5.9m for the high profile models) ensures stability over


uneven terrain and during windy conditions. Drive unit legs are made from 100 x 75 x 6 angle iron and are reinforced with horizontal and diagonal braces. The ball and socket joint between large diameter spans prevents operating loads from being transformed from one tower to the next. All in all, the Senter 360 pivot was designed to last and is built with the same objective in mind. Innovative control panel series South African designed and built mechanics control the system and electronic control panels using standard 230 Volt, control the circuit. All electronic panels are backed up by a mechanical system and are modular for easy upgrading. Heavy duty motor-gearbox The 0,56kW 40:1 or 1,1kW 30:1 three-phase 400 Volt 50 Hz motor-gearbox unit has a fully enclosed irrigation duty motor, mounted at the centre of each base beam. The 50:1 wheel gearboxes are fitted with 57,15mm output shafts. All shafts have double-lip oil seals with external seal savers. A full cycle expansion chamber with a bellows-type expansion diaphragm is standard on all gearboxes. The self-aligning rubber insert used with the drive unit couplers, allows for softer starts and stops. This feature is critical in prolonging gearbox life.

Contact Details Tel no 018-469-133 info@senteer360.co.za www.senter360.co.za

chapter 5: Water in the commercial sector - Woolworths water programme


The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook

chapter 5: Water in the commercial sector - Woolworths water programme

Water in the commercial sector Woolworths water programme Justin Smith Head of Sustainability Woolworths


South Africa is a water-scarce country. In addition, the quality of our water is increasingly threatened, in part by industrial and agricultural activity. According to WWF-SA the stress placed on South Africa’s scarce water resources has resulted in more than 84% of mainstream freshwater ecosystems being classified as “threatened” in a national survey. Growing public awareness around water has been driven by droughts, flooding, and concern about acid mine drainage issues. The majority of South Africa’s water resources are used in farming irrigation, and Woolworths, as a major supplier of fresh produce, has to play a role in water conservation.

Key focus areas

Caring for our planet and the people we support through our business has always been important to Woolworths. In 2007, we consolidated all our efforts to support both people and planet under one programme called the ‘Good Business Journey’. Focus areas prioritised key social and environmental concerns facing South Africans. The six key areas that link to issues ofsustainability are: sustainable farming, protecting water supplies, reducing energy use, improving the management of waste, making a significant contribution to social development and supporting transformation initiatives With the majority of South Africa’s scarce water resource used in farming irrigation, Woolworths, as a major supplier of fresh produce and a member of the CEO Water Mandate, has identified the important role it has to play in water conservation and has committed to reducing water usage and managing waste water and water effluent across our own operations, within our supply chain and through collective action, partnerships, research and education. Within its own operations, Woolworths has committed to reducing relative water usage in stores by 50%, and municipal water usage in head office by 70% by 2015. When evaluating new real estate opportunities, Woolworths considers if the design of the property enables the efficient use of water and water waste. This includes the use of water storage, recycled and grey water systems; use of indigenous shrubs and ground covers; and storm water management. The installation of pulse metres in all facilities has resulted in much better quality information being available and allowing constant monitoring of water usage. Woolworths’ head office has tapped into an unused underground water supply to meet some of its daily water needs, conserving an estimated 27 375 000 litres of municipal water a year or 75 000 litres a day. Woolworths installed a water treatment system to purify the water which previously flowed under the building and into the city’s storm water system. Some of this water is used to flush toilets, run the building’s car wash, the fountain outside the building and the cooling towers for the air conditioning units. The initiative has helped head office facilities decrease water usage by 18% from the 2008 benchmark, with greater savings to come. The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


chapter 5: Water in the commercial sector - Woolworths water programme

Water across the supply chain

Woolworths works across the supply chain, measuring the amount of water used by suppliers and working with them to reduce water use and improve water waste management during growing, production and manufacture. We have strict code of conduct regarding dyes (including the removal of Azodyes), chemicals and water management. All Woolworths produce farmers adhere to Globalgap farming practices which further entrenches these standards. One of the largest areas of impact that Woolworth is making in the supply chain is through the Farming for the Future programme. Woolworths works with conventional farmers to help them adopt more responsible farming practices in order to establish a thriving and sustainable microbial population in the soil. Farming for the Future measures the water required for the plant and irrigation is used only if and when required. The latest audits show significant water savings of 16% (720.9 million m³) across top supplier farms. The conservative use of chemicals also prevents possible fresh water contamination from pesticides and fertilisers. All Woolworths locally grown fresh produce (other than organically certified produce which is grown without the use of artificial chemicals) is grown this way and the programme has been extended to wine and horticulture suppliers. Woolworths has also completed a water trial with 66 food suppliers, which has highlighted issues with run-off water from irrigation practices and waste water from farm processing. We are working with the Global Compact and the German Development Agency (GTZ) to further analyse water usage in agriculture (including wine and horticulture) and develop methods for reduction. Woolworths is also working with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) to identify South African arable areas that are likely to struggle with water scarcity due to the impacts of climate change and to incorporate this thinking in its supply chain strategy.


In collaboration with Pegasys, Woolworths has completed a water footprint analysis for a selection of products in order to gain a better understanding of water dependencies and risks in the supply chain and shall use the study to further our work in the supply chain. The products selected for this study were: carrots from the Ceres area, to represent a local irrigated crop; imported beans from Kenya, to represent an imported crop; cheese produced in the Western Cape, to represent a livestock-based product with an operational water footprint component; and dishwashing detergent produced in Johannesburg, to represent a consumer good with an operational and downstream water footprint component. This study observed: • The temporal nature of rainfall and irrigation use is significant, and thus the planting of crops during different seasons is an important consideration when understanding water risks and implications. • Whist an imported product may have a higher carbon footprint, there may be higher surface water requirements if the product were to be produced locally and therefore the carbon-water tradeoff must be taken into consideration when comparing supply alternatives. • The large water requirements for animal-based food products. • The large amount of water required in the consumer use and disposal of products like dishwashing detergents. More importantly than individual observations, the water footprint analysis helps to illustrate water dependencies and implications in the Woolworths supply chain. A water footprint analysis is thus an essential first step in understanding water related risks and opportunities, and therefore Woolworths shall use this insight to further our work in the supply chain.


The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook

chapter 5: Water in the commercial sector - Woolworths water programme

A life cycle assessment (LCA) of fresh milk production in the Western Cape has also been conducted in conjunction with the Greenhouse and WWF to gain an understanding of the impacts of milk production along its full supply chain, and to identify opportunities for improvement. The system boundary used follows milk from its production on the farm, through processing, distribution, retail and consumption, focusing on carbon and water impacts.

Water balance

Woolworths is the only retailer to form part of the World Wide Fund for Nature’s (WWF) Water Balance Programme. The scheme, launched in association with the government’s Working for Water programme, has multiple objectives of reducing the impact of invasive alien plants on water supplies, restoring biodiversity and ecosystems function as well as creating jobs and economic empowerment. Woolworths is eliminating invasive water-thirsty alien plants on supplier farms and in the Tankwa Karoo National Park. The project will release enough water into South Africa’s water system to offset the water used by Woolworths’ operations each year.

Public policy and collaboration

We support clear and decisive policy on water strategy and implementation planning and maintenance to ensure preservation of South Africa’s scarce water resources. Woolworths is also a member of the CEO Water Mandate - a unique public-private initiative designed to assist companies in the development, implementation and disclosure of water sustainability policies and practices. Endorsers of the CEO Water Mandate recognise that through individual and collective action they can contribute to the realisation of the Millennium Development Goals. We support the activities of the CDP Water disclosure project, and have voluntarily participated in its assessment process over the last three years. Woolworth is committed to water conservation education through providing educational resources to schools within the ‘Making The Difference’ programme; assisting to educate the supply chain; and raising awareness around water issues amongst customers and employees through in-store, social media and internal campaigns.

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


AmAthole District Municipality AmAthole

AmAthole AmAthole

District Municipality making District small DistrictMunicipality Municipality rural towns making small making small making small work big rural towns rural ruraltowns towns work big work workbig big


he small rural towns in the Eastern Cape are taking a giant leap. Thanks to an ambitious economic infrastructural by theinAmathole he smallproject rural towns the Eastern small rural towns inlike the Eastern Cape taking atowns giant leap. he are small rural in the Eastern Districthe Municipality, towns Butterworth Cape are are taking aambitious giant leap. Thanks totaking an economic Cape a giant and Stutterheim are now able to leap. become Thanks to an ambitious economic infrastructural project by Amathole to an the ambitious economic economicallyThanks viable while creating livelihood infrastructural project by the Amathole District Municipality, towns like Butterworth infrastructural project by the Amathole for locals. District Municipality, towns liketo Butterworth andDistrict Stutterheim are now able become Municipality, towns like Butterworth Through itsviable developmental and Stutterheim are are now able toagency become economically while creating livelihood and Stutterheim now able to become Aspire, the Amathole District Municipality economically viable while creating livelihood for economically locals. viable while creating livelihood for locals. hasfor injected millions of randstowards Through developmental agency locals.its its developmental agency Aspire, the Amathole District Municipality Through its of developmental agency theThrough development these towns and Aspire, the the Amathole District Municipality has injected millions of randstowards Amathole District Municipality theAspire, stimulation of their local economic has injected millions of randstowards thehas development of these and injected millions of towns randstowards environment. the the development these towns andand stimulation ofoftheir local economic development of these towns The initial funding for operations behind this the stimulation of their local economic environment. the stimulation of their local economic noble wasfunding R5 million for three financial environment. Theidea initial for operations behind this environment. Theand initial funding operations thisthis years escalated toforR11.4 million in behind 2011/12 noble idea was R5 million three behind financial The initial funding forfor operations noble idea waswas R52012/13 million for three financial years and escalated tomillion R11.4 million infinancial 2011/12 noble idea R5 for three to R15 million for financial year. years and escalated to R11.4 million in 2011/12 to R15 million for 2012/13 financial year. years and escalated to aR11.4 million in 2011/12 The agency received Neighbourhood to R15 million forreceived 2012/13 year. The agency afinancial Neighbourhood to R15 million for 2012/13 financial year. Development Grant of R64 million from TheThe agency received a Neighbourhood Development Grant of R64 from agency received amillion Neighbourhood the National Treasury well as Leverage Development Grant of as R64 million from theDevelopment National Treasury as as Leverage Grant ofwell R64 million from Funding of more more thanas R300 million. the National Treasury well as Leverage Funding of than R300 million. the National Treasury as well as Leverage Funding more thanthan R300 million. In lineofwith State President Jacob Zuma’s Funding of more R300 million. In line withwith State President Jacob Zuma’s State Of The Nation Address announcement In line State President Jacob Zuma’s State Of The Nation Address announcement State Of The Nation Address announcement of massive cash injection on infrastructural Of The Nation Address announcement of aaState massive cash injection on infrastructural of aofmassive injection on infrastructural projects, thecash Amathole District Executive a massive cash injection on infrastructural projects, the Amathole District Executive projects, theannounced Amathole District Mayor also plans toExecutive projects, the Amathole District Executive Mayor also announced plans to Mayor alsoalso announced plans to to undertake such. Mayor announced plans undertake such. undertake During such. the State of the District Address, undertake such. During the State of District Address, During thethe State ofthe the District Address, which signals the new Municipal financial During State of the District Address, which the new Municipal year assignals from 10 2012, Konzafinancial said: which signals the new Municipal financial which signals theJuly new Municipal financial year as from 10 July 2012, Konza said: “Unemployment and its2012, accompanying as from July Konza said: yearyear as from 10 10 July 2012, Konza said: “Unemployment andand itsare accompanying poverty characteristics and “Unemployment its dominant accompanying “Unemployment and its accompanying poverty characteristics are are dominant andand poverty characteristics dominant poverty characteristics are dominant and


unacceptably high at almost 50% of the district population still in poverty.” “The government is the biggest employer contributing 42%atofalmost all jobs of total unacceptablytohigh 50% of the unacceptably atstill almost 50% of the number of 94high 808 people employed ADM district population poverty.” unacceptably high at in almost 50% ofinthe district population in the poverty.” “The government is biggest population still in poverty.” in district this period. Thisstill represents aboutemployer 10% of government isofthe biggest employer contributing 42% jobs ofTrade total government isallthe biggest employer all“The the“The jobs intothe Eastern Cape. is the contributing to 42% of all of total number of 94 808 people in ADM contributing to 42% of jobs allemployed jobs of total next best performing sector creating 18% of number of 94 people employed ADM in number this period. represents aboutin10% of of 808 94This 808 people employed in ADM jobs in the district.” inall this period. represents about 10% jobs inThis theThis Eastern Cape. Trade isoftheof inthe this period. represents about 10% “Itbest is based this that we have decided all the jobs in the Eastern Cape. Trade is the next performing sector creating 18% all the jobs inon the Eastern Cape. Trade is of theto next best performing 18% of of take ainbold politicalsector step tocreating make Economic jobs the district.” next best performing sector creating 18% jobs in the district.” “It isinbased this that we have decided to jobs the district.” Development aon key sector by making “It ais based on this thatthat we have decided to to take political step to make Economic “Itbold isfrom based onADM this we have decided available the reserves an amount take a bold political to make Economic Development a keystep sector bymake making take a bold political step to Economic not exceeding R30 million to fund agricultural Development a key sector by making available from the ADM reserves an amount Development a key sector by making and tourism projects.” available from the ADM reserves an amount not exceeding R30 million to fund agricultural available from the ADM reserves an amount The fund,projects.” which ismillion parttooffund not exceeding R30 million agricultural and tourism not exceeding R30 toAmathole fund agricultural and tourism projects.” District’s investment creation The fund, which istowards part of job Amathole and tourism projects.” fund, which is part of Amathole District’s investment towards creation The fund, which is part ofjob Amathole is The expected to be utilised within the local District’s investment towards jobjob creation is expected to be utilised within thecreation local for District’s investment towards economic development areas, particularly iseconomic expected to be within the local development areas, particularly is expected to utilised be utilised within the local for broad infrastructural related projects, mainly economic development areas, particularly for for broad infrastructural related projects, mainly economic development areas, particularly agriculture and tourism. broad infrastructural related projects, mainly agriculture and tourism. broad infrastructural related projects, mainly As part partand of and the small town regeneration regeneration agriculture tourism. As of the small town agriculture tourism. As part of the small town regeneration project, Konza announced andregeneration unpacked project, Konza announced and unpacked As part of the small town project, Konza announced andand unpacked investment plans for of the project, Konza announced investment plans for aa upgrade upgrade ofunpacked the investment plans for a upgrade of the 12 towns the District. plans for a upgrade of the 12investment towns in in the District. 12 towns in the District. These towns Alice, Butterworth, 12 towns in theinclude District. These towns include Alice, Butterworth, These towns include Alice, Butterworth, Dutywa, Hamburg, Stutterheim, Cathcart, These towns include Alice, Butterworth, Dutywa, Hamburg, Stutterheim, Cathcart, Dutywa, Hamburg, Stutterheim, Cathcart, Peddie, Keiskammahoek and Fort Beaufort. Dutywa, Hamburg, Stutterheim, Cathcart, Peddie, Keiskammahoek and Fort Beaufort. Peddie, Fort Beaufort. SheKeiskammahoek cited investmentand opportunities Peddie, Keiskammahoek and Fort Beaufort. cited investment opportunities She cited investment opportunities inShe these towns as dependent on the She cited investment opportunities inpromotion towns onon the of as economic revenues, such as in these towns asdependent dependent onthe the inthese these towns asdependent promotion of economic revenues, such asand tourism, entrepreneurship programmes promotion economic revenues, such promotion ofofeconomic revenues, such asas tourism, entrepreneurship programmes andand infrastructural development. tourism, entrepreneurship programmes tourism, entrepreneurship programmes and infrastructural development. infrastructural development. infrastructural development.

The town development is linked to national and provincial road corridors: Changing the face of Butterworth • Upgrade of the CBDisreached TheThe town development linked to The town development is linked to to completion in November 2011. national and provincial road corridors: The town development is linked national provincial road corridors: Changing the face of development, Butterworth and provincial road corridors: •national The and Gcuwa Dam is Changing the faceface •Changing The Upgrade the CBD reached the of Butterworth positioned asofof anButterworth entertainment and • •The Upgrade ofinthe CBD reached completion November 2011. The Upgrade of the CBD reached leisure development node and private in November 2011. • completion The Gcuwa Dam development, completion in November 2011. is sector interest isdevelopment, to be arranged. • •The Gcuwa Dam is and positioned asDam an entertainment The Gcuwa development, is • positioned In co-operation the Eastern Cape as an and leisure development node and private positioned as entertainment anwith entertainment and leisure development andand private Development Corporation, bamboo has sector interest is tonode benode arranged. leisure development private interest is toisas be • sector In co-operation with the Eastern crop Capefor sector interest toanarranged. be arranged. been identified alternative • •In Development co-operation with the the Eastern Cape Corporation, bamboo has In co-operation with Eastern Cape the N2 corridor area. Development Corporation, bamboo hashas been identified as an alternative crop for Development Corporation, bamboo been identified as an crop for for the N2identified corridor area. been as alternative an alternative crop

iDutywa town regeneration the the N2 N2 corridor area. corridor area. • The development of business plans to iDutywa town regeneration iDutywa town regeneration motivate for regeneration funding of an upgrade •iDutywa The development of business plans to the town • •The development of business plans to to motivate for funding an upgrade The development of of business plans to Dutywa CBD and the development ofthe a motivate forCBD funding of upgrade to the Dutywa andcommunity thean of the a motivate for funding ofdevelopment an upgrade to commercial and orientated Dutywa CBD and the development of aof a commercial and community orientated Dutywa CBD and the development precinct in Dutywa town. commercial community precinct inand Dutywa town. orientated commercial and community orientated precinct in Dutywa town. precinct in Dutywa town.

Stutterheim town regeneration regeneration Stutterheim town Stutterheim town regeneration The construction ofregeneration the Cumakala Bridge Bridge Stutterheim town The construction the Cumakala Bridge and access road uniquely designed The construction of the Cumakala Bridge and access roadofincluding including uniquely designed and access road including designed street lighting and footuniquely path to Mlungisi Mlungisi has and access road including uniquely designed street lighting and aa foot path to has street lighting andand a foot pathpath to Mlungisi hashas been completed. street lighting a foot to Mlungisi been completed. been completed. •been Thecompleted. construction of the Mlungisi The construction ofofthe Mlungisi • ••The construction of the Mlungisi Community Commercial Park is well The construction the Mlungisi Community Commercial Park isistemporary well Community Commercial Park is well underway; and more than 100 Community Commercial Park well underway; more than 100 temporary underway; and more than 100 temporary jobs wereand created during construction. underway; and more than 100 temporary were created during • jobs The construction ofduring theconstruction. Stutterheim jobs were created during construction. jobs were created construction. • •The construction of District the Stutterheim Business is nearing The construction the Stutterheim • Central The construction ofofthe Stutterheim Central Business District is nearing finalisation. Central Business District is nearing Central Business District is nearing finalisation. finalisation. finalisation.

