Cyclone Kenneth Satellite taken on 11 April, 2019
Issue 34 R29.00 incl VAT 9 772410 645003
KZN Public Works Preparing for Climate Impacts New Tech: Carbon Reduction Buildings: Interiors Rating Tool 11025
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Water: Partnerships for Progress Energy: SAâ€™s Industrial Energy Efficiency Project 2019/05/09 3:24 PM
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GEJ 34.indd 1
and therefore increases in their energy demands, would be well advised to consider how energy storage could benefit their operations. 2019/05/09 3:24 PM
Editor’s Note 2 GEJ 34.indd 2
EDITOR: Melissa Baird CONTRIBUTORS: Thea Buckle WWF-SA Dolly Mafa Jane Malony Allesandra Pardini Kiru Naidoo PRODUCTION MANAGER: Alexis Knipe LAYOUT AND DESIGN: CDC Design PROJECT MANAGER: Munya Jani SALES: Vania Reyneke Annie Peters Danielle Solomons Thandiswa Mbijane PRINTING: FA Print DISTRIBUTION: Edward MacDonald WEB: www.alive2green.com/ publications/green-economy-journal/ Circulation enquiries: email@example.com GENERAL ENQUIRIES: firstname.lastname@example.org ADVERTISING ENQUIRIES: email@example.com EDITORIAL PROPOSALS: firstname.lastname@example.org PUBLISHER: Gordon Brown, Alive2Green Projects PHYSICAL ADDRESS: 1st Floor Cape Media House 28 Main Road Rondebosch 7700 Cape Town TEL: 021 447 4733 FAX: 086 694 7443 REG NUMBER: 2005/003854/07 VAT Number: 4750243448 ISSN NUMBER: 2410-6453 PUBLICATION DATE: May 2019
Cyclone Kenneth Satellite taken on 11 April, 2019
Green Economy Journal is audited by ABC
Issue 34 R29.00 incl VAT
KZN Public Works Preparing for Climate Impacts New Tech: Carbon Reduction Buildings: Interiors Rating Tool 11025
9 772410 645003
The recent, devastating storms that knocked India, Mozambique and the province of KZN has proven how interconnected the planet’s systems are and how the built environment can make the difference between life or death. In this edition we focus on the initiatives that are being put in to place in KZN although the recovery period is going to take time. The focus is on the built environment and how the Department of Public Works in KZN plans to secure a better future for their region by encouraging all new build and retrofitting to adhere to sustainable principals. In the areas requiring entire renovation, these methods will prove to be showcases of future thinking by the leaders in the provincial government and their commitments to a better future. The staggering amount of waste that washed up onto the beaches in Durban prove how vital it is to look after the health of the river systems and for effective waste management strategies to be implemented; the water ways are not waste pits and their pollution leads to myriad social and environmental dysfunction the developing economy can ill afford. There is a very exciting technology to be trialled in South Africa that could change the landscape of the built environment. The technology turns plastic waste into building bricks, and we will review its techniques and applications in the next edition of Green Economy Journal. Sustainability Week is an event on the June calendar not to miss and once again it will be hosted by the City of Tshwane – a municipality that has taken its commitments to environmental, social and green growth endeavours to heart. This annual event is a must attend conference that brings together thought leaders and innovators who are working for the betterment of South Africa and implementing ideas and systems that benefit people, the environment and the economy. ICLEI reports on initiatives that are in action in the City of Johannesburg and we look at some practical uses for renewable wood sources. Copper is also under the spotlight as it has a role to play in energy transmission and is a resource that is not being recycled to its best effect. Carbon tax comes in to play this June too and there will be a lot more consideration given to how to reduce emissions; 40% of emissions globally come from the building sector, so if this waste to building brick technology gets the full go ahead, South Africa’s detritus may yet be the foundation blocks for the infrastructure of the future. How the vote goes in this election is also critical to our future and one can only hope that by the time you read this, the elections were fair, and we have a leader who will hold accountable those who have squandered the nation’s infrastructure funds. Without a clear holding to account of those responsible we will remain on shaky, polluted ground.
Water: Partnerships for Progress Energy: SA’s Industrial Energy Efficiency Project
Cover image: Courtesy of NASA
All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or in any form without the prior written permission of the Publisher. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the Publisher or the Editor. All editorial and advertising contributions are accepted on the understanding that the contributor either owns or has obtained all necessary copyrights and permissions. The Publisher does not endorse any claims made in the publication by or on behalf of any organisations or products. Please address any concerns in this regard to the Editor. The Green Economy Journal is printed on Hi-Q Titan plus paper, manufactured by Evergreen Hansol, a leading afforestation member acknowledged by FOA. Hi-Q has Chain of Custody certification, is totally chlorine free, and is PEFC, ISO 14001, ISO 9001 accredited. This paper is FSC certified.
2019/05/09 3:24 PM
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News and updates Investing Capital for Sustainable Impact event, architecture winner, J Bay’s plastic road, and carbon storage for SA, re-usable straws and waterless urinals.
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The Department of Public Works KwaZulu-Natal: Survival tactics, regeneration and building foundations for the future
Exploring how South Africa’s petroleum giant, Total is generating power for its services stations
Building partnerships will fortify the future of our water resources
Showcasing the successes of energy reduction across major industries is achieved by implementing the ISO 50001 standard
African Capital Cities Mayors will gather in June, in Tshwane, to discuss routes to resilient futures
ICLEI reports on the City of Johannesburg’s initiatives towards building a resilient future and its claim to be a city nature
The interior is as much of a focus as the exterior, how using the GBCSA’s interior ratings tool helps create happier surroundings
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How new technologies are helping to lower the impacts of energy and exploring the potential of fuel cell batteries to create a new industry
Interview with the owner of Tshwane’s rustic Farm Inn, home to various indigenous species, luxurious conference centre and wedding venue
Veolia: leading the way in technology and recycling to promote an economy that is circular and environmentally sound
Pulp & Paper
As a sustainably farmed resource, wood is a renewable that is finding its roots in the bio-economy.
SRK Consulting developing an environmental and social management framework for South Africa
With SA’s high intensity of emissions, should we rather be choosing copper over coal?
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News STRAPHEAD and Updates
► Investing Capital for Sustainable Impact in South Africa, Cape Town Conference 29-30 May Investing Capital for Sustainable Impact in South Africa takes a deep dive into how Impact Entrepreneurs, Impact Investors, Impact Managers and Impact Enablers are innovating across traditional and alternative assets to allocate capital for social and environmental impact, without compromising financial returns. For more info visit www.investingimpactcapital.co.za or email email@example.com.
▼ ‘rise in the city’ winner announced The winner of the rise in the city international architecture competition for affordable housing in Maseru, Lesotho, was announced at the Alliance Française de Maseru on 8 March. “Creating Spaces”, submitted by Tanmoy Dey, a graduate of Shahjalal University of Science & Technology in Bangladesh, along with his team mates, was selected from among 56 impressive entries from 30 countries. The competition challenged entrants to design a high-quality, sustainable, and energy-efficient home, which is especially important in Lesotho given the country’s very cold winters and hot summers, for less than LSL50 000 ($3 750 USD). The brief also sought designs that could be scaled up to allow for extensions.
Africa’s first plastic road project launched in J’Bay Africa’s first plastic road project was officially launched at the Kouga Municipality, making use of 1.8 tons of non-recyclable plastic per kilometre, it will include a complete reconstruction of Koraal Street in Jeffrey’s Bay. Jeffrey Bay’s Executive Mayor, Horatio Hendricks, says the project gives them the opportunity to start dealing with the huge backlog in road infrastructure. “Poor roads have a devastating impact
on communities. It’s not only a danger to motorists, but it is also bad for the economy as it scares off potential investors and makes it difficult for existing businesses to ply their trade.” Should the trial be successful, Hendricks says that the municipality would like to see a factory being established in Kouga to produce the pellets locally, in order to create more job opportunities. Source: www.algoafm.co.za
Following a community design workshop with Dey and lowincome families and the local construction sector, the winning design will be modified and built by the Lesotho Housing and Land Development Corporation. The prototype will be used to gauge the market response as to whether it is a viable solution to the current shortage of affordable housing in Lesotho. Source: Media Savvy on behalf of rise in the city
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News STRAPHEAD and Updates
▼ Introducing the ForEVA straw In an effort to reduce plastic use, stainless steel straws are being seen in drinks around the globe. The ForEva straw, available in packs of four, is the first of its kind to be commercially available in South Africa. Hygienic, re-usable, classy and an all-round better choice, the ForEVA straw provides the ultimate finishing touch to cocktails, smoothies and even specialty teas and coffees and milkshakes.
The carbon capture and storage process.
▲ SA ready to store carbon emissions Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) – the capture of CO₂ emissions from large sources such as coal power generation and industry (iron/steel/cement) and storage in deep underground rock formations – is gaining traction as a safe and effective method of CO₂ containment. With 21 fully operational CCS sites around the world, particularly in Norway (global leader), US, Canada, UAE, Australia, Algeria and China; South Africa is the leading developing country in CCS and has made good strides in research through the SA Centre for Carbon Capture and Storage (SACCCS).
