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Measurable Security

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Melissa Baird Nicole Cameron Shanice Daniels Linda Tom Shannon Manuel Gordon Brown Vania Reyneke Glenda Kulp, Louna Rae, Farai Maunga FA Print Edward MacDonald Alive2Green Projects Cape Media House 28 Main Road Rondebosch 7700 Cape Town TEL: 021 447 4733 FAX: 086 694 7443 WEBSITES: green-economy-journal/ DISTRIBUTION AND COPY SALES ENQUIRIES: ENQUIRIES: ADVERTISING ENQUIRIES: EDITORIAL PROPOSALS: Company Registration Reg Number: 2005/003854/07 VAT Number: 4750243448 ISSN No.: 2410-6453 Published: August 2016

Economy G





alive2green p r o j e c t s



Measurable Security

GHG EMISSIONS It all adds up


Human waste for profit Issue 27

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Reaping the benefits 10027

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All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or in any form without the prior written permission of the Publisher. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the Publisher or the Editor. All editorial and advertising contributions are accepted on the understanding that the contributor either owns or has obtained all necessary copyrights and permissions. The Publisher does not endorse any claims made in the publication by or on behalf of any organizations or products. Please address any concerns in this regard to the Editor.

As the end of the year approaches it gives one pause to consider the events that have been making headlines and new worry lines across the world. Irma was the largest recorded hurricane ever and if that was not enough, the earthquake in Mexico added to the natural forces raging. These are the “Acts of God” insurers use as a caveat and yet cause neighbours to wake up to their humanity. Except of course if you are Donald Trump. Despite the sights of devastation that populated social media one image stands out more than anything and that is of a seahorse photographed with its prehensile tail wrapped around an earbud; an example of just how polluted the seas are with plastic detritus. Plastic waste in the ocean has serious implications for the food chain because the micro particles of plastic (it does not biodegrade) are permeating every aspect of the ecosystem. A side of plastic with your line fish perhaps – or accept the fact the seafood you eat will have a side order of plastic as part of its body that you will eat. Plastic, unlike Acts of God, is everyone’s issue and the pollution we “throw away” are a direct result of the convenience age and our dependence on fossil fuels for every day products. Waste was the once no-no place to go, we keep our toilet habits to ourselves (unless you enjoy scatological humour) and we throw things in the bin to be taken far away from where we live and play. These habits are reaching tipping points of implication. So what’s the good news? Waste is a viable and profitable business, it can provide energy and it can provide income streams for the poorest slum dwellers and change their lives. In this issue, you will engage with some innovative waste technologies and see for yourselves that there is money in it. Blockchain technology is a major disruptor and solution provider in the endeavour to keep records that are unhackable, unchangeable and less open to fraud and theft. It is going to alter the way in which information is stored and processed and is already having impacts on the financial systems, logistics and sustainability certification around the world. How will urban development be able to impact the health of the society of the future is another question that has some interesting answers and solutions to address the unjust segregation of our history. These are just some of the subjects GEJ brings to you this month.


Melissa Baird

The Green Economy Journal is printed on Hi-Q Titan plus paper, manufactured by Evergreen Hansol a leading afforestation member acknowledged by FOA. Hi-Q has Chain of Custody certification, is totally chlorine free, and is PEFC, ISO 14001, ISO 9001 accredited. This paper is FSC certified.


Contents ISSUE 27, OCTOBER 2017

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NEWS AND UPDATES Waste to energy, property entrepreneurs sought, pesticides and off grid solutions for Zambia


INTERVIEW Gqi Raoleka, Chief Executive Officer - Pele Green Energy

8 10

FRESH START Social entrepreneurs offer a solution to human waste and bring hope to Kenya’s slums

GREEN HOUSE GAS REPORTING A short guide to what you need to know about those carbon emissions and how they add up


GREEN BUILDING Weighing up the benefits


WATER Challenging the economic framework of how water is managed


BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY assessing the implications for global supply chains and logistics


URBAN INTEGRATION Looking to the future of cities and their impact on social cohesion

28 3


More pesticides on our plates? The African Centre for Biodiversity (ACB) reacted quickly on the South African government’s draft amendments to legislation pertaining to the permitted levels of pesticide residue on food crops, termed Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). The ACB submitted comments to the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF), rejecting the permissive regulations on chemical use and voicing serious concerns over the government’s inadequate management of food systems. The proposed amendments exposes the government’s oversight of the gaps in regulations to date. The execution of existing policy is also hampered by a lack of clarity regarding mandates, responsibilities and accountability. Even though regulations on MRLs for international export are tightly regulated, it appears that the legislation and monitoring of chemicals in our food is currently not sufficient to fully ensure the safety of consumers. South Africans have to be educated and start advocating for more rigorous policy to protect their plates. Source:

U.S. citizens decide, what happened in Paris is not staying in Paris

Off the grid is going off the beaten track in Zambia Energy and financial services firm, Fenix International, is working to deploy pay-to-own solar home systems in Zambia, leveraging telecommunications giant MTN’s mobile money platform. In partnership with the Swedish Embassy in Zambia, Fenix is taking its first step in expanding its flagship product, ReadyPay Power, across Africa. ReadyPay Power provides off-grid customers access to affordable, expandable solar home systems. “Approximately 15-million Zambians live without access to the electrical grid, representing 80% of the total population and 95% of rural residents,” explains Fenix International CEO Lyndsay Handler. Fenix uses the continuous micro-payments through MTN’s mobile money to generate a credit score, thereby enabling customers to access additional system upgrades or financial services. In working towards the vision of reaching 850 000 rural Zambians by 2020, this solar home system is not only providing light and energy, but creating an innovative platform for possible growth and development. Source:

Mpact’s innovative investment in SA’s green economy Almost immediately after U.S. President Donald Trump chose to back out of the country’s commitment to the historic Paris Climate Change Agreement, a grassroots movement of active citizens, the United States Climate Alliance, rose up. Starting out with only three states participating, the alliance now boasts a membership of 13 states, as well as Puerto Rico. This does not only equal 33 percent of the country’s population, but also roughly $7.16 trillion of the nation’s GDP and covers a total of 1.3 million clean energy jobs. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists, the U.S. is currently the second largest contributor to greenhouse gasses globally. Through this commitment, citizens from across participating states are working together to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and build the foundation of hope for a cleaner future - a testimony to the possibilities for change in a truly united nation. Source:


Paper and plastics packaging company Mpact recently launched a R46-million liquid packaging plant at its Springs mill, in Ekurhuleni. The plant will recycle 25 000 t/y of liquid packaging products. Dr Edna Molewa, Minister of Environmental Affairs, praises this initiative as aligning with the National Development Plan’s aim to find alternative ways to convert waste into valuable resources. She highlighted the importance of innovative technological solutions, like the plant, that are implemented in the local recycling industry, but can also be exported to other countries. In pursuing the mission of South Africa becoming a zero wasteto-landfill society, she noted the importance of advancing commitment to a circular economy and employment creation, particularly within the green economy space. Mpact CEO, Bruce Strong, confirmed confidence in this mission by stating that paper recycling rates in South Africa are ahead of global recovery rates and comparable to that of developed countries. Source:


Calling all KZN entrepreneurs working in the property industry!