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Amathole District Municipality Executive Mayor Nomasikizi Konza with her counterpart, Amahlathi Local Municipality Mayor, Mncekeleli Peter during the unveiling of Cumakala Bridge. Amathole District Municipality Executive Mayor Nomasikizi Konza with her counterpart, Amahlathi Local Municipality Mayor, Mncekeleli Peter during theNomasikizi unveiling ofKonza Cumakala Bridge. Amathole District Municipality Executive Mayor withwith her counterpart, Amahlathi Local Amathole District Municipality Executive Mayor Nomasikizi Konza her counterpart, Amahlathi Local Municipality Mayor, Mncekeleli Peter during the the unveiling of Cumakala Municipality Mayor, Mncekeleli Peter during unveiling of Cumakala Bridge. The R63Bridge. Corridor Keiskammahoek town regeneration

• A Local Spatial Development Keiskammahoek town regeneration ramework for Keiskammahoek was • Keiskammahoek A Local Spatial Development Keiskammahoek town regeneration town regeneration adopted byfor theKeiskammahoek Amahlathi Council in ramework • •A Local Spatial Development A Local Spatial Developmentwas December 2011. Besides strengthening adopted byforthe Amahlathi Council in ramework Keiskammahoek waswas ramework for Keiskammahoek December Besides strengthening adopted by 2011. the Amahlathi Council in in theadopted concept of the the agro-produce by Amahlathi Council the concept of2011. the agro-produce December 2011. Besides strengthening December Besides strengthening market, sports development has market, sports development has the concept of the agro-produce the concept of agro-produce been identified asthe a potential been identified asdevelopment a potential market, sports development hashas market, sports intervention. intervention. been identified as aaspotential been identified a potential intervention. intervention. Keiskammahoek Keiskammahoek blueberry blueberry large large Keiskammahoek blueberry large outKeiskammahoek growers blueberry large • out Six growers hectares of of blueberries blueberries have have out growers • Six hectares been planted Gxulu in • •Six hectares ofatblueberries have Six hectares blueberries have been planted atofUpper Upper Gxulu in Keiskammahoek. been planted at Upper Gxulu in in been planted at Upper Gxulu Keiskammahoek. Keiskammahoek. Keiskammahoek.

Alice town regeneration The R63 Corridor • Town Centre upgrade has reached the Alice town regeneration The R63 Corridor The R63 Corridor detailed planning stagehas to prepare • Alice Town Centre upgrade reached for the Alice town regeneration town regeneration construction. detailed planning stage prepare forthe • •Town Centre upgrade hasto reached the Town Centre upgrade has reached construction. planning stage to prepare for foras • detailed Citrus Processing has been detailed planning stage to identified prepare • construction. Citrus Processing been identified as theconstruction. main corridor has intervention along the the main corridor intervention alongasthe • •Citrus Processing has been identified Citrus Processing has been identified R63 corridor. A citrus sub-sector study as R63 corridor. A citrus sub-sector study the main corridor intervention along the the the main corridor intervention along has been completed.

• The Environmental Impact Assessment application for a boardwalk and beach • The Environmental Impact Assessment upgrade is underway.

application for a Impact boardwalk and beach • •The Environmental Assessment The Environmental Impact Assessment upgrade isforunderway. application a boardwalk andand beach application for a boardwalk beach Hamburg Artist Retreat upgrade is underway. upgrade is underway. Hamburg Artist Retreat • The construction of the Hamburg Artists •Hamburg TheArtist construction of the Hamburg Artists Hamburg Artist Retreat Retreat is Retreat well underway and will be Retreat is well underway and will be • • The construction of the Hamburg Artists The construction of September the Hamburg Artists officially opened by 2012. officially by September 2012. Retreat is well underway andand willwill be Retreat isopened well underway be The contractor has started with the final The contractor hasSeptember with the final officially opened by 2012. officially opened bystarted September 2012. has been completed. R63 corridor. A citrus sub-sector study R63 corridor. A citrus sub-sector study fittings such kitchens fittings such as as wardrobes, kitchens The contractor haswardrobes, started with the the finalfinal The contractor has started with hashas been completed. been completed. and wall paints. On 50 The R72 R72 Corridor Corridor and wall paints. On average average 50 people people fittings such as wardrobes, kitchens The fittings such as wardrobes, kitchens and wallwall paints. OnOn average 50during people Hamburg regeneration The R72 Corridor were temporarily employed and paints. average 50 people The R72 Corridor construction phase. were temporarily employed during • Hamburg The detailed detailed design phase phase and and Environmental Environmental Hamburg regeneration were temporarily employed during regeneration construction phase. • The design • construction brand development phase. Impact Assessment forphase Hamburg Town • •The detailed design phase andand Environmental phase. process The detailed design Environmental • A Aconstruction brand development process for for the the Impact Assessment for Hamburg Town Retreat has started. process • • A brand development for for the the Centre construction underway. Impact Assessment forisHamburg Town A brand development process Impact Assessment for Hamburg Town Retreat has started. Centre construction is underway. Retreat hashas started. Centre construction is underway. Retreat started. Centre construction is underway.

AmAtHole DiStRiCt muniCipAlity AmAtHole DiStRiCt muniCipAlity Tel: +27 (0)43 701 4000 • Fax: +27 (0)43 742 0337 • Email: info@amathole.gov.za • www.amathole.gov.za AmAtHole DiStRiCt muniCipAlity AmAtHole DiStRiCt muniCipAlity

Tel: +27+27 701 4000 • Fax: +27+27 742Cape, 0337 • Email: info@amathole.gov.za • www.amathole.gov.za 40 Tel: Cambridge Street, East London, Eastern South Africa, 5200 • PO Box 320, London, Eastern Cape, South Africa, 5200 (0)43 701 4000 • Fax: (0)43 742 0337 Email: info@amathole.gov.za www.amathole.gov.za Tel: +27 (0)43 (0)43 701 4000 • Fax: +27(0)43 (0)43 742 0337 • •Email: info@amathole.gov.za ••East www.amathole.gov.za 40 40 Cambridge Street, EastEast London, Eastern Cape, South Africa, 5200 • PO BoxBox 320, EastEast London, Eastern Cape, South Africa, 5200 Cambridge Street, London, Eastern Cape, South Africa, 5200 • PO 320, London, Eastern Cape, South Africa, 5200

40 Cambridge Street, East London, Eastern Cape, South Africa, 5200 • PO Box 320, East London, Eastern Cape, South Africa, 5200

chapter 6: The Status and Use of Potable Water Efficient Devices in the Domestic and Commercial Environments in South Africa


THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook

chapter 6: The Status and Use of Potable Water Efficient Devices in the Domestic and Commercial Environments in South Africa

The Status and Use of Potable Water Efficient Devices in the Domestic and Commercial Environments in South Africa Report to the WATER RESEARCH COMMISSION by David Still, Su Erskine, Nick Walker and Derek Hazelton on behalf of Partners in Development

This report is the result of a project carried out exploring the status of water efficient devices in the domestic and commercial environments in South Africa. For the purposes of this study, commercial environments were limited to public institutions such as schools, prisons and hospitals as well as shopping complexes and the hospitality industry. This report does not include information on the use of water efficient devices in industrial settings. A water efficient device is one which serves the same function as its standard alternative, without any reduction in performance, while using less water. Traditionally the design considerations for toilets, showers, washing machines, basins, baths and taps have been functionality, aesthetics and cost. Not much attention was given to how much water these items used, because in many of the countries of manufacture water was always thought of as a cheap and abundant resource. However, the world’s population has increased fourfold in the last century, and will at least double in the century to come. Along with this increase in population has been the emergence of megacities, sprawling densely populated conurbations with populations numbering in the tens of millions (e.g. Gauteng, with a population approaching 11 million and, at the present growth rate, set to reach 20 million by 2025). With these changes, the adequacy of water resources in many countries has become a matter of critical concern. According to the United Nations Environment Programme, one third of the world’s population already lives in conditions of water stress, and this proportion can be expected to double within the next twenty five years. Water can no longer be used with abandon, but increasingly needs to be used appropriately, and efficiently. A water supply authority looking to conserve water and manage demand needs a holistic plan with four main elements, which are in nature: • Structural • Operational • Economic and • Socio-political. The socio-political part of the campaign requires advertising in all forms of the media, as well as the revision of laws and regulations. Without these “push” factors the market will not by itself move buyers in the direction of water efficiency. Authorities use economic methods, comprising pricing changes and penalties, to ensure that marginal water use is given its real marginal value. In South Africa municipalities combine free basic supplies to the poor with stepped tariffs to ensure that those who choose to use above average amounts of water do pay for the privilege. Operational methods include the reduction of supply pressures (which in South Africa are often far higher than the 1 to 4 bar needed for domestic use) and the detection and repair of leaks. Structural methods include the fitting of on-site pressure reduction devices, the use of efficient irrigation systems, the use of recycling systems, and the use of water efficient devices.

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


chapter 6: The Status and Use of Potable Water Efficient Devices in the Domestic and Commercial Environments in South Africa

There are many examples of water demand management and water conservation campaigns that have been implemented around the world. The city of Seattle in the United States, for example, has reduced its water consumption by 1% each year over the last 23 years despite a 23% increase in its population. In Southern Africa the city of Windhoek has managed to reduce average consumption from 320 litres per person per day to 220 litres per person per day over the last thirty years, in the process pioneering many of the demand management strategies that others are now emulating. In South Africa water conservation programmes carried out in the various municipalities supplied by Rand Water, the largest bulk water utility in Africa, have seen the annual growth rate in the water supply into that region reduce from 3.3% to 0% over the last three years, despite a concurrent 3.3% population growth rate. Cape Town, which has been through several years of water stress in the last seven years, has developed a holistic water conservation strategy, which includes the promulgation of the most comprehensive water conservation bylaws in South Africa. In one sense it is against a municipality’s interests to persuade its customers to use water efficiently and to penalize them financially for high water use, as water sales are a prime source of income for local government structures (in urban areas). However, if water is not used conservatively and as a result demand outstrips supply, then the municipality will end up having to pay for expensive infrastructure to augment its bulk water supply (which augmentation will cost in the billions of rands for our larger cities). If a large water supply augmentation project can be delayed by five or ten years due to the introduction of good water conservation practice, the capital saving in present day terms will run into hundreds of millions of rands.

The status and use of water efficient devices in South Africa – survey results

This study included four different surveys in order to gauge the status and use of water efficient devices in South Africa. Firstly, commercial and institutional settings such as hotels and hostels were investigated; secondly the suppliers of plumbing fittings were studied; thirdly the architectural profession was surveyed; and finally the knowledge and attitude of 1428 home owners in 10 towns and cities in South Africa were tested.

Water Efficient Devices in commercial and institutional settings

In commercial and institutional settings, there is clear evidence that water efficient devices are becoming more common. From the City of Cape Town’s programme to replace all the automatic flushing urinals in public buildings and install Hippo Bag displacement devices in all the old large capacity school toilet cisterns, to the sophisticated infrared operated taps and urinals that are becoming standard at airports, there is a move towards water saving and water efficiency. The larger hotel groups are signing onto environmental programmes, one of whose components is sustainable water use, and there are encouraging examples where universities and other public buildings are being retrofitted with water saving cisterns, taps and showers.

Water Efficient Devices in the plumbing supply industry

The increasing market share of water efficient devices is apparent on the showroom floors of the major plumbing suppliers. This is almost in spite of the suppliers, who as a rule do not push water efficiency (as one said, it is not their job to preach to their customers, who buy mainly on functionality, style and cost). The reason aerated taps, dual flush toilets, water efficient baths, basins and showers are increasingly been sold, is that these are becoming the standard in the countries of manufacture in Europe and the East. While South Africans are sometimes still wary of six litre flush toilets (“will they work?”) these, or even more efficient designs, are now the standard in parts of the USA, the UK and Europe. 66

THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook

chapter 6: The Status and Use of Potable Water Efficient Devices in the Domestic and Commercial Environments in South Africa

Water Efficient Devices as regarded by the building profession

The building profession (architects, quantity surveyors and builders) is conservative by nature. No professional can afford comebacks from aggrieved customers who do not want to be used as guinea pigs for new inventions, and therefore there is a strong tendency to stick to the tried and tested. There is some evidence that architects are moving towards an awareness of sustainable water use. However, as one said in his response to the survey, they work to the building code, and if they are expected to change the way they work then the building code should be changed.

Water Efficient Devices as understood by the general public

Of the 1 428 homeowners surveyed, 29% indicated that they had at least one water efficient device in the home. Typically only about 20% of the respondents in the average town believed they might possibly use too much water, but significantly more, 40% to 50%, have considered reducing their water consumption. The factors which prevent people from installing water efficient devices include the following: · they do not know of water efficient devices · they do not own their own home (i.e. they are renting) · they can’t afford to make changes · they do not see the need to make any changes · they are too old to make any changes Conversely the conditions which would persuade people to move to water efficient devices include the following: · an increase in the price of water · if rebates were offered for the installation of water efficient devices · if there were water restrictions · if they had a better understanding of water efficient devices, and · if the use of hosepipes was banned.

South African municipal bylaws and Water Efficient Devices

A further part of this study was an investigation into the bylaws of South Africa’s major towns and cities in so far as water demand management is concerned. It was found that while some (e.g. Cape Town and Ekurhuleni) give limits for cistern volumes and shower flows, outlaw automatic flushing urinals and are generally up to date regarding water conservation, others are silent or almost silent on the subject. In reality it is highly unlikely that municipal building inspectors have the time to adequately police these provisions, especially when the neighbouring municipalities have bylaws which are not in line with theirs (e.g. Johannesburg and Ekurhuleni). Leadership at the national level is required to update the building code to comply with the more progressive water conservation bylaws, and once this is done then architects, specifiers and builders nationally could all work to the same rules without having to know the details of the bylaws in every one of South Africa’s 169 Water Supply Authority areas. If such a step could be taken, then the considerable sophistication and power of the existing building materials databases such as Autospec could relatively easily be harnessed to enable specifiers to find water efficient products (as defined by the codes), and for suppliers of those products to bring them to the attention of their potential customers.

The economics of fitting or retrofitting Water Efficient Devices

Meanwhile the economics of retrofitting water efficient devices to existing housing stock is very variable, depending on the device and the setting in question. It is relatively inexpensive and easy to swop out shower fittings (in much the same way Eskom has recently being going from house to house and swopping out energy efficient light bulbs for the older incandescent bulbs), and these will The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



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chapter 6: The Status and Use of Potable Water Efficient Devices in the Domestic and Commercial Environments in South Africa

typically pay for themselves in water savings within a few years. The economics of changing out toilet cisterns and pans is rather less attractive, unless they are in a setting where they are used by more users than would be found in the average family home. For this reason large scale changes to the existing housing stock are unlikely, and therefore the penetration of water efficient devices into the South African domestic market is going to be slow and gradual, probably taking a few generations to become the norm.

Recommendations for increasing the status and use of water efficient devices

In order for South Africa to move more swiftly and effectively towards the entrenchment of water efficiency, the following actions are recommended: • Government must lead by example Some of the worst offenders for high water usage are government buildings. The State Landlord, the Department of Public Works, should embark on an audit of water usage and the presence of water efficient devices in all buildings under their care. This would have an impact firstly on the entire civil service, which employs over a million people1, but secondly it would impact on the population at large, who would see the state leading by example. The state is also able to take a longer view on the economics of retrofitting water efficient devices than is the average citizen, having access to cheaper capital. • South Africa needs a labelling system for Water Efficient Devices South Africa should emulate the water efficiency labelling systems practiced in other countries, of which the most advanced appears to be the Australian WELS label. This label is not just a general “green” label, but includes product specific information and a graded rating from 0 to 6 stars. If such labelling eventually becomes mandatory in South Africa, it will affect the whole supply chain from manufacture, to marketing, to purchasing. This will help not only the public, but also the building trade professionals, from plumbers, to builders, architects and quantity surveyors to become more knowledgeable about water efficiency. • South Africa needs a nationally sponsored public education campaign regarding Water Efficient Devices Apart from product specific labelling, the state needs to make a case for water saving with the public. This campaign should appeal both to the public’s sense of civic duty (“it’s the right thing to do”), while not underestimating their intelligence (answering questions like, “Why don’t we just build bigger dams?”, and “If I am prepared to pay for what I use why can’t I use as much as I want?”). • Information on Water Efficient Devices must be easily obtainable The public and even the building industry is still relatively ill-informed about water efficient devices. Water conservation in the built environment should be taught at undergraduate level to architects, and at FET colleges to plumbers. Water saving tips should be regularly distributed with municipal accounts, and should be displayed in appropriate locations. A website with product information, educational material and links to other useful site offers great potential as a tool to promote water efficiency, provided it can be maintained and updated. The existing online product databases used by the building industry (e.g. Autospec and Specifile) can be relatively easily made to respond to searches for information on water efficient products, but this can not be done until there is a nationally agreed standard for such devices. • Municipal bylaws must include provisions relating to water efficiency and water conservation, and ideally there should be convergence across municipalities Of South Africa’s 283 municipalities2, 169 are Water Services Authorities (WSAs), in other words they The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


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chapter 6: The Status and Use of Potable Water Efficient Devices in the Domestic and Commercial Environments in South Africa

have responsibility for the planning and regulation of all water supply in their area of jurisdiction. If the rate at which water is being used in their area is becoming unsustainable, then it is their responsibility to either increase the supply or decrease the demand. One measure at their disposal for decreasing demand is the promulgation of bylaws that promote water conservation. Some of South Africa’s bigger municipalities have recently updated their water bylaws, and some of these, such as Ekurhuleni, Cape Town and Tshwane have included sections on water efficiency. It would help if there was more consensus between municipalities on water bylaws, particularly in the case of a large conurbation such as Gauteng which spans several municipal jurisdictions. • Building codes and bylaws must converge Bylaws relating to behavior such as the use of hosepipes for washing paved surfaces (at any time) or for washing cars or watering gardens in times of water restrictions can be enforced. However, bylaws relating to the types or showers, baths and toilets installed in houses are really only enforceable for new housing stock, and even then it seems unlikely that municipalities have enough building inspectors to do this work adequately. It would be far simpler to inspect at the source, i.e. to control what products are sold by the plumbing suppliers. The supply cannot be controlled as long as there is wide variation in water bylaws, and moreover divergence between water bylaws and the building code. The first and most important step would be to add a section to the building code bringing it into line with modern water efficient good practice. If this was done, then the suppliers and specifiers would be able to follow without worrying that they are out of line with standard practice. • Retrofit programmes with rebates (where appropriate) should be encouraged In South Africa there are many millions of poor people who are not required to pay for their water supply. While the official policy guideline is that each family should get a lifeline amount of water of 6 kilolitres free, in some urban areas the reality is that no water is paid for. For people in these areas there is no incentive to conserve water. In such areas, it may pay a municipality to intervene with schemes to retrofit water efficient devices, even if the full cost were to be borne by the municipality. • Water supply pressures must be decreased Water supply pressures in South Africa are, in general, far above international norms. No more than four bars of pressure is needed for domestic water supply, and municipalities would save both themselves and their customers money if they took steps to regulate the pressure in their systems down to this level. Owners of buildings in high supply pressure zones would save themselves wear and tear on their plumbing fittings, and would save water, if they installed pressure reducing valves on their properties that brought their pressure down to under the four bar level. • Water supply pressures must be decreased Water supply pressures in South Africa are, in general, far above international norms. No more than four bars of pressure is needed for domestic water supply, and municipalities would save both themselves and their customers money if they took steps to regulate the pressure in their systems down to this level. Owners of buildings in high supply pressure zones would save themselves wear and tear on their plumbing fittings, and would save water, if they installed pressure reducing valves on their properties that brought their pressure down to under the four bar level.