Surridge, head of SACCCS. “The priority now is intensive stakeholder engagement to ensure that South Africans understand the risks that come with climate change and the value of CCS. We are taking the opportunity to share knowledge and encourage participation in these efforts to ensure a better future.”
Packaged with a cleaning brush, the straw has numerous other advantages in addition to being ecologically kind, including the fact that it is safe for children, BPA free, retains the drink temperature for longer, is perfect for travel and, with appropriate care, can last forever! ForEva straws are available through a select range of retailers; check out their website to find out more: www.forevastraws.co.za Source: www.forevastraws.co.za
“A potential site has been identified in northern KwaZulu-Natal that offers ideal geological structures for CCS and has been proposed for the pilot project, says Dr Tony Source: Litha Communications, on behalf of South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI).
◄ URIMAT – The latest innovation in waterless cleaning technology Urimat is a leading provider of waterless cleaning technology, and the addition of the Urimat-CS (cleaning system) introduces unique, patented technology which not only makes urinal operation more reliable, but also more cost effective, with significantly less manual cleaning required. With just a little pressure, the MB-ActiveTrapCS can be placed in the urinal drain opening, screwed in and is ready for use. The LED display flashes green and signals that the system is ready for operation. The programmable www.alive2green.com/publications/green-economy-journal/
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cleaning intervals start automatically. It is microbiological, preventing the development of unpleasant odours, and works against blockages and protects the drain pipes. Promising maximum efficiency and safety, the Urimat-CS is available for ‘ceramic C2’ and ‘inox’ urinals. The global use of Urimat products (for example with companies like McDonalds), saves hundreds of millions of litres of valuable water each year. Source: Swiss Eco Line South Africa representative, Werner Meiring
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Building a brighter future in KwaZulu-Natal By Kiru Naidoo
The recent floods that have devastated KwaZulu-Natal show how vulnerable the built environment is in being able to handle severe weather events. The initiatives undertaken by the Provincial Department to factor in sustainable development of all new and retro-fitted buildings is testimony to the leadership of the municipality to future fit their region as climate change continues to challenge the concept of “business as usual”.
he Green Building Policy adopted by the Province is a costeffective tool, which integrates all aspects and principles of sustainable infrastructure development and property management and ensures that all KZN provincial buildings, new and existing, owned or leased, are designed or retrofitted to become energy, water and waste efficient. Championed by Public Works, the Policy provides a set of guidelines which also extends to the plant and machinery, equipment and appliances within the buildings.
Compliance with these standards will allow all government-owned and leased buildings to attain performance certificates (energy, water, and waste), which will eventually become mandatory.
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Floods swept KZN in April, 2019
Greenfield Projects - New buildings In KwaZulu-Natal it is mandatory that new building projects comply with the requirements of the National Building Regulation - SANS 10400X, including requirements regarding energy efficiency in new buildings. All projects must comply with the following: • New buildings of CIDB Tender Grade 7 value and above, including PPPs and major renovations for which planning approval is required, shall be designed and/or constructed to achieve, at a minimum, the standards of a 4-star Green Star SA certification, where such Green Star SA rating tool exists. • For leased buildings with a net floor area of over 1 000 m2 as defined in SANS 10400X, at a minimum, a 4-star Green Star SA certification shall be specified where such Green Star SA rating tool exists. • Requirements for eco-labelled materials and products shall be incorporated in the Specification for Construction Works where such eco-labelled materials and products exist.
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Brownfield Projects - Retrofitting
Hon. Ravi Pillay MPL is the MEC for Human Settlements and Public Works in KwaZulu-Natal
• Buildings which are owned, operated or occupied by KZN provincial government and local authorities will be upgraded to comply with indoor environmental quality and comfort aspects of SANS 10400X. • Buildings which are owned by the State and are under the AMAFA heritage registry will also be upgraded without infringing on the heritage integrity of the building. This means special planning consideration will need to be done for these buildings. • Requirements for eco-labelled materials and products shall be incorporated in the Specification for Construction Works where such eco-labelled materials and products exist. • Public Works has developed requirements for green procurement and green leases. • Energy, Water and Waste Management Plans to reduce energy, water and waste, as well as recycling of waste and increasing the purchase of recycled materials, in buildings owned, operated or occupied by KZN provincial government and local authorities are in place.
Commitment to the Green Agenda The commitment includes the following standards across various sustainability elements: Site/Landscape
Limit the disruption to natural environment, flora, fauna and hydrology through careful design, construction, and site restoration.
Reduce the total amount of water usage in buildings and associated landscaping; reduce the portion of water needs supplied by the provincial potable system and install metering devices to monitor water usage.
Energy Reduce energy consumption and associated GHG emissions; reduce the portion of energy supplied by non-renewable sources and install metering devices to monitor energy consumption. The Public Works head office in Pietermaritzburg prides itself in its greened opened spaces and energy and water-saving retrofitting.
Waste Reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills during construction and occupancy, and to increase initiatives that promote the recycling of waste i.e. glass, paper cardboards and tin.
Procurement of materials and products Re-use excess building materials, which are left over from previous construction sites and minimise the usage of new building materials; to increase the application of eco-labelled, renewable, recycled and locally sourced materials and products; to specify materials with eco-friendly embodied energy qualities. Encourage the procurement and use of local materials on site, e.g. clay and timber.
Indoor environment Establish and specify eco-friendly and energy efficient HVAC and lighting systems, and limit chemical emissions from materials used indoors. Building designs to enhance natural ventilation and improve insulation of the building envelope.
Increase awareness Increase awareness through various media and communication outlets/methods. www.alive2green.com/publications/green-economy-journal/
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Employment creation The South African sugar industry has been facing feasibility issues. Many small-scale farmers and unskilled workers in the KwaZulu-Natal rural communities rely on the sugar industry for the livelihood. Turning the surplus sugar cane into biofuels presents an answer to the industry’s challenges. Biofuel production would provide the sugar industry with an opportunity to diversify their revenue streams, (from by-products such as animal feed, fertiliser and glycerine). Rural agriculture development will be enhanced, which in turn will increase job opportunities and improve livelihoods for small-scale farmers. Energy security will also be boosted.
Q&A with Dr Stanley Gichia
– Director for Professional Services in the KwaZulu-Natal
Q: How has the Green Policy been received in the Province? A: The green building agenda has been well received in the province and indeed in the whole country. There has been increased awareness and scaling up of green building projects in the past few years. More and more people now admit and understand that there is a link between recent adverse weather patterns, pollution and climate change. The related increased incidents of load shedding and continuous rise in electricity tariffs has affected every household in South Africa. Q: You hosted the Going Green conference in in 2017. How has that influenced the environmental behaviours of the role-players in the infrastructure industry? A: The conference intensified awareness especially among officials in government departments. This paves the way for smoother implementation of the Green Building Policy. It also promotes behaviour change among the officials, which is a key element towards transition to sustainability in the built environment. The networks which were created during the conference have created
a strong team, which provides leadership for a sustainable built environment. Q: With Public Works being responsible for the overall provincial coordination of the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) in KZN, which job creation elements speak directly to the green agenda? A: The Green Agenda comes with new opportunities, which translate to new job opportunities for skilled and non-skilled workers. The green building agenda advocates for labour intensive construction methods. Q: What are the notable green projects on the agenda for the year ahead? A: All new projects will be required to achieve at least a 4-Star Green Building rating. The King Dinuzulu Hospital Springfield Staff Accommodation Renovation and EMS College projects are targeting 6-star ratings. We are also planning to roll out a retrofit programme for the four Regional Offices.
Inclusive Economic Growth The green economy has been recognised internationally as an area that contributes towards economic growth. It has a niche with increasing potential to support job creation, for example, Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) initiatives to eradicate alien species and/or ecological restoration. Public green economy participation programs such as Working on Waste, Working for Water, and others contribute towards employment generation and skills development in KwaZulu-Natal. KZN green building initiatives seek to create jobs or self-employment that contribute to sustainable livelihoods while also limiting the impact on the environment and dependence on non-renewable resources. Such jobs, referred to as green jobs, must be created through deliberate choice of materials, process and work methods that rely mainly on renewable resources. Examples of infrastructure related elements incorporated in Greenfield projects and Brownfield projects to create green jobs include: • Retro-fitting using green materials • Thermal insulation to reduce energy demand • Solar energy systems • Rain-water harvesting and storage • Water saving devices • Drainage • Waste usage and recycling • Capacitation of small, micro and medium enterprises.
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Left: KZN Public Works Deputy Director-General Thulani Mdadane, Songo Didiza of the Green Building Design Group and Ravi Pillay, KZN MEC for Human Settlements and Public Works in the community garden set up at the Pietermaritzburg head office. The objective is to get staff volunteers to develop food gardens instead of flower gardens. The fresh produce is intended for targeted community projects and creches.