Inner city school receives Africa’s first Green Star Jeppe Park Primary is leading the way in greening South Africa’s education landscape as the first school in Africa to receive a Green Star rating. The Green Building Council South Africa announced this award, based on the school achieving a 4 Star Green Star SA Interiors v1 certification. During construction, an environmental management plan was implemented for all phases and construction waste was successfully reduced by 30%. The school also operates in an energy, water and waste efficient manner with a comprehensive operational waste management plan. Part of this plan includes the use of low emission printers and photocopy equipment, while low VOC compounds, adhesives, sealants and carpets reduce internal air pollutant levels. With a clever use of repurposed and locally sourced materials, naturally ventilated buildings and intentional school ground greening, this inner city Johannesburg school used to be a shoe factory, but now shines as a true upcycling success story. Source: Green Building Council South Africa

Property Point, a Growthpoint Properties initiative, is seeking motivated individuals running SMEs, working in the property industry, to join their award-winning two-year incubation programme. To date, this initiative has created 1669 jobs and R453 million in procurement opportunities generated for the 124 SMEs that have participated. This year, for the first time, it has opened its application process to KwaZulu-Natal entrepreneurs that specialise in areas such as electrical work, cleaning hygiene services, plumbing, landscaping, pest control, air-conditioning, fire protection services, security, waterproofing and damp-proofing, waste management, renovations, and painting. To be considered, entrepreneurs need to be based in or around Durban. Their businesses should be at least 51% black-owned, have operated for no less than two consecutive years and offer services in the property industry. They must have a track record of projects completed and be able to provide a minimum of five references. Application forms are available from or business details can be emailed to Source: Property Point

New technology ensures no energy is wasted The utilisation of Waste-to-energy (WtE) technology may prove to be a key tool to help South Africa progress up the Department of Environmental Affairs’ Waste Hierarchy, Jan Palm, President of IWMSA, believes. The WtE concept involves the physical, chemical and biological processes that turns waste into a resource for renewable energy. Municipal solid waste is recovered and, in order to extract the maximum value from the waste, the organic fraction then goes through a biological treatment process known as anaerobic digestion (AD). This happens in closed reactors which ensures that the two by-products, biogas and digestate, can be collected. The biogas is used as a source for energy production, whereas the digestate can be used to produce low-grade compost. The digestate can also be added to non-recyclable waste to be thermally treated through incineration or gasification, producing electricity, or pyrolysis, delivering useful products such as syngas and bio-oil. For more information, visit the Institute of Waste Management of Southern Africa’s website: Source: Reputation Matters



PELE GREEN ENERGY Views from a leading IPP

tariff structure that has a different price for peak periods. The timing proposed is very tight but attainable for the purposes of securing the PPA signatures.

How does the recent clarification from the DOE about the REIPPPP relating to the qualified go-forward in respect of pricing and timing affect your prospective projects? Please answer per technology - solar PV, concentrated solar, and wind. The proposed price amendments by the DoE has affected our entire R4 portfolio in the same manner i.e in both our wind and our solar projects the targeted price cap of 77cents per kw/h is difficult to achieve. The impact of this cap differs based on the technology, for instance our Solar CSP project on a kw/h basis cannot be compared to the wind projects that we will be closing as the CSP has a different


What is your current view of the outlook for the REIPPPP beyond 2020? What is at stake for the country in your view? Our outlook for renewable energy power demand post 2020 is positive, the only uncertainty at this point is the vehicle through which this renewable energy demand will be supplied. The latest version of the IRP that is being finalised will be concluded within the 1st half of 2018 if the current timetable is observed, this plan will reveal how the energy mix post 2020 will be shaped. The consensus is that the current surplus capacity that Eskom has will run dry post 2021 and new build energy will be required. From a cost and a timing perspective there is little argument against renewable energy being the preferred optimal energy source to meet this demand as tariff prices are projected to continue dropping. The vehicle of REIPPP or the creation of a different platform of incorporating new build energy is the only debate at this point, new build power will be required and it will need to be supplied. There

is no evidence to suggest that this new build power can be supplied more timeously, within cost and budget than through Independent Power Producers. Energy security is the fundamental risk at hand, linked to energy security is the stability of the economy itself. South Africa cannot afford to experience another point in time where our existing power generation fleet is unable to provide the foreseen energy demand required. We know when more capacity is required, the state models and accounts for this. The discontinuation of incorporating cheaper, faster and more reliable renewable energy power through Independent Power Producers increases the risk profile of our current generation fleet being unable to meet our demand curve post 2021. Have you been bidding on African projects and what is your view about the opportunity for utility scale projects in Africa? Please address issues of risk and price within this context. We have worked on conventional power opportunities as well as renewable energy opportunities in the rest of the African continent. Zambia and Senegal are 2 regions that I can highlight, in both these markets we have identified buying


programs that are structured with a strong suite of legal, financial and regulatory documentation. The absence of structured procurement programs introduces multiple risk layers to a project which positively correlates with increased tariffs to absorb the additional risk. In both these markets we have bid in the Scaling Solar Program which allows for lower tariff bids due to the strength of the underpin behind the PPA’s. We have also worked on bilateral bids which by sheer nature have involved longer timetables with more bespoke agreements being required and a higher risk profile of success being associated with the project.

positions in the projects that we are invested in, including extending the provision of PGE’s full management, technical and operations capabilities to the projects that we hold. Consolidation of the market will naturally take place due to the ever increasing capital requirements, we will actively analyse the secondary market to ensure that any complimentary portfolio and or companies will be brought into the Pele Energy Group.

