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PROFILE

Industrial Development Corporation Fuelling Green Transport The Industrial Development Corporation (IDC) has established a project to introduce alternative fuel vehicles to South African roads. This is in line with using transport as a platform to pursue the objectives of government’s Industrial Action Policy Plan’s (IPAP2). The alternative fuel vehicles will not only bring about lower carbon emissions but will create jobs in the alternative fuel production sector. The IDC is committed to promoting the green economy and is focussing on the production of alternative fuels as part of a broad plan to make the ‘green’ transport initiative a reality. In Europe and Asia, alternative fuel engine buses and trucks are common due to emission legislation and the availability of natural gas, in particular. This has led to the development of significant fleets operating on alternative fuels. Large product ranges have been developed internationally over the past 15 years and comparative performance data is readily available. Public transport operators in large cities across the world, have significant parts of their fleet operating on alternative fuels. The IDC has engaged with all major Original Equipment Manufacturers about the availability of their Compressed Natural Gas and bio-ethanol technology and its sustainability for public transport programmes such as Bus Rapid Transport systems.

CNG buses refueling at depot


PROFILE Ethanol bus at Stockholm

The biggest challenge in South Africa seems to be a fuel network which does not yet cater for alternative fuels. It therefore made sense to start off with large fleet owners, such as city bus operators who typically refuel at a central depot and do not travel long distances. The IDC is negotiating a pilot project to test bio-ethanol and bio-gas buses locally with two operators, one in a rural area and the other in an urban area. Another challenge is to establish accessibility to a secure and sustainable alternative fuel supply to participating or ‘converted’ operators nationally. A number of initiatives are currently being undertaken by the IDC to establish private sector players in the industry and, where necessary, develop the technology themselves. In particular, innovative ways are being investigated to maximise the local job creation in the alternative fuel production process. The IDC is approaching green buses not only as an emissions target; it is intended that the local content and assembly/ manufacture of such buses be maximised, and that the alternative fuel production be labour intensive in order to create as many local jobs as possible. In addition, innovative funding solutions are being pursued with commercial banks and fellow Development Finance Institutions to ensure a joint approach to introducing green transport, amongst public and private sector players. Contact:

086 069 3888 - 24 hour call centre www.idc.co.za


            

 

                        



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FORWARD

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT: SOUTH AFRICA Together with the rest of the world, South Africa recognizes that transport and mobility are essential preconditions for sustainable development. They are also a fundamental factor of economic and social development, with a great potential for increasing productivity and substantially improving living conditions. The lack of adequate transport infrastructure and affordable transport services is contributing to poverty and posing major obstacles to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We are also aware that the increased urbanization and motorization over past decades have resulted in an unprecedented rise of emissions leading to a degradation in living conditions such as impacting on public health and the environment, and accelerating climate change.

Shumani Mugeri Director: Environmental Analysis Department of Transport

We believe that actions are required to address this issue. Multi-modal systems emphasizing low-energy modes of transport as well as increased reliance on public transport systems are crucial. Integrated urban and rural transport planning, as well as supportive fiscal and regulatory policies, paired with the development of new technologies and greater international cooperation with regards to capacity building, technology transfer and financing are key factors for achieving a transport sector that meets the requirements of sustainable development. Appropriate policy interventions that will establish affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound transport systems as well as providing an oversight role, support and regulatory measures to the sector form a large part of the Department of Transport’s role and mandate and therefore welcomes new initiatives, research and debates that will lead our country towards a more sustainable transport and mobility environment. The Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook Volume 2 is a publication that highlights important issues whilst offering practical ideas. The Department of Transport welcomes the launch of the Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook and endorses it. THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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FORWARD

South african citiES SOUTH AFRICANnEtwork CITIES

NETWORKTransport systems are key factors in reducing the costs

of social and economic interactions and allowing goods and services to be exchanged efficiently. Ineffective Transport has a vital roleoperating to playoninpoor supporting sustainable systems infrastructure platforms will mean that cannot offer a productive environment economic development ofcities a country. The need to make for firms or offer points of access to the urban poor where changes to our travel behaviour has generating been near the top of they might find income prospects. Existing transport infrastructure has notSome servednations the economy the political agenda for the past decade. will well, with the result that private sector operators and advocate improvements in technology hydrogen the informal, private taxi alone industry(e.g. provided the only meaningful alternative. fuel cell cars) as the complete solution to Climate Change.

However, most agree a mixture of measures is required In that response, the South African Cities Networkto is coordinating problems a sustainable public transport solve the wider sustainability associated with project publicto provide South African cities with information to guide transport. city development strategies relating to public transport, to advance understanding of the operating complexities associated with public transport services, and to help In response the South African Cities Network has continued to cities understand the opportunities for restructuring coordinate the sustainable transport project to provide inefficient public human settlements through transit-oriented planning and public space interventions. South African cities development with information on emerging trends in the sphere of public transportation andCities policy across the world and The South African Network welcomes the launch of the Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook in South Africa; promoting innovation and strategic guidance for South Africa. This collection of articles highlights the to city development strategies relating toforpublic transport, challenges and opportunities sustainable transport and mobility of initiatives that will make our cities and to advance understanding the operating complexities country a better place to live, work, and play. As a key associated with public transport andmobility to helpsector, citiesthe stakeholder in theservices, transport and South African Cities supports inefficient all those that understand the opportunities for Network restructuring are playing a role in contributing towards a safer, more human settlements through transit-oriented development effective, efficient and sustainable environment. planning and public space interventions

The South African Cities Network welcomes the launch of “The Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook Vol 2 for South Africa�. The collection of articles highlight the planning and logistics for sustainable transport and the research and developments around transport as a system & the associated technologies that will assist in the aim for a critical balance between economic development, environmental sustainability and socially acceptable infrastructure. As a key stakeholder in the transport and mobility sector, the South African Cities Network supports all those that are playing a role in contributing towards a safer, more effective, efficient and sustainable environment.

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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fFORWARD orE ward

EnvironmEntal goods ENVIRONMENTAL GOODS AND and sErvicEs SERVICES FORUM forum OF SOUTH of south africa – AFRICA

an Initiative of the department of Trade In South Africa -and as in Industry many other countries, oil is our number one import. However, it is a grudge purchase. More than 90% of Moving up in the world is an ambition not just for the world’s transport is dependent on it. continents. People, individuals, but nations and entire food and commodities come from far and move into and planet’s growing cities. Untilbetween 2000, oilthe prices onlymany exceeded $24 per barrel in times of war or conflict in the Middle East. Today the price is $80, after Freight transport enables global trade, while mobility, a $140 spike both in 2008, preceding the global economic crisis. including the passenger transport and communication The industries poor (people and countries) especially beyond exposedtheir to the , enables humans toare interconnect home villages. impact of oil price increases. However, in an age of increasing scarcity, we have no

When factors spills the andway oil wars, Peak Transport Oil, climate change, choice butlike to oil change we move. is more gas flaring, congestion and road deaths are and added to the mix, reliant on a single, geographically limited increasingly – oil – than any othertosector the world. therefinite is a resource clear imperative for mobility moveinbeyond a 100is also the fastest-growing source of greenhouse gas yearIttradition of oil-burning “horseless carriages”. emissions globally.

Peet du Plooy, Chairperson Chairperson EGSF EGSF South South Africa. Africa

At the timeprices of theamid 1970sthe energy crisis, Sweden was the world’s Rising increasingly convincing specter Peak Oil and Oilindustrialized Wars, give most nations on Earth mostof oil-dependent nation. Since then athe compelling reasonitstooilmove away from oil 77% as the country has reduced dependence from to fuel 32%on of its which their trade depends. For compelling environmental energy supply. It plans to be an oil-free society by 2020. reasons, high lifecycle emissions and impact on water using oil shales, coal or first-generation biofuels based on mono-cropping makeinliquid fuels,isare not The industrial energy consumption per to person New York a quarter either. largely due to the fact that the city that viable of thealternatives USA as a whole, is compact and serviced by amore well-integrated The world needs to move efficiently: bypublic rail andtransport mass network. transit and by swopping the wasteful internal combustion engine for high efficiency electric motors, batteries and fuel cells. Beyond challenging the nature, efficiency and equity of cities and We transport infrastructure, theturbines sustainable revolution need to plug our wind and mobility solar panels into also our offers exciting opportunity cars and busses, making themfor partinnovation, of a smarter like grid. smart, We already energy-powered have thousands ofvehicles electric and vehicles: renewable smarttrains, trafficforklifts, systems. heavy-duty mining trucks, elevators and escalators.

The InSustainable a secure view of the process Mobility we mightHandbook reinvent theoffers past to thethe economic thatwere can be found amidst the necessity future. opportunity In 1900, there more electric vehicles than internal combustion engined cars caters around of transforming transport in a way that for to thesecure evolving theoffuture. needs our People and Planet. The Environmental Goods and Services Forum of South

The Africa Environmental Services Forum of and South regards theGoods conceptand of sustainable transport mobility to beand fundamentally important for South Africa’s Africa welcomes endorses this valuable addition to the successfulHandbook development and fully endorses this handbook. Sustainability series. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK 9

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FORWARD

THE INSTITUTE OF MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING OF SOUTHERN AFRICA (IMESA) The vision of IMESA is to advance sustainable public infrastructure by fastening appropriate technologies, enabling members’ careers and promoting communities. The Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa is a Voluntary Association of engineering and technical professionals and associates, with more than 900 members. It aims to improve the quality of life of people living in municipal areas through the provision of engineering infrastructure. It is against this background that IMESA is pleased to endorse the Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook 2 to share knowledge and thereby contribute to develop

PGJJ Myburgh Pr Eng Technical Director: Roads, Transportation and Stormwater: IMESA, Head: Operational Manager: Streets & Stormwater: Mossel Bay Municipality

transportation and mobility for all sectors in Southern Africa. IMESA will promote all achievements to address transportation problems in our cities, towns and in rural areas to improve the quality of life. According to IMESA’s new President, Mr Jannie Pietersen, the challenge is that at present there is much emphasis on the delivery of new infrastructure and job creation, however the second major challenge is to maintain our municipal infrastructure and with no clear idea of how bad the problem is, we as municipal engineers need to address this issue as a matter of urgency so that we can strategise, budget and take informed decisions to be relevant tomorrow. A previous MD of a large motor manufacturing company had a saying: “If the rate of change outside exceeds the rate of change inside – you are doomed”. To be relevant tomorrow we must plan today. THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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DBSA SUPPORTS SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY The Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) is one of several development finance institutions (DFIs) operating in South Africa and the SADC region. The DBSA supports efforts to realise a more prosperous, equitable and poverty free country and region. Its interventions thus promote economic restructuring and social transformation which opens up opportunities for employment, decrease poverty levels and enhance environmental outcomes in the context of regional integration. In this context, transport networks providing connectivity are essential to the enhanced movement of goods and people. Essential to achieving sustainable transport is the integration of land use, spatial/urban form and energy. To achieve the above, the Bank plays a five-fold role as:

• Financier: o To contribute to the delivery of basic services and promote economic growth through infrastructure and development funding.

• Advisor o To build institutional, financial and knowledge capacity for development.

• Partner o To leverage private, public and community stakeholders in the development process.

• Implementer o To originate and facilitate key interventions for building capacity and providing development solutions.

• Integrator o To mobilise and link stakeholders, resources and initiatives for sustainable development outcomes. Examples of current DBSA involvement in transport include the following:

• Loan finance provided for: o buses in the OR Tambo District of the Eastern Cape Province o Gautrain BEE Equity Shareholding (9- year structured loan) o BEE manufacturer of railway sleepers

• Subordinated debt provider to Maputo and N3 toll roads as well as Maputo port. • Bond purchase as contribution to the costs of ACSA improvement project. All of the above were supported to varying degrees with specialist advice and guidance to ensure sustainability across a range of dimensions including social, environmental, economic, financial, institutional, and technical and which taken together promote sustainable development outcomes. Development Bank of Southern Africa 1258 Lever Road. Headway Hill, Midrand, South Africa PO Box 1234, Halfway House, Midrand, 1685, South Africa Tel: + 27 11 313 3911 Fax: + 27 11 313 3086 www.dbsa.org


FORWARD

forE ward

COUNCIL FOR SCIENTIFIC AND CounCil RESEARCH for for INDUSTRIAL sCientifiC and industrial researCh A sound and effective built environment is critical for socioeconomic development and and economic growthare in the country. The built environment infrastructure significant Expanding and improving infrastructure is a national drivers of socio-economic development. Therepriority are, however, in termsenvironmental of science, and much be significant achieved challenges without forfeiting engineering and technology as well asresearch human capital sustainability. Appropriate and sufficient funding development that need to be met to optimise the impact is required to develop new and innovative technologies from this investment. In addition, the built environment in all these areas. Africa Significant challenges do by, exist in terms in South is severely impacted among otherof factors, urbanisation, a housing shortage, lack of public science, engineering and technology as wellthe as human capital transport,toand congestion our roads. development optimise theon impact from this investment. Furthermore, built environment in South Africa is severely The Builtthe Environment Unit of the CSIR addresses these impacted by, among other factors, rapid urbanisation, a huge challenges, in support of the mandate of the CSIR, through its growing SET base with specific emphasis on broad focus shortage specifically for low-income houses, the almost total that include and sustainable settlements; cement lack ofareas public transport the lackhuman of proper road maintenance and bitumen replacements; advanced road building as wellmaterials; as congestion on of ourmarginal roads. materials and advanced the use materials; advanced methods for the optimisation of infrastructure construction, The Built Environmentplanning, Unit of design, the CSIR addresses and these operation (including infrastructure challenges, in support of the mandate investment of the CSIR,decision through support); road, airport and port design; green logistics its growing SET base with specific emphasis broad and focus and supply chain management; public on transport areas that include sustainable human settlements; advanced traffic management; minimising energy use in transport; and intelligent systems including intelligent transport road building materials; the use of marginal materials and systems (ITS). advanced methods for the optimisation advanced materials; of infrastructure planning, design, construction, operation It is against this background that the CSIR Built and Environment (including infrastructure investment decision Unit is pleased to endorse this publication: eight of support); the ten Chaptersand are port written by senior CSIR researchers enabling road, airport design; humanitarian logistics, green the and CSIR supply to share chain its knowledge with thepublic broadertransport South logistics management; African transport community and thereby contribute to and traffic management; performance standards to developing and finding solutions forbased the transportation address overloading on roads; energy efficiency buildings; sector in South Africa. It is our hope that this in Handbook will goenergy some way solutions minimising useininidentifying transport;and andunpacking intelligent systems for these challenges. including intelligent transport systems (ITS).

Hans Ittmann Hans Ittmann Executive Director: Built Environment CSIR Executive Director

Built Environment CSIR

It is against this background that the CSIR Built Environment Unit is pleased to endorse this publication: a number of chapters in this Handbook are written by senior CSIR researchers enabling the CSIR to share its knowledge with the broader South African transport community and thereby contribute to developing and finding solutions for the transportation sector in South Africa. We trust that this second volume of the Sustainable Transport & Mobility Handbook will go some way in identifying and unpacking solutions for these challenges. THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK 13 SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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CREDITS

The The The

GreenBuilding Building Green Green Building Handbook Handbook Handbook Green Building South Africa South Africa The

Sales Manager Annie Pieters

South Africa Handbook TheEssential Essential Guide The Guide

HEADSales OFSALES SALES HEAD OF Advertising HEAD OF SALES AnniePieters Pieters Annie Phillip Mostert The Guide Pieters HEAD Annie OF SALES Abel Ndoro Volume 2 AnnieADVERTISING Pieters ADVERTISINGSALES SALES Editor EDITOR EDITOR ADVERTISING SALES AndreEvans, Evans,Glenda Glenda Kulp,James JamesBenns, Benns, Andre Kulp, Llewellyn vanvan Wyk EDITOR Chief Executive Llewellyn vanWyk Wyk Llewellyn Andre Glenda Kulp, James Benns, ADVERTISING SALES JosephEvans, de Villiers, Louna Rae, Joseph de Villiers, Louna Rae, Llewellyn van Wyk EDITOR Lloyd Macfarlane Joseph de Villiers, Louna Rae, AndreMuqmeena Evans, Glenda Kulp, James Benns, Muqmeena Rodriques, Siobhan Pheifferer Rodriques, Siobhan Pheiff CONTRIBUTORS CONTRIBUTORS Llewellyn van Wyk Contributors Rodriques, JosephMuqmeena de Villiers, Louna Rae, Siobhan Pheiffer AlStradford, Stradford, Dr.Andre Andre deVilliers, Villiers, ChrisBeukes, Brooker, David Kaufmann, AlCONTRIBUTORS Dr. de Chris Brooker, David Kaufmann, Llewellyn van Wyk, Hans Ittmann, Edward Rory Williams, Prof Directors Muqmeena Siobhan Pheiffer Al Stradford, Dr. Andre de Villiers, Chris Brooker, DavidGraham Kaufmann, Dr.Dirk DirkConradie, Conradie, Dorothy Brislin,Dr. Dr.Graham Graham Grieve, Graham Young, CHIEFRodriques, EXECUTIVE Dr. Dorothy Brislin, Grieve, Young, CHIEF EXECUTIVE CONTRIBUTORS Wynand Steyn, Rosede Luke, Prof Jackie Paul A Nordengen, Gordon Brown Dr. Dirk Dorothy Brislin, Dr.Walters, Graham Grieve, Graham Young, CHIEF EXECUTIVE Dr.Gwen Gwen Theron, Hans Ittman, Hans Scheff erlie, Hans Wegelin, Dr. Theron, Hans Ittman, Hans Scheff erlie, Hans Wegelin, Al Stradford, Dr.Conradie, Andre Villiers, Chris Brooker, David Kaufmann, Lloyd Macfarlane Lloyd Macfarlane Hans Prem,Theron, Dr Luan Mai, Mathetha Mokonyama, Prof Wegelin, Marianne Dr. Gwen Hans Ittman, Hans Scheff erlie, Hans Andrew Fehrsen Dr. Hennie deClercq, Clercq, Jason Buch, Johan Bothma, Dr. Hennie de Jason Buch, Johan Bothma, Macfarlane Dr. Dr Dirk Conradie, Dorothy Brislin, Dr. Graham Grieve, Graham Young, CHIEF Lloyd EXECUTIVE Dr. Hennie de Clercq, Jason Buch, Johan Bothma, Luke Osburn, Miranda Kolev, Naalamkai Ampofo-Anti, Luke Osburn, Miranda Kolev, Naalamkai Ampofo-Anti, , Andrew McKune Dr. Vanderschuren Gwen Theron, Hans Ittman, Hans Scheff erlie, Hans Wegelin, Lloyd LloydMacfarlane Macfarlane DIRECTORS DIRECTORS Luke Osburn, Kolev, Naalamkai Ampofo-Anti, Santie Gouws, Dr.Sidney Sidney Parsons, Dr.Tony Tony Paterson Santie Gouws, Dr. Parsons, Dr. Paterson Dr. Hennie de Clercq,Miranda Jason Buch, Johan Bothma, DIRECTORS GordonBrown Brown Gordon Santie Gouws, Sidney Parsons,Ampofo-Anti, Dr. Tony Paterson Luke Osburn, MirandaDr. Kolev, Naalamkai Peer Reviewer Gordon Brown DIRECTORS Principal for Africa & Mauritiius Andrew Fehrsen Andrew Fehrsen LAYOUTDr. DESIGN &&DESIGN SantieLAYOUT Gouws, Sidney Parsons, Dr. Tony Paterson Andrew Fehrsen Dr Andre deRahbeeni Villiers Gordon Brown Gordon Brown LAYOUT & DESIGN Lloyd Macfarlane Lloyd Macfarlane Rashied Rahbeeni Rashied Lloyd Macfarlane Andrew Fehrsen Rashied Rahbeeni LAYOUT & DESIGN Lloyd PRINCIPAL Macfarlane SUB-EDITOR SUB-EDITOR Layout & Design Rashied Rahbeeni PRINCIPAL FOR AFRICA&&MAURITIUS MAURITIUS Principal for United States FOR AFRICA SUB-EDITOR Trisha Bam Trisha Bam PRINCIPAL FOR AFRICA & MAURITIUS Celeste Yates GordonBrown Brown James Gordon Smith Trisha Bam SUB-EDITOR Gordon Brown PRINCIPAL FOR AFRICA & MAURITIUS MARKETINGMANAGER MANAGER TrishaMARKETING Bam Gordon Brown FOR PRINCIPAL FORUNITED UNITEDSTATES STATES PRINCIPAL Sub-editor MARKETING MANAGER Cara-DeeMacfarlane Macfarlane Cara-Dee PRINCIPAL JamesSmith SmithFOR UNITED STATES James Trisha Bam MANAGER Cara-Dee Macfarlane MARKETING JamesFOR Smith PRINCIPAL UNITED STATES MARKETING ASSISTANT MARKETING ASSISTANT Cara-Dee Macfarlane James Smith MARKETING ASSISTANT AnriTredoux Tredoux Anri Editorial and Brand Manager PUBLISHER PUBLISHER Anri Tredoux MARKETING ASSISTANT PUBLISHER Mabel Mnensa GENERALMANAGER MANAGER GENERAL Anri Tredoux PUBLISHER GENERAL MANAGER SurayaManuel Manuel Suraya Divisional Manager Suraya Manuel GENERAL MANAGER ACCOUNTS ADMINISTRATION ACCOUNTS &&ADMINISTRATION Cara-Dee Macfarlane Suraya Manuel ACCOUNTS & ADMINISTRATION WadoedaBrenner Brenner Wadoeda www.alive2green.com www.alive2green.com Wadoeda Brenner UrsulaThomas Thomas Ursula ACCOUNTS &and ADMINISTRATION Accounts Administration www.alive2green.com Ursula Thomas Rashieda Cornelius www.greenbuilding.co.za Rashieda Cornelius www.greenbuilding.co.za Wadoeda Brenner Wadoeda Brenner www.alive2green.com www.alive2green.com www.greenbuilding.co.za Ursula Rashieda Thomas Cornelius ChantallCornelius Okkers Rashieda www.greenbuilding.co.za SouthVolume Africa The Essential Guide Volume 22 Volume 2 Essential

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THEGREEN GREENBUILDING BUILDINGHANDBOOK HANDBOOK THE THEGREEN SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK THE BUILDING HANDBOOK THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK


EDITORS NOTE

EDITOR’S NOTE

By Llewellyn van Wyk, Senior Researcher, CSIR

Welcome to this, the second edition of the Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook. Transport remains one of the key characteristics of our contemporary lifestyle - a lifestyle that is proving to be increasingly unsustainable at so many levels. Because transport underlies so much of our urban structure and form, it is imperative that new transport modalities be developed to ensure that our continuing mobility be extended to serve the broadest possible community while not depleting the earth’s finite resources or marginalising poor communities. Essentially this requires a step-change in the efficiency – and the determination of ‘efficiency’ – of transport modes: essentially a composite indicator for efficiency could be measured as the quantity of resources used per person per kilometre travelled where resources would include land, material, fuel, money and time. Unfortunately transport planning most often ignores these composite capital costs because the conceptualisation of transport planning happens at various scales and through various planning mechanisms, frameworks and institutional structures. Efficiency also includes operations and maintenance: the more successful a transport system becomes, the more maintenance will be required. New ways of constructing transport systems are thus required: construction methods need to design in robustness and ease of maintenance as part of the design brief. Maintenance also needs to be re-conceptualised to minimise costs and downtime. All of these notions provide challenges to transport planners, contractors and institutions. Many of these challenges are new, and many are revealed only over time. It is therefore imperative that a medium be found for exchanging and sharing new insights and thoughts on the issue of sustainable transport and mobility. This Handbook seeks, as a key objective, to be one of ways of sharing information and knowledge in the sustainable transport and mobility domain. Furthermore, in an effort to ensure that the content is of the highest possible quality, some of the contributions have been subjected to a peer-review process. It remains the intention of the Handbook to progressively move toward becoming a fully peer-reviewed publication in the interests of quality. Invited contributors have addressed a wide range of transport-related issues from planning at the local scale, adopting a systems-based approach to transport design, supply chain management, intelligent transport systems, reducing the impact of freight, sustainable pavement engineering, urban form, and urban regeneration. I am, as always, indebted to the contributors for their willingness to share their knowledge in pursuit of finding new solutions to contemporary challenges. I trust that you will find their insights and experience valuable.

THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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PEER REVIEW Peer Review Alive2green has introduced and is committed to peer reviewing a minimum number of published

Alive2green has introduced peer review for all handbooks and is committed to reviewing a minimum

chapters in all Sustainability Series handbooks. The concept of Peer review is based on the objective number of published chapters in all Volumes of the Sustainability Series Handbooks. The concept of peer

of the publisher to provide professional, academic content. This process helps to maintain standards,

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Contents 20

Chapter One Introduction Llewellyn van Wyk

26

Chapter Two Total Costs Of Logistics In South Africa Need To Be Reduced Hans Ittmann

34

Chapter Three Urban Regeneration and Transportation Llewellyn van Wyk

48

Chapter Four Planning Integrated Transport Systems at the Local Scale Edward Beukes

60

Chapter Five Urban Form and the Practise of Transportation Planning Rory Williams

72

Chapter Six Sustainable Transport From a Pavement Engineer’s Viewpoint Prof. Wynand Steyn

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CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION

20

THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION Llewellyn van Wyk Principal Researcher CSIR Built Environment

Background and Context Transport, in its widest definition, has been as much a characteristic of human development as shelter. The need for shelter has co-existed with the need to move people, goods and services, especially as communities formed around agricultural settlements and the opportunity to trade emerged. These trade routes – the earliest precursor to major transport routes – still exist to this day and continue to inform the sites of infrastructure investment. So significant were these trade routes that they soon became sites of contestation, and later of exploitation. The establishment of a settlement at the Cape of Good Hope is the one of the outcomes of this contest, as is the subsequent exploitation of the resources at the Cape. Thus, the ability to move people, goods and services offered the opportunity for those who so wished to dominate and exploit the very people, goods and services being transported. We may do well to remind ourselves that this ability to move people, goods and services gave rise to slave routes, and enabled timber and other natural resources from the colonies to be used to construct buildings in the centres of colonial empires. At the risk of sounding like a rabid socialist let me contextualise this argument: sustainable transport and mobility cannot continue to support and enable these patterns of behaviour either physically or conceptually if it seeks to be defined as sustainable. Sustainable development has as much to do with the protection of people as it does with the protection of the environment.

OUR COMMON FUTURE Twenty-one years ago, in 1987, Dr Gro Harlem Brundtland, released the Brundtland report, also known as Our Common Future. Dr Brundtland was Chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) convened by the United Nations in 1983 (also widely referred to as the Brundtland Commission) and developed the broad political concept of sustainable development in the course of extensive public hearings that were distinguished by their inclusiveness. Published by an international group of politicians, civil servants and experts on the environment and development, the report provided a key statement on sustainable development.

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CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION

The reach of the Brundtland Commission was and remains enormous: it provided the momentum for the 1992 Earth Summit, for Agenda 21, and for the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) – also known as Earth Summit +10 – that went on to ratify the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The Brundtland report was primarily concerned with securing a global equity, redistributing resources towards poorer nations while encouraging their economic growth. The report also suggested that equity, growth and environmental maintenance are simultaneously possible and that each country is capable of achieving its full economic potential while at the same time enhancing its resource base. The report also recognised that achieving this equity and sustainable growth would require technological and social change. The report highlighted three fundamental components to sustainable development: environmental protection, economic growth and social equity. It argued that the environment should be conserved and our resource base enhanced by gradually changing the ways in which we develop and use technologies. The Brundtland Report conceptualised a key statement on sustainable development, defining it as “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. More critically, the statement contains within it five key concepts: 1. The concept of ‘needs’, in particular, meeting the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding priority should be given; 2. The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organisation on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs; 3. The idea of generational responsibility, in particular, the notion that the environment is held as a proxy for social equity between generations; 4. That sustainability is pro-development, providing that development “involves a progressive transformation of economy and society”; and 5. The notion that free goods such as air and soil are also resources, therefore, sustainable development requires that the adverse impacts on the quality of air, water, and other natural elements are accounted for so as to sustain the ecosystem’s overall integrity. Thus the report states that the critical objectives for environment and development policies that follow from the concept of sustainable development include: 22

THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


CHAPTER 01: INTRODUCTION

• Reviving growth; • Changing the quality of growth; • Meeting essential needs for jobs, food, energy, water, and sanitation; • Ensuring a sustainable level of population; • Conserving and enhancing the resource base; • Reorienting technology and managing risk; and • Merging environment and economics in decision-making. This then must form the basis for assessing the sustainability of transport and mobility. As South Africa continues to develop and grow, the following key questions must be asked of our transportation policies and actions: • How are the costs of transport calculated? • Who are the intended beneficiaries? • To what extent are the real costs assessed prior to the execution of a particular transport project? • Who benefits most from the opportunity costs? • Will the project overcome spatial exclusion, especially of the poor and the marginalised? • Will the project overcome temporal exclusion due to limited service times especially late at night or early morning? • Will the project overcome personal exclusion such as that arising from a physical or mental disability? • Will the project alleviate economic exclusion? • Will the project replace the resources it has displaced? • Will the project result in a deterioration of ecological services, or will it restore ecological services? Applying an honest triple bottom line audit in future transport planning will assist us in ensuring that our decisions do not reflect or support the values that dominated transport investment decisions in the past. Perhaps only then will we be able to speak truthfully of sustainable transport and mobility.

