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Cost of Green Building – Report



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Old Mutual Investment Group is a leading pan-African investor and we aim to invest in opportunities associated with a low-carbon, resourceefficient and socially inclusive economy. We have approximately R30 billion invested on behalf of our customers in green economic growth projects, including sustainable agriculture, renewable energy, affordable housing and education. These assets have low correlations to traditional asset classes – offering investors an alternative source of market-related equity and debt returns over the long-term. They also provide measurable socio-economic impacts, promoting opportunities such as job creation, local ownership and enterprise.



2 Solar Projects (58MW) OTHER: 1 Solar Project (60MW)



OTHER: 5 Solar Projects (275MW)

OTHER: 1 Biomass Project (62MW) MPUMA LANGA


14 Solar Projects (858MW) OTHER: 22 Solar Projects (1 336MW)



5 Wind Farms (569MW) OTHER: 6 Wind Farms (753MW)


OTHER: 1 Landfill Gas Project (18MW

1 Small Hydro Project (12MW)


OTHER: 1 Biomass Project (17MW)


3 Solar Projects (130MW) OTHER: 3 Solar Projects (116MW) ) 1 Solar Project (75MW) 2 Wind Farms (201MW) OTHER: 3 Wind Farms (150MW) 9 Wind Farms (748MW) OTHER: 6 Wind Farms (617MW) OUR MANAGERS: Old Mutual Investment Group participates in the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP) on behalf of our customers via its investment boutiques, namely Old Mutual Alternative Investments; African Infrastructure Investment Managers; Futuregrowth Asset Management; and Old Mutual Specialised Finance.

As at 31 March 2016 Sources: Old Mutual Investment Group and Minister of Energy Departmental Budget Speech 2016/17, 11 May 2016.

1 Solar Project (64MW) OTHER: 1 Solar Project (60MW)

OTHER: 2 Small Hydro Projects (8.9MW)








R1 562 million total committed capital 10 farms 12 579 hectares total size of all farms 652 permanent workers (4 077 seasonal workers) 253 workers receiving prepaid healthcare 102 workers receiving adult education Housing built/renovated for 633 (permanent & seasonal) workers

R582 million Funds Under Management (FUM) 15 741 learners enrolled for 2016



R9 billion FUM 25 Greenfield projects 6 751 houses built 4 546 rental units 9 349 student beds

R4.5 billion FUM 10 132 taxis financed 11 286 mortgage loans on the books 21 239 home improvement loans on the books 211 445 unsecured loans on the books

CLASS OF 2015: • 97.6% Grade 12 pass rate • 57.7 Bachelor Pass • 562 distinctions

Investors’ rights and obligations are set out in the relevant investor agreements and/or mandates. Market fluctuations and changes in exchange rates as well as taxation may have an effect on the value, price or income of investments and capital contributions. Since financial markets fluctuate, an investor may not recover the full amount invested. Past performance is not necessarily a guide to future investment performance. Old Mutual Investment Group has comprehensive crime and professional indemnity insurance which is part of the Old Mutual Group cover. The following entities are licensed Financial Services Providers (FSPs) within Old Mutual Investment Group (Pty) Ltd Holdings approved by the Registrar of Financial Services Providers ( to provide advisory and/or intermediary services in terms of the Financial Advisory and Intermediary Services Act 37 of 2002. These entities are wholly owned subsidiaries of Old Mutual Investment Group Holdings (Pty) Ltd and are members of the Old Mutual Investment Group. Old Mutual Investment Group (Pty) Ltd (Reg No 1993/003023/07), FSP No:604. | Old Mutual Alternative Investments (Pty) Ltd (Reg No 2013/113833/07), FSP No:45255. | African Infrastructure Investment Managers (Pty) Ltd (Reg No 2005/028675/07), FSP No:4307. | Futuregrowth Asset Management (Pty) Ltd (Reg No 1996/18222/07), FSP No:520.



31 October – 4 November 2016 Official events of the South African Wind Energy Association and Global Wind Energy Council

South Africa’s primary custodian of Wind Energy, SAWEA, in proud partnership with the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) will host a ‘Wind Energy Week’ in Cape Town from 31 October to 4 November 2016. ‘Wind Energy Week’ will include the Inaugural WindAc-Africa Conference, the 6th Annual Windaba and will conclude with, the launch of the ‘Industry gives back’ Initiative.


WindAc-Africa: 31 October & 1 November In its inaugural year, WindAc-Africa is positioned to become the Leading Academic wind conference on the Continent. The event, which will be held at the South African Renewable Technology Centre (SARETEC), aims to be the platform for an international high-quality academic exchange, which will cover the entire wind-power value chain from the wind resource to policymaking for wind power. A formidable international steering committee has been established to develop the programme content. Additionally, a call for posters has been made for the ‘Business meets Science’ platform in order to encourage dialogue between industry and academia. A call has been made for Poster submissions which cover 1) the practical relevance of research topics 2) new problem solving approaches and 3) possible partnerships between science and industry. Posters will be housed at the hub within the conference venue. For the latest information on the programme visit:



Windaba Conference and Exhibition: 2-3 November



Cape Town International Convention Centre (CTICC), will for the 6th consecutive year, house Windaba Conference and Exhibition. The 2-day conference is themed ‘Towards 100% Renewables’ and will provide the most relevant and up to date information which participating wind energy professionals have come to expect. Our Gold Sponsors this year include turbine manufacturers: Enercon, Goldwind, Nordex, Siemens and Vestas. The Government’s Independent Power Producers Office will endorse the event for the second year running, demonstrating once more the alignment between government and industry in making the wind energy market a success.Exhibition space ranging from raw floor space to custom stands is still available kindly contact for further details. For updates visit:

Career Expo & Community Outreach Day: 4 November Under the guidance of the ‘Wind for Communities Working Group’ we will launch an initiative branded ‘Industry gives back’. The aim of the day is to deliver a differentiated networking platform, to leave a legacy in a community through which we as a collective can evidence a tangible Socio Economic turnaround in a community interfacing with Renewable Energy.


Gwec and Sawea Members receive a 10% discount on Conference and Exhibition participation. Gold Sponsors:

Endorsed by:

Bronze Sponsor:


Category Sponsors:

Media Partners:


Economy Editor’s Note G






EDITOR: Melissa Baird LAYOUT AND DESIGN: Shannon Manuel CLIENT LIAISON OFFICER: Linda Tom MARKETING MANAGER: Nabilah Hassen-Bardien PRODUCTION COORDINATOR: Shannon Manuel DIRECTORS: Lloyd Macfarlane Gordon Brown Andrew Fehrsen PROJECT MANAGER: Vania Reyneke SALES: Charles Adams PRINTING: FA Print DISTRIBUTION MANAGER: Edward MacDonald PUBLISHER: Alive2Green PHYSICAL ADDRESS: Cape Media House 28 Main Road Rondebosch 7700 Cape Town TEL: 021 447 4733 FAX: 086 694 7443 WEBSITES: green-economy-journal/ DISTRIBUTION AND COPY SALES ENQUIRIES: ENQUIRIES: ADVERTISING ENQUIRIES: EDITORIAL PROPOSALS: Company Registration Number: 2006/206388/23 Vat Number: 4130252432 ISSN No.: 2410-6453 Published: August 2016

Economy G






Cost of Green BuildinG – report



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Green Economy Journal is audited by ABC

Crisis in green

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Cover Image: Boogertman and Partners Architects, Rivonia Road, Johannesburg

All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or in any form without the prior written permission of the Publisher. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the Publisher or the Editor. All editorial and advertising contributions are accepted on the understanding that the contributor either owns or has obtained all necessary copyrights and permissions. The Publisher does not endorse any claims made in the publication by or on behalf of any organizations or products. Please address any concerns in this regard to the Editor.