In respect of embedded generation in SA - what business models has your company operated - turn key project for client or lease agreements? We have and are exploring both turn key and electricity sales lease agreement for clients. It all depends on the bespoke needs and requirements of our takers Briefly summarise the growth strategy for Pele Green Energy for the next 10 years? PGE will continue to follow new build growth opportunities in South Africa, the rest of the African market is our 5year goal with an emerging market footprint being our targeted long-term objective (5-10yrs). As an IPP that develops, owns and operates renewable energy projects at various stages of development, construction and operation we will always focus on ensuring that we are fully occupying the critical areas of the power plants life cycle and value chain. Our initial entry strategy was to secure a footprint through holding significant minority investments in power plants, the strategy has now evolved to holding majority equity



Fresh starts and clean living


rom the classrooms of MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) to an innovative solution addressing one of the developing world’s most uncomfortable problems, Sanergy is helping to build healthy and prosperous communities across the Kenyan landscape. A staggering 2.5 billion people in the world currently still lack access to hygienic sanitation, with inadequate sanitation being the second largest cause of disease in the world. This crisis is specifically pressing in emerging market cities, where 1100 of these urban spaces lack fully integrated sanitation systems with the scale and reach to support their fast-growing population. The figures are astounding and do not relate only to social and environmental concerns, but have a serious economic impact. Each year, developing countries lose 2% of GDP due to a loss of work


One of our Fresh Life Operators, Esther Munyiva has installed 4 Fresh Life Toilets for her community in Mukuru Kwa Reuben


entrepreneurs and communities, an exciting new business model was born. Sanergy now designs and builds low-cost, high-quality, toilet units, known as Fresh Life Toilets, and franchises them to community members who run them as a business or as a value-added service in the community. Through a systems-based approach, the business is thriving and to date has opened over 1,250 Fresh Life Toilets, offering almost 55,000 people access to affordable, clean sanitation. Their systemic approach enables Sanergy to integrate the entire sanitation value chain into a single model, and so doing, have created over 900 jobs in the process. Through informal settlements, they build a network of Fresh Life Operators – local residents who purchase and operate the sanitation facilities. This includes pay-per-use toilets, toilets in residential plots, as well as in schools, churches, and clinics. The franchisees charge a nominal fee for usage of the toilets, and can make up to $1,000 per year. Every franchisee gets training, marketing support, and a regular waste collection service. The waste is safely removed from the community by wheelbarrow, handcarts, and/or trucks. The wheelbarrows and handcarts ensure that Sanergy can install units in very rural areas where there are only narrow, unpaved roads as access points. At a centralised facility, the waste is then converted into useful end-products such as organic fertiliser, insect-based animal feed, and renewable energy. This sustainable waste conversion model is not only benefitting the local community, but also contributing to helping the Kenyan Ministry of Agriculture address the challenge of food security. Eighty percent of Kenyans rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, but in recent years agricultural productivity has been declining and soil degradation has been identified as the primary cause. Contributing to this problem, 1.2 million tons of

synthetic fertiliser is imported every year, leading to high transportation and tariff costs, which is ultimately borne by farmers. The Ministry has recommended that farmers need to use up to 10 tons of organic fertiliser per hectare to restore soil health. This being said, there is 27 million hectares of farmed land in Kenya, and thus a demand for 270 million tons of organic fertiliser each season. It is clear that a long-term solution is crucial for the environmental, social and economic health of this country and Sanergy may just be the vital link to a sustainable agricultural future. Through the value-chain approach to sanitation management, 2,467 metric tons of waste has been safely removed from the community and 100% of the waste safely treated in 2017. To produce fertiliser from this waste, Sanergy co-composts the waste with sawdust, other carbon sources and effective micro-organisms, which eliminates pathogens. The fertiliser produced restores soil health and increases crop yields by 30-100%. In addition to fertilisers, Sanergy also develops insect-based animal feed derived from black soldier fly larvae, fed on organic waste, and is currently conducting research on biogas and liquid-based fertilisers. Sanergy’s story is an inspiring example of strategic social entrepreneurship that is creating a sustainable impact through successful business practices, combined with broad-based local community participation. It also makes a strong case against foreign aid, which disempowers local communities, and shows the power of rethinking business-as-usual, specifically within a rural context. It begs the question, how can we in South Africa learn from this example to combine creative economic development with environmental management to innovate towards a sustainable and waste-free future?

productivity from sanitation-related diseases. The effects are intensified in slums, where over 1 billion people live. In Kenya’s slums, where Sanergy was launched in 2011, 8 million residents resort to unhygienic and undignified sanitation solutions, resulting in 4 million tons of sludge being dumped untreated into waterways each year. With a mind for business and a heart for dignified development, Sanergy's 3, then student, co-founders Ani Vallabhaneni, Lindsay Stradley and David Auerbach won the MIT Business Plan Competition for pitching sanitation systems that address the global sanitation challenge. They did this by proposing a model for converting human waste to fertiliser and renewable energy in developing countries. This was the match that ignited their fire for social entrepreneurship and they jumped on a plane to Kenya, where at current investment rates, complete sanitation coverage would take 150 years. In collaboration with local





Greenhouse Gas Reporting Regulations Adam Green - Sustainability Consultant - GCX


he repor ting system is par t of South Africa’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution under the Paris Climate Accord. This guide aims to at least put you on the right track. The release of the National Greenhouse Gas Reporting Regulations (NGER) earlier this year was intended to introduce a single national GHG reporting system that would enable the implementation of the long mooted Carbon Tax.

Firstly do you need to report? This depends on two main factors, namely the type of operations conducted at your company/facilities and the size of the operations. The regulations contain a full list of operations/activities and the thresholds for reporting. These activities are based on IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) guidance. A full list of operations and thresholds are included as Annexure 1 to the regulations. Important to note is that the thresholds are based on a data provider level (Group/ company level). For example: • A company operates one boiler at one of their facilities that has a design capacity of 2MW and another boiler at another facility that has a design capacity of 9MW. The NGER state that the threshold for this activity is 10MW and thus the company must report emissions from these boilers (11MW total Capacity). What ac tivities are covered by the regulations? Companies are only required to report on emissions that occur directly on sites under their

operational control. The following sources need to be reported on should they exceed the threshold: • Fuel Combustion Activities – This includes any activities that combust fuel to generate energy. Included in this category is any domestic transportation other than onsite or offsite road transportation • Fugitive emissions from fuel extraction – Includes fugitive emissions from coal mining and oil and gas operations • Industrial Process Emissions – This covers any GHG emissions that are emitted as a result of industrial processes • Waste Treatment – This includes Solid Waste treatment/landfilling as well as waste water treatment When do I need to report? The regulations state that Data Providers are required to report by the 31st of March each year. Again it is important to note that data providers were also required to have been registered on the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory System (NAEIS) within 30 days of the regulations coming into effect (3 April 2017). So if you haven’t registered yet, you should get on it. What period should I report on? The reporting period stated in the regulation is a standard 12 month Calendar year (January to December). This may mean that some companies already reporting GHG emissions for periods other than this will need to change either their data collection methods or collect data monthly. How do I calculate my emissions? The regulations come with a companion guide called the “Technical Guidelines for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Industry”. The guidelines closely

follow the IPCC guidance and detail how to calculate emissions. The guidelines also provide country specific emission factors to ensure standardisation in reporting. How to report? While the regulations and guidance document provides a reporting template for data providers, the regulations state that emissions are to be reported on NAEIS. NAEIS was the National Environmental Department’s online portal for reporting emissions other than GHG’s and was set up initially to deal with air quality type emissions. At the time of writing it was not known if the GHG module of NAEIS is fully operational. Why do I need to Report? In the global context, it will allow South Africa to accurately quantify its GHG emissions and plot a way forward to reduce emissions in line with the expected outcomes of the Paris Climate Accord. Secondly, it is law, and companies will be liable for a fine of up to R10 million should they not comply with the regulations. GCX has extensive experience in carbon reporting under GHG Protocol, CDP and other standards. Our team is ready to assist you with any queries you may have on this subject - http:// Links • Regulations:https://www.environment. nemaqa39of2004_nationalgreenhousegasemissionreporting_gn40762.pdf • Technical Guidelines: https://www.environment. • IPCC Guidance: public/2006gl/


