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A Dr. Cornelius Ruiters Executive Director: Built Environment CSIR

n objective of the Government of South Africa is to eradicate the backlog of social infrastructure in South Africa particularly with regard to clinics, schools, and student residences. The construction industry in South Africa has a critical role to play in achieving this objective. However, the delivery process associated with conventional building technologies, i.e., brick and mortar, is slow due, in large part, to the technology requirements (diverse and plentiful building systems, products and components assembled on site and the curing periods associated with ‘wet’ works). Some Innovative Building Technologies (IBTs) on the other hand, adopt a more industrial approach to building and construction, i.e., more of the building systems, products and components are manufactured in a factory, and assembled on site. This method improves performance because quality control can be properly exercised under factory conditions, and the amount of time required on the construction site is reduced. Finding innovative, resource-efficient (do-more-withless) routes to growth is now an imperative. Innovative Building Technologies (IBTs) have the potential to deliver buildings faster, cheaper, better quality, and with higher quality levels of performance. However IBTs are relatively new in the South African building sector and are thus subjected a number of unknowns including durability, local content, fitnessfor-purpose, cost, construction time, and quality. CSIR Built Environment research focus on establishing the ‘credentials’ of IBTs as a technology solution for Government with regard to eradicating the backlog of clinics, schools, and student residences. Therefore, the CSIR Built Environment is continuing with its world class research in the following research themes: • 1. Material technology –research and development into a range of “green products”, e.g. bio-based composite building products, the greener brick initiative, cementitious replacement materials that will improve building performance, new business enterprises, etc., while reducing the environmental

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FOREWORD

footprint of building materials in support of the Green Economy; • 2. Modern Methods of Construction (MMC) – offsite manufacturing and onsite assembly and a manufacturing system; • 3. Smart buildings –ICT Platform to monitor and continually adjust construction methods and progress and building components. Systems to ensure that the building is operating at maximum efficiencies at all times; and • 4. Innovative Building Technologies (IBTs) – the development of IBT systems to speed up social infrastructure delivery and performance (health clinics, schools, etc.). Thus, through the aforementioned world class research impact areas and completed projects the CSIR is solving built environment problems and contribute towards the knowledge base of South Africa, and the world, and instrumental in the management and transfer of this knowledge. These benefits from research, development and innovation can accrue across the entire infrastructure sector by: • i) Improving and demonstrating improved competitiveness to construction industry stakeholders • ii) Job creation – especially with regard to manufactured construction and green technologies • iii) Green economy – decarbonise the construction industry • iv) Demonstrating the efficacy of innovation and alternative building technologies Much of this research work is featured in this volume as a means of disseminating knowledge for the benefit of the nation as a whole. Thus, in the context of the research development and innovation, the CSIR Built Environment unit it is pleased to endorse the publication of the Green Building Handbook Volume 5. This handbook will further contribute to solving the major problems and concerns in the construction and building industry.

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SAIA

FOREWORD

M

y term of office as President of the South African Institute of Architects (SAIA) began during August 2012. In my Presidential acceptance speech I alluded to the fact that, like everyone else around the globe, we are faced with changes affecting our climate and weather patterns which will continue to impact our built environment. These planet-altering shifts, together with unsustainable rates of resource-consumption by human-kind, are placing our future on the planet at risk. It is in this context that we state our aim as being the development of human settlements which are sustainable, humane and inclusive. While seeking to achieve this goal we commit ourselves to engagement in economic activity which promotes the responsible utilisation of biophysical, human and economic resources in the development of a sustainable future. However, the achievement of these intentions is not only within the hands of architects. These challenges are complex and the solutions are multi-dimensional, systematic and intricately linked. Inter-disciplinary collaboration in the professional, technological, social and economic fields is key to success. Thus, SAIA encourages public and private sector clients to embrace sustainable building principles and ensure that these are met by all professional service providers. Amidst the expanse of information, disinformation, advocacy and denial, the Green Building Handbook series stands out as a trusted information source for all those inspired and striving towards sustainability in the Built environment. With the publication of this, the sixth volume in the series, the focus moves towards the achievement, for instance, of net zero energy and net zero water buildings. Thus, I heartily recommend this and the preceding volumes of the Green Building Handbook to all practitioners in the Built environment.

Sindile Ngonyama President South African Institute of Architects

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PROFILE

DPI PLASTICS

DPI Plastics appoints new managing director DPI Plastics - a leading manufacturer of water reticulation, drainage and pipe-fitting systems in South Africa - has officially appointed a new managing director. The company is proud to announce that Juan Muller officially assumed responsibility for the post in September 2013. Muller, who boasts more than 30 years of experience in the manufacturing sector, brings with him a wealth of knowledge and expertise to the DPI Plastics team. “DPI Plastics has developed a strong market reputation in recent years, and I look forward to guiding the company through a new phase of development and improvement, while maintaining the standards of quality and service that the industry has come to expect from DPI Plastics,” he states. As part of his long term strategy to ensure that the company remains competitive in the local market, Muller reveals that he is committed to implementing the ‘Lean Manufacturing’ process at DPI Plastics. The lean process aims to reduce waste by considering the expenditure of resources for any goal other than the creation of value for the end-user to be wasteful. “Lean is a highly successful global manufacturing practice that eliminates wasteful expenditure that does not add value to the end-user. This process ultimately results in lower operational costs without compromising on quality, which is vitally important to future success,” he continues. In addition to lean manufacturing, DPI Plastics is also committed to the sustainable use of additives and a responsible vinyl recycling program by way of its memberships of the Southern African Vinyls Association (SAVA) and the Southern African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers Association (SAPPMA). Although the market remains challenging, Muller is optimistic of the future outlook for DPI Plastics moving forward. Muller is a welcome addition to the DPI Plastics team, and the company would like to wish him the best of luck in all his future endeavours as managing director. DPI Plastics Contact Martine Goodchild DPI Plastics Marketing Manager Phone: (021) 957 5600 Fax: 086 505 6484 Email: mgoodchild@dpiplastics.co.za Web: www.dpiplastics.co.za

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THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK


The

Sustainable Energy Resource Handbook South Africa Volume 5 The Essential Guide

EDITOR Erik Kiderlen CONTRIBUTORS Yats Gopaul, Ntombifuthi Ntuli, Bo barta, Ryan Dearlove, Erik Kiderlen, Lloyd Macfarlane, Teresa Legg, Peter Kidger, Dewald Burzynski, Chris Elliot, Robyn Brown, Linda Olagunju, Prof Charles Kibbert, James Dalrymple, Mauritz Lindeque PEER REVIEW: Alan Middleton, Peter Geddes, Prof Dereck Croome, Erik Kiderlen, Robyn Brown LAYOUT & DESIGN CDC Design EDITORIAL & PRODUCTION Robyn Brown

ADVERTISING EXECUTIVES Tichaona Meki Tendai Jani CHIEF EXECUTIVE Gordon Brown DIRECTORS Gordon Brown, Andrew Fehrsen, Lloyd Macfarlane PRINCIPAL FOR AFRICA & MAURITIUS Gordon Brown PRINCIPAL FOR UNITED STATES James Smith

ADMIN MANAGER Suraya Manuel DIGITAL MARKETING MANAGER Cara-Dee Carlstein SALES ADMINISTRATION Wadoeda Brenner

PUBLISHER www.alive2green.com

PROJECT LEADER Louna Rae CONTENT EDITOR Kirstin Rennie

The Sustainability Series Of Handbooks PHYSICAL ADDRESS: Alive2green Cape Media House 28 Main Road Rondebosch

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or in any form without the prior written consent of the publisher. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the Publisher or the Editor. All editorial contributions are accepted on the understanding that the contributor either owns or has obtained all necessary copyrights and permissions. THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK

11


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The

Green Building Handbook

South Africa Volume 5

The Essential Guide EDITOR EDITOR Llewellyn van Wyk Llewellyn van Wyk CONTRIBUTORS CONTRIBUTERS Llewellyn van Wyk, Wim Klunne, Mauritz Lindeque, Dr Dirk Conradie, Llewellyn van Wyk, Reenen, Anna Bailey, Jean Green Building Council SouthTobias Africa,van Antoine Perrau, Mike Aldous, Riaan van Wyk,Francois TichaonaKoenig, Kumirai, Gordon Brown The Enrico Daffanchio, Joe Mapiravana, Roben Sustainable Energy

SALES ADMINISTRATION Wadoeda PROJECT Brenner LEADER Louna Rae LEADER PROJECT Louna Rae DISTRIBUTION Edward Mc Donald ADVERTISING EXECUTIVES Glenda Kulp, Tichaona Meki ADVERTISING EXECUTIVES Charity Masiyanga, Munyaradzi Jani, Tendai Jani EXECUTIVE CHIEF Gordon Brown CHIEF EXECUTIVE

Gordon Brown DIRECTORS Gordon Brown DIRECTORS Andrew Fehrsen Gordon Brown Lloyd Macfarlane ADVERTISING Andrew EXECUTIVES Fehrsen Tichaona Meki Tendai Jani PRINCIPAL FOR AFRICA & MAURITIUS Lloyd Macfarlane CHIEF EXECUTIVE Gordon Brown Gordon Brown PRINCIPAL FOR MARITIUS DIRECTORS Gordon Brown, PRINCIPAL AndrewBrasse Fehrsen, FOR Lloyd Macfarlane UNITED STATES Hans PRINCIPAL FORJames AFRICASmith & MAURITIUS Gordon Brown PUBLISHER PRINCIPAL FOR UNITED STATES

Resource Handbook Ridley, M.N Dlamini, Naa Lamkai Ampofo-Anti, Dirk5 Conradie, South Africa Dr. Volume PEER REVIEWER The Essential Guide Graham Young, Johan Nel Prinsloo, Stefan LlewellynLouizaDanke, van Wyk

EDITOR Erik Kiderlen Szewczuk, James Dalrymple, Ntombifuthi Ntuli CONTRIBUTORS Yats Gopaul, Ntombifuthi Ntuli, Bo LAYOUT & DESIGN barta, Ryan Dearlove, Erik Kiderlen, Lloyd Macfarlane, PEER REVIEWER Nicole Kenny Kurt Daniels Teresa Legg, Peter Kidger, Dewald Burzynski, Chris Llewellyn van Wyk Elliot, Robyn Brown, Linda Olagunju, Prof Charles Kibbert, James Dalrymple, Mauritz Lindeque EDITORIAL & PRODUCTION LAYOUT & DESIGN PEER REVIEW: Alan Middleton, Peter Geddes, Prof Robyn Brown Dereck Croome, Erik Kiderlen, Robyn Brown Nicole Kenny LAYOUT & DESIGN CDC Design ADMIN PRODUCTION MANAGER EDITORIAL & PRODUCTION Robyn Brown Suraya Manuel Wadoeda Brenner ADMIN MANAGER Suraya Manuel DIGITAL MARKETING MANAGER DIGITALADMIN MARKETING MANAGER MANAGER Cara-Dee Carlstein Cara-Dee Carlstein SALES ADMINISTRATION Suraya Manuel Wadoeda Brenner

James Smith PUBLISHER www.alive2green.com

DIGITAL MARKETING MANAGER PROJECT LEADER Marcus Matsi

The Sustainability Series Of Handbooks

Louna Rae CONTENT EDITOR Kirstin Rennie

The Sustainability Series Of Handbooks PHYSICAL ADDRESS: Alive2green

PHYSICAL ADDRESS: Wynberg Mews Cloete House Brodie Road Wynberg Cape Town South Africa 7824

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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or in any form without the prior written consent of the publisher. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of

SBN No: 978 0 620 45240 3. Volume 4 firstor Published February 2012.are Allaccepted rightson the the Publisher the Editor. All editorial contributions Cape Media House understanding that the contributor either owns or has obtained reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in all necessary 28 Main Road copyrights and permissions. any way or in any form without the prior written consent of the publisher. Rondebosch The opinions are not necessarily those of the Publisher or PICTURE Cape Town expressed herein COVER Kalkbult are Solar accepted Power Plant – on the fithe rst project to go live and connect South AfricaAll editorial contributions the Editor. understanding thatto the grid under the IPP programme. 7700 the contributor either owns or Images: has obtained all necessary copyrights and Kalkbult Images Aerial photographer: Anthony Allen. permissions. TEL: 021 447 4733 FAX: 086 6947443

Ground shots: Eric Miller.

IMAGES AND DIAGRAMS: DISTRIBUTION AND COPY SALES ENQUIRIES edwardm@hmpg.co.za Company Registration Number: Space limitations and source format haveENQUIRIES affectedlouna.rae@alive2green.com the size of certain published ADVERTISING 2006/206388/23 images and/or diagrams in this publication. For larger PDF versions of these Vat Number: 4130252432 ISBN No:978 0620 45240 3 images please contact the Publisher.

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PAPER TEL: 021 447 4733 FAX: 086 6947443 Volume 5 Company Registration Number: PRINTER First Published 2012 2006/206388/23 CHAPTER IMAGES www.greenbiz.com, www.freshpalace.com, www.forums.tf2maps.net, Vat Number: 4130252432 www.livinais.com, www.thenetworks.co.za, www.divorcelawyermedfordoregon.com, www.archdaily.com SUSTAINABLE ENERGY RESOURCE HANDBOOK 11 Credits.indd 11

Endorsers:

2013/12/06 9:39 AM

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CLAY BRICK - FOR OPTIMAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY Consider the true value of your building project through the long-term performance of materials used. The thermal properties of clay bricks optimise energy efficiencies in buildings, keeping them cooler in summer and warmer in winter. With their natural beauty, low maintenance requirements, thermal, acoustic and fire-resistant properties, you can appreciate that a Clay Brick house is more than just a house, but a shelter that provides comfort and security for generations to come.