The Public Works district office in Ixopo has a variety of energy saving provisions as well as a roof garden to enhance its aesthetic appeal.
Change commitments The environmental sustainability of KwaZulu-Natal will continue to be challenged as a result of erratic and severe weather conditions and poor land use practices. Greater emphasis is required on conserving and protecting the quality and quantity of finite surface and groundwater resources of the province so that the projected socio-economic development opportunities are reached. If environmental control measures are not respected it gives rise to a situation where there is a growing disregard of these control measures and this has a knock on bad effect for vulnerable communities impacted most heavily by severe weather events. Land degradation does not only result in the loss of valuable soils as a key environmental asset, but also leads to a reduction in livelihood, as well as an increase in sedimentation and therefore reduction in efficiency of the storage capacity of dams. Unsustainable land use practice, particularly in the communal land tenure areas of the Province is exacerbating land degradation and by implication inequality; in that it further devalues the most valuable asset of rural communities: their land. Increasing tensions between competing land uses, as well as increasing demand on land for development, requires an intensified focus on land use planning, management and governance. Climate change commitments emanating from COP21 agreements, bind the Province to stronger obligation to a green growth path and embracing the green economy. www.alive2green.com/publications/green-economy-journal/
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INVESTING IN SUSTAINABLE AND ECO-FRIENDLY
BUSINESS PRACTICES AND INITIATIVES ‘Going green’ is a trend that has been around for a while now. Some might believe that this worldwide push towards a more environmentally friendly way of life. In recent years, though, big business has realised its role to develop cleaner, more sustainable business practices and initiatives. Companies are expected to make a positive contribution to society, through efforts that work towards bettering the communities and the environments in which they operate.
s an eco-conscious organisation, Total South Africa is constantly looking for more sustainable ways to do business and driving sustainability projects that educate the communities in which it operates, about their environments. “Total South Africa is grateful to be part of projects and initiatives that are driving environmental stewardship. It is through long-term partnerships, forged with stakeholders who share our vision and passion for their communities and the environment, that we are able to move from a charitable sphere into one in which a meaningful change and impact can be realised,” says Pierre-Yves Sachet, Total South Africa’s CEO and Managing Director.
Committed to better energy Two years ago, Total launched a programme to equip some 5,000 of its service stations around the globe with solar power by 2021. This in a bid to reduce carbon emissions and cut electricity bills. Through its California-based affiliate, SunPower, the company has since the launch of this programme already supplied high-performing solar systems to a number of service stations worldwide. “As the global population – and its energy requirements – continues to grow, the need for responsible energy consumption, becomes more and more dire. We firmly believe that it is possible and necessary to produce, process and supply affordable energy while meeting the highest Health, Safety and Environment standards,” says Sachet. Total considers a move towards renewable energy one of its priorities. As the fourth-largest oil and gas company in the world, Total is also an integrated player in low-carbon energies and is committed to energy that is affordable, reliable and clean. Total operates three solar farms in the Karoo and is looking to expand its footprint in solar production in South Africa.
Driving nature and environmental conservation In 2018, Total South Africa and SANParks celebrated 60 years of working together to protect and preserve South Africa’s pristine natural beauty. As part of the celebration, Total’s solar project kicked-off with solarising the first two stations in the in the Kruger National Park. In partnership with SANParks, Total has launched a variety of initiatives that have taken conservation beyond the parks’ boundaries into the surrounding communities and, ultimately, to South Africa.. Total sponsors the annual SANParks ‘Keep the Kruger Clean’ Campaign, during which staff members, community members and local school children join forces to participate in a clean-up campaign as well as in the ‘SANParks Walk and Learn on the Wild Side’ Project. www.alive2green.com/publications/green-economy-journal/
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This is a project for children at rural schools, who are studying Tourism in Grades 10 to 12; and involves taking them to the Kruger National Park for one week, to teach them about the importance of conservation.
Supporting sustainable practices Total’s commitment to environmental stewardship filters through to its ‘Startupper of the Year by Total’ Challenge, as well. More than just a business challenge, this competition calls on entrants to demonstrate how their environmentally sustainable projects empower people and contribute to the overall economic well-being of their community. The South African winner of the 2018-2019 ‘Startupper of the Year by Total’ Challenge, Nonhlanhla Phalama, shares Total’s passion for sustainability and her ‘Davinon Hydroponics’ project demonstrates this. Davinon Hydroponics aims to establish 50x30m hydroponics farms in rural schools and orphanages across the country. This sociallyfocused project is based on a model in which 30 percent of all profit is re-invested back into the schools where the hydroponics farms are set up. This, in turn, enables these schools to improve their facilities and the quality of education on offer. This solar-based solution is targeted at rural communities, where there is little or no access to electricity. The re-use of water also minimises water consumption in water-scarce areas. The Davinon Hydroponics project will contribute towards sustainable employment, too, by creating opportunities for low- and semi-skilled individuals to be trained to operate the farms and supply produce to the surrounding communities and beyond.
Celebrating Green Initiatives Total celebrates various green initiatives and a favourite amongst employees is Arbour day. Under the 2018 National Arbour Day theme, “Forests and Sustainable Cities,” Total partnered with Plant Nation. This non-profit organisation aims to promote the creation of functional farmland and to educate the surrounding communities about self-sustainable, high-quality lifestyles that allow them not only to earn a living, but to grow one too. The organisation focuses on municipal and communal land and on working in schools, fields, parks and recreational areas. As a major energy player, Total is committed to contributing towards responsible corporate citizenship by supporting and driving various green projects, initiatives and services. By embedding ‘COMMITTED TO BETTER ENERGY’ in its brand promise, Total has set the course for a sustainable future and established a framework for everything it does.
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Recycle plastic bottles. They are turned into new bottles. It is made into new bottles. This creates employment opportunities, contributes to GDP and saves the environment.
14 BILLION PET bottles collected for recycling
Plastic bottles do not belong in landfill and much less in oceans and rivers, where many end up when not recycled. Here’s what we’ve done since 2004. With you, we can do so much more. Plastic bottles are not trash. Do 1 thing. Recycle.
income opportunities created**
R5.4 BILLION injected into South Africa’s economy * ±1511 Olympic sized swimming pools
3 777 639 m3 of landfill space saved*
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tonnes of CO2 emissions saved
** In 2017
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Plastic cool-drink and water bottles are made from a material called PET, which is very valuable when recycled.
2019/02/153:24 11:17 2019/05/09 PM
Above: Hottentots Holland Nature Reserve, Elgin valley, Western Cape Middle: Banks of the Riviersonderend – a restoration site focusing on removing alien plant species to allow the natural vegetation to flourish and the river to flow, Overberg region of the Western Cape Above right: Gobos River just outside Greyton, Overberg region, Western Cape
Partnerships critical to preventing SA from running dry
A year ago, the phrase ‘Day Zero’ dominated the news and our daily conversations. In the end, Cape Town didn’t run dry, but that is not to say the city’s water problems are over. Other parts of South Africa, too, are facing water challenges, from wastage, pollution and ailing water treatment infrastructure to the implications of climate change and alien vegetation.
he situation is such that the country may run short of 3 000 billion litres of water per year by 2030 should there be no urgent action to rehabilitate and preserve rivers and catchment areas, repair water treatment and sewage infrastructure, roll out water recycling interventions, and protect the 22 water source areas. These water source areas comprise only 8-10% of the landscape and yet these remote high-rainfall areas supply 50% of the water South Africa needs to survive. Partnerships amongst the government, civil society, and the private sector are paramount to managing the resource and this is where the Journey of Water, a collaboration between the WWF-SA and financial services company Sanlam, plays an important role. Founded in 2007, the campaign aims to protect South Africa’s water source areas and safeguard the country’s water security through collective action, education and awareness.
a year. That equals 1.5 trillion to 2.5 trillion litres, which can provide water to Cape Town for 4 288 days based on a current consumption of 583 million litres per day.
Complex problem, complex solutions
Water is our most precious natural resource of all. No one and no business can exist without it. The Journey of Water has managed to successfully influence South Africa’s national water policy because the importance of South Africa’s water source areas has been acknowledged in various official government documents, including the draft Water and Sanitation Master Plan.
A key event on the Journey of Water agenda is a bi-annual three-day hike through one of the water source areas which has the objective of showing why protecting water is everyone’s business. This year, the hike took place in the Boland Mountains, a water source area that encompasses towns like Greyton and Elgin. Included in the event were visits to local sewage works and an indigenous nursery in Genadendal. A 2018 report by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) shows how nationally, invasive alien plants are reducing surface water runoff from 1,500 million to 2,500 million cubic metres www.alive2green.com/publications/green-economy-journal/
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More than what we see The Journey of Water wants people to realise that water travels a long and sometimes difficult journey before making its way to their homes. Making participants aware of their hidden water footprints was another objective because all too often most people see water as something that comes out of a tap, but don’t realise how it gets to the tap, how it was purified and that it is fundamental to everything we do, buy, manufacture and consume.