The past two months have left me reeling. The Brexit exit, the hilarious (yet chilling) race for the biggest desk in the USA, South Africa’s election results (Viva our democracy Viva) and the four women who stood silently yet voiced a cacophonous protest to “Remember Kwhezi” have made for knock out scenes in these interesting times we live in. As confidence is on the rise both within and without our country about the possibility for sanity to reign there are indications of real opportunities that will make enormous contributions to our country as it struggles towards a path of sustainable growth. The renewable energy news keeps getting better with improved technology and lowering cost ratios to enable solar and wind to truly compete with the finite fossil fuel solutions. I was on my way to Machadodorp recently after attending the fascinating Green Building Council’s “Build a Better World Now” conference at the Sandton Convention Centre and saw the Medupi power plant still floundering on its way to completion. The clouds of carbon and other chemicals rising up from its towers made me think of Mordor and it is just one of many coal fired power stations you can see on the N7. It was a stark reminder of how urgently we need to move toward a regenerative future where our energy does not cost us the earth or the health of communities that live close to these power stations. With our failing water infrastructure and water scarcity black water treatment plants that are modular and scalable should be top priority for all municipal managers and you will read about what technology is available to solve this crisis in this issue of the Green Economy Journal. On a happier note I was witness to a whole group of entrepreneur’s being rewarded with access to the shelves of Pick n Pay to sell the new wave of products they are creating; products that have purpose and a full circle approach to how the ingredients are sourced, how they are manufactured and packaged and who can benefit as a result. I have also found a new interest – fish farming. You will read all about it. Sincerely,

Melissa Baird

The Green Economy Journal is printed on Hi-Q Titan plus paper, manufactured by Evergreen Hansol a leading afforestation member acknowledged by FOA. Hi-Q has Chain of Custody certification, is totally chlorine free, and is PEFC, ISO 14001, ISO 9001 accredited. This paper is FSC certified.


Contents ISSUE 22, AUGUST 2016


16 26


NEWS AND UPDATES Africa’s first biofuel flight, renewable energy, Zanzibar’s greenest hotel


CRISIS IN GREEN Renewable energy at risk


AQUACULTURE Developing a new breed of fish farmers will benefit the economy and food security


THE ENVIRONMENTAL CAPITALIST Jason Drew and the story of the fly


GBCSA Green Star Interiors Rating Tool


GREEN BUILDINGS What the costs add up to




WATER Technology to solve municipal water treatment


COMMON CAUSE Robert Zipplies on how intrinsic values are drivers of change



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Sustainability Week 2016 in pictures



Eight years ago, Woolworths introduced their sustainable seafood policy and since then has reached significant milestones since becoming South Africa’s first retailer to sign the WWF-SASSI Retail Charter. The commitment was that by the of 2015, all the wild-caught seafood would be: WWF-SASSI Green-listed or, caught from MSC (or equivalent) certified fisheries or, that in close consultation with the WWF, species are sourced from fisheries that are undertaking credible, time-bound improvement projects. To date 92% of all wild-caught seafood sold, by volume, met these goals. Consumers can choose from 17 species of sustainably wild-caught seafood. A major achievement in this journey was the WWF-SASSI Green-listing of South African Hake caught by long-line fishing. They are playing a leading role in creating strong market incentives that drive the South Africa fishing industry towards improved sustainability. This is vital to ensure that key fish stocks continue to be responsibly harvested, that overfished species have the opportunity for recovery, and that vulnerable species are brought back from the brink of collapse. Source: WOOLWORTHS

Tanzanian and Zanzibar Tourism to get new flagship hotel The Tanzanian based Bakhresa Group has appointed Verde Hotels from South Africa to develop and manage the total overhaul and upgrading of the old Mtoni Marine Hotel in Zanzibar, 2km from Stone Town. The brand new five star property will be known as Hotel Verde, Zanzibar’s greenest hotel. The Hotel Verde Group will manage the development and operate the hotel as a certified sustainable establishment that offers a carbon neutral hotel experience and will be pursuing independent certification, utilising the Green Star rating tool from the Green Building Council of South Africa (GBCSA). Verde Hotels implements sustainability strategies into all aspects of the redevelopment phase that includes passive and active design, optimising resource efficiency; recycling and reusing grey water, responsible procurement and waste minimisation. Verde Hotels is a sustainable hotel operator who is responsible for the success of Hotel Verde in Cape Town, South Africa. Currently it is Africa’s greenest hotel and the first hotel in the world to be certified with a Platinum LEED green building certification for both the Design & Construction and Operations & Maintenance. It also is a recent winner in the green technology and innovations category for the Mail and Guardian’s Greening the Future awards. Source Verde Hotels

Renewable energy and biodiversity protection crucial to poverty alleviation New Executive Director Greenpeace International Bunny McDiarmid visited the Greenpeace Africa office in Johannesburg where efforts are being focused on promoting sustainable development with particular emphasis on policies that support investment and development in clean renewable energy.During the visit, McDiarmid said, “Promoting sustainable development is the most viable option for not only driving sustainable social and economic changes but important for protecting our common climate.”A quarter of the world’s population has no access to electricity and most of these people live in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Access to electricity is key to supporting people out of poverty. Greenpeace International recently appointed two female International Executive Directors. Jennifer Morgan and Bunny McDiarmid took up the reigns in an innovative shared-leadership role on 4 April 2016. They succeed South African born Kumi Naidoo who had been at the helm of the organisation for five and a half years. Source: Greenpeace

Three winners in African Renewable Energy Projects Access Power (, a developer, owner and operator of renewable power projects in emerging markets, selected three winners for the 2016 US$7 million Access Co-Development Facility (ACF). AGES PLC (25MW solar project in Sierra Leone), Mentach Energy (50 MW wind project in Nigeria), and Stucky Ltd (25MW Hydro & Solar project in Madagascar) will share the cash prize and receive technical support to bring the projects to life; generating enough energy to deliver 100 megawatts of electricity to 340,000 homes. Reda El Chaar, Executive Chairman of Access Power said: “There is still a massive, urgent need for electrification in Africa and we firmly believe that renewable energy will be a significant part of the solution. This year’s ACF competition introduced us to almost 100 projects, demonstrating the scale of entrepreneurialism and ambition across the African continent to meet the electrification challenge.” Source : Access Power

Taking the smoke out of flying On the 15th July The South African Airways Group operated Africa’s first sustainable biofuel flights. The SAA and Mango flight on Boeing 737-800s between Johannesburg and Cape Town made history as the flights used home-grown feedstock from the Marble Hall area in the Limpopo region of South Africa as part of Project Solaris, a biofuels project named after the energy tobacco plant used. The project has brought economic and rural development to the Limpopo province and this African First, is a collaboration between the South African Airways; the Boeing Company, the industry leader in global efforts to develop and commercialise sustainable biofuel; SkyNRG, the global market leader for sustainable jet fuel, having supplied more than 20 airlines worldwide; and Sunchem Holding, an industrial research and development company working in the field of extracting energy from plants and the Solaris patent holder. Source: SAA


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Lack of quality material highlights need for waste to be separated at source Over the last couple of decades, Plastics|SA – the umbrella organisation representing the local plastics industry has been measuring the recycling rate of plastics in South Africa. Annual updates are done to track the trends in recycling, with the results of the last comprehensive and complete survey for the year ending December 2015 just released. Analysts agree that 2015 was one of the toughest years for recyclers both locally and abroad in more than a generation, owing to historically low oil prices that led to lower polymer prices. This in turn had a direct impact on the price of recycled material, which resulted in minimal growth and a slowdown in the amount of plastics that have been able to be diverted from landfill. According to the latest Plastics|SA figures, the lack of a consistent incoming stream of recyclables was the single biggest challenge plastics recyclers had to face during 2015 as well as the fact SA does not recycle enough of its plastic waste. To obtain the complete 2015 Plastics Recycling report or for more information, visit


Green building imperative for corporates and developers

After receiving an overwhelming response in April from more than 540 aspirant entrepreneurs and potential suppliers to Pick n Pay, the company sent 60 semi-finalists on an intensive six week business training programme and thereafter the finalists were flown to Cape Town to make their final presentation to the Boost your Biz judging panel. The judges were so impressed by the high standard of the entries and the entrepreneurs that are committed to transforming their ideas into sustainable and viable businesses that all 24 of the finalists were named winners. The Boost your Biz competition is a manifestation of the company’s commitment to create 20 new jobs every working day for the next five years. The winning businesses will be guaranteed direct access to Pick n Pay’s retail shelves. In the 2015/2016 financial year, Pick n Pay spent over R40 billion on South African suppliers, with 94% of its fresh-food products procured from local suppliers. Importantly, it’s spend on SMMEs quadrupled in 2015 and expenditure on BBBEE business rose by over 39.2% (to R33 billion), with a particular focus on black-women owned businesses. Source: Pick n Pay