Build Dignity. Build with ClayBrick - for good INSIST ON CLAY BRICKS PRODUCED BY A CLAYBRICK MEMBER IN YOUR AREA. +27 11 805 4206 | www.claybrick.org.za


EDITOR’S NOTE

Llewellyn Van Wyk CSIR

T

here can be little doubt that building performance is increasingly coming under scrutiny from building owners and users: much of this can be ascribed to the rising cost of services, especially energy. However, the green building movement must also take some credit for this growing awareness as I very much doubt whether the construction and property industries would have become as focused as it has in the absence of green building rating tools. With the establishment of the green building movement the focus has now shifted to defining, and improving, building performance. The net zero energy building movement in the United States has become almost mainstream: attention is now shifting to energy plus i.e., generating more energy than is required because it has become a tradable commodity. The promulgation of energy efficiency building regulations in South Africa is stimulating a similar development trajectory: just how energy efficient can a building be in South African conditions is a question that many researchers are focusing on. But green building is, and should be, about much more than energy efficiency. The argument for net zero water, net zero waste, net zero emissions, and net zero ecological loss has been made in this manual in previous volumes. In addition to these fields of enquiry, are newer performance considerations such as life cycle analysis, the environmental behaviour of materials, and indoor environmental comfort. These topics are covered in greater detail in this volume: chapters reflect current research in these fields as researchers seek to better understand the nature of the problem in order to develop high performance solutions. In addition the experience and knowledge gained in the field by practitioners is once again covered through case studies. As in past editions, all the chapters have been subject to review by the editor and, in the case of published research papers, by two reviewers. This is done to ensure robustness and to enable evidence-based solutions to be developed. I trust that this edition will stimulate greater enquiry among environmental designers into the development of built environment solutions that are resilient and sustainable.

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CONTENTS Chapter 1: Green(ing) Infrastructure Llewellyn van Wyk

24

Chapter 2: Indoor environmental quality and building energy efficiency Tobias van Reenen

41

Chapter 3: Monaghan Farm Anna Bailey

55

Chapter 4: Mauritius Commercial Bank Jean Francois Koenig

66

Chapter 5: Monaghan Farm: House Forbes Enrico Daffanchio

76

Chapter 6: Cement Joe Mapiravana

86

Chapter 7: Timber Roben Ridley

98

Chapter 8: Clay and concrete brick M.N Dlamini

112

Chapter 9: Towards net-zero construction and demolition waste Llewellyn van Wyk

128

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PROFILE

Services • • • •

Civil Engineering Consulting Integrated Facilities Management Project Management Integrated Waste Management

Overview Black Jills Engineers was established in 2007 and is a Level 1 BEE contributor, black youth woman owned engineering company. The company has offices in four provinces namely, Gauteng, Limpopo, North West and Northern Cape. We have a team of engineers and technicians with extensive experience in their respective fields. The team members’ experiences range from 4 to 22 years. The company is a member Green Building Council, and South African Facilities Management Association (SAFMA). The engineers are members of the Engineering Council of South Africa. We are involved in the separation, recycling and collection of waste in various commercial buildings are in a process of developing a wet waste processing plant to generate biogas from wet waste, which would in turn be used in the

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THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK

canteens for cooking purposes. Alternatively companies could opt for their wet waste to be disposed of at our site for processing, reducing the carbon footprint by up to 60% for commercial buildings. We offer the flexibility to provide a tailor made program specific to each company and unique requirements. Services carried out are performed in a safe and reliable manner, in accordance with government requirements and legislation. We will also ensure that all buildings are ISO14001 compliant and assist clients with the certification process where required.

Contact Details Unit C45 Allandale Business Park, Cnr Le Roux and Morkels Close, Halfway House, Midrand, 1685. T: (011)312 8302 / (011)312 8361 W: www.blackjills.co.za E: info@blackjills.co.za


CONTENTS Chapter 10: Green to sustainable material use

144

Chapter 11: Innovative building technologies

164

Chapter 12: Sanitation

192

Chapter 13: Corniche Bay

210

Chapter 14: Wind energy in South Africa

228

Chapter 15: Green Building Council South Africa

256

Chapter 16: Roof-top solar photovoltaic

268

Chapter 17: Will solar water heaters deliver on the promise of jobs?

292

Naa lamkai Ampofo-Anti

Dr Dirk Conradie Louiza Danke

Graham A Young and Johan Nel Prinsloo

Stefan Szewczuk

James Dalrymple

Ntombifuthi Ntuli

THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK

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Economic Development Solutions (Pty) Ltd (“EDS”) has worked with a number of entities, particularly within the Renewable Energy and Mining Sectors as the Lead Community Engagement Facilitator and Economic Development strategists. EDS has implemented projects on a national basis and where necessary appointed local personnel to assist with language translation or protocol compliance. We have also been instrumental in the facilitation of Stakeholder and Community Forum development in order to establish mechanisms to support the on-going engagement with stakeholders, communities and interested or affected parties. This process often includes large scale engagement, i.e. public meetings. Our programme implementation experience and expertise includes the following: •

Desktop studies and research;

Community based studies and research, including community needs assessments;

Identification of best practice and sustainable programmes in order to address the identified community needs;

Identification of enterprise development / supplier development initiatives and opportunities;

Identification of socio-economic development initiatives and opportunities;

Management of socio-economic development programmes;

Monitoring and reporting on socio-economic development programmes;

Management of supplier development / enterprise development programmes;

Monitoring and reporting on supplier development / enterprise development programmes;

Beneficiary identification, including communities, supplier development, enterprise development and socioeconomic development beneficiaries;

Facilitate the development of skills databases to allow for local employment opportunities;

Facilitate the development of supplier databases to allow for the easier appointment of local service providers in order to achieve Preferential Procurement and Localness targets;

Identification of Stakeholders and Interested or Affected Parties;

Public Participation Strategy Development;

Facilitation of Public Participation, Community, and Stakeholder Engagemen Meetings;

Conduct project / programme risk assessment analysis;

Mine Closure Programme Development (in line with DMR stipulations);

Mine Closure Programme Implementation Management (in line with DMR and Municipal stipulations);

Social and Labour Plan (SLP) Development and Facilitation; and

SLP Programme Implementation Management.

In addition to the above, we offer the following services •

Identification of suitable Community Liaison Officer (CLO) candidates;

Appointment of Economic Development Admin Officers to project sites to monitor Economic Development compliance and reporting;

Monitoring , evaluation and assessment of programmes;

Monitoring and evaluation of substantiating evidence required for reporting purposes;

Corporate Governance monitoring and facilitation services;

Legislative compliance monitoring and facilitation services;

Facilitation of trustee appointments; and

Act as an Independent Trustee in line with the Companies Act and King III. Email : admin@ed-solutions.co.za Phone : +27 (0) 11 447 4683 - Fax2Email : +27 86 546 2044 BEE : Level 1(BWO) www.ed-solutions.co.za


PROFILE

After years of experience manufacturing uPVC Windows and Doors, Magpro’s commitment to quality and investment in technical innovation and equipment has made us a market leader in our industry. We are involved in every aspect of the extrusion process, whether on the production line or in our on-site laboratory, we are there making sure that all Magpro products meet the highest quality standards. Our expert fitting solutions and after-sales service is just as important – our authorised fabricators actively ensure lasting client satisfaction.

Why use our products? Internationally, innovations within the window and door sector have resulted in an enormous surge towards uPVC products. Magpro took it a step further – our research and development teams have devised a formulation specifically suited to the harsh South African climate. The purest unplasticized Polyvinylchloride (uPVC) is enhanced with 15 microadditives, forming 20% of the total formula to produce a resilient product suited to our own climate. Magpro uPVC Windows and Doors offer unparalleled advantages making your choice a simple one: Our profiles are durable: uPVC’s product life is estimated to be in excess of 25 years, which is not affected by coastal or saline environments. Impressively, installations in South Africa have been monitored over a 30-year period, and show no significant degradation. Stabilizers are added to strengthen the profiles to give it vital long-term stability. Our profiles are UV resistant: Stabilizers are added to minimize the effect of solar radiation and changes in temperature. The addition of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) ensures that our uPVC products retain their brilliant white finish. Our profiles are virtually maintenance free: You no longer have to worry about painting your frames! Regular cleaning with a mild non-abrasive detergent solution will ensure a lasting finish. Should you find that you require service and maintenance, we advise that you contact your supplying fabricator or installer. Our profiles keep the unwanted elements out: Our multi-chambered design offers maximum soundproofing, effective insulation and efficient drainage. Our profiles have aesthetic appeal: Various modern designs are available ensuring our product is not only durable but also compliments the style of your property. Our profiles offer added security benefits: Our uPVC windows and doors are robustly constructed for added security and peace of mind. The electro-galvanised steel reinforcement in the frame, sash and transom is extremely difficult to cut through or bend.

THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK


PROFILE

Our profiles do not support combustion: uPVC is very difficult to ignite via the common sources of fire (matches, blow lamps etc). In addition, uPVC does not burn once the source of heat or flame has been removed. Our profiles are eco-friendly: uPVC provides excellent insulation in a building, thus reducing heating and cooling costs and increasing energy efficiency. In addition, uPVC replaces timber frame windows, thus aiding in the conservation of valuable hardwoods.

Complete solutions for all property owners

Residential: Magpro systems are modern, adaptable, affordable and secure – thus perfectly suited to the requirements of the residential market. Hotels: The long-term efficiency and low maintenance requirements of the Magpro range is ideal to cope with the demands of the hospitality industry. Commercial and Industrial: Magpro products are competitively priced and provide a robust and durable solution in commercial and industrial buildings. Low cost housing: Magpro uPVC Door and Window systems are the cost-effective answer to the needs of the mass market in low-cost housing, with durability and easy maintenance solving numerous problems.

Our Installations: KwaZulu Natal: Bluewaters Hotel Protea Hotel Edward Elarish Restaurant & Conference Centre Sappi Saiccor-Umkomass Commercial Cold Storage Durban North Girls High School Glenwood Boys High School Huntsman Tioxide-Umbogintwini Bluff Lifesavers Club Chelsea Preparatory Shool

Johannesburg: Formula 1 Hotel in Midrand Sanria Muslim School in Mayfair Cape Town: Harbour Edge Hotel – Gordon’s Bay Island View Apartments – Milnerton St. Michaels Office Park T: 031 4016782 C: 083 779 2408 www.magpro.co.za

F: 031 401 3844 F2E : 086 512 0908 sales@magpro.co.za THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK

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CHAPTER 0

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CHAPTER TITLE

THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK


GREENING INFRASTRUCTURE

GREEN(ING) INFRASTRUCTURE

Llewellyn van Wyk Built Environment Unit CSIR

Introduction The development and maintenance of infrastructure is crucial to improving economic growth and quality of life (WEF 2013). Urban infrastructure typically includes bulk services such as water, sanitation and energy (typically electricity and gas), transport (typically roads, rail and airports), and telecommunications. The focus of this chapter will be on greening bulk services and roads. Despite the importance of infrastructure to economic growth and social wellbeing, many countries struggle to meet the increasing demand by growing cities for infrastructure services (ULI 2007; WEF 2013), especially in developing countries including South Africa (SAICE 2006), and many consumers struggle to afford the increasing costs associated with the services they use (National Treasury 2012). The South African Institute for Civil Engineers (SAICE), in their assessment of infrastructure in South Africa rated bulk services like water, sanitation and solid waste management in major urban areas and national and local energy distribution networks as ‘fair’, while bulk national water infrastructure, non-urban solid waste management, non-national roads, and non-urban electricity distribution were rated as ‘poor’ (SAICE 2006). In South Africa almost two-thirds of the R76.6-billion owed to municipalities by consumers is owed by households (National Treasury 2012) due, in part, to the state of the economy and substantial increases in tariffs. While infrastructure undoubtedly can lead to an improvement in the quality of life of users, in many instances this contribution comes at the expense of environmental quality. The expanding network of roads, for example, covers many thousands of kilometres of land – in excess of 747,000 km in South Africa (SAInfo 2013) – with significant impacts on the ecosystem resulting in diminishing ecosystem services, as does the damming of rivers (McCully 2001). Road surfaces also decrease the ability of the land to absorb rainwater resulting in an increase in runoff. Bulk services require energy to pump water to reservoirs and buildings, and to pump effluent away from buildings for both sewerage and storm water (Cohen, Nelson, and Wolff, 2004). The energy required is mainly generated by the burning of fossil fuels such as gas, oil, and coal, with a concomitant release of greenhouse gases. Green infrastructure seeks to perform those functions in a manner that, at the very least, minimises its impact on the natural environment and, at best, enhances the quality of the natural environment.

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PROFILE

COMFORT CONTROL AT YOUR FINGERTIPS

The only VAV diffuser system that can offer comfort control for the life of a building, the most affordable Building Management System Interface and the control to reduce a buildings fan energy consumption. Free Diffuser Management Software. Zone Flexibility using our free Software. No physical work required. Air Flow Measurement reduces commissioning cost and can set air flow limits. Occupancy Sensing conditions occupied zones only. Lighting control at a fraction of the cost with Occupancy/ Light Switching Integration. ALSO AVAILABLE FROM RICKARD RADIAL DIFFUSERS (Heating & Cooling or Cooling only) RETURN AIR GRILLES (Ex-Stock, enquire for sizes & availability) CONSTANT VOLUME DIFFUSERS (Ex-Stock, enquire for sizes & availability) SLC CONTROLS An alternative to our MLM controls (A dedicated master and slave control system)

26

CPT +27 21 704 1533 GT +27 12 804 5488 KZN 074 169 6168 EC 041 487 1781 sales@rickardair.com www.rickardair.com DESIGNED AND MANUFACTURED IN SOUTH AFRICA THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK


GREENING INFRASTRUCTURE

Definition Green infrastructure can be defined as the design and development of infrastructure that works with natural systems in the performance of its functions. Green infrastructure recognises the importance of the natural environment in land use planning decisions with particular regard to supporting the interconnected life support functions provided by the network of natural ecosystems (EPA 2007). Greening infrastructure, on the other hand, can be defined as infrastructure that indirectly reduces the negative environmental consequences of infrastructure development in its operation. Examples of greening infrastructure would be emission-free energy-generating infrastructure such as solar and wind.