The business prerogative of protecting water
How much water in:
1 can of coke: 300 litres 1 pair of jeans: 10 000 litres 1 T-shirt: 2 700 litres 1kg of beef: 15 000 litres
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Unveiling New Fruit
Cultivars in Germany
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Africa’s premier science institution, the Agricultural Research Council (ARC), will for the first time, have its own stand at the annual international trade fair for fruit and vegetable marketing, the 2019 Fruit Logistica, in Berlin Germany from 6-8 February to present its new fruit cultivars. Funded by the Department of Trade and Industry (the DTI), the ARC will be part of a South African delegation of fruit producers from across the country who will show case South African produce to international markets. The institution’s stand at the expo presents the ARC with an opportunity to engage with new and non-traditional markets, partners and is an ideal platform to market its newest set of cultivars. Seven different cultivars will be unveiled and are ripe for commercialisation in collaboration with partners. The ARC will also highlight its expertise to produce leading quality material that competes and are highly sought-after globally. The presentation of this new set of fruit cultivars comes on the back of another successful launch last year of the much-enjoyed Joy-Bell table grapes. The launch of these newest fruit cultivars is another feather in the cap of the ARC that is leading the global agricultural response to changing climatic conditions. The cultivars being unveiled in Berlin have been bred in response to different climatic conditions. This is also an opportunity to display South African fruits products and technologies and their ability to withstand harsh climatic conditions. One of the objectives of the ARC is to grow and develop the agricultural sector that creates new markets, employment, business opportunities and positively contributes to South Africa’s National Developmental Plan. This is an opportunity to collaborate with the international agricultural community and entice young people to study agriculture in order to mitigate the global challenge of hunger and malnutrition. The ARC’s participation in the Berlin exhibition is also viewed in the light of the institution keeping abreast of global trends and positioning South Africa as a preferred destination for agricultural investment and agri-tourism. The agriculture sector faces enormous investment challenges especially in the much-needed area of research. The expo presents an opportunity for the sector to collaborate with international agricultural sector partners and players and to share the expertise.
lemon variety to have a consistent zero seed content. • ARCCIT1614’ (Valley Gold) – A late maturing mandarin, selected for its attractive appearance and excellent flavour. • ARCCIT1519’ (African Sunset) – A late maturing mandarin, selected for its attractive appearance and excellent flavour. • Sonet – An early maturing mandarin, which was selected for its excellent fruit quality and time of ripening. • ARC Nadorcott – A low seeded variety of Nadorcott (trade name – Clemengold), contains less seed than the commercial Nadorcott (Clemengold). The ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Campus, located in Stellenbosch in the Western Cape focuses on deciduous fruit, grape vines, alternative crops and indigenous herbal teas. The Campus also focuses on fruit and wine production and is the custodian of grapevine, deciduous fruit and wine yeast gene banks that preserve genetic resources for breeding purposes, training and comparative descriptions. It also boasts a Sterile Insect Technique Programme. Recently released cultivars, which will be presented, in Berlin by the ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij Campus breeding programme through commercialisation agents are: • Cheeky® - A red blush pear variety. It is marketed and commercialized by Culdevco (Pty) Limited. • Rosemarie - An attractive smooth-skinned pear with slight blush and good eating quality. Breeding is a long-term project that requires dedication and commitment. Phase 1 can consist of a term of 7 - 10 years from the time the cross is made to the first fruit that is evaluated. Promising selections are then taken into Phase 2 where the trees are multiplied and evaluated for 3 seasons from the time they start bearing. Only after this Phase 2 evaluation can a selection be considered for release as a potential new cultivar. On average, this is 15 - 20 years journey from the making of the cross until the release of a new cultivar.
About the ARC’s fruit cultivars breeding programmes: The citrus cultivar-breeding programme, which was started in 1974, is mainly focused on breeding high quality mandarins and niche market cultivars. The ARC – Tropical and Sub-tropical Campus in Nelspruit, Mpumalanga province breeding programme and is the only citrus breeding programme in the entire South Africa. The objective of the Citrus Cultivar Breeding programme at Addo, in the Eastern Cape, is to develop improved citrus scion cultivars for cooler climates. The ARC has been focusing mainly on high quality mandarins and niche market cultivars. We have also been looking to develop seedless, easy peeling fruit with excellent internal and external quality, in appearance and flavor. The goal is fruit that ripen at a time when there is an opening in the market, such as selections that mature very early or late in the season. Recently released citrus cultivars, which will be unveiled in Berlin by the ARC-Tropical and Sub-tropical Campus’ citrus breeding programme through commercialisation agents are: • Eureka! Seedless LemonTM – Is the first and only commercial
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1134 Park Street, Hatfield, Pretoria 0083 P O Box 8783, Pretoria 0001 Tel: 012 427 9700 www.arc.agric.za
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ISO 50001 Certification Measures Up The Climate Change Bill and Carbon Tax will require businesses to report their carbon footprint and show how they are working to reduce it. For industrial energy consumers operating with greater energy efficiency is one of the most cost effective ways to achieve this. The operational practice of constantly striving to improve energy management must be considered as part of the energy mix, and this is specifically highlighted by the direct link between energy consumption and GHG emissions. Left: Industrial Energy Efficiency Project Graduates - driving the adoption of Energy Management Systems (ISO 50 001) and Systems Optimisation. Right: The Lamp Factory achieved significant savings through the implementation of an Energy Management System at its Silverton plant.
he Industrial Energy Efficiency (IEE) Project has proven that energy efficiency works; it saves GHG emissions and money. According to National Project Manager of the IEE Project, Alf Hartzenburg, the potential for GHG mitigation and financial savings through energy management is still largely untapped in South Africa. “Since 2011, the IEE Project has assisted just over 100 companies to save 4.3 terrawatt hours of energy – that translates to 3.9 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent mitigated, and a direct cost saving of R 3.3 billion. Imagine the turnaround in SA if a few thousand companies implemented proactive energy management plans.” In SA’s current energy mix, energy consumption cannot be separated from carbon emissions. Reducing energy consumption will result in fewer tonnes of carbon dioxide for companies to report on and also translates into reduced operational expenses related to energy consumption and environmental taxes. Many larger South African companies are realising the benefits associated with implementing an energy management system aligned to ISO 50001. The ISO energy management standard 50001 and the supporting standard for activities such as energy assessments and savings verification, have recently been updated. The revised ISO 50001 standard will help bring energy management and continual improvement into the core of an organisation. The new structure
has improved its compatibility with ISO 14001, the environmental management system standard that was revised in 2015, enabling easily integration with this standard and other new and revised ISO standards. National government also has a tax incentive dedicated to energy efficiency, where companies can apply for a tax rebate against verified energy savings. Based on Section 12L of the Income Tax Act, the 12L incentive programme is run by the South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI). In order to access the 12L incentive, companies must have a baseline study done before undertaking an energy improvement project, and a measurement and verification of its energy performance resulting from the project. SANEDI is one of the partners implementing the IEE Project, along with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, the National Cleaner Production Centre South Africa and the Department of Energy. The IEE Project is funded by the Global Environment Facility with cofunding through the South African Department of Trade and Industry. The IEE Project also undertakes the development training courses which are offered to both industry and training providers. The courses are presented in SA as well as countries such as Ghana, Zambia, Mauritius, Namibia, and Kenya. Details of the training are available at www.ieeproject.co.za.
ESO or general energy assessment A good first step is to assess your company’s energy use patterns through an energy audit, subsidised by the IEE Project. This can help plan a way forward and identify opportunities for improvements. www.ieeproject.co.za
ISO 50001 certification It is the underlying aim of the IEE Project to see South African industry adopt the ISO 50001 series of standards, and the project team will gladly support companies in the journey to certification. Email firstname.lastname@example.org www.alive2green.com/publications/green-economy-journal/
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shaping sustainable African capital cities
By Dolly Mafa
The African Capital Cities Sustainability Forum (ACCSF) 2019, taking place in Pretoria towards the end of June, will marshal the collective power of capital cities to contribute to, and influence, the pan-African and global discourse on sustainability.
frican urbanisation has been taking place in a context of global commitments to sustainability, low-carbon futures, inclusive development and reduced resource consumption. However, African cities have yet to lay the infrastructures needed to support their current and expected populations. With rapid population growth, high youth unemployment, under-resourced communities, and often under-resourced municipalities, African cities dually represent the world’s most complex challenges, and wide opportunities to urbanise in new and, as yet, unknown ways. “The ACCSF provides an opportunity for participants from around the continent to discuss possible interventions, opportunities and threats that are experienced in African capital cities and which influence their potential for economic growth, social inclusion and environmental protection. It facilitates the exchange of knowledge, promotes learning, and provides a platform for exploring how to develop truly African solutions to African problems.” – Kobie Brand, Director: ICLEI Africa
This annual gathering is hosted by the Executive Mayor of the City of Tshwane, Cllr. Stevens Mokgalapa, with support from ICLEI Africa. This year’s theme is Collective Responsibility for Sustainable African Capital Cities, and will be explored through five key subjects: Unlocking the potential of urban youth. With a statement of ‘our future our cities,’ African youth leaders will present their perspectives on urban sustainability, youth participation and new urban economies. It is often assumed that a youth dividend is an inevitable result of a growing youth population. However, to enjoy a youth dividend, cities and nations must provide large and concerted investment in young people, skills development, and an aspirational vision for the future. It also requires acknowledging that digitisation, automation, artificial intelligence and increased connectivity will shape new urban, national and global economies. How these economies value citizens will determine the success and sustainability of future cities.