HyPlat Turning platinum platinum resources Turning resources into clean clean energy into energysolutions solutions

The pre-eminent global supplier The pre-eminent global supplier of South African components of South African components for Low Temperature Proton for Low Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Exchange Membrane (LTPEM) fuel cells (LTPEM) fuel cells

Competitive advantages

FULLY CUSTOMISED Superior performance MEAS AND CATALYSTS Fully customisable Low cost Contact details: Contact details: Contact person: Rainer Wellmanns, BDM Contact person: Business Development Manager Email address: Email address:


Sustainable Energy H yPlat provides world-class sustainable energy solutions through fuel cell technology meeting everyday energy needs. HyPlat’s fuel cell technology is wholly South African further creating value to the country’s rich platinum reserves and human capital potential. Combined with rich reserves of South African technology, industry partners and local stakeholders, the company can provide sustainable energy solutions for rural schools, clinics and communities for back-up power and primary power applications.

The company’s focus is on delivering sustainable and renewable energy solutions to those communities that have limited or no access to energy. The hydrogen fuel cell decentralized unit is most suited to these communities providing a lasting solution for access to clean energy. Through industry partners, collaboration with platinum mining companies and local stakeholders including municipalities and government departments, local communities are able to have access to energy to meet a social need. HyPlat seeks to build long-lasting relationships with trusted project partners to meet a need through the provision of renewable technology. HyPlat is a fuel cell technology company producing world-class components and materials to the fuel cell industry. HyPlat’s MEAs (Membrane Electrode Assemblies) and platinum-based catalysts are world class products. The HyPlat team is highly knowledgeable of the industry and

its technology competes with established incumbents. HyPlat is placed as one of the world’s lowest cost fuel cell component suppliers. This is achieved through innovative South African technology and six sigma-manufacturing principles, which translates into an increase in MEA performance, a lower cost MEA, and improved durability. HyPlat meets customers’ requirements by offering customised solutions suited to their commercial requirements which translates into reduced cost per kilowatt of power. As a team, HyPlat is able to provide efficient service to customers by delivering products with short lead times. HyPlat's culture inspires creation of trusted partnerships for long term growth for delivering clean energy solutions for South African and international applications and customers. For more information, contact us directly or visit the company’s website Dr Sharon Blair, CEO Office: +27 (0)21 650 5559 Email: Rainer Wellmanns, BDM Office: +27 (0)21 650 4827 Email:





Better for people


hat if the buildings in which we live, work, play, gather, heal and learn could help save our environment? What if they could also create jobs and economic opportunities? And, what if they could also make people healthier, happier and more productive. They can, if they are green buildings. Green buildings are an effective way to mitigate climate change with big benefits for people. So says the Green Building Council South Africa (GBCSA), which has made impressive headway recruiting the local property sector – public and private, commercial and residential – to the environmental movement. Part of a larger global network of Green Building Councils, GBCSA champions the movement to design, build and operate properties in an environmentally sustainable way in South Africa. So far, just over 300 formal green building certifications have been achieved with the GBCSA’s Green Star SA rating tool and more than 16,000 homes have been registered to target EDGE certification. Dorah Modise, CEO of GBCSA, says that buildings that mitigate climate change are no longer a nice-to-have, but a necessity. Buildings are part of the environmental problem; they are responsible for one-third of global greenhouse gas emissions. “Buildings account for 40% of end-user energy consumption, 40% of solid waste, and 12% of fresh water use worldwide,” notes Modise.

Green buildings, on the other hand, are part of the solution. We now have the technology to improve buildings’ energy and water efficiency, reduce the waste and pollution they generate, power them on renewable energy and use sustainable building materials. “Green buildings are considered quick wins in mitigating climate change. Green building saves energy, plus it is relatively simple and inexpensive to retrofit old buildings so it can be applied to most buildings worldwide,” says Modise. But Modise adds that the positive impacts of green buildings go far beyond saving energy. They can also save money, create jobs, and secure a more sustainable future. For the property sector, this can provide millions of jobs as we develop and install new technologies, rebuild and retrofit buildings and devise new processes and modes of construction. “The green economy has the potential to provide upwards of 450,000 much-needed additional jobs in South Africa alone, according to the IDC,” says Modise. Green building is already creating new job opportunities locally. “Right now, there aren’t enough Green Star SA and EDGE accredited professionals to manage the demand for green building in the country,” reports Modise. The high demand for green professionals is unsurprising in light of the rapid pace with which green building is growing in South Africa. Dodge Data & Analytics and United Technologies published World Green Building

Trends last year, revealing that South Africa has the highest green building share currently of any country in the study. It also showed the green building impetus in South Africa is set to continue, making it a possible global leader in the green building sector in the next three years. GBCSA is geared up for this growth with its Green Star SA and EDGE accredited professional training programmes, with 1,615 accredited professionals already having been trained since the GBCSA launched in 2007. Providing relevant training and education is another way in which the GBCSA is proving influential in shifting South Africa towards a green economy and encouraging its sustainable growth. Ultimately, green building is all about creating better places for people and all living things. Take offices, as an example. “There’s an increasing body of evidence that office design influences the health and well-being of occupants in many ways. Thus, creating green buildings that are healthy is a smart business move. This is as true for the public sector as it is for the private sector,” stresses Modise. The World Green Building Council sums it up perfectly: staff are the most valuable resource in most organisations, typically accounting for 90% of business operating costs, so even a 1% improvement in productivity can have a major impact on the bottom line and competitiveness of any business.