Sustainable development specialists and property analysts have urged all South African businesses and developers to embrace the reality of “green building” as government actively pursues legislation to enforce more sustainable construction. Sustainable building academic at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), Chris Allen advises that government is in the process of developing a green building framework aligned to the Green Building Council of South Africa’s green star rating system, in order to reap the benefits of lower running costs in government buildings.Allen recently spoke on the topic at a regional SA Property Owners Association (SAPOA) meeting in Port Elizabeth. He was joined by sustainable solutions experts Brian van Niekerk, managing director of sustainable solutions company Rhino Group, and Heather McEwan, MD of Rhino Group company Rhino Lighting. The real benefits to green buildings start to accrue when it comes to their running costs. The commercial reality is that their running costs are 30 to 40% down on conventional developments. Added to this is a similar improvement in the productivity levels of people working in green buildings as a result of increased natural lighting levels, ventilation rates and even how those commuting to these buildings get there.. Source: Good News Lab

Mainstream Renewable Power Signs Landmark Africa Clean Energy Equity Funding The world’s leading independent developer of renewable power (with almost 10,000MW in development and nearly 700MW delivered into construction and commercial operations), Mainstream Renewable Power has signed $117.5m equity investment from investors including IFC, the IFC African, Latin American and Caribbean Fund (ALAC) and the IFC Catalyst Fund; two funds managed by IFC Asset Management Company, Ascension Investment Management and Sanlam that aims to accelerate the roll outs of wind and solar plants across Africa. Although still subject to shareholder approval, the deal will provide equity funding for the Lekela Power platform to help meet its goal of constructing over 1,300MW of much needed new power capacity in Africa by 2018. The platform plans to build four more wind farms in South Africa, two wind farms and a solar plant in Egypt, as well as wind farms in Senegal and Ghana. Mainstream and Lekela are helping to fulfil the objectives of a series of key international initiatives, including the Obama Administration’s Power Africa, which aims to add 30,000MW of cleaner power generation through government and private partnerships, and the UN’s Sustainable Energy for All, which seeks to achieve universal access to power by 2030. Energy poverty has been recognised as one of the key challenges for Africa, with an estimated two thirds of people in SubSaharan Africa having no regular access to electricity. Source: APO (African Press Organization) on behalf of Mainstream Renewable Power.



Peering into the Future of Global Waste & Resource Management By Marilize Worst


lobal population growth is skyrocketing. In 2025, there will be approximately 1.8 billion more middle class consumers. These consumers will be adding to the existing mounds of waste – a problem that will be compounded by an increasing reliance on packaged products. In 2013, reports indicated that only 25% of 11 billion tons of waste was recycled. Encouragingly, this figure is set to double by 2025 (vs. 2005). This increase is being driven by growth in diversion, recycling, the recovery of valuable secondary raw materials, waste-toenergy activities, and e-waste and sustainable packaging strategies. Given that 70% of global waste is currently landfilled, however, there is massive scope to increase the amount of waste that is recycled.

The Local Context In South Africa, we are currently looking to increase municipal solid waste recycling by 3.5 times, and double industrial waste recycling. There is clearly a move towards more responsible waste strategies – and a realisation of the commercial benefits of such strategies. In 2011, South Africa recovered R8.2 billion worth of recycling resources. At present, the country generates R25.2 billion worth of waste a year - with about 90% sent to landfill. Without doubt, there is still a lot to be done with regards

to putting SA on a more sustainable and responsible path.

Key Megatrends In our view, competition for limited resources currently being experienced will intensify in the coming years, which will have major ramifications for waste and recycling strategies. It is quite likely that water scarcity will challenge food and energy security – and become a very real and pressing challenge. Simultaneously, there will be an increasing supply of unconventional and renewable sources of energy – and this will affect the dynamics of the global energy mix in a very meaningful way. As a result, transparency and the security of global supply chains will become critical. At present, business interruption and supply chain losses account for around 50% to 70% of all insured property losses. Consequently, companies with insufficient social or environmental performance are at risk of suffering serious reputational damage in real time.

Focus on the Value Chain For companies, these trends underscore the importance of creating a responsible and efficient value chain. In establishing this value chain, business leaders will need to address several key areas. These include supply chain visibility, energy consumption, carbon emissions, water consumption, and waste/recycling.

Marilize Worst - Managing Director, SmartMatta Indeed, managing the environmental footprint and impact from a corporate perspective is set to become a major business imperative – and those who fail to plan for it will undoubtedly face severe risks in the medium and long term. SmartMatta is part of Barloworld Logistics. For more information, visit:



Crisis in green Eskom has put more than renewable energy at risk with its decision to put new agreements with Independent Power Producers’ (IPP) renewable energy programmes on hold until it has engaged with the Department of Energy. Bruce Raw (GreenCape Energy Programme Manager) examines what’s at stake.


n spite of recent assurances from Jeff Radebe, Minister in The Presidency for Performance Monitoring and Evaluation, and Tina Joemat-Pettersson, Minister of Energy, that South Africa would not stop “Midstream” and would continue to pursue the REIPPPP and the nuclear build programme, the reverberations of the Eskom letter will have had an effect.

The true impact of cancellations, delays and uncertainty around the IPP and renewable energy programmes go much further than the energy sector. It puts at risk thousands of current and future jobs, a host of local manufacturing companies, communities’ welfare and, most importantly, it undoes what is arguably the most effective public/private partnership model this country has ever seen. The direct benefits of the IPP programme are already clear for all to see. Since the inception of operations in 2014, CSIR figures show connected wind and solar PV facilities have contributed close to R5-billion in economic value to South Africa’s economy, as a result of avoided load shedding in 2014 and 2015, as well as avoided diesel and coal costs. Moreover, the inclusion of the private sector in developing major infrastructure such as generation facilities and upgrades to points in the grid, has relieved the public fiscus of spending over R37 billion in construction costs (as of March 2016) with a projected total of R73billion (rounds 1 to 4 projects). These are funds which could be diverted to supporting other socio-economic upliftment programmes across the country. It has further been projected that at the current, built-in South Africa prices combination of IPPs spanning renewable energy and Liquefied Natural Gas will be both cheaper and cleaner than new build coal.

has, over the past six years, attracted a total of over R194 billion in investments, with over R53 billion (27%) of this coming from foreign investors. This was achieved, in no small part, by creating investor certainty provided for in the REIPPPP. The effects of the current uncertainty created by Eskom’s statements and actions could be severe. If experience has taught us anything is that business does not like uncertainty. A large independent wind blade manufacturer has already experienced delays and potential cancellations of its planned expansion into South Africa when the IRP was revised. Now, just as the company is seeking the go-ahead to set up a manufacturing plant in the country, we are once again beset by a lack of clear direction. And this is not the only investment on the line. A combined investment pipeline from PV module manufacturers, earmarked for Atlantis, of close to R700 million hangs precariously in the balance as we wait for clarity from the department and the incumbent.

Investor certainty is crucial The Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP)

When PPP gets it right The work of the energy cluster, including local, provincial and national government, along


Bruce Raw, GreenCape Energy Programme Manager with the private sector, has been one of the finest examples of an effective public/private partnership. The Green Economy Accord (signed by organised labour, business, government and community constituencies in 2011) saw the beginning of a concerted and unanimous goal of maximising the opportunity to develop our renewable energy production as a means to uplift the economy in general. The goals of creating 50 000 green economy jobs and achieving an industry-wide localisation (local manufacturing and procurement) of at least 35% by 2016, was considered aspirational at the time. However, with local content hovering around 45% already, the impact of the collaboration between social partners cannot be ignored. The programme has also been able to attract a significant amount of new manufacturing capacity. Local content production targets have seen inverter assembly facilities and wind component manufacturing facilities successfully launched. The knock-on manufacturing, support and services requirements have seen an entire value chain emerging, providing clear


evidence that meaningful structural transformation of the economy is taking place. In fact, the combined procurement spend of R143-billion is overwhelming evidence of the success of the REIPPPP. To date, the figures indicate that almost 25 000 job-years opportunities have been created, with more than 1 500 of these in operations which are more permanent positions. Skills have been developed accordingly, and again, the power of the collective has shone through. Skills transfer has been facilitated by the participation of over 50 international companies and joint ventures in the REIPPPP. The Department of Higher Education and Training, with the support of the German government, has invested over R100-million in the establishment of the South African Renewable Energy Technology Centre (SARETEC). Locally produced technical intellectual property has been registered and, together with local universities, companies are carving a name for themselves in global greentech markets. As if this wasn’t a clear enough example of the combined and collective socio-economic power of the IPP in general and the REIPPPP in particular, the evidence of the potential to uplift our communities through collaborative efforts must surely count for something. Embedded within the Green Accord, are obligations for successful projects to add value to local communities through various mechanisms. There is R19.3-billion already committed to socio-economic development over 20 years. In many instances, for these remote rural areas, community upliftment in early childhood development, infrastructure improvements, health investments, scholarships and enterprise development, directly depend on the IPP moving ahead on track.