The following table has been drawn up after reviewing what is available in South Africa and standards elsewhere in the world. This is a draft table which would require discussion between plumbing industry stakeholders and government before ratification. If ratified, the table could form the basis for an amendment to SANS 0400, the National Building Regulations.

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


chapter 6: The Status and Use of Potable Water Efficient Devices in the Domestic and Commercial Environments in South Africa


The authors wish to thank the following people: • Philip Ravenscroft and Wesley King of Maluti GSM for their assistance with much of the research conducted in the Western Cape. • Mark Kelly, previously of the CSIR’s Boutek research division for research undertaken at Hospitals. • Paul Misselhorn for his assistance with the municipal bylaws. • Glenn Treadaway and Bruce McLaren for taking time to demonstrate the capabilities of the Autospec building products information and specifications system, and explaining what would be required to add filters for water efficiency. • All those in the building industry (architects and plumbing suppliers) who graciously gave of their time to answer questions. • To the numerous research assistants who conducted the telephone interviews: Esina Ndoro; Deizdaria Magwiro; Batalwa Mtwesi; Zethu Radebe; Rudy Muleba; Pule Morodi; Sibongile Zuma; Portia Yingwane; Nathaniel Ramabulana; Khotso Rammopo, Zuzile Dladla (of PID) and Hazvinei Muteswa (for telephone interviews and data capture). 72

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chapter 6: The Status and Use of Potable Water Efficient Devices in the Domestic and Commercial Environments in South Africa

And finally grateful thanks to our reference committee, for their support and input throughout the project: • • • • • •

·Jay Bhagwan of the Water Research Commission, Chairman ·Professor Kobus van Zyl of Johannesburg University of Technology ·Hannes Buckle of Rand Water ·Teddy Gounden of eThekwini Water and Sanitation ·Chabedi Tsatsi and Chunda Cain of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry ·Guy Price of WRP (Pty) Ltd

This Executive Summary was published with permission from the Water Research Commission. To access the full report please visit: http://www.waterefficiencysa.co.za/wed%20reports/ WEDReportExSummplusChapte1.pdf

The Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



Sedibeng Water Rapid growth from humble beginnings

During the past 33 years, Sedibeng Water has progressively earned its reputation as one of the largest, most reliable and fastest-growing water utilities in South Africa. Established on 1 June 1979, Sedibeng Water primarily serviced the Free State Goldfields and parts of the former Western Transvaal. In 1996, the water utility extended its operational area to include certain districts in North West Province. As a result, more than a decade after these expansions, the company operations grew to include Vaal Gamagara and recently Namaqualand. To date, Sedibeng Water services an area spanning more than 86 000km2 across three provinces.

Vision and mission

Sedibeng Water is driven by its vision of excellence in water services provision. This emphasis on excellence is underpinned by a mission statement focusing on: • the appropriate treatment of wastewater and supply of potable water; • ensuring viability and sustainability; • creating an environment that is conducive to the growth and retention of skills; and • providing effective and efficient communications.

Assets and turnover

Sedibeng Water’s assets have grown to R1.3 billion, while its annual turnover has increased to R428 million. Assets include nine plants, 61 pump stations and 331 reservoirs. The water utility’s pipeline network extends over 692km in the Free State region, 592km in the Northern Cape region and 650km in the North West region.

Services offered

Sedibeng Water offers clients the following: • Technical services; • Water and wastewater management services; • Social services and community involvement; • Operations and maintenance services; • Wastewater treatment; • Potable water purification; • Water quality management in network; • Training and development services; and • Environmental services.


Excellence rewarded

In 2011, Frances Baard District Municipality and Sedibeng Water jointly received Blue Drop status for the Koopmansfontein system with a total score of 95%. Koopmansfontein is the smallest system yet to obtain this prestigious award. The joint impressive performance by the District Municipality and Sedibeng Water serves as an example of what is possible should all parties concerned adhere to the stringent criteria set. In 2012, Sedibeng Water was awarded a Blue Drop Status for both the Balkfontein and Virginia plants. Matjhabeng Local Municipality was awarded a Blue Drop Status for five of their plants namely: Welkom, Hennenman, Allanridge, Virginia and Ventersburg. The Department of Water Affairs acknowledged and congratulated both organisations for also achieving the Provincial Top Performer Award. The Professional Management Review (PMR) has awarded Sedibeng Water with the Diamond Arrow Award in the Free State and Northern Cape Provinces in 2010 and 2011 respectively. The organisation has also received the Golden Arrow Award in the Free State and Northern Cape Provinces in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Prior to that, this water utility received Silver Arrow Awards in 2007, 2008 and 2009 for its remarkable contribution to the economic growth and development in the Northern Cape. In 2011, Sedibeng Water received its first PMR Silver Arrow Award in the North West Province. Sedibeng Water received the Golden Arrow Award for the Northern Cape Province in 2012.

In conclusion

Underlying this success, is a mission driven by the desire to ensure customer satisfaction through the provision of uninterrupted, sustainable, equitable, affordable and acceptable quality water and sanitation services. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We have worked hard and deserve our standing amongst the giants in the South African water services sector. Our success, however, is not resulting in complacency our ranks. Instead, it inspires us to be even bigger and better in what we do,â&#x20AC;? says Rembuluwani Takalani, Acting Chief Executive of Sedibeng Water.

Contact Details

Tel: +27 56 515 0200 Fax: +27 56 515 0369 E-mail: ceosec@sedibengwater.co.za www.sedibengwater.co.za



chapter 7: Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South African research excellence


THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook

chapter 7: Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South African research excellence

Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South African research excellence Felix B Reinders Agricultural Research Council Institute for Agricultural Engineering Pretoria, South Africa


The purpose of an irrigation system is to apply the desired amount of water, at the correct application rate and uniformly to the whole field, at the right time, with the least amount of non-beneficial water consumption (losses), and as economically as possible. We know that irrigated agriculture plays a major role in the livelihoods of nations all over the world and South Africa is no exception. With the agricultural water-use sector being the largest of all water-use sectors in South Africa, there have been increased expectations that the sector should increase efficiency and reduce consumption in order to increase the amount of water available for other uses. Studies and research over 40 years, on the techniques of flood-, mobile- and micro-irrigation have contributed to the knowledge base of applying irrigation methods correctly. In a recent study on irrigation efficiency, the approach is that irrigation efficiency should be assessed by applying a water balance to a specific situation rather than by calculating various performance indicators. The fraction of the water abstracted from the source that is utilised by the plant is called the beneficial water-use component, and optimised irrigation water supply is therefore aimed at maximising this component. It implies that water must be delivered from the source to the field both efficiently and effectively. Optimising water use at farm level requires careful consideration of the implications of decisions made during both development (planning and design), and management (operation and maintenance), taking into account technical, economic and environmental issues. An exciting, newly-developed South African Framework for Improved Efficiency of Irrigation Water Use covers 4 levels of watermanagement infrastructure: the water source, bulk conveyance system, the irrigation scheme and the irrigation farm. The water-balance approach can be applied at any level, within defined boundaries, or across all levels to assess performance within the entire water management area. Keywords: irrigation methods, water-use efficiency; water-balance approach, beneficial water use, South African framework


Irrigated agriculture plays a major role in the livelihoods of nations all over the world and South Africa is no exception. With irrigated agriculture being the largest user of runoff water in South Africa, there have been increased expectations from government that the sector should increase efficiency and reduce consumption in order to increase the amount of water available for other uses, in particular for human domestic consumption. Irrigation in South Africa is currently practised on 1.6 x 106 ha. In 2000 it used 62% of the runoff water that was used by all sectors, or 39.5% of the exploitable runoff water (DWAF, 2004). Studies and research over 40 years, on flood-, mobile- and micro-irrigation techniques contributed to the knowledge base of applying irrigation methods correctly to improve the efficient application of water. The different irrigation systems vary in terms of individual components, cost and performance and generally they can be classified into 3 groups: â&#x20AC;˘ Flood-irrigation systems by which water that flows under gravity over soil while infiltrating is applied to the farm lands. This includes basin, border, furrow and short furrow. THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


chapter 7: Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South African research excellence

• Mobile irrigation systems which move over the farm land under their own power while irrigating. These include centre-pivot, linear and travelling-gun systems. • Static systems include all systems that remain stationary while water is applied. We distinguish between 2 types: - Sprinkler by which water is supplied above ground by means of sprinklers or sprayers. This includes permanent or portable like quick-coupling, drag-line, hopalong, big-gun, side-roll and boom irrigation systems. - Micro-systems which include micro-sprayers, minisprinklers and drip-irrigation systems. Aspects that have been addressed in the research were layout, design, selection, management and a number of other factors that can improve the efficiency of the irrigation system. However, great emphasis has been placed lately on how an increase in efficiency will lead to reduced water consumption by agricultural users and thereby ‘release’ some of the annual water yield for use by the domestic sector. Recommended actions to improve efficiency include measurement of the quantity of water distributed and applied at specific times; preparation of water-use efficiency and riskmanagement plans; and a reduction of the quantity of water used for irrigation by existing farmers through investment in appropriate technology. Various research projects funded to date by the Water Research Commission (WRC) demonstrate how improvements can be made to efficiently manage water in South Africa.

Improved flood-irrigation approach

Increasing the efficiency of flood irrigation has been intensively researched in South Africa since 1972 by engineers of the Department of Agriculture – Division of Agricultural Engineering and implemented as such. It was only in the late 80s and early 90s that, through a WRC-supported project, aspects such as the upgrading of the layout, the management and design of the systems were addressed and a model was developed to simulate the hydraulics of flood irrigation more accurately (Du Rand and Kruger, 1995). In a WRC-sponsored project Russell (1982) studied infiltration under flood-irrigation conditions on a typical crusting soil of the Eastern Cape. He found that infiltration under dynamic (flood) conditions on this soil was very high and remained so over the medium term, in sharp contrast to the quick surface sealing and very low infiltration under static conditions.

Computerised irrigation design

An Israeli computerised irrigation design package was introduced in South Africa in 1983. The International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) predicted in 1985 that an integrated computer process will be the norm for the future and indeed since then a number of computer-aided design routines have been developed and reported on. In 1987 MBB Inc completed a WRC-supported project titled ‘The development of procedures for design and evaluation of irrigation systems’ (MBB Inc., 1987). Irrigation design principles and procedures were studied in depth and evaluated critically. Different design algorithms were developed that were based on the well-known principles of the PolyPlot software. The research eventually resulted in the development of the IDES irrigation design and evaluation program which was the front-runner for the popular design program ModelMaker that was only introduced towards the end of the century. Today a range of excellent computer programs are available for modern-day design of efficient irrigation systems.

Containing losses during centre-pivot irrigation

During the period 1970-1982 the efficiency of centre pivots was estimated at 80%. A research project was supported by the WRC to investigate, identify and quantify the spray losses between the emitters on a centre pivot and the plant canopy (Van der Ryst, 1995). Apart from technical measurements, meteorological and other factors influencing irrigation losses were identified. It was found that the average losses rarely exceed 10% of the pumped water if the emitter package is properly designed 78

THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook

chapter 7: Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South African research excellence

and the wind speed is less than 6 m/s. From the results obtained with single nozzles it was clear that droplet size has an important effect on spray losses. This research provided valuable guidelines in terms of emitter selection, application depth and management of centre pivots. The WRC also sponsored a project aimed at deriving criteria for the adaptation of overhead irrigation systems, including centre pivots, to the infiltrability of different soils, so as to minimise water losses through runoff and/or evaporation due to ponding (Bloem et al., 1992; Bloem and Laker, 1993; 1994a; b). The energy flux (or kinetic energy), given by a combined effect of drop size, falling height and application rate was found to be a key factor. Equations were derived for predicting the maximum allowable kinetic energy (MAKE) for different scenarios (Bloem and Laker, 1994a).

Performance of 2 types of sprinkler irrigation emitters

In a WRC-supported project, 2 types of sprinklers operating on a dragline and a floppy sprinkler (Floppy Sprinkler (Pty) Ltd) on a permanent layout was evaluated (Simpson and Reinders, 1999). The individual sprinklers were evaluated on the sprinkler test bench of the ARC Institute for Agricultural Engineering, and the installed systems were evaluated in-field. The performance of the coefficient of uniformity (CU), distribution uniformity (DU) and the scheduling coefficient (SC) were determined. The importance of this is that high CU values and DU values in-field have a direct influence on the potential yield of the crop. In this research it was illustrated that layout, pressure variation, droplet size and maintenance of sprinkler systems have a significant impact on the irrigation systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s performance.

Managing surface- and subsurface dripirrigation systems

Drip irrigation is considered to be one of the most efficient irrigation systems available, but through a WRC-supported research project evidence was obtained from the literature as well as from onfarm and in-field testing that even this system can be inefficient, as a result of poor water quality, mismanagement and maintenance problems (Reinders et al., 2005). Apart from the research on the performance of various types and ages of drippers (Koegelenberg et al., 2002) and filters under different water quality and typical farming conditions (Van Niekerk et al., 2006), guidelines were developed to make the correct dripper and filter choice. Through this research excellent guidelines were provided for proper choice, maintenance schedules and management of filters and drip-irrigation systems.

The water-balance approach

In a recently completed WRC research project on irrigation efficiency (Reinders et al., 2010), the selected approach is that irrigation efficiency should be assessed by applying a water balance to a specific situation, rather than by the calculation of various performance indicators, based on onceoff measurements of samples. The purpose of an irrigation system is to apply the desired amount of water, at the correct application rate and uniformly to the entire field, at the right time, with the least amount of non-beneficial water consumption (losses), and as economically as possible. When applying water to crops, it should be considered both as a scarce and valuable resource and an agricultural input to be used optimally. Not all the water that is abstracted from a source for the purpose of irrigation reaches the intended destination where the plant can make best use of it â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the root zone. The fraction of the water abstracted from the source that is utilised by a planted crop is called the beneficial water-use component. Optimised irrigation water supply is therefore aimed at maximising this component and implies that water must be delivered from the source to the field both efficiently (with the least volume for production along the supply system) and effectively (at the right time, in the right quantity and at the right quality). Optimising water use at farm level requires careful consideration of the implications of decisions made during both development (planning and design), and management (operation and maintenance), taking into account technical, economic and environmental issues. Perry (2007) presented a newly developed framework for irrigation efficiency as approved by the ICID. He describes in detail the history and subsequent confusion surrounding the calculation and THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


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chapter 7: Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South African research excellence

interpretation of so-called irrigation or wateruse â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;efficiencyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; indicators. The framework and proposed terminology are scientifically sound, being based on the principle of continuity of mass, and promote the analysis of irrigation water-use situations or scenarios in order to expose underlying issues that can be addressed to improve water management, rather than simply using the calculation of inputoutput ratios as done in the past. The basis of the framework is that any water withdrawn from a catchment for irrigation use contributes either to storage change, to the consumed fraction, or to the non-consumed fraction at a point downstream of the point of abstraction. The water that is consumed will either be to the benefit of the intended purpose (beneficial consumption) or not (non-beneficial consumption). Water that is not consumed but remains in the system will either be recoverable (for reuse) or non-recoverable (lost to further use). In order to improve water availability in a catchment, the relevant authority needs to focus its attention on reducing non-beneficial consumption and non-recoverable fractions; the activities undertaken to achieve this result can be called best management practices. The ICID water-balance framework, based on Perryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s model, is shown schematically in Fig. 7.1.

In order to apply this framework to irrigation areas, typical components of the water-infrastructure system are defined wherein different scenarios may occur. In South Africa, most irrigation areas make use of a dam or weir in a river from which water is released for the users to abstract, either directly from the river or in some cases via a canal. Water users can also abstract water directly from a shared source, such as a river or dam/reservoir, or the scheme-level water source could be a groundwater aquifer. Once the water enters the farm, it can either contribute to storage change (in farm dams), enter an on-farm water-distribution system or be directly applied to the crop with a specific type of irrigation system. THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



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chapter 7: Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South African research excellence

The South African framework covers 4 levels of water management infrastructure (Table 7.1), i.e.: • The water source • The bulk conveyance system • The irrigation scheme and the irrigation farm • The relevant water-management infrastructure.

The different components of the water-balance framework system and their classification according to the ICID framework, for whichever agricultural water-management system, have been developed as a guide to identify the different areas were water losses can occur. In order to improve water-use efficiency in the irrigation sector, actions should be taken to reduce the non-beneficial consumption (NBC) and non-recoverable fraction (NRF). Desired ranges for the NBC and NRF components have been developed to assist the practitioner in evaluating the results obtained when first constructing a water balance. Finally, it is recommended that the water user’s lawful allocation is assessed at the farm edge, in order to encourage on-farm efficiency. At scheme level, conveyance, distribution and surface storage losses need to be monitored by the water user association (WUA) or other responsible organisation. Acceptable ranges need to be set, and agreement obtained with the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) as to where in the system provision should be made to cover losses. The fieldwork undertaken in the course of the WRC project, ’Water Use Efficiency from Dam Wall Release to Root Zone Application’ (Reinders et al., 2010), comprised various approaches and strategies applied at each of the irrigation schemes that were investigated (Table 7.2) aimed at quantifying some of the water-use components mentioned. As the application of water-balance approach was an outcome of the research rather than anticipated solution at the outset, the fieldwork was not initially designed to produce results to which the water-balance approach could be readily applied. However, at many of the schemes where fieldwork was undertaken, at least some of the system components could be assessed using the water-balance approach.

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chapter 7: Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South African research excellence

The research activities undertaken and the outcomes implemented were done in 4 phases:

• Baseline study phase

The various performance indicators previously available were reviewed, and irrigation systems evaluated to obtain information on the current status of irrigation schemes and systems. The outcome of this phase was a decision to introduce the water-balance approach in which the framework components have to be defined and quantified for the boundary conditions selected, using standardised measurements rather than the performance-indicator approach.

• Assessment phase

During this phase, existing best management practices were used to assess the current status of irrigation schemes and systems and to identify which components of the water-balance framework improvements can be made. This may be at water management area (WMA) scheme or farm level where different sources of information are available for assessment.

• Scenario development phase

During this phase, alternative scenarios were developed for the components requiring change, and the feasibility of implementing the changes was assessed from technical, environmental and economic perspectives. Models were used for feasibility assessment, making use of available computer programs and data sets.

• Implementation phase

In this phase recommendations were made for implementing feasible changes, and guidelines were developed. These guidelines should be promoted amongst all levels of stakeholders (WMA, scheme and farm), as a means of influencing the way in which water-use efficiency is reported at the different management levels, for example, in water-use efficiency accounting reports, water-management plans and water-conservation plans.

THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


chapter 7: Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South African research excellence

Within this phase the main outcome was developed, viz. ‘Standards and Guidelines for Improved Efficiency of Irrigation Water Use from Dam Wall Release to Root Zone Application’ (Reinders et al., 2010). The structure and content of the Guidelines are based on the lessons learnt locally and internationally during the course of the project. Hence, the conventional set of performance indicators with benchmarks was moved away from and a water-balance approach is instead being promoted as a more meaningful and sustainable approach to improving water-use efficiency in irrigation. These Guidelines are aimed at assisting both water users and authorities to achieve a better understanding of how irrigation water management can be improved, thereby building human capacity and allowing targeted investments to be made with fewer social and environmental costs. The Guidelines comprise 4 modules: • Module 1: Fundamental concepts • Module 2: In-field irrigation systems • Module 3: On-farm conveyance systems • Module 4: Irrigation schemes The guidelines developed as part of this project contain information on aspects of irrigation water-use efficiency that is either new or supplements previously available information: • The ICID framework was applied to re-assess the system efficiency indicators typically used by irrigation designers when making provision for losses in a system and converting net to gross irrigation requirement. A new set of system efficiency (SE) values for design purposes has been developed. These values are illustrated in Table 7.3 and are considerably more stringent than previous system-design norms. • System efficiency defines the ratio between net and gross irrigation requirements (NIR and GIR). NIR is therefore the amount of water that should be available to the crop as a result of the planned irrigation system and GIR is the amount of water supplied to the irrigation system that will be subject to the envisaged in-field losses. • The new application efficiency values are shown in the ‘Norms’ column of Table 7.3, while the different water-use components and their losses at the point of application within a specific irrigation system have each been incorporated in the default system efficiency value. The approach makes provision for the occurrence of non-beneficial spray evaporation and wind-drift, in-field conveyance, filter and other minor losses. • When an irrigation system is evaluated, the system efficiency value can be compared with these default values, and possible significant water loss components identified as areas for improvement. The approach is therefore more flexible and easier to apply than the original efficiency framework where definitions limited the applications. It should always be kept in mind that a system’s water-application efficiency will vary from irrigation event to irrigation event, as the climatic, soil and other influencing conditions are never exactly the same. Care should therefore be taken when applying the SE indicator as a benchmark, as it does not make provision for irrigation management practices.


THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook

chapter 7: Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South African research excellence

It is recommended that system efficiency be assessed in terms of the losses that occur in the field. This can be determined as the ratio between the volume of water lost to non-beneficial spray evaporation and wind-drift, in-field conveyance, filter and other minor losses, and the volume of water entering the irrigation system, for a specific period of time. The losses can also be expressed as a depth of water per unit area, rather than a volume. Irrigation uniformity is a characteristic of the type of irrigation system used, together with the standard to which a given system has been designed, is operated and is maintained. It can also be affected by soil infiltration characteristics and by land preparation. The traditional approach to accounting for the distribution uniformity of the lower quarter (DUlq) has most likely resulted in the default irrigation efficiencies customarily referred to, e.g., that furrow irrigation is assumed to be 65% efficient and centre-pivot irrigation is assumed to be 85% efficient. Unfortunately, the rationale for these assumed efficiencies, i.e. the typical or assumed non-uniformity, is seldom well considered, and water is often thought to just ‘disappear’ with the assumed low efficiencies. However, once the water-balance approach is applied, it is realised that the water does not ‘disappear’ but could contribute to increased deep percolation which may eventually appear as return flow further along the drainage system. The bottom line is that assuring high irrigation uniformity is of primary importance, and should be the goal of good design and maintenance procedures. It is very unlikely that low crop yields caused by non-uniform irrigation water applications will be improved by assuming low irrigation efficiencies and therefore increasing the water applications accordingly. If poor uniformity results in low crop yields, the uniformity needs to be corrected in order to improve system performance. Simply applying more water to compensate for the part of the field that is being under-irrigated is unlikely to result in improved crop yields, as large parts of the field will now suffer from over-irrigation, and the risk of long-term problems developing due to a raised water table will increase. The preferred recommendation in this case would be to deal specifically with the problem of poor uniformity. For planning purposes, the GIR at the field edge should therefore be calculated as the product of the NIR and system efficiency.

THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



ILISO CONSULTING ILISO Consulting was formed through the amalgamation of three indigenous black Engineering firms. ILISO continued to expand through organic growth and acquisitions, maturing into an African Engineering Company of significance, employing over 200 industry specialists. ILISO is a wholly owned South African firm of Consulting Engineers, Project Managers and Environmental Managers with ISO 9001-2008 accreditation. ILISO has distinguished itself as a leading Engineering Firm in South Africa with offices in Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Centurion (HO), Durban, East London, George, Johannesburg, Kimberley and Port Elizabeth. ILISO recently also expanded its wings to SADC with a presence in Botswana, Namibia, Lesotho, Uganda and Zambia with immediate plans to further expand to Angola, Mauritius, Mauritania and Mozambique. Our core business is the design and implementation of Engineering projects and our primary objective is to deliver every project on time, within budget, to the satisfaction of our Clients and delight of the beneficiary community. We aim to attract selected Clients and creative Engineers and forge relationships with other service providers that share the same broader objectives as ILISO. We aim to provide an enabling environment that will allow our creative engineers to express themselves, drive innovation and advance knowledge. We appreciate our role and responsibility as role models in the industry and invest in programmes to promote the industry and protect the integrity of the profession. ILISO Consulting has a number of prominent clients and has over the years played a major role in the professional teams that completed numerous significant projects for these clients. A few of these recently completed projects include: Cape Town, Durban, Free State and Port Elizabeth Stadiums for the FIFA 2010 Soccer World Cup, Central terminal Building at OR Tambo International Airport and upgrades to the Cape Town and Bloemfontein Airports, Bloemfontein Airport Interchange, Gautrain Stations and BRT systems for Durban and Cape Town

Contact details

Tel: (086) 124 5476 Fax: (012) 665 1886 E-mail : monde@iliso.com / ilisopta@iliso.com Website:www.iliso.com

chapter 7: Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South African research excellence

Conclusion and recommendations

Studies and research over 40 years on mainly the engineering aspects of the techniques of flood-, mobile- and micro-irrigation contributed to the knowledge base of applying irrigation methods correctly to improve the efficient application of water. In particular, the research that was carried out to improve irrigation- water management from dam-wall release to root-zone application has to a large extent consolidated and contributed to local knowledge on issues regarding irrigation water-use efficiency. The resulting approach of ‘measure; assess; improve; evaluate’, promotes an investigative approach to improving efficiency, rather than relying merely on water accounting. The main output of the project was the compilation of guidelines for improved irrigation-water management from dam-wall release to root-zone application. The guidelines are aimed at assisting both water users and authorities to achieve a better understanding of how irrigation-water management can be improved, thereby building human capacity, allowing targeted investments to be made with fewer social and environmental costs. Using the lessons learnt during the WRC project, best practices and technologies were identified and then illustrated. It is recommended that the research output, i.e. the guidelines for management advice on improved efficiency of irrigation- water use, should be further developed into a user-friendly package with supporting training material, targeting farmers, service providers and policy advisors. This will contribute to better understanding of the realities and potential for efficient irrigation water use across all levels of water management, and encourage the adoption of the water-balance approach.


BLOEM AA, LAKER, MC, LAGRANGE LF and SMIT CJ(1992) Aanpassing van Oorhoofse Besproeiingstelsels by die Infiltreerbaarheid van Gronde (Adaptation of Overhead Irrigation Systems to the Infiltrability of Soils). WRC Report No. 208/1/92. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. 230 pp. BLOEM AA and LAKER MC (1993) Die invloed van druppelgrootte, valhoogte en toedieningstempo op die generasie van afloopwater onder gesimuleerde oorhoofse besproeiing. Water SA 19 307-312. BLOEM AA and LAKER MC (1994a) Criteria for the adaptation of the design and management of centre-pivot irrigation systems to the infiltrability of soils. Water SA 20 127-132. BLOEM AA and LAKER MC (1994b) Infiltrasie onder veld- en laboratoriumtoestande: ‘n Vergelykende studie. Water SA 20 133-138. DU RAND DJ and KRUGER GHJ (1995) Surface irrigation in South Africa – the challenge. In: Proc. Southern African Irrigation Symposium. 4-6 June 1991, Durban, South Africa. WRC Report No. TT 71/95. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. 195-201. DWAF (2004) National Water Resource Strategy. Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria, South Africa. 150 pp. KOEGELENBERG FH, REINDERS FB and VAN NIEKERK AS (2002) Performance of Surface Drip Irrigation Systems under Field Conditions. WRC Report No. 1036/1/02. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. 111 pp. MURRAY BIESENBACH AND BADENHORST (MBB) Inc. (1987) The Development of Procedures for Design and Evaluation of Irrigation Systems (IDES). WRC Report No. 116/2/87. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. 236 pp. PERRY C (2007) Efficient irrigation, inefficient communication, flawed recommendations. Irrig. Drain. 56 367-378. REINDERS FB, SMAL HS and VAN NIEKERK AS (2005) Sub- Surface Drip Irrigation: Factors Affecting the Efficiency and Maintenance. WRC Report No. 1189/1/05. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. 132 pp. REINDERS FB, VAN DER STOEP I, LECLER NL, GREAVES KR, VAHRMEIJER JT, BENADÉ N, DU PLESSIS FJ, VAN HEERDEN PS, STEYN JM, GROVÉ B, JUMMAN A and ASCOUGH G (2010) Standards and Guidelines for Improved Efficiency of Irrigation Water Use from Dam Wall Release to Root Zone Application: Main Report. WRC Report No. TT 465/10. Volume 1 of 3. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. 22 pp. RUSSELL DA (1982) Determination of Soil Properties Related to Irrigation and Drainage. Department of Soil Science, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa. 238 pp SIMPSON GB and REINDERS FB (1999) Evaluation of the Performance of Two Types of Sprinkler Irrigation Emitters Installed on Permanent and Dragline Systems. WRC Report No. KV 119/99. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. 47 pp. VAN DER RYST C (1995) Evaporation and wind drift losses during centre pivot irrigation. In: Proc. Southern African Irrigation Symposium. 4-6 June 1991, Durban, South Africa. WRC Report No. TT 71/95. WRC, Pretoria, South Africa. 233-234. VAN NIEKERK AS, KOEGELENBERG FH and REINDERS FB (2006) Guidelines for the Selection and Use of Various Micro- Irrigation Filters with Regards to Filtering and Backwashing Efficiency. WRC Report No. 1356/1/06. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. 104 pp.


This article [Reinders (2011), Water SA 37 (5): 765–770] was published with the permission of the Water Research Commission. THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



OVERBERG WATER The Overberg region is situated in the Western Cape Province, stretching from Botriver in the west to Riversdale in the east and bordered by the Langeberg Mountains in the north and the Indian Ocean in the south. Overberg Water Board is a water sector entity established in terms of the Water Services Act (Act 108 of 1997) and reports to the Minister of Water and Environmental Affairs. It is classified as a water service provider in terms of the Act. The main activities of Overberg Water are aligned to give effect to the developmental priorities of government. The primary activity is to provide purified water to about 800 farmers in the area to augment existing sources for household and stock watering use, and to provide bulk water to certain towns. The area currently supplied covers 6000 square kilometres. Overberg Water owns and operates three water purification works and a network of pipelines totalling about 1320 kilometres. The strategic objectives of Overberg Water are: • Ensure access to potable water in area of service • To manage financial affairs to meet current and future obligations • To operate, maintain, develop and refurbish infrastructure • Aligned and effective institution • Empower and develop employees The provision of quality water of high standard to about 80 000 people and 2 400 000 small stock units improved the quality of life in the area. Water is a key ingredient for food security and economic activity in


the region. Stock farming benefited by having sufficient drinking water throughout the year, as indicated by an increase of more than 100% in the number of small stock units since the inception of Overberg Water. Overberg Water was heir to the first stock watering scheme in South Africa and is therefore the repository of valuable information for the planning of similar schemes in the future. Since its inception, Overberg Water was not allowed to accumulate reserves and tariffs were also not raised sufficiently to catch up. Obtaining government funding proved onerous to date, because of other pressing priorities. Infrastructure is more than 25 years old. Major refurbishment and expansion is required urgently over the next five years as the supply of potable water remains a primary factor in economic growth and development. Overberg Water was for many years an implementing agent for Working for Water and Masibambane projects, both government initiatives. The biggest challenge currently facing Overberg Water is to build sufficient reserves or secure government funding for necessary infrastructure refurbishment and expansion. This will ensure sustainable infrastructure for future generations as well as provide much needed employment opportunities.

CONTACT DETAILS: Tel: 028 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 214 3500 www.overbergwater.co.za



THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



D.B. Versfeld Natural Resources and Forestry Consultant


South Africa was one of the first countries to recognise that plantation forestry could be a user of water. The old misconception that trees brought the rainfall and runoff with them has now been suitably dispelled - in South Africa through observation, years of research, legislation controlling afforestation, and with the Working for Water Programme making it abundantly plain that it is necessary to keep our landscapes clear of unwanted trees if we are to keep our rivers flowing. This is now internationally accepted wisdom – of particular importance in arid countries and especially where low-biomass grass- and shrub-lands are converted to high biomass tall plantations. The issue is not “how much water do trees use?” but “how much more water do trees use than would have been used by the vegetation they replace?”

The nature of forestry water use

The amount of (additional) water used by plantation trees is dependent on many factors. These include: • The water use of the vegetation replaced, i.e. of the natural cover – typically grassland, fynbos, savannah or sub-tropical bush. • The water use of the plantation trees in question – be these pines, eucalypts, wattles, or perhaps even indigenous species. Factors associated with species water use include seasonality (deciduous vs. evergreen), leaf area, rooting depth and ability to extract water, growth rate, transpiration rate, and water use efficiency, this being the ability of tree to produce more timber with less water. • The locality – climate and soils. • The position in the catchment in relation to freely accessible water. Trees growing within riparian zones, or close to wetlands, seepage areas or the groundwater table - giving them constant and unrestricted access to water - will, as a rule of thumb, use at least twice as much water as trees growing up the slope and constrained by water availability some of the time. Trees able to access this additional water, will also grow faster and produce more timber although not commensurately with the water used. • Forestry practice also has an influence on the water demand of plantations. Good silviculture means good growth and a greater capacity to use water, whilst also producing more and better timber. Thinning and pruning do not do much to decrease use, have only short-term impacts as stands quickly respond to take up the available space and solar energy. Rotation length is, however, very important as stands grown on a short rotation (with a pulpwood rotation typically 5-7 years) leave the land open for a year or more with each clear-cutting. Water use is minimal for a year or so before the new trees start consuming again, whereas trees grown on a long rotation (typically saw-timber grown over 25 years) are consumers nearly all of the time. THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



Considerations in water allocations and licensing

There are additional considerations for both the sector and the regulatory authority - when it comes to ‘efficient use of the resource’ and the issue of licences. Most important are: • The position of the plantation in terms of the greater catchment or landscape. Trees grown in upland reaches impact on the water resource over its entire distance, from source to sea. Trees grown close to the coast will only impact on the lower reaches of rivers. • The impact on low flows. Because forestry water is not stored, but used as rainfall, and because trees generally transpire all year round, the impact on streamflow is also all year round. This is of particular concern in that ecological river flows are considered first and foremost in terms of low or dry season flows. Irrigation water stored in dams is usually water captured during the wet season and then released for use during the dry season, with releases also made for sufficient water in the river during low flow periods. This, of course, has a strong negative impact on high flows – but the ecological models are less sensitive to this. Forestry water use modelling now has a critical low flow component and this can be even more constraining that the total flow requirement. The one thing that forestry can do is to construct some storage so that compensatory low flows can be released during critical periods. Such agreements have been struck in situations where there are existing dams and capacity available. The special construction of dedicated compensatory storage is not popular with either the sector (cost) or with many environmentalists. • Impact on available yield. Whilst all plantations use water this can have a greater or lesser impact on downstream users. The calculation when making a licensing decision is not only “how much water will the plantation take up”, which will always impact on the local environment and on the environmental Reserve, but what the impact on the yield of available water will be. “Available’yield’ is that water which could otherwise be allocated to downstream users. This is largely dependent on the amount if storage. In the case of the highly developed Vaal catchment almost all water is ‘available’ for allocation to users, and forestry upstream will inevitably impact on that availability. In the case of the Mzimvubu, where there is little storage, the water in the river is largely ‘unavailable’ and forestry becomes one of the only effective users of that water, with little impact on others. This situation would change in the unlikely eventuality of a large dam being constructed with the intention of transferring this water to Gauteng. Impact on ‘available yield’ is therefore a very critical consideration in the allocation and licensing of water for forestry. Indeed, the Vaal catchment has been closed to further afforestation since 1972 (with the introduction of the Afforestation Permit System) whilst the Mzimvubu still has significant areas where forestry is considered the most effective (read efficient) user of water that cannot be taken up by others.


As can be seen there are many considerations in determining how much water trees actually use, and many ways in which the forestry sector can seek to optimise national efficiency in use. This complexity has, as far as possible, been assimilated into the national stream flow reduction tables (Gush et al., 2002), with calculated determinations made for the major species (pine, eucalypts and wattles) for three different levels of site productivity (high, medium and low), for each and every quaternary catchment within the timber producing regions of the country, thus accounting also, up to a point, for the nature of the vegetation replaced and for the prevailing climate and especially rainfall. It is immediately apparent that the water use models applied to plantation forestry do not take many potential factors into account. Water use is ascribed broadly to genus and not to species, while tree breeding in eucalypts has focused on specific hybrids and fast-growing clones within species, and research into water use efficiency has been looking at differences within these. In reality, faster growing trees probably use more water than the trees on which research was undertaken and on which water use table are based. It has also not been possible, for planning and regulatory control purposes, to model differences in aspect within a catchment, nor the constant variations to be found in soils. 94

THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


How then does the forestry sector play its role in conserving water?

Being a direct user plantation trees effectively optimise the use of rainfall. There are no storage dams required, no pipes to leak and no savings that can be achieved in delivery. Efficiency in distribution is already 100% and savings must be achieved in other ways. The forestry sector and the regulator - first the Department of Forestry, then the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry and now (as of 2010) the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries – have cooperated well in seeking to optimise the sector in terms of its water use profile. This has not all come easily and has been at significant cost to the forestry sector but is in recognition of the water resource issues facing the country. This pro-active engagement has left the sector in an environmentally sound position. Approaches and compromises include:

Payment for water

Forest plantations owners are also required to pay for the water used by the trees. There was a lot of initial unhappiness at the concept of “paying for rain” but this has been accepted. With fees based on area planted and thus estimated water use this becomes a useful factor in ensuring that unprofitable (read inefficient) areas are cleared and taken off the books.

Forestry permits and licences.

The Department of Forestry introduced the Afforestation Permit System in 1972. This was converted to a licensing system with the declaration of forestry as a “Stream Flow Reduction Activity” under the new National Water Act in 1998 (section 21d, Act 36 of 1998). The significance of this approach has been immense: new afforestation is only permitted or licensed in situations where there is deemed to be sufficient available water putting very strong brakes on the expansion of the sector. Considerations include the amount of water that the development would require (site, extent, genus), the position within the catchment relative to other users, and whether there is still allocable water that can be afforded to forestry. Social, environmental and economic considerations are also applied to the mix and as a sector forestry is probably more strictly regulated than any other, partly because the activity is so visible, but also because the regulatory framework was first established in 1972, and has been carefully managed ever since.

A focus on more profitable areas.

The water use constraint has limited the growth of the forestry sector, but this has not all been negative. The sector recognises the costs to the national water resource and with this the cost of growing timber where growth is too poor, or where it cannot be extracted and marketed economically. This has been one of the considerations in the issuing of licences and has reduced the number of unprofitable plantings - saving the available water for more profitable forestry, or another more efficient use, elsewhere.

