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Contents ISSUE 36




New and updates


MICE Tourism


Smart mobility








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How the Global Destination Sustainability Index is improving ratings and desirability of cities

Carbon tax aims to reduce emissions and other solutions that electric vehicles offer

Understanding the full potential of wind power

A wind turbine and small-scale solution for all scale applications

Wind turbine design enables it to be used in residential and business applications

Recycling PETCO reveal their 2019 recycling winners




Skills development



Solar projects, future proofing investment funds, engineering accolade and new waste rules for the petrochemical industry


ARC women taking the lead in the agriculture and science sectors

An overview of South Africa’s current unemployment crises with some solutions in trade

Infrastructure The success of a zero-waste approach

Sustainable tourism The business of lions and the lion bone trade

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Editor’s Note 4 GEJ 36 MAG CDC.indd 4




EDITOR: Melissa Baird



PROJECT MANAGER: Munya Jani SALES: Vania Reyneke

Gerard Jeffcote


DISTRIBUTION: Edward MacDonald



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PHYSICAL ADDRESS: 1st Floor Cape Media House

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ISSN NUMBER: 2410-6453

PUBLICATION DATE: September 2019

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alive2green p r o j e c t s

Green Economy Journal is audited by ABC

Issue 36 R29.00 incl VAT

Skills Development The role of the tradesman Energy Wind power to the rescue 11025

Melissa Baird



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Globally the Amazon fires have made for a terrible and indeed tragic story to watch unfold. Tragic because the consequent deforestation will enable Brazil’s President Jair Bolsonaro to leverage thousands of acres of newly cleared land as a political tool to galvanise support from farmers that are greedy for more agricultural land. The result: An irreversible conversion of a global biodiversity hotspot and the lungs of the planet into swathes of low-value high-impact intensive agriculture. In South Africa, the issue of gender violence has reached a long overdue tipping point and one can only hope for a societal shift to put a stop to such behaviour. Nowhere on this planet do women suffer from gender-based violence issues as they do in South Africa. What is the link between ecocide and femicide? The earth is a regenerative environment and supports living systems that are entirely interconnected. Is the way the planet is being treated not indicative and parallel to the way women are being treated? We’ve learned from efforts in conservation that degraded environments can heal when protected from human inflicted abuse; can comprehensive measures to protect women from abuse, heal our society? With these questions in mind this edition of the journal looks at the consequences of carbon tax on transport systems and looks to the hope that electric vehicles can offer. To reduce carbon emissions the internal combustion engine will need to be phased out and efficient public transport be put in place that can offer citizens a reliable and safe way of travelling. Skills development and skill shortages are also under the spotlight as the unemployment figures are the highest recorded yet in the history of our economy. The opportunity to harness wind power through turbines that are suited to residential and small business use is good news as they could help in securing energy supply for areas plagued by load shedding and high energy costs. Plus, it reduces the grid strain and is not reliant on a fossil fuel. In a special feature to coincide with tourism month, we delve into the issues raised in the matter of the National Council of the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (NCSPCA) vs the Minister of the Department of Environmental Affairs, as it affects South Africa’s lions, and offer input from leading organisations practicing responsible eco-tourism. There are only four months left of 2019. How will it play out; more bad news items to fast track the world’s awakening? Or some good news to celebrate at new year? Either way the world in 2020 sits on the edge with the prospects for future generations wavering precariously in the balance.

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Responsible eco-tourism Lion conservation or exploitation? Events & Conferences The appeal of a sustainable city

Cover image: Cape Town International Convention Centre

All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or in any form without the prior written permission of the Publisher. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the Publisher or the Editor. All editorial and advertising contributions are accepted on the understanding that the contributor either owns or has obtained all necessary copyrights and permissions. The Publisher does not endorse any claims made in the publication by or on behalf of any organisations or products. Please address any concerns in this regard to the Editor. The Green Economy Journal is printed on Hi-Q Titan plus paper, manufactured by Evergreen Hansol, a leading afforestation member acknowledged by FOA. Hi-Q has Chain of Custody certification, is totally chlorine free, and is PEFC, ISO 14001, ISO 9001 accredited. This paper is FSC certified.

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Call +27 21 410 5000, email or visit and connect to possibilities.

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News & and Updates Updates

SOLA secures R400m to build commercial and industrial solar projects The renewable energy fund will enable 40MW of solar PV projects to be built without capital expenditure by the electricity off-takers. The deal is a result of a partnership between the SOLA Group, African Infrastructure Investment Managers (AIIM), and Nedbank Energy Finance, who have partnered to provide affordable solar PV solutions for businesses that are in dire need of electricity security.

The consumers pay for their clean energy through a tariff that is typically 20% lower than Eskom or their municipal provider’s rates. The model of electricity generation incorporates both centralised and distributed electricity and will improve the ability for South Africa to meet energy demand, reduce electricity costs

and strengthen resilience to outages. “Enabling small-scale embedded generation of electricity is a key lever for the government to enable flexible electricity generation, and ultimately the transition to a low-carbon economy,” says Duncan Abel, Principal for Energy Finance at Nedbank CIB.

The SOLA Group, have an extensive track record of building solar PV plants in southern Africa, and have already signed 15MW of solar PV projects through the fund, including several breweries and other industrial facilities around South Africa.

Climate-proofing retirement funds Funds worth over $8 trillion have committed to fossil fuel divestment, while 477 investors, worth a combined $34 trillion in assets, have called on the world’s governments to fully implement the Paris Climate Treaty and help keep average global warming to 1.5C by 2100. South African legal opinion now suggests all retirement fund boards need to assess and plan for climate and carbon risk. Retirees face multiplying environmental and financial risks. So, how should retirement fund boards respond? At the inaugural Climate-Proofing Retirement Funds events held in Cape Town and Johannesburg the key messages delivered were that as much as trustees may rely on

asset managers and consultants for advice on managing the risks, the responsibility for asset allocation and risk management ultimately lies with trustees. Their judgment should be aimed at ensuring the long-term sustainability of a fund and its ability to fully serve its members. Adopting an ESG approach to investment does not require losing returns and can enhance them. It was also noted that a just transition for workers in the coal sector is possible and necessary and that all investors face considerable economic transition risk. The movement towards global fossil fuel divestment movement is strong and still growing fast.

What a winner! The South African Research Chair in Waste and Climate Change and University of KwaZuluNatal academic, Professor Cristina Trois, has been awarded a Knighthood and attendant title of Cavaliere del Lavoro for receiving the Ordine al Merito del Lavoro (Order of Merit for Labour), the highest honour from the Italian Republic. She was the first female Dean and Head of UKZN’s School of Engineering and has made considerable contributions to research and teaching in her field of environmental engineering, as well as to innovations around waste management and wastewater engineering and treatment in eThekwini. The initiative ‘Engineering is a Girl Thing’ was championed by her to encourage young women to create careers in science and engineering. Some of her achievements include the development of the innovative ‘cellular method’ of landfilling adopted in Durban’s landfill sites, her contribution to the first African, World Bank-funded ‘landfill-gas-to-electricity project’ through which the city of Durban produces 10MW of electricity and her current work on the multi-national research endeavour: the Hub for the African City of the Future.

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South Africa’s Economic Freedom Ranking South Africa’s economic freedom score has plummeted down the rankings over the course of the last decade. “It is tragic that a country with so much potential and human ingenuity which was ranked 46th in the world in 2000, has plummeted 64 places to be ranked 110th in 2018. Without improvements in the country’s basic institutions of economic freedom that include, as its fundamental foundations personal choice, voluntary exchange, freedom to compete and security of privately-owned property, it is difficult to envisage how South Africa will grow and become more prosperous,” says Jasson Urbach of the Free Market Foundation (FMF). South Africa’s unemployment rate is the highest in recorded history and the country is witnessing dramatic human and capital flight as individuals seek to invest and live in countries with greater levels of economic freedom. Policy makers seeking to halt and reverse these trends have a clear choice – to either continue down the road of implementing failed socialist policies or to embrace policies that lead to greater levels of economic freedom. It seeks to offer solutions for: unemployment, poverty, growth, education, health care and electricity supply.

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News News STRAPHEAD and & Updates

Landmark Compensation Win The Legal Resources Centre of South Africa just settled a major suit for over $350 million on behalf of thousands of gold mine workers who developed silicosis or tuberculosis as a result of their work in the mines from 1965 to present. Up to 500 000 gold mine workers who suffered from diseases contracted from working in the mines – settled the class action lawsuit to receive compensation for the harm caused them. The silicosis and tuberculosis class action is unprecedented in its scope and ambition. Compensation will be given to former and current mineworkers from South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, eSwatini, Mozambique, Lesotho and Malawi who contracted silicosis or tuberculosis whilst mining for gold at operations owned or operated by Anglo America South Africa, Goldfields, Harmony, African Rainbow Minerals, AngloGold Ashanti and Sibanye Stillwater. Silicosis is an irreversible, incurable and painful lung disease caused by breathing in silica dust and is particularly associated with dust exposure in gold mines.

Mpumalanga sulphur dioxide pollution: Bad news A study commissioned by Greenpeace India, used NASA estimates of anthropogenic sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions from hotspots around the world. It has identified the Kriel area in Mpumalanga to be the second worst SO2 emission hotspot due to the region’s high concentration of coal-fired power stations. Globally, power plants and industries burning coal and oil are responsible for two-thirds of the anthropogenic sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Oil refineries and metals smelters are the other major sources. The findings demonstrate the need for stronger emission standards for coal power plants and industry and a rapid transition away from fossil fuels. This news comes at a time when the Minister of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries, Barbara Creecy, is considering whether to weaken the country’s already-lax SO2 limits even further. This would make them ten times weaker than the equivalent standard in India and 28 times weaker than the equivalent standard in China. There are 12 coal-fired power stations in Mpumalanga province in South Africa, making the province the largest SO2 emission hotspot in the world from power generation.