Green infrastructure terminology As stated earlier, green infrastructure essentially makes use of and/or mimics natural processes: in this sense green infrastructure focuses mainly on water management in general, and storm water management in particular.

Figure 1: SWA Groups Buffalo Bayou Promenade created recreational areas along the waterway and incorporated flood mitigation infrastructure (Gendall 2013).

To better understand the concept of green infrastructure some generally used terms are described below: Biodiversity – Encompasses the number, abundance and distribution of all species of life on earth. It includes the diversity of individual species, the genetic diversity within species and the range of habitats that support them. Biodiversity also includes humans and human interactions with the environment (Dale, Thomson, Kelly, Hay, and MacDougall, 2011). Bioinfiltration – Bioretention systems are soil-and plant-based facility systems employed to filter and treat runoff from developed areas. Bioretention systems are designed for water infiltration and evapotranspiration, along with pollutant removal by soil filtering, sorption mechanisms, microbial transformations, and other processes (American Rivers , 2012). See above comment

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PROFILE

BIO SEWAGE SYSTEMS Bio Sewage Systems (BSS) designs superior waste water treatment systems, which deliver clean, clear and odourless water, which meets the current legislated requirements for effluent purification. The innovative and modular waste water treatment systems can accommodate up to 500,000 litres of waste water per day and can also be tailored to meet individual, smaller, requirements. The current available product range is from a 2 to a 500 cube plant; however, BSS designs each waste water treatment solution according to the needs of each customer. The proven technology of BSS has successfully been installed in numerous locations across Southern Africa (e.g. Mine in Botswana, Maputo Olympic Stadium, Wilderness Safari, International Conference facility close to O.R. Tambo International Airport, 2 camps in the Odzala Wilderness in the Congo, Donna Hotel & Medjumbe Resorts in Mozambique for the Rani Group, etc.) The robust fabrication and environmentally responsible processing methods of the turn-key BSS solutions efficiently and effectively treat grey and black water and result in environmentally safe effluent which is not only free of chemicals, but can also be redirected for various secondary uses such as irrigation, game watering holes, dust suppression, watering gardens, etc. BSS has consistently exceeded customer expectation with effluent quality, low maintenance, space saving design, water and cost saving. BSS aims to keep abreast of the latest technology to ensure that best practices are applied to enhance the offered product range and/or develop new solutions. We are confident that BSS installations are the future of sewage treatment and that our systems will greatly assist you to preserve potable water and distribute safe water. Whether you have domestic, commercial or industrial waste water challenge, Bio Sewage Systems can offer the solution you need. Contact us today for a obligation-free quote. www.biosewagesystems.co.za 20 Klipfontein, Cullinan, 1001, South Africa Leon Du Casse: leon@biosewage.co.za [C] +27 (0)82 414 4900 [T] +27 (0)12 732 0013 [Fax] +27 (0)86 232 5938

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GREENING INFRASTRUCTURE Blue space – is any piece of open water, public or private, usually within or adjoining to an urban area (Dale et al , 2011).see comment above Coherence – A coherent ecological network is one that has all the elements necessary to achieve its overall objectives. The components are chosen to be complementary and mutually reinforcing so that the value of the whole network is greater than the sum of its parts (Dale et al, 2011). Ecology – is the study of plants (flora) and animals (fauna) and the relationship between them and their physical environment (Dale et al, 2011). Ecosystem – A biological community and its physical environment (Dale et al, 2011). Ecosystem services – The multitude of resources and processes that are supplied by natural ecosystems (Dale et al, 2011). Green infrastructure – is an approach to wet weather management that uses natural systems – or engineered systems that mimic natural processes – to enhance overall environmental quality and provide utility services. As a general principle, green infrastructure techniques use soils and vegetation to infiltrate, evapotranspire, and/or recycle storm water runoff (American Rivers et al, 2012). In this capacity it is a strategically planned and delivered network of natural and man-made green (land) and blue (water) spaces that sustain natural processes. It is designed and managed as a multifunctional resource capable of delivering a wide range of environmental and quality of life benefits for society (Dale et al, 2011). Green infrastructure systems – include tree boxes, vegetated swales, vegetated median strips, cisterns and rain water tanks, land conservation and reforestation, rain water harvesting, green roofs, riparian buffers, parks and greenbelts, permeable pavement, wetland and floodplain construction, rain gardens, bio infiltration practices and ecological sanitation systems (City of Philadephia 2009). Greening infrastructure systems – includes the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff, such as gutters, storm sewers, tunnels, culverts, detention basins, and related systems (American Rivers, 2012). Green roof – Employs vegetated roof covers, with growing media and plants covering or taking the place of bare membrane, gravel ballast, shingles or tiles. A green roof system is an extension of the existing roof which involves a high quality water proofing and root repellent system, a drainage system, filter cloth, a lightweight growing medium and plants (American Rivers, 2012). Green space – is any piece of open land, public or private, usually within or adjoining to an urban area (Dale et al, 2011). Green streets – Green streets are defined as a streetscape designed to integrate a system of storm water management within its right of way, reduce the amount of runoff into storm sewers, make the best use of the tree canopy for storm water interception as well as temperature mitigation and air quality improvement (American Rivers, 2012). Hard engineering – The controlled disruption of natural processes to achieve a desired solution by using masonry, concrete or steel structures (Dale et al, 2011). Impervious Cover (Or, impervious area, imperviousness) – Any surface that cannot be effectively (easily) penetrated by water, thereby resulting in runoff. Examples include pavement (asphalt, concrete), buildings, rooftops, driveways/roadways, parking lots and sidewalks (American Rivers, 2012). Rain garden – A rain garden is a strategically located low area planted with native vegetation that intercepts runoff. Other terms include mini-wetlands, storm water gardens, water quality gardens, a storm water marsh, a backyard wetland, a low swale, a wetland biofilter, and a bioretention pond.

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PROFILE

BULKMATECH Waste Minimization Equipment Specialists

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Contact us for a solution. Tel: 0861-782-358 Web: www.bulkmatech.co.za E-mail: info@bulkmatech.co.za

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GREENING INFRASTRUCTURE Rain gardens are designed to direct polluted runoff into a low, vegetated area where the pollutants can be captured and filtered (American Rivers, 2012). Resilience – The persistence of natural systems in the face of changes in ecosystem variables due to natural or anthropogenic causes (Dale et al, 2011). Soft engineering – Working with natural processes and using natural or semi-natural materials to achieve a desired solution (Dale et al, 2011). Storm water (or Runoff) – Storm water runoff is precipitation that becomes polluted once it flows over driveways, streets, parking lots, construction sites, agricultural fields, lawns, and industrial areas. Pollutants associated with storm water include oils, grease, sediment, fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, bacteria, debris and litter. Storm water washes these pollutants through the storm sewer system into local streams and drainage basins. In addition, because impervious surfaces prevent precipitation from soaking into the ground, more precipitation becomes runoff, and the additional volumes and velocities of storm water can scour streams and river channels, creating erosion and sediment problems (American Rivers, 2012). Street trees – When properly designed traditional tree plantings along street and road edges can capture, infiltrate, and transpire storm water. These functions can be expanded by incorporating trees into more extensively designed ‘tree pits’ that collect and filter storm water through layers of mulch, soil and plant root systems where pollutants can be retained, degraded and absorbed (American Rivers, 2012).

Green infrastructure functions Green infrastructure systems are therefore those systems that can replace traditional grey infrastructure by utilising and/or mimicking natural systems. It involves the integration of all aspects of the design and construction in civil engineering projects to deliver a strategically planned network of natural and man-made green (land) and blue (water) spaces that sustain biodiversity and natural processes. Well-designed green infrastructure has the potential to have many different functions, as it can provide a broad range of ecosystem services with benefits to the economy and society.

Figure 2: De Urbanisten’s Watersquare Project in Rotterdam is a sunken plaza that doubles as a catchment system to manage storm water (Gendall 2013).

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GREENING INFRASTRUCTURE Green storm water management Traditionally storm water is managed through a system of impervious surfaces, open channels, trenches and pipes that carry it away from buildings and ground surfaces to a suitable area for discharge or treatment.

Figure 3: Ballard Roadside Rain Gardens, Seattle, Washington (Robbins 2013).

Often it will be discharged to the nearest watercourse or stream if available although it will find its way into a watercourse eventually. Conventional storm water management poses three challenges: first, any pollution caught up in the storm water will be discharged into a stream, river, lake or dam, creating a significant environmental problem for ecosystems along the way; secondly, as the urban footprint increases, so too does the area of impervious surfaces thereby diminishing the absorption potential and increasing the flooding potential especially areas where climate change may result in higher rates of precipitation; and thirdly, the ability to replenish the water-table is diminished, a problem that may become acute as a growing population increases its groundwater withdrawal. Green infrastructure strategies include using rooftop vegetation to control storm water; restoring wetlands to retain floodwater; installing permeable pavement to mimic natural hydrology; and using or capturing and re-using water more efficiently on site. By employing natural processes such as infiltration and evaporation, these approaches prevent storm water from polluting watercourses and water bodies, and/or reducing flooding.

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GREENING INFRASTRUCTURE

Figure 4: Permeable concrete pavement at the CSIR Innovation Site, designed to hold one hour of rainfall in Pretoria.

Climate adaptation via green infrastructure Climate change will impact on urban areas in a number of ways, varying from higher rates of precipitation in some areas to higher temperatures in others. The forecast for South Africa is an increasingly hotter climate – increasing by between 4-5°C – with drier conditions generally but a higher rate of precipitation along the KwaZulu-Natal north coast (Conradie 2012). Since forests and oceans are known to be carbon sinks deforestation is considered to be one of the contributing factors to climate change (Szalay, 2013). Green infrastructure can be a climate change mitigation strategy by replacing lost carbon sinks. Green infrastructure can be a climate change adaptation strategy by reducing the heat island effect in urban areas through shading and evaporative cooling, by reducing the volume of runoff and by increasing natural features that can reduce the effects of storm surges and flooding (Krayenhoff and Bass, 2003; Foster, Lowe and Winkelman, 2012; Gill, 2007). Biophilic urbanism and green infrastructure Harvard biologist E. O. Wilson popularised the concept of biophilia, describing it as “the innately emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms. Innate means hereditary and hence part of ultimate human nature” (Beatley 2011). Beatley argues that humans are at their emotional and physical healthiest, happiest and most productive when working and living in close proximity to nature. There is sufficient evidence, according to Beatley, to support the notion that urban buildings that are green and natural contribute to maximal healing (in the case of health care facilities), and improved learning (in the case of academic institutions). There are many ways

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GREENING INFRASTRUCTURE in which urban environments can provide access to nature including parks, natural areas, and views of nature through rooftops to roadways to riverfronts. Beatley offers the following key qualities of biophilic cities: • Biophilic cities are cities of abundant nature in close proximity to city dwellers; • In biophilic cities urban dwellers feel a deep affinity with the unique local flora and fauna, and with the climate, topography, and other special qualities of place and environment that serve to define the urban setting; and • Biophilic cities invest in social and physical infrastructure that helps to bring urban dwellers in closer connection and understanding of nature. Green infrastructure helps maintain valuable ecosystems services at a broader landscape level, maintain biodiversity by ensuring ecological coherence and connectivity of the whole network, and enhancing landscape permeability to aid species dispersal, migration and movement (EU 2010).

Conclusion Green infrastructure provides an effective land use management strategy in at least five critical areas: • Green infrastructure can provide a less expensive and more cost-effective management strategy for storm water runoff and by so doing reduce the financial burden to the local authority, the property developer, and the occupier. A more localised storm water management system reduces the need for an extensive reticulation system of channels, pipes, pumps, and treatment plants. • Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased green spaces reduce the heating and cooling loads on buildings from the shading offered to buildings and impervious surfaces. Harvested precipitation can further reduce energy demands by reducing the demand on the water reticulation system. • Green infrastructure can reduce the economic costs and risks associated with flooding by reducing runoff volumes and by providing either permanent or temporary holding areas. • Green infrastructure enhances public health and reduces illness-related costs by reducing the extent of pollutants collected and dispersed throughout the storm water management system. • Green infrastructure is an effective climate change adaptation and mitigation strategy by reducing anthropological contributions to greenhouse gas emissions and by reducing the negative impacts of climate change on cities and urban dwellers; and Green infrastructure contributes to the innate emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms and thereby enhancing human quality of life.

References • AR 2012. Banking on Green, A joint report by American Rivers, the Water Environment Federation, the American Society of Landscape Architects and ECONorthwest, City of Oregon, 2012. • Beatley, T., (2011).Biophilic Cities: Integrating Nature into Urban Design and Planning, Washington, Island Press.