Darling wind farm, Western Cape, South Africa This is not just the DoE’s problem One of GreenCape’s mandates is to help unlock the investment and employment potential of green business, technologies and manufacturing. We have worked closely with InvestSA (national) and Wesgro (provincial) to attract investment into the green economy. We have also been closely involved in the development of the GreenTech Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Atlantis – one of two SEZ’s whose future depend on the programme. We spend a large part of our time engaging with the entire ecosystem of companies in the green space. The clear sentiment coming from these companies – most especially in the electro-technical space – has been that their very existence depends on the IPP programme going ahead, according to schedule. While many industry analysts have understandably focused on the affordable and

sustainable delivery of energy, we believe that any deviations of the IPP programme should be communicated through the Integrated Resources Plan in such a way that it will not undermine the Green Economy Accord, the National Development Plan and the Industrial Policy Action Plan. There are precious few examples of infrastructure programmes which have been as successful in terms of overall cost, socioeconomic, industrial and environmental impact. The reckless communication about the future of this programme should be cause for concern for the whole economic cluster - not just the Minister of Energy. Indeed, the President has often spoken of the importance of creating an enabling business environment. Perhaps this is precisely the type of matter which should be put before his Inter-Ministerial Committee on investment.

Jasper Solar Energy Project, Northern Cape, South Africa



Prospering through Aquaculture Fish farming is offering a modular way to enable new farmers to enter the economic cycle, generate new skills within the unemployed and also improve access to high quality protein to feed a growing nation. By Melissa Baird with thanks to Alan Flemming of the Fish Farm


met Alan Flemming of the Fish Farm and our discussion about the possibilities that fish farming could offer the new economy was most encouraging. He believes that we need thousands of small fish farmers in order to advance aquaculture and skills development in South Africa and offer promising returns for new farmers. Like any business to be a successful fish farmer means being able to manage a number of variables; technology is important as is finding a market for the fish crop and a sound business model to guide the new farmer on how to price the crop (ideally the production costs should be half of what the crop is sold for). But at the nub of it it requires a tenacious entrepreneur and how we develop these new skills and job opportunities has a great deal to do with mentoring and education. In South Africa, ‘Oreochromis Niloticus’ (Nile Tilapia) - one of the many tilapia species - is the preferred warm water species to farm. Smallscale, intensive farms are coming of age with the advent of organisations like “The Fish Farm” which provides aquaculture solutions for urban areas, focused on providing economic stimulus in poor communities. They have developed fish farms in old shipping containers which help keep the water warm. They are therefore also suitable for other warm water species (catfish etc), but not salt water species (cob, yellowtail etc). The Fish Farm has also developed slightly larger systems in greenhouse tunnels, and are focused on developing the industry through hundreds of small township-based farmers joining the economy through aquaculture. Tilapia can take up to 9 months to reach 500g – which is the minimum size for two reasonable fillets.

18 16

Start up capital is required to get through to the first harvest, to pay for feed, electricity, water, rent, labour and all the other costs before an income can be generated from the fish. Alan says the rule of thumb is to work out how much is available to invest in an entire operation and to spend 30% of that on the infrastructure, and reserve 70% of it to pay running costs until you reach harvest. One also has to mitigate risk of losing an entire crop so it makes sense to start small and get that right before ramping up operations. Warm water fish farms are best suited to the tropics and sub-tropics, and cold water fish farms are best suited to the higher latitudes.

THE 2-TANK SYSTEM OF 100 000 LITRES: Developed in association with where space is not such a restriction!


CONTAINER FISH FARM OF 30 000 LITRES: The 30 000 litres container fish farm is suitable in a grant funding environment. It does not produce enough fish to produce a commercially-acceptable ‘Return on Investment’ for capital to be repaid quickly. It does produce an annual profit – and fish! – but it is more suited to a donor-funding environment. The infrastructure will establish an underprivileged urban farmer in business, and will not need to be continually funded, therefore allowing an individual to enter the formal economy.

The higher the altitude the less oxygen is needed to be injected into the water so the stocking density and therefore final harvest – decreases. Essentially fish farming is more about water quality management than it is about the fish. Some farmers even joke that all they do is move water out of the tanks, clean it, and put it back in the tanks. To facilitate moving the water pumps are needed; big farms need big pumps and that means a lot of electricity to pay for unless you are farming in ponds. But even ponds need pumps on stand-by in order to top them up, empty them, or fill them for any reason. By focusing on small farms pumps and aerators

can be solar powered. With stand by diesel generators in case any of that fails. Electricity can make up 20% of running costs so it makes sense to choose solar power. The regulatory environment for fish farming is complex as regulations differ between Provinces and also depend on what fish are being farmed. The regulations are set by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and they issue the permits. Apparently there are complaints from farmers about different standards in different provinces. Small scale, intensive systems are coming of age in South Africa. This paradigm – as opposed to the default of ‘bigger is better’ will be

successful when implemented through many small farmers, supported by a vibrant retail market which guarantees the off-take from the farms. Effectively – it’s about 100 people doing 1% each, rather than one large-scale farmer doing 100% and 99 people remaining unemployed, and a drain on the economy. This concept satisfies a number of key issues of our time, including permanent job creation, wealth creation, food security, skills transfer, dignified work and the preservation of declining marine eco-systems. We simply have to begin to produce protein in this way, rather than continue to plunder our increasingly fragile and “borrowed” planet.

h Integrated Aquaculture, this product is more suited to an environment which is not threatened by theft of the crops or equipment, or vandalism of any sort. It is also better suited to



Conservation Agriculture Benefits South African Soils Healthier soil; greater yields

Mr Josia Nkosi standing in the CA field next to his traditionally planted field at Mlondozi, on the western border of Swaziland. The improvements made included liming, correct fertilizer quantity and type, hybrid seed, use of herbicide and planting date. By planting both cropping systems the farmer is able to compare them for himself – making him an on-farm researcher!


pproximately 80% of South Africa is arid or semi-arid and the severe drought experienced recently over most of the country emphasised the need to farm with the objective of maximising rainfall use as a general practice. Conservation agriculture (CA) is the preferred cropping system to optimise crop water use, while improving yields and reducing the drought risk. The CA cropping system follows three principles: a) minimum soil disturbance; b) keeping the soil covered with a crop and/or mulch and c) crop rotation. The adoption of CA offers the farmer numerous benefits, including reduced runoff due to the stubble/mulch cover, increased water infiltration due to the improved


porosity of the soil, more stable soil structure leading to reduced soil erosion and a higher soil carbon content due to increased organic matter. CA puts a high value on the minimum disturbance of soils for two main reasons:

1. Soil erosion The ploughing of soils is very destructive due to the soil becoming inverted and the consequent breakdown of the natural soil structure. Soil inversion results in a high soil water loss (the equivalent of 25 mm rainfall over a growing season) due to evaporation. Furthermore, the unprotected soil is exposed to the elements such as wind and water, making it susceptible to erosion. Raindrop impact on the unprotected soil surface also compacts the soil,

causing crusting. This in turn results in poorer infiltration, increased runoff and ultimately increased erosion. The rate of soil erosion taking place in South Africa is detrimental to crop production. The soil can be likened to the Earth’s skin, where the topsoil, which provides most of the nutrients to the plants, is the outer layer of skin. If it is removed, the soil body is exposed to infection and other potential complications. It takes 50-100 years to form a single centimetre of topsoil, so if this is lost through erosion then it is lost for more than our lifetime.