Environmental rules for the petrochemical industry With environmental protection topping the global agenda, the South African government is introducing new regulations for producers and

handlers of hazardous waste. This is prompting the waste sector to re-think the waste chain in partnership with its clients. “One of the

Vlakfontein high-hazardous-class landfill site in the Vaal Triangle

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ways in which this thinking is reframing our attitude towards waste is the need to build an integrated waste cycle – commonly referred to as the ‘circular economy’,” says Johan van den Berg, Managing Director of Averda, a leading integrated waste management company. This endeavour is taking on greater urgency with the introduction of new prohibitions next month that prohibit the disposal of hydrocarbon-based materials at local landfill sites. Producers within the petrochemical industry will have to invest in improved processes to ensure their liquid waste is correctly processed. An example of a high hazardous landfill site that has met the new standards is Vlakfontein in the Vaal Triangle. Built at a cost of R250 million, the site has the capacity for six cells that will offer 6.5 million cubic metres of landfill capacity. It also has a blending facility able to process the hazardous waste responsibly.

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Competition, collaboration and communication to create

sustainable destinations BY MELISSA BAIRD

South Africa is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world, but how does it match up to other cities of choice, in terms of sustainability? What can be done to improve South Africa’s city ratings, and how can this be used to boost the tourism sector, drive job creation and the development of more circular and thriving economies?


spoke to Guy Bigwood, Managing Director of the Global Destinations Sustainability Index, and long-term champion of sustainability in the business tourism and events world, about the global trend driving the development of sustainable event destinations, and the initiatives being used by cities to catalyse a transformation in their tourism sector. MB: What is the Global Destinations Sustainability Index (GDS-Index) and how does it work? GB: The GDS-Index is a global benchmarking and performance improvement programme for destinations. It was created to harness the power of the meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions (MICE) industry, to accelerate sustainable development in cities and surrounding communities. The GDS-Index was founded in 2016 by visionary Scandinavian Cities; leading event industry organisations MCI, ICCA, IMEX; and European Cities Marketing. Now it has evolved to become the largest global community of event destinations working on sustainability. At present we have 58 cities, including Barcelona, Copenhagen, Washington, Denver, Bangkok,

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Brussels, Kyoto, Geneva, Oslo, and Sydney. The Destination Management Organisations (DMOs) of these cities are strategically and progressively changing the way they work and achieving amazing results. MB: What are the objectives of the programme? How do you see it making improvements to a city’s rating and appeal? GB: The GDS-Index was designed to use competition, collaboration and consultation to drive performance and innovation. It has four main objectives: 1. Rapidly accelerate the number of destinations with robust and holistic sustainability strategies and practices 2. Raise industry awareness and inspire action in support of the Sustainable Development Goals 3. Build, educate and empower a dynamic community of destination sustainability professionals 4. Recognise, reward and share the innovations, performance and improvements of our members’ destinations. The index evaluates sustainability performance in four main areas: The

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Tourism city’s environmental performance, the social performance, the supplier performance and the DMO’s performance (we use the acronym DMO to include convention bureaus also).

poses a tangible environmental risk. As many sponsors already look for events with a strong sustainability commitment, it is not just DMOs but also event organisers, that need to act.

MB: Which sustainability challenges does the GDS-Index address and how can you see it benefiting tourism in South Africa? GB: In this context, ‘sustainability’ means that the events and tourism industry has adopted practices that allow us to meet the needs of current generations, while ensuring the same for future generations. Achieving this generational equity, alongside equity between nature and ourselves, is the challenge we are trying to address. The GDS-Index is using destinations and their DMOs as the catalysts for creating a more regenerative future. South Africa comes with its own, unique set of challenges; be it income inequality and associated crime, or the lack of water some regions of the country have experienced in recent years. Truly integrating sustainability as a fundamental pillar in South Africa’s destinations strategies could very well help to alleviate many of these issues. Be it through the creation of a strategy that allows for a smart long-term destination roadmap for social and environmental action, or ensuring that hotels have eco-certifications or developing today’s and tomorrow’s talent with the skills to better manage tourism businesses in a regenerative fashion. Last I heard, around one in 20 people worked in the South African tourism industry, and if we consider its entire value chain, tourism contributes almost 10% of the nation’s total GDP. I believe the impact of these changes would permeate throughout the nation. Our sector could and should contribute to creating a more equal, environmentally conscious, and safer country.

MB: Tell me what you see emerging in the next five years? GB: The importance of a destination’s sustainability in the business tourism and events industry will grow significantly. We see the GDSIndex becoming an increasingly dynamic community with partnerships of purpose between cities. There will be solutions to help cities better manage the nexus of leisure and business tourism. Advanced cities will seek to certify their destination with internationally recognised third party, sustainability standards. With a need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 45% by 2030, we will need to help cities implement science-based approaches, measure their footprint, develop their professionals and accelerate their sustainability programmes.

Photo credits: GDS

MB: What value does the programme offer the tourism and events industry? GB: Through working with us, cities can significantly increase the impact of their sustainability initiatives while dramatically reducing the implementation time and cost. The programme is very relevant to organisations who require sponsorship for their events. Sponsors are very aware of risks when choosing to invest their money, and an event without a sustainability commitment

“The economic, social and environmental significance of the events industry is massive. We could influence safe and fair working conditions for 26 million jobs, direct $1.5 trillion USD towards more responsible supply chains, and inspire 1.5 billion participants to action. Our industry has a decisive role in the achievement of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda and its 17 SDGs”. Carina Bauer, CEO of IMEX Group.

Guy Bigwood, Managing Director of the GDS-Index, workshopping (and then presenting) the key success factors that enable a city to become an option of choice due to its sustainability rankings.

The GDS-Index White Paper defines five converging mega trends, four fundamental building blocks and eight tactics that present destinations and the event industry with opportunities to improve their performance and adapt to the risks presented by climate breakdown, ecocide, demographic shifts, social change and digitalisation. Download the white paper at:

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Isuzu explores alternate fuel solutions for commercial vehicles

Prototype testing of dual fuel, and compressed natural gas trucks


suzu Motors South Africa (IMSAF) is evaluating trucks which use alternate propulsion technologies that may be suitable for the African market. This is part of the company’s drive to offer unique solutions to their customers and offer added value for large fleet owners who demand low running costs and reliability while minimising the impact on the environment. “Our mission is to provide transport solutions to our customers, lowemission vehicles using alternate energy sources would be a great addition to our product portfolio. These trucks are not only a vital step toward reducing the emission of harmful pollutants, they will also contribute to the more effective utilisation of limited natural resources for transportation,” says Dominic Rimmer, IMSAF Executive for Technical Services. Isuzu is currently looking at two types of alternate propulsion technologies for its trucks, namely; a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) fuel truck, and a dual fuel powered truck converted to run on natural gas and diesel. “We’ve built a handful of prototype trucks which are currently being tested in real world conditions on South African roads by a number of Isuzu fleet customers. If the testing is successful we could see more of these trucks paving the way for a greener motoring landscape in future,” said Rimmer.

constituent gas is methane, is that it produces very little carbon dioxide (CO2). Isuzu produces three-way catalytic converter equipped CNG vehicles that achieve an excellent low-pollution emission performance. Advantages of CNG: • Environmentally friendly motoring – Less greenhouse gasses, 25% less CO2 emitted • Significant reduction in particulates to zero / nitrogen oxides (NOx) down to a miniscule 0.2 • Safety – CNG is a safe gas. Any leaks safely dissipate back to nature • Engine power – power and torque remain about the same as traditional diesel engines.

Isuzu N-Series (NPR 300) CNG) Vehicle

Benefits of the system are similar to the CNG model and include: • Utilising standard diesel engine • Easily switch between diesel/gas mixture and 100% diesel • Little effect on torque and power • Carbon footprint/emission reduced • Improved engine oil quality • Engine noise reduced due to natural gas smoother combustion • Significant reductions of operating costs thanks to diesel-gas substitution. “These initiatives are in line with Isuzu’s SEE (Safety, Economy & Environment) philosophy of continuously searching for efficient transport solutions which will reduce impact on the environment and enable our customers to support the locally planned Green Transport strategy,” said Rimmer.

The N-Series range of trucks is a proven and flexible platform which has demonstrated its capability of meeting the demands and needs of a variety of operators with diverse operational requirements. This makes it a good starting point for a local alternate propulsion strategy. The Isuzu N-Series (NPR 300) truck uses CNG as well as a Stop-Start fuel saving system to create a more environmentally friendly truck while reducing operating costs. CNG is available from the significant reserves of natural gas that exist in many places around the world. The CNG-powered engines emit very low levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbon (HC) with virtually no particulate matter (PM) emitted at all. Another characteristic of natural gas, whose main

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Isuzu FTR 850 Diesel Dual Fuel AMT Based on the popular Isuzu FTR 850 AMT model, the 850 Diesel Dual Fuel model is a locally developed dual fuel truck which uses diesel dual fuel technology utilising a D-gid ECU system with the ability to run the engine on a mixture of diesel and natural gas. The diesel dual fuel d-gid system fuelled diesel engines with a mixture of diesel fuel and CNG. The D-gid control unit determines the optimum mixture of diesel and air/gas required under different loads, dynamically modifying it in real time according to the feedback provided by the engine.