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GREENING INFRASTRUCTURE • City of Philadelphia (2009).Implementing green infrastructure, Economy League, Greater Philadelphia. • Cohen, R., Nelson, B., and Wolff, G., 2004. Energy Down the Drain: The Hidden Costs of California’s Water Supply, Natural Resources Defence Council and the Pacific Institute, www.nrdc.org/water/ conservation/edrain/edrain.pdf • Conradie, D., (2012). South African Climate Zones and Weather Files, The Green Building Handbook Volume 4, Cape Town, Alive2Green. • Dale, K., Thomson, C., Kelly, J., Hay, D., and MacDougall, K., 2011. Delivering biodiversity benefits through green infrastructure, London, CIRIA. • EPA 2007. Green infrastructure statement of intent, Washington, Environmental Protection Agency. • EU (2010).Green infrastructure, European Commission. • Foster, J., Lowe, A., and Winkelma, S., (2012). The Value of Green Infrastructure for Urban Climate Adaptation, Center for Clean Air Policy, www.ccap.org/docs/resources/989/Green_Infrastructure_ FINAL.pdf • Gendall, J., (2013). “Green-grey infrastructure”, retrieved from http://archpaper.com/news/ articles.asp?id=6875 on 3 October 2013. • Gill, S., Handley, J., Ennos, A., and Pauleit, S., (2007).” Adapting Cities for Climate Change: The Role of the Green Infrastructure”, Built Environment Vol. 33 No 1. • Krayenhoff, S., and Bass, B., 2003. The Impact of Green Roofs on the Urban Heat Island: A Toronto case study. Report to the National Research Council, Institute for Research in Construction, Ottowa. • McCully, P., 2001. Silenced Rivers: The Ecology and Politics of Large Dams, London, Zed Books. • National Treasury 2012.Third Quarter Local Government Section 21 Report, Pretoria, National Treasury. • Robbins, J., (2012).” With Funding Tight, Cities are Turning to Green Infrastructure”, retrieved from http://e360.yale.edu/slideshow/with funding tight cities are turning to green infrastructure/118/4/ on 18 October 2013. • SAICE 2006. The SAICE Infrastructure Report Card for South Africa: 2006, Johannesburg, South African Institution of Civil Engineering. • South Africa Info 2013. South Africa’s transport network, www.southafrica.info/business/ economy/infrastructure/transport retrieved Thursday, 02 January 2014 • Szalay, J., (2013). Deforestation: Facts, Causes and Effects, retrieved from www.livescience. com/27692-deforestation on Friday, 03 January 2014 • ULI 2007. Infrastructure 2007: A Global Perspective, Washington, Urban Land Institute and Ernst & Young. • WEF 2013. Global Agenda Council on Infrastructure 2012-2014, World Economic Forum, www3. weforum.org/docs/GAC/2013/WEF_GAC_Infrastructure_MidtermReport.pdf

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CHAPTER 0

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INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND BUILDING ENERGY EFFICIENCY ELEMENTS OF COMFORT

Tobias van Reenen Senior Researcher Architectural Engineering Building Science and Technology Built Environment CSIR

Elements of comfort Buildings are an expression of our need for shelter which is driven by a host of factors including the need for comfort and security (Carlucci 2013). Our perceptions of, and responses to, our buildings are inseparable from the ways in which our buildings respond to the environments and climates in which they are built. Where occupants of buildings find the indoor environment to be uncomfortable, their default response is to employ mechanisms to achieve improved comfort levels (ASHRAE 2013). These responses include either voluntary or involuntary mechanisms. Involuntary mechanisms are generally physiological while voluntary mechanisms involve some effort to change the local environment either by modifying it directly (adjusting the thermostat or opening a window), modifying our state (clothing or activity levels) or relocating to an environment more comfortable.

Figure 1 shows the elements of indoor comfort (CIBSE 2006).

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INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY A significant proportion of energy consumption in many non-industrial buildings relates to the management of thermal comfort levels through heating and cooling of indoor spaces (Lam 2000; Pérez-Lombard, L., Ortiz, J. & Pout, C. 2008). Therefore, this article focuses on those elements which harbour a significant potential to impact on the energy consumption of our buildings by driving behaviours, such as opening or closing windows and changing temperature control set-points, in the pursuit of improved comfort. The elements considered to be important in this regard are: • Thermal comfort • Aural comfort (Acoustic) • Visual comfort (Lighting) Secondary aspects which may serve as confounding or compounding factors include: • Air movement • Air quality

Thermal comfort A comprehensive international body of work has been developed over the past 100 years to obtain a measure of understanding of the seemingly elusive parameters that determine thermal comfort. A list of more than 70 different models and indices for predicting human thermal comfort has been compiled as a useful summary by Carlucci in his book, Thermal Comfort Assessment of Buildings. These indices can be categorised as percentages, cumulative values, risk or averaging indices; and are determined from combinations of the heat balance of the body, physiological strain and physical environmental parameters (Carlucci 2013). What most of these models agree on is that it is impossible to achieve consensus amongst occupants of a room as to which conditions constitute a comfortable indoor environment. The six principal factors that contribute to the sensation of thermal comfort are: • Air temperature • Radiant temperature • Humidity • Air movement • Metabolic rate • Clothing levels/insulation Uniformity of sensation can also play a role in perceived levels of comfort (CIBSE 2006). This refers to instances where differences in skin temperature for different parts of the body are extreme but individually within the accepted comfort band. Also, where the indoor air temperature is above the radiant temperature, spaces tend to feel stuffy. This can occur with convective heating systems, such as warm air heating. Ideally, the radiant temperature should be slightly above the indoor air temperature. In order to avoid further discomfort however, the two temperatures should not be too far apart (CIBSE 2006). Mean radiant temperature can most easily be determined using a black-globe thermometer. It has proven to be impossible to target a condition where everyone will feel comfortable all the time (Carlucci 2013; ASHRAE 2004; CIBSE 2006). For this reason, when designing for thermal comfort, a model using static comfort equations developed by Fanger since 1967 is used. This model is based on the six main factors listed above to create a predictive comfort index on a

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URBAN HOUSING _HIGHER EDUCATION_PUBLIC BUILDINGS_SOCIALHOUSING

ADAPTIVE RE-USE_SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES_URBAN REGENERATION

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INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY thermal sensation scale referred to as the predicted mean vote (PMV) and percentage persons dissatisfied (PPD) (Ole Fanger 1970; Fanger, P.O., Hojbjerre, J. & Thomsen, J.O., 1974; ASHRAE 2013). This allows designers to develop indoor conditions where the majority of occupants are thermally comfortable for the majority of the time. Field studies, designed to validate the PMV-PPD model, have provided strong evidence that this model is not applicable to free running indoor conditions as found in naturally ventilated spaces (de Dear & Brager 1998). The PMV-PPD model assumes an environmental steady-state, and makes no allowance for adaptation or acclimatisation (De Dear & Auliciems 1985; de Dear & Brager 1998). What this implies is that these early models are inappropriate for predicating thermal comfort levels in naturally ventilated indoor spaces that will not have closely controlled conditions. In effect, this then excludes those buildings that employ passive comfort control measures from reliable assessment.

Adaptive thermal comfort While the prevalence of electric heating and cooling continues to escalate in South Africa (Barnes, B., Mathee, A., Thomas. & Bruce, N. 2009), it is becoming increasingly important to consider ways to expand the comfort envelope for all types of buildings, in order to reduce the energy demanded of indoor comfort control. The reason the PMV-PPD often fails is that the sensation of thermal comfort is not limited to empirical measures but is also influenced by physiological and psychological adaptation (Gonzalez, R.R., Nishi, Y. & Gagge, A P., 1974). The effectiveness of the modes by which our bodies exchange heat changes with the environment. Similarly our capacity for thermo-regulation varies between different types of buildings and environments. The newer revisions of the ASHRAE 55 have adopted the recommendations of the likes of de Dear & Brager in that a thermal comfort model is required which addresses the issues of adaptation and acclimatisation (Brager & de Dear 2001; de Dear & Brager 2002; de Dear & Brager 1998). This standard was developed together, and is in close agreement with the standard ISO 7730:2005 (ASHRAE 2013) “The adaptive hypothesis predicts that contextual factors and past thermal history modify building occupants’ thermal expectations and preferences” -(de Dear & Brager 1998) It has occurred to the author that over the previous 40 years, building designers and engineers may have been chasing an elusive theoretical sweet spot of satisfying the PMV-PPD model and lower energy consumption by developing increasingly complex HVAC systems; and all the while, the art of creating free running buildings, which can adapt to the environment and can also be adapted to, is being lost. The level perceived comfort in free running buildings can be further improved when occupants are given some level of control over their environment. Studies indicate that people fare much better physiologically when afforded the ability to control aspects of their indoor environment, even if when the control is merely over aesthetic elements (Rodin & Langer 1977). Simple control over openable windows, blinds, dress code and location within internal spaces is very effective in this regard (CIBSE 2006). The challenge is to design spaces which are not restrictive in these aspects but still remain efficient and functional. As an example, a study conducted in Libya is one of many similar which found that the PVM model theoretically predicted that a sample of older, naturally ventilated buildings with courtyards and verandas would exhibit high levels of occupant thermal stress. The actual mean vote (AMV)

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INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY found that those buildings resulted in a similarly high level of thermal comfort to a sample of modern, insulated and air-conditioned buildings. What was surprising was that the occupants of the older style buildings were generally more satisfied with their indoor environment (Ealiwa, M. Ealiwa, M.A.,Taki, A.H., Howarth, A.T & Seden, M.R., 2001; Emmerich, S.J., Polidoro, B. & Axley, J.W., 2011). It is unfortunately rare that climatic conditions would allow a completely free running building to achieve year-round adaptive comfort. For this reason most commercial buildings would require, as a minimum, some form of seasonal mixed-mode comfort control. The mechanical portion of these systems would then provide comfort cooling or heating only when the climatic conditions would drive the indoor conditions beyond the limits of adaptive thermal comfort. Zonal mixedmode systems could be employed where portions of a building have occupancies which cannot adapt to fluctuating conditions.

Figure 2 demonstrates this principle and indicates that the proportions of occupied areas that have very restrictive requirements are relatively low.

Figure 3: Acceptable operative temperature ranges for naturally conditioned spaces according to ASHRAE 55rev.-2003. Ranges shown for different climatic areas (Olesen 2004).

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INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY In order to promote the adoption of a hierarchy of design solutions, with passive ventilation and comfort control being prioritised over mechanical systems where feasible, CIBSE have presented flow charts or decision trees in the CIBSE Guide for Natural Ventilation in Non-Domestic Buildings (CIBSE 2005) and the CIBSE Application Manual AM13: Mixed Mode Ventilation (CIBSE 2000). An adaption after these diagrams, which expands on this diagram’s natural ventilation and mixed mode solutions, is available from the CSIR on request.

Air movement Studies indicate that most building occupants would prefer more air movement than is generally available (Arens, E., Turner, S., Zhang, H. & Paliaga, G., 2009). Air movement can contribute to the ability of people to lose heat to the environment and keep cool under conditions that would be considered too warm in air-still environments (Arens et al. 2009). Comfortable air velocities in the occupied zone are generally in the range of 0.1-1.0 m/s (reference). Velocities below 0.3 m/s would be barely perceptible while velocities approaching 1.0m/s would be considered ‘breezy’ (ASHRAE 2013). At around 0.8 m/s air movement would start to disturb papers and indoor plants (CIBSE 2005; CIBSE 2006). The two parts of the body most susceptible to drafts are the back of the neck and the ankles and these are the two parts most exposed to high level and low level air inlets (CIBSE 2006). Special consideration should be given to inlet air speeds within occupied zones when designing for displacement ventilation.

Airborne contamination There are reasons for providing ventilation beyond the obvious of simply providing oxygen for occupants to breathe (CIBSE 2006). Ventilation is provided to: • Provide oxygen to occupants (0.2 l/s per person) • Dilute CO2 from respiration (1.0 l/s pp) • Dilute odours and contaminants (5-10 l/s pp) It becomes apparent that we can require up to 50 times more air to control indoor air quality than what is required to replenish oxygen. The ASHRAE 62.1 guide adopts the additive method for selecting fresh air ventilation rates. This method is a more nuanced approach than the prescriptive method of simply demanding blind ventilation rates for different types of buildings. The demand based method considers factors such as activity levels, buildings materials and finishes and occupancy rates. The mechanical ventilation rates required by building regulations are criticised as being too low. This is to be expected as these values are described as minimum allowable values. Therefore, if you want the absolutely worst permissible air quality, the values prescribed by the regulation should be used. Research has shown that by increasing the indoor air quality by 2-7 times over that offered by regulatory values, productivity in schools and offices is “significantly” improved. In order to make indoor air acceptable to even the most sensitive persons an increase of orders of magnitude is required (Fanger 2006). Studies have described how indoor pathogenic microbiological ecosystems are created by sealing up our buildings and controlling indoor comfort using mechanical ventilation and cooling systems (Kembel, S.W., Jones, E., Kline, J., Northcutt, D., Stenson, J., Womack, A.M., Bohannan, B., Brown, G.Z. & Green, J.L. 2012). Kembel’s study showed how naturally ventilated buildings have a

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INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY greater diversity of microbes but that their microbiological biomes resemble the outdoors and is less pathogenic for humans. Therefore, it is argued that highly sealed energy efficient buildings in the drive for increasing energy efficiency, could increase the prevalence of sick buildings.

Acoustic comfort Essentially, any unwanted sounds in buildings can be classified as noise. The four main problems encountered in buildings which relate to acoustic comfort or noises are annoyance, privacy, masking and hearing damage (Everest & Shaw 2001; CIBSE 2006). Annoyance and privacy are related problems as they both involve the transmission of unwanted sounds or conversations to parties who should not or do not need to hear them. Masking describes the effect where unwanted sounds interfere with any wanted sound reducing speak intelligibility. Masking can also be deliberately and carefully used to offer some measure of acoustic privacy (CIBSE 2006) Natural ventilated building designs can inadvertently promote the acoustic problems identified above. This is because natural ventilation relies on the very small pressure differentials available from the wind and thermal stack effect drivers, and therefore requires large ventilation openings throughout the building. Where the usage profile of a building may be particularly sensitive to these effects, the potential for problems needs to be mitigated either through employing a zonal mixed mode strategy or acoustic quality improvements. These improvements include careful design of ventilation openings, acoustic damping, frequency clipping or the generation of deliberately masking sounds such as white noise generation or even music (Bibby & Hodgson 2013).

Figure 3: DIKW Pyramid

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Responding with informed design and intelligent design tools As building simulation and modelling software, together with capable hardware, are becoming more affordable, prevalent and user friendly, access to these tools is improving. While this has released the potential for intelligent IEQ solutions across a wider range of building types, a very real risk lurks in the detail. It is important to remember the adage that “a tool is not a solution”. This is nowhere more relevant in the complex field of simulation software. Figure 4 demonstrates what is commonly referred to as the “DIKW Pyramid” and it should be stressed that building simulation and modelling software can only occupy the Information tier of this hierarchy. These software tools invariably rely on the quality of the data fed from below and the skills of competent designers to extract knowledge from the information they provide, and apply it with wisdom.