Water Resilience requires a change in economic thinking By Grethe Mattheus / Justin Friedman


he invisible blue vein runs through every part of our lives – our bodies, homes, farms, towns, cities, schools and workspaces. Every single thing that we eat, use or throw away has a H2O footprint. This life giving stream is easily overlooked, especially when it comes to the consumer driven world of business. At the recent African Utility Week, Justin Friedman, Founder of FLOW (For the Love Of Water), delivered a key note address where he challenged the audience to realise that our country’s water issue is actually a systemic and consumption issue and thus directly an economic issue. “We are obsessed with large growth, but we need to start to balance our economic desire for growth with the limitations of our resources” he said. This approach will require a fundamental shift of personal and corporate values where we should aim to learn from the mistakes of the developed world and its untamed thirst for growth at any cost. In their 2016 report, Water: Facts and Future, the WWF highlights this awakening of the economic awareness of water: “The private sector recognises water risk as a material concern for business viability, and several initiatives have grown internationally in the past decade to deal with that risk. Water is a resource under increased stress and it is now ranked as the number one impact risk to business continuity and growth.” The earth-cracking drought of the last two years has left South African citizens more aware than ever of the hope that one drop of rain offers. This nationwide crises has also brought the business sector into the water conservation space, realising the importance of mitigating this risk


and working towards a resilient future through public and private sector collaboration. In 2016, South Africa recorded the lowest rainfall levels since 1904 and while the National Development Plan recognises water scarcity as choking national development, the demand of consumers continue to grow. With South Africa’s average annual rainfall almost half of the world average (490mm vs 814mm), and 21% of the country receiving less than 200mm per year, 2017 is hopefully finally opening the eyes of the public to the realisation of the water crises that has been pending for many years. On the home-front, one of the initiatives at the core of engaging all relevant stakeholders in this fight for a more water-wise society is FLOW. Started in 2010, it’s key aim is to raise awareness and build a deeper appreciation, understanding and respect for water in order to create lasting behaviour change. In the active pursuit of this mission, founder Justin Friedman launched the FLOW pledge at the African Utility Week 2017. The pledge asked participants and CEO’s to commit to conserve and consume less water in order to ensure a water resilient future. Some of the commitments included: • Using water responsibly in-house, as well as through the business value chain, • Donate to NGO’s working in water conservation, • Implement water saving and reduction mechanisms in your organisation, • Donating marketing and communication channels to promoting water conservation messaging, • Increasing dialogue and education around water quality, access and conservation,

Justin Friedman • Running internal staff awareness campaigns, • Conducting a water audit and commit to a long-term water sustainability road map. During his address in providing context for the FLOW pledge, Friedman stated that water scarcity is at the root of many conflicts on the continent. He introduced a methodology to facilitate conflict management and demonstrated how we need to preempt the pending conflict by enabling all stakeholders to have dynamic dialogues. In terms of specific water interventions he advocated the need to explore a more decentralised approach to working with our water resources that will help to relieve pressure from the authorities. Friedman


advocated neighbourhood grid systems that make use of local catchment logic to preserve and share water, as well as using underground storage areas. A case study example of a community based initiative utilising low-tech solutions which is piloting this line of thinking is The Genius of SPACE (Systems for Peoples Access to a Clean Environment) Project. This project is building innovative water and waste treatment solutions in Langrug – an informal settlement in the Western Cape. The project uses Biomimicry principles to address the

grey water, storm water, and solid waste challenges that the community faces and delivers opportunities to reuse, recycle and create value. These easily maintained solutions demonstrate a re-use strategy for the water and waste that benefits the environment and the community in driving change and socio-economic improvement. The onus is not just on corporates, but also on individuals to mend their crooked consumer ways. Simple things like showering instead of bathing, recycling grey-water, installing a filter, planting water-wise and collecting rain water are all small

stepping stones collectively leading to a more resilient water-wise future. For more information on FLOW and the Genius of Space Project Visit or #forloveofwater. Sources: • • • SABC News • World Wildlife Fund Report 2016 – Water: Facts and Future, Rethinking South Africa’s Water Future


WORLDWIDE SPECIALIST FOR WATER DRAINAGE IN SURFACE AND UNDERGROUND MINING. CONTACT US We are specialists in water drainage for surface and underground mining and a joint venture partner of Andritz Ritz, the inventor of the submersible motor pump. At RITZ Pumps SA, we build and install site-specific acid mine drainage (AMD) dewatering pump solutions

POWER PUMP L arge-scale turbines generating hydropower are nothing new, but being able to generate electricity that can be put into Eskom’s grid, or supplied to an island system; with a relatively low investment and within smaller pockets, is a market that Ritz Pumps is tapping into and realising great returns on.

Formed in 2006 as a joint venture with Austrian and German company Andritz; Ritz Pumps is 75% South African-owned (black and substantially women-owned), with Andritz holding the remaining one quarter ownership. Under the leadership of Chairman Molefe Seth Phalatse, this small company—with only eight employees—supplies a wide range of Austrian and German-manufactured pumps to the local market within various industries; hydropower and acid mine drainage being their main applications. Phalatse says that in addition to realising the full scope of opportunity in these areas, desalination and other water processes are sectors that they are looking to be involved in in future. The success of their conduit hydropower project at Annlin Reservoir in the City of Tshwane will open many doors and also educate the market


as to the feasibility of using pumps as turbines to generate power, which are essentially a very simplified version of a turbine, as an alternative to pressure reducing stations (PRS). In Tshwane, water is distributed through a large water system which includes 165 reservoirs, 39 water towers, 10 863km of pipes and more than 280 PRS’s. The specific benefits of developing conduit hydropower together with existing water infrastructure, results in little to no environmental impact. A nexus of water and energy As conduit hydropower uses the available water distribution infrastructure, as long as there is demand for water, hydroelectric energy can be generated. “Hydropower represents a nexus of water and energy and, in municipalities and water utilities, there are several locations where a feasible conduit hydropower scheme could be implemented,” says Phalatse. “A technically feasible scheme assists in reducing high operating costs - mainly caused by energy increases - and provides a sustainable solution while having a positive environmental impact. A number of water utilities have started taking the initiative

Molefe Seth Phalatse - Chairman in developing this type of hydropower and it is believed that there is significant potential in South Africa. It is also believed that conduit hydropower is the low hanging fruit’ in terms of viable renewable energy that could be developed. Tshwane is in the advantageous position where excess energy is currently being dissipated and this could be utilised to generate clean sustainable energy instead. The municipality has further taken a bold step to making a council