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O fF iI lL eE pP rR o

MTU Africa (Pty) NewSouth MTU Series 4000Ltd, Rail Engine: Cleaner and Even More Powerful MTU Africa (Pty) Ltd, a Tognum company, is a engines supplier ofmeet engines, propulsion • RSouth educed NOX-values for the Group new Series 4000 EU complete Stage IIIA emission and regulations using purely internal technology. power systems in Southern Africa.

• 8, 12, 16 and 20-cylinder Series 4000 rail engines are even more powerful than their

Our predecessors. primary purpose is to meet customers’ needs for diesel engine products and services. We are responsible for sales and support of MTU diesel engines and drive systems for Power Generation, Mining, Construction, Rail,(PTY) Defense applications. MTU South Africa Ltd and is a Marine supplier of engines, complete propulsion and power

systems in southern Africa. The latest Series 4000 rail diesel engines are the result of

MTU SA has service dealers in Nigeria, Zimbabwe and South Africa where it aims to extend its reach more than eleven tosuccessful years of experience with the previous generation and quality of service customers throughout Sub Sahara Africa. As leaders in their respective which has now clocked up several million hours of operation in rail applications. The new sectors, the service dealers ensure quality service delivery to MTU SA customers.

units meet the more stringent demands of EU Emissions Stage IIIA which, in particular,

We offer an Apprentice Training programme for future artisans, whichthe has current now been in place at of MTU prescribes a significant reduction in nitrogen oxide from maximum 9.5 South Africa for three years. The apprentices receive the best training and coaching by qualified g/kWh to a new limit of 6.0 g/ kWh from 2009. The MTU rail units more than satisfy the technicians from MTU SA. NOX specifications by employing purely internal engine technology that is by using the

“Miller” process without any exhaust after treatment. With this technique, the inlet valves

In 2011, MTU South Africa will be celebrating 10 years of successful operations. Our successes makes it close earlier than is otherwise normal during the combustion process. This leads to lower possible to sustain and develop the expertise of our people, expand our product support capabilities combustion temperatures and towards reduced and thereby contribute significantly thenitrogen oxide emissions from the engine. The new combustion balance on Series 4000 rail units also achieves a significant decrease in attainment of national development and social particulate emissions. imperatives. Some of our projects are theSeries SA Navy4000 rail engines even more powerful than their 8, 12, 16 key & 20-cylinder where the majority of the vessels are powered predecessors by MTU engines, the Sishen Iron Ore Mine and The lower levels of Grootegeluk Coal Mine among others use MTU pollutant emissions from Series 4000 engines for their mining haul trucks. MTU’s 4000 Black RockSeries Mine uses MTU’sunits newly launched are not achieved at power the and recently Generator Sets for back up expense of increased fuel MTU SA delivered their 1000th diesel engine to RSD, a division of DCD-DORBYL consumption nor reduced (Pty) Ltd.

power. Quite the opposite:

The Tognum subsidiary MTU reached a milestone last year when they celebrated their 100th year The engine still consumes in operation. MTU Onsite Energy received a Gold Award in the sixth annual Product of the Year less than 200 g/kWh whilst competition for its diesel-powered generator set based on the all-new MTU Series 1600 engine.

power has risen by around

ten itspercent, as compared With two business units, Engines and Onsite Energy & Components, the Tognum Group is one of with the previous model, to the world leaders and are engaged in repeated innovation and has continually been at the forefront ofreach 150 kW per cylinder. technological progress. Depending on cylinder

MTU’s new Series 4000 rail diesel engines are available as 8, 12, 16 and 20-cylinder We aspire to further(8 improve successes during the years to come and provide our customers configuration to on 20 our units and produce between 1,000 and 3,000 kW. (Pictured: 16V 4000 R43 rail engine). with the service and products that they expect and deserve. cylinders), at 1800 rpm the

new engines produce between 1,000 and 3,000 kW. Each of the four V-engines is available

With a power range of 300 to 3.300 kVA, MTU South Africa offers a wide spectrum of products to the in a reduced-power version - individually adapted to the customer’s specific requirements African power generation (Powergen) market as a “full-line” supplier.

and operating profile. The 12V and 16V models also come in EPA Tier 2-compliant designs which meet the emissions specifications of the US market.


CHAPTER 02: TOTAL COSTS OF LOGISTICS IN SOUTH AFRICA NEED TO BE REDUCED

26

THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


CHAPTER 02: TOTAL COSTS OF LOGISTICS IN SOUTH AFRICA NEED TO BE REDUCED

TOTAL COSTS OF LOGISTICS IN SOUTH AFRICA NEED TOCounCil BE REDUCED for for

forE ward

sCientifiC and industrial researCh Hans W Ittmann Executive Director Built Environment CSIR

The built environment and infrastructure are significant drivers of socio-economic development. There are, however, significant challenges in terms of science, engineering and technology as well as human capital development that need to be met to optimise the impact from this investment. In addition, the built environment in South Africa is severely impacted by, among other factors, urbanisation, a housing shortage, the lack of public transport, and congestion on our roads.

INTRODUCTION

The Built Environment Unit of the CSIR addresses these challenges, in support of the mandate of the CSIR, through its growing SET base with specific emphasis on broad focus areas that include sustainable human settlements; cement and bitumen replacements; advanced road building materials; the use of marginal materials and advanced materials; advanced methods for the optimisation of infrastructure planning, design, construction, and operation (including infrastructure investment decision support); road, airport and port design; green logistics and supply chain management; public transport and traffic management; minimising energy use in transport; and intelligent systems including intelligent transport systems (ITS).

Worldwide, the logistics sector suffered from the effects of the economic downturn the past year or Hans Ittmann two. This forced those involved to reconsider the entire way in which supply chains areDirector: designed and Executive Built Environment

managed.

CSIR

Almost everything we use these days has been moved by a freight operator – be it the food on our It is against this background that the CSIR Built Environment Unit is pleased to endorse this publication: eight of the ten plate, the pen with which we write or the clothes wewritten wear. Logistics – or supply chain management Chapters are by senior CSIR researchers enabling the CSIR to share its knowledge with the broader South

African transport communityand and thereby contribute to – is the term used widely to describe the transport, storage handling of these products as they developing and finding solutions for the transportation

sector in South Africa. It is our hope that this Handbook move along the chain from the raw material source, through the production system to their final point will go some way in identifying and unpacking solutions for these challenges.

of sale or consumption. Effective, efficient and predictable movement of goods are important and contribute to economic growth. Supply chains include all the activities, linkages, information exchanges and relationships formed by all those who choose to work together in these chains; some chains being very complex.

CSIR RESEARCH SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

CSIR Research in supply chain management is aimed at improving the overriding goal and objective of every chain – to transport, distribute and move products and services ever closer to final consumption in a more cost-effective way, adding value in the process. This requires dedication, creativity and innovation by all parties involved. Some years ago, the Foundation for the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award conducted a survey in the USA among chief executive officers, which revealed an almost unanimous agreement that globalisation was becoming a major challenge. Furthermore, reducing costs and improving global supply chain performance were a top priority. The logistics fraternity in South Africa needs to serve consumers inside the country while an increasing number of local companies also operate in the global market place. In both instances, it is critical

THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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9


CHAPTER 02: TOTAL COSTS OF LOGISTICS IN SOUTH AFRICA NEED TO BE REDUCED

to operate supply chains as efficiently and effectively as possible, keeping logistics costs as low as possible while also providing quality service. Given the long distances in the country and the fact that the main economic activity in South Africa is concentrated in the centre of the country (Gauteng), the reality is that internal logistics costs are higher. Our geographical location also disadvantages South Africa when competing in the global market place. The pressure is therefore even more severe on logistics efficiencies and costs.

WORLD BANK REPORT It is accepted today that a competitive network of global logistics is the backbone of international trade. Many countries have not benefitted from this. The recently-published World Bank Report on the topic of trade logistics competitiveness emphasises this: “Improving logistics performance has become an important development policy objective in recent years because logistics have a major impact on economic activity”. Furthermore, “The importance of efficient logistics for trade and growth is now widely acknowledged. Analysis based on the 2007 LPI or similar information has shown that better logistics performance is strongly associated with trade expansion, export diversification, ability to attract foreign direct investments, and economic growth.” The South African government’s policies are geared towards the country becoming a player in the global marketplace. What holds true for international trade is also valid, to a large extent, for internal trade within a country. The World Bank Report shows that South Africa is ranked 28th out of 155 countries on the world logistics performance index with a score of 3.46. The actual score has decreased from 3.53 and South Africa is down from 24th in 2007. This trend is obviously a concern. Our country is by far rated the highest in Africa and – excluding high-income countries such as Germany and the USA – it is among the 10 most significant over-performers. Based on the income of the country, South Africa is actually over-performing from a logistics point of view. Other overperforming countries include China and India. This – on the other hand – is very encouraging.

LOGISTICS COSTS IN SOUTH AFRICA The ‘in-country’ logistics costs as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) for South Africa are presented in the most recent 6th State of Logistics survey published jointly by the CSIR, Stellenbosch University and Imperial Logistics. The total logistics costs in South Africa for 2008 was R339 billion – an increase of 6.9% on the 2007 amount of R317 billion; the logistics costs as a percentage of the GDP are 14.7%, which is the lowest it has been since the first survey in 2004.

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THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK


CHAPTER 02: TOTAL COSTS OF LOGISTICS IN SOUTH AFRICA NEED TO BE REDUCED

Although these numbers are seemingly moving in the right direction, they need to be analysed carefully in order to understand which factors are driving this percentage down. Compared to other countries, the logistics costs as a percentage of GDP are still high – in the USA, the percentage for 2008 was 9.4% while for 2009, the percentage decreased to an all time low of 7.7% of GDP. The local situation with freight is exactly the same as the past number of years. Total freight in 2008 increased slightly with 2% or 32 million tons, with all growth being on road again. This is not ideal; not only is this the main contributor to high transportation costs, but heavy vehicles are damaging our road infrastructure. Various efforts over the past few years have not had the desired effect of getting some freight back onto rail. Freight also contributes to congestion on our road networks. The recent upgrades of roads in the main metros across the country will alleviate this congestion. However, CSIR research found that the effect of bad roads, mainly the secondary roads in the country, has a substantial effect on increasing maintenance and repair costs of freight trucks and vehicles, adding to higher logistics costs.

CONCLUSION Logistics and supply chains are integral parts of the economy of a country. For South Africa to be reckoned as a player in the global marketplace, the logistics and supply chain management environment will have to improve continuously to further reduce costs and stay abreast with new developments to improve our country’s competitiveness. Enquiries: Hans W Ittmann hittmann@csir.co.za

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pPrRoOfFiIlLeE

Khuthele KhutheleProjects Projects(Pty) (Pty)Ltd Ltd Khuthele Projects Ltd wasinestablished Khuthele Projects (Pty) Ltd(Pty) was established 1998, as a transformed, autonomous company committed to representivity, economic empowerment & co-ownership. in 1998, as a truly New South Africa, autonomous company providing for representivity, economic empowerment and co-ownership.

“Khuthele” is an indigenous word meaning “hard working” or “diligence”.

“Khuthele” is an indigenous word which means “hard working” “being The firm focuses on transportation, business & development services. Theseor services arediligent”. provided by a multidisciplinary team comprising experienced Railway & Transport Engineers, Project Managers, Operational The firm transportation, development services. These Legal services Planners, Publicfocuses Transporton Specialists, Transport business & Maritimeand Economists, Town & Regional Planners, & are provided anas integrated multi-disciplinary team, including experienced Railway Policy Specialists asby well Institutional Reform Specialists. and Transport Engineers, Project Management Professionals, Operational Planners, Public Transport Specialists, Transport Economists, Town and Regional Planners, Legal and Policy Core competencies: specialists as well as institutional reform specialists. Transport Khuthele believes that its most valuable asset is its well qualified and experienced staff, • Transportation engineering & planning applying best practices and rendering professional services. • Public transport infrastructure & services planning & design Khuthele proudly subscribes to the principles and practice of employment equity and • Policy, Strategy & Legislation development Khuthele is economics therefore pro-actively engaged in capacity building, empowerment • BBBEE. Transport & Maritime and skills transfer towards achieving sustainability. • programmes Freight transport & logistics • Railway engineering ComPetenCies: • Core Traffic management & road safety

transport

Business • Transportation engineering and planning • • Institutional development Public transport infrastructure and services planning and design • • Organisational / Business analyses & restructuring Policy and strategy development and legislation

• Transport economics

Development • Freight transport and logistics • • Project management Railway engineering • • Integrated development planning Traffic management and road safety • Urban & Regional planning • Community development & participation Business • Lecturing & capacity building • Institutional development • Spatial development

Gautrain Rapid Rail Link

• O rganisational and Business analyses and restructuring

Key Projects

Transport Development • • Gautrain Rapid Rail Link Project management • • SARCC National Rail Plan Integrated development planning • • Mamelodi rail line doubling, stations upgrade & development Urban and regional planning • • 2010 FIFA World Cup: Community development and participation National Transport Operational Plan • • Lecturing and capacity building (skills transfer) • National Taxi Operational Plan • Transport planning, NMBMM seLeCteD Key ProjeCts • Coega IDZ Transport Plan transport • Development of National Planning Guidelines & Standards for DoT Bus Rapid Transport - Infrastructure • Gautrain Rapid Rail Link • COJ Integrated Transport Plan Update 2008 SARCC National Rail Plan • • Drafting of the National Land Transport Act Mamelodi rail line doubling, stations upgrade and development • • Design of bus contracts for subsidised services 2010 FIFA World Cup: • • Addis Ababa Bus Study – National Transport Operational Plan • Beira to Tete Road Safety Project – National TaxiofOperational Plan & permanent way (BRT/IPTS), NMBM • Planning & design bus infrastructure


PROFILE • • • •

Implementation of the Public Transport Plan of the NMBM, i.e. Integrated Public Transport System City of Cape Town Non-Motorised Transport Plan Taxi Route verification on the Johannesburg Rea Vaya BRT Development of an Integrated Provincial Maritime Plan for Eastern Cape DoT

Business • Business analyses & organisational structuring of the RTMC • Gauteng Provincial Construction & Maintenance Department: Organisational development • Institutional development for the National Rail Economic Regulator • Development of Transit Administrative Agency, NMBMM • Development of Uganda Road Fund Development • Re-Kgabisa Tshwane Programme: advisory services • Gauteng Integrated Spatial & Transport Framework • Planning, design & development of the Lenasia taxi rank • Multiple land use applications for private developers • Klip & Kruisfontein Cemetery: planning, design & development • Westgate Urban Development Framework & Implementation Plan • Town Planning Services for Joe SlovSubsidy Housing Development, Uitenhage • Strategic Spatial Implementation Framework for Uitenhage / Despatch CBDs, MBDA Khuthele’s broad client base: • National Department of Transport • National Department of Public Works • Eastern Cape Department of Transport • Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa • Department of Public Transport, Roads &Works: • Gauteng • Mpumalanga • Limpopo Western • Cape Provincial Administration • Metropolitan Municipalities • City of Johannesburg • City of Tshwane • City of Cape Town • Ekurhuleni • Nelson Mandela Bay • Coega Development Corporation • Road Traffic Management Corporation • Airports Company of South Africa • Mandela Bay Development Agency (MBDA)

Contact Details Dede Bukasa MD: Khuthele Projects (Pty) Ltd P. O. Box 1237, Pretoria 0001 Tel: 012-430-3223 Fax: 012-342-3922 Khuthele@khuthele.co.za www.khuthele.co.za

Integrated Maritime Transport Planning

Bus Rapid Transport – Infrastructure


PROFILE

Intersite Intersite Property Management Services is a subsidiary of the Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa (PRASA).Their key mandate is to manage PRASA’s property portfolio in and around railway stations across South Africa. Ultimately, Intersite contributes to PRASA’s strategic imperative of delivering efficient, quality transport services on a sustainable basis. Intersite is tasked with being a fully fledged corporate real estate property investment company that can effectively manage PRASA’s asset base in order to generate increased revenue streams and enable efficient leveraging of the company’s balance sheets. Intersite is also tasked with building, managing and operating rail and bus station precincts and surrounding environments that enhance the public transport user’s experience and actively encourage increased patronage. This role ensures that these hubs are revamped, kept clean and are occupied with income generating tenants. These goals are achieved through various divisional departments working together in Intersite namely, Real Estate Asset Management (REAM), Facilities Management (FM) and Property Development Management (PDM). These divisions work together to ensure effectiveness and delivery on Intersite’s mandate.

Four pillars of service operations

Intersite’s four pillars of service operations that enable efficient provision for corporate real estate solutions, include a strategic focus on Real Estate Strategy and Business Management, while Project Development Management, Facilities and Estate Management areas provide the investment growth and operational focus. Within these focus areas, Intersite has coordinated various programmes and initiatives that are vital to developing the Intersite approach to public transport and their surrounding hubs. Examples of Intersite’s projects: • The National Station Improvement Programme (NSIP), has seen 105 stations built or renovated. • The South African Police Services (SAPS) Station Programme aims to ensure full-time professional police presence in many of the stations, particularly in urban areas. This project, funded by PRASA, ensures that all public transport users are well protected and adequately policed. The programme has already set up 27 fully operational SAPS facilities, with plans to increase this amount during the next year.

Supporting Government’s social, economic and transport objectives Intersite plans to develop and promote rail corridor densification around station precincts. The outcome is to develop sustainable communities that have increased access to socio-economic opportunities and public services, as well as supporting the increase in the usage of public rail transport.

Strategic Partnerships

Intersite has negotiated several strategic partnerships in recent years that will open up their services, enabling a more holistic approach to their role at PRASA and in the development of urban public transport hubs. These are significant in the planning and development of stations, notably flagship development projects and corridor densification programmes.


PROFILE

Intersite plans to create even more partnerships and enter into similar agreements with other strategic players including funding institutions and other relevant stakeholders. These institutions could potentially be involved in a number of projects at inception, in order to identify strong areas of investment opportunity and participation.

Contact Details

Floor 12, 66 Jorissen Place, Braamfontein, 2107 Telephone number: +27 11 773 1700 Website address: www.intersite.co.za email: marketing@intersite.co.za


CHAPTER 03: URBAN REGENERATION AND TRANSPORTATION

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CHAPTER 03: URBAN REGENERATION AND TRANSPORTATION

URBAN REGENERATION AND TRANSPORTATION Llewellyn van Wyk Principal Researcher CSIR Built Environment

INTRODUCTION The built environment is the stage upon which we live out our daily lives: the built environment comprises urban design, land use, and the transportation system, and the patterns of human activity within this physical environment. Unfortunately, the physical environment often hinders patterns of human activity, and none more than transportation systems. This is all the more regrettable as investment in the physical environment, especially in the infrastructure supporting that physical environment, is a significant component of public spending. Public infrastructure investment has been a key driver of recently improved investment rates (DTI, 2010). Public investment of R404 billion was attracted over the 2006/7 – 2008/9 period and rose to R787 billion for the period 2009/10 – 2011/12. Much of this investment was for transportation upgrades and improvements, including Gautrain and national road improvements. Government invested R25 billion over the last Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) in passenger rail services in preparation of the Fifa World Cup and beyond (DoT, 2010). This programme increased to R38 billion in the current MTEF and is also to arrest the decline in infrastructure and address rolling stock availability. Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa (PRASA) is upgrading key stations and critical infrastructure. In Johannesburg, Cape Town and Nelson Mandela Bay, the construction of the Integrated Rapid Public Transport Networks (IRPTN) infrastructure construction is also underway. The public transport strategy, approved by Cabinet in March 2007, makes the case for the implementation of a public transport system in South Africa, and recognises that South Africa cannot continue to build more roads and parking in cities as this simply encourages more traffic over the medium term. For example, Rea Vaya Phase 1 A, which operates between Johannesburg and Soweto, is currently carrying 20 000 people per day (as at December 2009) up from 11 000 in August of the same year.

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However, the impact of South Africa’s sprawling low-density cities has detrimental impacts on the viability of public transport. Significant pressures are especially placed on the transport system by the marginalisation of a majority of working class and poor citizens who have to commute over large distances daily to access work and other opportunities. Switching car users to public transport, walking and cycling will make a major contribution to our global responsibilities of protecting the environment. In addition public transport provides a greater level of safety and stress-free travel than private transport.

ROLE OF TRANSPORTATION IN URBAN REGENERATION The inter-connectivity of transport and quality of life has been recognised in the United States of America through the establishment of an Interagency Partnership for Sustainable Communities to help improve access to affordable housing, more transportation options, and lower transportation costs while protecting the environment in communities nationwide (DOT, 2009). This interagency consists of the Department of Transportation, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Environmental Protection Agency. The interagency has agreed on six guiding ‘liveability principles’ to guide and coordinate federal transportation, environmental protection and housing investments at their respective agencies. Together the initiative aims to protect the environment, promote equitable development, and help address some of the challenges associated with climate change. More critically, however, is the recognition that the creation of liveable communities will result in improved quality of life and create a more efficient and more accessible transportation network that serves the needs of individual communities. For the first time the US Federal government will speak with one voice on housing, environmental and transportation policy (DOT, 2009). The six liveability principles are: • Provide more transportation choices to, inter alia, develop safe, reliable and economical transportation choices to decrease household transportation costs, reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil, improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and promote public health; • Promote equitable and affordable housing to, inter alia, expand location- and energy-efficient housing choices for people of all ages, income, and race to increase mobility and lower the combined cost of housing and transportation; • Enhance economic competitiveness by, inter alia, improving economic competitiveness through reliable and timely access to employment centres, educational opportunities, services and other basic needs by workers as well as expanded business access to markets; 36

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• Support existing communities by, inter alia, targeting federal funding toward existing communities through such strategies as transit-oriented, mixed-use development and land recycling and by increasing community revitalisation, improving the efficiency of public works investments and safeguarding rural landscapes; • Coordinate policies and leverage investment by, inter alia, aliging federal policies and funding with a view to removing barriers to collaboration, leverage funding and increasing the accountability and effectiveness of all levels of government to plan for future growth, including making smart energy choices such as locally generated renewable energy; and • Value communities and neighbourhoods by, inter alia, enhancing the unique characteristics of all communities by investing in healthy, safe and walkable neighbourhoods.

TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) refers to residential and commercial centres designed to maximise access by transit and non-motorised transportation, and supported with other features to encourage transit ridership (VTPI, 2010). Typically TOD has a rail and/or bus station at its centre, and is surrounded by relatively high-density development, progressively reducing in density as it moves out from the centre. Transit-Oriented Development includes design features such as (Morris, 1996; Renne, 2009): • A neighbourhood designed for cycling and walking and having sufficient facilities and attractive street conditions. • Streets have good connectivity and traffic calming features to control vehicle traffic speeds. • The surrounding development is essentially mixed-use that includes shops, schools and other public services, and offers a wide variety of housing types and prices within each neighbourhood. • Parking is managed to reduce the amount of land devoted to parking compared with conventional development, and to take advantage of parking cost savings associated with reduced automobile use. • Transit stops and stations are convenient, comfortable and secure with comfortable waiting areas, a variety of convenience shops, and clean ablution facilities. Transit-Oriented Development is a category of Smart Growth, New Urbanism and Location Efficient Development. Properly applied, it increases accessibility and transportation options through land use grouping and mix, and non-motorised transportation improvements. This reduces the distance required for car trips, encourages a greater portion of trips to be made by walking and cycling, and allows some households to reduce their car ownership which, together, can result in significant reductions in vehicle trips overall.

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PROFILE

ANALISTA MODELLING SYSTEMS IDENTIFY COST REDUCTION AND PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH SIMULATION Simulation has been successfully applied to many applications. Cost savings and/or cost avoidance in a typical simulation project are often 10 to 20 times the initial investment within four to six months of initial use. Simulation is the process of creating an abstract representation (a model) to represent important aspects of the real world. Just as flight simulators have long been used to help expose pilots and designers to both routine and unexpected circumstances, simulation models can help you explore the behavior of your system under specified situations, like changes and alternatives, in a low risk environment. Simulation can be used for a number of applications, including but not limited to: • • • •

Airports Manufacturing Supply Chain Logistics

• • • •

Military Mining Ports Business Processes

Simulation will help you answer questions such as: • How many buses do we need on the airside to transport passengers to the aircraft? • How many cranes do we need at the container terminal? • What is our resource utilisation...or how many resources do we need to achieve service requirements? • What is the impact of change on our business? Imagine software that answers the question: What can happen? More importantly: What will happen? With Simio Simulation Software, brought to you by the same team that brought you the well known Arena®, companies have the power to maximize business processes and decision effectiveness using advanced analytics – a strategy deemed critical in Gartner’s Top 10 Strategic Technologies for 2010. Analista Modelling Systems can assist your organisation in the utilisation of simulation technology by providing the Simio and Arena simulation software, training and technical support or by providing consulting services. To find out how simulation can benefit your business contact Francois van Huyssteen at Analista Modelling Systems at +27 (0)82 333 4241 or francoisvh@analista.co.za www.analista.co.za


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High-quality transit supports the development of high-density urban centres, resulting in accessibility and agglomeration efficiency benefits. Large scale park & ride facilities tend to conflict with TOD since a rail station surrounded by large parking lots and arterials with heavy traffic is unlikely to encourage the development of a high-quality residential development (VTPI, 2010). Transit-Oriented Development reduces transportation costs and externalities, increases travel choice, and reduces land paved per capita. TOD can increase transit service efficiency, resulting in improved performance and cost effectiveness. TOD can also contribute towards a more liveable community resulting in neighbourhoods that are more desirable to live in physically and socially. These benefits generally result in higher property values and increased commercial activity, thereby improving tax revenue (VTPI, 2010). TOD can benefit all population groups and can significantly benefit lower income earners and nondrivers by improving residual income and household affordability. By improving travel options and accessibility TOD improves basic mobility (VTPI, 2010).

STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATING TRANSPORTATION AND URBAN GENERATION From the above it is possible to prepare seven strategies for integrating transportation and urban regeneration: • Provide a vision for sustainable growth that promotes infrastructure investments that reduces energy dependence and greenhouse gas emissions, and protects air and water quality; • Integrate housing, transportation, water and electricity infrastructure, land use planning and investment; • Develop housing affordability measures that include housing and transportation costs and other expenses that are affected by location choices; • Redevelop under-utilised sites to achieve critical environmental and social justice goals by targeting development to locations that already have infrastructure and offer transportation choices; • Change zoning requirements and development practices to encourage high density development; • Lower parking requirements around transit stations; and • Invest in pedestrian and cycling facility improvements.

MAXIMISING SOUTH AFRICA’S INFRASTRUCTURE INVESTMENT From the above it is clear that infrastructure investment in general, and transportation investment in particular, has and will continue to be a key driver in investment rates in South Africa. Furthermore, strategically considered and applied transportation investment can positively support urban THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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Figure 3.1: Gautrain Rhodesfield Station

regeneration. TOD, in particular, will support Government’s policy of promoting public transportation and improving mobility, especially for the poor. Thus the missed opportunity provided by the Gautrain investment is all the more regrettable: planning proposals for the transit stations depict a planning paradigm that conflicts with TOD objectives and goals (Figures 3.1, 3.2 & 3.3) The five key design principles for TOD are all notably absent, thereby negating the clear benefits to be derived from investment in a transit strategy such as the Gautrain. The proposed Midrand Station (Figure 3.2) depicts this oversight more starkly: this station is conceived as a transport node, not as a Transit-Oriented Development. The separation of transport from urban settlement can clearly be seen by the distance between the transport node and the city centre in the background. Even the Gautrain Hatfield Station, located in an existing urban centre, ignores the design principles of TOD and does little to maximise the benefits on this transportation investment (Figure 3.3). By contrast, Curatiba provides a useful example of how improved infrastructure investment can be used as a tool of urban regeneration (Figure 3.4). THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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Figure 3.2: Gautrain Midrand Station

Curitiba in Brazil is one of the earliest and best examples of TOD: the city was organised into transport corridors as part of its regeneration programme with high density development integrated into its zoning and transportation development plan. Curitiba has focused on working with economical forms of infrastructure such as bus routes (on which the Rea Vaya Phase 1a is modelled) through a unique public planning participation process.

Figure 3.3: Gautrain Hatfield Station

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CONCLUSION Public transit has become an economic imperative as the costs for constructing and maintaining roads for private vehicle use becomes increasingly unsustainable. Fortunately, South Africa continues to invest in infrastructure, and recognises that the continued investment in private transit options is beyond the country’s means. Thus the focus on investment in public transportation is strategically correct: what is required now is that the ability of infrastructure investment to regenerate urban development needs to be recognised and acted upon. Fortunately, the opportunity is still there: the proposed stations illustrated above have the scope to be redeveloped in a manner that, provided the design principles of TOD are followed, could act as growth catalysts for sustainable human settlements that especially benefit the poor. The formation of a similar interagency for sustainable communities between the departments of Transport, Human Settlements, Environmental Affairs and Treasury could well see improved access to affordable housing, more transportation options, and lower transportation costs while protecting the environment in our communities.