Certification and the withdrawal from riparian zones.

A key initiative by the forestry sector, in addition to cooperating so well in terms of the licensing approach, has been for the larger producers to wholeheartedly adopt international forest management (“green”) certification. Legislation has always recognised the importance of riparian zones, seeps and wetlands – both from a biodiversity and a water use perspective. Permits and licences for many years required that a 20 metre unplanted zone be left to either side of any stream, wetland or ‘sponge area’. The industry not only accepted this but has gone much further in the delineation of riparian zones and the inclusion of these delineated areas in its green certification requirement. This has often meant the clearing of areas way beyond the legally required 20 metres, and is estimated to have cost the industry in the order of 60 000 hectares of highly productive forestry land. The amount of water thus ‘released’ by the sector can be estimated at 120 million m3 per annum. THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



Call for Interest: Research and Academic Stakeholders

Background As both a leading supplier of content and an owner of more than 16 content platforms, Alive2green reaches thousands of sector-relevant decision makers on a regular basis and is held in high regard by those who need and use these science based content platforms. In order to maintain the highest levels of content, Alive2green makes use of local and international thought leaders, academics and experts who contribute articles and papers for publication and for presentation. This is a key component of the value proposition that Alive2green provides for unlock new streams of high quality, relevant content in the years to come.

Research Projects Within the context of this objective, Alive2green Research (A2GR) will be launched in 2012 and this division will tackle industry research in key sectors, in consultation with industry stakeholders. The objective of this department will be to develop a limited number of Research Projects that are linked to industry problem-statements and/or opportunities within vertical sectors of the green economy. Emphasis will be on quality and depth of research and on the dissemination of the research across the Alive2green media platforms and across other third party platforms. The number of Research Projects that are activated will increase over time as capacity is built and as Research Stakeholder participation increases. Academic Stakeholders Universities and selected tertiary academic institutions will develop partnership relationships with A2GR and with the Research Stakeholder around Research Projects and will: • Be the (virtual) host academic institution for the Research Project • Contribute to the Research Project where possible • Participate in peer-reviewed articles, interviews and in presentations of the research • Make use of the Research Project and the research content to activate Masters and/or PhD studies for selected students • Provide consulting services to the project Research Stakeholder where necessary

Research Stakeholders Research Projects will be activated by A2GR in a collaborative environment with Research Stakeholders, that: • Are able to work with A2GR to identify meaningful research gaps in relevant sectors • Require the research for strategic commercial objectives and/or • Are well positioned to leverage the research for advantage and/or • Would value the research as a necessary contribution to an organisational mandate Where possible and where applicable, each Research Project will be aligned with selected Academic Stakeholders.

Call for Participation Alive2green Research is calling for interest from key industry stakeholders in the green economy who are interested in participating in Research Projects either as Research Stakeholders or as Academic Stakeholders. Interested parties will meet with A2GR to agree on the principles of association and will then jointly facilitate the development of deep-research gaps for consideration. Enquiries Stakeholders interested in obtaining further information should please contact Lloyd Macfarlane on LMacfarlane@alive2green.com or on 083.3000257



An interesting twist in the efficiency argument is currently facing the regulator. Forestry licences are granted on the condition of genus planted – with the water use calculation and consequent allocation (and payment) based on the estimated use by that genus. With forestry being a long-term investment market shifts may require the grower to seek a change in the condition and switch genera. This should not be a problem if the exchange is from eucalypts (highest water user) to pines (a lower water user), but if the exchange is from pines to eucalypts then more water is required. In fully allocated catchments this presents an obvious quandary; a 10% increase in water requirement would need to be met by a 10% decrease in the area planted – with productive land then going unused, resulting in bush and invasive plant encroachment, fire risk, lost opportunity cost, etc. Where the plantation owner is still engaged in pulling back from riparian zones in terms of conditions of environmental certification it may be possible to find the balance but otherwise this otherwise provides yet another facet to the question of water use efficiency. Is the saving going to be better used elsewhere? In closing this discussion it is useful to explore this final facet: Does any user have a greater ‘right’ to the water, and can this be assessed in terms of efficiency? The forestry sector lays claim to being an extremely efficient user of water in terms of contribution to the economy and jobs created. Historically the national government invested heavily in irrigated agriculture, constructing dams with the expectation of a certain inflow. Impact on the yield of those dams by upstream forestry was always deemed unacceptable - in favour of the irrigation users. Irrigation was, in this sense, always the favoured sector. Today, existing users downstream are ‘lawful water users’ and it would be unlawful to deprive them of their supply by allowing upstream users to take more. The National Water Act of 1998 has helped to shift the historic position – and sectors are now more fairly considered in terms of actual contribution to the economy. The essence of this shift is that forestry is as entitled to the water it users as any other sector would be – and that use should be weighed up in terms of the contribution, and cost, to society, the economy and the environment, but within the bounds of existing lawful use.

Concluding remarks

We have seen that land use planning – at both the basin and local micro-catchment scale - is the key ingredient in managing the water use efficiency of the sector. Growth of the sector is dependent both on the sophistication of such planning, aided and abetted by achieving water use efficiencies within plantation forestry, which in turn need to be translated into allocation benefits for the sector.


Gush MB, Scott DF, Jewitt GPW, Schulze E, Hallowes LA, Görgens AHM (2002). Estimation of Streamflow Reduction Resulting from Commercial Afforestation in South Africa. Water Research Commission, Report no. TT 173/02. Pretoria, South Africa.

THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



IWR WATER RESOURCES (PTY) LTD IWR Water Resources (Pty) Ltd consists of a small team of experienced and highly qualified hydrologists, water resources planners and hydraulic engineers. The main focus of the company lies in water resources planning and management, which includes water resources modelling and model development. The Company has extensive experience in the water resources models used within Southern Africa, including WRSM2000 and the Water Resources Yield Model, but have also developed their own water resources modelling tools so as to enable them to remain at the forefront of technology and respond rapidly to specific requirements from clients. Several new techniques have been developed to address specialised aspects in response to the needs of clients.

These new techniques include: • • • •

Ecological water requirements Development of operating rules for reservoirs Streamflow reduction due to afforestation and invasive alien plants, Monthly stochastic models to integrate long, medium term and short term operation of river systems.

The core expertise of the company is as follows: • Yield analysis of dams and large integrated bulk water supply systems • Water resources modelling in support of the determination of ecological water requirements of both rivers and estuaries • Ecological Reserve implementation • Hydrological analysis • Eco-hydraulics modelling in support of ecological water requirement determination

• Development of operating rules of dams • Development of Water Allocation Plans • Agricultural water use and management • Catchment management studies • Water use license assessments, including trading • Flood-line determination • Project management and co-ordination • Water management institutional development

IWR Water Resources (Pty) Ltd is actively involved in research and development, both in-house (selffunded) and through the Water Research Commission as well as the Institute for Water Research at Rhodes University.

Research topics include: • Uncertainty in hydrological and water resources models • Environmental flow requirements of wetlands • Implementation of ecological water requirements • On-going water resources model development

• The Shared Rivers programme which is analysing the ecological state of rivers which flow through the Kruger National Park • Low-flow river hydraulics in support of determining ecological water requirements

Our vision is to provide efficient, sustainable and innovative solutions to the field of water resources management and modelling. At IWR Water Resources Pty (Ltd), our aim is to provide superior professional service to our clients. The cornerstone of our ethos is to share our technical solutions with other institutions with which we work to enhance research and development in the water sector. IWR Water Resources Pty (Ltd) is strategically located to serve our clients and have offices located in Pretoria, Nelspruit and Durban.


IWR Water Resources has strong empowerment objectives. The company has 79% HDI equity ownership and 60% of our technical team are persons classified as HDI’s. Our staff are important to us, so our longterm goal is to offer shareholding opportunities to our employees. We encourage our staff to further develop their skills through bursary programs. Key projects on which IWR Water Resources is the lead consultant are: • Development of operating rules for stand-alone dams in the Eastern and Western Cape • Development of operating rules for the Sabie/Sand River catchment • Development of a Water Requirement and Water Resources Reconciliation Strategy for the Mbombela Municipal Area. • Support to water use licencing in the Inkomati Water Management Area Recent South African projects in which the IWR Water Resources (Pty) Ltd team has been involved include: • Inkomati Water Availability Assessment • Algoa Operational Analysis • Development of a real-time operational model for the Crocodile Catchment • Assessment of forestry potential in South Africa • Water Resources support to the ecological Reserve determination in the Outeniqua, Crocodile, Sabie and Mokolo rivers catchments • Development and pilot implementation of methodologies to implement the ecological Reserve • Water resources modeling support to the development of a draft water allocation plan for the Inkomati WMA Recent projects within other SADC countries: • Zambezi basin Development • Water resources support to the determination of environmental flow requirements of the Kafue river, Zambia • Evaluation of Water Use and Irrigation Efficiencies in the Upper Komati, Swaziland • Progressive Realisation of the IncMaputo Agreement: Water Resources aspects of the IWRM study (South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique) • Yield analysis of the Corumana Dam: Mozambique


Tel: +27 (0)12 365 2121 Fax: +27 (0)86 609 2269 Email: Stephen@waterresources.co.za Post: Postnet Suite 40, Private Bag X4, Menlo Park, 0102 Website: www.waterresources.co.za

chapter 9: Water disclosure alone is not enough to manage business water risks


THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook

chapter 9: Water disclosure alone is not enough to manage business water risks

Water disclosure alone is not enough to manage business water risks Dr Mao Amis

Water scarcity and related extreme events are undoubtedly one of the most important global challenges humanity is faced with to-date, simply put there is just not enough water to meet the growing demand. This is attributable to a growing population, changes in consumption patterns and unsustainable practices that have resulted in a declining water quality. Climate change will exacerbate this precarious situation resulting in extreme events, with devastating impact on all sectors of society including the economy, ecosystems and livelihoods. The recent flooding in China, which killed hundreds and the current drought in the United States that has affected two thirds of the country, are examples of the nature of risks faced by society as a result of water. Closer to home, the drought in the southern Cape a couple of years ago nearly brought the economy of the coastal region to its knees. We can therefore not afford to ignore the risks water poses. What does this mean for business? Just like everyone else, water is a strategic resource to companies and as such is increasingly being viewed as a business risk, because as water becomes more scarce, competition for this limited resource will increase, affecting all users. The nature of water related business risks vary according to the type of business and its dependence on water. These risks could range from physical availability of water both in quantity and quality, reputational risks associated with societal perception of how a company is impacting on scarce water resources; and regulatory risks associated with regulatory requirements that might be imposed as a result of a specific water challenge. Globally there are many examples of how these water risks have manifested themselves and resulted in major constraints to business operations. A well-cited example is how Coca Cola was perceived to be the cause of drastic decline in water in Kerala State in India, which led to its bottling plant to be shut down. Even though Coca Cola was later cleared, that situation posed a major reputational risk for the company, and subsequently transformed how the company views its relationship with water. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not only companies that are starting to recognize the water risks they face, investors too are concerned and would like to know what business are doing to manage their water risks. For example in 2009 the Norwegian Government Pension fund, which manages US$415bn made a decision to start reviewing the water risk management practices of 1,100 companies that it as invested in. This drive from investors has led to the concept of water disclosures, where companies are deliberately reporting on their water use and impacts to improve communications with stakeholders, and enhance accountability to the public (Morrison & Schulte 2009). In addition to informing stakeholders, water disclosures help companies identify critical water risks that a company faces and potential opportunities that it can capitalize on. This is because the process of water disclosure encompasses a general review of a companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s relationship with water in as far as usage and potential impacts are concerned, it therefore enables companies to develop a more holistic relationship with water. There are various platforms that companies can use to disclose their water use, these include annual reports, AGMs and posting information on their websites. Alternatively listed companies could THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


chapter 9: Water disclosure alone is not enough to manage business water risks

participate in the CDP Water Disclosure Project, which is a global survey of the top listed companies on their water use and impacts. The CDP Water Disclosure1 is an innovative initiative that is designed to help institutional investors to understand the business risks associated with water scarcity, by availing high quality information on the water related business risks faced by companies. The CDP Water Disclosure targets companies listed in the FTSE Global Equity index series (Global 500), the Australian Securities Exchange (Australia 100) and the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (South Africa 100). So far two reports on company water disclosures have been released, the latest in 2011. The lessons emerging from these disclosures are quite insightful, for example in the latest global report (CDP 2011) it was found that: • Majority of companies identified water as a substantial risk to their business • Almost two thirds of companies have identified water related opportunities • Water related issues receive less attention than climate change at the board level • Energy companies report high levels of risk and low levels of board-level oversights. These findings not only help companies to proactively manage their water related risks, but also capitalize on opportunities that may arise to create shared value. On the other hand understanding how companies think about water is important for water governance as water poses a shared risk and the private sector is a key player in the search for sustainable solutions for managing water. It’s also important to note that water disclosure alone is not enough to manage the risks companies face, it’s merely the start of what companies need to do to engage water. Indeed one of the criticisms of water disclosure by companies is the scanty information that they have provided, which is an indication of not adequately engaging with the water related risks they face. This assertion is partly supported by the fact that only 57% of companies surveyed have reported board-level oversight on water strategies and policies. In other words for many companies water is not at the top of their priority lists. Another explanation could be the lack of capacity within companies to engage the water related risks that companies face. To make water disclosures by companies more meaningful, the disclosures need to be viewed within the broader framework of how much progress the companies have made in mitigating the risks they have previously reported on. At present there is no clear indication if water disclosures take this into account. This would have allowed the companies to be more pragmatic. So what can companies do in addition to disclosing their water use and impacts? 1. Develop a water strategy and make public commitment to water stewardship Companies need to understand the water challenges the country faces, how it affects their business, and how they intent to overcome these challenges. A water strategy is therefore a good starting point that will help the company to clearly articulate their intentions and clarify their position. Regardless of how much water is an issue to a company, a strategy will help companies to understand why they have to engage in water issues, get internal buy-in and map out whom they need to work with. More importantly companies need to make their water strategy publically available, either through their websites or other communication platforms. For a company to be taken seriously they need to demonstrate that they are thinking about water issues and are looking for ways of addressing the challenges. Water affects every sector of society; a public declaration of intent is therefore a sign of true leadership. 2. Understand their hotspots of water related business risk Companies need to understand their water hotspots in relation to the location of their operations and supply chains in the landscape. Innovative tools that South African companies could use to 102

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chapter 9: Water disclosure alone is not enough to manage business water risks

understand their water hotspots include the Water Risk Filter Tool that was recently developed by WWF and DEG- the German Development Bank, the climate change vulnerability atlas and the water reconciliation studies by the Department of Water Affairs. These tools will help companies understand the conditions of the watersheds or water supply systems in which their operations are located, and develop proactive measures to manage their water risks. 3. Collaborate with other water users and competitors It is self-intuitive that water poses a shared risk because it is a shared resource, as a result no meaningful interventions can be implemented without collaborating with other stakeholders. Companies need to specifically demonstrate that they are willing to work with their competitors if the need arises. This is a clear indication that they understand the bigger picture and water is not for developing a competitive advantage only, as is the case in many corporate engagements in water. Companies also need to partner with NGOs, and donor agencies that have a wealth of experience on some of the issues business need to grapple with, such as working with local communities or protecting key ecosystems. This presents a good opportunity for strategic privatepublic partnerships that can help build sustainable business while at the same time empowering communities, protecting critical freshwater ecosystems and promoting good water governance. In conclusion itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s encouraging that water is increasingly being mainstreamed into public discourse, and that companies are starting to engage water from enterprise risk perspective. However until we start to see real results on the ground, in relation to improved in water quality, water use efficiency and reduction in the gap between water supply and demand we should get too excited that finally water is starting to be taken seriously by all sectors in society.

Further Reading

CDP Water Disclosure 2011. South Africa Report: Assessing the value of water. Carbon Disclosur Project, London. CDP Water Disclosure 2011. Global report: Raising corporate awareness of global water issues. Carbon Disclosur Project, London. Morrison J and P Schulte, 2009. Water Disclosure 2.0. Assessment of current and emerging practice in corporate water reporting. Pacific Institute, Oakland, California.

THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



Mhlathuze Water, service provider of choice Mhlathuze Water is one of the leading water utilities in South Africa today, providing a world-class service to its customers. The organisation’s commitment and focused direction in providing safe and dependable water services are indicative in its consistent success. Based in KwaZulu Natal, Mhlathuze Water’s area of supply covers some 37,000km² stretching from the Thukela River in the south and up the east coast to the Mozambique and Swaziland borders, around Vryheid and back to the uThukela River. Within this region, Mhlathuze Water has built and operates an inter-basin transfer, major water treatment plants such as Nsezi, an offshore waste water disposal pipeline and it operates water treatment and sewerage plants on an agency basis for industry.


•Bulk Water Provision: Raw, Purified and Clarified Water •Bulk Waste Water Disposal •Scientific Services •Water Resources Management •Services to Water Services Authorities (WSA) •Schools’ Sanitation project

Nsezi Water Treatment Plant

Since South Africa launched broad ranging water sector reform and has stepped up investment in water supply, sanitation and hygiene, Mhlathuze Water championed one of the country’s flagship projects: the upgrade of Nsezi Water Treatment Plant in Richards Bay. The project was at improving access to bulk water supply to the entire area of the City of uMhlathuze (Empangeni and Richards Bay). The remarkable construction upgrade that took 29 months and concluded at a record time increased capacity of waterworks from 150ML/day to 205 ML/day. Adding more value to this

profile installation, was the recently obtained Blue Drop Certification. This proves that Mhlathuze Water is determined to ensure excellence in drinking water quality and the management of its product.

Largest Waste Water Disposal System

Mhlathuze Water owns and operates the biggest offshore wastewater disposal system in South Africa. Two pipelines extending four and five kilometres out to sea transfer wastewater from the industries in Richards Bay and its environs, sludge removed during the treatment process at the Nsezi Water Treatment Plant and macerated sewage from the uMhlathuze Municipality. The main wastewater disposal licence issued to Mhlathuze Water by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry in November 2002, makes Mhlathuze Water accountable to the department for quality and quantity standards. Agreements have been signed with all the organisationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s customers who contribute bulk wastewater for disposal through the offshore pipeline. The wastewater agreements are subjected to conditions relating to quality, sampling and monitoring which are imposed on Mhlathuze Water by the Department of Water Affairs. Strict controls are exercised to ensure that contributors do not transgress these conditions. Offshore sea environment monitoring of the pipelines has been conducted since 1984 on a bi-annual by an external research institution CSIR and the latest report (No. 21) indicated that there has been no severe impact on the offshore environment.

Safety and Environmental issues

Mhlathuze Water is very dedicated in complying with all the Safety and Environmental requirements and policies. Besides boasting a SANAS 17025 laboratory, the utility is a proud holder of various certificates such as ISO 14001 for environmental management, ISO 9001 for quality management system, OHSAS 18001 for occupational health and safety system. These ensure that operational excellence is delivered in a safe and responsible way, adding value for clients, employees, government and communities in which it operates. Mhlathuze Water is well established and prepared to meet its commitment to water supply and disposal of waste water to meet the future demands of the area.