The African Capital Cities Sustainability Forum 2018: Cllr Solly Msimanga, (front row, middle) 2018 Executive Mayor of the City of Tshwane with visiting African Capital City Mayors and dignitaries.
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SUSTAINABLE CITIES Improving resource efficiency through sustainable infrastructure and shaping circular economies. Servicing urban populations, as well as current and new industries, is the central challenge to shaping resource efficient and equitable cities. Ensuring that all citizens have adequate basic services, which are delivered in the most environmentally restorative manner, requires investment in research and policy mechanisms that incentivise specific types of buildings, infrastructures and behaviours, and promotion of enabling environments for innovation to thrive. Investing in localised resourcing and circular economic systems means reducing the reliance on external resources, improving local jobs, and improving urban resilience. If African cities can support city-region food systems, promote decentralised local energy generation, harvest their own water, and embrace nature in their built environments they will contribute to new images of urban sustainability. Building resilience to climate change and investing in disaster risk reduction. Cyclones Idai and Kenneth are strong reminders of the severity of extreme weather events, which will only become more frequent and intense with climate change. Slower changes are already influencing regional agricultural sectors and reducing food, water and energy security, increasing uncertainty and making it difficult to plan for the future. The cyclones are also reminders of the vulnerability of cities and regions in Africa. There must therefore be investment in the capacity of cities to adapt to unexpected changes. This must be promoted with a spirit for solidarity, information sharing and development of effective response mechanisms.
“The increasing rate of urbanisation in African cities, and its associated challenges, calls for proactive planning, innovative design and responsive action to promote sustainable urban development. The ACCSF draws together mayors and technical officers from the continent’s most prominent cities to provide a guiding light for how African cities should be thinking about the future and leading sustainability efforts.” – Cllr. Stevens Mokgalapa, Executive Mayor, City of Tshwane
SUSTAINABILITY WEEK 2019
The African Capital Cities Sustainability Forum is scheduled to take place on 24 to 26 June 2019 as part of Sustainability Week at the CSIR International Convention Centre in Pretoria, South Africa. The forum is expected to attract over 400 participants, including Mayors and sustainability managers from African Capital Cities, as well as sustainability stakeholders and representatives from academia, the private sector, civil society and the youth. For more information, please visit http://www.africancapitalcities.org
If African cities can support city-region food systems, promote decentralised local energy generation, harvest their own water, and embrace nature in their built environments they will contribute to new images of urban sustainability.
Improving equity through a people-centred approach to urban development. Developing cities which enable all urban citizens to work, participate and thrive, requires a holistic vision for the city and its future. In Africa, this requires a pragmatic and embracing perspective on informal systems, investing in the welfare of informal enterprises and helping them contribute to social wellbeing and the urban economy. It also requires planning housing and mobility systems which support social integration and access to work and recreation. Embracing and investing in nature in these growing cities will contribute to psychological wellbeing, as well as provide space for recreation and experiential learning for sustainability. Financing and Governing the future. Across all facets of sustainability, the two key considerations for effective development are financing and governance. Throughout the ACCSF, novel ways to finance nature, infrastructure, climate adaptation, social inclusion and more will be explored. Ensuring that these cities can access or develop resources to approach their visions and implement their plans is the key step towards shaping sustainable African cities.
Day 1 ACCSF Plenary at Sustainability Week 2018. www.alive2green.com/publications/green-economy-journal/
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Johannesburg, saying yes to sustainability By Thea Buckle
In pursuit of its Growth and Development Strategy 2040 outcome – to enhance quality of life by improving services and taking care of the environment – the City of Johannesburg (CoJ), with support from ICLEI Africa, is undertaking a number of integrated environmental sustainability initiatives.
hese initiatives represent a novel approach by the City to concurrently produce outputs that offer legal guidance, provide planning support, assess the economic and social value of urban nature and build awareness of this value among our citizens and stakeholders. We are also excited that the lessons learnt will contribute to a new global partnership initiative called CitiesWithNature,” says Lunelle Serobatse, Director: Strategic Coordination, Environment & Infrastructure Services Department, City of Johannesburg.
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SUSTAINABLE CITIES Resilient, liveable, sustainable An Environmental Sustainability Policy is currently being developed, which will provide coherent guidance across all of CoJ’s operations and confirm its commitment to becoming a resilient, liveable and sustainable city. Related to this is the development of tools, strategies, projects and programmes, as well as legal instruments such as a Bioregional Plan. ICLEI Africa is assisting the City to finalise its draft Bioregional Plan and to undertake the required stakeholder consultation in order to submit it to the MEC for publication in the Provincial Gazette. ICLEI Africa is also providing planning support by assisting the City with the revision of its Local Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which will include policy frameworks and strategies, address any gaps that exist and develop indicators to support the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the strategy. In addition, a catchment plan case study is being developed to test and research the requirements of a CoJ Catchment Management Plan (CMP). The plan will integrate storm water, aquatic health and land use considerations; will serve as a benchmark for future CMPs; and will aid in supporting the implementation of the City’s Stormwater Bylaws and Stormwater Design Manual. ICLEI is one of the co-developers of The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) methodology and has co-produced a TEEB manual for cities. This experience and expertise is being used to assist CoJ to identify and assess its ecosystem services, which will enable the City to build an understanding of the social and economic
This experience and expertise is being used to assist CoJ to identify and assess its ecosystem services, which will enable the City to build an understanding of the social and economic value of these assets and make the case for investment opportunities and bankable projects.
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value of these assets and make the case for investment opportunities and bankable projects.
Connect, share, learn Communications and awareness raising forms a key component of successful environmental sustainability initiatives. The City is committed to helping its citizens understand the value of nature and bringing them on board to promote and protect it. Using ICLEI’s Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA) Evaluation Toolkit, and with support from its environmental communication experts, CoJ is reviewing its existing environmental education and awareness-raising campaigns and developing an integrated environmental awareness campaign framework. All of these initiatives offer numerous learning opportunities for cities around the world. As a strong advocate of shared learning for shared problem solving, ICLEI, in partnership with The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), recently launched CitiesWithNature, an exciting initiative for cities to connect, share and learn from each other and global experts, and enable accelerated action around integrating nature into planning and development. CitiesWithNature provides a digital platform, where cities will be guided on an interactive journey along a series of pathways, each dealing with a specific aspect of nature in cities, supporting them in addressing the challenges associated with a rapidly developing and urbanising world. By joining CitiesWithNature, cities gain access to a wide range of tools and resources, and become part of a fast growing global network, including cities such as Montreal and Kochi, that will promote and advocate for a worldwide shift in the way we see, plan and experience our cities. CoJ have joined the CitiesWithNature journey as one of the first 100 pioneer cities. “We are thrilled that the City of Johannesburg has made this commitment to connect, share and learn from other cities and experts across the globe, to become part of a community of cities who are serious about planning and designing their cities with nature,” says Kobie Brand, Global Director of ICLEI’s Cities Biodiversity Centre. “We are proud to be travelling with them on their journey towards environmental sustainability!”
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Credit: Boogertman + Partners and DEA
No 1 Silo, V&A Waterfront in Cape Town, the first 6-Star Green Rating building in South Africa.
he increasing number of Green Star-rated interiors buildings, as accredited by the Green Building Council South Africa (GBCSA), does, however point to the scales being tipped in the right direction. This rating tool rewards high-performance tenant spaces that are healthy, productive places to work; are less costly to operate and maintain; and have a reduced environmental footprint. Here are some of the elements that are addressed in promoting a healthy green interior, with examples taken from No 1 Silo in the V&A Waterfront in Cape Town, the first 6-star Green Rating building in South Africa, and headquarters to Allan Gray. Indoor environmental and air quality (IEQ and IAQ): The whole architectural vision and mechanical design of No 1 Silo ensures the optimal indoor environmental quality for those working inside the building. IAQ looks at the function between contaminant sources and the effectiveness of ventilation utilised to dilute these to ensure low concentrations of CO₂ and pollutants, and in Silo No 1 care has been taken to specify paints, wood products and carpets that contain no harmful compounds that could possibly be inhaled by tenants. IEQ also takes thermal conditions, moisture and dampness into account, with research showing that thermal comfort has a significant impact on workplace satisfaction. One of the key innovations of the building is the double-glazed double skin high performance façade that has a system of automatically controlled blinds between the internal double glazed system, and the external single-glazed skin which tracks the sun as it moves across the building. This reduces solar heat gain, with the blinds preventing further heat gain and also controlling the solar glare in the office space. The double glazing prevents any radiant heat loss or gain to the office space.