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Smarter mobility can curb carbon emissions BY BEN PULLEN, CO-FOUNDER AND CEO OF GENERATION.E

The Carbon Tax Act has recently come into effect in South Africa with the aim to penalise large emitters of greenhouse gases to minimise the climate risks that hydrocarbon fuels present. This, however, has a knock-on effect on consumers in the form of raised fuel prices and potentially increased living costs.


t is vital for the government to consider ways to minimise these financial implications. This is especially important in South Africa, as even in wealthier and more economically stable countries like France and Australia, efforts to increase carbon taxes were abandoned following a backlash from protesters over the rising costs. However, according to a recent report by the International Monetary Fund, carbon tax is the best way to cut greenhouse gas emissions, as it allows for a reduction in energy consumption; favours cleaner energies and provides much needed revenues, which could be used to finance sustainable and more inclusive growth. If consumers are motivated to switch to electric vehicles (EVs), they will avoid paying the carbon tax and 34% less greenhouse gas emissions will be produced – even if motorists charge their vehicles using the grid, which currently contains mainly coal-powered electricity. When renewable energy is used to charge the EV, this saving increases to 67%. For each business or consumer that chooses to switch to smarter mobility, there is an estimated 34% to 67% reduction per vehicle in the amount of carbon polluting the atmosphere and directly contributing to the climate crisis. With this in mind, global and local backlash should not deter the South African government from implementing such policies, but should rather serve as an incentive for it to reinvest in the country by using the revenue collected from the carbon tax to support the introduction and roll out of new smarter mobility, such as EVs or increased public transport. This will ultimately serve as a good way to hamper the use of carbon intensive products such as internal combustion engine vehicles and provide a cost effective, inclusive and sustainable solution for citizens. The transport sector is a huge culprit in terms of polluting the atmosphere and subsequently our cities. Johannesburg ranks as the 13th worst polluted city in the world, according to In order to become a zero emissions society, the electrification of transport is vital. The good news is that the South African government has already begun implementing several initiatives, including the use and selection of environmentally friendly transportation alternatives such as electric vehicle fleets at the City of Tshwane, Department of Environmental Affairs and Trade and Industry in Pretoria. Initiatives like these, as well as the continuous development of solutions such as the Gautrain, are already positive steps towards innovations away from vehicle use. Ultimately the

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goal would be to work towards creating an environment where vehicles are not needed and instead bikes, scooters and public transport can be used, or the vehicles that are used are either electric, hybrid or reduced through car-pooling and ride hailing services. To do this, a shift from asset ownership to mobility as a service needs to take place, where the focus is more on mobility getting people from A to B instead of them needing to own a car. After all, most private vehicles spend over 90% of their life sat parked idle. As such, a lot more effort needs to go into providing a range of safe, cost-effective and sustainable mobility solutions. South Africa has already taken a bold step towards making this a reality with implementing the carbon tax and through the Department of Transport signing into law the first Green Transport Strategy. Hopefully this will continue to drive the adoption of a sustainable and economically stimulating solution to curbing carbon emissions not only in South Africa, but throughout the entire continent.

In order to become a zero emissions society, the electrification of transport is vital.

In order to boost the uptake of smarter mobility in South Africa further, the national government needs to implement policy incentives such as reducing import costs, offering subsidies for the manufacture of EVs and setting minimum targets for the number of EVs on South Africa’s roads. For these policies to be effective, there needs to be an increase in infrastructure available to support them and an injection of investment to finance this infrastructure. The good news is that investment in and infrastructure for the EV sector will in turn lead to job creation and effectively generate a dynamic new industry to ensure the continued uptake and integration of smart mobility across the country.

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South Africa’s National Development Plan (NDP), as published in August 2012, contains fourteen outcomes, designed as a blueprint to grow the economy, eliminate poverty and reduce inequality by 2030.


n terms of energy, the plan calls for improving energy infrastructure in a sustainable way, increasing investments in energy efficiency, reducing carbon emissions (by diversifying the energy mix) and procuring at least 20GW of renewable energy by the stated deadline. Additionally, the plan accentuates the revision of the national electrification plan to ensure 90% grid access by 2030 with the balance met through quality off-grid technologies. Whilst the introduction of renewable energy into the electricity system can be traced back as far as December 1998, with the White Paper on Energy Policy, the birth of the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REI4P) is directly linked to the NDP. The REI4P enables the procurement of renewable energy over a series of bidding rounds. As the target for 2030 is to connect 20GW of renewable power to the grid, is it likely that the energy sector will achieve this considering that 6,2GW of renewable power has been procured to date. The latest Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) draft, made a provision for 9,980MW of wind energy and 7,474MW of solar PV, which makes up a total of over 17, 5GW of new capacity of renewable power by 2030. If this capacity is added to the already procured power, we will have well over 20GW of renewable energy by 2030. Of the list of outcomes that need to be realised at the end of the implementation period of the NDP, several of them speak directly, or indirectly, to the implementation of renewable energy or the green economy. Outcome 6, which looks to creating an efficient, competitive and responsive economic infrastructure network is where the green economy is positioned to make the biggest contribution. The renewable energy sector is also positioned to contribute to Outcome 10 in a meaningful way, namely the protecting and enhancing of our environmental assets and natural resources. The renewable energy sector is achieving this by providing clean energy. Also, through the government’s REI4P, water savings of 42.8 million kilo-litres has been realised from inception until the end of March 2019 as well as a 36.2 Mtons CO2 equivalent emissions reduction (19.4 Mtons CO2 from wind projects). These are very tangible achievements. With the energy industry being the biggest driver of the South African economy, it makes sense that the sector provides the lever for existing and new green jobs, which speaks to two of the key NDP outcomes. The wind energy industry employs South Africans across a range of skills levels and creates the measure of ‘meaningful employment’. The 22 wind Independent Power Producers (IPPs) that have successfully launched commercial operations, have reported 1996 job years, this is in addition to the 32 140 job years that are expected to be created over the operational life span of the full wind portfolio.

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The R80 billion South African wind industry, which has attracted substantial domestic and foreign investment, creates a significant number of jobs and contributes to the country’s green economy and social objectives of the NDP. In line with Outcome 1, which calls for quality basic education, much of the wind and renewable energy sector’s socio-economic support is focused on education, with the biggest impact being made in rural South Africa, in communities where the wind farms are situated. These include bursaries awarded to students for tertiary education, training of high school teachers and various initiatives in early childhood development centres.

EIGHT OF THE 14 NDP OUTCOMES LINKED TO THE GREEN ECONOMY: 1. Quality basic education 2. Health care for all 3. Safety & freedom from fear 4. Economy and employment 5. A skilled workforce 6. Economic infrastructure 7. Vibrant rural communities 8. Sustainable human settlements 9. Accountable local government 10. Natural environment 11. South Africa in the world 12. Efficient public service 13. Inclusive social protection 14. Nation building, social cohesion

The 27 MW Klipheuwel Wind Farm, situated outside of Caledon in the Overberg region of the Western Cape, is one of the first wind farms arising from REI4P. The wind farm generates enough clean, renewable electrical energy to power more than 19 000 average South African homes. Photo credit: SAWEA

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The power in the wind INTERVIEW BY GORDON BROWN

CEO of AWT Wind Technology, Jeremy Armstrong, discusses AWT’s innovative wind turbine design and how it unlocks small-scale solutions for energy supply to mitigate the uncertain future of South Africa’s electricity delivery.


ix years ago, I recognised the opportunity of renewable energy and researched domestic axial and vertical wind turbines. My research proved that the vertical axial turbine is the most promising for domestic use. After lengthy prototyping and testing AWT has developed a perfectly balanced domestic wind turbine and they are currently being distributed by Netherbysolar in Port Elizabeth,” says Armstrong. There are four unit sizes available and all are capable of supplying DC power for 24- or 48-volt systems exactly as solar panels would. The size selection depends on wind conditions and their heights are below any municipal by-law restrictions, but above average head height. The units are easily transported and installed.

Gordon Brown: Please describe the specifications and design of the wind turbine, and why these aspects make the turbine more suited for its intended applications? Jeremy Armstrong: It is a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT), which spins around a vertical axial. This is identical to the “roller type” fans you find in a home air conditioner. Whilst these turbines are not as efficient as a propeller type, they do have certain positive attributes, in that they are slower and are also virtually silent. They also present a solid form to bird life so there is a zero kill rate. Our biggest turbine is the G123000. It stands at just over four metres tall and 1,8 metres in diameter, weighing in at around 150kg. This turbine can generate more than 3000W. It is constructed from aluminium, stainless steel and fiberglass.

These turbines service areas where there is no, or insufficient, electrical supply – especially in rural schools and clinics and can back up the sometimes-insufficient solar energy collection and storage capabilities. The turbines can be plugged into existing solar systems and increase power collection by as much as 400% – wind dependant.

For Horizontal Wind Turbines (HWT), there is a direct relation of blade size to power production i.e. the bigger the blade the more the power. However, they require some sort of speed sensing equipment coupled to speed control devices, and massive strength to combat gyroscopic effects of facing into the wind – failure of either would result in “certain death”. In the market segment below 5Kw per unit, there is the VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine). This unit, shaped like a spinning bobbin, is not as efficient as HWT but its design offers other benefits: slow spinning speeds (around a maximum of 75rpm) are non-threatening and virtually silent. Automatic speed control means air passing through must exit before more air can enter. At high wind velocities the turbine will “choke” and will not be able to spin any faster. This feature is a result of clever design and does not rely on any sensory or mechanical system, making it a much simpler and more reliable concept. It also takes wind from any direction.