Conclusion As we move towards a greater prevalence of buildings which adopt passive systems to meet the occupants’ functional requirements it is important to understand how the occupants’ acceptance criteria or expectations can be modified or accommodated. Essentially the comfort requirements of indoor occupants can be considerably less stringent when the occupant has While the principles described above may be self-evident and appear simple, the integrated nature of any design for effective natural ventilation (as a supplement to HVAC) requires extensive knowledge of an array of technical fields. It is for this reason that experienced and competent practitioners in the field of natural ventilation are rare. Building designers are encouraged to form multidisciplinary teams, including ventilation and acoustic experts, in order to ensure an integrated, optimised and functional solution. The decision tree presented in the CIBSE Guide for Natural Ventilation in Non-Domestic Buildings (CIBSE 2005) and the diagram proposed in Figure 2 above describe how we should only be implementing conventional mechanical comfort control and ventilation systems in spaces where they are absolutely needed. For the majority of spaces and for a large portion of the year in South Africa, the opportunity exists to review the IEQ requirements in terms of the adaptive models of comfort identified above, and design for mixed mode comfort control systems accordingly.

References • Arens, E., Turner, S., Zhang, H. & Paliaga, G., 2009. Moving Air for Comfort. ASHRAE journal, 25, pp.8–18. • ASHRAE, 2004. ASHRAE 55-2004; Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air …, 2004. • ASHRAE, 2013. ASHRAE 55-2013; Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air …. • Barnes, B., Mathee, A., Thomas. & Bruce, N. 2009. Household energy, indoor air pollution and child respiratory health in South Africa. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, 20(1), pp.4–13.

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INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY • Bibby, C. & Hodgson, M., 2013. Prediction study of factors affecting speech privacy between rooms and the effect of ventilation openings. Applied Acoustics, 74(4), pp.585–590. • Brager, G. & de Dear, R., 2001. Climate, comfort, & natural ventilation: a new adaptive comfort standard for ASHRAE standard 55. • Carlucci, S., 2013. Thermal Comfort Assessment of Buildings., Milano: Springer Briefs in Applied Sciences and Technilogy. • CIBSE, 2000. CIBSE Applications Manual AM13: Mixed mode ventilation. • CIBSE, 2006. CIBSE Knowledge Series -Comfort J. Roebuck & K. Butcher, eds., The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. • CIBSE, 2005. Natural ventilation in non-domestic buildings, • De Dear & Brager, G., 1998. Developing an adaptive model of thermal comfort and preference. ASHRAE Transactions, Vol 104, 104(1), pp.145–167. • De Dear, R. & Auliciems, A., 1985. Validation of the predicted mean vote model of thermal comfort in six Australian field studies. ASHRAE Transactions, 91, pp.452–468. • De Dear, R.J. & Brager, G.S., 2002. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings: revisions to ASHRAE Standard 55. Energy and Buildings, 34(6), pp.549–561. • Ealiwa, M. Ealiwa, M.A.,Taki, A.H., Howarth, A.T & Seden, M.R., 2001. An investigation into thermal comfort in the summer season of Ghadames, Libya. Building and Environment, 36(2), pp.231–237. • Emmerich, S.J., Polidoro, B. & Axley, J.W., 2011. Impact of adaptive thermal comfort on climatic suitability of natural ventilation in office buildings. Energy and Buildings, 43(9), pp.2101–2107. • Everest, F.A. & Shaw, N.A., 2001. Master Handbook of Acoustics, Fourth Edition. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 110, p.1714. • Fanger, P., 2006. What is IAQ? Indoor air, 16(5), pp.328–34. • Fanger, P.O., Hojbjerre, J. & Thomsen, J.O., 1974. Thermal comfort conditions in the morning and in the evening. International journal of biometeorology, 18(1), pp.16–22. • Gonzalez, R.R., Nishi, Y. & Gagge, A P., 1974. Experimental evaluation of standard effective temperature: a new biometeorological index of man’s thermal discomfort. International journal of biometeorology, 18(1), pp.1–15. • Kembel, S.W., Jones, E., Kline, J., Northcutt, D., Stenson, J., Womack, A.M., Bohannan, B., Brown, G.Z. & Green, J.L., 2012. Architectural design influences the diversity and structure of the built environment microbiome. The ISME journal, 6(8). • Lam, J.C., 2000. Energy analysis of commercial buildings in subtropical climates. Building and Environment, 35(1), pp.19–26. • Ole Fanger, P., 1970. Thermal Comfort: Analysis and Applications in Environmental Engineering, • Olesen, B.W., 2004. International standards for the indoor environment. Indoor air, 14 Suppl 7(Suppl 7), pp.18–26. • Pérez-Lombard, L., Ortiz, J. & Pout, C., 2008. A review on buildings energy consumption information. Energy and Buildings, 40(3), pp.394–398. • Rodin, J. & Langer, E.J., 1977. Long-term effects of a control-relevant intervention with the institutionalized aged. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(12), pp.897–902.

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MONAGHAN FARM

CASE STUDY

MONAGHAN FARM: A CASE STUDY IN RESPONSIBLE DEVELOPMENT

Anna Bailey www.monaghanfarm.co.za Photographs: Elsa Young

Over the past decade or so, the world has experienced a worldwide re-evaluation of environmental priorities through a combination of, inter alia, global-warming threats, economic destabilization, a stretching of resources and a resultant frugality. In many countries where the fallout from the economic downturn of 2008 has hit hardest, budgets have been restricted, and, as a direct result, building and carbon footprints have been reduced. More locally, Eskom’s unpredictability can be thanked for bringing an indirect sense of urgency to the sustainability cause. Monaghan Farm is a leading example of the conscious shift in how we inhabit the planet, embracing both social and environmental sustainability as the only option going forward. It is not uncommon for new homemakers to want to go ‘off the grid’, or to explore alternative building technologies. The hard and fast masonry mindset is being challenged. Monaghan Farm sits just north of Lanseria Airport, between Johannesburg, Tshwane and Mogale City. It is on the periphery of the city, the edge of urban living. Development is possible, necessary and unavoidable as populations continue to grow and become more urbanised. Situated on the edge of one of the most burgeoning cities in the world, the pressure on this piece of former agricultural land was enormous. The developer, Prospero Bailey, having grown up on Monaghan Farm, decided against selling the entire property lock, stock and barrel to the highest bidder, and opted instead to take on the task of developing the land in a model way, thus breaking the current trend of insatiable property marketing in Gauteng, and setting for eternity a refreshing example of relative modesty in a world of cookie-cutter, cheek-by-jowl little boxes or ostentations palaces on the hilltops. Monaghan Farm is 1260 acres, or approximately 517 hectares in size, roughly the size of the Johannesburg suburbs of Westcliff, Parkview and Saxonwold combined. It has been designed with a density of one residential unit per five acres. The farm will only ever consist of 300 properties with an average size of 4500sq metres per stand. Homes are grouped in five separate, distinct, contoured nodes on what was previously monoculture, thirsty, north-facing nutrient-starved

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farmland. Rolling hills and tracts of open veld hide these nodes from one another. The Jukskei River meanders through it for more than 3km, providing several kilometres of common river frontage. A major difference between Monaghan Farm and most upmarket developments is that it’s a working farm, with a strong emphasis on organic agriculture. At the heart of the farm are 10 acres dedicated to the farming of vegetables, herbs and cut flowers. Not a single pesticide or chemical fertiliser is used. Everything is organically grown, underpinned by Monaghan’s BCS Öko-Garantie GmbH Certification. BCS is an independent and private controlling agency, operating since 1992, which certifies organic products worldwide in accordance with international regulations and private standards. They are based in Germany with representing agencies in four continents; Africa, America, Asia and Europe. They are also a member of IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements), an umbrella group for all organic certifiers worldwide. The Monaghan gardens not only supply residents with regular, fresh, healthy produce, but also provide a beautiful botanical garden whilst offering meaningful local employment. Monaghan Farm has set a precedent in property development. Its ethos is based on incorporating the environment – the natural environment as well as the people in surrounding communities who service and are dependent on the Farm – into a model of partial self-sustainability. Much of the fertiliser comes from Monaghan’s earthworm factory. This is still a small operation, using “green” garbage and manure, which the worms convert into fine, dark vermicast. A healthy herd of Nguni cattle provide the manure and crop the veld at the same time Monaghan Farm will eventually and ultimately have only 3% of its land occupied by buildings. 78% of the property will be common open space; an area almost one and half times the size of the Walter Sisulu Botanical Gardens, a natural garden the size of Manhattan’s Central Park. It will be protected in perpetuity from sub-divisions and high-density developments. Each property of approximately one acre has a limited “development

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PROFILE

LIMPOPO WATER INITIATIVE

Providing Solutions for Sustainable Development Limpopo Water Initiative is a leading multi-disciplinary company which provides services in the fields of environmental consulting, waste management consulting, waste water treatment plants, land rehabilitation and vegetation controll. The company provides these specialised services to government, parastatals and the private sector.

Mission and Vision To set the standards in service delivery through outstanding professionalism and customer satisfaction while earning sustaonablr profits and growth.

Company Reg 2002/010755/07 4 Rooshout Avenue Heuweloord X2 CENTURION, PRETORIA, 0173 TEL: +27 (12) 656 7721 FAX: +27 (12) 656 7727 Email: info@lwi.co.za

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Vat no 4800211312 87 General Maritz Street Bendor, POLOKWANE, 0699 P. O. Box 55594 POLOKWANE, 0700 TEL: +27 (15) 297 4653 FAX: +27 (15) 297 4716 Website: www.lwi.co.za


CASE STUDY

MONAGHAN FARM

pocket� of 50% - this ensures that the existing veldt or grassland continues in uninterrupted swathes between the houses. Perimeter walling or fencing is not allowed, which helps to further conserve the ecosystem, allowing the habitat of small animals and birds such as hedgehogs, shrews, lapwings, and warthog to remain intact. The Monaghan Farm gatehouse has a spare, agricultural aesthetic; a simple barn roof with a contrasting glass cube. It heralds the ideology of the estate; a combination of high and low tech. The entire farm has perimeter security and guards, ensuring an atmosphere of safety and calm within. Security and sustainability, however, not only depend on fences and alarm systems, but come with the upliftment of surrounding communities, which is critical to the ethos of the development. Long-term employment has been created through the management and residents of the farm, and housing is being offered for the families who have lived in the surrounding areas. Monaghan Farm is aimed at low, medium and high-income brackets. Thirteen stands have been subdivided into 4 quarters. Every day 900 people walk through the gates to work. At Monaghan part of the residents’ levies are used to subsidise bursaried school children. The Monaghan Montessori School is sister to The Cradle Pre-School, which serves about 40 farm labourers’ children in the Cradle of Humankind. Monaghan Farm challenges conventional building. It reverses the emphasis on huge mansions dominating the landscape to homes designed to quietly merge with the environment, without losing any of the elegance and comfort of modern living. Single storey, staggered buildings offer uninterrupted views. Another reason for low-lying buildings is to mimimise light pollution. Further to this, Monaghan Farm has no street lamps and signage is minimal and subtle. Some of the many green energy technologies used on Monaghan include solar, PV panels, geothermal and heat pumps. Alternative low carbon building techniques include light steel frame construction, bricks made on site and rammed earth. The minimum house size is 150sqm and the maximum is 1000sqm. A minimum of 20 000 litres of rainwater harvesting is mandatory on Monaghan Farm.

The volume of water required is relative to the roofed area of the house as per the following table: 150 - 400sqm

20 000

400 - 500sqm

30 000

500 - 600sqm

40 000

600 - 700sqm

50 000

700 - 800sqm

60 000

800 - 900sqm

70 000

900 - 1000sqm

80 000

Houses are primarily oriented directly north, integrating inside and outside living, with passive solar design, natural light and cross-ventilation, sometimes assisted by an adjustable aluminium louvre along the north facade. Despite some residents having installed electric under floor heating, in most

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CASE STUDY

cases a closed wood-burning fireplace and winter sun penetration onto a concrete screed floor, (which serves as a heat store), have rendered all electric heating redundant. In many other cases, solar water-born, under-floor heating more than suffices. Houses are cut into the ground to minimize visual prominence and light pollution. Untreated FSC-accredited timber is used for exterior screen walls. Raw, untreated alien-eradication poplar and sustainable bamboo has been used for interior timber detailing. Five recycling bins are mandatory for every household on Monaghan. Monaghan recently received excellent coverage in a COP 17 pull-out in The Star newspaper. In an article titled “Farm style living gaining more ground”, Monaghan gets a thumbs-up. “Over the past few years, a distinct shift towards simple ‘green’ living has manifested in society. Developers have cottoned onto this trend with the result that estates offering eco-friendly, farm-style living are increasingly coming to the fore,” noted the article. “Monaghan Farm, situated just north of Lanseria Airport, is a perfect example of this trend. The farm is the antithesis of the Tuscan McMansion orientated developments, which have dominated South Africa’s propertyscape to date. “Here, manicured golf courses and crammed living give way to wide open spaces, subtle, eco-friendly homes which merge with the landscape and an organic way of life.” The article stresses the emphasis that has been placed on earth tones and the fact that “only single-storey structures are allowed.” The rainwater collection tanks, heat pumps and “other sustainable elements” are also highlighted.

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BELGOTEX Belgotex Floorcoverings operates a ‘green’ factory and is ISO 14001 Environmental Management System certified. The company’s growing “Environmental Choice” collection of carpets, backings and underlays can contribute towards credits for Green Star rating using the Interiors Pilot rating tool to acquire points on the Flooring Calculator. Their range of flooring products satisfy criteria for both Materials credits through their environmental management system, recycled content, durability and product stewardship, as well as for Indoor Environment Quality credits by meeting the strict requirements for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions for Indoor Air Quality (IEQ13). The natural insulating properties of carpeting further boosts a building’s energy efficiency offering improved thermal comfort and acoustic quality too. Assuming the area and value of the flooring satisfies the minimum requirement 1% of the total project to be considered for green credits, Belgotex Commercial satisfies four out of five criteria for the maximum rating.