Figure 3.4: November 15 Street, Curitiba. THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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REFERENCES DoT, 2010. Budget vote address at the National Assembly by Mr. Sibusiso Ndebele, MP, Minister of Transport, Cape Town, 13 April 2010, retrieved 14 September 2010, http://transport.dot.gov.za/communication_centre_sub.aspx? DoT, 2009. ‘DOT Secretary Ray LaHood, HUD Secretary Shaun Donovan and EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson Announce Interagency Partnership for Sustainable Communities’, Press release, Tuesday June 16, 2009, http:// www.dot-gov/affairs/2009 DTI, 2010. Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP 2) 2010/11 – 2012/13, Department of Trade and Industry, Pretoria. Morris, M., 1996. Creating Transit-Supportive Land-Use Regulations, Planning Advisory Service report No. 468, American Planning Association (www.planning.org). Renne, J., 2009. Evaluating Transit-Oriented Development Using a Sustainability Framework: Lessons from Perth’s Network City, Planning Sustainable Communities, Sasha Tsenkova, ed. (www.ucalgary.ca/cities/PLaces_and_ People/SUSTAINABLE%COMMUNITIES.pdf ), University of Calgary: Cities, Policy & Planning Research Series, pp. 115148; at www.vtpi.org/renne_tod.pdf. VTPI, 2010. Transit Oriented Development, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria.

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PROFILE

In Partnership: CE at UP and TIDASA

Continuing Education at University of Pretoria Trust (CE at UP) and the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (Pty) Ltd (TIDASA) have formed a partnership to ensure the availability of quality further education for all role players in the transport, traffic and licensing environment. CE at UP has established itself over the past ten years as a dynamic provider of professional training and career development on the African continent. The company draws on approximately 1 200 academics from the University of Pretoria to present more than 500 programmes and short courses. These courses are suitable for working professionals at any career stage – whether they require general skills development as junior employees, right up to preparing mid-level, senior, and executive management for the challenges of their respective offices. Training and skills development in the field of sustainable transport has become of fundamental importance. This, and CE at UP’s commitment to excellence in higher education, has led to the partnership with TIDASA. For more information, please email info.ce@up.ac.za or visit www. ceatup.com. TIDASA, an FET college registered with the Department of Education, has established itself as a leader in providing customised training and quality services in the transport, traffic, and licensing field. The college is the official training provider of both the Institute of Traffic and Municipal Police Officers of Southern Africa (ITMPOSA) and the Institute of Licence Officials of Southern Africa (ILOSA). The certificate courses offered by this partnership are aimed to provide employees in the transport, traffic and licensing environment with both opportunities for career development and access to a higher education institution, the University of Pretoria. The qualifications offered (see advert in this publication) are job-specific, and will promote service delivery excellence – a key concept in South Africa today – within the transport environment. For more information, please email tle@tidasa.co.za, or contact Belinda Kock from TIDASA on 012 667 5492. Course information is also available at www.tidasa.co.za.


Executive Mayor Boitumelo Pinky Moloi (left) The Dr Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality (DC40) in the North West Province is located 65km south west of Johannesburg. It covers an area of about 16 483km 2and is home to almost 1 million people.The municipality consists of four local municipalities;Tlokwe, Matlosana, Maquassi Hills and Ventersdorp. The Dr Kenneth Kaunda District is a region with a rich diverse natural and cultural heritage and potential for sustained economic growth. The region is home to some of the most prominent gold mines in the world, and has one of the oldest meteor impact sites in the world (and the largest in South Africa), the site of the establishment of the first capital city in the northern areas of South Africa, and some of the best retail, education, sport and medical facilities on the African continent. The district is serviced by a number of primary roads, i.e. the N12 from Johannesburg to Cape Town, as well as the main road from Gauteng to Mafikeng via Ventersdorp (N14). The N12 Treasure Corridor forms the main development axis in the district, and serves as a potential concentration point for future industrial, commercial and tourism development. Other significant provincial distributor roads include the road between Matlosana and Ventersdorp, Potchefstroom and Ventersdorp, the P61/1 between the N14, Carletonville and Fochville and the R501 between Potchefstroom and Carletonville.

Service Delivery Priorities According to Councillor Moloi, the draft budget, which is by no means a final product but work in project, seeks to achieve three main objectives that include ensuring continued and improved service delivery to people, embarking on an investment in the district economy and improved support to staff.“On the investment side we plan to focus on capital projects that promote job creation while providing our poor communities with essential developmental facilities. Our staff and internal departments must also be given the necessary support and resources they need to better serve our people,� the Executive Mayor said. DR KENNETH KAUNDA DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY TEL: (018) 473 8000 FAX: (018) 473 2938 EMAIL: admin@kaundadistrict.gov.za www.kaundadistrict.gov.za


Infrastructure

Department’s Mission and Objectives:

Our mission and objective is similar to the district municipality’s one, we don’t have a separate one.

Budget Priority – Capital Budget Split

Community & Social Services ( R 35,6m) Roads and Stormwater (R 7,6m)Water Management ( R 15,5m) Waste Disposal (R 1,5m) Electricity (R 3,5m)

Drikus Malan Bridge – R 7,5m budget

A structural assessment report compiled by a structural engineer in 2007 painted a bad picture about the state of deterioration of this bridge. Council adopted the following recommendations: • Fixing of the structural defects requiring an amount of R4,0m. • Milling out the existing surfacing and resurfacing the road to its original specifications especially over the bridge at a cost of R 3,5m. The two phases were completed over a period of two years (2008/09 & 2009/10 financial years).

Baitshoki CPA Rural Development pilot project In our district the reality of challenges in response to depressed rural communities is that, the district has atleast in Matlosana 11,8%, Maquassi hills 8.4 %, Tlokwe 9.5%, and Ventersdorp being the highest at 39.2 rural.The community of Baitshoki became an exception and required urgent attention after a number of reported shack fires. It was therefore, after a serious damage to a number of shack from fire, that the district municipality thought of providing this small community with habitable shelter. An amount of at least R2.6 million has been used to towards the provision of these basic services, electricity, water and housing.


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Intermoda Infrastruc

CHAPTER 04: PLANNING INTEGRATED TRANSPORT SYSTEMS AT THE LOCAL SCALE

PLANNING INTEGRATED TRANSPORT SYSTEMS AT THE LOCAL SCALE Edward A Beukes Engineer ERO Engineers

EAB Cen Univ

INTRODUCTION Transportation is about mobility - moving people and goods anywhere, anytime, on time at an

IntroductIon

affordable price. It is about providing safe, reliable, economical, and environmentally-friendly Activitiesmobility are what driv

for all; enhancing their quality of life; and enabling them to do what they want to do resources, when theyand want so forth need for transportation to do it (FTAG, 2001). the activity has an influe provided to support th In order for the transport system to be wholly integrated it must provide a seamless, convenient, safeplanne This presents and secure service in all locations. The service should provide convenient connections andintransfer people different loca infrastructure provided facilities in and among all modes, maximising users’ options for convenience, efficiency, and reduced yet the infrastructure p costs. as possible. To this end, an enti hundred years, to stud In South Africa, in terms of the National Land Transport Act (No 5 of 2009), an Integrated Transport people, goods Plan (ITP) is a statutory requirement for municipalities, and must be updated each year. The ITP, alongand ser manuals, best practice with the Spatial Development Framework (SDF), forms an input to and aligns with the municipalities’ covering all facets of th Integrated Development Plan, which is the guiding document for all municipal In planning and recent decades, th effect on the sustainab development initiatives (CoCT, 2009). networks (Newman an and Wegener, 1997). T The plan sets out principles, applicable policies, implementation strategies and funding mechanisms transportation infrastru for infrastructure development, and reviews the progress made towards the previous ITP’s towards thegoals. correct me However, this is a city-wide plan that covers large city-wide programmes, and most often, transport

Integrated pla

planning occurs on a much more localised scale. Since one of the guiding principles of integrated A continued theme am transport planning is that the travelling experience should be seamless and convenient, it is vital of that importance encoura inequities our towns there is a high level of continuity between the broader metropolitan scale planning, and theinlocal, and that stimulates the project level planning. the inseparable relatio are encouraged to vie This can be achieved only by applying the same principles and processes that(Vanderschuren, are used on a 2003). Land usethese and transpo metropolitan level to the local, individual project level planning. The problem is that often, processes do not scale down very easily. Whereas, on a metropolitan scale, it is appropriate to address

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PROFILE

Blue IQ Blue IQ’s mission is to invest in and commercialise strategic economic infrastructure projects in identified sectors with private and public partners, in line with the Gauteng Government’s provincial priorities. . Guided by global best practice, we pioneer projects which ensure sustainable developmental returns for Gauteng. Blue IQ was designed to unlock the growth potential of five key sectors in order to contribute to the Gauteng Provincial Government’s objectives in a meaningful way. The five growth sectors are: 1. Business Tourism 2. High value-added Manufacturing (high value-add) 3. Transportation and Logistics 4. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 5. Green Economy Blue IQ has since its founding, made significant progress in designing and building its asset base in the identified key industries. A number of projects have been completed and handed over to the appropriate sectors of government, including the Department of Economic Development (DED) of Gauteng and relevant local government structures. At its inception, Blue IQ Invested over R2,bn in various assets, some of which include; • Nelson Mandela Bridge • Cradle of Humankind • Dinokeng • Constitution Hill (including the Constitutional Court) • Walter Sisulu Square of Dedication (WSSD) Kliptown Current Projects managed by Blue IQ or Dedicated Sector Subsidiaries namely: • Supplier Park Development Company (SPDC) • Automotive Industrial Development Centre (AIDC) • The Innovation Hub (TIH) • Constitution Hill Should you wish to learn about the Freight and Logistics project, please revert to the Professional Project Profile section. Contact details Blue IQ Investment Holdings (Pty) Ltd 1 Central Place Cnr Jeppe & Henry Nxumalo Streets Newtown

Tel: 011 689 1600 Fax: 011 689 1601 Website: www.blueiq.co.za


CHAPTER 04: PLANNING INTEGRATED TRANSPORT SYSTEMS AT THE LOCAL SCALE

issues around travel demand management and integrated ticketing, it is much more complex to develop appropriate schemes at the individual project scale. However, since transportation planning is often done in a piecemeal fashion, ostensibly guided by overarching city-wide planning priorities, it is vital that the planning that happens for individual routes or for individual developments adhere to the principles set out in the ITP. This chapter presents a brief overview of the issues at play and the appropriate methodologies for planning for integrated transportation at the local level.

ASSESSING MOBILITY NEEDS The first task faced by any transport planner is to thoroughly assess and understand the needs of all potential or existing road users when planning any facility – irrespective of the type of facility envisioned. It is important to think broadly about the community the facility will serve in terms of current or potential trip-making behaviour and existing or planned trip-generators and attractors, and how these inputs may affect the planned facility. Most roads have a dual function in that they serve both as conduits for movement, and provide access to properties (FHWA, 2001). An assessment must be made of the planned facilities role in the larger network in terms of accommodating through trips, and its role at the local level of accommodating access. An integrated transport plan extends this assessment to include the needs of all modes, noting that the relationship between access and mobility may differ between modes for a given route. It is also important to recognise that since many routes traverse a diverse range of contexts, the relationship between mobility and access may be different at various locations along the route. Similarly, the character of a particular location, in as far as how it is used, may change at various times of the day or week. A quiet, relatively deserted stretch of road may be transformed into a bustling flea market over the weekend, replete with cars parking on the verge and crowds of shoppers. Road infrastructure planning must therefore be flexible enough to accommodate these spatially and temporally varying access and mobility needs, and must be sensitive to these changes as they relate to each mode. However, one mode may be less desired along a route than others, and in certain instances it is dangerous to give access to a mode in a particular area. It is not safe to have pedestrians walking along or crossing high speed freeways, just as it is not desirable to have large trucks ratrunning through residential areas. Efforts to restrict undesirable trip-making behaviour often fail because they do not acknowledge the underlying travel demand driving this behaviour. Fencing off settlements beside freeways or creating THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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obstacles in the form of median traffic barriers will not deter pedestrians from using freeways unless appropriately spaced overhead crossings are provided as close as possible to demand lines. Similarly, providing a bus embayment at a location far away from the location that represents the primary reason that buses stop in the area will result in taxis or buses not using the embayment. Although these issues may seem to lie within the realm of law enforcement, careful and considerate transport planning can go a long way towards eliminating or them or minimising their impact. In the absence of an integrated approach to land use and transport planning it is not how the facility is planned that determines how it is used, instead it is how the facility is used that should dictate how it is planned.

ESTABLISHING PRIORITY Every location along a route is defined by a particular set of land uses, a particular socio-economic profile, a particular set of environmental constraints and a set of traffic and transportation factors. These act in concert to produce a contextual setting that varies along the length of the route. Additionally, each mode in use along a route is characterised by a set of operational requirements that are needed to allow that mode to functional safely and efficiently. It follows, therefore, that in various contextual settings, different modes can operate more safely and efficiently than in others, and that certain modes are better suited to certain contextual settings than others. Therefore, given a certain contextual setting, the needs of certain modes should be prioritised over that of others. The information needed to assess or describe context varies spatially, and therefore must be assessed spatially. GIS has emerged as a useful platform to analyse the spatial complexities of urban planning and transport planning problems. Planners are often confronted with alternative scenarios to be assessed, and these assessments are often driven by a range of both quantitative and qualitative variables, with numerous stakeholders and viewpoints to be considered. GIS-based spatial decision support tools, particularly spatial multiple criteria evaluation (SMCE) tools have emerged as effective techniques to assess these cumulative impacts and to carry out suitability analyses in order to evaluate alternatives. SMCE has been successfully used to assess alternatives in a range of areas including environmental impact assessment (Blaser et al, 2004; Brown and Affum, 2002), public transport and land use development planning (Sharifi et al, 2006) and routing problems for pipelines and roads (Rescia et al, 2006; Keshkamat et al, 2009). GIS is well suited to evaluating large databases of spatial information (Eastman et al, 1995).

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To assess the priority of one mode over another, a SMCE can be conducted using the five main road based modes: private vehicles, freight, pedestrian, public transport and bicycle, as the alternatives (Beukes, Vanderschuren and Zuidgeest, 2010). The most prevalent procedure for multiple criteria evaluation is the weighted linear combination (see Voogd, 1982). With a weighted linear combination, factors are combined by applying a weight to each followed by a summation of the results to yield a suitability map. The weights used in the procedure can be calculated using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) as introduced by Saaty (1980). The approach benefits from being inclusive of all modes from the outset of the evaluation, acknowledging the spatial variations along the route and being able to consider multiple perspectives or planning priorities. Variables are selected from each of the four criteria categories to describe the context of each location along the route. The variables that are considered relate specifically to the what, who and how questions that can be asked of any locality. What are the characteristics that define the locality? Who are the people using the locality? How are these people using the locality? To describe the location, variables such as land use type and property density and employment density are appropriate. To describe the people using the location, demographic information such as income levels and the proportion of vulnerable road users can be used. The proximity to environmentally sensitive or historically significant sites and wetlands can used to describe the environmental qualities of the location. The demand for public transport and the demand for private vehicle transport as well as the proximity to or frequency of public transport stops can be used to describe the traffic and transport characteristics of the location. Spatial datasets constructed and evaluated in this manner produces a set of preference or suitability maps, one for each mode. Image processing techniques can then be used to aggregate the results along the route centreline for each map. This information is exported to a spreadsheet programme for further analysis. Having generated the SMCE results and plotted them in a spreadsheet, the data can then be clustered by using a commercially available statistical clustering algorithm. Using the mean scores for each mode by cluster, it is possible to assess the relative suitability of each mode in each cluster, and therefore each contextual regime, and then from this begin to assess what type of infrastructure should be provided to accommodate that mode in accordance with its contextual suitability.

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Analyses of this type are far more complex than what is currently used to plan roads. The method described above is able to take a large range of location specific information and aggregate it to reveal the contextual differences along a route. These contextual differences can then be assessed in terms of the implications they have for the various modes traversing the route. These can then be used to inform infrastructure provision decisions along a route.

EFFECTING PRIORITY What is meant by priority, and how is priority effected in practice? The priority of a mode’s operations along a route can be described in terms of three parameters: the level of access allowed to the facility; the right of way along the facility; and the independence of movement. The level of access provided to a facility for a mode describes the circumstances under which a mode is allowed to operate along a facility. Along certain routes, certain modes are forbidden from accessing the route. In other areas, modes are allowed to operate only under certain restrictions, such as time restrictions. It may be that in certain areas vehicles are allowed to drive through, but not park, or that only certain kinds of vehicles are allowed, such as delivery vehicles, which may also be restricted to certain times of the day. Alternatively, in certain areas, at particular times of day cyclists are required to dismount and push their bicycles (this is common in the Netherlands), or that pedestrians are not allowed to walk in some areas (such as along freeways). These restrictions to access are often enforced to ensure the amenable or safe operation of the priority mode along a route; the restrictions being applied to lower priority modes or mode operations in that area. The right of way afforded to a mode is often determined by traffic rules and are laid out quite clearly in the Road Traffic Act (No. 93 of 1996). However, infrastructure provision also often dictates the right of way. A yield or stop sign is a form of infrastructure that dictates the right of way. Pedestrian crossings are another form of infrastructure that dictates the right of way. These tools can and are used by planners to convey to road users information about how to safely move along or across a road. These tools can also be used to determine the priority of a mode over another, within a safe operating environment. The level of independence of movement is another determinant in establishing the priority of a mode along a road. All modes function more efficiently when their operations are kept separated from interference by other modes. This is especially true with regards to through movements. Transit systems work best when provided with dedicated lanes, pedestrians with sidewalks and cyclists with

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cycle lanes. Even separating through traffic from local traffic within a mode (as is often done along boulevards where service roads are provided) has an effect on operating efficiency. These methods, when used together can elevate or lower the priority of a mode along a route. The infrastructural elements that can be employed to effect a change in priority are already widely used, and the implications of their use are well understood. The transport planner can select from these to define through infrastructure which mode is prioritised where along a route.

PRIORITY AND THE COST OF TRAVEL The cost of travel is made up of two broad component categories; costs borne directly by the user, and costs borne by society. It is often the case that the costs borne by the user are dramatically outweighed by the costs borne by society. In effect, therefore, all forms travel are subsidised to a greater or lesser extent. The level of subsidisation varies depending upon what the total costs of travel by that mode is, and to what extent the user carries the cost of travel by that mode. Typically, the mode specific costs carried directly by car users include fuel and other operating costs, parking costs and toll costs where applicable (Vuchic, 1999). Time costs are not considered, since

Figure 4.1: Transport Costs by Mode THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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travel by any mode exacts a time cost. However, time costs are a factor when the societal costs of mode use are considered. The user indirectly pays the cost of the use of the car mode by having to endure the congestion associated with increased car use. These costs are significant for the user, but are even more significant for society, in terms of time wasted and efficiencies lost. The user does not bear the full burden of this cost of travel by car. Environmental costs, the cost imposed by car use in terms of air pollution, oil spills, noise pollution, loss of habitat and aesthetic quality, are in most cases not borne by the car user at all. These costs are instead borne by society at large. Subsidies in the form of costs for road infrastructure construction, maintenance and tax benefits provided to car users are also paid for by society at large. Figure 4.1 gives an overview of the costs of travel for different modes. An integrated transport plan must be conscious of the total cost of travel by mode, and be aware that alterations to the road network or to road infrastructure have implications in terms of the cost of travel. The planning done must reflect the fact that when the level of service for a given mode is improved, the cost of travel borne by the user is decreased, often significantly, and the utility of using that particular mode is increased. The plan must also recognise that improving service levels for one mode, has implications for the operations of other modes along a corridor, and therefore the cost of travel of other road users. Therefore, it is counterproductive to eliminate congestion by improving service levels, while simultaneously attempting to entice car users to switch to public transport. Instead, if a mode shift is desired, or a particular mode is to be given priority along a corridor, the relative cost of travel borne by users across all modes afforded access to a facility must be balanced in such a way as to effect the desired modal split. Efforts must be made to understand the costs to travel for all modes along a route. In South Africa, the elements that users commonly cite are often quite different to those in other countries. Security is a big concern among many road users. Reliability of service is another (NDoT, 2005). These motivators determine to a large extent whether or not a particular mode is used or not. However, transport planners must also recognise that in South Africa, mode choice is very often a function of income. Issues of status, and of affordability, play a critical role in which mode travelers select to get around. Indeed, many travelers are captive to certain modes, being unable to afford the use of certain modes. Given the contextual variation along any route, the transport planner is able to select areas where the use of certain modes is more desirable than others. The planner can then assess those areas in terms 56

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of their functionality along the route (as either trip generators or trip attractors – or neither as may be the case), and that section of the road as it relates to other links in the network. Certain sections of a route have an important function as destination; others are important in terms of mobility. The ratio of the cost of travel currently exacted from road users of each mode for travel along that link and the total cost of travel borne by society can be compared to the level of service afforded to each mode. As this ratio approaches zero, the use of that mode becomes less equitable. The provision of a higher level of service must be assessed in terms of the effects these changes have on this ratio. Should a higher service level be provided despite this entailing a greater burden on society as a whole? How can the total cost of travel along a particular link be minimised? Would minimising the cost of travel on this link have effects on the travel costs along other links, or for other modes?

CONCLUSIONS The interplay between travel costs, levels of service, network efficiencies and contextual priorities should be thoroughly explored and understood so that informed transport planning decisions can be made. Integrated transport planning should seek to identify the most appropriate transport alternatives given a large range of interrelated factors and sensitivities. At the very least, an appreciation of the complexity of the systems at work in transportation, and the effects that interventions may have on the functioning of these systems is a prerequisite to effective planning. Often, an overly simplistic view of the urban transport environment is employed, leading to outcomes that were not predicted and are undesirable. At the project level, integrated transport planning requires planners to assess the urban context within which the route is located, the network function of the route and the levels of service afforded to each mode using the route. The effects of interventions on all of these aspects must be explored in some detail, with the view to selecting alternatives that minimise the total costs of travel along that route. Interventions that affect the access to a facility, the right of way along a facility and the independence of movement along a facility can be used to either lower or elevate the priority of one mode in relation to another. These interventions all affect the cost of travel carried by the user and also impact the level of service afforded to the mode.

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REFERENCES Beukes, E.A., Vanderschuren, M.J.W.A., Zuidgeest, M.H.P., (2010). Context sensitive multimodal road planning: A case study in Cape Town, South Africa. Journal of Transport Geography. In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 22 September 2010, ISSN 0966-6923, DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2010.08.014. Blaser, B., Liu, H., Mcdermott, D., Nuszdorfer, F., Phan, N. T., Vanchindorj, U., Johnson, L., and Wycko_, J. (2004). Report No. CDOT-DTD-R-2004-6: GIS-Based Cumulative Effects Assessment. Colorado Department of Transportation Research, Denver, CO. Brown, A. and Affum, J. (2002). A GIS-based environmental modelling system for transportation planners. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 26(6):577-590. City of Cape Town (CoCT) (2009). Draft Integrated Transport Plan 2006 To 2011. City of Cape Town Eastman, J. R., Jin, W., Kyem, P. A. K., and Toledano, J. (1995). Raster Procedures for Multi-Criteria/Multi-Objective Decisions. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 61(5):539-547 Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) (2004). Flexibility in Highway Design. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C. Federal Transportation Advisory Group (FTAG) (2001). Vision 2050 – An Integrated National Transportation System. Available at http://research.faa.gov/aar/ redac_rm.htm Keshkamat, S., Looijen, J., and Zuidgeest, M. (2009). The formulation and evaluation of transport route planning alternatives: a spatial decision support system for the Via Baltica project, Poland. Journal of Transport Geography, 17(1):54-64. Republic of South Africa (1996). Road Traffic Act, 2009. Republic of South Africa (2009). National Land Transport Act, 2009. Rescia, A. J., Astrada, E. N., Bono, J., Blasco, C. A., Meli, P., and Adamoli, J. M. (2006). Environmental analysis in the selection of alternative corridors in a longdistance linear project: a methodological proposal. Journal of environmental management, 80(3):266-78. Saaty, T. (1980). The Analytic Hierarchy Process: Planning, Priority Setting, Resource Allocation. McGraw-Hill Sharifi, M. A., Boerboom, L., Shamsudin, K. B., and Veeramuthu, L. (2006). Spatial Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis in Integrated Planning for Public Transport and Land Use Development: Study in Klang Valley, Malaysia. In ISPRS Technical Commission II Symposium, Vienna. South African Department of Transport (NDoT) (2005). Key Results of the National Household Travel Survey. Voogd, H. (1982). Multicriteria evaluation with mixed qualitative and quantitative data. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 9(2):221-236. Vuchic, V.R. (1999). Transportation for livable cities. Center for Urban Policy Research.

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profile

Grundfos - a pump manufacturer with hiGh ideals When Poul Due Jensen founded Grundfos in Bjerringbro Denmark in 1945 he put all his energy and inventiveness into a dream of creating a strong and efficient company. A corporate culture with well-defined values, attitudes and business principles has developed in Grundfos and grown strong. It has formed a sound foundation for economic expansion and international growth and the development of a growing commitment to human, social and environmental issues. Today Grundfos is renowned all over the world for its reliability, credibility and innovation. This reputation is consolidated by continuous improvements of existing pumps and frequent introductions of new products. In this way Grundfos contributes to supplying water efficiently and with great operational reliability no matter if the water is used for human beings, irrigation, industrial processes or the heating or air-conditioning of buildings. The early dreams have not been forgotten – they are frequently updated and efforts are continuously made to enable them to come true. Today they are presented in the Grundfos mission, vision and company values, expressing and explaining the attitudes, values and strategies that the Group wishes to build its future on. the environment is a high priority Grundfos mission is “to contribute to a better quality of life and a healthy environment”. This is an obligation that Grundfos has taken upon itself as one of the world’s leading pump manufacturers. The way that Grundfos interprets the concept of sustainability is closely connected to another element in the company values – responsibility. As the corporate values document states “Responsibility is a precondition of being seen as a reliable company that does what it says it does – and says what it does”. Grundfos continues to grow rapidly and is fully prepared to meet the challenges of the future – naturally this goes for the many national Grundfos companies around the world. Contact details Grundfos (Pty) SouthLtd Africa (Pty) Ltd PO Box 14682 Wadeville 1422 Tel +27 11 579 4800 Fax +27 11 455 6066


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chapter 2: South AfricAn trAnSport And Mobility trendS CHAPTER 05: URBAN FORM AND THE PRACTISE OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING

South tranSport URBANafrican FORM AND THE PRACTISE OF and Mobility trendS TRANSPORTATION PLANNING Rory Williams RoryPlanner Williams Transport Associate: Transport Planning Associate Arup Arup

IntroductIon

There are ongoing efforts to enhance the role of transportation in improving social and economic INTRODUCTION conditions. Updated guidelines on the preparation of documents such as Integrated Transport Plans In considering the role of transportation in supporting sustainable development, it is worth noting are intended to strengthen the transformation process. Various guidelines and strategies developed by that transportation is an enabler, not an end in itself.policy It should enableplanning the optimal functioning of all spheres of government have continued to interpret and guide processes. South context driven mainly of by‘optimal’ political isimperatives forresolve, transforming the built any areaAfrica’s wherechanging people are active.isThe definition not easy to since there are environment to improvetosocial equity andbut economic inclusion, thedevelopment separation of –home competing objectives be reconciled, this is the natureovercoming of sustainable and and work with more effective transportation, reducing transport costs for users, and improving financial therefore of sustainable transport. viability of public transport services. In addition to changes in the economy at-large and in the social environment, current and future trends in the global transport industry itself willofhave significant impact South Africa’s transport Transport policy, at its best, is an interpretation whata is needed to createon urban and rural areas that system, the ability affect them fallspolicy generally outside ambitofofgovernance. South African can be as sustained in atoway that meets objectives ofof allthe spheres Butgovernment optimising or operators. The major trends include (DBSA development paper 174, 2003): and infrastructure requires more than responding to increasing policy. • services Liberalisation and Deregulation: especially in aviation, numbers of countries are permitting open skies agreements with unrestricted entry (beyond safety regulations) with little or noexample, protection national flagthrust carriers. sometransport cases, thetoliberalisation is also being applied to not rail For theforstrong policy forInpublic carry a greater share of trips does and road operators. Related to this trend, in some countries, is a reduced reliance on government mean that the intention is to maximise public transport and minimise the use of private cars. What operating subsidies. that investment in the transportation aimcompete to optimise results across policy • it Imeans ntense isCompetition in Maritime Transport: as system global should ship lines and search for greater economies scale, they imbalances are integrating with otherthis modal partners in keytransport countriesneeds and moving spheres. Givenofthe current in the system, means that public to play bigger,role “post-Panamax” shipsstate thatshould require harbours fewer ports of call. a towards more dominant – but this current notbigger be confused with and fundamental principles of Intense competition in the industry is likely to lead to cost improvements by ship lines and lower sustainable transport, which are addressed later in this chapter. prices to customers The this White Paper is process, which concluded in 1996, took the firstthat steps theone unwind What suggests that sustainability is context-specific. Decisions are towards optimal in place agenda. Most importantly, it reoriented transport priorities to be consistent with the RDP and GEAR. and time might not be optimal elsewhere. This becomes obvious when we consider that one factor In addition, it articulated new principles and objectives for transport – for instance, that no passenger in planning is thethan socio-economic status ofincome peoplefor using the transport system. For many people who should pay more 10% of household transport. The (NDOT) National Department of cannot afford theacost of purchasing and operating cars,organisational public transport is a more affordable Transport began dramatic reconfiguration of its own structure, paring downoption. in size from 1400 istoanother 250 employees, and institutionally restructuring functions into is fully or partially But there group of people in South Africa for whom several even public transport unaffordable. self-funding agencies, including maritime and aviation safety, national roads, and cross-border land transport regulation. With areasnew being home 50%on of policy, South strategy Africa’s population and 72% the administration. country’s poor The rural resulting NDOT willtofocus and regulation, ratherofthan Another substantial result emerging from the challenge White Paper is the rural National Land Transport (Department of Transport, 2003), a significant liesprocess in improving economic inclusion. Bill, which willtypically shortlybegin be tabled in Parliament. This legislation willon have a far-reaching impact on the Rural towns as walkable communities, but a focus car-orientated design, combined institutional structure for urban transport planning, among other things, creating transit authorities at with segregated planning, has undermined this; and yet, more than 50% of all rural trips still are made local and metropolitan level with substantial jurisdiction over transport issues. A further trend in this on footisorthe bicycle. (Department offinancial Transport, 2005) for transport expenditures. As claims on the fiscus decade diminishing national support SuStAinAble trAnSportAND AndMOBILITY MobilityHANDBOOK hAndbooK THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

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The two groups, public transport passengers and pedestrians/cyclists, both rely on safe and convenient facilities for walking and cycling, but their requirements for a non-motorised transport system are not the same. The first group would primarily need short walking routes to gain access to public transport stops. The second would need longer routes for walking and cycling that are independent of public transport services. Urban form influences these travel markets, and government is seeking ways to create more inclusive cities that provide improved access to opportunities through urban restructuring. One strategy to achieve this is to increase the density and mix of land uses in urban areas. This has two key implications for transport planning. One is that higher population densities can make it easier to provide affordable public transport (though this is not guaranteed). The other is that mixed-use areas provide greater opportunities for short-distance pedestrian trips. The transport system needs to respond to existing travel needs that arise from the distribution of residential areas and employment, health, education and other facilities. But transportation also influences the shape of cities, through its impact on land value and private sector investment, which changes development and travel patterns.