2. Soil carbon A major benefit of adopting CA as the cropping system is the higher carbon content of the soil. Carbon is important because it is the source


of life on Earth and, apart from the oceans, soil contains the largest amount of carbon on the planet. It is a source of food to the microbes in the soil – the total mass of which is more than the total mass of the plants on Earth! Having a higher percentage of carbon in the soil leads to more earthworms, which loosen and turn over a large quantity of the soil, thus taking over the role of the plough in CA cultivation systems. The higher earthworm population results in improved water infiltration, which is important as our rain usually comes in the form of unpredictable, intense thunderstorms. Organic material, when broken down to humus, is like a sponge which holds seven times its own mass in water and which can make the water available to the plants after the rainfall

events, making the crop less prone to dry periods between storms. Carbon is also important because CO2 is a greenhouse gas, meaning that it causes radiation from the sun to be retained in our atmosphere, thus contributing towards global warming. The soil structure is broken down in the process of ploughing, allowing carbon, which was protected in the clods, to be decomposed as becomes exposed to bacteria. Farmers in countries such as the USA are achieving high carbon increases in the soil (from 1.4% to 5.4-6.4%) through the use of CA practices, but in South Africa the carbon increase is much lower (in the order of 0.51.0%). In a research project by the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) on a ploughing/CA trial

at Zeekoegat research farm near Pretoria, preliminary results indicated that the CA soils had a lower CO2 flux compared to the ploughed soils. The soil “breathes� due to plant growth and associated microbial activity, but over a season there was 27% less CO2 given off from the CA soils compared to the ploughed soils, i.e. a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. It is clear that there is no longer a good reason not to implement CA practices! For more information contact: Mr Michael Kidson ARC-Institute for Soil, Climate and Water Tel: 012 310 2590 Cell: 084 870 3938 E-mail:



The Story Of The Fly and How It could Save The World We take for granted the fact that we should recycle our glass, newspapers, tin and more recently plastic and water. Businesses and services have sprung up to enable us to achieve this. But this is only the tip of the iceberg. Creating and discarding nutrients in the form of sewage, manure and abattoir blood has a far higher environmental impact. By Jason Drew


hen we start to recycle organic waste we will be truly on the path to some sustainability for our planet. As the old Yorkshire saying goes, “where there is muck there is money.” Let me explain. Nearly one third of the fish we take from our seas – some fifty million tonnes a year is used in our industrial agricultural and pet food industries. Yet at the same time we dispose of hundreds of millions of tonnes of nutrient-rich waste.


It is not just our human food waste – from supermarkets and food processing businesses discarding unsightly but perfectly good apples and oranges or out of date but edible foods. It takes as much land, diesel, water and resources from our precious seas to make the food we eat as it does for the food we throw away. In nature this waste would be recycled. An animal would drop its manure on the field or die in the bush and nature would recycle the waste nutrients using insects. A fly would lay its eggs on the waste nutrient source,

the eggs would hatch into larvae and birds and fish would eat many of those larvae or flies – recycling the nutrients – as well as cleaning up the bio-hazard. It is a case of horses for courses or rather flies for waste. Each species of fly and its larvae are naturally adapted to different types of waste. Nearly seven years ago, AgriProtein realised that this natural process could form the heart of a new business and decided to industrialise the process of nutrient recycling. We take existing organic waste nutrients


from sources such as food factories, restaurants, hotels and out of date produce from supermarkets and prepare this into a feed for our larvae. We have a designed bio-conversion factory where we maintain a secure fly colony to lay eggs. These eggs hatch into larvae which are fed the organic waste and grow at an enormous rate once you take away the natural environmental factors that stop this happening in nature. One kilo of fly eggs turns into 380 kilos of larvae in 72 hours. Larvae are what free range chickens in fields and fish in streams eat as part of their natural diet. However this natural source of protein has been increasingly replaced in our industrial farming operations with the more readily available fishmeal (but at huge environmental cost). The chemical composition of fishmeal is almost exactly the same as that of fly larvae – which is why it was chosen as a substitute. So we’ve copied nature and led the process of making protein from waste nutrients profitably, sustainably and on a large scale. We are already in production and well on the way to producing Magmeal™, an insect based protein powder, with no additives or chemicals; just dehydrated fly larvae which is the natural food of chickens in the wild and fish in our rivers.

Jason Drew’s - The Story of The Fly and How It Could Save The World is available to purchase from Kalahari Books. It is a fun look at how humans have used worked with flies detailing exploits from Genghis Kahn to NASA and the National Health System in the UK. More currently it is the story of how AgriProtein came to be. books/The-Story-of-the-FlyAnd-How-it-Could-Save-theWorld/632/45353832.aspx

Product (dried larvae) coming out of the drier

Factory overhead view

The larvae are reared in a 9,000 square meter biotech facility just next to Cape Town airport where after years of Environmental Impact essays and joint collaboration with the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries,

registered, quality controlled animal and fish feed ingredients are produced. The world urgently needs new and sustainable sources of protein. Fly larvae fed on existing waste nutrient sources is one of these.

Jason Drew is an environmental capitalist, scientist, entrepreneur and game changing economist. Agri Protein offers scientific and profitable alternatives for domestic and industrial organic waste disposal.



Eco-friendly interior design Green Building Council’s Green Star SA Interiors tool on course to green work, shopping and meeting places


eading the transformation of the South African property sector into an environmentally sustainable industry, the Green Building Council South Africa (GBCSA) developed the Green Star SA Interiors tool in 2014, taking green building ratings into the heart of every South African business.

Young Africa Publishing, Cape Town. Photo by GBCSA

Solid Green offices, Johannesburg


The Interiors tool, sponsored by Standard Bank as the main sponsor and Saint Gobain as supporting sponsor, encourages tenants to rate the reduced environmental impact interior fit-outs of their premises. Brian Wilkinson, CEO of the GBCSA, comments: “This tool puts the power in the hands of the tenant, allowing each tenancy to have their unique environmental design initiatives fairly and independently bench-marked. The tool rewards high-performance tenant spaces that are healthy, productive places to work; are less costly to operate and maintain; and have a reduced environmental footprint.” The benefits are far-reaching. Significantly lower building operation and management costs provide cost savings for both tenants and landlords, and energy-efficient premises are less affected by soaring energy prices. In addition, with the national energy crises, lower energy consumption in green buildings reduces the strain on the power grid. Wilkinson adds that there are several knock-on advantages to using the Green Star SA Interiors tool. “It definitely gives businesses a competitive edge. It signifies industry leaders who provide smart and healthy work, shopping and meeting places that are ‘set apart’ in the marketplace. A healthy building means happier employees and improved productivity. Businesses are in a better position to retain talented staff and fast-track behavioural change. It’s not only a responsible investment, but serves to heighten a business’s attractiveness as an investment, a partner and an employer.” The tool considers interior fit-outs from an all-round perspective, including the project


Standard Bank 3 Simmonds Street office, Johannesburg scope and implementation. “For example, it identifies and encourages management practises that minimise the amount of demolition and construction waste going to disposal,” notes Wilkinson. Plus it recognises and encourages collaboration between the building owner and tenants to manage and operate the building along environmentally sustainable principles. “It gives recognition to the design of workspaces that provide spatial efficiency and improve productivity and occupant performance. Credits targeted include quality of internal air; thermal, lighting and visual comfort; acoustic quality; ergonomics; as well as energy monitoring and greenhouse gas emissions,” Wilkinson says. So far, eight projects have been certified using the Green Star SA Interiors PILOT and Version 1 Tool,and these certifications range from 4 to 6 star ratings which is the star range available for this tool from ‘Best Practise’ to ‘World Leadership’. They include the Green Building Council SA’s own offices in Cape Town; three Standard Bank projects; Solid Green’s offices; Google’s offices in Johannesburg; Young Africa Publishing and the Virgin Active Health Club Classic Collection in Alice Lane. The highest rated office fit-out to date is the recently certified Solid Green offices in Rosebank, Johannesburg, which achieved a 6 Star Green Star SA Interiors v1 As Built Rating. In addition to the standard measures associated with green building and fit-outs, such as

Google office’s, Johannesburg low VOC paints, LED lighting and Energy Star appliances, the offices scored highly in the management, energy, transport and innovations categories. Interesting innovations include a branded electric vehicle with charging facilities and electric bikes; a green lease to monitor and report on energy usage, water consumption and waste generation with the results continuously displayed in the foyers making building users aware of their environmental footprint; and the development and implementation of an Operational Waste Management Plan and

the provision of separation bins, a food waste recycling ‘Bokashi’ worm farm and recycling waste storage areas. An increasing number of fit-outs are being registered with the GBCSA for Green Star SA Version 1 certification and range from offices, gyms, as well as standalone fit-outs at retail branches. These include ten more Standard Bank retail branches; two more Virgin Active Health Club Classic Collection branches; AECOM’s offices; PWC office fit-out; and the General Electric Africa Innovation Centre.

Green Building Council Offices, Cape Town


BELGOTEX FLOORS are the first South African flooring manufacturer to earn the coveted Global GREENTAG eco-label certification – called GreenRate™. The Global GREENTAG certification is an esteemed, globally recognised and respected mark that indicates a product’s relative performance across its sustainability criteria. This maximises our products’ eligibility to achieve 100% of the available credit points across all Green Building Council interiors rating tools.