1. Re-used Most sales are for new carpets, although second-hand carpet tiles or broadloom carpets rarely end up on landfills – they are usually reused in informal settlements, charity organisations or converted into rugs.

2. Certified product Belgotex carpets and underlays have no harmful VOC emissions and meet the strict requirements for both the GBCSA’s Green Label and Green Building Council Australia’s (GBCA’s) Green Label.

3. Product stewardship or designed for disassembly The company’s Reclamation programme collects used carpets which are cleaned and sent to charity organisations such as KZN Wildlands for re-use and redistribution in their “Green-preneur” project so they don’t end up on a landfill site. Currently, no ranges are designed for disassembly.

4. Re-used, recycled, or certified content Several flooring products with recycled content in either or both the top-cloth and backing are available from Belgotex Commercial. Bestselling Berber Point 920 and three derivative ranges BerberPoint Fusion, Metro and Advantage are made with recycled face-fibre for the top-cloth

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PROFILE Everest, the tufted carpet tile range made from recycled Econyl (derived from recycled fishing nets), can be recycled into itself over and over again without sacrificing performance, colour retention, stain resistance or durability. Green Underlay is made from 100% recycled yarn, Sportec Color rubber flooring is made with an 85% recycled car tyre content and Grimebuster Ultra is a walk-off mat with a rubber-crumb backing made 100% from recycled car tyres. Adding to this, Nexbac Eco modular tiles are also available on request with up to 70% recycled content in the Nexbac backing. Post-industrial waste fly-ash is used as a filler in the backings of NexBac Eco modular ranges.

5. Manufacturer ISO 14001 certification As a member of the Green Building Council of South Africa, Belgotex is committed to the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System and was certified as such in May 2009. The company’s environmental system dictates stringent parameters for manufacturing in terms of energy consumption, water usage, air pollution and waste recycling. Product development is increasingly geared toward solution-dyed fibres and yarns due to their more preferable dry production process that reduces water, chemical and energy consumption. The latest initiative in the company’s ongoing ‘Green Journey’, includes the installation of 12 000m² of roof-mounted solar panels in a move towards sustainable energy sources. “Specially trained reps will submit a proposal together with the necessary certificates including the percentage of recycled content, VOC test results, ISO14001 certificates and details of our Green Journey for our Environmental Management System,” explains Greg Barry, National Sales Manager at Belgotex Floorcoverings. Tel: 033 897 7500 Website: www.belgotexfloorcoverings.co.za or www.environmentalchoice.co.za

OUR GREEN FACTORY

Total Water Management System

Waste Recycling

Carpet Reclamation

Energy Requirements to be Derived from Solar Panels

Solution Dyed SDX, Miracle Fibre, Grass Yarn

Bulk Tankers to Bulk Silos

High Speed Machines

Clean Burning Coal

Energy Saving Lightbulbs Motion Sensored Lighting

Motion Sensored Air Conditioning

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PROFILE

We create chemistry that makes compost love plastic.

Most plastics don’t biodegrade, but ecovio® plastics from BASF disappear completely when composted in a controlled environment. Using compostable bags for collection of organic waste makes disposal more hygienic and convenient. Rather than ending up in landfills, the waste is turned into valuable compost. When the plastic bag you use today can mean a cleaner future for the environment, it’s because at BASF, we create chemistry. www.wecreatechemistry.com

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MAURITIUS COMMERCIAL BANK: EBENE BUILDING

Jean Francois Koenig Architect

The Mauritius Commercial Bank, the oldest bank in Mauritius and the Indian Ocean islands founded in 1878 and based in the capital city Port Louis, February 2006 saw me design offices and training facilities in Ebene, in the centre of the island, which decentralised them from Port Louis for the first time in history. Their brief came with instructions to keep it simple and inexpensive. They got something different that went far beyond the brief. The building reinvented the client’s way of working and thinking about the workplace and the environment. To put it in context, it started at a time before many Green Building Councils around the world had been formed and it became the first building in the southern hemisphere to obtain a British Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) certificate. The building also became the first Mauritian work of architecture to represent with four others the best of African architecture at the International Union of Architects (UIA) World Congress inTokyo 2011, a triennial event and with it, I was elected as one of the ‘100 Architects of the World 2012’ in a competition organised by the Union of International Architects (UIA) and the Korean Institute of Architects (KIA).

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EBENE BUILDING

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It has become so popular with the client that they all want to work there and sometimes board meetings traditionally held in Port Louis have been switched from head office to the new building. Energy savings begin with a well insulated building and optimum orientation. The concrete shell is insulated with 50mm rigid polystyrene, an air gap of 350mm and an 8mm thick honeycombed aluminium external skin. The portholes in the glass rings all around the ellipse are double glazed and with the air gap of the outer reflective glass skin creates a triple glazing solution. The two glass facades of the ellipse are true north-south with sunscreens whose projection depths were determined by sun path analyses. They are 1.8m on the north face and shallower at 1.2m on the south to prevent direct sunlight hitting the full height double glazing during working hours

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EBENECHAPTER BUILDING 0

from 8.30am to 4.30pm. During this period, the blinds remain up to allow maximum glare free daylight to enter the 22m deep floor plate eliminating the need for artificial lighting entirely. Low angled early morning and late afternoon sun is controlled by perforated blinds which drop down automatically from sun sensors relayed to the computerised building management system. The building is the expression of an abstract geometric shape in the form of a pure ellipse. It is held aloft on four pillars. Born from the need to accommodate both auditoria and offices, it is the architectural synthesis of these two different requirements fused into one single shape. It is an example that Islands care about, and can make a leading contribution to global sustainability even though they have a low carbon footprint and insignificant impact on climate change.

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The orientation of the elliptical glass facades is true North-South. The blank curved East and West ends are well insulated and the portholes are triple glazed. The photovoltaic cell farm contributes to over one third of the total energy needs at peak with clean solar power. The Board Room on the top floor shows the expressed steel structure, natural light entering from the roof and the sides, and the ample space provided for the long table as well as two rows of plants under the glass rings. Plant rooms, traditionally situated on the roofs of buildings, are situated on lower levels for ease of access and maintenance. This liberates the roof allowing large spans and column free spaces on the upper floors facilitating internal planning. Full height double glazing allows in a maximum amount of natural daylight. The depth of sunscreens, deeper on the north facade and shallower on the south facade are determined from the study of sun paths. Sensor controlled perforated venetian blinds are activated automatically to control glare. To eliminate interference from external noise from the nearby motorway the glass walls of the auditoriums are triple glazed. There are no suspended ceilings in the building, not even in the acoustically engineered auditoriums. The underside of the concrete slabs are kept bare and painted white. Underfloor cooling passes through a stabilised air plenum without ducts optimising flexibility. No ceilings allow cold energy stored within the thermal mass of the structure to radiate directly into the floor below keeping ambient temperature down and diminishing cooling loads.

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The ‘all air’ air conditioning uses ‘free cooling’ in winter months. Three large thermal storage tanks insulated and clad in polished stainless steel store energy to further reduce cooling loads. Night time illumination accentuates the shape of the building whereby its beauty, like the soul, comes from within. Five glass rings encircle the building accentuating the purity of its geometry. Portholes enhance the air and space ship quality of the architecture gives the sense that the building is ‘landed’ on its base. Access to the plant rooms are through “gull wing” doors. The materials chosen are long lasting and mostly maintenance free. The pillars are clad in travertine marble. The louvers are in semi-matt stainless steel. The shell is clad in aluminium and, in an honest expression of function, no attempt is made to hide the blue insulation of the shell which is seen through the glass rings. The drop off entrance porte-cochere lights are recessed in the thickness of the concrete slab. Kerbs, bollards and the sloping and curved retaining walls are in white off -shutter precast concrete.

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The most recycled material


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HOUSE FORBES

MONAGHAN FARM: HOUSE FORBES

Enrico Daffonchio Principal Architect Daffonchio & Associates Architects Photographs: Elsa Young

The house is located in Monaghan Farm, an estate near Lanseria. Daffonchio and Associates participated in establishing the estate’s architectural guidelines, which encourage sustainable architecture. House Forbes is located on a 6 400 sqm stand which slopes northwards with views of rolling hills and the Magaliesburg to the north. The finishes and materials on the exterior aid in blending the house into the natural environment, and are largely taken through on the interior to enhance the connection between inside and outside. The position, orientation and shape of the house maximise exposure to northern sunlight. The passive solar design elements include the pergolas, roof overhangs, and sliding timber shutters. The entire envelope is fully insulated, with polystyrene insulation under the floors, inside the cavity walls, double glazing with insulation in the reveals of all windows and doors to prevent

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PROFILE

SHALUZA PROJECTS

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thermal bridging, insulation in the ceilings, polystyrene blocks in the roof slab, and polystyrene mixed into the screed on top of the roof slabs. The water for the piped underfloor heating and the domestic hot water is heated by means of heat pumps, and there are smokeless gas fireplaces in the main bedroom and between the TV and dining room, and a wood-burning Morso fireplace in the entertainment room. Cooling is achieved by means of an energy efficient Brivis evaporative cooling system, as well as natural evaporative cooling from the pond on the southern side of the house and the pool to the north. The heating, water and cooling systems in the two wings of the house are separate, meaning that when the children are away, this half of the house can be shut down. The majority of the electrical energy for the house is supplied by means of a bank of photovoltaic panels. Most of the lighting is energy efficient, with a combination LED downlights and feature lights. All rainwater downpipes have been routed to the pond to the north of the house, where the rainwater is stored to be used for irrigation in the garden.

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PROFILE

TURNER & TOWNSEND Successful companies understand the critical importance of brand and image. In the case of multinationals, their brand is firmly embedded in the look and feel of their working environment and they take great care to implement global standards so that clients and employees get a consistent message, irrespective of where the office is located. From a practical point of view, this means that these clients use international accreditations such as LEED (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design) to rate their buildings and fit-outs across the world, and expect their consultant team to help them achieve these standards. The entire building system and the process of the delivering the fit-out and its components, requires an integrated approach to comply with the exacting LEED standards. Turner & Townsend was recently commissioned by a leading News Bureau to deliver two fit-outs in Johannesburg and Cape Town. The objective, in both cases, was a facility that met the LEED Platinum criteria. In the process of delivering this, we had to solve a few challenges to deliver the client’s requirements in the South African market, in addition to working with a team that was familiar with the local Green Star system but not “LEED savvy”. Sourcing LEED compliant Timber proved to be a major headache. There are a handful of plywoods that comply, globally, as they are made with MDF (in lieu of UF) or a phenol-based resin. The challenge was finding MDF that complied. The one available locally, is imported by special order only. With a 12 week lead time, this didn’t work for us or our client’s time line. Having to import the timber cost us valuable LEED points but we offset this by sourcing bespoke aluminium ceiling tiles that satisfied the criterion of being manufactured within a 50km radius. Recycling of used construction materials from the demolition also earned us a few extra points as there are many charities in South Africa needing donations of blinds, ceiling boards and carpet (which is notoriously non environmentally friendly to dispose of.) Both the offices have an integrated BMS system, remotely monitoring energy consumption, ambient room temperature and fresh air ventilation, in accordance with Global Standards. As a result, we derive optimum performance benefits and comply with specific energy reduction targets. But the challenges of complying with LEED extend to more than just the office. The location must be accessible to facilities like public transportation, gyms, shopping centres, nurseries and bicycle parking. Turner & Townsend’s Project Manager also implemented a strict waste management regime for the contractor to comply with and for which points were derived. Due diligence was done on the base build HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), lighting levels, and the impact of UV on the building. Recommendations were then implemented, as per the LEED requirements. At the end of construction, the entire fit-out was flushed to remove any remaining possible contaminants and the air is tested. Again this was part of the LEED requirements that many of the local contractors had never undertaken before. Spurred on by the excitement of new challenges, we successfully delivered the very first LEED Platinum building in South Africa, to the satisfaction of our global client.

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making the difference

How one business makes a difference the world over We speak your language. We understand your needs. Whether your business or asset is in Dubai, Durban, London, Tokyo, Lilongwe, Los Angeles or Beijing – our team can add value. With 3,300 staff in 80 offices, Turner & Townsend provides worldwide consultancy services. We deliver results of the highest standard and add an extra dimension that makes the difference. For further details please contact: Ross Dunkerley

PJ Krige

t: +27 (0) 11 214 1400

t: +27 (0) 21 421 7001

e: rdunkerley@turntown.co.za

e: pkrige@cpt-turntown.co.za

Mike Twine t: +27 (0) 31 265 5710 e: mtwine@kzn-turntown.co.za THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK

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CEMENT

BUILDING MATERIALS FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE : CEMENT

Joe Mapiravana

Introduction Concrete is second only to water in terms of the most consumed substances on earth. Cement is the “glue” which holds concrete together and it is therefore a construction material which is produced and consumed in huge quantities worldwide. Global cement production is about 2.8 billion tonnes per year (WBCSD, 2011a) and growing at an annual rate of close to 4%, largely driven by demand from developing countries. The South African cement industry produces about 17.5 million tonnes of cement per annum. This is about 0.6% of current annual global production and constitutes about 16.5% (CIDB, 2007) of the market share of the major South African construction materials. The relative contributions of the traditional materials to building cost in South Africa follow the order: • cement and reinforced concrete (35%), of which 50% is cement • plain carbon steel products (structural steel, tiles, flat and profiled sheets, door frames, window frames and garage doors) (23%) • bricks and blocks (12%) • Timber and wood (10%) • Tiles and sanitary ware (9%) • plastics (4%) • non-ferrous metals (4%) • glass (3%) Four companies account for more than 80% of cement produced in South Africa. These are AfriSam South Africa (Pty) Ltd, Natal Portland Cement (NPC) Cimpor, Lafarge South Africa and Pretoria Portland Cement (PPC). Sephaku Cement is the new kid on the block.