TRANSPORT PLANNING FRAMEWORK This dual function of transport in meeting existing needs and altering travel patterns presents transport planners with a challenge. Government policy expects professionals to consider both aspects, but in South Africa there is not a coherent framework within which the profession can work to achieve these aims. The data we collect, the software tools we use, the processes, guidelines and standards we follow, and the analysis we apply – these make up the framework we use in evaluating transport systems and designing improvements. This framework has internal inconsistencies, and the environment in which we work is disjointed and does not encourage co-operation among planning disciplines. With the right approach, we would be in a better position to improve sustainability performance of the transport system and of the cities and regions within which we work. It should be clear that it is not sufficient for transport planners to focus on transport policy and hope that practitioners in other sectors address their policy. Optimising outcomes for social and economic equity requires a co-operative approach to identifying competing objectives, and working together to resolve trade-offs. While social and economic concerns are two aspects of sustainability, resource flows and environmental impacts are the other two. Transport systems have an obvious impact in consuming energy and creating air pollution, but technology choice (vehicle type, fuel source and traffic control 62

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systems) is only one way that transport influences the sustainability performance of a city or region. The integration of the planning process would provide an opportunity to ensure that its broader role is fulfilled.

URBAN RESTRUCTURING In the context of efforts to restructure urban form and establish more equitable access to opportunities, transport nodes (where boarding, alighting and transfer takes place) need more focussed attention: partly because this is where transport system efficiencies are critical, and partly because treatment of nodes influences transport system accessibility and land value. There is growing awareness of Transit Oriented Development (TOD), which is not a new concept but has not been applied with any conviction in South Africa. TOD is more than just establishing increased density and a supportive mix of uses at a transport node; it requires proper integration of the node with the surrounding community in order to establish safe and convenient access. Designed well, nodes have the potential to serve a multitude of objectives, not least being the ability to optimise transport operations and steer private property investment in directions that support community development objectives. Just as the public transport passenger market depends on public transport access points and interchanges, choice of mode for freight is also influenced by transfer facilities. Fruit exports from Grabouw, for example, are shipped to Cape Town harbour by containers on trucks rather than by rail, in part because of inefficiencies in transferring from rail to ship within the harbour. It is unlikely that these shippers could be convinced to change mode without significant changes to harbour operations, and even then there may be other factors that would prevent a switch – demonstrating that environmental concerns related to transport mode may not be the governing aspects of sustainability performance. Planning of nodes and corridors for improved mix and density of uses must also consider institutional structures and processes, spatial planning and zoning systems, parking standards, ticketing systems, data surveys, information technology – and other elements that are part of urban and transport management, but that are not all aligned towards improved sustainability performance. Assuming that planned densities are appropriate for transport and non-transport reasons, and can actually be achieved, they still present an element of risk in urban planning. Moving South Africa (Department of Transport, 1999) argued that dedicated or prioritised road infrastructure for public transport was needed for corridor densification to yield improvements in public transport cost and service levels. However, even this approach to infrastructure is not enough without changing the ‘rules of the game’ (Van Ryneveld, 2008:28):

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“Having invested decision rights in a cooperatively governed structure, it is necessary to provide decision rules for the local governing bodies and the actors within the transport platform in order that they can become properly aligned. This includes actions such as investing behind customer segments (e.g. building dedicated bus lanes which support a number of customer segments); internalising externalities (in a manner that enhances the sustainability of the system in relation to its larger societal impact, and ensures that users bear the full costs of their actions); isolate the ‘exceptions’; develop sustainable operators (by ensuring, for instance, through the tendering process, that they are reinvesting to adequate levels); make the system economics transparent (by removing distortions in costing, pricing, and capacity planning) and support with regulations.” Without these new rules, the objectives of densification will not be met; road planning authorities will continue to respond to increased traffic volumes by planning greater road capacity; and we will continue to battle with an already strained transport system.

PLANNING PRINCIPLES But these rules, as part of a planning framework, need to be based on a set of principles that are general enough to be interpreted in different contexts but specific enough to inform decisionmaking. Many proposed definitions of sustainable transport fail to address planning at both levels, and I suggest that the following principles could achieve this. (Williams, 2007): • Preserve the natural environment A functioning ecosystem is needed to sustain life, and also to meet community needs related to recreation, enjoyment of the outdoors and a range of practical considerations. The primary consideration for transport planning is that the environment should not be degraded by transportrelated activity, or by the impacts of transport on urban form. • Maintain human health and safety Health and safety are related to the environment in the sense that a degraded ecosystem will impact on human health, but there are other potential impacts and benefits related to health and safety that can be affected by transport planning decisions. For example, conflict between people and vehicles, or design of pedestrian systems that don’t reduce vulnerability to crime. • Meet the travel needs of the population People who travel, by whatever means, generally value journey time, journey time reliability, cost, network coverage, comfort, safety and security. (Eddington, 2006) Transport strategies need to be considered in light of the needs of all users, particularly those who cannot travel by car because of age, cost or ability. It is also important to respond to travel needs related to leisure, sport, shopping, health, education and social activity.

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• Support a good economy One definition of a good economy has been provided by the Cambridge Programme for Industry (Courtice, P. et al, 2007). The transport system should support this: “The fundamental goal or purpose of a good economy is to steadily improve the wellbeing of all people, now and in the future, with due regard to equity, within the constraints of nature, through the active engagement of all its participants.” • Minimise transport costs for access and mobility Transport is a means to an end; a support for activities. Reducing the cost (in time and money) of mobility and access will improve the ability of transport-disadvantaged people to make use of opportunities in the economy and other aspects of life. In some cases this will entail reducing travel distances or eliminating the need to travel altogether. • Minimise infrastructure costs At a basic level, sustainability is about being able to maintain a course of action indefinitely, and the limits to developing and maintaining transport infrastructure are often related to cost. System expansion, whether of public transport facilities or roads and bridges, should be financially sustainable, achieved in part through optimal use of existing infrastructure. • Maintain energy security • While energy has leapt into public consciousness and up the list of political priorities relatively recently, security of energy supply has for a long time been a fundamental prerequisite for the path that global economic growth has taken. Transport can play a significant role in helping to decouple support of a good economy from increasing demand for fossil fuels. • Ensure long-term viability of the transport system Transport infrastructure needs to be continuously maintained; and as an integrated system, all components must work together for optimum effectiveness. This requires a viable operating environment for all modes, and integrated land use and transport planning.

CONCLUSION These eight principles could be used as the basis of a new framework for transport planning – an approach that questions existing habits and assumptions in order to create more sustainable forms of development. They would help teams on planning projects to define ‘optimal’ transport systems in a way that can address local needs and broader policy objectives. By applying these principles, social and economic inclusion (key elements of South African government policy) can be judged alongside issues such as environmental impact. Using performance indicators based on these principles, it becomes possible for example to assess, in a particular context, whether more emphasis should be placed on walking or cycling, or on other modes that consume more energy but serve trips of longer distances.

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It should be clear that this approach can only be applied properly with close collaboration on project teams, and with the inclusion of disciplines not traditionally used in transport planning projects. In some cases this imposes a cost premium on projects, but ultimately will improve the efficiency of urban systems. The benefits are difficult to quantify, but potentially are substantial – particularly in consideration of the need to effect long-term transformation of urban form as a sustainable development strategy. References Department of Transport (1999), ‘Moving South Africa: A Transport Strategy for 2020’, 1999. Department of Transport (2003), ‘Rural Transport Strategy for South Africa’, November 2003. Department of Transport (2005), ‘Key Results of the National Household Travel Survey, The First South African National Household Travel Survey 2003’, August 2005. Eddington, Sir Rod, 2006. ‘The Eddington Transport Study’, UK Department for Transport, Decembe, 2006. Williams, Rory, 2007. ‘A Definition of Sustainable Mobility’, unpublished technical note, 15 March, 2007. van Ryneveld, Philip, 2008. ‘15 Year Review of Public Transport in South Africa with emphasis on metropolitan areas’, 4 March, 2008. Courtice, P. et al, 2007). ‘The Sustainable Economy Dialogue: Report and Reflections’, The Prince of Wales’s Business and the Environment Programme, University of Cambridge Programme for Industry, 2007.

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PROFILE

Commuter Transport Engineering Established in 1999, with the primary aim of refurbishing commuter rail transport, the continued success of Commuter Transport Engineering (CTE) is founded on knowledge, integrity, and superior customer service. With a reputation for value-added solutions that contribute to the sustainable success of our clients, CTE is a company with a clear understanding of the issues facing the rail industry and a proven ability to provide customised, professional solutions to address those issues. As the first ‘black’ company, owned by a woman, to enter the commuter train refurbishment industry, CTE strives to provide superior solutions to the commuter rail-related industry. But CTE is about far more than just refurbishing rail transport. It’s about empowering people, delivering on commitments and establishing long-term business partnerships that result in mutual success Thanks to the extensive experience of the key executives and managers of the company, CTE has a keen understanding of the dynamics of the South African rail industry and insight into the future progress and development of rail in this country. Our vision is to contribute to planning, creating and realising that future through nurturing the skills and talents of our people and building the capacity to grow and develop with the industry as a whole. So, the measure of CTE’s success does not lie in its own profitability, but rather in the longterm contribution the company can make to the success of its clients, the growth of the rail industry, and the empowerment of the communities in which it finds itself. As such, the company ’s relationships with its clients are founded on the values of integrity, honesty, trust and service excellence, while the CTE working environment is based on a culture of fairness, respect, dignity and employment equity. Contact details:

Touws River, Cape Town and Pietermaritzburg Telephone: 0214613064 Fax: 021 461 1976 Email: info@cte.co.za Website: www.cte.co.za


www.sustainabletransport.co.za sales@transportandmobility.co.za The transport and mobility sector plays an important role in the economic and social development of South Africa and yet the transport sector is the second most significant contributor to our carbon emissions after the energy sector. As Sibusiso Ndebele, Minister of Transport, states, the stakeholders in the sector need to “turn this negative situation of climate change into a positive business opportunity”. “The best way for investors to succeed is to focus on three of the hottest infrastructure sectors in emerging markets: energy and power; transportation & logistics, and water and the environment. This is where the big money will be spent by 2013 -accounting for about 80% of that $6.3 trillion estimate.” - Jonathan Burton, MarketWatch


Why you should attend: • Delegates: Enjoy presentations from featured seminal speakers about topical transport and mobility matters. • Exhibitors: The quality of the audience and the interaction between delegates and exhibitors will create meaningful business relationships and increased awareness in appropriate communities. • Continuing Professional Development credits will be available.

Join academics, researchers and industry practitioners and businesses to contribute towards the most comprehensive, practical and innovative ideas, system designs and proposed interventions and policies on transport and mobility in South Africa. Profile your solutions, products and services or fulfill your communication mandate at the Sustainable Transport and Mobility Exhibition adjacent to the conference. Don’t miss this opportunity to participate in product demonstrations and networking sessions with government and industry leaders and sector professionals!

The Sustainable Transport and Mobility Conference and Exhibition is the event for: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

National infrastructure stakeholders Ports and harbour authorities Key government decision-makers National and Regional government Local and District Municipalities Shipping and marine commercial companies Airport authorities and related organisations Airfreight and logistics companies Rail network operators and stakeholders City planners and designers Urban mobility planners Automotive industry stakeholders Research institutes Vehicle technology companies Mechanical engineers and engine designers Universities Fuel, gas and bio-fuel tech companies Traffic management Public transport operating organizations Public Service Providers Transport Contractors Freight and Fleet Managers Supply chain Managers Engineers Goods Manufacturers


PROFILE

VELA VKE CONSULTING ENGINEERS Creating Infrastructure for over 60 years. Vela VKE is a truly South African, multi-disciplinary, consulting engineering company committed to transformation.

Categories of Competence:

• Building Services • Buildings, Stadiums and Industrial Structures • Community, Institutional and Social Development • Community Participation Facilitation • Electrical – Bulk Supply and Reticulation • Geotechnical Services • Hydraulics, Hydrology and Catchment Assessment • Integrated Environmental Management • Labour-based Construction • Lighting for Buildings, Roads, Freeways, Stadiums, etc. • Materials Investigation and Pavement Design • Municipal Services • Railways • Road Management Systems • Roads and Freeways • Road, Rail and Pedestrian Bridges • Traffic and Transportation • Transaction Advisor – PPP’s • Tunnels and Underground Structures • Urban and Regional Planning

RAILWAY ENGINEERING

Vela VKE has made a significant contribution to the development of South Africa’s extensive rail network through its experience in railway design and construction as well as its broader expertise in tunneling and major bridges.


PROFILE

AREAS OF EXPERTISE

Planning and Design: Vela VKE is able to provide the full suite of design services from feasibility studies through tender design and construction. Vela VKE’s expertise includes such areas as rail alignment, track structure (including platelaying materials and pavement design, and flash butt or thermit welded rails), formation construction and rehabilitation (including materials design and stability analyses of cuttings and embankments), rolling stock design and its interaction with track design. Contract Management and Supervision:

Vela VKE has a wide knowledge of the NEC3, FIDIC, GCC and JBCC forms of contract. Vela VKE has both procured and managed to completion numerous projects using these contracts. CONTACT: Mr BC Viljoen Tel: (011) 369 0600 Fax: (011) 886 4589 Email: viljoenc@velavke.co.za www.velavke.co.za


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CHAPTER 06: SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT FROM A PAVEMENT ENGINEER’S VIEWPOINT

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT FROM A PAVEMENT ENGINEER’S VIEWPOINT Prof Wynand JvdM Steyn Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering University of Pretoria

INTRODUCTION Civil engineers attempt to develop and maintain infrastructure in response to public demands. This includes the provision of infrastructure for accommodation, transport and general services. In this process the civil engineer has always been required to acknowledge and appreciate that he works with nature and needs to ensure that nature be used in the service of man while not destroying it. Part of this understanding has been that it be applied in such a way that the future generations will still have a place to live. Sustainability can be defined as those paths of social, economic and political progress that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987). Pavement engineering is the branch of civil engineering focusing on the design, construction, maintenance and management of road pavements. This paper works from the definitions of civil and pavement engineering and sustainability to describe the contributions and role of pavement engineers in providing a sustainable environment.

ISSUES OF IMPORTANCE Design Pavement engineers always start with a project in the design phase. During this phase it is the responsibility of the pavement engineer to evaluate all appropriate parameters that may influence the specific transport infrastructure that he needs to provide. This includes the materials used, traffic demand and environmental factors. Context sensitive design is the concept where the bigger picture is taken into account to ensure that the design is not only a run-of-the-mill standard, but actually responds to the unique demands of the situation and provide the most effective design. In the pavement engineering field this will require the design engineer to evaluate the available materials in the region where the road is to be constructed, the effect of attracted traffic on the local (natural and social) environment (thus optimal route location) and the effect of the local environment on the materials used in the design and the ultimate performance of the road during its life. Perpetual or long-life pavements is one design approach that attempts to ensure that the effects of the design will have a minimal long-term effect on the environment through the appropriate use of THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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available materials in such a way that it may be “clear of structural maintenance and still be in good shape, despite the fact that it has sustained a cumulated traffic higher than the one contemplated at its design” (Steyn, 2008). Greenroads is a sustainability performance metric for roads that is used to award points on an objective scale for sustainable practices to roads. Through this process the sustainability of various road designs, construction methods and maintenance methods can be evaluated, and a specific roads project can therefore be measured and rated against known standards. It focuses on the evaluation of the ecology, equity, economy, extent, expectations, experience and exposure in road designs, construction and maintenance. The core understanding is that materials (specifically natural materials) should not be used in such a way that it can be depleted and that the waste caused by road building actions becomes a major problem to the environment (natural and human) (Muench et al, 2010). Construction The construction of designed infrastructure should always attempt to follow the intended design and ensure that the appropriate materials are used in such a way that wastage is minimised and optimal use of materials and energy obtained to allow the most effective (cost-, time-, material-, etc) method of providing the designed infrastructure. This means that each unique situation requires a specific evaluation of the conditions to ensure that a balance is found between the use of scarce resources (and keep in mind that all resources are scarce) and the requirement to provide transport facilities to the general public. Various products can be used during road construction to improve or modify the properties of in situ materials. Many of these (mostly proprietary) products do not have performance data available. Agrément South Africa develops guidelines for the evaluation and subsequent certification of such (mostly non-standard) products to assess their fitness-for-purpose. The guidelines for a specific family of products would indicate the required tests and evaluation procedures to enable a decision to be made regarding the fitness-for-purpose of the specific product. Upon certification of the product, the potential client would then have a better understanding of the specific benefits and limitations of the specific product, and thus an objective decision can be made regarding the use of a specific product and its potential to serve as a long-term sustainable solution in the specific environment (Steyn, 2006). It is often mentioned that South Africa is a water scarce country. The required use of potable water in most road construction activities means that the water-cost of constructing a new road can be very high. Paige-Green (2009) states that between 150 000 and 200 000 litres of water is typically required to construct a kilometre of conventional pavement. The energy required to supply potable water for this requirement is substantial – specifically in rural areas. One of the alternative options is 74

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to develop methods to enable the usage of non-potable water through appropriate design methods and evaluation of the chemical interactions between the materials and the water. This may involve the appropriate modification and use of the available salts in non-potable water (Steyn, 2009a). Maintenance Road pavement maintenance focuses on the evaluation and upkeep of the infrastructure to ensure that it can provide the required service to the travelling public at all times. The importance of road pavement maintenance is seen in the effect that a lack of adequate maintenance has on the cost of operating vehicles on the road infrastructure. In the State of Logistics survey a case study of evaluating the costs of operating trucks on roads with a range of riding qualities were reported. The riding quality of a road is a direct indication of the condition, and it directly affects the vehicle operation costs on the facility. The analysis indicated that costs associated with breakage of suspension and trailer components for trucks travelling on roads with poor riding quality made a significant contribution to the total truck repair and maintenance costs. Apart from vehicle damage, excessive vehicle vibrations are translated to the transported cargo resulting in cargo damage. This problem should be addressed through improved riding quality and adequate pavement maintenance. The major need for improved riding quality is driven by the fact that a direct relationship exists between increased road roughness and increased truck repair and maintenance costs (Figure 6.1 – showing data from both South Africa

Vehicle additional repair and maintenance costs [R/km]

and the US) (Steyn and Bean, 2009).

2.5 2 1.5 SA study

1

US study

0.5 0 0

1

2

3

4

5

Road roughness [mm/m] FIGURE 6.1: Road roughness versus Actual truck repair and Maintenance cost (Steyn and Bean, 2009). THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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Pavement preservation pertains to all of the actions taken to ensure that a pavement remains in a serviceable condition for the structural life of the pavement. Such actions may include the addition of sprayed-on layers to the existing surfacing, addition of various types of seals to the existing surfacing or the addition of a thin asphalt overlay onto the existing surfacing. All of these actions can also be combined with other actions, such as crack sealing and pothole filling. In some cases the existing surfacing and parts of the base layer may be removed and replaced as part of these actions. In all cases, the objective of the operation is to provide a pavement with an acceptable level of functional and structural life for an extended period of time. The objective of pavement preservation is to extend the life of an existing pavement, typically through rectifying the problems that occur as either structural or functional distress on the existing pavement. When selecting appropriate pavement preservation options to rectify problems on an existing pavement, it is important to select the options in a scientific way. This requires a full investigation and clear understanding of the most probable causes of the initial deterioration and the subsequent design of a preservation option that specifically addresses these causes and does not introduce new distress mechanisms in the pavement structure. In this regard it is important to note that preservation options cannot be selected as standard options from a menu, as the specific causes for deterioration/failure of the pavement structure must be clearly defined to ensure that any preservation action does not constitute only a short-term bandage solution that merely cures the symptoms and not the causes of the problem. It is also important to realise that a specific pavement may present different types of deterioration over its length, ie, due to changing traffic loads or geographical features (ie, a pavement running through cuts and over fills). In these circumstances it would be important to design the preservation options such that the specific distress modes are addressed where they occur (Steyn, 2009b). Management Road pavement management is the part of the actions on a road that takes the longest. A lot of effort is spent on the design and construction of the facility, but managing it on a day-to-day basis is often neglected. The intention of a well-designed management system is to ensure that the infrastructure be kept as long as possible in a good serviceable condition. The management of roads are dependent on the following five main elements: • Inventory • Condition assessment • Models / Analysis scheme • Decision criteria • Implementation procedures

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In order to provide sustainable road pavements, it is inevitably required that the existing infrastructure be kept in a good condition for as long a time as possible. This is possible only if the responsible agencies know their infrastructure and employ adequate technical staff that can identify pavement performance and ensure that timeous maintenance be conducted. Through this process it is possible to extend the serviceable life of the infrastructure far beyond its original design, as both the materials and energy that were used to construct the original facility are conserved and not merely replaced each time a road pavement fails beyond reasonable repair due to a lack of adequate management and maintenance. Experience has shown that not all pavements that show limited deformation under traffic necessarily fail structurally or even continue to deform. Investigation of this phenomenon through in situ strength measurements of existing road pavements indicated that traffic moulding of a pavement does not necessarily lead to structural failure but can lead to an increase in bearing capacity and strength-balance. Use of the existing strength-balance properties of a pavement during the maintenance actions inevitably lead to a more sustainable long-term performance of the pavement (Steyn and Kleyn, 2010).

CONCLUSION Based on the information provided in this paper it should be obvious that the pavement engineer can, through a combination of appropriate designs, good construction, timeous maintenance and hands-on management ensure the longevity of pavement infrastructure and thereby the sustainable use of available materials and energy. REFERENCES Kleyn, E.G. and Steyn, W.J.vdM., 2010. Utilizing Traffic Molding of Road Pavements Towards More Cost Efficient Pavement Design and Management. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Transport Infrastructures (ICTI), 4 to 6 August 2010, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Muench, S.T., Anderson, J.L., Hatfield, J.P., Koester, J.R., & SĂśderlund, M., 2010. Greenroads Rating System v1.0. (J.L. Anderson and S.T. Muench, Eds.). Seattle, WA: University of Washington, USA. Paige-Green, P., 2009. The use of natural resources for sustainable roads. The Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook. South Africa, Volume 1. Alive2green, Cape Town, South Africa. Steyn, W.J.vdM., 2006. Use of fitness for purpose criteria for transport infrastructure products. 3rd IRF/SARF Regional Conference, September 11 to 13, 2006, Durban, South Africa, ISBN 0-620-37105-6. Steyn, W.J.vdM., 2008. Some discussions on pavements incorporating recycled base layers in South Africa. Review of the growth and development of recycling in pavement construction, PIARC Technical Committee C4.3 Road pavements, www.piarc.org, ISBN: 2-84060-205-9. Steyn, W.J.vdM., 2009a. Potential Applications of Nanotechnology in Pavement Engineering, ASCE manuscript number TE/2007/023944, Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 135, No. 10. pp.764-772. October 1 2009. ISSN 0733-947X/2009/10-764-772. Steyn, W.J.vdM., 2009b. Use and application of accelerated pavement testing in pavement preservation research. In, Use of accelerated pavement testing to evaluate maintenance and pavement preservation treatments, Transportation Research Circular Number E-C139, September 2009, pp. 49 to 59, Washington D.C USA. Steyn, W.J.vdM. and Bean, W.L., 2010. Cost of bad roads to the economy. The Sixth Annual State of the Logistics Survey for South Africa, CSIR BE, Pretoria, South Africa. WCED, 1987. Our common future. World Commission on Environment and Development, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

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PROFILE

R&H Railway Consultants FOUNDED 1950

R&H Railway Consultants (Pty) Ltd

R&H Railway Consultants (R&H) previously known as “Robertson and Hitchins”, is a specialist railway Engineering, Procurement and Construction Management of: consulting practice founded in 1950. With over 60 years of railway planning and engineering design experience, R&H is ranked as the largest rail specific consultancy∙ in Africa. In 2004 R&H became part ∙ Tractive Electrification Train Service Design of the DAR Group of Companies. DAR is a global consultancy and holds the number one position ∙ Rolling ∙ Signalling in Stock ∙ Routing and ∙ Rail Safety Management Alignment the Building Industry and the number three position in Transportation worldwide. (ENR – Engineering ∙ Substructure and Superstructure ∙ Personnel Training News Record dated 26 July 2010). The R&H Group consists of R&H Railway Consultants and TSD Consulting Services (TSD). Global Involvement: The firm has carried out rail projects in Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Jordan, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Saudi Arabia, Zambia, Nigeria, Zimbabwe and Turkey.