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Energy GB: Please describe the best applications for the turbines, and some detail as to how they are erected or affixed. Which geographical areas are best suited for their use? JA: They are best suited for any area where there is wind. Solar will produce power for around only six hours out of 24, whereas a turbine can provide power 24 hours a day, every day. Wind turbines can be used to generate power to charge batteries for discharging at a later time; to feed into an existing system to supplement, replace and/or lessen existing supply to reduce electrical costs. Thus, they are suitable in areas where there might already be an electrical supply, all the way through to areas where there is none. GB: What is the levelised cost of energy in South Africa, i.e what is the business case, payback period, etc? JA: If you have no supply, then your only decision is to choose a system that does what you want at an acceptable cost – electrical supply costs do not come into the equation. If you do have an electricity supply, then you need to look at the ROI for your area’s KWh costs. Currently the G123000 comes in at just over three years payback on a possible 25-year life span. One must also consider repercussions of not having sustainable power where reliability is the prime concern, not KWh costs. GB: What case studies and operating examples are there in South Africa or elsewhere? JA: We asked this question in 2012; why aren’t there more wind turbines? It was a combination of the lower cost of solar panels and that propeller turbines were noisy and scary when operating at speed. The VAWT is the alternative but has been (up till now) overly expensive to produce. Most of the current operating examples are in the Port Elizabeth area.

our latest model independently performance verified. Our units are covered by two-year warranties and are built to world standards. All units are manufactured to have no owner serviceable parts, other than regular visual inspections, mainly of the mild steel mounting structure for any possible damage/rust. GB: What are the permitting requirements for the turbines in urban areas vs rural areas? JA: This appears to ebb and flow depending where you are! However, we are under the roof heights of a two-story building – avoiding any height regulations. If one chooses the 48v system, it does not fall under the wireman’s codes. The 700v system is governed and covered by the existing solar installation regulations. I would imagine that urban areas would be more strictly enforced, however, once complying to urban regulations that would cover rural too. GB: What are the regulatory constraints of installing such a wind project on your property? JA: There are constraints on height, noise and electrical safety. You can’t just bolt a unit onto the roof, because the chances are that the structure was not designed to handle the wind shear force. Each application needs to be carefully considered for safety and suitability. GB: How can one inquire? JA: Please email us on Also, any local solar installer can advise you on your area’s regulations.

GB: What warranties are offered for functionality and performance? JA: Things that kill this market are over enthusiastic claims of performance – easily recognisable by an expert. This cannot work, as once the unit is exposed, then at the manufacturer’s cost and loss of reputation, it must be removed, and the customer refunded. We have a process of having




AWT 2019

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Harith_AfricanDecisions_A4_Ad_WITH PRINTER MARKS - 2019.pdf 1 2019/03/14 11:47:31









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Private Power


By Tshepo Mahloele, Group CEO Harith General Partners


In 1935, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicated the Hoover Dam; a project that would transform the development trajectory of the American southwest. It took $49 million ($840 million today), 5 000 workers, and five years to complete.

he dam now provides electricity for almost 8-million people; water for 25-million people and hundreds of thousands of hectares of agricultural land. Without the Hoover Dam, cities such as Los Angeles, Las Vegas, San Diego and Phoenix would never have been where they are today, and California would not have become the seventh largest economy in the world. Historically, strategic infrastructure investments have transformed the trajectory of a country’s economic and social development. Whether it is the Hoover Dam (America), the North Sea Protection Works (Netherlands), Panama Canal or the Dubai International Airport; infrastructure can transform people’s path to prosperity and propel entire nations to the global stage. For a country that is partially below sea level and prone to flooding, the North Sea Protection Works represent an engineering marvel that saves lives and enables a secure economy. The Panama Canal and Dubai International Airport redefined how local communities engaged with global commerce and disrupted existing patterns of movement and trade. It can happen in Africa too. Whether it is connecting people to educational and economic opportunities through broadband; providing affordable and reliable electricity access using renewable energy; or reducing geographic divides with world-class airports and port facilities; similar investments in 21st Century infrastructure have the potential to transform prospects and growth across the continent. For the more than 1-billion people living across the African continent, strategic infrastructure investments represent a massive disruption that could change the trajectory of economic and social possibilities. The sheer scale of the opportunity – and the related challenges – will require that private investors play a central role in meeting the demands of both today and tomorrow. African governments, private investors and development partners will need to invest nearly $100bn annually over the next decade to fully reap the benefits available in the power, transport, telecommunications, water and sanitation and irrigation sectors. Across the continent, investments in infrastructure can help to realise huge benefits from improved regional linkages and more reliable and affordable electricity. Such targeted investments could increase trade, facilitate communication and power households and communities that form the building blocks of strong economic growth. Achieving this vision clearly requires policy, regulatory and institutional reforms, as well as the standardisation of new business models and partnerships. Central government investments continue to ground much of the

continent’s infrastructure development. They contribute to $30bn needed each year for the maintenance of existing infrastructure. On average, Sub-Saharan countries spend about 2% of GDP to build, maintain and improve existing infrastructure, with roads accounting for two-thirds of those funds. Public spending levels overall remain far too low to meet the region’s rapidly growing infrastructure needs. Given this, the private sector will continue to serve as a major player in filling the funding gap and reaching spending targets. Currently, less than half of the required funding is being provided, with investments in infrastructure totalling roughly $45bn per year. With optimal efficiency gains, the resulting funding gap is about $31bn annually. The World Bank estimates that about 40% of this gap could be provided through public private partnerships (PPPs) amounting to $12bn per year. Private investment in infrastructure is increasing although the number of PPPs remains small and primarily concentrated in South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya and Uganda. The power sector, particularly renewable solutions, attracts a growing share of PPPs in the region. To boost investment levels there is a need for robust institutional and regulatory frameworks that consider innovative structure to manage risk and encourage responsible monitoring.

Unlocking a new growth potential While the need for investment is large, the potential return is also very attractive on a risk-adjusted basis. Infrastructure is central to in Africa’s improved growth performance in recent years. Compared to other developing regions, the growth potential in Sub-Sahara is even greater. Nearly 40% of the regions’ population lives in landlocked countries and many economies are largely isolated from global market centres. Investments that help these less connected economies overcome geographic disadvantages, lower transportation costs and engage in trade, and will open new opportunities for millions of people living across the continent. Bridging the quantity and quality gaps in infrastructure could increase GDP per capita growth by 1.7% points each year, excluding South Africa. For lower-income countries in the region, the power sector offers the largest potential gains, while lower-middle income countries could see particularly large gains from transportation sector investments. By strategically investing in infrastructure development, the private sector plays a critical role in promoting growth, equity and poverty reduction and governments must explore creating space for such to happen, especially within the current tough economic conditions.

ABOUT HARITH Through projects across the continent, Harith General Partners has been a leader in telecommunications, power and transportation infrastructure. Harith is the fund manager of both Pan African Infrastructure Development Fund (PAIDF) 1 & 2, a Sandton-based closed and private equity fund that invests in power, transport, water, ICT, healthcare and sanitation across the African continent. PAIDF 1 was initiated in 2006 and closed at $630 million. In 2014, Harith announced the close of $435 million PAIDF 2 originating from African national pension funds, investment banks and financial institutions, among other sources. Harith has developed over 13 major projects throughout the African continent. One such major partnership, Aldwych Holdings has invested over $70 million towards the development of renewable energy projects, including Lake Turkana Wind Power Project. Another collaboration the Harith – Africa Finance Corporation joint venture, Anergi provides power to more than 30 million people across the continent. Harith is a licensed financial services provider with the registration number 43 795

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1904789_ PETCO Green 18 Economy Journal Print Ad_05.indd 1 GEJ 36 MAG CDC.indd

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South Africa’s Recycling Champions BY JANINE Osborne, PETCO Stakeholder Relations Manager Following the recent announcement of a six percent year-on-year increase in the recycling of PET plastic bottles, national industry body the PET Recycling Company (PETCO) has unveiled its 2019 recycling winners – people and organisations making strides in sustainability at a grassroots level across South Africa.


he results prove how effective PETCO’s current network of partners are in achieving the recovery of 98 649 tonnes of PET plastic bottles that has enabled PETCO to expand its collection network, build relationships with recyclers, and seek new opportunities to develop and support entrepreneurs.

Waste Reduction Youth Warrior Rocco Antonio Da Silva, The Future Kids Club (Western Cape) Nine-year-old Rocco started the club to create awareness and get the youth in his area to commit to participating in monthly beach and community clean-ups. Over the last 14 months, members have collected in excess of 950kg of rubbish off a local 400m stretch of beach. Rotondwa Musitha, Trash Converters (Limpopo) Musitha, 24, is a business school graduate who started her recycling business after her research showed that just 2% of all recyclable material in Limpopo was being recycled, creating a gap in the market for waste buy-back centres. Working on foot, she and her three employees collect approximately eight to 11 tonnes of waste per month.

Top Woman in Recycling Jocelyn van der Ross, Green Spot Recycling (Western Cape) Buy-back centre Green Spot Recycling had a tough beginning in 2005 but now the business has 15 employees collecting and sorting over six tonnes of PET plastic bottles a month.

Media Spotlight Wendy Knowler (Western Cape) Award-winning journalist, Wendy Knowler, has been recognised for her role in helping to shed light on the importance of conscious consumption and recycling, while taking a balanced approach to the plastics issue.

Excellence in Academia Takunda Chitaka, University of Cape Town (Western Cape) Chitaka is in the fourth year of her PhD studies, and was nominated for her work on the nature of the plastics found on Cape Town beaches, which was published in an international scientific journal this year. Melanie Samson, University of the Witwatersrand (Gauteng) Academic Samson works closely with informal reclaimers who see themselves as the last line of defence before the rubbish hits landfills, extracting recyclables from waste and redirecting them into the recycling value chain. According to the CSIR, informal reclaimers save municipalities up to R748-million a year in landfill space.

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PET-trepreneur of the Year Makhabisi Recycling and Trading Co (Gauteng) The Boksburg-based Makhabisi Recycling and Trading is a 100% black female-owned business that has been reducing landfill, creating community awareness and providing much-needed employment for 60 people. Nzima Recycle Centre (Eastern Cape) Nzima started out in 2006 with owners and founders Tommy and Jeanine Glad, having just R50 in their pockets. Today, the business employs 14 people and handles 20 tonnes of PET plastic bottles per month.