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Changes towards sustainable interior office design have been slow in coming, despite the overwhelming evidence which demonstrates the positive impact it has on the health, wellbeing and productivity of its occupants.
Daylighting and lighting: Another benefit of Silo No 1’s high performance façade is how it maximises views and natural light throughout the building. No 1 Silo has an intelligent individual addressable lighting system, fitted with appropriate sensors, to ensure that lights are on only when they need to be and at the right light levels. Biophilia: The rise of biophilia, the suggestion that we have an instinctive bond to nature, is a growing theme in research. No 1 Silo boasts a private roof garden, propagated with endemic vegetation, which provides a space for tenants to relax or work outdoors. Interior layout: There are a whole range of fit-out issues that can have an effect on wellbeing and productivity, including workstation density and configuration of workspace, breakout space and social space. These factors influence noise as well as concentration, collaboration, confidentiality and creativity. Active design & exercise: A guaranteed route to improved employee health is exercise. This can be encouraged by active design within the building, and access to services and amenities such as gyms, bicycle storage and green space, some of which may be inside the office building or office grounds, or in the local vicinity. Amenities & location: The local availability of amenities and services are increasingly recognised in research as being important for occupiers. No. 1 Silo is located in close proximity to hundreds of shops as well as a MyCiti bus stop. A well-rested, healthy, alert and focused workforce is a powerful asset – and it is obvious that designing a space bearing the above principles in mind goes a long way towards achieving this; and reaps rewards far beyond the investment required. For further information, visit us at www.gbcsa.org.za
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helping South Africa with its green transition
South Africa is gearing up for the introduction of a carbon tax from 1 June this year in a bid to tackle climate change, following the tabling of the Carbon Tax Bill in late November 2018. Contending with the impact of climate crisis and broader issues of environmental sustainability will soon be an economic reality for every South African. It’s the most significant, coordinated step yet in the country’s transition to becoming a greener economy.
nder the banner of #LivingCircular, Veolia has partnered with a wide and growing assembly of companies, initiatives and innovators as the fight against CO2 emissions is becoming more organised. For Veolia, an understanding of what is both possible and realistic to implement in the short, medium and long term, as well as for what socio-economic impact, is the foundation of any circular project. Given this, Veolia’s short term objectives focus on energy efficiency of industry and buildings; the development of cogeneration; the recovery of organic waste; the incineration of non-recyclable waste; the increase in the performance of drinking water systems; adaptation of seawater desalination; wastewater reuse; and recycling of plastics and other waste.
Heating an entire town with straw In the Hungarian town of Pécs, heating for 150 000 residents is supplied by a Veolia-operated biomass cogeneration plant that uses straw, corn, sunflower and wood waste from surrounding farms to produce electrical and thermal energy. The ash produced during combustion, rich in potassium, magnesium and phosphorous, is in turn harvested and utilised as agricultural fertiliser. In addition, by using agricultural by-products to supply the boilers has reduced gas consumption, avoiding the emission of 400 000 tonnes of CO2 per year. This project creates 170 permanent jobs and a further 500 seasonal jobs.
Optimising food carton recycling Last year, Veolia and Tetra Pak joined forces to recycle 100% of the constituents used to make carton packages for food and beverage in Europe by 2025. PolyAL, the plastic and aluminium compound waste that makes up 25% of this packaging, is a flexible, waterproof,
highly resistant and rot-proof material, which means it could be a real resource. This year, Veolia begins the development of the plant that will recycle this material that can be used to manufacture crates, plastic pallets and even outdoor furniture.
10 lives for milk bottles Veolia has over the last few years been developing solutions to limit marine plastic pollution by reducing land-based sources of pollution via a circular economy approach. One such project is Veolia’s Dagenham recycling centre in the UK, which recycles 300 million high density polyethylene plastic bottles into new bottles every year. This cycle can be repeated up to ten times, meaning the amount of plastic produced for milk bottles could be reduced by 90%.
Valuable resources in household appliances In France, Veolia manages the country’s largest WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) recycling plant, in Angers, where it recycles up almost 300 000 large appliances every year. In appliances such as refrigerators, freezers and air conditioners, appropriate treatment is essential, as refrigerant gases have a global warming potential up to 10 000 times higher than CO2. Once decontaminated, Veolia recycles approximately 14 678 tonnes of material – including 58%, 5% non-ferrous metals and 20% plastic – per annum at this plant. This plant alone employs 200 people, 48 of whom have disabilities. As South Africa gets ready to take a big step in its journey to a circular economy, it can be encouraged that a wide variety of proven technologies exist to help it meet its environmental objectives. Read more about Veolia’s #LivingCircular projects here: https://www.livingcircular.veolia.com/en.
Above: Nicknamed Hungary’s “green city” because it is 100% heated by a biomass cogeneration plant fed with straw, Pécs is a pioneer in Europe. Above right: In November 2018, Veolia and Tetra Pak joined forces in a new circular challenge to recycle 100% of the constituents used to make carton packages for food and beverages. www.alive2green.com/publications/green-economy-journal/
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Loo kin g
s olution That Make S e l ab n i a st u S
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Twinsaver has embarked on a journey to deliver environmentally friendly, cost-eﬀective processes and products, without compromising on the quality and performance you expect. The Green Choice range by Twinsaver complements your environmental initiatives with sustainable, eco-friendly product solutions.
For more information on our Green Choice journey, visit www.twinsaver.co.za/afh
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It’s the small steps and the smart choices that make a big diﬀerence.
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Wow, can wood really
PULP & PAPER
Credit: Joshua Hoehne on Unsplash
By Jane Molony, executive director of the Paper Manufacturers Association of South Africa (PAMSA) and president of the International Council of Forest and Paper Associations (ICFPA)
Printer paper, chewing gum, viscose fabric, labels, toilet tissue, toothpaste, vitamins and detergents all have a link back to wood. In fact, many things we use daily are connected to wood. As a renewable and sustainably farmed resource, the use of wood is set to increase as the planted tree and paper sector explores the wonder fibre’s place in the bio-economy. Natural polymers from planted trees Wood is made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and extracts (waxes, fatty acids, resin acids and sugars). Their various properties make them suitable ingredients in countless bio-products. Cellulose is the most abundant organic compound on earth and the major component of wood. It is extracted and added to foodstuffs, detergents and cosmetics after chemical modification. Dissolving woodpulp is a purified cellulose pulp much like cotton, and can be spun into textiles like viscose and rayon.
Small fibres with big potential Nanocellulose can be used in wound dressings and surgical gels, food supplements and edible packaging, or even as a composite for screens on electronic devices. Paper and paper packaging manufacturers are looking at ways to use nanocellulose to reduce the weight of paperboard without influencing strength and performance, while the substance can also be applied as a recyclingfriendly barrier coating instead of plastic.
A love for lignin Lignin is the glue that holds wood and plant fibres together. It is removed during the papermaking process to prevent the paper from yellowing with age. Black liquor is produced during the pulp cooking processes. Lignosulphonates are produced from sulphite black liquor and find function in the construction sector. Not only do they reduce the water required in cement, they improve the flow of concrete, retain strength and reduce cost. www.alive2green.com/publications/green-economy-journal/
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Bio-chemicals from green gold Bio-oils are produced when wood fragments are heated in an oxygen-free environment, and these oils can be a substitute for diesel, while the solid residue can be used as an enriched growing medium for seedlings or converted into high-grade activated carbon. When wood waste is broken down by enzymes and fermentation, bio-ethanol is produced. Furfural was one of the first bio-chemicals made from biomass, and is widely applied in everything from fungicides and lubricants to resin and book preservation.
Sweet sensations As complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), cellulose and hemicellulose are rich in various sugar monomers (building blocks of more complex molecules) which can be extracted during the pulping process. The glycols can be used from cosmetic manufacture or to de-ice aircraft wings, and as a base for bio-fuels. Xylitol is a natural sugar substitute that can be made from xylose, the sugar molecule in hemicellulose. It’s clear that discovering the wonder of wood and extracting more value from a tree makes the circular economy bigger. “In addition to less waste, it opens up opportunities for the pulp and paper industry to become the bio-refineries of the future, improve our competitive advantage as a country and provide employment for young graduates,” ends Molony.