AMD - Eastern Basin resolution that no new reservoirs or PRS’s can be built without investigating the potential opportunity to use the site to generate hydroelectric power. As to the competitive advantage that Ritz Pumps holds in the market, Phalatse says that it all comes down to the selection of the pump, and the electrical control system. Form meets function in the design of Andritz pumps with different materials used depending on the service conditions and customer requirements, including cast iron, cast steel, non-alloyed and low-alloy steel grades, stainless and CRNI steel grades, duplex and super-duplex. “Product testing is conducted in Austria and Germany, and our pumps and motor adhere to strict international quality standards. They are currently manufactured in Austria and Germany, although we are looking into expanding our premises to facilitate local sub-assembly. At this stage, we have a fully equipped workshop, to service the pumps here, and are expanding that to make room for a subassembly plant. This will adhere to local content regulation, as well as creating jobs,” says Phalatse. In addition to the pump installation, Ritz Pumps offer clients a managed solution, maintaining the pump if this service is required. “We are able to install smart monitoring devices in systems that provide live monitoring of the pumping equipment. This way, we are able to pick up issues or downtime

on the pumps, often before the client is even aware of it,” says Phalatse. AMD and beyond As a leading supplier of hydraulic machines (pumps and turbines), Phalatse explains that they are proficient in the technology needed for power stations, water supply facilities, and for pulp and paper mills. This enables Ritz to lay the foundation for successful further development of pumps and turbines. Centrifugal pumps and pump turbines from Andritz are

operating successfully all around the world. They offer robustness and wear resistance, thus fulfilling high customer expectations in terms of efficiency, life cycle, ease of maintenance, and economic efficiency. By using standard components, the units have excellent operating availability and use tried and tested components. The pumps can be used for drinking water, residual and waste water, and pulp suspensions in the pulp and paper industry. It can be used as recovery turbines - e.g. in pulp and paper mills; and in small hydropower plants to supply energy, such as to mountain refuges and forest lodges. Ritz currently have three sites in South Africa where they are extracting mine water (AMD) – the Western, Central and Eastern Basin, and they are confident that acceptable underground levels can be maintained, so that there is no flooding. AMD poses a significant risk to the environment and Ritz pumps are uniquely suited to deal with the situation. This is because they are double suction intake pumps, each capable of pumping 1 750 m3 / hour. We have two pumps – each capable of pumping 1 750 m3/ hour (combined 3 500 m3/ hour) - installed in Central Basin, two more pumps - 1 500 m3 /hour (combined 3 000 m3/ hour) - installed at Western Basin, and three pumps -1500 m3/ hour (combined 4 500 m3 / hour) -installed in the Eastern Basin. It seems that there is no stopping this dynamic company; whose leadership attribute their success to the fact that they recognise people as their greatest assets. They regularly send employees on overseas training programmes to expand their skills base, and endeavour to identify potential in individuals to help them realise their ambitions. It seems that they’re onto a winning formula and it’d be worth watching this space in future... Contact Tel: +27 11 397 5616 Fax: + 27 11 397 5620

PAT - Annlin


ZebraTube® geotextile dewatering bags are ideal for large dewatering and sludge removal projects. Our tubes are designed with significantly larger dimensions and are manufactured from a higher strength fabric. This allows them to handle the removal of large amounts of sludge, sediment or silt without having to constantly change out or replace bags.

saving companies a significant amount of costs. We offer a vast array of differently performing geotextiles, thus allowing our clients to fill our ZebraTube® bags with most slurries.

ZebraTube® manufactures bags ranging from 1m3, through to 30m circumference and 90m in length (tubular). We highly recommend that our team work closely We currently supply large dewatering bags with the civil team to ensure that the to the deepest underground mines in the correct size bag is used in relation to the world, and have for more than two decades. ground layout and project requirement. These bags are filled with processed waste rock and water so as to keep the hanging Due to their high strength and large wall (roof) up. Our knowledge of how to capacity, ZebraTube® dewatering bags separate liquid from solids has proven are used extensively in Waste Water invaluable to some of the largest mining Treatment Projects (WWTP's), agricultural houses in the world. ponds, aquaculture facilities, Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) projects, pulp and paper ZebraTube® supplies numerous bags mills and numerous industrial lagoons. that have been pumped with or without flocculants due to our unique bag design, Visit:


CLEANING UP ACID MINE DRAINAGE What happens when old shafts used to mine gold fill up with water? The mineral pyrite, also known as fool’s gold, reacts with water and oxygen and produces sulphuric acid. After 120 years of mining on the Witwatersrand and other areas in South Africa there are thousands of shafts that leak out sulphuric acid to the water in them, and this water seeps out and pollutes the environment downstream. Rising water levels mean that increasingly more acid mine water drains into rivers, poisoning the natural habitat that they previously nourished. To prevent this destructive cycle, the water is pumped out of shafts and into treatment facilities. An interesting technology commonly used to deal with acid mine drainage is patented by Stitchwise in the form of their ZebraTube® bags. These dewatering bags were initially commissioned and created to receive the polluted water of the deepest mines in the world. After being pumped full of toxic water, the woven geotextile bags filter the liquid by allowing the water to seep out from it after being thoroughly filtered. The bags are designed and manufactured by teams of

tradesmen and women experienced in weaving geotextile and slurry separation bags. The black bags feature thick, prominent white stripes across them and it is through these white areas in the material that the water seeps out of – making it easy to see whether or not the water is clean, and whether the bag continues to function as designed by having the parched particles remain behind in the bag. Championing a solution The technology used by the ZebraTube® represents the transition from dirty and contaminated slurry to a cleaner, more workable liquid. “The use of dewatering bags in South Africa as an alternative solution to waste slurry management has been championed by ZebraTube® for some time now. In nearly all the instances where our tubes have been used, the primary reason has been that the dams have filled up to such a degree with solids that they are unable to manage the daily through-put and that the storage volume is to be returned to its originally designed amount,” said a company representative.

Precious metal processing plants have, in times of lower global commodity pricing, used the ZebraTube® dewatering bags as temporary storage facilities. ZebraTube® bags are available in many different sizes and can be customized to suit the daily filling rates as well as the land availability. By stacking the bags on top of one another, large volumes of silt and solids from dams are able to be removed and relocated without using too large an area. Currently South Africa is experiencing a reduction in storage volumes in our larger dams. Instead of building new dams to store the water, Stitchwise dredge the silt onto ZebraTube® dewatering bags on the banks of the dam and then process the fill into either fertilizer or remove it from site to a facility that can accommodate this waste. As the water percolated through our uniquely woven geotextile, it is diverted back to the dam, so no drop is wasted in the process. Contact Details: 01 Nursery Road, Western Levels, Carletonville, 2501 Tel: +27 18 788 2622


Custom Waste to Energy Solutions, Anywhere Green Technologies Small, Medium, Large Efficient, Modular RECOR offers waste to energy solutions anywhere. We have world leading technologies which enable us to convert any waste into energy at any scale. Virtually no one is addressing the On site waste to energy market where waste is converted into the required energy whether it be steam, gas, electricity, heat or even fuels. It is now possible for Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) companies to convert ALL their waste into energy. Think of chocolate factories, they have chocolate, wrappings, packaging and other waste. The usual solutions can only convert one of these waste streams into something, but we can convert ALL this waste types (except glass, metals, rocks) into energy ON SITE.