Local Authority Recycling Innovation Drakenstein Municipality (Western Cape) Drakenstein Municipality has transformed the Wellington landfill site from a crime hotspot into a safe, thriving recycling community, providing a source of income for 30 entrepreneurs.

Recycling Partnership Gamechanger Fair Cape Dairies (Western Cape) When Fair Cape Dairies changed its packaging from a white PET plastic bottle to a clear one, it received feedback that recyclers were not accepting the milk bottles, which ended up in landfills. Today, each clear bottle is not only recyclable, but is also made with 50% recycled PET (rPET).

Recycled Product of the Year Corruseal (Western Cape) As a national manufacturer and supplier of packaging to a wide range of industries, Corruseal made the decision to use only locally sourced and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) strapping.

Best Community Breakthrough Initiative Angels Resource Centre (Northern Cape) Eddie Kampher set up a recycling opportunity for under resourced communities in the Northern Cape. His Waste to Art programme teaches people how to sort, clean, bale and even create functional furniture and art. A total of 30 entrepreneurs, who were previously homeless or unemployed, are now selling to local buy-back centres and earning a monthly income.

Public Campaign of the Year Thrive (Western Cape) Thrive works with local schools to adopt more sustainable practices and rewards the greenest schools for their efforts. It also connects them with buy-back businesses for the collection of recyclables separated by the students, which allows the school to generate additional income.

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Women in agriculture and food security The Agricultural Research Council (ARC) celebrates the role that women have played in the agriculture, science and food security sectors, and highlights its leaders who have found success in their careers within these fields. Petronella Chaminuka (PhD) Dr Chaminuka is the senior manager and principal economist in the Economic Analysis Unit of the ARC. She holds a PhD from the environmental economics and natural resource economics group of Wageningen University and Research (WUR) in the Netherlands and an MSc in agricultural economics from the University of Zimbabwe. Her PhD research focused on economic modelling of land use options for rural communities living on the border of Kruger National Park. She estimated economic losses associated with wildlife/livestock interactions for livestock farmers and explored the potential for integrated wildlife/livestock land uses. Dr Chaminuka was awarded research grants by the International Foundation for Science (Sweden) and Wildlife Conservation Society (USA). She has taken numerous career-building short courses, which include subjects such as leadership development, gender integrated planning, multi-stakeholder processes of rural innovation, interactive learning competency for rural innovation and veterinary extension communication. She has more than 20 years’ international experience working as an academic, researcher and facilitator in rural development processes. Before joining the ARC, Dr Chaminuka was a senior lecturer in agricultural economics at the University of Limpopo and an associate of the International Centre for Development-Oriented Research in Agriculture (ICRA).

Dr Salmina Mokgehle (PhD) Dr Mokgehle grew up in Limpopo, South Africa. She received her PhD from the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Dr Mokgehle is a researcher at the ARC Vegetable and Ornamental Plants (ARC-VOP). Her research focuses on water management, phytochemical profiling of medicinal plants, essential oils analysis and nutritional water productivity of indigenous leafy vegetables. Indigenous leafy vegetables and medicinal plants play an important part in alleviating hunger, malnutrition and major systems of indigenous medicine to treat several common ailments. The research has implications for indigenous plants production and conservation, especially for endangered indigenous species. Dr Mokgehle’s research highlights the significance of medicinal plants in drug development, and promotes indigenous knowledge and adoption of the plants because of their high micronutrients including iron, zinc, vitamins A and C. Dr Mokgehle shared her research findings with several scientific communities, published in peer-reviewed journals and has contributed to the training of postgraduate students. She received the Best Presentation Award at the fifth International Conference on Agriculture and Horticulture and the tenth African Crop Science Society (ACSS).

Dr Ashira Roopnarain (PhD) Dr Ashira Roopnarain is presently a researcher and acting head of the Microbiology and Environmental Biotechnology Research Group at the ARC – Soil, Climate and Water (ARC-SCW). She obtained her PhD in molecular and cell biology from the University of the Witwatersrand in 2014, focusing on biodiesel production from microalgae. Dr Roopnarain continued working in the field of bioenergy generation during a postdoctoral fellowship at ARC-SCW under the mentorship of Professor Rasheed Adeleke. During her tenure as a postdoctoral, Dr Roopnarain gained expertise in various research areas including soil beneficial microbes, waste-to-energy research and biofertiliser research, and made a significant contribution to the establishment of

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ADVERTORIAL a biogas research laboratory at ARC-SCW. She is currently involved in the management and upkeep of the laboratory, supervising postgraduate students and conducting research projects. Dr Roopnarain has published scientific articles in international, peer-reviewed journals as well as chapters in books and has presented her research at national and international conferences. She is the recipient of several awards and achievements: Carnegie Women’s Scholarship for Undergraduate Studies (2005), Member of the Golden Key International Honour Society (2005-present), National Research Foundation (NRF) Scholarship (MSc & PhD) (2009-2012), University of the Witwatersrand Postgraduate Merit Award (2010-2013) and NRF Scarce Skills Postdoctoral Fellowship (2015-2017). Dr Roopnarain aspires to excel in her career as a researcher and to conduct research that will result in environmental remediation, upliftment of communities as well as food and energy security.

Dr Farai Muchadeyi (PhD) Dr Muchadeyi is the Senior Manager: Research for the Biotechnology Platform of the ARC in South Africa. She holds a PhD in animal and molecular genetics from Goettingen University, Germany. Dr Muchadeyi’s research interests are in the characterisation, sustainable utilisation and conservation of livestock genetic resources. She has worked on animal genetic diversity and characterisation of indigenous animal genetic resources since 2004 and has published over 50 peer-reviewed articles in this field. Her current research involves the application of genomics and population genetic tools in unravelling the genetic diversity and identifying adaptive features associated with livestock species from marginalised farming environments. She is passionate about investigating how genetic adaptation can be harnessed in mainstream commercial agriculture. Dr Muchadeyi’s other projects involve the identification of the causal mutations of genetic disorders and the inclusion of molecular genetic marker information in selection programs. She also heads the ARC animal genetics and genomics research group at the biotechnology platform, managing various projects on livestock and wildlife genomics. She has mentored and supervised to completion seven PhDs, eight MScs and one BTec. She is currently a supervisor and mentor to one PostDoc, eight PhDs and two MSc students who are training in advanced and statistical genomics relevant to the livestock industry of the smallholder and commercial farming sectors.

Dr Kgabo Martha Pofu (PhD) Dr Pofu is a researcher at ARC-Vegetable and Ornamental Plants. She completed a B Agricultural Management and B Agric Mgt Honours degree in plant production in 2002 and 2003, respectively, at the University of the North. She then entered the ARC under the Professional Development Program (PDP) where she completed her Master of Agricultural Management in 2008 and PhD in 2012. Dr Pofu completed her PhD at the University of Limpopo, where she used Cucumis africanus and Cucumis myriocarpus to illustrate that these indigenous plants to South Africa were resistant to the widely distributed and highly injurious Meloidogyne species in South Africa. The ultimate aim was to use the two plant species as nematode-resistant rootstocks in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production since watermelon cultivars have no genotypes that are resistant to Meloidogyne species. Also, she demonstrated the first relationship between an insect and nematodes, whereby an insect breaks nematode resistance in plants. She joined the ARC-Vegetable and Ornamental Plants as a researcher (plant nematologist) in 2013, where she established a nematology laboratory with the help of postgraduate students. Her research focus is towards the use of nematode-plant resistance since the area has gained increased interest as one of the nematode control intervention strategies upon the global withdrawal of fumigant synthetic nematicides in 2005. Dr Pofu developed various projects with the aim of conceiving an integrated nematode management strategy (INM), which would entail chemicals, bionematicides, phytonematicides and biological control agents. INM would benefit both smallholder and large-scale farmers in terms of nematode management in crop production leading to sustainable food security. Furthermore, she is engaged in community development projects through raising awareness of the damage caused by plant-parasitic nematodes in crop production through farmer workshops. Dr Pofu released the first report on the screening of sweet potato cultivars in South Africa, published in Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica-Soil and Plant Science (Pofu et al., 2017). In terms of research funding, she receives support from the private as well as public sectors. Her work has generated more than 30 journal articles, shared internationally and nationally. She has presented her work at more than ten international conferences. She has trained more than 50 postgraduate students from BSc fourth year to MSc and PhD levels, and has taken career-building short courses such as a senior manager programme (UP) and advanced operations management (UCT). ARC encourages more woment to build their career in the agriculture and science sectors. Young women are welcome to apply for development programmes at ARC, to develop and further their studies. ARC believes that poverty can be conquered through science.

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World Skills - 1995 to 2019


I ju



OTTC is a leading practical training provider in Commercial and Industry Refrigeration, Aire refrigeratio Heat-pump Conditioning, Ammonia, e th Refrigeration, t lov Engineering andnControls Systems, Electrical for R & AC and Transport Refrigeration since 1992. The OTTC training courses are designed according to International Standards and Worldskills requirements where 80 countries have agreed to test their competitors in competition. OTTC

OTTC has won the SA National Gold in the Trade of Refrigeration & AC competition 10 times and since then 8 of their students have been chosen to represent South Africa in the International Worldskills Competition. OTTC takes pride in the company philosophy of training excellence and has tailored its courses to cover the entire spectrum ofSouth technical knowledge, Africa both practical and theoretical, to achieve confident 24 YEARS WORLD SKILLS PARTICIPATION. 1995 - 2019with the and informed decision-making combined appropriate skills. -OPEN TRADE TRAINING CENTRE

World Skills - 1995 to 2019

OTTC believes that the quality of training must be relevant and practical to prepare their learners for various situations encountered in the workplace.