W W W. BE LG O TE XFL O O RS . C O . Z A | +27 (0)33 897 7500

Is sustainability profitable in the long term? The mistaken belief that sustainability comes with a hefty price tag and the tough economic climate poses a serious challenge to manufacturers and the environment alike.


elgotex Floors have managed to turn the cost of major operational changes required to mitigate environmental impacts and halt climate change, to their advantage to ensure long-term socio-economic benefits. The company maintains its competitive advantage through continuous investment in the latest technology and equipment. These investments, used primarily for initiatives within the manufacturing and environmental sphere, facilitate improvements in operational efficiencies, product development and social upliftment. Belgotex Floors adopted a resource efficiency and cleaner production strategy that resulted in significant cost-savings whilst simultaneously addressing the environmental and social pillars of the company’s triple bottom line. Their ongoing “Green Journey” not only saved them over R14.5 million rand in 2015 alone, but also earned them the coveted international “Green Tag” certification.

“The challenge for the flooring industry is to shift traditional operating paradigms to new eco-innovative sustainable ones,” says Kevin Walsh, chief operations officer at Belgotex Floors.

Waste management By far the biggest contributor to the R9.5-million saving in 2015 on raw material costs, was the acquisition of a new R5million recycling machine. This machine enables Belgotex to recycle waste fibre and yarn back into production, effectively reducing their waste rates from their carpet production processes to close to zero. It also offers up to 20% energy

savings, resulting in lower production costs and reduced CO2e emissions.

Energy management

Installation of a R17-million photovoltaic (PV) solar power plant, coupled with a R2.4 million investment in energyefficient LED lights and motion sensors, led to R1.4 million saving in electricity. Extensive plant upgrades to faster, more efficient equipment reduced operating expenses for LPG by a massive R1.56million. By reducing their reliance on coal-fired energy, the plant offset around 2.5% of carbon (CO2e) emissions , reducing them by 1386 tons per annum. This is expected to reduce Belgotex’s Carbon Tax liability by between 5 – 10% .

Water conservation

The company’s Rainwater Harvesting Initiative (RWH) in 2015 uses rainwater stored from the company’s roofs in non-critical applications. Together with switching their entire carpet production to dry manufacturing processes, the company achieved between 35 - 45% reduction in water consumption. This represented a saving of R388 000 in municipal utility bills and a massive R1.25 million reduction in effluent management fees.

Carbon footprint In its seventh year of quantifying its carbon footprint, Belgotex has shown significant reductions in its greenhouse gas emissions. Since 2009, the company has reported a 22% reduction in its greenhouse gas emissions and since the inception of its solar plant has a CO2e avoidance of ~ 3173 tons CO2e, which is equivalent to 269.198L of fuel oil, 401 tons of hard coal and 371.749m3 of natural gas. Belgotex offers a world of choice in sustainable flooring but has made the world its first choice.

W W W. B E L G O T E X F L O O R S . C O . Z A Head Office 033 8977500 | Cape Town 021 7636900 | JHB 011 3809300 Email: | Facebook:



Green buildings don’t cost the earth The latest study on what it takes to create a building that is resource efficient and offers a healthy work and living space can cost as little as 1.1% extra over conventional construction topping the 5.0% mark.


he Green Building in South Africa: Guide to Costs and Trends Report was a collaborative study undertaken by the Green Building Council South Africa (GBCSA), the Association of SA Quantity Surveyors (ASAQS) and the University of Pretoria (UP). The study includes cost data on a total of 54 Green Star SA office buildings certified through the GBCSA Office v1 tool up to the end of 2014; 33 of which are in Gauteng, 11 are in the Western Cape and nine in Kwazulu Natal. Manfred Braune, chief technical officer of the GBCSA says that the study was undertaken

to analyse the actual cost premium of building green in South Africa, and challenge the belief that green buildings cost much more than conventional building. One of the barriers has been the apparent green premium that many developers or building owners have thought going green would cost them. In the early 2000s, globally and locally a myth was perpetuated that green buildings cost 20-50% more than conventional buildings. Several international studies were done a few years later that dispelled this myth, but South African data had not yet been collected or reported on, so was not included in the

studies. The findings of this study for the first time show that green buildings can be built for a negligible premium, between one and 10%, and that this premium is declining.” The study analysed the green design premium and green cost penetration in terms of location; construction area; base building cost; tenant mix; vertical façade to construction area ratio; Green Star SA rating levels (4, 5 or 6 Star); rating type (Design or As Built) and certification date; and rating tool categories, of which there are nine, totalling 69 credits. As would be expected, the green cost premium increases as the Green Star SA rating increases, with an average premium for a 4 Star

“South Africa has seen exponential growth in certified green buildings, from the first Green Star SA building in 2009 to the 165th in June 2016. Despite this, there are many more buildings that could be going green but are not.”

Cavalli Wine & Stud Farm, Stellenbosch, Cape Town



Green Star SA rated building being 4,5%, 6.6% for a 5 Star Green Star SA rating and 10.9% for a 6 Star Green Star SA rated building. Interestingly, there was a slight difference in average costs in the three major economic hubs, and a correlation between the cost premium and penetration. Penetration was found to be slightly higher in the Western Cape (46%) versus Gauteng (41.8%) and KZN (40.4%), while the average cost premium in the Western Cape was 6.9%, 6.0% in Gauteng and 4.5% in KZN. It was also found that construction area had a significant impact on green building costs, with costs dropping from 9.3% for a building under 5000m² to 2.6% for buildings over 50 000m². Danie Hoffman, programme leader for Quantity Surveying at the University of Pretoria says that contracts for larger buildings often benefit from more competitive tenders due to higher levels of productivity. “Economies of scale also result in larger developments having higher efficiency levels (and lower building costs per square metre) of installations such as lifts, escalators or air conditioning systems. So a large office development of say 28,000m² with a substantial budget of R350 million will therefore often be able to afford green building initiatives more easily compared to a building with the same specification level but 1,000m² in size and costing R14 million. Larger projects will also offer design teams more green design options/scope which all support lower green cost premiums.”

Other noteworthy findings of the study include: • The green cost premium appears to progressively diminish over time, largely as a result of the growing maturity in the green industry; • Green cost premiums have been declining since 2011, indicating that the SA green industry is maturing; a higher vertical façade to construction area ratio yields a higher premium; • Two categories of the Office v1 tool (Energy and Indoor Environment Quality) received 58% of the allocation of the total green cost premium. This is because they carry a combined weighting of 40% and many of the credits of these two categories have a direct impact on the operating cost of buildings and on the quality of life experienced by the inhabitants of buildings. These credits are therefore often pursued by design teams. The findings in this report are very encouraging and, together with the findings from the joint MSCI/GBCSA Sustainability Index that shows that in South Africa green

Green Star SA plaque - DEA building buildings yield a higher return on investment, they make a very strong business case for green buildings to developers, property owners and corporates,” concludes Braune. *For more information and to view the report, please visit:

15 Alice Lane, Sandton, Johannesburg



A CITY NETWORK DRIVING SUSTAINABLE URBAN SOLUTIONS ICLEI connects city leaders and accelerates local action for africa’s urban future


arth is transitioning into an “urban planet”. A massive up-scaling and acceleration of local efforts is required to respond to the pace of global environmental change, indicated through the trends of global ecosystem services’ degradation and the overshoot of the human footprint on Earth. Business as usual is no longer an option. Standard good practice is not good enough. New technical, organisational, financial and social solutions are needed. Political leaders and experts must act rapidly and implement innovatively while pursuing new sustainable urban solutions. ICLEI operates within this space supporting cities on new growth trajectories in order to


enable city planners to adapt their service delivery and design based on rapid growth and resource depletion. Kobie Brand (Regional Director for ICLEI Africa) added that, “Our cities across the continent are expanding at an unprecedented pace, with two thirds of the African population predicted to be urbanised by 2050. This provides city planners with significant opportunities to shape these growing urban centres in ways that connect communities, work within the realities of informality and embrace technology for sustainable solutions and improved livelihoods.” “ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability” is the leading global network of over 1,500 cities, towns and regions committed to building a sustainable urban future. Active in over 85

countries ICLEI supports these cities across a broad range of themes that include: • Management of global environmental goods: • Climate, water, biodiversity and ecosystems, air, land/soil, food. • Policy innovation: • Local Agenda 21/urban governance with stakeholder involvement, integrated sustainability management, the green economy, security and social development. • Municipal planning and management: • Sustainability management, land development, climate change mitigation and adaptation, resilience management, procurement and management of natural, social and economic resources. • Transformation of infrastructure:


“We connect leaders, accelerate action and provide a gateway to solutions.” • Mobility, building, energy, water and sanitation, waste, information and communication technologies.