This is serious disruptive technology and will change the face of waste management to come. One can truly say that WASTE TO ENERGY is part of the new 4th INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION and RECOR is perfectly positioned to offer our solutions. Most companies are simply unaware that we have the solution for their waste disposal problems and that the payback of their investment can be as little as 10 months! RECOR is the ONLY company globally that is able to offer a complete one stop waste to energy solutions for our customers.

Contact Details Southdowns Ridge Office Park John Vorster Drive Centurion Pretoria 0157 Gauteng Province South Africa

Office: +27 60 732 9091 E-mail: /



aste to energy is the process of generating energy in the form of electricity and heat from the primary treatment of waste. In the past, waste in landfills was incinerated, which produced toxic gases which were released into the atmosphere. Regulations were introduced to force incineration plants to clean the gases in order to reduce the carbon footprint; and, in the last ten years, major leaps in technology have opened the way for a whole new greener and high yield industry. A natural alternative to incineration occurs through the passive process of anaerobic digestion, where small bugs eat biodegradable waste like piggery and food waste and release a biogas which is mostly methane. This has been harnessed in some waste-to-energy plants, with about 15% making use of this means of energy production. It has its limitations and can only treat a percentage of the waste stream. Cleaner, greener technologies Clean technologies like gasification and pyrolysis are active waste treatment processes that

Turning trash to treasure produce syngas (synthetic gas), which consists of less methane and more hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. These proven technologies are up to three times more efficient than incineration, do not create toxins such as SOX, NOX, Furans and Dioxins and release very low emissions. They can be scaled to any size, from as small as 2KW up to 5MW modular reactors, and present a cost-effective and real solution for on-site waste-to-energy conversion at industrial sites and small municipalities. Both SASOL and BP, for example, now have their own gasification and pyrolysis plants. Internationally, the goal is to minimise waste to landfill to as close to zero as possible. In first-world countries, waste to energy is the last step before waste is reduced to landfill. In terms of how waste to energy and recycling fit together, experts believe that the two processes must co-exist. Material recovery facilities need to be present at waste-to-energy plans to remove the inert materials like glass, metals, stones, recyclables and organics which can be better applied as compost. As the concept of separation at source is still far from becoming a reality in emerging markets,

the new “Swallow All� pyrolysis plant is being heralded as the silver bullet; a disruptive technology for the waste industry and part and parcel of the new fourth industrial revolution. Swallow All plants process all carbonaceous waste types like tyres, plastics, biomass, manure, sewage, paper, pulp, meat, medical waste and even hazardous waste. The benefits of this kind of solution are numerous, with resource savings and recovery greatly expanded and landfill usage and expansions reduced. The need to transport waste to faraway landfills is also decreased; with the hope that the industry will also make a paradigm shift towards smaller decentralised solutions. While landfills still have a big advantage when it comes to economics, the reality is that space is running short and more sustainable solutions need to be found. As we wean ourselves off the reliance on landfill disposal for residual waste, smaller and more environmentally-friendly plants that use a combination of waste-to-energy and recycling processes make the most sense. These sites, scattered across a city, will help to create jobs, facilitate clean streets, and ultimately enhance the economy of the entire community.



Blockchain Transformation

By Kamogelo Mmutlana, CEO, Barloworld Logistics


s part of its 2017 supplychainforesight study, Barloworld Logistics is actively exploring and identifying the key technology trends that are shaping global supply chains. By understanding major trends, as well as their inherent risks and opportunities, leaders and decision makers within the supply chain sphere can immediately begin to integrate and harness key platforms. Notably, blockchain technology is fast emerging as one of the most transformative trends – and one that can redefine and reshape many of the existing systems and processes within logistics. “Although it is still a relatively new and somewhat vague concept among South African businesses, blockchain technology is developing fast and is undoubtedly poised to impact key functions within logistics,” says Kamogelo Mmutlana, Chief Executive Officer, Barloworld Logistics.


The blockchain is essentially a distributed ledger that exists in multiple nodes on a network, rather than in a single, centralised location (very similar to that of the internet itself ). This distributed ledger is shared through peer-to-peer networks on computers and devices throughout the world. A consensus mechanism is built into this ledger that enables transactions between parties to be verified by the network. “This means that the need for a third party to act as an intermediary, such as a financial institution, is no longer required,” explains Mmutlana. “By integrating this technology, the blockchain can thus enable a strong and secure exchange for shared logistics, coordinating a vast array of activities in a highly efficient way.” Such activities can include sharing unutilised space in a shipping container or warehouse, to optimising truck fleets. Added to this, stakeholders can eliminate supply chain opaqueness by having a record of all logistics transactions in blocks. It can,

for example, provide insights around drivers, routes and on-the-move goods and services. Furthermore, blockchain technology can yield important benefits with regards to B2B transactions – such as cross border payroll processing and smart contracts. “The blockchain is an incorruptible digital ledger of economic transactions that can be programmed to record not just financial transactions but virtually everything of value.” Don & Alex Tapscott, authors of Blockchain Revolution (2016) Streamlining with Smart Contracts One standout example of this technology already in use is a platform called Ethereum, a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts. These are contracts steered by applications that ‘run exactly as programmed, without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third party interference.’ For logistics stakeholders, the Ethereum platform is set to facilitate in negotiating prices


and monitoring inventory levels that will result in minimizing transaction costs and building more agile supply chains. Take the information used during an export or import process, for example. If import terminals received data from bill of ladings a lot sooner in the process, shipping terminals and freight forwarders could plan and execute more efficiently…without jeopardizing sensitive information about the owners and value of the cargo. Also, costly delays and losses due to missing paperwork will be avoided. Turning Theory into Transformation “When it comes to the actual implementation of this technology, stakeholders need to ensure that the necessary levels of trust and understanding are in place,” cautions Mmutlana. At the outset, trust may very well be low among certain parties, especially those that

are accustomed to paper-based solutions. According to Mmutlana, this trust would need to be established - especially with operators verifying quantities within a warehouse or onroad fleet management. Looking ahead, a successful solution would have to provide a trustworthy, practical and simple to use alternative to achieve the wholesale buy-in that is required. “Ultimately, blockchain technology will need to be used in a way that can integrate into all logistics operations – and this integration will need to ensure that the core functionality of blockchain can be leveraged by all operational systems for each party (eg. Warehouse systems, ERP systems, Transport M anagement Systems, etc),”concludes Mmutlana. “If such integration can be achieved, this technology can be nothing short of massively transformational for local supply chain and logistics stakeholders.”