+ 27 (0) 11 886 6951 ∙ www.rhrailway.co.za ∙ jhb@robhitch.co.za

Railway Services Offered by the Group • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Rail framework planning Project management Strategic advice Passenger and freight feasibility studies Economic appraisal of alternative modes of transport Route selection optimization Railway operating methods Signalling philosophy, technology and systems Capacity analysis and operating philosophies Preparation of detailed rail layout designs Staging and Shunting Yard Design Signalling and telecommunications Power supply and overhead traction equipment Track structure design

R&H Group is committed to the development of expertise in the railway industry. The company has engaged in a programme for transferring of skills to young engineers and technicians. The management of R&H is committed to the BBBEE transformation of the company on all levels. At present R&H is a Level 4 and TSD a Level 2 BBBEE contributor. CONTACT INFORMATION R&H House, 76 Main Street, Bordeaux, 2194, South Africa Tel: +27 (0)11 886-6951, Fax: +27 (0)11 886-7792, Email: jhb@robhitch.co.za, Website: www.rhrailway.co.za

Cut

• Rolling stock and locomotive selection • Railway safety management • Railway operating rules, procedures and risk assessment • Vehicle and train dynamics • Locomotive driver training • Motive energy-saving strategies • Logistics of track-bound transportation • Tender preparation and administration • Audits • Training


PROFILE

TSD Consulting Services Founded in 1999, TSD has established itself as a specialist consultant with respect to railway safety, training and operations in Southern Africa. In 2005, after six years of exponential growth TSD joined R&H Railway Consultants Group, a wholly owned subsidiary of the DAR Group of Consultants. DAR is a global network of distinguished consulting firms ranked amongst the top five firms in the world. TSD specialises in railway training and as such performs assessments and skills development training of train operating personnel and railway maintenance crews. This includes training of locomotive drivers, drivers’ assistants, shunters, train movement control officers, rolling stock maintenance personnel, track masters, patrolmen, flagmen, trackmen, lubricate operators, RRV operators, and hydraulic-, power- and dangerous tool operators. Apart from these services, TSD’s expertise also extends from railway traffic studies and train feasibility studies through to train design, rolling stock procurement, service implementation, regulatory compliance, safety management, operations design and rolling stock maintenance. TSD is currently a Level 2 BBBEE contributor and is fully certified to ISO 9001 quality management compliance and is a longstanding member of the association of Consulting Engineers of South Africa (CESA) and the Rail Road Association of South Africa (RRA). TRAINING APPROACH • As a professional training service provider, TSD is fully accredited by the South African Transport Education and Training Authority (TETA), under the authority of the South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA). SIMULATOR TRAINING TSD provides maximum training benefit to train drivers by utilising its in-house state-of-the-art Train Driver Simulator. The TSD simulator is a mobile unit that can be brought to a suitable location near the clients’ facilities to avoid production losses and operational downtime. A few advantages of simulator training over traditional training methods are: • Accelerated Learning • Student Specific Tuition • Unbiased Objective Evaluation • Emergency Procedures • Safety and Economical Performance • Evaluation Contact Information R&H House 76 Main Street Bordeaux, 2194 SOUTH AFRICA Tel: +27 (0)11 886-6951 Fax: +27 (0)11 886-7792

Email: jhb@Robhitch.co.aa Website: www.rhrailway.co.za


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REDUCING THE IMPACT OF FREIGHT Rose Luke Senior Researcher, Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies (ITLS) (Africa) University of Johannesburg

Prof Jackie Walters Director: Institute for Transport and Logistics Studies (ITLS) (Africa) University of Johannesburg

INTRODUCTION Freight transport makes a significant contribution to any economy. The Durban-Gauteng corridor, for example, estimated to be the busiest in the southern hemisphere, “forms South Africa’s freight transportation network. It is also vital in facilitating economic growth for the country, region and the African continent.” (SA tests Joburg, Durban high-speed link, 2010). The reliance on corridors has led to strong growth in economic activity along the corridor. However, the continual growth in freight volumes and the associated growth in economic benefits also results in increased negative externalities. It is estimated that the transport sector is the second largest emitter of greenhouse gases and accounts for approximately 13% of the world’s total carbon emissions. It is also responsible for the consumption of approximately 20% of the global energy reserves and up to 90% of the oil reserves. It is furthermore estimated that freight transport accounts for 40% of the total transport energy demand. (Vanderschuren and Lane, 2010). It is thus evident that freight transport has an impact on air pollution, global climate change and energy resources; however, the effect is not limited to these aspects. Freight transport can also influence the increasing congestion levels, road wear and damage, noise levels, habitat fragmentation and urban liveability. (Van Essen, 2008, TDM Encyclopedia, 2010: 16, OECD, 1997). Freight movements therefore potentially have several important environmental impacts, but its impact extends beyond the environment and into the total economy impacting on costs, productivity and competitiveness. It is thus evident that the negative impacts of freight need to be managed while still ensuring that freight plays its role in contributing to the country’s economy. Within the South African economy, possibilities exist to reduce the negative impacts of freight from two perspectives, ie, through public and private sector initiatives. Government’s vision for transport includes to “Provide safe, reliable, effective, efficient, and fully integrated transport …. whilst being environmentally and economically sustainable” (Department of Transport, 1996). This vision implies

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a commitment to measures which will ensure the sustainability of the transport sector, whether it involves passenger or freight transport.

THE ‘ROAD/RAIL’ DEBATE One of the often cited and key measures to reduce freight externalities is modal shifts from energy intensive modes such as road and air transport to modes with lower social costs such as rail and sea. (TDM Encyclopedia, 2010: 16). In South Africa, 67% of freight ton-kilometres are carried by road, with rail losing market share on a year-on-year basis. (Van Dyk, Marais, Naude, et al, 2005)(Ittmann, Schoeman, King et al, 2010). While market demands imply ever increasing levels of customer service and the global trend is towards an increased market share for road transport, this shift is concerning in the South African context where distances are great (World Bank, 2010), a high percentage of freight is bulk commodities and infrastructure is inadequate. There is currently considerable debate about the rebalancing of the road and rail market share and policy interventions to redress the balance are under the spotlight. While this type of forced modal shift is frequently cited as a solution to many of the negative environmental effects of the South African transportation system, the role that road transport plays in the current economy should not be underestimated. Modern logistics-driven societies demand service levels that rail is often unable to provide. Unless rail infrastructure, efficiencies and service types are adjusted to meet current and future market demands, any attempt to ‘force’ freight from rail to road without due consultation with industry could result in major unintended negative consequences for the South African economy and its global competitiveness. Recognition of the importance of the role that road plays in the South and southern African economies is paramount to ensuring that modes play appropriate roles in supply chains, while simultaneously reducing their negative externalities. There are many examples of bulk commodities, however, that should be transported by rail; but rail will need to provide services that meet customer needs. “Part of the solution should be to collaborate much more closely with the private sector (cargo owners, road transport operators, forwarding and clearing agents, shipping lines etc) in the rendering of, especially, corridor rail services. This collaboration should extend to all rail services and involve PPPs, through concessioning of rail operations and infrastructure. This may present opportunities for large logistics service providers to enter the realm of the intercity rail freight business.” (Walters, 2010). Appropriate modal solutions would contribute significantly to the minimisation of negative externalities. However these must be carefully conceptualised to ensure that policy decisions result in sustainable solutions.

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RURAL ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE Road freight will continue to dominate the freight transport market in the foreseeable future in South Africa. This is true of both corridor as well as rural freight. Corridor traffic has grown from 185 mt to 258 mt on the corridors, a 39.5% increase in tonnage over five years (2003 – 2008). (Van Dyk, Marais, Naude, et al, 2005)(Ittmann, Schoeman, King et al, 2010). Government’s focus on strategic corridors as a key policy objective has enabled infrastructure that is likely to cope with additional tonnages. In the rural areas (ie non-corridor) traffic has grown by 85%, from 240mt to 444 mt on the rural services over the same five year period. (Van Dyk, Marais, Naude, et al, 2005)(Ittmann, Schoeman, King et al, 2010). This enormous growth seems to indicate that rail is not the preferred service supplier for cargo owners. Much of the growth on these rural roads appears to be generated by the mining, agricultural and manufacturing sectors. The result of these levels of growth has been degradation of the rural roads system; these roads were not designed and built to handle the huge traffic volumes. Road maintenance has fallen way behind and road capacity expansion in the rural areas (especially rural arterial roads) is wholly inadequate. (Walters, 2010). The results of this type of degradation can range from slower transit times, increased congestion, higher fuel consumption (also a result of adjusted driving habits), higher fuel emissions and higher logistics costs. The accompanying higher costs also impacts on South Africa’s global competitiveness. If it is inevitable that rural road transport will continue to grow and that rail will not be a major role player, then road improvements are required on a much larger scale than at present, for major provincial as well as non-corridor national roads. The implication is the necessity for a dual transport strategy; one to focus on the corridor traffic and the other on the rural traffic in an effort to reduce the impacts and the logistics costs to the country.

LAND USE POLICIES AND INITIATIVES Government policy on land use has been used extensively around the world to limit the impact of freight. Although the South African White paper on National Transport Policy highlights giving development priority to infilling, densification, mixed land use and the promotion of development corridors and nodes, this is limited to urban land passenger transport. (Department of Transport, 1996). There are no clear policy statements on the use of land use policies such as industry clustering to optimise freight movements. Clustering refers to the land use practice in which related activities are located close together. From an urban development perspective, there may be considerable travel reduction benefits. The same is true for logistics clustering. In these models, manufacturers with similar distribution channels or manufacturers that share similar interests are located in close geographical proximity. The principle is THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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to gain critical mass. Through collaboration and proximity, clustered organisations are able to share resources, consolidate freight and achieve levels of flexibility not available to individual companies. Some of the benefits are “being able to share labour resources among clients and operations; improved transit time and reduced order cycle time; and reduced inventory velocity and lower freight costs through volume leverage.” (TDM Encyclopedia, 2010: 16). These benefits not only result in the reduction of freight in transit but also enhanced environmental efficiencies. A typical example of clustered organisations is supplier parks. In Gauteng, the Automotive Supplier Park (ASP) is a Gauteng Provincial Government Blue IQ initiative aimed stimulating economic growth and job creation in the automotive industry through large-scale investment in strategic economic infrastructure. The Automotive Supplier Park is located in Rosslyn, in close proximity to major OEM plants including BMW (3.3km), Nissan/Renault (1.3km), TATA (0.5km) and Ford/Mazda (35km). (Automotive Supplier Park, nd). Although primarily aimed at economic growth and job creation, the clustering of automotive suppliers in a single location achieves the effect of a ‘logistics campus’ where role-players can achieve benefits such as freight consolidation, full truck loads and logistics triangulation, thereby maximising their use of scarce resources and minimising freight impacts on their bottom line as well as the roads, the environment and the economy. The use of these types of clustering techniques is well documented and accepted as a means of reducing freight impacts.

OTHER PUBLIC SECTOR INITIATIVES There are numerous opportunities for public sector initiatives to reduce the impact of freight in South Africa but they need to be thoroughly considered. There is substantial discussion, for example, on the reduction of axle load limits from 9 to 8 tons per axle. The Department of Transport says a principle aim of such amendments would be to take the loads off the secondary road networks. This may also be intended to move goods to the rail network. (Parker, 2009). While there may be some merit in these types of initiatives in the long-term, they need to be carefully researched prior to implementation. In a modern logistics-driven economy, the demand for the movement of products already exists. The reduction of the load limit could not only adversely affect the freight industry, the producers and the economy, but other unforeseen effects could arise. As the demand for movement of tonnages already exists, unless rail were capable of dealing with the demand through improved efficiencies and extended infrastructure, the reduction of the axle load limits would more than likely result in an increase in the number of vehicles on the road, with the accompanying increases in emissions and all other negative externalities associated with increased road transport. This could also add costs for the consumer, thus impacting on the country’s competitiveness. Improved intermodal facilities could be considered as these could lead to the reduction of congestion, waste, pollution and other externalities commonly associated with inefficient intermodal transfers. 84

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Government has also made a commitment to the introduction of lower sulphur diesel and although this may result in high initial investment costs, the long-term commitment is to ensure that externalities associated with moving freight are limited over the long-term. This will be enhanced by the country’s ability to move to the use of the latest technologies in cleaner diesel engines. Measures such as road pricing and tax policies, fuel pricing and mass-distance charges can all be considered. The caveat to this is that any strategies should be carefully considered and researched in full consultation with industry, to ensure that any policy achieves its intended goal, without inviting consequences which may have far more critical and long-term sustainability impacts.

PRIVATE SECTOR INITIATIVES Opportunities for the private sector to limit their own freight impacts on the economy are innumerable and beyond the scope of this paper. The below constitutes some of the initiatives that are more commonly used to reduce individual organisations’ freight impact. Reducing overall volumes could be a starting point, but this needs to be carefully managed. The perspective is reducing volumes on the road and not sales volumes. Reducing packaging through better packaging materials and methods or by product redesign are all common practices, as evidence by the television industry, where product redesign has resulted in flat screen televisions, which allows for better capacity utilisation and thus lower freight impacts. Other initiatives are related to vehicle choices such as the use of cleaner vehicles which optimise technologies such as aerodynamic design and lower rolling resistance; smaller vehicles for local deliveries and alternative vehicle powering systems. Within the organisations’ process designs, longer lead times and customer incentives that encourage these practices could result in better load planning and optimised route selections. Routing and scheduling practices, changes in delivery times, load consolidation and the use of outsourcing rather than company fleets to achieve this consolidation, better maintenance practices, optimised driving practices and better fleet management that enables mileage reductions are all considerations. Another common practice around the world today is the redesign of the entire network, which can result in the high initial cost associated with relocation of facilities, but will ultimately reduce the number of kilometers travelled by the fleet and have a considerable impact on the company’s longterm operations costs. Sourcing practices are frequently cited as one of the key areas in which freight kilometers can be reduced. These must, however, be very carefully modeled prior to making decisions regarding the location of suppliers. A decision to source more local products could result in the loss of economies of scale, thereby increasing shorter deliver frequencies. If a freight reduction benefit is achieved, this needs to be carefully weighed against other impacts within the supply chain, such as the increased need for fertilizer in less productive but more local locations.

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CONCLUSION Both Government and the private sector have numerous opportunities to reduce the vast negative environmental and productivity disadvantages that can be caused by the large volumes of freight on South African roads. These effects range from potholes to emissions, from landscape effects to health effects, from soil wastes to biodiversity impacts, and from air quality problems to climate change. Supply chain literature (Grant, Lambert, Stock & Ellram, 2006; Pienaar and Vogt, 2009) proposes that every logistics system requires careful balance and that trade-offs are an inevitability. Managing the reduction of freight within an organisation requires a careful approach to ensure that real freight reduction benefits are achieved throughout the supply chain, rather than shifting the problem further up or down stream. Similarly, real freight impact reductions in the national logistics system implies a cautious approach, where policy decisions are informed by peer reviewed research and are made in close collaboration between industry and government to avoid ‘knee jerk’ policy actions (Walters, 2010). There should be a greater awareness of the role of road freight transport in keeping supply chains and the country moving, whilst simultaneously ensuring that sustainability, both environmental and economic, form the basis of every policy decision. REFERENCES Automotive Supplier Park (online). 2007. Available from http://www.supplierpark.co.za/ (Accessed 1 October 2010) Department of Transport. 1996. White Paper on National Transport Policy. South Africa. Available from http://www.info.gov.za (Accessed 10 October 2010) Grant D, Lambert DM, Stock JR, Ellram LM., 2005. Fundamentals of Logistics Management. Berkshire. McGraw Hill Higher Education Ittmann, H, Schoeman, C, King, D et al, 2010. 6th Annual state of logistics survey for South Africa 2009. Stellenbosch University, IMPERIAL Logistics, University of Pretoria and Cardiff University, respectively, pp 60 Organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD). 1997. The environmental effects of freight. Available from http://www.oecd.org/ dataoecd/14/3/2386636.pdf (Accessed 29 September 2010) Parker, A., 2009. DoT proposal sparks outrage. FleetWatch (online). October 2009. Available from http://www.fleetwatch.co.za/magazines/Oct2009/18DoT20proposal20sparks20outrage.htm (Accessed 3 October 2010) Pienaar, W.J. and Vogt, J.J., 2009. Business Logistics Management. A supply chain perspective (3rd Ed). Oxford University Press Southern Africa, Cape Town, South Africa. SA tests Joburg, Durban high-speed link (online). 2010. Available from http://www.southafrica.info/news/business/954834.htm (Accessed 11 October 2010) TDM Encyclopedia, Victoria Transport Policy Institute. 2010. Freight Transport Management. Increasing Commercial Vehicle Transport Efficiency (online). Available from http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm16.htm (Accessed 8 October 2010) Van Dyk, FE, Marais, MA, Naude AH, et al., 2005. First State of Logistics Survey for South Africa 2004: The case for measurement and revitalisation of basic logistics infrastructure in our dual economy, 40p Van Essen, H., 2008. The environmental impacts of increased international road and rail freight transport. Paper presented at the Global Forum on Transport and Environment in a Globalising World. Guadalajara. Mexico. 10-12 November Vanderschuren, MJWA & Lane, TE., 2010,’Evaluating the environmental impact of the South African freight system’s energy tendencies’, Paper presented to the 29th Annual Southern African Transport Conference, South Africa, 16-19 August. Walters, Jackie, 2010. ‘Current and future trends in the road transport sector.’ Paper presented to the Imperial Logistics Annual Conference. Johannesburg. South Africa. 31 August World Bank. 2010. Connecting to compete. Trade Logistics in the Global Economy. The Logistics Performance Index and its Indicators. Available from http:// go.worldbank.org/88X6PU5GV0 (Accessed 9 October 2010)

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Your Specialist Partner For Mechanised Railway Track Maintenance & Construction Machinery PERFORMANCE

Plasser South Africa (PTY) Ltd 20 Lautre Rd, Stormill, Roodepoort; P O Box 103 Maraisburg, 1700 Tel: (011) 761-2400

Telefax: (011) 474-3582

email: plasserail@plasser.co.za


PROFILE

RailCo RailCo is a Railway Consulting Engineering Company that specialises in the design and project management of Railway Electrification and Traction Power Supplies. RailCo has been contracted to deliver an Internationally Validated Overhead Track Equipment Design for the Gautrain Project on behalf of Tractionel Enterprise. Other major clients include Transnet, Prasa, Metrorail, Khuthele Consulting, RCE, SSI, PDNA, WBHO, Africon, Civilcon, Sanyati, Infraset, Illovo Sugar Mills, Private Siding Owners and other Rail Consulting Companies which, due to the uniqueness of the rail electrification environment, lack the necessary skills and expertise to provide suitable solutions to their respective clients. Services offered include the following: • Conducting feasibility studies covering all aspects of Electrical Traction and Traction Power supplies • Fully documented design of a range of OHTE (Overhead Track Equipment) systems including but not limited to: œ 50kV AC Mainline and Trolley wire (weight tensioned) œ 25kV AC Mainline and Yard (weight tensioned and fixed tension) œ 3kV DC Mainline and Yard (weight, spring and fixed tension) • The evaluation and design of Traction Power Supplies (Heavy Haul & General Freight) utilising Train Operations Simulation Software. This software has been verified against measured operational data. • Fully documented design of Traction Substations. • All Traction Power Supply and Substation designs for a range of Traction systems including but not limited to: œ 50kV AC OHTE (Heavy Haul) œ 25kV AC OHTE (Heavy Haul & General Freight) œ 3kV DC OHTE (General Freight) • The compilation of preliminary design reports. • The compilation of all necessary tender documentation for the implementation of the produced designs. This documentation includes Project Specifications, Layout Plans, Component and Assembly Drawings, Schedule of Quantities, Drawings & Specifications and Quality Assurance Plans.


PROFILE

• The evaluation of received tender documentation and production of an adjudication report. • The project management of the implementation phase of Electrification and Traction Power Supply Projects We are specialists in our field and have combined experience in excess of 80 years in the design, project management and commissioning of Railway Electrification Projects. We provide our clients with a one stop solution from conception through to final commissioning of Railway Electrification Projects including all quality assurance documentation, as built drawings and all relevant test certificates. The latest computer aided design methodology is used and through strategic partnerships both locally and internationally, we are exposed to the latest design and technological trends. Full documentation of our designs and proposals are available should they be required. CONTACT: e-mail FelixS@RailCo.co.za or AllanM@RailCo.co.za


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AN INITIATIVE TO INTRODUCE A PERFORMANCE

-BASED STANDARDS (PBS) APPROACH FOR HEAVY VEHICLE DESIGN AND OPERATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA

Paul A Nordengen CSIR Pretoria South Africa

Dr Hans Prem MSD Melbourne, Australia

Dr Luan Mai MSD Melbourne, Australia

INTRODUCTION South Africa’s economic wellbeing is directly affected by the efficiency of its freight logistics system, especially with regard to manufactured goods and raw materials. One of the significant problems in South Africa is that many of the major manufacturing areas are located great distances from the sea ports and to a lesser extent, from airports. The bulk of local product costs to customers are rooted in the cost of transport of these goods from the point of production to the point where they are finally loaded onto ships and aircraft for transportation to foreign destinations, and logistics costs have been identified as a constraint to South Africa’s competitiveness (Department of Transport, 2005). One of the purposes of introducing Performance-Based Standards (PBS) vehicles is to improve transport productivity by reducing the costs associated with transporting raw materials and minimising the cost of delivery to customers. A significant spin-off lies in the enhanced safety features inherent in the design of these vehicles. Current standards for vehicles focus on their ability to adequately haul their loads up inclines, ensure that their braking systems adequately decelerate the vehicle when fully loaded, negotiate curves, and undertake certain manoeuvres without becoming unstable. Loading legislation focuses on axle and axle unit loadings, the maximum permissible vehicle and combination masses, as well as the socalled ‘bridge formula’. While the current standards for vehicles address a range of safety issues, there are some aspects of heavy vehicle safety performance that are not adequately controlled by these regulations. The PBS approach addresses factors for which vehicle designers and road safety practitioners have always had a healthy respect, in particular the highly important aspect of a vehicle’s stability and dynamic performance. PBS vehicles must thus comply with certain prescribed static and dynamic performance standards such as Maximum Swept Path, Acceleration Capability, Steer Tyre Friction Demand, Static Rollover Threshold (SRT), High Speed Transient Offtracking and Rearward Amplification.

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Designing vehicles to safely carry greater loads is only one aspect of PBS. Another important aspect is the design enhancements and features that make it possible to achieve higher levels of safety. In this regard, greater commitment and diligence are required of operators to properly maintain their vehicles. Similarly, they will also have to ensure that loads are properly positioned and, where necessary, secured. If PBS vehicles are introduced into South Africa, it would be essential for their owners to implement higher standards of management and loading of those vehicles. In this respect, the Road Transport Management System (RTMS) offers a solution. The introduction of PBS vehicles should also be considered against the background of the mechanisms of road wear, which is accelerated not only by heavy (overloaded) axle loads, but also by the significant changes that have been introduced in heavy vehicle tyre technology. This is particularly relevant to countries such as South Africa where roads with light pavement structures (paved low volume roads) are very common. The effect of the trend of increasing heavy vehicle tyre pressures during the past few decades has been to reduce the size of the contact patch between the tyre and the road surface, inducing far greater stresses in the upper layers of road pavements. Improving freight logistics by introducing PBS should therefore be approached with an appreciation for the additional need to introduce more effective operational management procedures, and vehicles that are ‘kinder’ to road pavements.

THE ROAD TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (RTMS) RTMS is an industry-led, voluntary self-regulation scheme that encourages consignees, consignors and transport operators engaged in the road logistics value chain to implement a vehicle management system that promotes the preservation of the road infrastructure, the improvement of road safety and an increase in the productivity of the logistics value chain (National Productivity Institute, 2006; Nordengen and Oberholzer, 2006). This scheme also supports the Department of Transport’s National Freight Logistics Strategy (Department of Transport, 2005). All players in the road logistics value chain are aware of the problems concerning road logistics that affect their industries. The road infrastructure is deteriorating rapidly due to, inter alia, overloading and there are an unacceptable number of accidents attributed to heavy trucks (see Figure 8.1). Both road safety and road infrastructure protection are public concerns subject to strict regulation by governments, particularly when abused. Overregulation, road deterioration and high accident rates pose a significant threat to the long-term sustainability and global competitiveness of the road logistics value chain.

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14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 USA

UK

Aust

Can

Ger

Swe

Fra

NZ

SA

Figure 8.1: Benchmarking heavy vehicle safety – heavy vehicle fatalities per 100 million kilometres (2002) (Moore, 2007

This has prompted users of road haulage (consignors and consignees) and providers of road haulage (transport operators) to jointly develop strategies aimed at protecting the road network, improving road safety and transport productivity for the benefit of the country’s citizens and the industry itself. The industry also recognises that poor compliance to transport regulations creates an unfair competitive environment. It was, therefore, felt that a self-regulation scheme is required to create standard rules for the industry, and that these rules should become the ‘business norm’ - supporting the principles of good corporate governance. It is for this reason that industry is leading this initiative, to ensure its quick adoption by all businesses participating in the road logistics value chain. Furthermore, industry recognises its critical role in the economy’s growth. Efficient movement of goods between a country’s centres of production and its centres of export boosts competitiveness in international markets. RTMS is one of the key innovative and pro-active initiatives that will make this possible.

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PBS AS A CONCESSION OF THE ROAD TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PBS could play a significant role in improving productivity and safety in the transport industry, which in turn is vital for the country’s competitiveness in international markets. It is essential that all PBS participants are certified in accordance with the RTMS accreditation scheme to avoid the situation where truck and trailer manufacturers start designing vehicles on an ad hoc basis. It should be borne in mind that PBS vehicles are designed to include certain safety features, and be loaded in the correct manner, and that the RTMS approach offers the most suitable way of ensuring that these requirements are met. The idea is that the PBS vehicle design approach is not bound by the accepted prescriptive standards and that a redesigned vehicle will still conform to road infrastructure and safety conservation principles. As an example, PBS-designed vehicles could, therefore, safely carry heavier loads with no additional effects on the road network apart from normal deterioration. This will have a positive effect on the productivity and safety record of the transport industry.

SUPPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT The Department of Transport (DoT) fully supports the self-regulation approach of the RTMS because it contributes to the overall aim of improving the productivity of the transport logistics value chain, which will in turn contribute to the growth of the economy. With reference to the specific request to support the proposed PBS initiative and demonstration projects: • The DoT supports the initiative with the understanding that it seeks to improve system efficiency by optimising truck payloads, improving truck safety and protecting road infrastructure through innovative vehicle design and technology application. • The DoT maintains that exceeding current dimension and load limits should be restricted to the demonstration projects for evaluation purposes, if such approval is obtained. For full scale rollout, the heavy vehicle owners will need to demonstrate innovation in increasing payload through vehicle design and technology within the current load and dimension limits. If Government is convinced that vehicle owners have explored this approach sufficiently, then the larger vehicle load and dimension concessions could be considered for vehicle owners that have a proven track record of self-regulation (eg those within the RTMS or those complying with the national standards in this regard). • Government acknowledges the RTMS to be an industry-led process, and will support it as such in 94

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accordance with the recommendations of the National Overload Control Strategy (Department of Transport, 2004). As such, industry has to ensure sustainability of the initiative beyond pilot stage. Government will continue to implement its regulatory interventions and ensure compliance with legislation through intensified law enforcement, while acknowledging any specific concessions that may be granted to the self-regulation initiatives.

OBJECTIVES The over-arching objective of PBS is to design heavy vehicle combinations that conform to road infrastructure and safety conservation principles and according to specific standards as a point of departure, but accepting that some of the constraints in the current prescriptive regulations may be relaxed to allow for the PBS approach to be optimised. Individual role players, however, have their own objectives that should be borne in mind: Government (National and Provincial) • Reducing infrastructure damage; • Improving road safety; • Reducing the burden of law enforcement; • Improving freight logistics – cost and time; • Supporting transport efficiency and productivity; • Improving South Africa’s global competitiveness; • Improving awareness; and • Improving compliance with the Road Traffic Act. Industry • Improving efficiency, productivity and profit; • Supporting competitiveness; • Creating a level playing field – promoting fair competition; • Complying with best practice standards; • Improving road safety – reducing cost of accidents; • Promoting professionalism; and • Complying with corporate governance standards.

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DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS Because the RTMS self-regulation scheme was initiated in the forestry industry, it was identified as the logical industry to commence with PBS demonstration projects. Both Sappi Forests (Pty) Ltd (Sappi) and Mondi Business Paper (Mondi), the two major timber growers and pulp and paper companies in South Africa, decided to initiate PBS demonstration projects, and both companies set up project teams consisting of various manufacturers, suppliers and consultants. Sappi approached and subsequently appointed Mechanical System Dynamics Pty Ltd (MSD) in Australia to assist with the development and analysis of the PBS vehicle. Two concept vehicle designs, a truck/trailer and a B-double, were initially developed and considered by the project team. The team comprised representatives from Sappi, truck (DaimlerChrysler South Africa (Pty) Ltd), trailer (Afrit) and suspension (BPW Axles (Pty) Ltd) manufacturers, a transport operator (Timber24), CSIR Built Environment and MSD. At the outset a number of important design parameters were decided and set; some were outside the direct control of the project team, while others – set by Sappi – were directly related to the timber product (log lengths) and the requirements of the current and expected future log transport task. For example, maximum overall length was controlled by the regulators, maximum axle loads and spacing was consistent with the prevailing pavement and bridge load requirements, and safety items linked to the current regulations were retained. While there was a clear focus on productivity, in view of the number of roll-overs and crashes reported by operators, safety performance was given a high priority, so much so that a loss of productivity was considered to be acceptable if it meant a higher level of safety could be achieved. Therefore, it was a primary design goal and requirement that the vehicle should have acceptable safety performance and meet all of the applicable PBS safety standards. Using the current log transport vehicles as a baseline, an example is shown in Figure 8.2, and the concept designs as proposal PBS vehicles, state-of-the-art numerical modelling was used to establish

Figure 8.2 – Example baseline vehicle comprising a rigid truck towing a 4-axle drawbar trailer.

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Figure 8.3 - Baseline (top) and PBS (bottom) vehicles at 58.8t and 67.5t GCM, respectively

benchmark performance levels and to guide and assess the new designs to achieve performance levels that would satisfy the PBS performance requirements and the transport task. The truck/trailer concept vehicle, comprising a three-axle rigid truck towing a five-axle drawbar trailer, was selected in favour of the B-double, and after a number of iterations a satisfactory vehicle design was achieved. At an overall length of 26.4m and 27.0m for the 4 and 5-bundle trailer log-loads, respectively, and a gross weight of 67.5t, the truck/trailer combination satisfies the PBS performance standards considered and delivers an increase in payload capacity of 15%. By contrast, the baseline vehicle with both a lower gross weight (58.8t) and payload capacity was not able to satisfy several PBS performance requirements, as described in the following section. Side view drawings that highlight and contrast the key aspects of the baseline and proposal PBS vehicles are shown below in Figure 8.3.