OTTC is a leading practical training provider in OTTC has won the SA National Gold in the Trade of Commercial and Industry Refrigeration, AirRefrigeration & AC competition 10 times and since then Worldskills International Competitions: Results From 1999 To 2017 Conditioning, Ammonia, Refrigeration, Heat-pump 8 of their students have been chosen to represent South Systems, Electrical Engineering and Controls for Africa in the International Worldskills Competition. TRADE 38 REFRIGERATION - All OTTC Participants R & AC and Transport Refrigeration since 1992. OTTC takes pride in the company philosophy of ACHIVED The OTTC training courses are designed training excellence and has tailored its courses to% RESULT FROM YEAR HOSTING RESULT OTTC PARTICIPANT FROM GOLD according toCOUNTRY International Standards cover the entire spectrum of technical knowledge, GOLD and MEDAL MEDAL Worldskills requirements where 80 countries both practical and theoretical, to achieve confident have agreedCANANDA to test their competitors in and499 informed combined 91% with the 1999 MONTREAL 547 BURT decision-making BOUWER competition. appropriate skills. 2005




OTTC believes that the quality548 of training must be459 relevant practical to prepare 84% JAPAN SHIZUOKA IVAN and THERON








2011 2013 2015 2017



OTTC CELEBRATING 27 YEARS South Africa 1992 - 2019

‘Specialists in commercial refrigeration’ Tel: 011 794 3234 • Fax: 011 794 4662

Unit 1, Laserdowns Business Park, Johan Street, Honeydew PO Box 7946 Westgate 1734



‘Specialists in commercial refrigeration’ Tel: 011 794 3234 • Fax: 011 794 4662

South Africa

Unit 1, Laserdowns Business Park, Johan Street, Honeydew PO Box 7946 Westgate 1734



their learners for various situations encountered in the workplace.



Worldskills International Competitions: Results From 1999 To 2017 ENGLAND LONDON 544 478 DE WET BRITZ 88% TRADE 38 REFRIGERATION - All OTTC Participants YEAR











91% 89%



81% 84%






























OTTC ammonia training plant.

OTTC CO2 training plant.

Geoff Alder | Dris Fouche, Assessment | Hans Damhuise

Geoff Alder | Dris Fouche, Assessment | Hans Damhuise

OTTC practical diploma training plants

OTTC trains their students to participate in the international World Skills competitions OTTC practical diploma training plants OTTC plant. OTTC training plant. PO Boxammonia 14532,training Dersley, Springs, 1569 | Tel/Fax NoCO +27 11 816 2580 or +27 11 366 1219 2 mailto: / | Website: and

OTTC trains their students to participate in the international World Skills competitions

PO Box 14532, Dersley, Springs, 1569 | Tel/Fax No +27 11 816 2580 or +27 11 366 1219 mailto: / | Website: and

SEE YOU IN RUSSIA, KAZAN. 23-24 August 2019 • WorldSkills 2019 - SOUTH AFRICA SEE YOU IN RUSSIA, KAZAN. 23-24 August 2019 • WorldSkills 2019 - SOUTH AFRICA

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Skills Development

Solving the unemployment crisis BY JOSHUA COX*

Up to 700 000 new people enter the South African labour market each year, yet over the last five years we have created only 270 000 to 300 000 new jobs per annum. To absorb the new job seekers our economy would need to grow at around 10%. The projected growth for this year is a mere 1.5%. The task ahead is a monumental one.


xperts cite the failure of our economy to adapt to an over-abundance of unskilled labour as a key contributor to the problem. Labour-intensive industries have become increasingly mechanised and are controlled by a few key players. These factors have led to job shedding and have made it harder for new firms to enter the industry. Recently, President Cyril Ramaphosa has made much about the potential of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) to address the crisis. There have also been strong arguments made that 4IR will only exacerbate current inequalities, if we don’t first improve education outcomes and digital inclusion. The claim made by government-backed research that 4IR will

create 4 million jobs over the next decade seems overly ambitious at best. Of the jobs that 4IR will create, few will be accessible to those languishing in unemployment. What’s more, many low-skilled jobs will come under threat from further automation as 4IR gains momentum. So, where do the opportunities to address this problem lie? There is no doubt that fixing our broken education system and equipping jobseekers with the right skills are critical pieces of the puzzle. This puzzle is no mean feat and even then, skilled graduates, too, face challenges in finding work. Statistics for 2019 show that 31% of tertiary graduates are unemployed.

Photo by Dreamtime


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Skills Development Growing the right industries Recently, Duma Gqubule, the director of the Centre for Economic Development and Transformation had some good advice for President Ramaphosa: “Steer the economy towards sectors such as construction, manufacturing, agro-processing and labour-intensive sectors. We can give incentives such as subsidies to companies that go into these sectors.” This recommendation makes good sense. It is all too easy to get distracted by the 4IR red herring. Keeping up with global trends is important, no doubt. However, in a country as unequal as South Africa our GDP performance is arguably less important than looking at which industries are contributing to the GDP.

Much of the focus around job creation has been on growing the formal economy and looking at opportunities within big business. This is not wrong. We should however not discount the potential within the informal sector. Increased support for small, emerging businesses would go a long way to addressing the unemployment crisis we find ourselves in.

Photo by Fix Forward

Ailing construction industry Increased government spending on infrastructure has driven significant economic growth for China in the last two decades. Recently their economic growth has slowed alongside a decrease in spending on infrastructure. This is an important correlation for our government to note. Here at home, construction companies have come under pressure from a pullback in government spending on infrastructure. Many have not survived. This has a knock-on effect for the sub-contractors who have relied on the larger players to provide them with work.

The claim made by government-backed research that 4IR will create 4 million jobs over the next decade seems overly ambitious at best.

The informal sector opportunity Whilst large infrastructure projects have been declining, there has been an upturn in the housing market. People who purchase homes typically do renovations and maintenance either before, or soon after moving in. The job creation opportunity in this sector of construction is tremendous, for an industry that is overall in decline. Home renovations and maintenance are typically undertaken by informal, small-scale service providers. Everyone is looking for a cheap deal and the ‘bakkie builder’ often meets this need. The informal nature and total lack of accountability has made it the ideal playing field for fly-bynight operators, however. Consumers who use informal service providers take on a big risk. The sector is ripe for disruption. In our work of supporting grassroots contractors and connecting them to clients we have seen the value that increased accountability and transparency can bring. Consumers are getting a better experience by accessing contractors through a trusted intermediary. And the contractors’ businesses are thriving. Last year alone, our contractors’ businesses grew by an average of 35%. This is not as a measure of revenue but of the number of people they employ.

Statistics for 2019 show that 31% of tertiary graduates are unemployed.

Fix Forward hand-picks the best building and maintenance contractors and connects them to people wanting work done on their home or office. *Joshua Cox is the founder of Fix Forward; a company that offers entrepreneurship training to tradesmen and connects them to people looking for small-scale contractors who can provide high quality services but that lack the skills and resources to access the market.

Open Trade Training Centre Open Trade Training Centre (OTTC) is a leading training provider of commercial and industrial refrigeration and air-conditioning training in South Africa. Founded in 1992 by Peter and Isolde Döbelin to address the shortage of vocational skill training within this sector. The company’s mission is to transfer relevant technical knowledge and work skills to workers, practitioners, entrepreneurs and employers alike. The Green Economy Journal (GEJ) asked OTTC a few questions. GEJ: How is OTTC helping to offer skills to new entrants into the job market and what sectors do you see most able to absorb new applicants? OTTC: We offer a two-week Try-A-Trade course from time to time. All students that have completed the OTTC beginner’s program are employable and are absorbed into the industry immediately. The OTTC practical, technical and ammonia technician diploma holders are either working in high positions all over in the world or have started their own business. GEJ: What courses does OTTC offer for those wanting to either gain or expand skills in the renewable energy sector? OTTC: An applicant must have a good practical qualification. OTTC includes practical training on live-size model plants in all courses. GEJ: Can you comment on the likely increase for skills in the renewable energy sector and what courses OTTC offers for these skills? OTTC: We are planning a full program on renewable energy from 2020.

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Nothing goes to waste


Among the factors driving the reduction of waste is that landfill space throughout South Africa is filling up. What remains of it comes at a high cost and this poses a future risk to high waste-generating sectors that have no waste management strategies in place. One such sector is the hospitality industry.


ith these facts to hand, Sun International chose to embark on a zero waste-to-landfill journey at the Wild Coast Sun resort in the Eastern Cape. At the time however, no organisation in Africa had yet achieved this target and so the Wild Coast Sun has become the first resort in Africa to receive a Green Building Council Net Zero Waste rating. The achievement of zero waste-to-landfill posed significant challenges because of the complexity of the Wild Coast Sun’s business operations and that the majority of the waste generated by their customers, concessionaires and restaurants is post-consumer waste, which means it is a mix of items and contamination. Sonja Stroud, the safety, health and environmental officer at the Wild Coast Sun led the zero waste-to-landfill project, and in December 2016, appointed Recycle 4 Africa as their waste management partners. The result is 100% of non-hazardous waste diverted from landfill. Current legislation mandates how the 3% hazardous waste left over can be disposed of, so this is restricted to landfill due to the healthcare risks. In all great initiatives, partnerships play an important role. GCX is Sun International’s sustainability partner. They specialise in zero waste-to-

landfill, providing advice to all the Sun International units and conducting the certification processes. Jennifer van Niekerk of GCX explains: “The Wild Coast Sun’s waste management strategy includes the composting of organic waste on site; recycling of recyclables by means of approved recyclers, donation and resale of reusable items; and the manufacturing of bricks from non-valuable, non-recyclable waste.” Brick manufacturing and recycling is conducted off-site with the assistance Recycle 4 Africa. They also work with Gayo Enterprises (an enterprise specifically created by Wild Coast Sun to aid in their waste management), who have been integral in achieving contaminant-free organic waste, which is then composted. Large volumes of compost produced, stimulated the development of the hotel’s vegetable gardens and the creation of a micro enterprise Vuka Uzenzele Trading. The GBCSA’s Net Zero Waste certification requires consistent criteria to be implemented that includes on-site waste recycling, regular waste stream audits and dynamic, operational management plans. This success story is testimony to the possibility of net zero achievements even for large and complex organisations that manage many external factors in their waste management strategies.