About Barloworld Logistics: Over 70% of potential savings and service enhancements in a supply chain come from the re-engineering and integration of logistics processes. Barloworld Logistics is South Africa’s leading integrated logistics and supply chain Management Company, and a fast-growing global player. They create strategic advantage for their clients by optimising and integrating the client’s logistics processes and information flows, thereby radically reducing their costs and increasing their service levels. Log onto for more information For media queries, please contact Renee Schonborn on or o83 600 3121


EXPECT MORE WeĘźre setting the standard for environmentally-friendly shopping in Africa. With the greatest variety of retailers housed in a sustainable environment, thereĘźs even more to love about Menlyn Park.




retoria, 13 July 2017 – Tshwane Executive Mayor Solly Msimanga visited Menlyn Park Shopping Centre today to discuss shared interests and issues relevant to Tshwane. Olive Ndebele, the general manager at Menlyn Park Shopping Centre, was on hand to show the Mayor the refurbishment that was completed at the end of last year, which included the features that gained the centre a 4-star Green Star Retail Design rating by the Green Building Council of South Africa. Menlyn Park Shopping Centre is a major hub for commuters who either work or shop in the mall, and centre management has worked closely with the government to ensure that public-transport facilities are in place here. This includes the Bus Rapid Transport system. Msimanga, who was elected mayor of Tshwane in August 2016, works closely with the community to address their needs around efficient public transport. Ndebele noted that the meeting with the Mayor was a great opportunity to further cement relations between the local government and the shopping centre. “We’re always looking for ways to improve the Menlyn area for our shoppers and employees, and we’re in discussions to address parking for taxis,” she says. ”We also want to form a Central Improvement District.” Tshwane’s new municipal offices, in the heart of the city, is home to some of the best green features found in a government building. The Mayor, who was one of the first to move into this awarding-winning building completed in June,

has said that working towards an environmentally green city is close to his heart. For its part, Menlyn Park worked incredibility hard to incorporate as many environmentally sustainable initiatives as possible during the redevelopment of the mall in 2016. Focus areas included indoor environmental quality, energy, transport, material and land-use ecology and emissions. “We were very fortunate to host mayoral delegates from the African Capital Cities Sustainability Forum last month, and they were impressed to see the strides that retail in South Africa has made towards eco-friendliness,” says Ndebele. The Mayor’s visit will highlight cooperation during upcoming events in Tshwane following

the success of this year’s African Capital Cities Sustainability Forum and the Green Home Fair, both hosted by Tshwane. Both events took place during Sustainability Week, and were crucial to further educating Africa in implementing sustainable urban development. Menlyn Park Shopping Centre is the largest mall in Africa, with over 400 stores, including Central Park; a park in the sky, Fives Futbol and the largest gaming arcade in the country. The redevelopment, which took nearly two years to complete, provided 12 000 jobs during the construction. The expansion included 8 250 parking bays and 16 entrances and 12 exits. The centre has become an institution in Tshwane, and regularly welcomes shoppers from all over Africa.



Integrating History By Alan Cameron


rban integration promises to make the way we use land in our cities more seamless and convenient. Think of a single mixed-use development containing areas to live, work and play very nearby a public transport interchange and retail area. The more convenient it is to take advantage of all the services on offer nearby, the more successful the urban integration efforts. Now, zoom out and think of when South Africa’s neighbourhoods and transport nodes attract businesses and educational facilities to cluster around them, providing a convenient public environment that attracts more people and businesses in a never-ending cycle of iterative improvement. By 2050 the UN expects SA’s population to be 80% urban, and more than half will likely be young and poor with a low level of education.

Is urban integration the answer? A solid policy approach to urban migration did not come along with democracy in 1994, neither did a willingness from the national government to invest in cities. This vulnerability meant that most of the infrastructure invested in addressing poverty through new homes and services has not reversed, but entrenched apartheid spatial patterns. Now, worsening sprawl and social segregation demands even more from an already fragile public transport system. The result is that the children born into poor homes on the periphery of our cities experience far fewer chances in life than those born into middle-class suburbs of the same city. Cities can become economic engine rooms because of the benefits of crowded-in services and opportunities. In principle, it should be easier to be healthier, educated and employed in cities because complimentary services are built closer together – making them accessible and affordable. As these advantages compound and the costs of economic development lessen, residents benefit. There is clearly a large gap between the opportunity and the outcome. What urban integration looks like in South Africa In the context of our cities’ growing populations, lacklustre economic contribution and segregated communities, the economic divide


between those who live in urban and rural areas increases at least as quickly as property values rise. Added to this, municipalities are often under-resourced with too few capable staff to deliver quality public services. This crisis deserves better attention from the national government so that cities become inclusive areas where economic, social and spatial investments are aligned and integrated. As South Africa’s metros are worst affected, the relevant local authorities are often those working the hardest to reverse the impact of apartheid spatial planning. A look at Cape Town Recently the city authorities have centralised decisions around how and what land is used for, and how accessible that land is by establishing the Transport Development Authority. By using a transport-orientated development approach, it will focus on providing well-located, affordable housing in business nodes and around transport corridors so that jobs are accessible due to reliable and affordable public transport. The MyCiti buses will conveniently link these focus areas. As the city’s property values keep climbing to new highs, the private sector increasingly

uses mixed-use development to maximise their return. As an example, The Verge building in Sea Point has a drive-through McDonalds on the ground floor, long-term rental apartments above it and short-term holiday accommodation on the top floors. A look at Johannesburg With the launch of the Corridors of Freedom programme in 2013, municipal authorities focused on bringing services, schools and work opportunities closer to home for those living on the city ’s outskirts, as well as creating more convenient and sustainable public transport choices for commuters across the city. Developers’ approach to mixed-use buildings is illustrated by the changing skyline around Gautrain stations where convenient accessibility keeps accelerating property values. National government must help The challenge remains for national authorities to help and not hinder urban integration, by supporting major metros in their work to transform themselves into sustainable, convenient places to live, work and play.

Electric Bikes by BH Easy Motion e-Bikes • Powered by Bosch electric motors and Panasonic batteries • Pedal-assisted electric power • Maximum speeds of up to 45 km/h with a range of up to 125 km • Battery lifespan of 30 000 km or 500 charges (20% max deterioration) • Choose between dual suspension or hard tail CONTACT Email: Tel: 021 715 7182

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Providing quality Solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems for domestic and commercial clients in South Africa since 2014.

PV systems range from small, rooftop mounted systems that supply power to an individual household, to large utility-scale power stations.

Offering grid tied systems connected to the electrical grid and off-grid systems with batteries storage to supply power after sunset.

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In addition to Solar PV, we offer Smart Metering installations and conduct Energy Audits.

Green Economy Journal 27  
Green Economy Journal 27