DESIGN CRITERIA Drawing on the PBS standards developed in Australia jointly by the National Transport Commission (NTC) and Austroads, the following performance measures were chosen and considered in the performance analysis. These are a subset of the complete set of PBS standards (National Transport Commission, 2007a) and relate specifically to safety performance relevant to this assessment: • Tracking Ability on a Straight Path – the vehicle’s total swept width while travelling on a straight path, including the influence of variations due to crossfall, road surface unevenness and driver steering activity. • Low-Speed Swept Path – the maximum width of the vehicle’s swept path in a prescribed 90 degree low-speed turn. THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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• Steer Tyre Friction Demand – the maximum friction level demanded of the prime mover steer tyres in a prescribed 90 degree low-speed turn. • Static Rollover Threshold – the steady state level of lateral acceleration during a constant-radius steady-speed turn that the entire vehicle can sustain without rolling over. • Rearward Amplification – the degree to which the trailers in a combination amplify the lateral acceleration of the prime mover in a prescribed lane change manoeuvre. • High-Speed Transient Offtracking – the maximum lateral distance, or sideways distance, that the last-axle on the rearmost trailer tracks outside the path of the steer axle in a prescribed lane change manoeuvre. • Yaw Damping Coefficient – the rate at which ‘sway’ or yaw oscillations of the trailers take to ‘settle down’.

PBS ASSESSMENTS AND RESULTS For PBS assessment of the two concept vehicles and baseline (benchmark) vehicle, three numerical models were created using the ADAMS multi-body dynamics simulation software package (MSC. Software, 2007) and MSD’s Atruck™ toolbox. One model represents the truck/trailer combination, the second represents the B-double combination, and the third the baseline vehicle. In the final analysis only the truck/trailer design was taken through to manufacture. In the modelling mechanical properties were assigned to components (sprung and unsprung masses, suspension, tyres, etc) consistent with components on each vehicle considered. To define datasets for each model, performance data and mechanical properties were obtained from various sources, including component suppliers for suspensions and tyres, Afrit for trailer details, a previous major study of the performance of the Australian heavy vehicle fleet (Prem et al, 2002), and, where necessary, drawing from MSD’s extensive heavy vehicle database and library. For the analysis best estimates of the sprung mass CG heights were used based on information supplied by Afrit, individually modelled tyres, dolly and semi-trailers. Suspensions and tyres in each of the vehicle models were represented as non-linear systems incorporating state-of-the-art features some general examples can be found in National Transport Commission (2007a) and Prem et al (2002). Where component level test data were supplied (suspensions and tyres, for example) the component models were adjusted and tuned to accurately reproduce the measured performance characteristics. General views of the truck/trailer numerical model with the 4- and 5-bundle log loads are shown below in Figure 8.4.

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Figure 8.4 - Numerical models of PBS vehicle showing the trailer with 4- and 5-bundle log-loads (top and bottom images, respectively) created in ADAMS with MSD’s Atruck™ toolbox.

A range of simulations were performed using the numerical models and the precisely defined test conditions specified under PBS. The simulations comprised a low-speed 90 degree turn, high-speed travel along a 1.0km long section of uneven surface in the presence of representative driver steering activity, a steady turn, a lane change manoeuvre, and a pulse-steer test. At the conclusion of the simulations the specified vehicle responses were analysed and the performance values calculated. The main results of the PBS analysis are presented below in Table 1, which shows the PBS performance requirements for the various levels of road access in the right hand columns and the corresponding performance values from the analyses and associated road class access level in the middle three columns for the two design proposals and baseline vehicle. Under PBS in Australia, access to road class Levels 1 to 4 (L1 to L4), respectively, denote ‘General Access’, ‘Significant Freight Routes’, ‘Major Freight Routes’ and ‘Remote Areas’. Further information on the road classification system can be found in National Transport Commission (2007b). Further, a vehicle can be granted access to a particular route only if it meets all of the performance requirements specific to that route. The results show that the baseline vehicle (current truck/trailer) fails to achieve the required PBS performance level on two of the safety standards. These are Static Rollover Threshold (performance = 0.305g, performance requirement is >0.35g) and Rearward Amplification (performance = 1.990, performance requirement is <1.738). By contrast the proposal truck/trailer (4- and 5-bundle variants) satisfies the PBS performance requirements at PBS Level 2 (L2). In addition, the baseline vehicle has a significantly higher value for high-speed transient offtracking, achieving a performance outcome consistent with PBS L3 road network access. In Australia vehicles assigned PBS Level 3 (L3) status are generally restricted to road train routes. Table 1 results show the only area where the proposal vehicle THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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performs significantly worse than the baseline vehicle is in low-speed turns, where due to its longer overall length and, in particular, much longer trailer, the Low-Speed Swept Path width is greater. #

Performance Standard

Performance Value (Access Level) Concept Vehicle

Performance Requirement

Baseline L1

(4-bundle)

(5-bundle)

(67.5t, 26.4m)

(67.5t, 27.0m)

(58.8t, 21.9m)

L2

L3

L4

1

Tracking Ability on a Straight Path

2.89 (L1)

2.90m (L1)

2.89m (L1)

≤2.9m

≤3.0m

≤3.1m

≤3.3m

2

Low-Speed Swept Path Width

8.20m (L2)

8.20m (L2)

6.62m (L1)

≤7.4m

≤8.7m

≤10.1m

≤13.7m

3

Steer Tyre Friction Demand

21% (L1)

21% (L1)

18% (L1)

≤80%

4

Static Rollover Threshold

0.354g (L1)

0.354g (L1)

0.305g (-)

≥0.35g (≥0.40g road tankers/buses)

5

Rearward Amplification*

1.767 (L1)

1.812 (L1)

1.990 (-)

≤5.7SRTrrcu (2.205, 2.428, 1.738)

6

High-Speed Transient Offtracking

0.67m (L2)

0.68m (L2)

0.81m (L3)

≤0.6m

7

Yaw Damping Coefficient

0.23 (L1)

0.27 (L1)

0.26 (L1)

≥0.15

≤0.8m

≤1.0m

≤1.2m

Table 8.1: Summary of PBS results for baseline and PBS truck/trailer

OPERATION AND DRIVER FEEDBACK The PBS vehicle commenced operations on 29 October, 2007 and by 21 November had completed 36 trips with an average payload of 47.1t. Detailed monitoring of the vehicle and comparison with the control vehicle is ongoing. Monitoring parameters include payload, trip times, fuel efficiency, average speed (empty and laden), drive train maintenance costs, tyres, accidents/incidents and feedback from other road users. Initial feedback from the drivers has been very positive in terms of stability and manoeuvrability, which supports the improved performance features evidenced in the PBS vehicle compared with the baseline vehicle (Table 8.1).

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REFERENCES Department of Transport (2004). National Overload Control Strategy. DoT, Pretoria, South Africa, March 2004. Department of Transport (2005). National Freight Logistics Strategy. DoT, Pretoria, South Africa. Moore, B. (2007). An integrated approach to the regulation of heavy vehicles. Prepared for Special Session SP11, 23rd World Roads Congress, Paris. September 2007. MSC.Software (2007). “MSC.ADAMS”. <http://www.mscsoftware.com> MSC.Software Corporation, USA. (November 15, 2007). National Transport Commission (2007a). Performance Based Standards Scheme – The Standards and Vehicle Assessment Rules. Prepared by National Transport Commission: Melbourne, Vic. July 2007. National Transport Commission (2007b). Performance Based Standards Scheme – Network Classification Guidelines. Prepared by National Transport Commission: Melbourne, Vic. July 2007. Prem, H., de Pont, J., Pearson, R.A. and McLean, J.R. (2002). Performance Characteristics of the Australian Heavy Vehicle Fleet. Prepared for National Road Transport Commission: Melbourne, Australia. February 2002. National Productivity Institute (2006). Road Transport Management System Five-Year Strategy. NPI, Midrand, South Africa, October 2006. Nordengen, P A and Oberholzer, F. (2006). A self regulation initiative in heavy vehicle transport to address road safety, accelerated road deterioration and transport productivity in South Africa. Proc. Ninth International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions, Penn State University, State College, USA, June 2006. Standards South Africa (2007). ARP 067-1: Road Transport Management Systems: Part 1: Operator Requirements – Goods. ISBN: 978-0-626-19331-7. SABS, Pretoria, South Africa, 2007.

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PROFILE

Royal Gold Shipping Agency Customer satisfaction is our Priority.

Royal Gold Shipping is one of the top shipping agencies in South Africa, specialising in local and international air and sea freight transport, shipping logistics, freight clearing and shipping. It is the fastest and most reliable shipping company in the world today professional employees to service your needs on time.

Our Shipping Company Handles Sea and Air Transport for All Industries

With our shipping agency partners across the globe, we ensure timeous and safe delivery of all freight. Our freight shipping company handles all sea and air transport logistics needs, including clearing and forwarding of all freight. We also charter air or sea transport should you need a tailor-made freight transport solution. Drawing on extensive air and sea freight transport experience, our freight shipping company staff are available to advise you on optimal use of your shipping budget and shipping logistics in South Africa and abroad.

Niche Services

Along with our other services Royal Gold Shipping also offers the following Niche Services:

Wine

At Royal Gold Shipping Agency, we are fortunate enough to have developed superlative expertise in this growing industry, both in transport and logistics process management. Owing to the precious nature of the cargo, we ensure peace of mind that delivery will be on time and that the shipment will not be damaged.

Perishables

We specialise in the delivery of all time-specific goods. We respect the expiry date on your goods and ensure they move from your door to your clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s door, or vice versa, timeously.

Dry Cargo

There is no limit in what we can move from feathers to cars to tenpins

Ship and Aircraft Chartering

We are able to assist you in the full process of ship and aircraft chartering for complete or part loads.

Special Projects

We design solutions that work, in line with your budget, and deliver results to meet the tightest deadlines.


PROFILE

International Agent Network

To give the best personal service all over the world, Royal Gold Shipping has agency agreements in most countries. This network of agents is growing constantly to keep in line with the demands of our customers.

More Than a Top Freight Shipping Company

In addition to being a leading freight shipping and transport company, we can arrange storage for your shipments. Our shipping agency services also stretch to covering your freight under various types of freight insurance schemes. We strive in this competitive world and it is our mission to offer an outstanding service to our clients. Our reputation for dependable service and on-time pickup and delivery is backed by our growth and dependability. Contact details Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban Telephone: 011 331 0382 and 011 3316570 Website: www.royalgoldshipping.co.za

Email: royalgoldagency@yahoo.co.uk Fax: 086 590 0707


PROFILE

The Rose Foundation As part of their core business principles, ROSE has developed sustainable partnerships with NORA-SA and other groups who are committed to meeting acceptable environmental and ethical standards. NORA-SA together with ROSE act at the heart of operations to co-ordinate the collection, storage and dispatch of used oil. NORA-SA has members who are environmentally approved processors that buy oil from approved collectors and using a series of treatment steps, they purify and process used lube oil, usually into an industrial fuel oil. The members of NORA-SA assist in arranging transportation to transfer the used oil to approved processors who operate under stringent environmental controls.

Environmentally Compliant Storage Facilities

FFS Refiners operates large Depots in the main centres of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and Durban while Oilkol operate the Depot in Krugersdorp where used oil is stored in state of the art storage facilities. In smaller centres bulking points are being established where collectors can take used oil so that full bulk loads can be assembled for transport to processors. Compliant bulking facilities have also been established in Weenen, Richards Bay, Middelburg, Rustenburg, Burgersfort and Nelspruit.

A bulking point in Burgersfort


PROFILE

Enviro-Centers

Enviro-Centers have been established in many of the main centres where small generators of used oil such as Do-it-yourself mechanics can bring used oil and empty the oil into a mini-tank provided. ROSE has worked with both local authorities and private enterprise to include mini-bulk waste oil facilities at these centers which receive used oil from the general public.

Achievements

South Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s used oil collection and recycling is still lagging behind America, France, United Kingdom, Spain and Germany - but improvements are being made each year. Together with ROSE and the used oil industry more than one billion litres has been collected since 1994. The ROSE Foundation has been used as a prototype for lubricant industries in New Zealand, Columbia, Kenya, and by the United Nations based Basel Convention. They all regard the ROSE Foundation as an exemplary model for the management of used oil in an unregulated economy. Approximately 90 million litres of used oil is collected per annum in South Africa. Contact Details Cape Town Tel: 021 448 7492 Fax: 021 448 7563 Email: usedoil@iafrica.com www.rosefoundation.org.za


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TRANSPORT IS A DYNAMIC SYSTEM Mathetha Mokonyama Transport engineer CSIR

INTRODUCTION The world is full of examples of solutions that were meant to solve transport problems that unfortunately resulted in more problems than was previously the case. For example, adding more lanes on freeways resulting in increased demand for use of the extra space and even higher levels of congestion; having buses full of people all the time but with no prospects of ever breaking even financially; putting up a forest of road signs that are ignored by road users and creating even more dangerous conditions; and penalising of wealthy heavy goods vehicle operators and ultimately having poor households hardest-hit by the penalties and the wealthy operators even wealthier. All these examples bear testimony to strong feedback mechanisms that are inherently part of the transport system. While the phrase ‘transport system’ is in common usage, very few appreciate its profoundness. Being a system implies that transport has a structure made up of several components that work together, as well as against each other, to achieve an objective. In fact, more than being a system, the transport system is dynamic, implying that all the components have the ability to change with time, in any direction. This chapter argues that it is through understanding the structure and the system’s feedback mechanisms that more sustainable transport solutions can be implemented. Moreover, the chapter presents a framework that attempts to provide a foundation for designing transport systems, taking cognisance of its dynamic nature.

BACKGROUND Systems dynamics theory was introduced as a formal discipline in the 1960s at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Senge, 1990). Basically, the discipline recognises that systems - be they biological, political, or economic - are an interconnected web of relationships, where a change in a single element of the system affects the behaviour of the entire system. When dynamics are taken into account, the evolution of the system becomes important and the relationships between the system’s elements are no longer cross-sectional but time series in nature. In a modelling context, dynamic systems models provide a powerful analytical tool that enables analysts to isolate and simulate complex real life systems. This in turn allows the analysts to perform scenario-based computations without losing THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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much interaction effects between the scenario variables and feedback effects that in turn affect the nature of scenario variables. This is fundamentally in contrast to having static scenario variables when modelling systems. Sterman (2001) provides the following summary on the behaviour of dynamic systems: Constantly Changing: Change in systems occurs at many time scales, and these different scales sometimes interact. Tightly Coupled: The actors in the system interact strongly with one another and with the natural world. Basically, everything is connected to everything else. Governed by Feedback: Because of the tight couplings among actors, actions feedback on themselves. Dynamics arise from these feedbacks. Non-linear: Effect is rarely proportional to cause, and what happens locally in a system often does not apply in distant regions. Non-linearity can be as a result of the basic physics of systems as well or a result of multiple actors interacting in decision-making. History dependent: Elements in a system accumulate historical effects. In the words of Jay Forrester, the developer of systems dynamics modelling framework: “In the complex system the cause of a difficulty may lie far back in time from the symptoms, or in a completely different and remote part of a system... the complex system presents apparent causes that are in fact coincident systems. The high degree of time correlation between variables in complex systems can lead us to make cause-and effect associations between variables that are simply moving together as part of the total dynamic behaviour of the system…” Transport solutions are traditionally crafted around the combination of intervention in respect of infrastructure, systems and operations, and where travel demand is used to size the scope of intervention. Transport being a derived demand, however, it is influenced by underlying and ever changing socio-economic conditions which are often difficult to measure and adequately plan for. Nonetheless, if socio-economic conditions play a pivotal role in the system, it is important to ensure that they are adequately addressed in the solution frameworks. The chapter illustrates by way of examples, how the underlying relationships that affect some of the most common problems in transport systems, namely roadway congestion and travel mode shift, affect the outcomes of planned interventions. The inadequacy of interventions focused solely on infrastructure, systems and operations is addressed by proposing a more holistic model to help in defining transport solution frameworks derived from the dynamic systems modelling paradigm.

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EXAMPLES OF THE DYNAMIC NATURE OF ROAD TRAFFIC CONGESTION AND TRAVEL MODE CHOICE RELATED INTERVENTIONS Figure 9.1, reconstructed from Hensher and Button (2000), represents the fundamental traffic flow theory diagram that describes the relationship between traffic flow (q) (vehicles per hour per lane), speed (km/h) and density (vehicles per lane per kilometre), and represents the formation of roadway congestion. The diagram illustrates that as density (k) increases, the speed of travel (v) decreases. At higher densities, the speed-flow relationship drops more drastically ie, from (kL, vL), to (ko,vo) and to (kH, vH). Flow (q) increases with density to a maximum of qo, and at jam density (kj) the speed and flow are equal to zero (congested). Any flow q’< qo can take place at low density and high speed or at high density and low speed. As q’ reduces, conditions often referred to as hyper-congestion are approached. The only way to alleviate congestion, therefore, is to increase the capacity of the road facility and/or reduce the travel demand. Increasing the roadway capacity, being more capital intensive, requires large financial resources. The alternative of reducing the demand, while theoretically straightforward, is practically not straightforward, and it is the focus of the subsequent discussion.

Figure 9.1: The fundamental traffic flow theory graph. Source: Hensher and Button (2000)

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The reduction of travel demand can be achieved in many ways, and some of these are (often referred to as Travel Demand Management (TDM) measures): • Reduce the number of vehicles using the roadway at any given time: To achieve this, some authorities put quota measures to allow vehicles with specific number plates to use the road on designated days or time of day, which is heavily reliant on enforcing compliance, for example in Mexico City, Bogota and Manila. • Increase the number of people per vehicle without reducing the number of trips being made: This includes increased use of public transport and ridesharing. With regard to car pooling, Masemola et al (2010) found from focus groups conducted in KwaZulu-Natal Province that the heterogeneous needs of ridesharing participants have a strong influence on the viability of the scheme. In the survey, interpersonal conflicts among lift club members, especially females, were found to be a common occurrence, triggered by such things as time keeping, the types of people individual members associate with in their personal lives (including criminal elements), and daily schedule mismatches. Mokonyama et al (2010) conducted focus groups on high-end middle class travellers and found that security, customer care, and information about public transport had a significant role in the shifting high-end middle class travellers from cars to business express train services between Johannesburg and Pretoria. • Spread the time over which trip making takes place over the course of a day: Lombard et al. (2007) found significant shifts in departure times in the period 1996 and 2003 in South African metropolitan areas for work trips, in which relatively more people left for work much earlier than 6h30 and much later than 7h30 in order to avoid roadway congestion. Nonetheless, very little flexibility in work schedules occurs in South Africa to take advantage of low levels of off-peak road traffic. • Change the origin and/or destination of trips to reduce the length of trip: Mokonyama et al. (2010) found from focus groups in Gauteng Province that car-owning respondents found it easier to change their place of work rather than place of residence. However, the change of place of work is largely outside the immediate control of workers. • Reduce the need to travel: This could be achieved by measures such as working from home and using telecommunications technology to reduce the number of trips. However, it has been shown that people who make use of these options tend to substitute these trips with some other trips, often resulting in overestimation of the effectiveness of these measures (Tal, 2008). • Get one person to undertake a trip on behalf of more than one person: This is sometimes referred to as trip or mobility brokerage. Green, et al (2005) proposes a formal system in some rural areas of South Africa with the aim of reducing transport costs. In the urban areas, increased need for privacy would probably reduce the effectiveness of this alternative.

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The examples provided above on the actual and potential reaction of society to interventions made in the transport system, are the subject of an emerging area of research referred to as ‘social dilemmas’. Sunitiyoso and Matsumoto (2005) put forward properties of social dilemma phenomena as follows: firstly, the social pay-off to each individual for defecting (for example defecting from public transport to private car) is higher than the pay-off for cooperative behaviour, regardless of what other members of society do, and secondly, all individuals in the society receive a lower pay-off if they all defect than if they all cooperate. Using a similar modelling framework, Kitimura et al (1999) conclude that TDM measures that rely on individuals’ voluntary cooperation should not be implemented before they receive support from a number of individuals that constitute a critical mass. Therefore, in attempting to solve transport system problems such as congestion (which is a space availability problem), there is a strong social dimension which cannot be ignored. Similarly, the problem of increased transport costs (which is a function of the costs of natural resources such as time and energy) is intertwined with the social dimension and manifests itself in social problems that include wage protests. In addition to infrastructure, systems and operations, the specification of a transport system is incomplete without the inclusion of the social and natural resources dimensions.

THE PROPOSED MODELLING FRAMEWORK Conventionally, solutions in the transport system are mainly focused on the following elements of the system: • Management systems: This includes policies, guidelines, business processes, and performance management tools. • Infrastructure: This includes roads, railways, stations and vehicles. • Land use: Spatial distribution and location of land uses. • Transport modes: This includes the different modes of transport, both motorised and nonmotorised. • Transport networks: This includes different public transport network designs. As many of the examples illustrated in the foregoing sections indicate, transport solutions should transcend these five conventional solutions modes if they are to be sustainable. A more comprehensive modelling framework is proposed and presented in Figure 9.2. The proposed modelling framework recognises the interconnected sub-systems that make up the transport system. Four core sub-systems are identified, namely (i) natural resources and the environment, (ii) social, (iii) economic, and (iv) mobility and access. A fifth sub-system, namely

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innovation, has the ability to intercept the direction of change in the system. Broadly, the model components can be explained as follows: • The natural resources and environment sub-system consists of independent components, namely energy, space, time and climate, that sustain life. • The social sub-system is a continuous interaction between the personal and societal objectives. • The economic sub-system is an interaction between productivity, trade, level of development. • The mobility and access sub-system consists of the interaction between transport modes, transport networks, land use, infrastructure, and management tools. • Innovation uses existing resources, and the desired future state, to change the nature of the components of the sub-system. • Changes in any one part of the system changes the state of other components of the system, either positively or negatively depending on the magnitude and the nature of the stimulus. The model puts forward a proposition that in order to formulate sustainable transport solutions, all these sub-systems need to work concurrently in harmony with the objective of preserving the natural resources and the environment sub-system, and in turn preserve life. Solution paradigms that only

Figure 9.2 Proposed transport system modelling framework

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look at one or a few components of the system are likely to produce unintended outcomes for the whole system. With regard to addressing congestion and modal shift problems, the model suggests that the starting point should be the concurrent use of all the sub-systems to formulate a solution.

CONCLUSIONS The transport system is dynamic and is made up of sub-systems beyond transport modes, networks, management systems, land use, and infrastructure. Being a system, it is important to understand the structure of its sub-systems before interventions are made. Moreover, when transport solutions are being put forward, it is necessary to understand how the sub-systems will react over time. The model presented in this chapter, proposes the use of a dynamic systems based framework to guide the formulation of more sustainable transport solutions. Consequently, in line with the proposed model, transport solutions should always be defined in terms of preservation of the natural resources and environment sub-systems as a primary goal, in the process of achieving other system’s goals. REFERENCES Green, C. Naude, A. Le Roux, W. Osman, C. and Blackshaw, R., 2005. Rural mobility brokering and subsidisation: Outline of options based on a concept planning study in the Central Karoo. Proceedings of the 24th Southern African Transport Conference, Pretoria, South Africa. Hensher, D.A and Button, K.J., 2000. Handbook of transport modelling, Volume 1. Pergamon Publishing. Kitimura R., Nakayama S., Yamamoto T., 1999. Self-reinforcing motorisation: can travel demand management take us out of the social trap? Transport policy 6 pp. 135-145 Lombard, M. Cameron, B. Mokoyama, M. and Shaw, A., 2007. Book: Report on trends in passenger transport in South Africa. Published by the Development Bank of Southern Africa, South Africa. ISBN: 1-919692-95-9. Masemola, R. Mokonyama, M, and Lehasa, S., 2010. Unpublished results of focus group surveys to determine mode shift and mode satisfaction in the DurbanPietermaritzburg corridor, South Africa. Mokonyama, M. Lehasa, S., and Venter, C., 2010. Unravelling public transport customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction dynamics in the high-end middle class market. Proceedings of the 29th Southern African Transport Conference, Pretoria. Sterman, J.D., 2001. Systems dynamics modelling: Tools for learning in a complex world. California management review, Vol. 43. No. 4. Sunitiyoso, Y. Matsumoto S., 2005. Modelling behavioural change in a social dilemma of commuters’ mode choice. Universities’Transport Study Group, Bristol. Senge, P.M., 1990. The Fifth Discipline: the art and practice of the learning organisation. 1ST Edition, Doubleday Publishing, New York, ISBN: 978-0385260947. Tal, G., 2008. Overestimation reduction in forecasting telecommuting as a TDM policy. Instritute of Transport Studies, University of California.

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PROFILE

Toyota South Africa Motors (TSAM) Toyota South Africa Motors (TSAM) is the leading manufacturer of automobiles in South Africa. TSAM manufactures three vehicle ranges; the Corolla, the Hilux and the Fortuner, at its plant in Prospecton, Durban in the KwaZulu-Natal province. The Corolla is South Africa’s most popular sedan, the Hilux is the bestselling vehicle in South Africa and the Fortuner is the most popular SUV in the country. All three vehicles are built to the highest international standards and are exported to discerning countries in Africa and Europe. Toyota South Africa Motors has the largest dealer network in Southern Africa and it continues to lead the way in automotive vehicle technology, notably with the introduction of South Africa’s first fully hybrid petrol-electric vehicle, the Toyota Prius. TSAM constantly strives for the continuous improvement of all its business practices, technologies and ultimately the vehicles that it produces. This is grouped under the term Kaizen, or continuous improvement, that is at the heart of its efforts at improving every area of its business. The key projects of TSAM in the environmental arena include the gradual, but constant, reduction of energy consumption at its world class plant in Prospecton. Other key projects, in this arena, include the environmental education of all Toyota South Africa Motor’s employees, in Sandton, Durban and at the more than 220 dealerships in Southern Africa. Projects in this arena include the greening of all facilities and recycling, furthermore employees are afforded the opportunity to bring waste from home for recycling. All efforts are evaluated and monitored by dedicated environmental management committees. Focus areas include environmentally friendly vehicle manufacturing, and achieving the objective of constantly reducing waste and energy consumption. This is supported by world class technologies; such as the water based paint plant, which is of the highest standards in the worldwide Toyota group.


PROFILE

Toyota South Africa Motor’s Mission and Strategic Goals: TSAM is dedicated and committed to: • Supplying a range of vehicles, parts, accessories and services to meet the requirements of the South African and export markets that it services. • Ensuring that products are of outstanding quality, value for money and instil pride of ownership. • Developing and maintaining a dealer network which will provide superior service and excellence in customer care. • Fair and progressive employment practices and the development, in accordance with the Company’s requirements, of skills and potential of all its employees. • The social, educational and economic development, where appropriate, of the communities in which it operates. • Keeping abreast of international best practices relating to vehicle manufacturing, distribution and information technologies. • In meeting these commitments, TSAM has to generate sustainable returns on investments which will reward shareholders and secure funding for the Company’s continued growth.

Standards achieved: Toyota South Africa Motor’s plant boasts full ISO 9001 accreditation for its body and engine plants, as well as ISO 14001 accreditation for the entire company for ts environmental management systems. Toyota South Africa Motors Prospecton, Durban and Sandton, Johannesburg South Africa. Telephone: Fax: Email: www.toyota.co.za

+27 (011) 809-9111 +27 (011) 809- 2942 info@toyota.co.za


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nsport and mobIlIty

Studies own

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INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS A/Prof Marianne Vanderschuren Centre for Transport Studies M.J.W.A. Vanderschuren University of CapeStudies Town Centre for Transport University of Cape Town

Andrew Mckune Civil Engineer Aurecon

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

The term Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) refers to efforts to add information and communications and societies. We carrytoout activities to work, play, learn,vehicles. gather The first ITS systems, implemented long before technology transport infrastructure and/or es cannot all be conducted at the same location, and hence the the term ITS iswas introduced, in thethe form of traffic fact, all transportation activity driven. were Therefore, nature of controllers (also called traffic lights or robots). The main aim of these controllers was to improve traffic flows and, in general, it can be concluded ture of the trip, and consequently the nature of the infrastructure that the early ITS systems were explored as traffic engineers realised that they could not build their amental problem. Different activities are conducted by different way out of congestion. It was hoped that the use of communication technology would improve the ange of modes of transport at various times during the day. The utilisation of existing road capacity.trip perfectly â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and lored to meet the needs of every individual ensure that all trips can be made as safely, quickly and affordably

Lately, the overriding reason for investing in ITS is to improve transportation system operations by nd engineering community has devoted itself, for well over a increasing productivity, saving lives, time, costs and energy. Importantly, ITS can facilitate the delivery ision of transportation infrastructure so that the movement of of athis wide range effort, of policy objectives, beyonddesign those directly associated with transport, bringing mised. From collective a host of guidelines, countless significant scholarly and academic publications have emerged benefits to transport users and those who live and work within the area. There are six main

objectives/benefits that have been identified in the international literature (Mitretek Systems, 2001). poused in these manuals have come under review regarding their operation and management of the transportation systems and SAFETY 1989; Commission of the European Communities, 1990; Greene dentifies the and pitfalls when planning sustainable Anproblems explicit objective of the transportation system is to provide a safe environment for travel while oks at the approaches to solve problems. The reader is directed continuing to strive to improve the performance of the system. Although undesirable, crashes and n solving these problems in a sustainable way. fatalities are inevitable occurrences. Several ITS services aim to minimise the risk of crash occurrence.