Through their waste management projects, the Wild Coast Sun have derived value from their waste, created jobs and sustainable businesses and reduced the risks posed to their operation by reliance on landfill.

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Shamwari’s tourism revenue preserves nature’s magic and majesty Conservation is expensive and crucial. Capital drawn by South Africa’s wild mysteries and magic, as well as socio-economic development, can fund it.


outh Africa faces major challenges and opportunities: to develop an inclusive economy that addresses poverty, unemployment and inequality while preserving the resources that sustain us. We must abdicate our unenviable position as the world leader in youth unemployment, while ensuring that future generations have food-, energy- and water-security. We must halt and redress the loss of species and natural habitats while embracing the much-vaunted Fourth Industrial Revolution. We must ensure that our economy and our people benefit indefinitely from the natural bounty that makes South Africa a preferred destination for visitors globally. And, of course, we need to provide our citizens with opportunities for dignity and livelihood, and to address issues like land restitution and rural poverty. At Shamwari Private Game Reserve there are glimpses of how these goals may be achieved; in concert with the magic of Africa’s wildlife and the science that can help sustain it, and with the power of investment. Humankind’s potential, and our potential as a nation, requires capital. An investment of USD25m by Shamwari’s owners, Investment Corporation Dubai, has funded the refurbishment of Shamwari’s six lodges. Importantly, it also enables the full-time employment of 325 people, mostly from the impoverished surrounding towns of Paterson and Alicedale. Well-managed conservation is costly, but done well, it’s also pro-poor. A recent independent study by the Terrestrial Ecology Research Unit at the University of Port Elizabeth has found that the economic benefits of conservation outweigh those of agriculture tenfold. But conservation also enables – and needs – the personal growth of those who dedicate their lives to it. One example is Frans Kgomontsho, who started working at Shamwari as a barman and seized the opportunity to train as a ranger. He is now one of Shamwari’s most sought-after guides. Here we see the meeting of the human spirit, our obligation as the planet’s dominant species to protect it, and our aspirations for fulfilling livelihoods. Kgomontsho’s path is similar to that of Shamwari’s CEO, Joe Cloete, who started working at Shamwari as a trainee ranger in 1992.

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CORPORATE PROFILE Nature, for all its almost magical resilience and ingenuity, is fragile. For example, the red-billed oxpecker poisoned en masse by cattle-dip, was extinct from the area in the Eastern Cape. Shamwari’s first step was to persuade the local farmers to change the dip they used. Next they captured 49 oxpeckers from the Kruger National Park and released them at Shamwari. When the oxpeckers sought out food, the animals panicked at having birds peck at them for the first time, fled in every direction, with the birds in pursuit. The experiment was thought to have failed, but when oxpeckers started appearing with dark bills (juveniles), the conservationists knew the birds were breeding. This a small but significant example of what can be achieved. Those who care about Africa’s wildlife and about its benefits to its people are enraged by poaching, habitat loss, canned hunting and declining biodiversity. But those fighting to preserve and restore its bounty can refine and expand their knowledge when they have the resources to do so. They learn for example that wildlife can be pressured by many things, even by the shape of its range. When Shamwari was rectangular in shape, the black-backed jackals, wild dogs and brown hyena were stressed because they had to cross the range of bigger predators. As the reserve expanded and became squarer, that stress abated. This understanding extends to behaviour we humans regard as a little bizarre: leopard tortoises eat the dung of carnivores for calcium; a newborn zebra’s first meal is some of its mother’s dung, which kick-starts fecal bacteria in the hind gut and enables it to eat grass within two days. Red hartebeest can eat grass as soon as the mother frees it after birth by eating its placenta.

It’s an understanding that in turn points to humankind’s ingenuity and symbiosis with nature: the river euphorbia tree secretes latex, which removes pigment from the skin of animals and humans. Some African tribes use it to mark their livestock. Black rhino and porcupines are the only animals known to eat it. This ever-deepening knowledge needs to happen in the context of nurturing a love and understanding of nature in young people, with 400 scholars a month visiting Shamwari free of charge. It needs to happen in context of its surrounding communities, with Shamwari’s vets conducting free clinics in local townships. We’ve seen how human ingenuity, passion and investment can help address some of our species’ most lamentable acts. For example, the Born Free Foundation on Shamwari’s land is home to big cats rescued from captivity. A lion rescued in a pitiable state in Romania, where it was confined to a cage and fed only spaghetti can live out its days under the African sun. As a species, we can do better than to ill-treat a magnificent creature so that it is stunted with nutritional osteodystrophy. An example of that effort is Shamwari’s new wildlife rehabilitation centre. It was built specifically so that injured or orphaned animals may be reintroduced to the wild rather than being habituated to humans and then handed over to the petting industry, and possibly ending up in canned hunts. We must see this all in the context of the global economy and our potential as a destination for foreign exchange. We must simply do more and do better in marketing our country. Crucial to that is professionally managed, high-end black-owned ecotourism that enables employment and sustainable land use in rural areas, in turn funding conservation. Conservation is expensive and has never been more necessary. It needs tourists’ investment. It needs the passion of humans, for enterprise and for our continent. In enterprises like Shamwari and its ilk, it’s how that can work, to the benefit of all. +27 42 203-1111

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The façade of the new Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre at Shamwari Private Game Reserve overlooks animals’ enclosures,

Shamwari spearheads wildlife rehabilitation with major new facility A

t the facility, injured, ill or abandoned animals are treated and cared for before being released back to the wild. It’s part of the USD25m investment in Shamwari by the reserve’s owners, Investment Corporation Dubai. The new facility focuses on rehabilitating animals without habituating them to humans, so that they can be returned to their natural habitat. Avoiding habituation is important for cats, for example, as it eliminates the risk of the animals entering the petting industry. It’s an important step in the fight to preserve Africa’s biodiversity and natural splendour, and which has seen the area in which the reserve is situated declared a Global Biodiversity Hotspot, and Shamwari a protected environment. The wildlife rehabilitation centre, considered amongst the best and most successful in the country, has been instrumental in reintroducing everything from the big five to the flightless dung beetle and oxpecker to the area and maintaining an ecological balance. Meticulous care, backed by science, has made Shamwari’s rehabilitation operation an epicentre for successful wildlife rehabilitation and the new facilities will be integral to that. It will be also be the new home to the wildlife rehabilitation team under the stewardship of wildlife vet Dr Johan Joubert and ecologist, John O’Brien.

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Left: An orphaned white rhino calf in its enclosure with Jeremiah the sheep, who befriends many of the rhino and keeps them company. Right: Carefully structured enclosures ensure animals at the Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre have minimal contact with humans, preventing them from becoming habituated, which would compromise them being rewilded.

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Above: The entrance to the Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre lists the extinction dates of 20 species, from the Mexican grizzly bear in 1964 to the vaquita in 2019, a stark warning of the need for conservation of vulnerable and endangered species. Above right: The foyer and verandah of the Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre overlook the animals’ enclosures. It’s where they and their team will apply and share their accumulated experience, knowledge and expertise with professionals across Southern Africa and beyond. It’s also integral to the Shamwari experience, providing a rare insight into the complex business and day-to-day realities of environmental conservation. Over the past 25 years Shamwari has restored much of the region’s rich ecology and attracted or re-introduced an abundance of animals, birds and insects. From the big five to the flightless dung beetle, each is a conservation success story. An essential component of its operation is the expansion, management, development and rehabilitation of its land following many years of farming. This effort is paying dividends in the resurgence of wildlife and biodiversity to which Shamwari is now home. The reserve’s wildlife rehabilitation operation has been essential to this success and has gained local and international recognition for its pioneering work. Our continent’s once-bountiful wildlife is under pressure as never before, so rehabilitation of sick, abandoned or injured wildlife is an important component of wildlife preservation. It’s simply not a matter

of allowing nature to take its course, allowing them to die and buying some new ones. Shamwari Private Game Reserve established exceptional conservation credentials early on as systematic, scientific rehabilitation and considered game restocking programmes were implemented. The reserve is in what was one of the richest wildlife areas in southern Africa, before much of it was destroyed by hunting and over-farming. Indigenous wildlife included the Cape Buffalo, Cape Leopard, Cape Lion, Cape Hunting Dog and Black Rhino. The region is renowned for its ecological diversity and is home to five of South Africa’s seven biomes. Seven years after opening, Shamwari reinforced its conservation and preservation reputation when it partnered with the Born Free Foundation to launch an animal rescue and educational programme, with five bush enclosures where African cats are cared for. Other reserves, including those in the north of the country, regularly consult with Shamwari wildlife experts and send animals there for safekeeping from poaching and to be rehabilitated and released. The facility attracts veterinary students from around the world.

For further information, please visit

The spacious, airy reception area of the Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre.