Facing a changing environment Human expansion is happening at a rapid pace: Every minute, the world population grows by 145 people, which is 6.35 million per month. The population is expected to grow from the current 7.4 billion to 9.6 billion in 2050. Urbanisation is occurring just as rapidly. By 2050, the urban population is expected to surpass 6 billion people, meaning that two-thirds of humanity will then be living in towns and cities. Providing adequate urban infrastructure, which enables service delivery, will therefore also become a challenge. The geo-economic and geo-political influence and development dynamics between the Global North and South results in different approaches to global and local governance. The developing economies of the globe need to adopt policies that guide development in a manner that is adaptive and

Cities at Risk – Cities as Risk

Cities are highly dependent on resource flows from outside their boundaries. Because many cities will face rapid growth, the effects of global systemic change, and associated resource constraints in the decades to come, cities and urban areas are at risk.

• Cities at risk

Risk factors, which are highly interrelated, include: rising urban unemployment; overstressed social support and educational systems; outdated and inefficient urban infrastructure; natural disasters; climate change; energy, food and water insecurity; decline and loss of ecosystem goods and services; and a growing social disconnect with nature.

• Cities as risk

While cities and urban areas are at risk, cities themselves can also be a risk. Poorly managed urbanization and urban development may pose multiple and interconnected risks to a society, to a nation, and even to the global environment and economy.

ICLEI’S 10 URBAN AGENDAS ARE: • BiodiverCity • EcoMobile City • Happy, Healthy and Inclusive Communities • Low-carbon City • Resilient City • Resource-efficient & Productive City

suitable for addressing the challenge of global environmental change. Global environmental change is widespread. The global rate of species loss is between 1,000 to 10,000 times higher than the natural extinction rate, and this trend is expected to be exacerbated by habitat loss linked to climate change. Over 90% of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide is absorbed by the world’s oceans causing acidification, threatening aquatic biodiversity. Climate change poses unpredictable stress factors on cities and urban areas. According to the 5th Assessment Report on Climate Change from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), this change in climate is undeniably anthropogenic, and can only be stopped by humans. The loss of biodiversity and green spaces has a further implication for climate change mitigation. Biodiversity and green spaces provide essential ecosystem services that contribute towards climate change adaptation, such as: moderating temperature and reducing the impacts of extreme events. The ecological footprint of human civilization has become unsustainable. In 2014, humanity used over 50% more resources than nature could regenerate for that year. ICLEI serves their African members from their offices based in Cape Town and focuses specifically on urban planning, infrastructure, water and sanitation, climate change and energy, and nature-based solutions. Underpinning these themes, the projects are designed to strengthen local leadership and promote good governance, foster innovative partnerships and enable new finance options. ICLEI invites private sector partners, cities, sub-national and national government and research organisations to partner with them in the quest to promote and enable urban sustainability in our cities.

For more information:

• Smart City • Sustainable City

visit our website at:, subscribe to our Newsletter at: or contact us on the following:

• Sustainable Local Economy

Steven Malteno Membership Officer

• Procurement and Sustainable City-Region Cooperation

Thea Buckle Communications Officer



Water wares

The drought that is ravaging South Africa has led to seven out of the nine provinces being declared disaster areas, forcing industry and agriculture to review their operational water use to ensure their long-term survival. However not only are water costs higher overall; there is a risk of no water supply at all.

By Anita George Kuhn


ver a decade ago (after we were warned that lack of access to water would cause pockets of conflict) the danger signs are here that the one thing all life and commerce cannot function without is becoming a worldwide scarce commodity. The drought in South Africa also highlights the impact of not having access to clean and dignified sanitation. Approximately 11% (1.4 million) of households in SA (formal and informal) still have to be provided with sanitation services. According to the Department of Water Affairs Green Drop report ( 2011) the provision of water services, 23 municipalities (9% of the total) are in a crisis state, with an acute risk of disease outbreak; and a further 38% were at high risk, with the potential to deteriorate into a state of crisis. The lack of access to sanitation has an impact on other rights including rights to dignity, education, health, safety and a healthy environment. The role of public-private-partnership (PPP) in the South African landscape ultimately needs to become the end goal in order to achieve this. More investment needs to be made by business and industry and most importantly an informed

decision ensuring CSI/LED spend is geared towards sustainable technologies in order to preserve fresh water resources and provide sanitation solutions which can be implemented immediately. Contrary to popular belief there are water optimisation technologies which do not involve extensive capital investment. Therefore the acceptable investment returns for organisations should fall away when one considers the value chain risk cost associated with not being able to supply one cubic metre of water at all. These challenges, however are not insurmountable and one such company providing solutions to re-using wastewater with cost-effective sanitation using decentralised waste water treatment plants is Enviro Conscious Technologies© (ECT). Case Study: Hygienic Sanitation in Education with the ECT-AQUAmax®Decentralised WWTP The ECT-AQUAmax® WWT system and 20 new toilets, was installed at Kopanelang Primary School in Sasolberg, providing the school’s 1800 students with hygienic sanitation as part of a CSI programme.

Kopanelang Primary School was identified by the Free State Minister of Education to be the beneficiary of this project because of its pressing need for an immediate solution to serious sanitation problems. The school is the first in the country to benefit from its own wastewater plant; the project gained the approval of the Metsimaholo Municipality, Executive Mayor, the Free State Department of Education and Department of Mineral Resources.

“Without water, there is no industry; without water there is no life.” The school had doubled in size over the last year and their existing septic tank was leaking raw sewerage onto the children’s playing fields, being a massive health risk for the children. All treated black water coming from the school from the waste water treatment plant is used to flush the toilets as well as to irrigate the school’s fields and greenhouse plants, which grows vegetables for the school canteen. There is no odour and the system was installed in the

Kopanelang Thutu Primary School



AQUAmax Professional XXL2

500 People XL Plant –Moma Mining Mozambique Inflow 200.00 m3/day school grounds, providing an opportunity for training and skills development to the members of the local community who built the tanks and installed the plant. This waste water treatment plant has saved the school over R200 000.00 a year, money that was spent on septic tank maintenance. It also saves approximately 21,600 litres of fresh water per day; up to 70% on monthly fresh water bills; with no sewage bills to pay. Fresh water saving for a community where a 2000 people ECT-AQUAmax® WWT system is installed will be up to 43,800m³ per year by re-cycling treated water for irrigation and toilets, allowing municipalities to supply an additional 1000 people with fresh water where plants are installed.

Benefits • ECT -AQUAmax® decentralised WWTP treats all domestic black water • Saves between 40% - 70% of fresh water resources by re-using all treated black water No sewerage connection or new municipal wastewater infrastructure required. Saving municipalities over R3million per kilometre in infrastructure for sewage piping. • WWTP systems vary in size, handling & capacity from single households of 4 to 5 people up to entire communities of over 2000 people • Environmental integrity preventing groundwater pollution • Exceeds SA Green Drop standards • Emits no foul smell

• Alternative energy (solar and generators) on sites where no electricity is available. • Remote surveillance mobile functionality notifying ECT© at all times of system performance. • Short building time, no need for heavy equipment. • Lower CAPEX and OPEX with individual expansion, on-site modular solutions. The AQUAmax® WWTP has been installed in over 72,000 regions worldwide in hotels, universities, mines ,hospitals and housing developments ,etc.

About Enviro Conscious Technologies/ ECT© ECT© is an innovative and sustainable Wastewater Management company focusing on the re-use of wastewater and saving fresh water resources. ECT-AQUAmax® WWTP is 90% manufactured and built in SA, with largely re-cycled components. Fully biological no need to separate ‘gray’ and ‘black’ water for re-use. ECT© provides comprehensive Maintenance and Service contracts with each plant installed.


Contact Hendrik Kuhn +27 72 724 7596 +27 82 443 9308


South Africa

Running on Woman Power

Top female cleantech innovators at GCIP-SA


ith innovations ranging from a mobile water-purifying device that uses no chemicals to a Volksie running on solar power, female innovators are taking the world of technology development by storm.