This objective focuses on reducing the number of crashes and reducing the probability of a fatality nd current practIces

ding literature for atransportation planning in South is the used to quantify safety performance include should crash occur. Typical measures of Africa effectiveness modal transportation environment that addresses the economic the overall crash rate, fatality crash rate and injury crash rate. ITS services should also strive to reduce at protects the environment from the effects of transportation, thesocial crashrealm rate of a facility orNDoT, system. of a healthy (CoCT, 2005; 2003). Furthermore, en transportation and land use is emphasised and planners nd transportation as being almost two sides of the same coin MOBILITY

Improving mobility (anduse reliability) by reducing delay and travel time is a major objective of trinsically linked, as changes in land often initiate changes in many ITS components. Delay can be measured in many different ways, depending on the type of transportation system being analysed. Delay of a system sustaInable transport and mobIlIty handbooK 33 is typically measured in seconds or minutes THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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PROFILE

Pulsit Electronics Pulsit Electronics is a Telematics Solutions Provider focused on providing real-time asset monitoring and management solutions in various industries and applications. Our expertise ranges from mobile (fleet management, logistics, tracking) to fixed site (agriculture, cold chain, utilities) applications. Solution options include real-time GPRS, Satellite and RF monitoring (tracking), Web- and PC-based software solutions, 24/7 Call centre and technical support throughout SADC. The pressures of a fast paced and competitive environment and business inefficiencies result in decreased productivity and revenue losses in many organisations. Pulsit’s customer centric approach and integrated telematics solutions allows you to focus on your core business and profitability. Pulsit Electronics provides powerful tools, products and unparalleled service to offer you complete real-time information and statistics; anytime, anywhere, giving you the power to make well informed decisions. . Our enablers to achieve our strategic objectives in current and prospective markets includes (but are not limited to): •In-house and 3rd party fleet management, tracking and telemetry products •Reliable terrestrial and non-terrestrial communications networks for real-time asset monitoring and management (including various satellite and GSM/GPRS platforms) •In-house software solution development and hosting •Technical support infrastructure throughout Southern Africa Contact Details Location: South Africa Operations & Client Base: South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Zambia, Malawi Telephone: +27 (16) 366 0012 Fax: +27 88 016 366 0012 Website: www.pulsit.co.za Email: sales@pulsit.co.za


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of delay per vehicle. Also, delay for users of the system may be measured in person-hours. Delay for freight shipments could be measured in time past scheduled arrival time of the shipment. Delay can also be measured by observing the number of stops experienced by drivers before and after a project is deployed or implemented. Travel time variability indicates the variability in overall travel time from an origin to a destination in the system, including any modal transfers or en-route stops. This measure of effectiveness can readily be applied to inter-modal freight (goods) movement as well as personal travel. Reducing the variability of travel time improves the reliability of arrival time estimates that travelers or companies use to make planning and scheduling decisions. By improving operations and incident response, and providing information on delays, ITS services can reduce the variability of travel time in transportation networks. For example, traveler information products can be used in trip planning to help re-route commercial drivers around congested areas resulting in less variability in travel time.

EFFICIENCY Many ITS components seek to optimise the efficiency of existing facilities and use of rights-of-way so that mobility and commerce needs can be met while reducing the need to construct or expand facilities. This is accomplished by increasing the effective capacity of the transportation system. Effective capacity is the “maximum potential rate at which persons or vehicles may traverse a link, node or network under a representative composite of roadway conditions,” including “weather, incidents and variation in traffic demand patterns” (McGurrin and Wunderlich, 1999). Capacity, as defined by the Highway Capacity Manual, is the “maximum hourly rate at which persons or vehicles can reasonably be expected to traverse a given point or uniform section of a lane or roadway during a given time period under prevailing roadway, traffic and control conditions” (TRB, 2000). The major difference between effective capacity and capacity is that capacity is generally measured under typical conditions for the facility, such as good weather and pavement conditions, with no incidents affecting the system, while effective capacity can vary depending upon these conditions and the use of management and operational strategies. Throughput is defined as the number of persons, goods or vehicles traversing a roadway section or network per unit time. Increases in throughput are sometimes realisations of increases in effective capacity. Under certain conditions, it may reflect the maximum number of travelers that can be accommodated by a transportation system. Throughput is more easily measured than effective capacity and, therefore, can be used as a surrogate measure when analysing the performance of an ITS project. The reader needs to bear in mind that local circumstances influence local capacities, as well as measured throughputs.

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PRODUCTIVITY Its implementation frequently reduces operating costs and allows productivity improvements. In addition, ITS alternatives may have lower acquisition and life-cycle costs compared to traditional transportation improvement techniques. The measure of effectiveness for this objective is cost savings as a result of implementing ITS. Another way to view the cost savings is to quantify the cost savings between traditional and ITS solutions to addressing problems.

ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT The air quality and energy impacts of ITS services are very important considerations, particularly for areas striving to meet set air quality standards. In most cases, environmental benefits can be estimated only by the use of analysis and simulation. The problems related to regional measurement include the small impact of individual projects and large numbers of exogenous variables including weather, contributions from non-mobile sources or other regions, and the time-evolving nature of ozone pollution. Small-scale studies generally show positive impacts on the environment. These impacts result from smoother and more efficient flows in the transportation system. However, environmental impacts of travelers reacting to large-scale deployment of ITS in the long-term are not well understood. Decreases in emission levels and energy consumption have been identified as measures of effectiveness for this objective.

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Given that many ITS projects and programmes were specifically developed to serve the public, it is important to ensure that user (ie customer) expectations are being met or surpassed. Customer satisfaction measures and characterises the distance between users’ expectations and experiences in relation to a service or product. The central question in a customer satisfaction evaluation is, “Does the product deliver sufficient value (or benefits) in exchange for the customer’s investment, whether the investment is measured in money or time?” Typical results reported in evaluating the impact of customer satisfaction with a product or service include product awareness, expectations of product benefit(s), product use, response (decision-making or behaviour change), realisation of benefits and assessment of value. Although satisfaction is difficult to measure directly, measures related to satisfaction can be observed, including the amount of travel in various modes, and the quality of service, as well as the volume of complaints and/or compliments received by the service provider. In addition to user or customer satisfaction, it is necessary to evaluate the satisfaction of the transportation system provider or manager. For example, many ITS projects are implemented to improve co-ordination between various stakeholders in the transportation arena. In such projects, it is important to measure the satisfaction of the transportation provider to ensure the best use of limited funding. One way to measure the performance of such a project is to survey transportation providers 120

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before and after a project was implemented to see if co-ordination was improved. It may also be possible to bring together providers from each of the stakeholder groups to evaluate their satisfaction with the system before and after the implementation of an ITS project.

DEFINITIONS OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS Its is a very broad field. It varies from traffic light control to incident management, from enforcement to passenger information and from driver assistance to intelligent speed limit enforcement. Structuring a broad field like ITS measures is difficult as each structure can be challenged. ERTICO (www.ertico.com), the European equivalent of ITS America (www.itsa.org ), splits ITS measures into three groups: Intelligent Traffic Management Systems measure and analyse traffic flow information and take ITS measures to reduce problems. They consist of computerised traffic signal control, highway and traffic flow management systems, electronic licensing, incident management systems, electronic toll and pricing, traffic enforcement systems and intelligent speed adaptation. Intelligent Passenger Information Systems improve the knowledge base of customer and consist of passenger information systems, in-vehicle route guidance systems, parking availability guidance systems, digital map database and variable messaging systems. Intelligent Public Transport Systems include ITS measures that aim to improve public transport performance. They consist of intelligent vehicles, intelligent speed adaptation, transit fleet management systems, transit passenger information systems, electronic payment systems, electronic licensing, transportation demand management systems and public transport priority. To provide a summary of, internationally, accepted ITS systems it was decided to categorise them according to the above-mentioned groups. Furthermore, it is also indicated which of the mentioned objectives (safety, mobility and efficiency, customer satisfaction and energy and environment) are supported by these systems. ITS implementation risks Given the disbursed field of ITS applications available on the market, the biggest implementation risks are duplication, lack of integration, ineffective use of government funds and theft or vandalism of the physical infrastructure. In the South African context, there is even an additional risk that internationally accepted applications, used by individual consumers, cannot be used, due to a lack of communication standards. An example is the availability of real-time travel information. Internationally, data is communicated via specific standards. Navigation systems do receive the communication and adapt THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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their travel advice. Although real-time travel information is collected in some areas in South Africa, as communication standards do not follow international best practice, the real-time information is not available through navigation systems, such as Tom Tom and Garmin. Intelligent Traffic Management Systems

Intelligent Passenger Intelligent Public Information Systems Transport Systems

Safety

Variable speed limits Lane management Incident management Warning systems CCTV cameras Automatic vehicle identification Intelligent Speed Adaptation Weight in motion Advanced driver assistance systems

Navigation systems Parking guidance Cruise control Warning systems Intelligent Speed Adaptation Black-box systems Automated vehicle identification Docking systems Distance warning

Fleet management Navigation systems Electronic ticketing CCTV cameras High-speed ground transportation Automatic vehicle identification Intelligent Speed Adaptation Distance warning Advanced Driver Assistance System

Mobility and Efficiency

Variable speed limits Lane management Incident management Warning systems CCTV cameras Ramp metering Traffic control Electronic toll collection Advanced (real-time) traveler information systems Parking guidance

Navigation systems Parking guidance Cruise control Warning systems Advanced traveler information systems

Public transport priority Fleet management Navigation systems Electronic ticketing System integration High-speed ground transportation Real-time information/ advanced traveler information systems Multi-modal navigation device Driver Assistance Systems Chain mobility Efficient driving behaviour

Customer Satisfaction

CCTV cameras Lane management Warning systems Electronic toll collection Real-time information Parking guidance

Navigation systems Parking guidance Real-time information Electronic toll collection Docking systems Warning systems

Real-time information System integration Electronic ticketing CCTV cameras Smart Card Multi-modal Navigation Device

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Energy and Environment

Variable speed limits Incident management Intelligent Speed Adaptation Ramp metering Weigh in motion Traffic control Electronic tolls Real time information Parking guidance

Navigation systems Parking guidance Cruise control Warning systems Intelligent Speed Adaptation Black box systems Automated vehicle identification Docking systems Distance warning Real-time information Electronic toll Smart card

Fleet management Navigation systems Electronic ticketing High speed ground transportation Automatic vehicle identification Intelligent speed adaptation Distance warning Public transport priority Real-time information Route guidance Driver assistance systems System integration Multi-modal navigation system Efficient driving behaviour

Table 10.1: Overview of ITS measures per objective; Source: Adapted from Vanderschuren, 2006

DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED ITS ARCHITECTURE An ITS Architecture is the definitive framework that will guide deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems. The ITS Architecture spans all ITS activities and provides a means of detecting gaps, overlaps, and inconsistencies between the application and standards. The Logical and Physical Architecture provide a starting point for the standards development activities by identifying the applicable architecture flows and data flows to be standardised in the National ITS Architecture and the way in which the information is exchanged across those interfaces. The United States developed its ITS Architecture in 1994 at a cost of $20 million. In an attempt to define the various aspects that need to be included in an ITS architecture, Figure 10.1 includes a graphical overview. In the figure, three distinct layers emerge. At the most elementary level (bottom), the hardware platform can be found. The hardware layer is connected to the network layer. This layer is responsible for receiving, processing and dissemination of information. The network layer communicates, via a limited number of systems, to the platform layer. The various applications tap into the platform layer and will use the disseminated information.

HARDWARE LAYER The Hardware platform defines and standardises the various hardware components needed within the ITS architecture. The hardware components can be linked, if required. However, not all hardware components need to be connected. Examples of hardware components that need to be connected/ integrated are computer network cabling and computer hardware. An example of a hardware THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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Figure 10.1: ITS architecture framework

component that does not have to be integrated with the components mentioned previously, is vehicle counting loops.

TRANSPARENT NETWORK LAYER The transparent network layer can be seen as the operating layer within the ITS architecture. Data is collected (received from data generation applications), processed and translated into useful traffic information. Common software and standards are used to create the transparency to support information needs. Regarding standards, Europe has developed a common traffic information language standard called DATEX. DATEX is a standardised data and exchange specification, according to CEN or ISO rules. This common traffic information language makes it possible to exchange information between regions and counties. The operating system and middle software will also have to be defined and standardised. If the reader has ever been exposed to the problems that occur when Apple and Microsoft based computers try to talk to each other, he/she can imagine the problems experienced in professional systems that lack standardisation. Finally, the transparent network layer is supported by a platform sever.

PLATFORM LAYER At the top end of the architecture, the platform layer can be found. This layer communicates directly with the transparent network layer. Furthermore, this communication happens in two directions. Firstly, various ITS applications that are bundled in the application layer collect data, such as traffic counts, video imaging and GPS (Geographical Positioning System) information. On the other hand,

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the platform layer receives the processed information generated by the transparent network layer. The information received is in the standardised communication language standard. The platform layer communicates with the application in the application layer. Full or partial access to information can be provided, depending on the application needs and status. An overview of the various applications that could be included in the application layer can be found in Table 10.1.

THE LINK BETWEEN ITS AND INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS The importance of standardising an ITS architecture not only impacts on the ability to accurately and efficiently transfer data between ITS devices and systems, but also on the ability to communicate and integrate with external role-players. In the case of ITS, a proposed project will also rely heavily on the integration with incident response agencies or Incident Management Systems (IMS) in order to meet the goals of the system, and thereby provide motorists with improved travel times and increased safety on the relevant road sections. In South Africa, incident response takes the form of multi-agency co-operation in order to identify an incident, dispatch the required vehicles, arrive on and secure the scene, attend to the specific nature of the incident and react as necessary prior re-opening the roadway. These activities go hand in hand with ITS and, hence, the need to ensure that ITS architecture is able to integrate with IMS architecture is critical.

CONCLUSIONS South Africa needs to develop and standardise an ITS Architecture in order to ensure that the benefits of implementing ITS projects are maximised. The combined impact of a number of small positive implementations is more widely felt than any one small isolated ITS implementation. It is critical for South Africa to learn from the ITS Architectures established in the northern hemisphere, while ensuring that the preferred solution is applicable to our unique environment, with our unique challenges and risks. Further to this, South Africa is often a leader for the African continent and, hence, the approach should include and consider the wider application of an African ITS Architecture. In order to develop an ITS Architecture that is applicable throughout South Africa, the authors recommend the formation of an ITS Architecture strategic committee, which has representatives from all road groups, as well as incident response agencies at a national level. This type of approach would best be championed by the South African National Road Agency Ltd (SANRAL), as they have already implemented ITS projects, have also developed an IMS framework and are engaging with various incident response agencies. THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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e-Logics was established in 2000 and in Delivering on-time 2010 a majority stake was acquired by Supplying solutions that are agile Imperial Logistics. Delivering a trusted, high quality product Understanding each customer’s challenges and needs To design, build and implement relevant and applicable 0860 800 000 solutions that meet and exceed expectations. www.e-logics.co.za


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The standardisation of an ITS Architecture will assist in enabling a combination or integration of ITS and IMS activities, which essentially focus on similar objectives and, hence, improving the everyday user satisfaction of motorists. REFERENCES McGurrin, M. and K. Wunderlich (1999), “Running at Capacity”, Traffic Technology International. April/May 1999 Mitretek Systems (2001), Intelligent Transport System Benefits: 2001 update, Under Contract to the Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation, Washington DC. (US), June 2001 TRB (2000), Highway Capacity Manual 2000, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington DC (US) Vanderschuren, M.J.W.A (2006), Intelligent Transport Systems in South Africa, Impact assessment through microscopic simulation in the South African context, TRAIL Thesis Series T2006/4, ISBN number: 9055840777, August 2006 (book)

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PROFILE

Coega Development Corporation PTY (Ltd) Coega Development Corporation PTY (Ltd) is the developer and operator of the multi-billion Rand Coega Industrial Development Zone (CIDZ) 20km East of Port Elizabeth in Nelson Mandela Bay, Eastern Cape. The 12 000 hectare CIDZ is fully integrated with the new Ngqura Deepwater Port operated by Transnet Port Terminals. The CIDZ is part of a national strategy aimed at amongst others: 1. Promoting the competitiveness of South African enterprises through leveraging investment in export-oriented manufacturing industries and promoting the competitiveness of South African firms through the export of value-added manufactured products. 2. Attracting advanced foreign production and technology through Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) The Coega Development Corporation as a holder of an IDZ Operator Permit is establishing a Customs Control Area (CCA) to ensure efficient and expedited customs administration which is a key feature of the IDZ Programme in South Africa and globally. Within the CCA, there is a grouping of different incentives and services offered by SARS and DTI for investors in order to achieve synergies and optimization through shared business services and infrastructure. The CCA concept will be available to Investors who want to benefit from specific incentives within the program. All movement of cargo is subject to Customs Control to and from the CCA, the CCA will be a highly secured area with tracking and tracing of cargo movements. The CCA program consists of a customs compliance framework which includes: • CCA registration and Accreditation status • CCA logistic provider • CCA security arrangements • CCA Operations : (Audits and Single Surety Bond to ensure compliance to SARS Customs rules and regulations,


PROFILE

Incentives and benefits available within the CIDZ will be negotiated with each investor based on the business case. The following cash flow incentives are specifically designed for CCA investors: No Import Duties and VAT payable on: • Any imported goods for storage within the CCAE premises within the CCA • Imported raw material for manufacture in the CCA • Imported Capital equipment used in CCA • Any services rendered in the CCA. • Land supplied to a Customs Control Area Enterprise (CCAE) in the CCA for letting or any other agreement. • Electricity / water supplied to entities in CCA. There will be simplified Customs procedures where accredited investors will receive the benefit of fast truck cargo from the Port to CCAE premises. Capital equipment such as plant and machinery will be allowed to follow a stage consignment procedure to make the transition to the new premises a breeze. The CIDZ will be able to offer investors a ONE STOP SHOP SHARED INVESTOR SERVICES CENTRE for the completion and submission of all the necessary business applications, queries, fault logging and consultation business matters such as Customs and VAT to name one example. Contact details

Tel: +27 41 403 0400 Fax: +27 41 403 0401 www.coega.co.za


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GREEN SUPPLY CHAINS – A NEW PRIORITY CounCil for for sCientifiC and FOR SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGERS industrial researCh

forE ward

Hans W Ittmann Executive Director Built Environment CSIR

The built environment and infrastructure are significant drivers of socio-economic development. There are, however, significant challenges in terms of science, engineering and technology as well as human capital development that need to be met to optimise the impact from this investment. In addition, the built environment in South Africa is severely impacted by, among other factors, urbanisation, a housing shortage, the lack of public transport, and congestion on our roads.

INTRODUCTION

The Built Environment Unit of the CSIR addresses these challenges, in support of the mandate of the CSIR, through its growing SET base with specific emphasis on broad focus areas that include sustainable human settlements; cement and bitumen replacements; advanced road building materials; the use of marginal materials and advanced materials; advanced methods for the optimisation of infrastructure planning, design, construction, and operation (including infrastructure investment decision support); road, airport and port design; green logistics and supply chain management; public transport and traffic management; minimising energy use in transport; and intelligent systems including intelligent transport systems (ITS).

Logistics, or supply chain management, describes the transport, storage and handling of products Hans Ittmann

as they move along the chain from the raw material source, through the production their Executivesystem Director: Builtto Environment CSIR

final point of sale or consumption. These activities have come to be regarded as a key determinant of business performance over and above the fact that these activities are also fundamental to economic development and social well-being. Maximising profitability has been the overriding objective in many It is against this background that the CSIR Built Environment Unit is pleased to endorse this publication: eight of the ten

cases. However, over the past 10 to 15 years environmental concerns have put companies under more Chapters are written by senior CSIR researchers enabling the CSIR to share its knowledge with the broader South

transport community impact and thereby contribute to logistics operations. The and more pressure to address and reduce theAfrican environmental of their developing and finding solutions for the transportation sector in South Africa. It is our hope that this Handbook adverse effects of distributing goods are diverse, impairing airsolutions quality, generating noise and will goincluding some way in identifying and unpacking for these challenges.

vibration, causing accidents and contributing significantly to global warming. The focus on logistics and supply chain management and its impact on climate change has increased mainly because of the realisation that global warming presents a much greater and more immediate threat than previously thought. Freight transport is estimated to contribute roughly 8% of energy-related CO2 emissions worldwide (Kahn Ribeiro and Kobayashi, 2007). However, making logistics ‘sustainable’ in the longer term will involve more than just cutting carbon emissions. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

This article is not a comprehensive overview of green logistics (the terms green logistics and green supply chains are used interchangeably). What it endeavours to do, is to sensitise, in a very summarised way, those involved in logistics and supply chain management to the importance of green logistics and to highlight where this originated; what the main issues presently are; and what the importance will be in future. A definition is given of green logistics in the next section followed by the historical developments around green logistics. We point out the importance of assessing environmental effects and then discuss various efforts to attain environmental sustainability.

WHAT IS GREEN LOGISTICS? Concerns about the future of mankind came to the fore very strongly in a report published by the United Nations in 1987. In the report the word sustainability was defined. This word is derived from the Latin sustinere (tenere, to hold; sus, up). Dictionaries provide many meanings for sustain, the main ones being to ‘maintain’, ‘support’, or ‘endure’. However, since the United Nations report, sustainability THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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9


14th April 2011 – Cape Town The Waste in Business Seminar is an event for Cape Town’s business community, designed to inform businesses how to go beyond compliance with the latest Waste by-laws and how to benefit financially from doing so.

Top industry speakers Exhibition of products and services Case study based workshops Networking function • Broad coalition of government agencies • Waste services companies • Consultants • Vendors/suppliers • Researchers • Consulting companies • Engineers and professionals • Local and central governmental managers • Architects • Financial sector • Health and safety • Manufacturers • Industrial designers • Innovators and SMME’s • Energy sector • Hospitality industry • Chemical Institutes • Training and regulatory authorities • Leading trade organisations • Scientific foundations • Property Managers


CHAPTER 11: GREEN SUPPLY CHAINS – A NEW PRIORITY FOR SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGERS

has been used more in the sense of human sustainability on planet Earth and this has resulted in the most widely quoted definition of sustainability and sustainable development, namely that of the Brundtland Commission (1987) of the UN: “sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” As a key business performance activity, logisticians and supply chain managers could no longer ignore the importance of sustainability in logistics. Profitability and sustainability don’t have to be mutually exclusive. By considering environmental issues when setting financial objectives for a supply chain network, it is possible to successfully balance the trade-offs between them. Logistics is the integrated management of all the activities required to move products through the supply chain. For a typical product this supply chain extends from a raw material source through the production and distribution system to the point of consumption and the associated reverse logistics. The logistical activities comprise freight transport, storage, inventory management, materials handling and all the related information processing. The main objective of logistics is to coordinate these activities in a way that meets customer requirements at minimum cost. In the past this cost has been defined in purely monetary terms. As concern for the environment rises, companies must take account of the external costs of logistics associated mainly with climate change, air pollution, noise, vibration and accidents. Green logistics are therefore defined as efforts to examining ways of reducing these externalities and achieving a more sustainable balance between economic, environmental and social objectives, (see Figure 11.1). All

Figure 11.1: Green Logistics Framework (www.greenlogistics.org) THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

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the efforts in the green logistics arena are therefore focussed on contributing towards, and ensuring, sustainability.

EVOLVING PERSPECTIVES IN GREEN LOGISTICS Although the focus on green logistics seems to be a recent phenomena, there has been different research initiatives conducted over the past 40 years which attempted to address the environmental concerns. McKinnon (2010) discusses these under the following five headings:

REDUCING FREIGHT TRANSPORT EXTERNALITIES During the 1970s the focus, especially in the UK, was on ‘lorries’ that were much noisier and more polluting than is the case today. There was substantial growth of freight by road and efforts were put in place to rationalise this freight, tightening regulations on emission levels, etc. In this way there was a gradual reduction in transport externalities.

CITY LOGISTICS Urban freight transport plays a vital role in the sustainable development of cities. There are, however, many challenges facing urban freight transport, including high levels of traffic congestion, environmental impacts, high energy usage and labour problems. This has led to research in what is now called city logistics, a process to optimise urban logistics within all the difficult conditions that impact urban freight movements (Taniguchi et al, 2001). The work in this area has led to modelling of city logistics, demand and supply models, impact models, vehicle routing and scheduling, etc. All of these efforts contributed to addressing the environmental issues.

REVERSE LOGISTICS In a world of limited resources, it becomes critical that products such as ‘white goods’ (washing tubs, stoves, fridges, etc.) are recovered. This has led to the extension of logistics to include reverse logistics, which incorporates the flow of goods in both directions. This development has a strong element of waste management, and sustainable development. Reverse logistics is defined as “the process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient, effective inbound flow and storage of secondary goods and related information opposite to the traditional supply chain direction for the purpose of recovering value or proper disposal” (Fleischman, 2001). In traditional ‘forward’ logistics, quantitative models have proved to be powerful supporting tools for these types of decisions. Hand in hand with reverse logistics go closed-loop supply chains (Dekker et al, 2004 and Stock, 1999). Closed-loop supply chains have traditional forward supply chain activities and a set of additional activities required for the reverse supply chain. For example, mobile phone models change regularly.

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The older models need to be recovered, sent back, refurbished, recycled and redistributed. These additional activities include (Daniel et al, 2003): • Product acquisition – the activities required to obtain the products from the end-users; • Reverse logistics – the activities required to move the products from the points of use to a point(s) of disposition; • Test, sort and disposition – the activities to determine the condition of the products, and the most economically attractive reuse option; • Refurbish – the activities required to execute the most economically attractive option: direct reuse, repair, remanufacture, recycle, disposal; and • Distribution and marketing – the activities required to create and exploit markets for refurbished goods and distribution. The major difference between closed-loop supply chains and traditional forward supply chains is that for a forward supply chain, the customer is at the end of the processes, and for a closed-loop supply chain, there is value to be recovered from the customer or end-user. The value to be recovered is significant.

LOGISTICS IN CORPORATE ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES During the 1980s, businesses started, more formally, to formulate environmental strategies based on assessments of their impact on the environment. Standards such as ISO 14000 were introduced and environmental programmes received accreditation. It became clear that in logistics management, economic and environmental objectives are closely aligned and Rao and Holt (2005) found that if they green their supply chains, not only would firms achieve substantial cost savings, but they would also enhance sales, market share and exploit new market opportunities to lead to greater profit margins.

GREEN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT Green supply chain management can be defined as the “alignment and integration of environmental management within supply chain management” (Klassen and Johnson, 2004). There is a clear recognition that the environmental impact of a firm extends beyond its boundaries. In addition, the definition includes product design, all stages of manufacturing and distribution and all aspects of reverse logistics.

GREEN LOGISTICS UPTAKE McKinnon (2010) indicates that although companies promote their green credential through the management of logistics, it is not clear whether this is because of a sincere desire to help the environment as opposed to enhancing public relations. Gilmore (2008) echoes this scepticism 136

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in stating “the corporate support for Green is as much for the potential to sell new products and technologies as it is about saving the planet”. Various surveys have looked at the key drivers for greening of logistics and supply chains (Eyefortransport (2007), Aberdeen Group (2008) and Insight (2008)). Some of these include: • Improving public relations; • Improving customer relations; • Part of their corporate responsibility agenda; • Financial return on investment; • Government compliance; • Desire to be perceived as a leader in sustainability; • Rising cost of energy/fuel; • Gaining competitive advantage/differentiation; • Optimising logistics flow; • Improving corporate image; and • Reducing logistics costs. Clearly, a whole diverse range of drivers, not always focussed on the greening issue.

MEASURING AND ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS As indicated previously, logistics is responsible for various externalities including air pollution, congestion, accidents, noise, etc. The main emphasis currently is on greenhouse gas because of climate change. The question then is how to measure or assess the impact of these. Over the past number of years several of these have been measured and management standards have been introduced. For example, emission standards for heavy-duty diesel engines, known as EURO emission standards, have been developed with enforcement dates (see Table 11.1). By adopting these standards companies with heavy-duty vehicles can make a significant impact.

Governments have introduced reduction targets for carbon emissions and hand-in-hand with this, guidelines have been published to measure, report and manage the carbon footprints. For example, in the UK, the Carbon Trust (2006) gives a guide for auditing the carbon in the supply chains of newspapers and potato crisps. Internalising the environmental costs for logistics is the logical next step. In the latest State of Logistics SurveyTM for South Africa, Havenga et al (2010) has done this at a national level.