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Photo by Pixabay

Bone for bone,

the cost to our lions BY MELISSA BAIRD

The recent North Gauteng’s high court ruling that set aside the 2017 and 2018 quotas for the export of lion bones, and declared them unlawful and invalid, prompted a deeper look into what the trade involves. I spoke to Pricilla Stiglingh from the NSPCA, who helped clarify the scale of the issue and its role in increasing captive bred lions that are used in the tourist attractions that rely on lion petting as a significant part of their income. MB: Why did the National Council of SPCAs (NSPCA) sue the Department of Environmental Affairs over the issue of considering the conditions of lions when allocating quotas? PS: The NSPCA is opposed to the captive lion industry in its totality. For years now the NSPCA has fought and challenged the industry, only to be ignored, whilst so many lions in captivity are subjected to animal cruelty. The CoP17

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decision to establish a restricted lion bone quota meant increased animal cruelty in an industry that is poorly regulated with various animal well-being concerns. The NSPCA had no choice but to seek legal advice for solutions and take the matter forward to court. The NSPCA’s locus standi/right to approach the court was based on animal welfare grounds, due to NSPCA’s legal mandate in enforcing the Animals Protection Act No. 71 of 1962.

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Tourism We also submitted information about the concerns of the lion bone trade regarding its possible impact on wild lion populations and for the quota to possibly contribute to stimulate a growing legal and illegal demand. The NSPCA’s concerns are based on both animal welfare and conservation concerns with regards to the lion bone trade as these two concepts are interlinked. MB: Where do the lion bones come from? PS: Lion bones for export purposes may only be sourced from captive lion facilities in South Africa in line with a decision reached at CoP17 in 2016. Based on what a captive lion facility is registered for in terms of its restricted activities and permit conditions under TOPS regulations, each captive lion facility may then apply to export lion bones to their local provincial nature conservation department, provided they have the necessary permits. Each lion bone skeleton needs to be DNA sampled (to verify if it is a captive lion and where it was sourced from), weighed (to ensure that one skeleton is exported per consignment) and packaged at the source of the captive lion facility with the correct permits at hand to ensure legal acquisition – all whilst an official from the relevant provincial nature conservation department is on the premises. Consignments are both DNA sampled and weighed at the airport to verify if it is the same skeleton packaged at the source and to pick up on illegal trade. One problem with this system is that the results of the second DNA test taken at the airport only come back once the shipment has already left South Africa. In addition, a CITES export permit is required from South Africa, but not for the country of the intended destination, meaning the lion bone shipment disappears into the system without traceability. The captive lion industry did not solely grow to the scale it is today and is a result of the lion bone trade. The lion bone trade is one of the many commercialised activities contributing to the captive lion industry. Apart from lions being purposefully bred for the lion bone trade as a primary product, various other commercialised activities within the industry are interlinked with the lion bone trade. Some of the lions used for other activities eventually end up in the lion bone market, such as cubs used for cub petting that eventually become too big for interactions with public; to lions used for exhibition, hunting, and breeding purposes or lions that die whilst in captivity due to illness or old age. MB: How big is the lion bone market? PS: The Minister of the Department of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries (DEFF) estimates that there are approximately 7 979 lions in captivity in South Africa, in 366 captive lion facilities. The African lion is a protected species and as such any person that wants to carry out a restricted activity requires a permit. The captive lion industry is a massive industry with registered facilities allowed to carry out several restricted activities as per their permit conditions, such as the keeping, hunting, capture, breeding, transport and trade in lions. Following the seventeenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (CoP17) of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), a decision was reached for a controlled and restricted annual lion bone quota to be sourced from South Africa’s captive lion industry, provided that the trade in lion bone must not be detrimental to the survival of the species. Prior to CoP17, the South African government allowed for the export of lion bone primarily as a by-product or secondary product of hunting of lions. For many years prior to CoP17, bone was exported with no scientific basis and export was based on what was available with no restrictions. International and local opposition towards canned hunting and the hunting of captive bred lion, including a call for closure of the industry and bans to import trophies into certain countries such as the USA have resulted in a reduction in hunting of captive bred lion, which contributed

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The captive lion industry did not solely grow to the scale it is today and is a result of the lion bone trade.

to an industry increasingly shifting the export of lion bone as a secondary product to lions bred for the lion bone trade as a primary product. A study conducted by SANBI indicates that lion bone sales stands at the fourth highest overall mean rank in terms of the core purpose of facilities in South Africa, with lion bones sales being one of the top income-generating activities for facilities. The South African lion bone export market has growth significantly since 2007, with 2016 indicating unrestricted exports of more than double the restricted lion bone export quota of 800 set in 2017 in line with CITES requirements. MB: Who are the key players, sellers/exporters, i.e. who are allocated quotas? PS: Lion bones are exported either via South African intermediary lion bone traders that specialise in buying skeletons from various suppliers, such as captive lion facilities and selling/exporting them to overseas buyers in Southeast Asia. Some captive lion facilities also appear to have direct links to Asian markets, using non-South African traders in Southeast Asia to export lion bones. MB: Where are the key markets? Why do people buy lion bone in these places? PS: South Africa is known to have exported large quantities of lion bone sourced from captive animals to China, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Vietnam and Thailand. The use of lion bone and other lion products in Africa is traditionally used for medicinal purposes, ceremonies, rituals, decorations and as talismans. MB: Is there a black market for lion bone, and is this driving lion poaching? PS: In a report compiled by TRAFFIC entitled: The Legal and Illegal Trade in African Lions, concerns are raised that the recent demand for lion bone products in Asia may have an impact on wild lion populations across its range. Seizures in Mozambique, Zambia, South Africa and Tanzania showed that some illegal trade in lion products has taken place. Research is ongoing with regards to this topic. MB: Why is lion bone trade legal in South Africa? PS: Lion bone trade is legal in South Africa, as it forms part of the wildlife industry’s sustainable utilisation of natural resources principle. MB: Is there a legitimate rationale for trading lion bone? Is this practice part of a larger scheme that promotes conservation in some way? PS: It is both internationally and domestically recognised that the captive lion industry and all its activities, including the lion bone trade holds no conservation value, as there is no accredited scientific information – to date – to back up such a claim. The captive lion industry is a commercialised industry and the lion bone trade forms part of this commercialised industry as a financial incentive. The NSPCA is of the opinion that government allowed the industry to grow to what it is today, continuing to fuel the supply-demand chain, thus creating a risk to wild lion populations if the industry is closed down. This is a complex issue which requires further research to understand market drivers.

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Lions in captivity BY THE LION & SAFARI PARK

Animal right activists should be greatly admired for their welfare concerns and efforts. Most activists are fair and sensible but it is important to note that there are unintended consequences that may seriously impact on the welfare of local people.


hen the new Lion & Safari Park opened on the 16th of July 2016, we stated in numerous statements and correspondences that we had every intention of running the new park without lion cub interaction and that this activity would not be available when we moved from the old Lion Park to our new facility. Unfortunately, this led to a dramatic and unexpected drop in the number of visitors and tour operators. We were told in no uncertain terms that the high demand for cub interaction was causing them to rather visit our opposition where such activities are still offered. As interaction with animals is still the major drawcard in our business, approximately 30% of our revenue will be lost if interaction with predators is eradicated. This would make it impossible to sustain a profitable business. The true consequences of the closure of the Lion & Safari Park and other similar facilities are that all employees will lose their jobs and struggle to find new ones, more than 200 families will be impacted by the loss of income. Thousands of schoolchildren who visit the park and other facilities every year as part of an education program will be denied the opportunity to see a variety of predators and other wild animals. Hundreds of captive lions will have to be euthanised as there is very little demand presently to send these animals to credible zoos and parks.

We can assure everyone that our lion cubs are never sold to hunters, further proof of this is that all our old lions are still in our care.

to ensure that it is done safely with three qualified experienced guides present at all times, furthermore, no persons under the age of 18 or any person weighing less than 50kg are allowed on this activity. After 12 months of age we keep our lions on our property until they die of natural causes or we donate them to a PAAZA (Pan African Association of Zoos and Aquariums) / WAZA (World Associations of Zoos and Aquariums) accredited facility. We have, on our premises, over 50 lions, (some as old as 19) that are surplus to our requirements. This commitment means that we must lay out more capital to build enclosures, feed the lions, veterinary care etc. However, the number of births will soon equal the number of deaths which will make this obligation sustainable. We can assure everyone that our lion cubs are never sold to hunters, further proof of this is that all our old lions are still in our care. We abhor the concept of canned hunting and it is disappointing that wild assumptions and false accusations abound without evidence to support them. The detailed records that we keep on all our lions are open for inspection to any authorities, organisations or public that wish to see them. All our cubs are micro-chipped so that their movements can be monitored throughout their lives and physically inspected. Most of our males have been vasectomised to control breeding. There are thousands of people who visit our facility and enjoy the interaction with lions. They come away marvelling at this unique opportunity and the overwhelming majority see absolutely no negative impact on the young lions. In contrast, they often praise the park for the healthy condition of our lions. We are aware of the fact that there are similar facilities who are not welfare compliant and as a result the Lion & Safari Park is often painted with the same brush as those who give the industry a negative image.

CONSERVATION CONSCIOUSNESS Although we take pride in animal welfare and the way we look after our cubs, we realise that interaction with cubs will have to stop eventually. We therefore decided that when the playing field is level and all facilities have stopped cub interaction through legislation we would stop as well. Our main concern in the meanwhile is the survival of our staff and business until the legislation is passed. After our cubs are too old for interaction, which is only a three-month period, we take them on lion walks. We walk with the young lions up to 12 months of age. This hour-long activity with visitors provides stimulation for the lions and their enjoyment is evident as they eagerly jump into the vehicles for their walks. Lion walks are done under strict guidelines

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At the Lion & Safari Park, conservation plays an essential role in monitoring the environment and promoting environmental consciousness. Conservation is defined as the sensible protection and preservation of something such as natural resources and the prevention or degradation of natural resources. At the Lion & Safari Park this is combined with environmental education where individuals obtain awareness of various aspects in the environment pertaining to the park. Guests gain valuable knowledge which leads to skills and values to conserve their immediate environment.

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