Contact Details

Cnr of South Central Arterial and Battery Bank, Alton, Richards Bay, 3900 P/Bag X1047, Richards Bay, 3900 Office: +27 35 902 1000 Fax: +27 35 902 1111 e-mail: info_mw@mhlathuze.co.za Website: www.mhlathuze.co.za



THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



Dr Mike Shand Consultant Aurecon


The safe and reliable supply of water to domestic and industrial users depends on the reliability of the water supply infrastructure which usually comprises dams, bulk supply pipelines, water treatment plants, reservoirs and reticulation pipelines. Typically dams have a design life of 100 years or more and are subject to regular inspections and maintenance in accordance with Dam Safety requirements, whereas the design life of pipelines may be about 50 years depending on the pipe materials, the degree of care taken in laying the pipes, and the operating conditions. eThekwini Municipality, the City of Cape Town and the Department of Water Affairs provided information on their programmes for addressing the maintenance and replacement of ageing infrastructure and particularly pipeline infrastructure, for which the consequences of failure can be very significant (See case study below).


Non-Revenue Water is water that has been produced but is lost before it reaches the customer. Non-Revenue water consists of Real Losses, which may indicate that the infrastructure is ageing and requires replacement (Bhagwan et al) or apparent losses which is reported by many municipalities, such as inaccurate measuring of water use.. Non-Revenue Water includes losses as indicated below: • Unbilled Authorized Consumption - Unbilled metered consumption - Unbilled unmetered consumption • Apparent Losses - Unauthorised consumption - Customer meter inaccuracies • Real Losses - Leakage from and bursts of transmission and distribution mains - Leakage and overflows at reservoirs - Leakage at service connections upstream of customer meters It has been estimated that in South Africa Non-Revenue water comprises about one third of the total water supplied. This percentage is similar to the world average, however the average for developed countries such as Australia and New Zealand is about 10% whereas the average for many underdeveloped countries is significantly higher. It is not possible to eliminate all Non-Revenue water however it should be possible to reduce South Africa’s average Non-Revenue water to between 13% and 17% of the total water supplied. Real water losses from municipal infrastructure comprise a relatively small proportion of Non-Revenue water. One of the main focuses of Water Conservation and Water Demand Management, however, has been to reduce real losses by tracing and repairing leaks, and by reducing the frequency of occurrence of leaks and bursts by managing pressures during periods of low demand by using pressure reducing valves. As pipes age the frequency of occurrence of bursts and leaks may increase until the value THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



of the water lost of say R4 to R5 /m3 plus the cost of repairs and disruptions to the supply, makes it economically viable to replace the pipelines. Significant losses also occur in in low income areas on account of damaged or defective plumbing. These losses are usually addressed by plumbing maintenance programs and will not be discussed here.


eThekwini Municipality has jurisdiction over an area of approximately 2 300 km2 including Durban and 64 smaller incorporated municipalities. . Water is supplied to this area by about 11 460 km of water mains serving 3.4 million people. The Asbestos Cement (AC) Water Main Relay Project was initiated on account of the large numbers of bursts of the 3 590 km of AC pipes, some of which had been in service for 40 years. Many of these pipes had exceeded their estimated useful life (EUL) which is usually about30 years. EUL is reached on account of the leaching of cement from the pipe walls by the relatively soft water. The consequences of these old pipes included: • High maintenance costs with some 150 major bursts each day costing about R500 million per annum. • Disruption of traffic during repairs, interruption of water supplies and problems with sediment clogging water meters and damaging geysers resulting in insurance claims. • A significant proportion of eThekwini’s total Non-Revenue Water of 93 million m3/a. The total budget for the 7 year AC replacement programme is about R5 300 million.


Bulk Supply Infrastructure

The Bulk Water Branch of the City of Cape Town is responsible for the dams, water treatment plants, conveyance network, reservoirs and pump stations that supply the reticulation as described below. In July 2011 the Current Replacement Cost (CRC) of these bulk assets was estimated to be R12 790 million, of which pipelines comprise about R7 460 million. This infrastructure has been developed over the past 90  years and ongoing monitoring and planning is being undertaken to replace components before the cost of maintenance and potential disruption of supplies becomes excessive. The Bulk Water Branch used Delphi groups, whose intimate knowledge of the various assets helped site managerial staff, to assess the expected Remaining Useful Lives (RUL) of the various assets The bulk pipelines were estimated to have a RUL of 36.5 years. Based on the CRC of R7 459 million the Estimated Useful Life of the City’s pipeline infrastructure is 76.8 years and the Depreciated Replacement Cost (DRC) of bulk pipelines is R3 541 million as shown in the figure opposite. This is based on a straight line depreciation commonly used by local government.


THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


The Bulk Water Branch plans to reassess the situation annually and will use this information to update the annual maintenance programme and the planned 20 year replacement programme.

Reticulation Infrastructure

The City of Cape Town’s Reticulation Branch is responsible for the management of the reticulation to consumers through a network of approximately 10 600 km of pipes, of which about 80% comprise AC pipes and the remainder steel, cast iron pipes with cement mortar lining and coating and uPVC pipes. Recently cement mortar lined ductile iron pipes and HDPE pipes have been introduced into the network. The estimated CRC of the network is approximately R11 billion. The City has adapted its operation and maintenance procedures to deal with the various types of pipes, diameters, soil conditions and typical failures encountered, for example: • Although some of the cement mortar lined and coated cast iron pipes laid in the original Cape Town municipal area are more than 100 years old, they are in excellent condition and on the rare occasions that they fail, this usually occurs as a circular burst or a longitudinal break, and occasionally as a leak at a joint. The bursts can usually be attributed to ground conditions, air in the pipe or the defective operation of a pressure reducing valve. The use of this type of pipe was discontinued in the early 1950’s. A remaining useful asset life (RUL) of 20 years is expected. • AC pipes were first laid in the late 1940’s and 50’s however most of these older pipes have been replaced. Internally and externally bitumen coated AC pipes were laid in the sandy Mitchell’s Plain THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



East Rand Water Care Company In a world in which a number of new approaches are being applied in the management of wastewater, ERWAT (the East Rand Water Care Company), is a South African pioneered approach to wastewater management based on technical expertise, scientific knowledge and proven success. ERWAT provides sustainable, affordable quality wastewater services through innovative, effective organizational practices to clients. ERWAT currently manages and operates 19 wastewater treatment works, servicing the needs of three metropolitan municipalities, more than 2000 industries and some 3,5 million people. ERWAT also renders services related to the wastewater industry, such as technical support through the provision of electrical and mechanical maintenance and related services, research and development in water-related areas as well as industry-specific training. ERWAT’s laboratory is accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 by the South African National Accreditation System (SANAS) and renders advanced chemical, bacteriological and micro-biological laboratory services for the analysis of water, wastewater, activated sludge, sewage sludge and soil. In terms of legislation and environmental regulations in South Africa, wastewater should be treated to a specific standard before it is allowed back into the water system. In line with the Department of Water Affairs’ (DWA) Green Drop certification programme, ERWAT has developed a Green Drop Acceleration Plan to streamline the processes towards achieving Green Drop status for all of ERWAT’s wastewater treatment plants. In preparation for the next Green Drop classification, ERWAT has received classification certificates from DWA for each of its plants. During the 2010/11 Green Drop assessment, ERWAT achieved an overall score of 78.8 percent, improving from a score of 67 percent in the previous year. ERWAT is also proudly associated with its parent municipality, the Ekhuruleni Metropolitan Municipality (EMM), that was awarded Platinum Blue Drop status in 2012. The company has taken a strategic decision to dedicate as much time, effort and resources as necessary to treat wastewater to the highest standards.

Contact Details:

Tel: (+27 11) 929 7000 Fax: (+27 11) 929 7031 Email: mail@erwat.co.za Website: www.erwat.co.za


area from the 1970’s onwards. These pipes which range in size from 100mm to 300mm and operate under fairly constant pressure, are in good condition and seldom fail. An average RUL of 25 years is expected. • The 50 mm, 75 mm and 100mm AC pipes, which were laid in the 1970’s in some northern suburbs and were subject to significant pressure variations and frequently failed both in longitudinal and circumferential crack mode. Due to the poor serviceability of that network most of these pipes have been relayed. • uPVC pipes that were laid on a trial basis in the 1960’s were recently uplifted and found to be in excellent condition. uPVC pipes have been laid subsequently and have an estimated useful life (EUL) of 60 years. It is apparent that age is not necessarily the criterion that should be used for determining the optimum time for relaying a pipe, but rather the records of failures which should be kept to enable the costs of maintenance and losses to be assessed so that an informed decision can be made on when a pipeline should be replaced. In some areas where bursts may be associated with high pressures, consideration may be given to installing a pressure management system to reduce the frequency of bursts and so defer the need for the higher capital cost of replacement. Other important factors to consider are the consequences of a failure such as: the strategic importance of the supply; options for maintaining the supply to the majority of users in an area via other pipes of the reticulation; potential damage to properties and other infrastructure and the disruption of traffic. Integration of pipeline replacement with the reconstruction of roads is also a very important consideration, particularly in confined areas such as the City Centre and the Muizenberg to Fish Hoek Main Road where the main pipeline is currently being relayed, although the existing pipeline is still in relatively good condition with a history of only a few bursts.

The following design and operation considerations are very important for facilitating the repair of failed pipes: • Valves should be provided in order to isolate the damaged pipe within a particular zone while continuing to supply as large an area as possible. The coordinates of these valves should be readily available for quick location by GPS. • Fire hydrants should preferably be provided at high points between valves so as to facilitate the removal of air and to flush the pipe after a repair. THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



• There should preferably be a rapid response team which is responsible for isolating any pipe failure and for recharging the affected section after repair. A separate repair team should undertake the repair and complete this work before moving to the next site. Both teams should be available 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. • Where pipelines pass through rural or undeveloped areas servitude management is important to prevent damage by superimposed loads on the pipes and interference with the functionality of valves. • The quality of workmanship during installation is critical for ensuring the expected life span of a pipeline.


The National Water Resource Infrastructure Branch (NWRIB) of the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) is responsible for the delivery of raw (untreated) water to many users across South Africa, and for the management of dams, tunnels, pipelines, canals, and pump stations throughout the country. This infrastructure is an essential life-line for industry (including users of national strategic importance such as Eskom power stations and Sasol), for agriculture, and for many water service authorities. In 2010 the NWRIB prepared the first combined National Infrastructure Asset Management Plan (AMP) based on the detailed management plans of the four operational clusters. The replacement value of the combined infrastructure was estimated to be R139 000 million and the depreciated value was estimated to be R63 000 million, neither of which include the land valued at about R7 000 million. The expected life of infrastructure was attributed at component level and ranges from 10 years (for some small motors) through to 300 years (for some dam walls). The Figure below provides an overview of the original construction dates with some assets being over 100 years old and the weighted average age of the portfolio being 39 years. The AMP concludes that the infrastructure portfolio is not only ageing, but that there has been further deterioration as a result of insufficient maintenance and ongoing capital renewal.

The AMP identified various risks, responses and consequences of failure associated with each component of the infrastructure and on this basis prioritised the long term capital renewals of the various infrastructure components. The AMP also evaluated the operational and maintenance requirements and concluded that the budget for these should be doubled but was constrained by the willingness of users to pay and DWA’s pricing strategy. The lack of capacity, skills and loss of institutional memory were also identified as serious concerns.


THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



The following conclusions can be drawn from the examples provided: • Significant water losses can arise from leaks and failures of ageing infrastructure, however these are often not the main cause of water losses, • Monitoring of water losses and infrastructure repairs is necessary to plan the maintenance and replacement of ageing infrastructure. • Regular reassessment of all infrastructure should be undertaken to determine when it is more appropriate to replace rather than maintain the infrastructure and the corresponding budgets. This assessment should include a consideration of staff requirements staff skill and the annual budgets required for maintenance.


Department of Water Affairs and Forestry: “Verification and Valuation of Major Infrastructure Assets: Sakhile Project Phase 2”: Department of Water Affairs, 2010. eThekwini Municipality: “AC Water Main Relay Project Report – Phase 1 and 2”: Aurecon, September 2011. J Bhagwan, P Herbst, R McKenzie, W Wegelin, A Wensley: “Benchmarking and Tracking of Water Losses in All Municipalities of South Africa”: Civil Engineering, June 2011. Water and Sanitation Department – Bulk Water Branch: “Infrastructure ‘Core’ Asset Management Plan”: City of Cape Town, Second Draft - November 2011.


I would like to thank the following for providing me with most of the information presented in this paper: Neil Macleod and Alan Keyes of eThekwini Municipality and Evan Smith of Aurecon for the information on eThekwini’s AC Water Main Relay Project; Peter Flower, Arne Singels, Alfred Moll and Farouk Robertson for information on the City of Cape Town’s Infrastructure Core Asset Management Plan and on reticulation management, and for the photographs of pipe failures; Dewald Coetzee and Walther Van der Westhuizen for information on the Department of Water Affairs’ Sakhile Project Phase 2 for the Verification and Valuation of Major Infrastructure Assets; and Dr Kevin Wall of the CSIR for references and advice.

THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



Damseal Survey & Construction Damseal is a Black Empowerment Company specialising in environmental sealing of earth dams using Sodium Bentonite. Our expertise includes the construction and sealing of clear and polluted water storage dams, evaporation ponds, leach pads, wetlands, decorative ponds and streams.

Damseal also supplies Sodium Bentonite for small and large projects and provides technical advise if required. Bentonite can be defined as a transported stratified clay which has been formed by weathering of volcanic ash approximately 66 million years ago. It consists of a hydrated aluminium silicate or montmorillonite and is a member of the smectite group of minerals. Bentonite can contain either sodium or calcium as exchangeable cations absorbed on the clay structure which consists of linked three layer sheets or flakes. Unstatisfied charge within its sheet structure cause a negative surface charge. As a result bentonite has a strong affinity for cations and water molecules which on absorption are tightly bound within its particles. Whilst absorbing water molecules bentonite swells up to 24 times its dry volume and it is these two factors, its swellability and the fact that the water is tightly bound that makes bentonite so useful in environmental applications. The Sodium Bentonite is mixed into the existing fill using a rotary tiller and compacted to give a final sealed layer 100mm thick which gives a permeability in excess of 10~7 cm/sq.m Sodium Bentonite is eco-friendly and being a clay does not suffer damage due to fire, and does not need to be removed on the closing of mines.


Moses Ndlovu and his staff have approximately 30 years experience in construction and sealing of dams, using Sodium Bentonite. This includes works on coal , platinum and gold mines, residential , golf, equestrian estates an game farms.

Contact details

Moses Ndlovu 0724489777 email: moses@damseal.co.za Barry Ingersent BSc (Civils) 0723412428 email: barry@damseal.co.za Website: www.damseal.co.za

chapter 11: Technologies available to use less water


THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook

chapter 11: Technologies available to use less water

Technologies available to use less water

Jeremy Westgarth-Taylor Water Rhapsody

Although there is a list of water saving devices at the end of available technologies, the details provided are the systems that have been developed over the past 20 years to reduce demand for water by at least 50%. It is essential that before one can make a proper assessment of where water and precisely where the biggest savings may be made it is only then that detail may be made of the technologies available. The benefits of using less water are quite astounding. The mere fact that by using less water one increases in effect the storage capacity of dams, reduces impacts on rivers and includes better sewerage treatment as 90 % of the cost of running a sewerage treatment works is the energy cost of pumping water around the treatment works. By removing the water aspect of the total load (sum of the biological oxygen demand and volume) of sewerage that needs to be treated, the vast sums of money that need to be spent on updating existing and building new treatment works may be averted. In the future we will experience the cost of producing water through desalination, and the huge energy resources required for this. It is therefore imperative that everyone be given the opportunity of investing in systems with a short ROI (Return On Investment) or amortization period. Unaccounted for or non-revenue water is excluded from all aspects of this review. Accounted for water which is water that flows from dams, is treated by a water treatment works, and arrives in pipes at homes, businesses etc. but which excludes lost water e.g. from ageing but high pressure infrastructural pipes. In a nutshell, accounted for water is water for which a local authority or water board can send you a bill. In a city like Cape Town, 60% of this accounted for water is used in the home. With this as an excellent starting point we therefore should concentrate on the home and let commerce and industry follow that example of how water can be saved.

Where water goes in the City of Cape Town: Non-revenue water excluded

With this in mind, we see that by far the biggest sector is the home, and therefore need to look at where water in the home goes to see where and how savings must be made. By a small margin, domestic gardens is the biggest portion of the pie. However this is almost matched by the volume of grey water that is unnecessarily disposed into the sewer. It should be noted that all grey water (water from baths, showers, hand basins and laundry) arrive from the home and business to a sewerage treatment works mixed in the same pipe to be treated by the treatment works as if it were sewerage. This water is patently not sewerage, and is excellent quality water for irrigation purposes. Grey water is therefore an asset to the householder, and of all water saving technologies this makes the biggest contribution to using less water. This chpater provides two examples of grey water reuse: i. Grey water for irrigation, and ii. Grey water for toilet flushing. South Africa is in a fortunate position as having gone the route of not legislating against grey water. Australia and many states in the USA have restricted the re-use of grey water or in some cases outright bans on this practice. These authorities force all users to put this water through a digestion system THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



SOILLAB The accurate scientific testing of civil engineering materials forms an essential element of any project. Soillab has been providing high quality testing to the civil engineering industry for over 50 years and is currently ISO17025:2005 accredited for a range of tests. Laboratories: At present, Soillab has established commercial laboratories in Pretoria (Gauteng), Secunda (Mpumalanga) and in Kraaifontein (Western Cape). Soillab has also increased its range of services with the introduction of a Rock Mechanics Laboratory in Pretoria called Rocklab. Soillab also establishes many laboratories on sites when required to do so by the nature of the project and the need for rapid testing of materials during construction. Staff: The combined Soillab and Rocklab staff compliment includes some 300 people of which 1/3 are technically trained, skilled staff. Range of Tests: Soillab prides itself on being one of only a few laboratories in the world able to provide a full range of testing services using up-to-date equipment and qualified and experienced staff. In addition to the various categories of testing shown alongside, Soillab also carries out testing related to research and development and carries out a wide range of special tests on civil engineering projects. In conjunction with Rocklab it also carries out many tests for mining projects. Satisfied clients: Soillabâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s list of clients include many public authorities, consulting engineers, contractors, project developers, mining houses as well as many smaller businesses such as nurseries and farms.

SOILLAB PRETORIA Wim Hofsink VKE Centre, 230 Albertus Street, Empowerment Initiatives: Soillab is a 30% blackowned company. When working on site projects, the La Montagne 0184, Pretoria PO Box 72928, company augments its core team with labour and temporary staff from the surrounding communities. Lynnwood Ridge 0040, South Africa +27 (0) 12 481 3801 Tel: This approach underpins its commitment to onFax: +27 (0) 12 481 3812 going community upliftment and skills transfer. e-mail: hofsinkw@soillab.co.za

chapter 11: Technologies available to use less water

before using the digested water on the garden. Moist soil does the work of a digestion system through millions of bacteria living healthily in moist soil, and making whatever food value is in grey water available to plants.