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INVESTING IN THE FUTURE
Call SRK on +27 11 441 - 1111
ENVIRONMENT ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE
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SRK solution for energy An Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) developed by SRK Consulting (South Africa) for the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) is being rolled out among Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries to help accelerate electricity projects.
he framework, commissioned by the SAPP in 2016, will facilitate the screening of key power projects in line with lenders’ requirements – in turn speeding up their implementation across the sub-continent. The SAPP – which supplies electricity to consumers in 16 SAPP utilities and independent power producers (IPPs) – is busy improving these grids. In 2009, the SAPP had identified a number of priority projects that would improve the region’s power grids, and by 2011 many of these were found to require extra developmental work to bring them to bankability stage. In response, the SAPP Coordination Centre – with financial assistance from the World Bank’s International Development Association – set up a Project Advisory Unit (PAU) that would accelerate the implementation of these projects. Among the implementation delays was a lack of alignment between the compliance requirements regarding environmental and social management in the projects concerned. Therefore one of the PAU’s first tasks, was to commission technical specialists to help prepare an ESMF, which would act as a reference manual for the high-level environmental and social screening of projects – to strengthen the assessment, mitigation and management of risks and impacts. The ESMF would provide a solution to facilitate both alignment and compliance, thereby improving the pace of implementation of projects that extend access to affordable electricity. SRK was awarded the contract to develop the ESMF and prepared it in three phases. The first phase was the preparation of an inception report and initial consultation with the SAPP Environmental Sub-Committee – comprising representatives of SAPP utilities and IPPs. In the second phase, the terms of reference – and the framework itself – were developed after consultations with SAPP stakeholders including member utilities, relevant government institutions, international financial institutions, civil society organisations and research institutions. The draft ESMF was then presented to the SAPP stakeholders and finalised; this was the third and final stage. Developing the ESMF required consultation with all relevant SAPP structures, so between June and October 2016 – and again in May and June 2018 – various stakeholder consultations were conducted; this was done through workshops, in-country site visits, focus group meetings, face-to-face meetings, telephonic interviews and public hearings. The resulting framework provides a baseline context for the SAPP region, an overview of regulatory frameworks, and a methodology to identify, categorise and rate risks and impacts. It also includes procedures for environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA), as well as arrangements and cost estimates for implementing the ESMF. “This framework is particularly relevant where project loans are required from international financial institutions that apply policies, standards and guidelines to safeguard environmental and social sustainability,” said Darryll Kilian, partner and principal environmental consultant at SRK.
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Darryll Kilian, partner and principal environmental consultant at SRK
Providing a practical solution to the challenges faced by the SAPP utilities, the ESMF also includes a suite of tools to guide officials through the environmental and social screening, scoping, assessment, management planning and monitoring processes. These tools include checklists, examples of management plans, and lists of national, regional and international environmental and social requirements. “The SAPP utilities and IPPs will be responsible for the on-theground implementation of the ESMF, and they will be the main users of the framework,” said Kilian. “As member utilities and IPPs are also represented on the SAPP Environmental Sub-Committee (ESC), they will report back on the application of the ESMF – to ensure alignment in the screening and scoping of priority power projects.” He emphasised that the PAU will play a key co-ordination role, and also facilitate capacity building and training among the planning, financial, environmental and social personnel of SAPP utilities. In April 2018, SRK was appointed to update the ESMF and facilitate the translation of the English report in French and Portuguese. The document has been disseminated to all SAPP utilities and independent power producers, and is available on the SAPP website.
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Copper recycling and CO2 reduction
The fourth annual Brown to Green Report found that South Africa has the highest intensity of emissions in the power sector, with emissions per capita roughly double the G20 average. This is because of South Africaâ€™s dependency on coal and expansive coal-generation projects.
inance Minister Tito Mboweni confirmed that carbon tax will become effective in June 2019 as South Africa intends to play its role as part of the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Companies will be given the opportunity to reduce their emissions of carbon and will be taxed if the agreed reduction targets are not reached. The first phase of the tax will be from 1 June 2019 to 31 December 2022 and the second phase from 2023 to 2030. The initial tax rate will be modest but will increase over time to incentivise companies to implement cleaner technologies in the future. The reluctance to accept cleaner energy such as solar and wind has been well publicised in the media but what is not widely known is that copper helps reduce CO2 emissions and reduces the amount of energy required to produce electricity. By using recycled copper to produce electrical fittings and cables carbon footprints can be reduced as less energy is used to melt recycled copper than creating copper from ore. Regrettably current policies in place are failing the copper recycling industry and preventing economic development by allowing the uncontrolled export of copper scrap from our shores, a practise that also unwittingly encourages money laundering.
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Electrical products containing copper tend to operate more efficiently because it is the best non-precious conductor of heat and electricity known to man and is totally recyclable without losing any of its properties.
Unless this scourge is recognised and corrected soon, it will have dire consequences for the copper industry and the economy. Materials complementing green fuels will be the new cornerstone of the economy and care should be taken to avoid any new inessential import dependencies. The importance of the circular economy is set to increase. Materials already in use should be viewed as prized and be re-used or recycled wherever possible.
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Hydrogen South Africa: Contributing to Green and Sustainable Energy Solutions The Department of Science and Technology (DST) continues to address the energy challenge facing South Africa by innovating towards safe, clean, affordable and reliable energy supply to meet the country’s longterm requirements. The Department is making steady progress in renewable energy through its Hydrogen South Africa (HySA) flagship project, which promotes research, development and innovation in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The technology has received considerable attention from a mineral beneficiation and green energy production perspective. It is efficient, reliable and produces no harmful CO2 emissions. Through its Ten-Year Innovation Plan, the DST predicted that the “emerging fuel cell market is expected to grow to a multi-billion dollar international industry”. Research has indicated that the “global fuel cell industry reached $2.2 billion in revenue in 2014 and $3.6 billion in 2016”, with countries such as Japan, China and the United States of America at the forefront and leaders of innovation in this industry. South Africa is well positioned to contribute significantly to the growth of this industry, not only because of its platinum endowment (the country hosts more than 75% of the world’s known platinum reserve, a key catalytic material in most fuel cells) but also based on the capabilities that the country has been developing in the last ten years. The HySA programme has delivered various demonstration pilot projects and innovations in collaboration with private sector partners. The development of the first hydrogen fuel cell golf cart in 2013 by HySA Systems and Malex Electrovehicles was one of the initial innovations produced through the HySA programme. In 2014, the DST, in partnership with Anglo American, Air Products and Clean Energy Investments, successfully installed fuel cells at three schools in Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape. The project investigated how to best integrate science, technology and innovation in order to contribute to improving the delivery of basic education. In 2016, Impala Implats successfully launched the first fuel cell forklift in South Africa, which also has a hydrogen
State-of-the art hydrogen fuel cell technology research facilities at HySA Systems at the University of Western Cape
refuelling station. This was a collaborative effort between the DST, University of Western Cape and HySA Systems. Most recently in April 2018, the Minister of Science and Technology, Ms Mmamoloko Kubayi-Ngubane, launched a 2.5kW fuel cell system at Poelano High School in Ventersdorp, North West, which will enable the rural-based school to have access to low-cost, off-grid, primary clean energy for their ICT and lighting needs. It is expected that the HySA programme will continue to make significant strides beyond its 15-year plan guided by the HySA strategy as approved by Cabinet in May 2017 and officially launched in September 2008. The HySA Competence Centres – HySA Infrastructure, HySA Catalysis, and HySA Systems – will continue to promote proactive innovation and create human resources required to develop future industries in the hydrogen and fuel cell technologies field. It is further expected that the programme contributes to national and departmental strategies and plans such as the National Development Plan 2030 (to transition towards a low-carbon society) and the New Growth Path (green economy is one of ten job drivers and has set a goal of 5 million jobs by 2020). First South African hydrogen fuel cell powered golf cart developed by HySA Systems, University of Western Cape and Melex Electrovehicles
The HySA Public Awareness, Demonstration and Education Platform is an initiative funded by the DST and implemented by the South African Agency for Science and Technology Advancement, a business unit of the National Research Foundation. The programme aims to create awareness, visibility and acceptance amongst the public, industries, entrepreneurs and key decision makers in SA about the challenges, benefits and safety of using HFCT in the alternative energy industry. Given the relative newness of the technology in SA, the programme further aims to present new business opportunities that this technology offers to industries and entrepreneurs. For more information, contact us: email@example.com or visit: www.hysa-padep.co.za or follow us on Facebook: www.facebook.com/HySA-Public Awareness and on twitter: HySA_Outreach
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New technologies ease SA into a low-carbon future By Alessandra Pardini, a Partner at Webber Wentzel
Power shortages and a transition to a lower-carbon future, in line with SA’s Paris Agreement commitments, will require the country to harness new technologies. Energy storage, which will be a critical element of a modern power system, offers potential for local industrialisation and job creation.
outh Africans, rattled by Eskom’s latest round of load shedding, may have to experience more inconvenience in the longer term as the country makes the transition to greener power. New technologies could ease this transition. At present, the bulk of SA’s energy is generated from the coal-fired power stations in Mpumalanga, relatively close to the industries (located predominantly in Gauteng) that consume most of the electricity. But generation is shifting. Over the last decade, SA has procured more than six gigawatts (GW) of renewable power through the Department of Energy’s Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme. This was largely to meet the World Bank’s conditions for granting loans to build Kusile and Medupi. Eskom (as part of the World Bank loan conditions) was also required to build more green power – originally envisaged as 100 megawatts (MW) of concentrated solar power (CSP) and amended in 2017 to distributed battery energy storage systems (BESS), with some solar photovoltaic (PV) power. The size of the BESS would be similar to what the CSP would have generated, which
In selecting the technologies that are developing fast to complement renewable energy and will help to relocate the country’s main power sources, the priority should be those that also deliver jobs.