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Tier

Date of

CO

Implementation (carbon

HC

NO

PM

(hydro-carbons) (nitrogen oxides) (particulates)

monoxide) Euro I

1992 (>85kw)

4.5

1.1

8.0

0.36

Euro II

1998

4.0

1.1

7.0

0.15

Euro III

2000

2.1

0.66

5.0

0.10

Euro IV

2005

1.5

0.46

3.5

0.02

Euro V

2008

1.5

0.46

2.0

0.02

Euro VI

2013

1.5

0.13

0.4

0.01

Table 11.1 – Emission standards for heavy-duty diesel engines (g/kWh) (www.nao.org.uk)

MAKING SUPPLY CHAINS ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE Given the pressure around reducing the impact of logistics and supply chain operations on the environment, and specifically on climate change, there are numerous ways of addressing these. A number of these are highlighted: • Re-assessing and restructuring supply chains to incorporate environmental issues and factors; • Transferring freight to greener transport modes. World-wide, the growth in freight has mainly been on roads which are not very green-friendly. There are renewed efforts to move some types of freight from road to rail for example; • Developing greener vehicles, aircraft, ships, etc. Table 11.1 illustrates what is being done with heavyduty diesel vehicles; • Reducing the impact of warehousing, ie improving energy efficiency, etc ; • Improving vehicle utilisation, including optimising the routing of vehicles; • Increasing the fuel efficiency in the road freight sector; and • Initiatives such as city logistics and reverse logistics are aimed at environmental sustainability. There are various case studies that illustrate what can be achieved. A few examples are mentioned here: • Schoeman (2010) reports on a case study in South Africa in the fast moving consumer goods sector to reduce ‘extra (excess) kilometres’ and the effect of that on costs and carbon emissions; • Eroski is a goods distribution company in Spain. Ubeda et al (2010) shows how changes in fleet management were introduced as well as the implementation of a methodology to solve vehicle routing problems with environmental criteria minimisation; and • Whirlpool, a world-wide leader in home appliances, redesigned their supply chains with the aim of conserving energy and reducing air pollution (Cooke, 2008). 138

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CONCLUSIONS A recent article (Melnyk et al, 2010) on the outcome of a five-year research programme, started in 2005, into Supply Chain Management 2010 and Beyond, found that supply chains of tomorrow must deliver varying degrees of six outcomes, namely, cost, responsiveness, security, sustainability, resilience and innovation, depending on key customers’ needs. The cost, responsiveness and resilience outcomes are fairly well known, or at least, have been addressed at length in the literature. Two outcomes, security and sustainability, are relatively new and reconfirm the importance of the drive towards green logistics. Security is possibly on the borderline as far as greening is concerned. Nevertheless it is defined as an outcome that has recently garnered a great deal of attention, with instances of tainted food products from China and tainted generic drugs from India. It implies that the supply chain’s products will not be contaminated. On the other hand, sustainability is defined as ’green’ – environmentally responsible – supply chains that eliminate waste, reduce pollution and contribute in a positive manner to improving the quality of the environment through eco-friendly processes, subassemblies and finished goods. Carbon footprint reduction along the supply chain is one example. According to Melnyk et al (2010) supply chains with the sustainability outcome objective have the following design traits: • Visibility/transparency throughout the supply chain to ensure that all members are aware of threats or opportunities; • Greater emphasis on the Three Ps (product design, process, packaging); • Integrated supply chain planning and management, in recognition that design must begin with resource extraction and end with product disposal/renewal; • Use of broader performance measurement systems and measures (total cost of ownership, triple bottom line); • Extensive supplier prequalification and assessment to ensure that the ‘right’ suppliers are selected and that they understand what is required; • Extensive use of audits and certification standards throughout the supply chain (ISO 14001); and • Introduction of systems for product take-back (reverse logistics) and marketing waste. The above reiterates that green logistics and green supply chains, which are sustainable, are going to be a prerequisite in future. Environmental pressures and concerns around climate change are going to grow and this will increase the emphasis that governments as well as consumers are going to place on this critical aspect. This therefore must become a priority for supply chain managers. They will succeed only if they understand the needs of customers and strive to maintain the alignment between the supply chain’s design and its customers’ changing needs and desires.

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REFERENCES Aberdeen Group, 2008. Building a Green Supply Chain, Aberdeen Group, Boston. Brundtland Commission, 1987. United Nations General Assembly, Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Carbon Trust, 2007. Carbon footprints in the Supply Chain, Carbon Trust, London. Cooke, JA.,2008. The greening of Whirlpool’s supply chain, CSCMP’s Supply Chain Quarterly, Q2/2008, pp47-49. Daniel V, Guide R & Luk N. Van Wassenhove LN.,2003, Business Aspects of Closed-Loop Supply Chains, Carnegie Mellon University Press, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Dekker R, Fleischmann M, Inderfurth K & Van Wassenhove LN.,2004, Reverse Logistics – Quantitative Models for Closed-Loop Supply Chains, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. Eyefortransport, 2007. Green transportation and logistics, available at eyefor transport.com. Fleischmann M., 2001, Quantitative Models for Reverse Logistics, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. Gilmore D.,2008. How real is the green supply chain? Supply Chain Digest, 7 August. Havenga JH, Van Eeden J and Simpson Z.,2010. The State of Logistics in South Africa – Sustainable improvements or continued exposure to risk, 6th State of Logistics SurveyTM, CSIR Report, pp 14-23. Insight, 2008. How mature is the green supply chain, 2008 Supply Chain Monitor, Bearing Point Inc. Kahn Ribeiro, S and Kobayashi, S.,2007. Transport and its infrastructure, in Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 – mitigation of climate change, Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change, Geneva. Klassen RD & Johnson F., 2004. The green supply chain, in Understanding Supply Chains: Concepts, critiques and futures, ed SJ New and R Westbrook, pp 229-251, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Melnyk, S A, Davis E W, Spekman R E & Sandor J.,2010. Outcome-Driven Supply Chains, MITSloan Management Review, Winter 2010, Vol.51, No.2, pp. 33-338. Rao P & Holt D.,2005. Do green supply chains lead to competitiveness and economic performance? International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 25(2), pp 898-916. Schoeman C and Sanchez-Rodriques V.,2010. Green logistics and sustainability, 6th State of Logistics SurveyTM, CSIR Report, pp 45-51. Stock JR, 1999, Development and Implementation of Reverse Logistics Programs, Council of Logistics Management, USA. Taniguchi E, Thompson RG, Yamada T & van Duin R., 2001, City Logistics – network modelling and intelligent transport systems, Elsevier Science ltd, Oxford, UK. Ubeda S, Arcelus F J and Faulin J., 2010. Green logistics at Eroski. A case study, International Journal of Production economics, 2010 (article in press). www.greenlogistics.org, Green Logistics – Research into the sustainability of logistics systems and supply chains, Consortium of UK Universities.

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profile

C-traCk IntroduCes new VehICle Co2 emIssIons monItorIng teChnology Global road transport contributes an estimated 14.6 percent of total Green House Gas emissions via vehicle exhaust fumes. Though significant, this percentage can easily be reduced by simply driving more efficiently, says Mark Rousseau, managing director of international vehicle telematics company, DigiCore Fleet Management & C-track South Africa. “While vehicle manufacturers are busy developing ‘green’ vehicles, action needs to be taken now, particularly by fleet owners.” “Astoundingly, South Africa is the world’s 13th highest emitter of CO2. If South Africa is to remain competitive in the global economy, it will have to begin implementing stringent emission-reduction strategies,” he says. DigiCore recently released a CO2 emissions reporting tool designed to work in conjunction with its vehicle fleet management system, C-track. The Report is a first for South African fleet owners and has already proved a great success in truck and bus fleets in Europe,” adds Rousseau. “Fleet operators looking to gain early-mover advantage on the ‘green’ front now have the perfect tool to not only proactively reduce their CO2 emissions but also to generate reports quantifying their carbon footprint. This will assist them in gaining valuable contracts while receiving tax breaks from SARS.” Deon du Rand, DigiCore’s technical director says: “A vehicle group is created for each category of vehicle, including the make and model. Fuel consumption and emissions values as stipulated by the vehicle manufacturers are then entered into the C-track database. We then enter a CO2 grams-per-litre value, a CO2 grams-per-kilometre (distance) value and a corresponding CO2 grams-per-hour. If we receive fuel consumption figures through the CANbus or through a fuel flow meter, the value according to grams-per-litre is displayed. If we do not receive a fuel consumption reading, we generate a grams-per-kilometre report. For equipment that logs hours rather than distance, we use the grams-per-hour value. The new C-track CO2 Report also boasts a ‘green’ dashboard, which graphically represents CO2 emissions as well as fleet CO2 emissions trends,” says du Rand. With this vital information integrated with C-track’s existing management reporting on fuel consumption, speeding, over-revving, excessive idling and route deviations, fleet operators can quickly identify where CO2 is being unduly emitted and implement corrective measures. “Through ongoing driver training and optimised route scheduling using C-track, fleet owners can ‘go green’ by saving fuel and thereby make a positive contribution to slowing climate change. It’s beyond debate – the future of good business is ‘going green’,” Rousseau concludes. Tel: +27 12 450 2222 E-Mail: info@digicore.co.za www.ctrack.co.za DigiCore: www.digicore.com


PROFILE

CNG GROUP OF COMPANIES consisting of CNG Holdings (Pty) Ltd and associated operating companies CNG Holdings is a company that is committed to promoting the use of natural gas as an alternative energy source for industry and fuel for vehicles. The CNG Group consists of the following operating companies: Virtual Gas Network (Pty) Ltd (VGN) supplies Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) via a Virtual Pipeline速. It is with this innovative modular road transport system that we can safely and economically transport natural gas to customers that require energy in the industrial and commercial sectors, customers wishing to set up internal gas distribution networks and power generation systems (e.g. co & tri-generation projects). Via the Virtual Pipeline速, VGN can supply CNG refueling stations and customers with no direct access to the existing gas pipeline, as an alternative to LPG, diesel, coal, etc. CNG Technology (Pty) Ltd provides turnkey solutions for all CNG equipment requirements. This holistic approach includes the design and supply of equipment such as compressors, boosters, dispensers, storage modules for the various industries and applications. We install and supply the conversion kits and CNG cylinders necessary to convert petrol and LPG vehicles / forklifts to run on CNG. NGV Gas (Pty) Ltd specializes in providing turnkey solutions to all fleet owners who wish to use a proven and eco-friendly energy source that is cleaner and more cost effective than both petrol and LPG powered vehicles. NGV can establish CNG filling stations for both the private and public transport sectors, and through VGN compressed natural gas is supplied

CNG dispenser at Mother Station, Langlaagte, Johannesburg


PROFILE Compression facilities at Mother Station in Langlaagte, South of Johannesburg

via road to the customers’ vehicle filling points. NGV is able to set up compression systems providing CNG to customers that are connected directly to the existing gas pipeline. NGV Gas is jointly working with SANERI (South African National Energy Research Institute) to establish various pilot projects whereby CNG will be utilized as an alternative fuel to diesel and petrol for vehicle operators.

ADVANTAGES OF NATURAL GAS AS AN ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCE

• Cleaner burning and reduced emissions and consistent quality/energy content • Source of cheaper energy: consumers are only charged for fuel used, no petroleum linked pricing fluctuations and access to carbon credits. • Reduced health and safety risks: natural gas less dense than air, reduced risk of accumulation in confined spaces, CNG retain equipment ownership and servicing responsibilities and MHI risk assessments. • Security of supply, significant reduction in risk of fuel thefts (esp. petrol, diesel). CNG can be used in various applications, namely: • Fuel for buses, trucks, forklifts, motor vehicles and other fleet applications • Heating and cooling • Power generation (e.g. co & tri-generation projects) • Industrial, commercial and domestic consumption • Other applications that need a fuel source. Contact us Tel: 0860 116 917 Fax: 086 550 2008 Web: www.cngholdings.co.za email: sales@cngholdings.co.za Or alternatively contact Stephen Rothman on 082 905 6666 We would be willing to arrange a meeting, at your convenience, where we could provide you with the full spectrum of services available from CNG Group of Companies.


Johan Stander Rail Business Leader, South Africa PROFESSIONAL PROJECT PROFILE t: +27 (0)11 218 7879 m: +27 (0)82 520 4339 e: johan.stander@arup.com

ape a better world

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SUSTAINABLE RAILWAYS railways for the future www.arup.com/rail FOR THE FUTURE

l is one that addresses the challenges of today. At Arup we believe in world, and therefore wethat areaddresses at the forefront ofofdeveloping solutions The future of rail is one the challenges today. At Arup we believe in that a betterfor world, therefore we are atchallenges the forefront oflike developing solutions that that areshaping equipped theand future. Global climate change, deliver railways that are equipped for the future. Global challenges like climate change, ces caused by depleting stocks of fossil fuels and continual population rising energy prices caused by depleting stocks of fossil fuels and continual population set to double by 2025 significant impact on on thethedesign and growth which is set tohave doubleall by had 2025 have all had significant impact design and the operation of railways across the globe. railways across the globe. Our Approach

thought leadership brings together a multidisciplinary approach of exceptional oachOur technical, social, environmental, economic and business expertise to the design of

railways; including railway infrastructure, railway city termini, commuter dership sustainable brings together a multidisciplinary approach of exceptional stations, and transport interchanges subway systems to create sustainable transport , environmental, economic and business expertise to the design of solutions for tomorrow. ways; including railway infrastructure, railway city termini, commuter Our Projects nsport interchanges systems to create sustainable transport We have been thesubway driving force behind many of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most innovative projects, such as the independent certification for the Gautrain in South Africa, the sustainable design of morrow.

the Second Avenue Subway in New York, the redevelopment of the St Pancras Station in London and the use of natural gas fire energy that generates 45% of Beijing South Railway Stationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s electricity needs and the Sunny Bay Station in Honk Kong e driving force which uses behind a third of the energy typically used for stations ld's most innovativeof its size.

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the independent For more information please contact: the Gautrain in South Johan Stander inable design of the Second Rail Business Leader, South Africa in NewT:York, 011 218the 7879 M: 082 520 of the St Pancras4339 Station in E: johan.stander@arup.com use of natural gas fire Web:of www.arup.com/rail rates 45% Beijing South s electricity needs and the Gautrain on in Honk which certifier for the Arup isKong the independent R30bn rapid rail network. e energy typically used for ze. Gautrain Arup was the independent certifier for the


PROFESSIONAL PROJECT PROFILE

Sunny Bay Station, Hong Kong

This award winning station only requires a third of the energy typically used by stations of the same size. Located on the Tung Chung Line, serving as an interchange station to the Disney Resort Line, the project is an example of Arup’s exemplar approach to sustainable design. The dramatic reduction in energy lies in its integration with the environment. As it is located between the sea and the mountains, wind cooling was utilised and the orientation and curvature of the roof were optimised to create air movement. A further energy saving came with the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) roof fabric, which was selected for its translucent properties reducing the energy required to light the building. It is also self cleaning which reduces costs and risks associated with cleaning the structure. Sunny Bay station’s innovative design has been recognised worldwide with the project receiving three honours: Award for the 2008 Best Green Projects of the Business Week / Architectural Record “Good Design is Good Business,” China Grand Award for the 2007 Green Buildings Awards New Buildings Category, Hong Kong Runner-up for the 2007 Europe BEX Sustainability Award


PROFESSIONAL PROJECT PROFILE

Barloworld Logistics

The Green Trailer

The green transport breakthrough Pressure is mounting on nations and big business to aid in the reduction of carbon emissions. One of the clearest and most urgent areas for change is in commercial transport – one of the biggest single sources, some 13%, of carbon emissions in South African supply chains. Now, leading supply chain management company Barloworld Logistics has unveiled a key initiative, one which brings together lean process thinking with a commitment to innovation and environmental sustainability. Barloworld Logistics has developed a Green Trailer – an interlink taut liner trailer combination which, through some practical innovation, achieves significant reductions in the amount of fuel it uses. The Green Trailer project focuses on sustainability and profitability as two sides of the same coin, and so strives towards operational excellence. A key aspect to the project was the way in which industry specialists and service providers collaborated to achieve a worthy goal. As Francois van Rensburg, Divisional Director, Barloworld Logistics, puts it, “The realisation of the project is an example of collaboration in action. Many people in the supply chain and transport industries talk about the necessity for collaboration, but this is a case in point about what can be achieved when experts in the field work towards a common goal.” Van Rensburg’s point about industry collaboration on the project is a valuable one. Many partners were involved, including the CSIR, Afrit, Aerotruck and MCR Auto Body Works. Continues van Rensburg, “All changes that we made to the green trailer are within the bounds of current legislation. It was also decided that whatever changes we made would be backed by research data and that these changes would be practical in normal operating conditions. The focus of the project was therefore to provide a sustainable road transportation solution for our clients that is both practical and which complies with legislation.” The research for the green trailer was conducted on the N3 between Johannesburg and Durban. The vehicles on this route do a round trip of 1160 km on a dedicated route


PROFESSIONAL PROJECT PROFILE every 24 hours and 98% of the route is on the N3 and N2. This meant that the vehicles maintained a much more constant speed compared to vehicles operating on secondary roads or in urban areas. This also meant that the effects of wind resistance were higher than on any other route. Initial research in the UK revealed that a fuel saving of 20.4% could be achieved by a curtainsider teardrop rigid travelling at a constant speed of 80 km/h. A saving of 10.1% could be achieved by a curtainsider semi-trailer which was travelling at 63 km/h. The initial simulations based on the green trailer research have shown that once all these changes were made there was a 35% reduction in the total drag when travelling at a constant speed between 70 and 80 km/h.

‘Significant savings – and environmental benefits – can be achieved with existing fleets.’ Comments van Rensburg, “Our expected reduction in fuel consumption on the Green Trailer Project for the next six months will be between 6 and 8%. This shows that significant savings – and environmental benefits - can be achieved with existing transport fleets and that moving forward with new technology is critically important.” Concludes van Rensburg “Global warming is continuing, despite the recession. The industry as a whole, and especially the freight transport industry, needs to have a look at how they can improve their carbon footprints and assist their clients in achieving their reduction targets. Businesses that move early to develop robust commercially-focused carbon strategies will gain real competitive advantage and market share in the new global economy.”

Contact Details Kate Stubbs: 011 445-1600 www.barloworld-logistics.com .


PROFESSIONAL PROJECT PROFILE

Blue IQ

A number of projects have been completed and handed over to the appropriate sectors of government, including the Department of Economic Development (DED) of Gauteng and relevant local government structures. Three of Blue IQ’s new initiated projects include;

Freight Logistic Hubs (FLH)

• With around 70-80% of freight currently being transported via road networks, there exist significant opportunities for developing a rail-based transport system. The FLH will create a system of freight routes, road and rail, as well as freight hubs, servicing the Provincial City Core. • This allows much higher efficiencies, both for the users of freight, as well as other transport users thereby reducing congestion along roads. • 3 Freight Hubs are proposed, ensuring a ring of logistic capacity around the Province. These Hubs will also likely be specialised, in order to again maximise efficiency, potential specialisations include Cold Storage, Manufacturing, Fresh Produce, and others. • The FLH intends to stimulate economic growth and regional development by supporting the movement of goods and services. In addition, the projected increase in freight demand will require additional capacity, in order to remain relevant. It will assist transport providers and logistics experts with the planning of freight logistics and supply chain solutions, as well as the implementation thereof. • The intended outcome of the project is to increase productivity in the province and reduce the cost of doing business, thus making industries in Gauteng more globally competitive.

Aerotropolis

• Located around one of the Province’s greatest assets, OR Tambo International Airport, an Aerotropolis is a new type of urban form comprising aviation-intensive businesses; • The ORTIA Aerotropolis will attract industries related to time-sensitive manufacturing,


PROFESSIONAL PROJECT PROFILE

• •

e-commerce fulfillment, telecommunication and logistics, hotels, retail outlets, entertainment complexes and offices for business people who travel frequently; It will comprise of clusters of business parks, logistics parks, industrial parks, distribution centers, information technology complexes and wholesalers who are located around the airport and along transportation corridors, serving the airport; Aerotropoli, also typically include Free Trade Zones (FTZs) providing certain incentives for businesses located within this business space; By leveraging on the largest and busiest airport within Africa, the Aerotropolis will provide a new commercial hub for the Gauteng Province, and support both local and international trade through Free Trade Zones and the increased efficiencies related to clustering Investment opportunities exist for developers in the development of trade and exhibition space, hotels and leisure, industrial and office parks.

Centurion Aerospace Village (CAV)

• The CAV is a cluster supporting tier-level component manufacturers in the Aerospace Industry. CAV is still in its early development stage, but have already raised the interest of existing Tier 1 and 2 entities. • The CAV has been closely modelled on the success of the Automotive Supplier Park, and uses much of the same design methodology in ensuring logistic efficiencies, knowledge sharing, and manufacturing excellence. • CAV intends to establish itself as the front-runner in aerospace manufacturing within Africa. In addition, long-term plans include restoring South Africa to its OEM status (e.g. for light and small commercial aircraft), as well as developing a solid component manufacturing industry targeting the larger OEMs such as Boeing and Lockheed. • As the CAV is still in infant stage and investment opportunities are significant in establishing new manufacturing facilities, especially related to companies that are involved in aerospace development and the manufacturing of components For further information on any of the projects contact Erika Naude, Group Executive: Strategy & Programs at Blue IQ on 011 689 1600 or email her on erikan@blueiq.co.za


PROFESSIONAL PROJECT PROFILE

Much Asphalt ASPHALT SUPPLY TO Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project By the end of October 2010 Much Asphalt had supplied more than 1,1 million tonnes of road surfacing material to SANRAL’s Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project (GFIP) within 30 months. The total 1,4 million tonnes ordered from Much Asphalt for Gauteng’s rehabilitated freeway network is valued at more than R1-billion. Delivering the asphalt needs of 15 joint venture contractors on various GFIP sites within deadline and to specification required significant investments in people, plant capacity and quality control systems. Much Asphalt also had to overcome various challenges, including continuity of raw materials supply, delivery logistics, the potential for bad weather and contractual issues requiring escalated demand, the risk of product problems, mixing plant availability, and continuity of supply to other clients. The product was manufactured at seven Much Asphalt plants in Gauteng and surrounds, with a total 1 100 tonne per hour capacity. The company assembled a steering committee to lead the GFIP project, with dedicated contract managers given responsibility for all shifts. A logistics manager was appointed to focus exclusively on deliveries from Much Asphalt’s plants to the GFIP sites. During peak periods, daily meetings were held with the contractors and consulting engineers on progress and quality. Constant contact was also maintained with the refineries to manage bitumen supply and with sand and aggregate, fuel and binder suppliers, as raw materials had to be replaced on a daily basis. The normal two daily shifts were increased to three at all seven plants, two production shifts and a plant maintenance shift. This was critical to minimise plant breakdowns and ensure consistent product quality.

Much Asphalt’s surfacing products on the N1 South, part of the GFIP.


PROFESSIONAL PROJECT PROFILE

The new warm mix asphalt plant in Benoni.

Much Asphalt’s process control laboratories went into overdrive from day one in quality testing of both raw materials and finished products. It has been difficult to keep up with the quality of incoming aggregates due to the sheer volumes, but inter-laboratory comparisons and constant calibration helped to ensure consistency.

Warm mix asphalt

A new 300 tonne per hour warm mix asphalt plant commissioned at Much Asphalt’s Benoni facility in April has assisted in meeting the GFIP’s requirements, while at the same time ushering in a new era of “green” asphalt production in South Africa. The new plant enables the company to substantially decrease its carbon footprint and provides several additional benefits in both asphalt production and paving. The use of foam technology allows for a significant reduction in the temperature at which the material is mixed and placed on the road, cutting fuel consumption as well as emissions, fumes and odours at the plant. Maintaining a low viscosity at lower temperatures allows the mix to flow freely through storage, transfer and placement equipment and makes it easier to work by hand. Higher recycled asphalt content can be added to a conventional asphalt mix without excessive emissions or poor workability, contributing to the environmental benefits of WMA. CONTACT DETAILS MUCH ASPHALT Tel: +27 21 900-4400 Fax: +27 21 900-4468 E-mail: info@muchasphalt.co.za Web: www.muchasphalt.co.za Much Asphalt is a Level 3 BBBEE Contributor


PROFILE

We don’t just build train stations, we build communities. At Intersite we see the bigger picture. Intersite has developed a corporate real estate management model based upon world best practice to provide PRASA with Corporate Real Estate Solutions capability. Adoption of the Corporate Real Estate Solutions business model necessitates a review of Intersite’s operating structures. It is founded on the four pillars of corporate real estate management, namely, strategy and business development, real estate asset management, project and property management and facilities and estate management.

The Corporate Real Estate Solutions approach to property development delivery over the medium to long term represents an ambitious but achievable plan to reposition Intersite, while simultaneously building a strong brand within the property industry. Adoption of Corporate Real Estate Solutions business model is a prerequisite to enable the leverage of the PRASA asset and reputation base. Intersite will focus on the realisation of strategic objectives that have been set by the board. Operational restructuring in line with the Corporate Real Estate management practices; • National Station Improvement Programme; • National Station Upgrade Programme; • Transit Oriented Developments; • Year-on-year Rental Revenue Increases; • Year-on-year Space Growth; • National Station Precinct Planning Programme

Contact Details

Telephone number: +27 11 773 1700


Index of Advertisers Company

Page

Analista Modelling Systems

38

Arup

8, 144 - 145

Barloworld Logistics

146- 147

Blue IQ

50, 148- 149

C Track

141

CNG Holdings

142- 143

Coega

128-129

Commuter Transport Engineering

67

Development Bank of South Africa

12

Dr Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality

46-47

eLogics

126

Freewold Automotive Coatings

Inside Front Cover

Grundfos

59

Imperial Logistics

Inside Back Cover

Industrial Development Corporation (IDC)

2-3

Intersite Property Management

32-33, 152

Khuthele Projects

30-31

MTU

24, 25

Much Ashphalt

150- 151

Plasser

87

Pulsit Electronics

118

R & H Railway Consultants

78-79

Railco

88-89

Rose Foundation

104-105, 134

Royal Gold Shipping Agency

102-103

Sika South Africa

40

Sustainable Transport and Mobility Conference & Expo 2011

68-69

The Sustainability Series Handbook

18

The Waste in Business Seminar

132

TIDASA

4, 45

Toyota

114-115, Outside Back Cover

Transnet

10

University of Johannesburg

6

Vela VKE Engineering Consultants

70-71 THE SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND MOBILITY HANDBOOK

153


Forward thinking is thinking green Leading the green logistics evolution ultimately resulting in unlocking significant green (CO2 reduction) and gold (cost savings) benefits through the reduction of wastage in the supply chain. • Reducing diesel consumption by procuring state of the art truck engines incorporating the latest ‘green’ technologies • Adding additives to diesel to reduce both consumption and CO2 emissions • Deploying advanced fuel management systems • Shifting to ‘green’ suppliers and creating partnerships with experts and like-minded organisations • Leveraging technology to redesign distribution networks to shorten distances travelled and consolidate shipments • Altering SLAs by adding carbon to the traditional measurements of cost, quality and service • Converting from road to rail where practically possible • Developing employees to demonstrate the right behaviour, e.g. driver training initiatives

Winner of BEST MANAGED COMPANY 2010 IMPERIAL Logistics is recognised for management excellence and outstanding performance with regards to people, planet, profit and corporate governance, and significant contribution to the broader southern African business community.


IMPERIAL Logistics is leading the green evolution in end-to-end logistics and supply chain management through process efficiency, people capability and alignment, and technology enablement. We deliver cost effective growth for customers, while staying true to a vision that is focused on the sustainability of our planet and people. In other words, we move industry, business and brands through sustainability focused innovation, inspiration and foresight. When it comes to greening the supply chain, doing nothing is not an option. Sustainability is critical to being a responsible corporate citizen. Across our global footprint, we implement award winning initiatives that reduce both customers’ and our own carbon footprint. We set the best practice benchmark in sustainability, optimising business-case driven logistics services – from transportation solutions, to warehousing and distribution. IMPERIAL Logistics aims to achieve responsible growth in collaboration with customers. We go for green by shortening distances travelled through the redesign of distribution networks and consolidation of shipments. By leveraging mode changes, we use rail instead of road for rail centric consignments. In fact, we regularly redesign products to reduce energy consumption, CO₂ emissions and waste. Our green skills are implemented from the inside, out. We operate an advanced oil management system that extends oil changes to six months, resulting in 83% less oil going off site. We use bio-degradable fuels, and pursue product and water recycling. In partnership with Mercedes-Benz SA, IMPERIAL Logistics is introducing the country’s first Euro V vehicles. In addition, our fleet preference is for vehicles that generate fuel savings and reduce carbon emissions, such as Daimler Chrysler’s “Energy for the Future” initiative products. The ultimate logistics challenge is to find ways in which ‘green’ reduces costs, nurtures the environment and increases revenues. At IMPERIAL Logistics, our people tackle this challenge daily, delivering results for future generations. ‘‘Fast moving, forward thinking” describes the IMPERIAL Logistics Group’s vision to succeed – to be a leading, integrated logistics and supply chain management company that operates in the context of a global economy.

Tel: +27 11 821 5500 Fax: +27 11 873 2016 Email: abrieds@il.co.za

Leading the green logistics evolution


The Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook Volume 2  

The Sustainable Transport and Mobility Handbook Volume 2

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