A. Grey Water

General :

The definition of grey water is - water that flows from baths, showers, hand basins and showers. Water from any dishwashing of any sort, toilet water and bidet is unacceptable and should only be fed into the sewer as black water and under no circumstances be fed into a grey water system. In a manifold of connections to divert this water from falling into the sewer, the water is fed into a pump chamber, of the smallest possible volumetric space for a low pressure pump to deliver the grey water to where you wish to use the water. I. Grey Water for Irrigation purposes: From the pump chamber, the water is delivered via a hose and sprinkler to the garden. In new builds, this is a huge saving over retro-fits as among other savings, the water is introduced into a manifold of plumbing pipes, and renders the gulley system superfluous. Important Factors dealing with grey water: 1. Grey water must be used while it is fresh, and it is anathema to store the water in a submerged underground “tank” for any period of time. Under no circumstances should grey water for irrigation purposes be stored at all. 2.  Low pressure. The particle size of water delivered through a sprinkler must be maximized by means of low pressure. A conventional pyramid sprinkler will deliver water to a diameter of six metres at .6 of one bar of pressure. Municipal water is typically a head of 6 Bars, and is very wasteful with this type of sprinkler. Grey water storage: one bacterium at the correct temperature and food value will form a ton of bacteria in 24 hours. Therefore to say that one might store grey water for any length of time is incorrect. Grey water should be delivered to a garden as soon as possible, and if at all possible while water is being used. The picture below is of a 100 litre chamber which is the smallest volumetric space for a pump together with the automatic switching kit. (Please note it is not a tank which implies storage) II. Grey water for toilet flushing: Extensive tests have been done by the WITS University to re-use grey water for toilet flushing. Other than some negative aspects of perception regarding this water, this was found to be safe to use for toilet flushing. The research was headed up by Adesola Ilemobade in the engineering faculty at WITS. One of many users of this system among others is a crèche at the Old Mutual campus in Pinelands for 330 tiny tots called “Green S Cool”.

How the re-use of grey water works for toilet flushing:

Undigested grey water: This system makes use of undigested grey water, and the quality of the water has a slightly cloudy or milky appearance. 1. A manifold of pipes from the grey water sources (bath shower hand basins and laundry) directs the grey water via a filter device to the pump chamber in the same way as for irrigation purposes. Only the water is stored, and poisoned so as not to allow anaerobic activity, which would cause the water to ferment. THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


chapter 11: Technologies available to use less water

2. Each toilet gets its own submersible pump, and there is no cistern required. 3. The only visible mode to flush is a twelve volt electric bell-push. Pushing on the bell-push closes a relay in a relay box outside the toilet area and near to the pump chamber. 4. Grey water is instantly fed to the pan, and will only flush as long as the user holds the bell-push in the on position, (until the pan is cleared) and this spring loaded switch will automatically go off as soon as the bell-push is released. 5. Should the volume of demand exceed the limited grey water available, water from another source is available as a backup, without the possibility of any run back causing pollution problems. Digested grey water. This system makes use of a normal toilet cistern and the re-used grey water is clear. 1. Water is harvested in the same way in a manifold, but the pump will lift the water into digestion tanks. 2. The water flows by gravity and is flocculated to clarify, and may be chlorinated and stored before being pumped to a separate plumbing system to the toilet cisterns. 3. Flushing from the cisterns is done in the normal way, and the user will not be aware of any difference between the clarity of this water and any other source.

B. Multi-Flush

If the â&#x20AC;&#x201C;re-use of grey water can make a 33% saving of domestic use of water; the next system to examine is the use of a multi-Flush. This is an excellent systems fitted into a toilet cittern of perhaps 99% of types and shapes. The savings are most impressive. UCT (University of Cape Town) fitted this system into all of the toilet cisterns on the Upper, Middle and Lower Campuses as well as the Medical School Campus. The savings proved to be a whopping 90% of water before and after 2002. Total saving so far: Saving A +B = 50%, but 90% of water generated and destined for the sewerage treatment works.

C. Swimming pool backwash water:

The water from backwashing pool sand filters is dirty water that nobody wants. It is not suitable to run into the street where it ends up in a river, and the municipality do not want it in the sewer system where it lands up at a sewerage treatment works and needs to be treated there. It is not good for many reasons to pump into your garden especially if this is saline water from a chlorine generating machine and is called a saltwater chlorinator. This water filled with chemicals is though infinitely recyclable to return to the pool. Water Rhapsody is the only company installing this device at present but have branches all around South Africa. The process involves a tank and the process will allow water either to be run back to the pool by gravity, or using the pool pump to return the water to the pool. The process of clarifying the water takes 24 hours, but the quality of the water is excellent, and does not remove the salt from a saltwater pool, creating a saving for the re-purchase of huge quantities of sodium chloride (common salt).

D. Carwash water recycled:

A digestion system based on anaerobic and aerobic digestion, followed by a flocculation process to remove dissolved and suspended solids, and stored with a top up of fresh water. This system will save around of 70% all water used. This however should be used in conjunction with a high pressure spray jet which reduces the average volume of water from 120 litres per car washed to 60 litres per car.


THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook

chapter 11: Technologies available to use less water

E. Rainwater Harvesting.

Though South Africa is a water poor region of the world, one need to look regionally at the total average rainfall for any South African district which information is available from DWA (Department of Water Affairs) to complete the picture of how much water may be harvested. An example of this are the rainfall parameters for Cape Town,:

One may see that Cape Town gets about 550 mm rain per year, but Johannesburg is substantially more and the rain falling in Durban is even greater. Rainwater harvesting should not be considered as demand management; as the use of rainwater is really ownership of your very own supply management. Water supplied by the municipality becomes both an emergency supply when one has a power failure or one runs out of rainwater. It does however make the user far more aware of the value of water whether rain or municipal supply. Water tanks have been perceived as expensive in the past because these have been thought of as storage in the rainy season for the dry. Things have changed and technology has improved hugely over the past three years. Perceptions of this will change as popularity of this system looks to rival all other water conservation systems combined. It is now possible and advisable to use all water that falls on every roof as the main supply to the home or commercial / industrial premises so that the home owner is the primary source of water, only to be supplemented by a municipal source. Water Rhapsody Rain Runner

The calculation used for the volume that may be gleaned from roofs are as follows: for every 100 metres of roof area and for every say 12mm of rain, 1000 litres of water may be harvested to run to water tanks. The efficiency of the different types of roof types varies enormously, corrugated iron being the most efficient and cement tiles worst. Filtering rain water: Leaves and debris falling on roofs and into gutters will block gutters, and it is imperative that gutters be cleaned regularly. If this is done it is then quite satisfactory to sieve the water with a Water Rhapsody Rain Runner such that a pipe that leads the sieved water from the Rain Runners will not block a smaller diameter pipe that leads from the Rain Runner to a water tank. It is this technology that allows rain water to be harvested and delivered to a tank remote from a building. The tanks may stand above the ground. So long as the Rain Runner is higher than the head of the tank, harvested rainwater will safely flow from the roof to the water tanks.

Water Rhapsody Rain Runner

Water Tanks: Plastic water tanks â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the prevalent green ones that dot the horizon, are available for delivery all around the country, and are the least expensive per unit volume. The tanks are now available in various colours and sizes. The price for these tanks bottom out at 5000 litres, i.e. two 2500 litre tanks are more expensive than one 5000 litre tank, and two 5000 litre tanks are cheaper than one 10Â 000 litre tank. Plastic water tanks must comply with a few basic rules. 1. They should be dark inside when closed, and the lid obscures sunlight completely. Most have two THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT- University of the Free State Environmental Management - leadership for the future.

The Centre for Environmental Management at the University of the Free State was founded in 1994 and celebrates its 18 years of excellence this year. The Centre creates environmental leaders by drawing on national and international teaching and research from various fields to provide an inter-disciplinary approach to environmental management. The challenges environmental managers face requires leaders who are able to cross social, environmental and technological boundaries. Through an integrated approach, we create leaders with holistic answers to environmental management. What makes the Centre unique is that education and training, applied research and expert services are intricately linked and draw on each other to promote best practice in environmental management in particular. The Centre offers a Masters Degree in Environmental Management, part-time interdisciplinary over two years. We aim to attract a highly multi-disciplinary group with diverse skills ranging from social sciences, law and natural sciences to engineering. Environmental Managers are employed in a variety of industries. They come from academic backgrounds such as engineering, town and regional planning, architecture, biology, chemistry, geology, hydrology, natural resource management, social sciences and law to name but a few. The Centre for Environmental Management produces holistic answers to environmental management through an integrated approach. For more detail on the Program overview and regulations, please contact us.

Contact Details

Centre for Environmental Management University of the Free State Bloemfontein Tel: +27 (0)51 401 2863 Tel: +27 (0)51 401 2629 E-mail: cem@ufs.ac.za. Website: www.ufs.ac.za/cem Prof Maitland Seaman Director: Centre for Environmental Management & Director: Strategic Academic Cluster: Water Management in Water-scarce Areas.

chapter 11: Technologies available to use less water

plastic colours, i.e. black plastic on the inside and the colour of your choice on the outside. 2. It is made strong enough not to buckle or go pear shaped, and by rule of thumb, a 5000 litre, should weigh no less than 80 kilograms. 3. Do not expose white tanks to the sun. Corrugated iron tanks are available. These are galvanized with zinc to slow down rusting (oxidation), and expect the life of one of these tanks not to exceed 10 years. These are only made in Pretoria, but will deliver anywhere, all at a cost, somewhat double the cost price of plastic tanks. Underground tanks are now available as large diameter pipes joined horizontally together and capped with an inspection manhole section giving access to the tank (pipes). A manufacturer of these is Rocla, and these are made all around South Africa. Positioning water tanks: Historically water tanks have been new innovations make it possible to place tanks remote from the dwelling / building, so that these expensive square type profile tanks do not stand against a wall of a dwelling. What should a rainwater harvesting system include? 1. A filtering device at gutter / downpipe situ to deliver water from the gutter so that an underground pipe does not block. 2. Water Tank of a size calculated to take into consideration, the roof size, roof type, number of people drawing water from the tank, rainfall parameters of the area, and whether it is permanently used or is a holiday home. 3. A pump with switching device to deliver pressurized water to the household / commercial / industrial premises. 4. A pressure vessel to level the switching system, and absorb any expansion from hot water cylinder while heating water. 5. An override consisting of an adjustable pressure reducing valve, the manifold of pipes receiving pumped water and municipal feed so that one may toggle between the two supplies in the event of a power failure. 6. A method of preventing water running in the wrong direction, i.e. one does not want ones precious stored rainwater pumped to the municipal supply and vice versa.

List of water saving devices and practises:

Low flow shower heads: A municipal bye-lay outlawing any shower heads that deliver any more water than 10 litres per minute is completely ignored by plumbing outlets. On display you will find shower heads that deliver 40 litres per minute. This is not only a huge waste of water but also energy as well as the volume of hot water consumed needs to be heated. Lever taps: these are taps that one lifts to open, and turns left and right for hot and cold respectively or as the plumber should have fitted it. These are fitted to mainly showers and hand basins. For aesthetic reasons people place them in the middle, so that will mean under balanced pressure systems, one will get a mixture of hot and cold water flowing into the basin, although by the time one has finished washing and rinsing ones hands the hot water has not yet reached the tap, but simply flowed from the Hot water cylinder into the pipe leading from the hot water cylinder to the lever tap at the hand basin. It makes perfect sense to set the lever arm to the right (cold) so that one uses cold water, and if hot water is preferred, to swivel the lever to the far left. To help with knowing which side is hot and which is cold good advice would be to place a red and green sticker on the left and right sides for hot and cold respectively on the wall behind the lever tap. Dripping taps: a single dripping tap running will deliver up to 120 millilitres per minute without being measured by the water meter. This is no excuse for not getting dripping taps repaired. This wasted water can amount to 9 kilolitres per month. This is one third of the total average monthly water use in the middle income domestic sector. THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



KOMATI BASIN WATER AUTHORITY The Komati Basin Water Authority (KOBWA) is a bi-national company formed in 1993 through the Treaty on the Development and Utilization of the Water Resources of the KOMATI River Basin and signed in 1992. The agreement was between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the Republic of South Africa. The main aim of the treaty was to reduce poverty and unemployment through commercial agricultural development that targets rural areas.

Maguga Damâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Swaziland

The Purpose of KOBWA was to implement Phase 1 of the Komati River Basin Development Project. Phase 1 comprises; the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the Driekoppies Dam in South Africa (Phase 1a) and the Maguga Dam in Swaziland (Phase 1b). The construction of Maguga Dam marked the end of phase 1 of the Komati River Basin Development Project. KOBWA is now focusing on the operation and maintenance of the dams and related infrastructure. There are mainly three Departments that sustain the operations at KOBWA and these are; *Water Management Department: Responsible for planning and management of all activities on the bulk infrastructure, systems operation, systems development, emergency preparedness and other related functions. *Corporate Support Department: Responsible for providing financial, Human Resource and Information management support to the entire company. *Environment and Development Department: Responsible for the implementation of KOBWAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Environmental Monitoring program for the Komati Basin as well as the Resettlement program for persons affected by the construction of the Komati River Basin Project.

Contact Details

Head Office, Maguga Dam, Swaziland Tel: (+268) 437 1463/4 Email: maguga.office@kobwa.co.za Driekoppies Dam, South Africa Tel: (+27) 013 781 0317 Email: driekoppies.office@kobwa.co.za www.kobwa.co.za Driekoppies Dam - South Africa

chapter 11: Technologies available to use less water

Irrigation: Best practice for irrigation is the drip system. Dripper pipes are available in various distances between the drippers. Hand held shut off spray heads: inexpensive and compulsory. Sprayers of the micro jet type sprinklers can be a blessing and a curse. The curse is to apply too much pressure and these atomize the water sprayed wasting up to 90% of the water to evaporation! A rule of thumb pressure for these is half a Bar of pressure or to open the tap until they are only just delivering water at all, and they will be most efficient.

THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


chapter 12: The United Nations (UN) Global Compactâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Water Mandate


THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook

chapter 12: The United Nations (UN) Global Compact’s Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Water Mandate

The United Nations (UN) Global Compact’s Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Water Mandate

Ms Kerri Savin Nedbank Group Sustainability Stakeholder Engagement Manager

Dr Marco Lotz Nedbank Group Sustainability Carbon Specialist

Brief background on the purpose of this paper

Up to now this book has focussed on aspects of water relating to scarcity, efficiency, cost and legislation to name but a few. The focus now shifts toward public disclosures regarding water impacts with voluntary participation from domestic and international companies. One of these voluntary disclosures is the UN Global Compact’s CEO Water Mandate. This specific disclosure is an international disclosure with companies across the world participating. This paper then focuses on the CEO Water Mandate with specific relevance to South Africa.


In essence the CEO Water Mandate (UN Global Compact CEO Water Mandate, 2012) is a set of aspirational goals that relate to water resource use and stewardship. As the name implies the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), or equivalent, can sign up to on behalf of the company that the CEO represents. The CEO Water Mandate is a product of the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC). (The UNGC is a voluntary policy initiative for the private sector to encourage responsible business practices. The UNGC principles include a focus on human rights and the environment (UN Global Compact CEO Water Mandate, 2012)) The CEO Water Mandate was officially launched in July 2007. Only current members of or companies soon joining (within 6 months) the UNGC can become signatories..

Focussing on the contents of the CEO Water Mandate

The mandate itself starts with defining some axioms (“truths’ that are not open for debate), including that water is a stressed resource and that companies have got an impact on water resources. The CEO Water Mandate comprises six broad principles (UN Global Compact CEO Water Mandate, 2012). These principles relate to: 1. The water used in direct operations of a company; 2. The impact of the company’s supply chain on water as a resource and watershed management; 3. Collective action taken by business; 4. Public policy engagements by business; 5. Community engagement regarding water matters by business, and; 6. Transparency of reporting and water related matters. Each signatory should submit an annual Communication of Progress outlining how these six principles were advanced within a given year. Explicit non-compliance with the principles can result in a company being taken off of the CEO Water Mandate list of signatories. Currently some recourse is publically visible as some signatory companies THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


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chapter 12: The United Nations (UN) Global Compact’s Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Water Mandate

receive an unflattering ‘‘delinquent in developing its required Communication on Progress-Water’’ (UN Global Compact CEO Water Mandate, 2012). This being said, the CEO Water Mandate is not a legally binding or enforceable treaty. It should rather be viewed as a ‘bottom-up’ publically driven pledge. (More will be said about the bottom-up approach later on.)

Current CEO Water Mandate signatories and South African participating companies

The CEO Water Mandate publically discloses all signatory companies on their website (UN Global Compact CEO Water Mandate, 2012). By the completion date of this research there were 6 South African (SA) signatories listed. The SA companies in alphabetical order are: 1. De Beers; 2. Eskom; 3. Nedbank Group; 4. SABMiller; 5. SASOL Ltd., and; 6. Woolworths.

Discussing the implications of the CEO Water Mandate

There is a growing global trend in which pressure from public or organized civil movements is outpacing local, domestic and international regulations.. The so called ‘top-down’ regulation approach is being trumped by ‘‘bottom-up’’ social pressure. Arguably the Carbon Disclosure Project’s (CDP) (Carbon Disclosure Project, 2012) 2011 tagline stating that it represents ‘‘551 investors with assets of US$ 71 trillion’’ is part of the exerted pressure as listed companies that perform poorly in the CDP might be viewed negatively by these 551 powerful investors with significant means at their investment disposal. Tiwari et al. (2008) studied the advantages and disadvantages of a top-down and bottom-up approaches regarding natural resource and watershed management in South Asia. The research found that the historic top-down approach had limit success and that bottom-up approaches with local community buy in was preferred. The CEO Water Mandate can then be viewed as one such ‘‘bottom-up’’ approach where companies and CEOs are expected to act on matters relating to water even though all formal regulations (top-down) are abided by. The CEO Water Mandate accepts a Water CDP submission to form part of a company’s annual Communication of Progress. (The Water CDP is similar to the CDP, but deals exclusively with matters relating to water.) It can be argued that the Water CDP exerts similar pressure to the CDP and if the CEO Water Mandate links with the Water CDP then the pressure is inferred by the mandate. Being a CEO Water Mandate signatory does imply a level of stature within the water management realm. This being said, it should be noted that the CEO Water Mandate specifically states that a signatory company is not automatically viewed as a top performing water stewardship company. The noteworthiness of being a signatory, however, is evident from the fact that all six South African signatories disclose their participation in the mandate on their respective company specific websites. The implied stature of CEO Water Mandate signatory companies has been a source of public outcry in the past (Guroff and Clarke, 2008) and as such it is incumbent on signatories to stay true to the spirit of the mandate and demonstrate meaningful progress year-on-year.

Some thoughts regarding the future of the CEO Water Mandate

Up to now even the limited South African CEO Water Mandate participation has indicated that corporates are willing to disclose information regarding water use. The disclosed information will THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



Beaufort West Municipality Background of Beaufort West Water Supply

Beaufort West is situated in the Central Karoo. The average annual rainfall for the area is 260mm. The water supply is made up of the following components: 38 Boreholes, 2 Fountains, surface water from the Gamka Dam and a Water Reclamation Plant.