The GCIP-SA has a special focus on female-led businesses, with five women participating in the 2016 programme as semi-finalists. They are:

Women have been making an exceptional showing among the top performers in the Global Cleantech Innovation Programme for SMEs in South Africa (GCIP-SA), a global initiative that aims to identify and support SMEs and start-ups with innovative solutions that can tackle the most pressing energy, environmental and economic challenges in the fields of energy efficiency, renewable energy, waste beneficiation, water efficiency and green building.

Project: The Hot Spot, an innovation that enables a household to control the geyser and heat only the water that is needed, instead of heating the full geyser, thus achieving significant cost savings.

Beetling in the Solar Challenge Santa Scheepers, winner as the best 2015 GCIP-SA female-led business and the woman behind ZingCo electric cars, will take part in the Sasol Solar Challenge, together with her eclectic and fun-loving crew, later this year. The Sasol Solar Challenge, a demonstration of the sophistication of solar-powered vehicles, brings innovative individuals together with a common goal: to finish and finish well. This year’s challenge starts on 24 September in Pretoria and draws to a close eight days later in Cape Town. The ZingBug project was started with a Volkswagen Beetle as development platform. Santa says that their research showed that there is no shortage of people in the world who have converted VW Beetles to electric power. “But we could not find anyone who had turned it into a business. And that is what we are doing. “The ZingBug has a 72-volt electric motor, but we are in the process of converting this to a 48-volt system because of commercial availability of the technology.” The team is working on getting the 48-volt car ready in time for the Sasol Solar Challenge. The car runs off deep-cycle lead-acid batteries and in its class – Sustainability Fleet – it is allowed to recharge at any time. Santa’s vision with her electric cars is that you drive it home after work and then switch your house’s power supply so that it feeds off the car’s stored reserves during peak time. After peak tariff time, you switch back to the main grid and then recharge the car’s batteries.

Sandiswa Qayi

Yolandi Schoeman Project: aWetBox, a cost-effective, low-maintenance solution that assists municipalities and homeowners to improve water quality. It can also be connected to greyand rainwater-harvesting systems for a water reuse and recycling solution.

Louise Williamson Project: Mashesha Syngas stoves, with doublebarrelled metal chambers with strategically placed air vents to allow for natural convection airflow that promotes heated combustion and a secondary ignition of synthesis gas.

Corinne Greyling Project: Super-hydrophobic self-cleaning high-voltage coatings protecting a high-voltage grid, specifically in areas of high pollution on an ageing and stressed grid.

Pamela Alborough Project: Hydrochemical Activation Treatment (HAT), a prefabricated, modular, low-cost and chemical-free system for water and wastewater treatment. The HAT System treats water of varying quality and enhances other water treatment systems cheaply and efficiently, using a combination of scientific and physical principles. • The GCIP-SA is implemented by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) with funding by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). In South Africa, UNIDO is partnering with the Technology Innovation Agency (TIA) as the execution and hosting institution for the GCIP, while the US-based Cleantech Open serves as the main knowledge partner of the global programme.

Santa Scheepers with the zingBug Enquiries: - Santa Scheepers / www.

Enquiries: Email:,



Creating Social Value By Prioritising Values A large body of research indicates the societal benefits of prioritising intrinsic or compassionate values. While some South African initiatives, such as the National Development Plan and the King Report on Corporate Governance, do encourage these values, these efforts should be ramped up significantly to create a more socially, economically and environmentally inclusive society. By Robert Zipplies


ith its crisis of leadership credibility, eroding levels of societal solidarity and violent protests by the disenfranchised, South Africa is in a fragile state. Now more than ever, it is vital for South Africans to ask themselves how they can better contribute to building an inclusive green economy and help realise the National Development Plan’s 2030 Vision of a prosperous and equitable society. One underlying and largely ignored response is to go back to basics and to work with human values, the guiding principles that shape our personal and collective goals, views and actions. Most social, economic and environmental sustainability initiatives tend to focus on ‘external’ solutions – new infrastructure, policies,


technologies, business models, production or delivery processes – but the ‘internal’ solutions, the human dimension that created the situation in the first place and often, perpetuate the problems, is mostly ignored. This situation is a bit like a doctor prescribing medication for the symptoms while ignoring the underlying causes. Regretfully we live in a society that more often reinforces values that lead to attitudes

and behaviours that are less caring about and engaged in the welfare of others and the environment. Social scientist Shalom Swartz identified and codified 58 core human values back in the 1990s and these have since been validated across some 50 languages and 80 countries, including South Africa. There are two valuegroupings that are of particular interest; these are intrinsic and extrinsic values, which exist


in opposition or tension within all human beings. Intrinsic (also called self-transcendence or compassionate) values are “values that are inherently rewarding to pursue” and examples include seeking out affiliation to friends and family, connection with nature, concern for others, self-acceptance, social justice and creativity. Extrinsic (also called self-enhancement or materialistic) values, on the other hand, are “values that are centred on external approval or rewards” and examples include the pursuit of wealth, material success, concern about image, social status, prestige, social power and authority. These two value groups are inherent in all humans, but how they are prioritised and expressed individually and collectively may vary dramatically.

from advertising and media stories to the example being set by leaders and cultural icons. On TV there are adverts featuring good looking and financially successful people buying bigger and better cars, houses – you name it. At work, the emphasis is on how much you earn and how much you can contribute to the bottom line, and in your neighbourhood and country, politicians and other leaders are flagrantly embracing lavish lifestyles and making you wish you could do the same. South Africa has one of the biggest gaps between rich and poor in the world and this chasm can decrease motivation and feelings of self-worth and increase feelings of jealousy and a “me too” attitude. The human mind is a sensitive and vulnerable organ, which means it is easily influenced by what others are doing and saying – particularly those who we perceive to be our leaders or role models. This avalanche of extrinsic messaging has a corrosive impact, individually and collectively. It heightens feelings of anger, insecurity and stimulates the need for power, wealth, security and social recognition. And this weakens social cohesion, caring, wisdom, collaboration, equality and helpfulness – all intrinsic values important for building a just, sustainable and equitable nation.

“Values are an important - and some researchers say an essential - tool for stimulating positive behaviour change.” There is an abundance of research that illustrates how encouraging intrinsic values has a host of positive benefits: • Social: Higher levels of empathy, lower manipulative behaviour, lower racial and ethnic prejudices, higher levels of cooperation, etc. • Environmental: protecting the environment, higher frequency of donating to environmental causes, recycling, conserving energy, etc. • Personal well-being: higher life satisfaction, lower levels of depression and anxiety, lower smoking and alcohol use, etc.

Amidst this noise, it is critical to find ways to encourage, live and express intrinsic values. The benefit of intrinsic values are a matter of evidence. As South Africans, if we are to create a green and inclusive economy – where there is enough, for all, forever – we not only have to





focus on the ‘external’ solutions, but consistently also work on the internal dimension by engaging intrinsic values. Wherever we can, we need to weaken extrinsic values and strengthen intrinsic values: in our leadership, in politics, in business practices and advertising, media, sport, education, entertainment and advertising. - Robert Zipplies is a consultant and co-founder of Common Cause South Africa. More can be read about the importance of values in the Common Cause Handbook available at:

The South African Constitution and the National Development Plan encourage intrinsic values, such as equality, justice, freedom, solidarity, social and environmental responsibility, human wellbeing and integrity. And the King Report on Corporate Governance, which applies to the public and private sectors as well as non-profit organisations, highlights intrinsic values such as honesty, courage, integrity, transparency, respect, fairness and sustainability. However, these wonderful treaties, and the values they espouse, are drowned out by the onslaught of extrinsic values across our society



IDEALLY LOCATED FOR BUSINESS OR PLEASURE. The luxurious Protea Hotel by Marriott Ž Midrand, situated halfway between the dynamic, bustling cities of Johannesburg and Pretoria, provides optimum access not only to this prestigious business district’s numerous corporate headquarters and conference venues, but also to business and shopping destinations throughout the Gauteng region. With 177 spacious en-suite bedrooms, all with controlled air-conditioning, the hotel is able to accommodate both leisure and business travellers. The hotel also boasts the award-wining, The Palm Terrace Restaurant, which makes for an unforgettable dining experience. Culinary delights tempt the palate, while sundowner cocktails and scrumptious al fresco breakfasts can be enjoyed on The Terrace. The hotel also offers 24 hour room service and a 24 hour Techno Gym. Terms and conditions apply.

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Green Economy Journal 22  
Green Economy Journal 22