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is 1 440 megawatt hours (MWh) per day or 525 gigawatt hours (GWh) per year (100 MW at a 60% load factor). We understand that, as a distributed solution, this is likely to involve more than 50 individual projects, which will have wide-reaching effects. Under the Paris Agreement, SA has committed to cut its greenhouse gas emissions to a range of 398-614 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent by 2025-2030. Apart from meeting these commitments, Eskom will also have to close down several of its older coal-fired power stations in the next few years as they are approaching obsolescence. Its coal-fired power will then be largely derived from Kusile and Medupi. In addition, Koeberg Power Station reaches the end of its life in 2024. While renewable energy will become increasingly important, it cannot contribute to the grid without baseload or other support. SA’s solar generation is located mainly in the Northern Cape. Wind also generates power along the southern and eastern Cape coasts and nuclear energy is generated from Koeberg outside Cape Town. Most of this energy is carried along long transmission lines (with significant transmission losses) to the Highveld. Solar PV and wind will have to be complemented with some kind of stabilising technology. Options include gas or nuclear generation or storage. Storage implies that batteries will be required either in the Northern Cape, near most of the solar generation, or located at strategic points along the transmission infrastructure to reduce line losses or allow incremental increases in transmission capacity. Some of the battery technologies currently being tested in SA include platinum fuel-cell batteries, which use platinum as a catalyst, and vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) using vanadium in an electrolyte solution. Like solar photovoltaic technology, we have seen the installed cost of BESS reduce significantly in the past five years and this is likely to reduce even further, making BESS a financially-viable option.
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SA already has rich platinum and vanadium resources that could be exploited to support a local battery industry. Local battery manufacture could supply both SAâ€™s needs and that of other countries in Africa. The vanadium in a VRFB can be fully recycled for use in the steel industry after the battery reaches the end of its life, which helps to keep down the costs and makes vanadium a relatively environmentally-friendly option.
The future decommissioning of coal-fired power will affect jobs at both power stations and coal mines. It is critical to replace these jobs with opportunities elsewhere, preferably those with longer-term security and requiring higher skills transfer. One possible solution to solve grid stability, build incremental transmission capacity and alleviate job losses could be through developing a battery industry in SA.
What is a fuel cell? Fuel cells are devices for generating electric power. They share many of the characteristics of a battery in that they are silent and require no moving parts and function as a result of an electrochemical reaction in order to generate power. The BUT is they need no recharging and will run indefinitely when supplied with fuel. The cells produce electricity by combining hydrogen (the fuel) and oxygen (from air) over a catalyst such as platinum. There are many fuel cells but the most researched type is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which contains platinum catalysts. PEM fuel cells are capable of being used in power generation for buildings, instead of batteries or generators in portable equipment and as replacements for the internal combustion engine in a vehicle. http://www.platinum.matthey.com/about-pgm/applications/fuel-cells In South Africa, The CSIR is developing porous materials-based hydrogen storage technologies and high-pressure composite cylinders for lightweight applications. The research and development is being undertaken in the hydrogen storage facility at the CSIR. The facility is part of the Department of Science and Technologyâ€™s National Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technologies Flagship project, branded Hydrogen South Africa (HySA). Researchers are aiming to develop cost-effective hydrogen storage systems for use in selected portable power and fuel cell vehicle applications. The porous materials being developed may also find application in other areas such as methane storage, carbon dioxide capture and storage, water treatment and catalysis, amongst others. The composite cylinders being developed can also be used for lightweight storage of other gases such as compressed natural gas for vehicle applications. Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for fuel cells and thus the facility supports beneficiation of platinum, a critical component of hydrogen fuel cells. The hydrogen storage technologies that are being developed will find application where weight is an issue, such as in the transport industry. www.csir.co.za
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Melissa Baird stayed at the Farm Inn, a privately owned country hotel and conference centre on the eastern outskirts of Pretoria in Tshwane, a municipality that has great goals for its green status in to the future. What is notable about the estate is its natural building techniques and some 23 different species of animals that guests can experience up close. She spoke to Pedro Michaletos, its owner and a 4th generation hotelier about how his dream came to life. MB The hotel and conference centre is built almost exclusively out of stone, tell us the story of the materials used and how this has impacted the energy efficiency of the hotel? PM It was my dream to develop an hotel that blended in with the surrounding bushveld and the natural stone found in this area afforded me this opportunity. The stone was sourced over many years and stockpiled on this property before the hotel was built and consists of natural rock which was harvested from the old sheep kraals on neighbouring farms in the Kungwini area as well as stone blasted from the Bronberg koppie when private developers and the province were developing the Wapadrand and Olympus area. The vast expanse of thatch roofing complemented this unique building project. Where do the majority of your guests come from and how do they respond to the game drives on offer? Guests come from all corners of the world and the hotel is popular amongst the locals too. The game drives offer an opportunity to see limited game within our small facility when visitors either have strict time restraints or may not have the resources to visit our larger reserves.
What conservation efforts are championed by the conference centre and what do you do to promote awareness about ‘canned’ predator hunts? We actively promote the preservation of the bird life at the hotel and in the surrounding reserve and do our utmost to protect the other natural wildlife that occurs in the area. We distance ourselves entirely from ‘canned predator hunting’ of any kind. How many people do you employ and do you offer job skills enhancement for their professional development? We permanently employ 100+ people and 40+ part time staff including contractors. We do have an upliftment policy within the business for skills development within the various departments. What role do you see the green economy having on the hospitality sector and do you see positive prospects for the tourism sector in the City of Tshwane based on its drive to become the green mecca of SA? We are constantly working towards making our environment a greener space, but this takes time and training. We do see the tourism sector as being a major contributor to the greener economy in the future. We would always support the City of Tshwane in any endeavour to reach sustainable development going forward.
The hotel has 83 bedrooms, 17 function venues, 2 chapels and 3 bomas - one of which provides an intimate venue amongst the roars of the lion enclosures. If you prefer something more formal, the hotel’s Tugela à la carte restaurant is open 7 days a week. www.farminn.co.za www.alive2green.com/publications/green-economy-journal/
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The Lion & Safari Park Situated just 13km from Lanseria Airport and only 40 minutes from Johannesburg, the must-see tourist destination is nestled in the beautiful Magaliesberg mountain range and also within the Cradle of Humankind, a world UNESCO heritage site.
he 650 hectare property is home to a vast selection of indigenous species such as lion, cheetah, hyena, leopard, wild dog, sable antelope, kudu and nyala and offers a wealth of exciting activities for all ages. Guests are guaranteed to get super-close to some of Africa’s favourite animals either as part of an informative guided tour or by venturing out on a self-drive ‘safari’. The trained guides turn every tour into an informative and educational event as they share interesting facts. The flagship tour is the three-hour safari, which includes snacks and drinks on the bank of the Crocodile river. The famous animal trainer Alex Larenty promises to provide a fun-filled experience as he interacts with fully grown lions on the ‘Alex tour’. The park has a beautifully designed playground next to the restaurants that will keep the young ones entertained and it makes for a perfect venue for kiddie’s birthday parties. A day visit to the park also provides the perfect opportunity for schoolchildren to learn about the animals and various research programmes that the Lion and Safari Park is involved in.
The Bull ‘n Buck grill provides a premier dining experience with a top wine list and a delicious menu – venison of course being the Grill’s speciality dish complementing that true African sensation. Alternatively, the Wetlands Restaurant is a great family choice to enjoy a quick meal whilst enjoying the view of antelope grazing metres away. Take a short walk from the restaurants to visit the meerkat, porcupine and mongoose enclosures. Apart from being a world class tourist destination, the Lion and Safari Park turns any conference, function or event into something unique. The park’s photographic centre will capture your memories with a great range of printing options such as photobooks, mugs, keyrings, puzzles and more. The ‘5 dome shopping experience’ offers a vast selection of unique hand-crafted curios, jewellery and clothing, which make great gifts for those back home. Entrance to the restaurants, curio shops and kiddie’s playground is free, and guests only pay for activities. The cost of a visit to the Lion and Safari Park is well priced for both local and international guests (no extra charge to foreign visitors). The park is open 365 days a year.
Tour options include: • Lion & Wild Dog Tour • Mini Safari, Night tours (with predator feeding) • Private Exclusive tours • Alex Tour, Cheetah and Lion Walks
Credit: CDC Design, Carla Lawrence
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Dealmakers. In one place.
11 - 14 JUNE 2019 â€˘ LISBON All readers and subscribers of Green Economy Journal are entitled to an exclusive 15% off on registration. Email firstname.lastname@example.org to claim your discount using the code: GEJ15.
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