Drought from Jun 2009 until Feb 2011

Beaufort West suffered a severe drought which reached its peak at the end of 2010. Water restrictions was implemented in October 2009 and adapted in June 2010 for households using more than 12kl a fine of R1000.00 was issued. The drought was mainly because of a lack of funding. Projects were identified but there was no funding available to implement the projects. The lack in funding made the town more reliant on water from the Gamka Dam. In November 2010 the water demand of the town could not be satisfied, this lead to water shedding. This meant that parts of town (35%) were cut from water supply for 36 hours to be able to supply the rest of town with water. Pressure Reducing Valves were installed to lower the water pressure in areas and this lowers the water demand of the area. With all of the above mentioned actions, the water demand decrease with 50%. Beaufort West was declared a disaster area and water affairs allocated funding for projects to counter the drought. The funding was used to develop new aquifers and for the construction of the Water Reclamation Plant. On the completion of the above mentioned projects Beaufort West bulk water supply was supplemented with 2 Mℓ and one new sustainable source being the Water Reclamation Plant. During the drought different awareness campaigns were launched. Water was supplied to town in Bottles with the “Bottels vir Beaufort” project by RSG. Another project was tankers bringing 30 000l/ event and the water was pumped into a reservoir. With all of the above mentioned taken into consideration Beaufort West was able to still supply a SANS 241 class one water to the residence. Beaufort West Municipality received the Blue Drop Excellency Award for the thirdyear with a score of 96.27%.

Contact Details:

Mr J. Booysen (Municipal Manager) Tel: 023 414 8181 Email: admin@beaufortwestmun.co.za

chapter 12: The United Nations (UN) Global Compact’s Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Water Mandate

hopefully lead to action regarding the individual company’s impacts on water resources. In essence the CEO Water Mandate has mobilised corporate goodwill as it relates to water in South Africa and it will continue doing this in future. With the corporate goodwill in mind it is suggested that the CEO Water Mandate incorporates a peer review system. The advantages of a peer review system will include: • Reduced external auditing effort and cost – External auditing cost and rigor has increased in the past decade due to the inclusion of aspects of business that weren’t historically audited. These aspects include carbon footprints and water footprints. If the CEO Water Mandate is seen as another component of an ‘auditing empire’ companies could hesitant to become signatories. A peer review system could alleviate some of the eternal audit burden. • Learning by example and knowledge sharing – The CEO Water Mandate’s website is very informative, but even more learnings can be fostered by peer interaction and a peer review system. It is anticipated that this shared learning will increase the pace of implemented change among signatories. • Keeping the integrity intact of the CEO Water Mandate – It stands to reason that a signatory to the CEO Water Mandate would want to keep the integrity of the mandate intact as the reputation of the signatory company can be tarnished if the mandate loses its integrity. A peer review system could then be advantageous since one signatory would insure that fellow signatories adhere to the principles of the mandate even if it is only out of own interest and reputation management. Future research on how the CEO Water Mandate actually resulted in a company behavioural change or company water consumption would also be of interest. At this stage the limited South African participation in the CEO Water Mandate makes such research premature.


cdproject.net (2012) Carbon Disclosure Project - Global climate change reporting system. [online] Available at: https://www.cdproject.net [Accessed: 9 Jul 2012]. ceowatermandate.org (2012) UN Global Compact CEO Water Mandate. [online] Available at: http://ceowatermandate.org/ [Accessed: 9 Jul 2012]. Guroff, N. and Clarke, T. (2008) 125 Public Interest Leaders Urge U.N. to Withdraw Support from CEO Water Mandate. US Newswire, 21 March. Tiwari, K. et al. (2008) Natural Resource and Watershed Management in South Asia: A Comparative Evaluation with Special Reference to Nepal. The Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 9 (June 2008), p.72 - 89.

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THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



Jane Burt Rhodes University

Robert Berold Rhodes University

Practitioners working in water resource management have found that very few knowledge and research resources are accessible to ordinary people. This happens for a combination of reasons: resources are not disseminated properly (if at all), they are too technicist, or potential readers are hampered by low education levels. Jane Burt spent some years doing research work in the Kat River valley of the rural Eastern Cape, working with local catchment forum members and farmers, responding to their needs with workshops and user-friendly booklets translated into isiXhosa. However, she found that when the research ended, so did the catchment forum’s access to up-to-date knowledge about their role in catchment management, issues of river health and the National Water Act. Her concerns about this led her to approach Robert Berold, who some decades ago had edited People’s Workbook (EDA 1981), an enormously popular resource book disseminated mainly by rural fieldworkers. Much has changed since the 1980s, both politically and socially and although there are many more resources and more mediums besides printed books. Yet surprisingly little is known about which resources work best, and why. To try answering this question, we approached the Water Resource Commission and undertook a research consultancy to find out the most effective forms of media to disseminate water research. Jane interviewed thirteen ‘water communicators’ in different parts of the country, all of whom have extensive experience working with poor people, both urban and rural, on water issues. We then brought these water communicators together in two focus group meetings. It soon became clear that media forms and formats were only part of the challenge of water research communication. Four main themes arose from the research. The first was that most research resources tend to impart knowledge without considering the context or existing knowledge of their audience. Learning resources work best when they engage people with practices that they are already familiar with -- this requires understanding the context and the practices concerned Second, a lot more attention needs to be given to accessibility and dissemination. Although there are many water knowledge resources produced in South Africa, few are presented in a way that is comprehensible to non-specialists. Even when resources are designed and written with local communities in mind and sent off to these communities, there is no guarantee they will reach their target audience. Many written resources can be found lying in piles in local government offices and school storerooms. Compared to the funds and time spent on producing knowledge resources, much less thought and funding goes into ensuring they are accessibly written and available. The third theme, mediation of knowledge, was probably the most important discovery of our research. Practitioners said that, while resources can support learning, there is no substitute for a real THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook


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living person to explain, distil or translate information. According to water practitioners, mediation is most effective when it happens in an existing social context as part of a water management practice, an activist movement, a process of institutional development, or a community movement. Finally, resources should be developed in a way that encourages people to ask questions that challenge and build on their current practices. This requires viewing knowledge as an interactive and situated social process, through which people construct their understanding of a given situation from a range of factors: information, values, morals, beliefs, cultures, personal gain, or community benefit (amongst other influencing factors). For those developing resources, this means adjusting to an audience whose understanding may be quite different from their own. This requires in-depth understanding and knowledge of how learning takes place. The practitioners interviewed emphasised a few key elements of effective teaching. They stressed the need to go beyond the basics of ‘knowledge transfer to encourage a deeper, more integrated understanding of the way people learn. They recognised the importance of mediate knowledge in a way that linking information to the audience’s previous knowledge, and mediating it in a way that allows dialogue and questioning. At the same time, however, they saw the value in communities learning the language of ‘authoritative’ knowledge so they could negotiate with institutions that directly influence their lives. As our research highlights the crucial role of the all-too-often unacknowledged mediators, it raises the question of how to train mediators in skills that would help them disseminate relevant information, thus mediating learning and action within a broader social movement. Jane Burt and Robert Berold will be running a mediator’s training course in collaboration with Rhodes University in 2013.

THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook



South Africa is a dry country with growing water demands which requires effective and efficient development and management of available water resources. Groundwater is important today in sectors ranging from agriculture to domestic water supplies and will make proportionately greater contributions to the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water supplies in future as surface water reaches the limits of its availability. Considering its potential, groundwater in South Africa is underutilised and often neglected â&#x20AC;&#x201C; it offers a substantial source of unallocated water in the country today, albeit one that is distributed over a large area. There are common misconceptions about the resource, for example that it is unreliable, only suitable for rural areas, or of poor quality. Some of these problems are due to past laws in South Africa, which considered groundwater until recently to be a local, private resource, making it more difficult to assess and manage. Many people are not aware of the fact that groundwater provides reliable, safe drinking water supplies to rural areas and many towns in South Africa. Even large cities such as the Tshwane metropolitan area are partly dependent on groundwater. Thousands of hectares of valuable arable land are also irrigated using groundwater, large numbers of livestock and game are supplied from groundwater and many mines and industries rely on groundwater for their water supply.

There is a need to make better use of South Africa’s groundwater resources to avoid expensive water infrastructure developments, help to ensure security of water supplies and improve access for communities to a safe supply of water. Better use of groundwater will help to solve problems of current water shortages and ensure that water is also available to meet future increases in demand. ILISO Consulting was appointed by the Department of Water Affairs Directorate Water Resource Planning Systems in 2008 to develop strategy and guidelines for national groundwater planning requirements.

The National Groundwater Strategy (NGS) has the following aims: • Groundwater is recognised as an important strategic water resource in South Africa, within an integrated water resource management approach. • The knowledge and use of groundwater is increased along with the capacity to ensure sustainable management. • Better groundwater management programmes are developed and implemented at required water resource management levels, tailored to local quantity and quality requirements. The Vision of the National Groundwater Strategy is as follows: Groundwater is recognised, utilized and protected as an integral part of South Africa’s water resource. The strategy is presented in ten chapters. Each chapter deals with a particular aspect or theme of groundwater (e.g. Regulation). Within each chapter, there is a background section describing the theme, followed by a problem statement summarising the present situation. This if followed by a strategy statement, broadly describing what needs to change and how this can happen. Finally a list of concrete, implementable actions relating to the theme is presented.


he Square Kilometre Array (SKA) - to be constructed 80km outside the South African town of Carnarvon - will be the most powerful radio telescope in the world. Its main focus will be to study the cosmic radiation in order to help mankind learn more about astrology and how we all came to be here. The construction of the SKA will be done by various contractors who will stay in construction camps on site for extended periods of time. For this reason, basic infrastructure and services (roads, fibre optics, electricity, water, and sanitation) had to be constructed. Sustainable Engineering Solutions (Pty) Ltd was awarded the contract to design, supply and install the following plants to serve the needs of the two construction camps on site:  Two Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP), 8m3/day and 15m3/day  Three water chlorination stations  Three Reverse Osmosis systems  Booster pump sets for reticulation of drinking and wash water

delivery sides of the aeration stage), an aeration stage and a clarification stage. Return activated sludge is pumped back to the anaerobic chamber from the clarification stage and back from the second anoxic stage to the first anoxic stage. Sustainable Engineering has designed and built numerous of these small WWTPs ranging from 5m3/day to 100m3/day. All of our WWTW consistently meet the DWA’s General Standards for treated waste water. Drinking and Washing Water Treatment and Reticulation Borehole water is used at the SKA for drinking and general domestic purposes. However, the quality of borehole water needed upgrading. Sustainable Engineering installed Reverse Osmosis systems at three different locations to serve the drinking water needs of the construction staff.

Waste Water Treatment The two WWTPs operate on a basis close to the well-known 5-stage Phoredox process.

8000ℓ/d WWTP nearing completion The Sustainable Engineering process uses an anaerobic stage, two separate anoxic stages (respectively on the receiving and

RO, chlorination and booster station Sustainable Engineering also installed automatic chlorinators, accurately dosing liquid chlorine on a metered basis, to ensure that the wash water reticulation network stays clean and sterile. In addition, Sustainable Engineering installed pressure booster pumps for wash water delivery into three different networks. Sustainable Engineering can be contacted for any drinking water or waste water related projects: 021 851 1334 info@sustain-aqua.co.za www.sustain-aqua.co.za

No need for Maintenance

Drilling Contractors & Groundwater Consultants Services include: • Drilling • Geohydrological investigations • Geothermal installations • Groundwater Monitoring

KROHNE WATERFLUX 3070 C, a battery powered, and maintenance-free electromagnetic water meter. The WATERFLUX3000 combined with the IFC070 battery powered converter is a reliable solution for remote water monitoring needs in the water industry where no power connection is available and provides certainty in case of power failure. The IFC 070 compact signal converter is available in aluminium and polycarbonate housing. The signal converter in a polycarbonate housing is suitable for submersion in flooded measurement chambers and is protected to IP68 / NEMA 6P. Non-wearing and maintenance-free thanks to RILSAN®lined measuring tube without moving measuring inserts and no need for repair therefore reducing the operating cost. Further, the Rilsan® liner of the flow sensor is highly resistant to pressure or vacuum conditions, to corrosion and aging. The meter can be installed with 0 inlets and 0 outlets before and after the meter due to the rectangular measuring section.

Contact us & talk to one of our Professionals

Meter complies with (SABS) now NRCS approval for billing KROHNE – Water engineering is our world. Contact details: KROHNE South Africa 8 Bushbuck Close Corporate Park South Randjiespark, Midrand Tel: 011 314 1391 Fax: 011 314 1681 John Alexander E-Mail: johna@krohnesa.co.za

011 791 3490 www.aquaearth.co.za


South African Institute for Entrepreneurship The South African Institute for Entrepreneurship was founded 16 years ago. The Institute and its staff are driven by a vision of a dynamic culture of entrepreneurship in South Africa that promotes a positive mindset in youth and adults and assists in the eradication of poverty through the creation of effective entrepreneurs. The Institute has developed a series of training programs that use active learning principles to engage participants in a process of discovering the fundamentals of business. The aim is to help change mindsets from passivity and fatalism towards an active engagement with opportunities. The Institute is engaged in four sectors: • Schools, with programs covering grades 8 to 12 in the Business Studies part of the curriculum. • Grass-roots business start-ups. As an accredited Private FET College, the Institute is able to award a Level 4 Qualification in New Venture Creation to successful graduates from their 1-year learnership program. • Subsistence farmers, who make the transition from a survivalist mindset to one in which they manage their plot of land as an economic unit capable of generating an income. Our AgriPlanner program serves to awaken new insights into how agriculture works as a business. With ongoing support these farmers develop from feeding their families, to selling to the community on an ad hoc basis, to supplying formal markets such as clinics, hospitals or local retailers, thereby earning a consistent income. • Rural, entrepreneur-owned ICT Training centres build critical ICT skills in under-resourced communities. The Institute has a range of products which are central to driving these different initiatives, and is constantly expanding the range using the same active-learning methodology which has proved so successful. The AgriPlanner program has recently given rise to Forest Planner, a purpose-built program to equip new entrants into the Forestry business with practical skills to enable them to operate successfully. The Institute’s programs have recently been adopted by the Nova Peris Foundation in Australia to assist in equipping young and marginalised Aboriginal women with literacy, numeracy, business and life skills through the use of our active learning methodologies. The Institute operates from offices in Observatory, Cape Town and has Project Managers who travel to all provinces in South Africa to run training programs. Our model is to train and empower facilitators (usually attached to partner organisations who have a presence on the ground in a particular area) to use our programs and continue the training among their target constituency. Regular follow-up visits are conducted to ensure optimal use of the resources provided. The Institute is supported by an active, representative Board and a sound financial management system.

Contact details

Collingwood Place 11 Drake Street Observatory 7925 South Africa PO Box 13805 Mowbray 7705 Phone 27 21 447 2023 Fax 27 21 447 9911 Email: sharon@entrepreneurship.co.za www.entrepreneurship.co.za

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Engineering success for sustainable water management

Aurecon provides engineering, management and specialist technical services for government and private sector clients globally. The group has been involved in projects that span multiple markets across Africa, Asia Pacific and the Middle East.

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Ecological Water Management Stormwater and Waterways Policy and Institutional Engineering, Procurement, Construction Management (EPCM)

Our team offers world-class technical skills as well as significant expertise in the legal, environmental, planning and community consultation issues around water projects. Aurecon South Africa (Pty) Ltd is a certified Level 2 BBBEE contributor. For more information contact us at tel: +27 12 427 2000 or email: water@aurecongroup.com

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Index of Advertisers COMPANY PAGE Alive2green Research Alive2green Sustainability Series Amathole District Municipality Ambio Environmental Management Anglo American Aqua Earth Consulting Aqua Plan Aurecon Bateman Africa Beaufort West Municipality Chemical & Allied Industry Association Damseal East Rand Water Care Company Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality Eskom Holdings Geberit Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd Iliso Consulting Engineers IWR Water Resources Komati Basin Water Authority Krohne Pty Ltd Maskam Water Mhlathuze Water Nedbank NIC Instruments & Engineering (Pty) Ltd Overberg Water P & B Lime SA Institute of Entrepreneurship SABC3 Sedibeng Water Senter 360 Sika Soillab SSI Sustain Aqua Talbot & Talbot (Pty) Ltd UASA University of the Free State Veolia Water Water Solutions for Southern Africa (WSSA)

96 14 62, 63 22 144, IBC 82 134 142 70 130 38 114, 115 110 10, 46, 47, 48, 49 IFC, 1 12 88, 136, 137 98, 99 124 26, 27, 28, 29 6 104,105 OBC 68 90, 91 19 80, 140 2, 3 74, 75 56,57 34 118 54 128, 138 8 40, 41 122 84 4 THe Sustainable Water Resource Handbook





Real Mining. Real People. Real Difference.

ANGLO AMERICAN IS SERIOUS ABOUT WATER We used a lot of water in 2011 for primary processes. It is vital to our operations and for the sustainable development of our business. Our business is global â&#x20AC;&#x201C; as are our responsibilities. Many of our operations are near communities that lack basic water services, or are in areas where there is competition between water users. Recognising the issue is one thing. Doing something about it is a different matter. All our operations have water action plans that integrate the implications of climate change and the needs of other water users. This is part of our strategic commitment to secure water, not only for our operations, but also the communities in which we operate. And we are already seeing results. Take for instance our Platinum business in South Africa, using our water savings tool the business has seen a 21% improvement in water efficiency during its first year.

Our Platinum business has also taken the lead in the establishment of a joint water forum 21 other mining houses. This project aims to increase the capacity of local dams and construct 600km of water supply pipeline. Half of the new water supplied by this project will be directed to the local community, providing up to two million people with access to clean, safe water for the first time. On the other side of the world, we are making our own water. Our Mantoverde copper mine in Chile is located in one of the driest regions of the world and is dependent on an already stressed groundwater aquifer for its water. Anglo American is spending almost $100m on building a desalination plant that will take seawater from the Pacific Ocean, and a pipeline that will carry the purified water to the mine, 42km away in the Andes mountains. Thereby removing our demand on the resource and securing water for the local communities. This is what we mean by sustainable development.


Over the past 20 years, together with our clients, we’ve helped save precious water.

Over 20 years Nedbank has donated nearly R110 million to The WWF Nedbank Green Trust. When you opt for a Nedbank Green Affinity bank or investment account or insurance policy, Nedbank donates money to The WWF Nedbank Green Trust to fund environmental and climate change projects, on your behalf and at no cost to you. Over 20 years Nedbank has donated nearly R110 million to The WWF Nedbank Green Trust to fund environmental projects such as saving endangered species like the rhino, conserving water, helping establish community gardens and implementing climate change initiatives. Because we know things don’t just happen on their own, we’re committed to supporting the environment for many more years to come. To open your account and make a difference to the environment call us on 0860 DO GOOD (36 4663), visit www.nedbankgreen.co.za or go to any Nedbank branch.

Nedbank Ltd Reg No 1951/000009/06, 135 Rivonia Road, Sandown, Sandton, 2196, South Africa. We subscribe to the Code of Banking Practice of The Banking Association South Africa and, for unresolved disputes, support resolution through the Ombudsman for Banking Services. We are an authorised financial services provider. We are a registered credit provider in terms of the National Credit Act (NCR Reg No NCRCP16).

Profile for Green Economy Media

The sustainable water resource handbook volume 3  

The sustainable water resource handbook volume 3

The sustainable water resource handbook volume 3  

The sustainable water resource handbook volume 3