Environmental challenges The use of cement based building and construction materials offers several socio-economic benefits. Cement-based building materials provide the strength, safety and durability of buildings and other building infrastructure - contributing to the quality of life. The thermal mass of cementbased building materials significantly contributes to the energy efficiency of buildings by reducing heating and cooling loads over the buildings’ entire life cycle. However, the environmental impacts associated with the production of cement are a cause for concern since: • The cement industry is responsible for at least 5% of global carbon dioxide emissions (WBCSD, 2011a)

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Rainwater & Wastewater Solutions Filter

Rainwater harvesting

Pump

Municipal switch-over www.kyasol.co.za

Supply filter *

• Professional rainwater harvesting systems for domestic and commercial applications • Complete package solutions with single tank capacities of 4,800 L and 6,500 L • Multiple tanks can be connected • Suitable for drive way installations • Automatic switch-over between tank and municipal supply

* on the tank

filter • Anaerobix is the new low-cost PVC mesh cleaning system, replacing standard septic tanks • The bio-reactor, filled with PVC mesh material, increases the cleaning performance of a standard septic tank several times over • The large surface of the bacteria friendly, recyclable plastic carrier material allows the bio film responsible for the cleaning process to cover a larger area Anaerobix filter kit

Anaerobix - Septic Tank

one2clean - Wastewater System • • • •

Up to 99% cleaning efficiency Immediate wastewater treatment prevents odours Low power consumption Long sludge removal intervals Water Infiltration Tunnels • 300 L capacity per element • Multiple elements for larger volumes • Vehicle loading upto 3.5 t/m2 +27 (0) 11 840 0840 info@kyasol.co.za www.kyasol.co.za


CASE STUDY

CEMENT

• Cement kilns produce airborne emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxide, mercury, dioxins and furans and particulate matter (ground Work, 2006). • Cement production is energy-intensive and accounts for 2% of global primary energy consumption; and 5% of global industrial energy consumption (Worrel, 2001). • The use of “alternative fuels” in the cement industry protects non-renewable stocks of fossil fuels and reduces carbon dioxide emissions. However, the use of alternative fuels may increase the concentrations of heavy metal toxins such as lead, cadmium and chromium in cement kiln dust (ground Work, 2006).

Cement sustainability initiative The World Business Council on Sustainable Development (WBCSD) started a sector project targeting cement sustainability – the Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI). It is a global effort by 23 major cement producers with cement plants in more than 100 countries worldwide who believe there is a strong business case to pursue sustainable development. The CSI’s objective is to have in excess of 100 cement plants around the globe collectively improve the environmental performance of the global cement industry. The participants have all signed the CSI Charter which captures the individual member actions included in the Agenda for Action which was published in 2002 (WBCSD, 2011b). The Charter is a living document that reflects developing sustainability issues in the cement industry. The CSI’s Agenda for Action is a five-year work program to steer cement companies towards practical actions, focusing on the following six main work packages (WBCSD, 2011c): • CO₂ and climate protection • Responsible use of fuels and raw materials • Employee health and safety • Emissions monitoring and reduction • Local impacts on land and communities and • Concrete Recycling CSI member companies joined the initiative at various times. All member companies have signed a Charter to, implement, at least, these work packages as part of their contribution to sustainable development. On joining, companies have four years to meet the requirements of the CSI Charter. The CSI secretariat manages the process and ensures that companies are aware of and fulfil their various commitments. The Charter was updated in 2009 and is renewed as necessary to address emerging issues. Since the Charter was issued in 2002, CSI members have additionally agreed to conduct third party assurance audits of a number of the key performance indicators (KPIs), which are publicly reported. Since 2006, companies carried out KPI assurance audits of their CO2 data every two years, at least. They have also committed to independent KPI assurance audits of their safety data, beginning 2008. Other KPIs will be added over time.

Green initiatives by the Cement and Concrete Institute The Concrete Institute embarked on various initiatives to improve the sustainability of cement and concrete industries.

Cement industry initiatives • CO₂ emissions study • Energy source substitution (tyres)

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Use of extenders Reduction of point source emissions using bag house filters; and electrostatic precipitation Pre-calciner and pre-heater use in cement production process Rehabilitation of mines

Concrete industry initiatives • Use of admixtures together with extenders to minimise resource use (water and cement). This approach also increases the durability • Substitution of in-situ with pre-cast elements to minimise resource use through volume reduction • Permeable elements, namely, pavements, can be used to stop “ponding” and at the same time collect and re-use rainwater • Concrete structures are known to sequestrate carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. A Danish study has found that 50% of the volume of concrete will be ‘carbonated’ over 70 years of any building’s service life. This sponge effect makes concrete a more green choice than previously thought, emphasising how global sustainability can be achieved with concrete. • Overall benefits of concrete – thermal mass, durability, recyclability and low maintenance. Note Roman structures built of concrete still standing today • Thermal mass contributes to energy efficiency of buildings by reducing heating and cooling loads • Waste minimisation – the incorporation of blast furnace slag, fly ash and silica fume help to re-use waste materials

Codes and standards initiatives • Use and sales of extended concrete is very high • The durability has also been increased to meet the needs of major clients, in particular, SANRAL andESKOM • Research objectives Partial or total cement replacement. Lifecycle cost reduction, life cycle assessment and durability. Characterisation of waste and metakaolin replaced/ extended cement.

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Recent developments Blended cements with various degrees of cement extension/replacement by fly ash(up to 70%), ground granulated blast furnace slag, rice husk ash, maize cob ash (20-50% is used to bond maize cob fibre cement roofing sheets),nano structured zonolite, nano clay cement binder (montmorillonite), zeolite, incinerator ash, phosphorgypsum, paper sludge waste, pulverised fuel ash(bottom ash), diatomite, metakaolin, stronger macro-defect free glycerol plasticised PVA-calcium aluminate (secar 71) and calcium aluminate phenol resin cements.

THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK

Impact on sustainability Reduction of the content of virgin cement clinker – saving cement resources and reducing carbon footprint, embodied energy and production cost of cement


CASE STUDY

CEMENT

Innovative cements development. New/ alternative cement such as carbon negative magnesium-based cement that absorbs 0.6ton CO2 per ton cement on hardening. Patent pending.

Alternative lower carbon footprint carbon negative magnesium silicate based cement produced using less heat energy. Magnesia cements. Geopolymer cements.

Reduction of carbon footprint and extension of raw materials base for cement manufacturing

Recycling/re-use of industrial waste and by-products in cement. Development of blended cement using industrial wastes

Recycling of cementitious industrial waste in cement replacement Blended cements with various degrees of cement extension/ replacement by fly ash(up to 70%), ground granulated blast furnace slag, rice husk ash, maize cob ash (20-50% is used to bond maize cob fibre cement roofing sheets),nano structured zonolite, nano clay cement binder (montmorillonite), zeolite, incinerator ash, phosphorgypsum, paper sludge waste, pulverised fuel ash(bottom ash), diatomite, metakaolin, stronger macro-defect free glycerol plasticised PVA-calcium aluminate (secar 71) and calcium aluminate phenol resin cements.

Extension of the life of cement resources and reduction of carbon footprint, embodied energy and production cost of the cement Reduction of the specific energy consumption of cement grinding and hence reduction of embodied energy, carbon footprint and production cost

Light-weighting

Foamed cement products

Reduction of embodied energy component of transportation, carbon footprint and cost

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Modification/improvement of cement properties (sulphate resistance, acid resistance) by admixtures such as silica fume, GGBFS, nano-silica, zeolites and plasticizers.

Prefabricated structural nano clay cement bonded zonolite toughened insulation panels. Use of various clinker grinding aids(water, aliphatic amines Waste recycling and reuse (e.g. triisopropanolamine), phenols – saving resources and phenol derivatives and inorganic electrolytes at 50-500ppm levels) and cement admixtures to improve clinker fluidity and grindability by reducing agglomeration and cement properties such as setting speed decrease or increase (alkali/quick lime activation), sulphate resistance, acidic resistance (by silica fume, nano silica), strength(by 0.5% polycarboxylate ether superplasticizer) Cements with improved properties containing proprietory admixtures & superplasticizers

Performance evaluation of different kinds of cements including: high strength cement (HSC 60-90MPa) high performance cement (HPC 90-150MPa), ultra high performance cement(UHPC

A wide range of cements have been developed with wide range of strength (70-350MPa) for different applications including HSC, HPC, UHPC

Performance enhancement permits use of thinner and lighter structural members – reducing raw material and energy usage,

Geopolymers

Total cement replacement by alternative greener geopolymeric binders

Enhancement of product durability (e.g. sewer pipes) and lowering carbon footprint

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De-polluting, self-cleaning and photo-catalytic properties.

TiO2 containing de-polluting and self-cleaning cements are coming on stream

CEMENT

Reduction of corrosive species from the atmosphere and improvement of air quality and people’s health and safety

Carbon footprint- OPC content relationships Figure 1 shows CO2 emissions as a function of the OPC content for the geopolymer cement E-crete™. E-Crete ™ is a special geopolymer blend of fly ash and slag which is activated to form a geopolymer concrete [1]. E-Crete™ is currently the only commercialised Geopolymer intended to be used as an alternative to Portland cement, and it is currently used in Australia. The figure suggests that the reduction of OPC content of binders is associated with a reduction in the carbon footprint of the binders – thus increasing the environmental sustainability of the cement binders. This can be done by the incorporation of waste materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slag and fly ash in cement. In particular the manufacture of the geopolymer “E-Crete™” liberates substantially lower amounts of carbon dioxide per tonne of cement produced.

Figure 1: CO2 emissions as a function of OPC content [1]

Screening life cycle assessment study of ordinary Portland cement and a Fly Ash/Slag geo-polymer Background This is a screening LCA study carried to scope the carbon footprint of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC, CEM 1, at least 91% clinker content by weight) as compared to geopolymer concrete (a geopolymer cement made up of 85% blast furnace slag/fly ash; and 15% sodium hydroxide/ sodium silicate or potassium hydroxide by weight).

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PROFILE

SCARAB TECHNOLOGIES THE MOST ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY SYSTEM AND WAS DEVELOPED FOR AFRICA AND ITS HARSH CONDITIONS.

Scarab’s benefits: • • • • • •

Modular – easily upgraded, down graded, or relocated Maintenance free - almost Simple to maintain and operate Semi sealed – Ideal for areas where space is limited No electronics – so all spares easily replaced No chemicals – Ozone option

Scarab already has an impressive track record • • • • •

Listed as one of the top SA 100 companies (tt100) Tested by Umgeni Water and found to be fully compliant Received Bio2Biz (2006) award Featured on SABC3 – Business Update Preferred supplier to DOH – KZN Clinics

CONTACT US:

Steve – Cell 082 441 9549 Email: steve@scarabsa.co.za Johan - Cell 082 535 4576 Email: johan@scarabsa.co.za Website: www.scarabsa.co.za ~ Now also in Australia ~ Mike Lynch – scarabaustralia@bigpond. com Australian website: www.scarabwater.com

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The analysis tool is SimaPro 7.3. The study relies on LCI datasets of European and American origin which is shipped standard with SimaPro. The results are therefore not necessarily representative of South African conditions since energy mix (hydro-, thermal, nuclear etc.) is different. The study considers the production stage only (cradle-to-gate analysis). The use, maintenance and end-of-life disposal aspects, including transportation in between were not considered in this analysis

Assumptions • European conditions • Cradle-to-gate comparison only • As a waste material the carbon footprint of blast furnace slag is zero Five scenarios with 1kg geopolymer with varying activator type and/or content were compared against a fixed 1kg OPC/CEM I (91% clinker), at plant, using Eco-invent data version 2.1 unit process. Results of the simulation are shown in Table 2.

Geopolymer

1

2

3

4

5

[(OPC/CEMI)/ Geopolymer] carbon footprint ratio

4

5

5

3

1.5

Table 2. Comparison of carbon footprints of simulated geopolymers against 1kg OPC/CEM I (91% clinker)

Geopolymer key • 1kg Geopolymer cement (0.85kg blast furnace slag, 0.15kg sodium silicate, BUWAL 250 database) • 1kg Geopolymer cement (0.85kg blast furnace slag, 0.15kg sodium silicate, furnace liquor, 37% in H2O, , Eco-invent data version 2.1 unit process • 1kg Geopolymer Cement (0.85kg blast furnace slag, 0.075kg sodium silicate, furnace liquor, 37% in H2O, at plant; and 0.075kg sodium hydroxide, 50% in H20, production mix, all Eco-invent data version 2.1 unit processes. • 1kg Geopolymer sement (0.85kg blast furnace slag, 0.15kg potassium hydroxide, all Eco-invent data version 2.1 unit processes). • 1kg Geopolymer cement (0.85kg blast furnace slag, 0.15kg sodium silicate, furnace liquor, 37% in H2O, at plant, all Eco-invent data version 2.1 unit processes NB. The magnitude of simulated geopolymer carbon footprints relative to 100% OPC in Table 2 are of the same order of magnitude as those in Fig.1. 100% OPC has carbon footprint that is five to six time that of E-crete, for example. This gives confidence in the applicability of the simulated data.

Conclusion Various initiatives and ongoing research and development have been started to enhance the sustainability of cement. Chief among these is the use of extenders to reduce the carbon footprint of cement to enhance its environmental sustainability; and reduce natural resource usage,

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environmental degradation and pollution. It appears that the future trend will be towards the development of zero OPC binders to achieve the lowest binder carbon footprints. Arguably, the carbonation of cement over time and its relatively high thermal mass (as concrete) may still make it an attractive building material choice for a sustainable future.

References • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

http://www.cnci.org.za/EN/Content.aspx/Pages/Sustainability/Concrete-Benefits http://www.acmp.co.za/who_is_acmp.htm AfriSam, 2011. http://www.afrisam.co.za/about.asp Cimpor, 2011. http://www.cimpor.pt/Default. aspx?cntx=rAAsDm9XZ1jhh4aCn4z4K4l3wItLF5IZbw%2FLjNTBlEQ%3D C&CI, 2011. About Us. http://www.cnci.org.za/EN/Content.aspx/Home GroundWork , 2006. Analysis and write up of burning alternative fuels in cement kilns. InEnergy, 2010. Cement and Concrete Institute concrete industry greenhouse gas emissions. http://www.cnci.org.za/EN/Content.aspx/Pages/Sustainability Lafarge, 2011. http://www.lafarge.co.za/wps/portal/LSA/LafargeCement#Our%20 Investment%20In%20South%20Africa PPC, 2011. http://www.ppc.co.za/pages/about_profile.cfm WBCSD, 2011a. Sector projects – cement http://www.wbcsd.org/templates/ TemplateWBCSD5/layout.asp?typ WBCSD, 2011b. CSI Charter http://www.wbcsdcement.org/index php?option=com_content&task=view&id=38&Itemid=93 WBCSD, 2011c. CSI – Agenda for Action. http://www.wbcsdcement.org/index. php?option=com_content&task=view&id=37&Itemid=92 [1] J.S.J. van Deventer, J.L. Provis, P. Duxson, “Technical and commercial progress in the adoption of geopolymer cement,” in Minerals Engineering, Elsevier 2011. J. Mapiravana, PG Report: “Building Materials Research and Development Priorities”, Technical Report Number : CSIR/BE/CON/IR/2007/006/B March 2009 M.N. Dlamini and J. Mapiravana, “Fly ash and GGBS Geopolymer Concretes – A Review” , in CSIR Consolidated PG Report 2011/2012 Worrel, E., Price, L, Martin, N., Hendriks, C, Ozawa Meida, L. 2001. Carbon dioxide emissions from the global cement industry. Energy and the Environment, 26:303-329

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CHAPTER 0

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TIMBER: A SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE

Roben Ridley Director Roben Ridley Marketing Solutions

Timber is one of the most popular raw materials used in fenestration and joinery and has been used as a building material for thousands of years. With excellent insulation properties and superior strength and beauty, the substrate is often specified for construction and building elements. Timber is one of the only raw materials that is renewable, if harvested sustainably. It is essential that forests are carefully managed to avoid over-harvesting and that human intervention does not reduce the long term potential of timber. We need to ensure that timber truly is a renewable resource, and that sustainable measures are put in place to ensure that forests are able to regrow and remain healthy. Sustainability can be defined as a development or practice that does not reduce the long run productivity of the natural resource assets of which a country’s income and development depend. The Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) is an umbrella organisation that endorses individual sustainable forest management schemes. The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international non-governmental organisation established to promote responsible management of forests. Sustainability requirements for the council include: housing for communities, schools, infrastructure, and plantation measurement amongst other key community and environmental development measures. FLEGT stands for Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade. The EU’s FLEGT Action Plan was established in 2003. It aims to reduce illegal logging by strengthening sustainable and legal forest management, improving governance and promoting trade in legally produced timber

Sustainable timber harvesting The harvesting of timber has been a hotly debated topic in recent years, with many forests being completely devastated, and inhabiting forest life and ecosystems destroyed. Loss of ecosystems and forest degradation have been attributed to illegal logging and unsustainable timber harvesting practices. The European Commission (2014) states that ‘in economic terms illegal logging results in lost revenues and other foregone benefits. In environmental terms illegal logging is associated with deforestation, climate change and a loss of biodiversity. In social terms illegal logging can be linked

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PROFILE

ANTALIS WHY AN ORGANISATION SHOULD INCORPORATE PAPER PURCHASING INTO ITS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY? As one of the largest distributors of traditional printing and digital papers we also offer a wide range of digital printing equipment, digital and litho consumables and packaging solutions. Antalis offers so much more…… our multi–site Forest Stewardship Council™ certification in August 2010 placed us at the forefront of the environmental commitment that is much needed in the printing industry. We are committed to ensuring our customers receive paper products that are sourced from well-managed and sustainable sources. Our ‘Easy to Use…Easy to Choose’ range of Office papers, as well as our FSC™ certified range of Fines Text and Covers, specialty boards and papers make us your partner of choice. Today Antalis South Africa offers a wide range of green, certified and recycled paper products and boards that are sourced from our carefully selected suppliers who abide by our green “Supplier Code of Conduct”. Our Paper JunXions experienced Sales staff and Paper Consultants assist customers in making the right choice from our extensive range. To showcase our wide range of papers we provide various sampling systems to both the printing and the advertising industry. Furthermore as leading suppliers to the Graphics Industry we offer state of the art technology, packaging software, digital equipment, grand and wide format printers and an array of consumables to help them to bring paper to life. In addition our highly qualified specialists offer outstanding support, advice, unmatched service as well as a combined experience of over 100 years. Antalis South Africa is an organisation that has evolved over several decades combining three exceptional companies namely First Paper, Haddons and First Graphics, culminating in a combined experience of some 270 years! Antalis South Africa (Pty) Ltd forms part of Antalis International which is fully owned by Sequana, listed on the Premier Marche of the Paris Stock Exchange. It has an annual turnover of more than 2.7 billion Euros, operates in 44 countries worldwide and facilitates access to world-class paper manufacturers. Included in the group are the Arjowiggins Paper Manufacturing divisions. Antalis South Africa (Pty) Ltd has a 20% Black Empowerment Equity shareholder as well as a 5% ‘Employee Trust’. We recently added a range of Packaging Solutions that is a natural fit for our business, which includes bubble wrap, tapes, cartons and a host of other products. Our Visual Communications Media for Sign and Display includes fabrics, vinyl, boards and more. Furthermore we also offer logistic, warehousing and distribution. We employ almost 385 people and operate in eight sales and warehousing facilities throughout Southern Africa as well as an export arm that services Sub-Saharan Africa. Paper, board, graphic equipment and consumables, together with other strategic and innovative services are all delivered with passion because the men and women of Antalis offer their talents with enthusiasm to the service of our clients.

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CASE STUDY

to conflicts over land and resources, the disempowerment of local and indigenous communities, corruption and armed conflicts’. In addition, illegal logging contributes to 20% of CO₂ emissions globally (Central Point of Timber Procurement, 2012). Wildlife groups, environmentalists and consumers alike have demanded that the industry take action, and organisations such as the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC), the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), and the Central Point of Timber Procurement (CPET) with Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) have been established to regulate the industry, and ensure sustainable management of timber harvesting processes. Forest certification usually involves independent auditors evaluating harvesting procedures, tree planting, management and planning systems, biodiversity, stakeholder and community welfare as well as continuous improvement. (Cubbage, Moore, Henderson and Araujo p146, 2009).

DID YOU KNOW? Timber is either classified as softwood from conifers (e.g. Pine) or hardwood from dicotyledons, a broad-leaf tree (e.g. oak). The names may be misleading as hardwood timber is not necessarily structurally hard, nor is softwood soft. Sustainable harvesting practices ensure that: • Best business practices are implemented in the environment • Human needs are met whilst preserving the environment for the future generations • A healthy eco-system is encouraged In South Africa, the most common timber used in fenestration is either locally grown pine, eucalyptus or tropical hardwood. Much of the hardwood utilised today is imported from the tropics. While local plantations are mostly FSC certified, the certification of imported tropical hardwood is more difficult to achieve. Cobus Lourens of Swartland Doors and Windows explains that ‘FSC regulations are often difficult to implement in tropical rainforests in third world countries, with the price of timber subsequently increasing exponentially. These costs result in the product no longer being financially viable for our customers’. Cobus explains however that FSC certified hardwood is becoming more readily available from alternative sources, and that sourcing options are constantly being explored. Many countries who export hardwood timber or sawn logs have begun implementing sustainability measures and have entered into a Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) with the European Union and work in conjunction with the CPET FLEGT action plan to regulate their industries. The FLEGT Action Plan’s long-term aim is sustainable forest management. It focuses on seven broad areas: • Supporting timber-producing countries, including promoting fair solutions to the illegal logging problem • Promoting trade in legal timber, including developing and implementing VPAs between the EU and timber-producing countries • Promoting public procurement policies, including guidance on how to deal with legality when specifying timber in procurement procedures

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• Supporting private sector initiatives, including encouraging voluntary codes of conduct for private companies sourcing timber • Safeguarding financing and investment, including encouraging financial institutions investing in the forest sector to develop due care procedures • Using existing or new legislation to support the Action Plan, including the EU Timber Regulation • Addressing the problem of conflict timber, including supporting the development of an international definition of conflict timber (Central Point of Timber Procurement, 2012) Currently Ghana, Cameroon, the Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, Liberia and Indonesia are implementing the FLEGT action plan. Negotiations to join a VPA are also underway with the Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote De’Ivoire, Gabon, Guyana, Honduras, Laos, Malaysia and Vietnam. (EU FLEGT Facility, 2013)

Image 1: VPA Countries in the World. Image Courtesy of: EU FLEGT Facility, European Forest Institute, (www.euflegt.efi.int). (Creative Commons License)

DID YOU KNOW? Trees growing in a rainforest do not need to be replanted after being harvested. When a tree is removed, either by natural forces such as lightning or old age, or via harvesting, a small space is opened in the forest canopy. Sunlight reaches the forest floor that has previously been shaded, and seeds begin to grow into new saplings. Nature ensures that a tree of the same species grows in the place of the old tree. A forest needs to replace old trees with new ones in order to remain healthy. Younger trees are far more efficient at photosynthesis than older trees, and produce more oxygen for the environment

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Tropical hardwood Timber grown in tropical regions is commonly used for fenestration and joinery due to its favourable natural characteristics. Sunlight in a rainforest is very precious with plant life in fierce competition to reach the top of the canopy for prime position. As a result, trees in a rainforest grow incredibly fast, with initially very thin stems to gradually becoming very large in diameter. This quick growth process results in very few branches having time to grow, and subsequently very few knots being present in the timber. In addition, tropical trees grow very straight which enhances their strength and increases the maximum length of sawn timber. These features are highly prized in the fenestration and joinery industry and result in strong and sturdy products with reliable and consistent characteristics. It is incredibly difficult to grow timber with these properties in a non-tropical region with trees of the same species often not living up to the standards expected (Lourens, 2013).

Hardwood timber harvested in Gabon - A case study The majority of hardwood timber utilised for fenestration and joinery in South Africa has traditionally been sourced from tropical regions such as Indonesia and Malaysia. Unfortunately these regions are amongst those where devastating deforestation has occurred, and although governments in these countries have begun implementing sustainable harvesting policies, it is often difficult for large scale manufacturers to secure consistent quality and supply. Many South African manufacturers have begun seeking alternative sources for import, and the Gabon region has emerged as a viable source of hardwood for some. The government in Gabon has entered into negotiations for a VPA with the FLEGT organisation and since March 2012, all sawmills in Gabon must follow sustainable harvesting procedures. The forest is divided into a cessions and each tree is allocated a unique GPS coordinate and recorded by species, size and location. Sawmills need to move through the forest based on the cession grid, and only two trees may be harvested per hector every twenty five years. Species of trees cluster in different areas of the forest, and a desired species may only fall into the harvesting plan grid periodically (Lourens, 2013).

Image 2: Map of Forest Cessions and Sawmill Routes in Gabon. Image courtesy of Malachite Studio, January 2014.

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The Benefits of Timber Environmental Sustainable timber harvesting practices have resulted in an increase in forest conservation and timber planting and regrowth programs. Tree regrowth and tree planting has many benefits: • Trees filter the air, reducing carbon dioxide and providing oxygen through photosynthesis • Act as cooling mechanisms for surrounding land • Prevent erosion • Increase rainfall • Sustain vital ecosystems Younger trees respond far better than older ones to photosynthesis, producing abundant oxygen. Sustainably harvesting small sections of forests, and encouraging growth of newer, younger plants has hugely positive effects on the environment.

DID YOU KNOW? Timber as a substrate has a relatively low embodied energy content i.e. in comparison to other raw materials used for fenestration and joinery the direct and indirect energy needed to harvest, transport and manufacture timber products is low.

Product characteristics Swartland Doors and Windows (2013) explains that approximately 28% of a buildings heat loss occurs through doors and windows. The rising cost of electricity and power shortages has resulted in new building energy efficiency legislation in South Africa that requires products that offer greater insulation to be specified. Timber as a substrate is highly effective insulator, with timber fenestration producing favourable u-values as well as a low Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC). The U-value is the rate at which heat is transmitted through the arrangement of doors and windows in a building. All of the components that make up the product are evaluated such as the frame, the space between the two panes and the glass itself. The lower the u-value the better a product is at insulation. The Solar Heat Gain Coefficient of a product indicates how well a product blocks the heat from the sun. The lower the SHGC, the better performance of the product. Worst Case Whole Glazing Element Performance Values Aluminium/Steel Framing Glass description

Total U-Value W/ m2 K

SHGC

Timber/PVC/Aluminium Thermal Break Framing Total U-Value W/ m2 K

SHGC

Single-Clear

7.9

0.51

5.6

0.77

Single-Tinted

7.9

0.69

5.6

0.65

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GREEN ACOUSTICS Green Acoustics is a South African based company specialising in high quality acoustic solutions to the building industry. Green Acoustics is focused on the distribution, sales and marketing of our products to many industries including the commercial, industrial, mining and residential building material markets. We specialise in architectural specification to deliver the most cost effective, high performance products to all segments of the green products market. Green Acoustics works closely with architects, interior designers and end users. “Our commitment to environmental responsibility will continue to be strengthened as we find new avenues to promote green acoustical solutions for our clients” Let Green Acoustics Building Products help you in “Building a Greener Tomorrow”.

Product Suppliers

Acustica Integral • Acoustic Barriers, acoustic doors, insulation materials, • enclosures, acoustic panels Rockfon ceiling tiles • Stonewool products • Cleanable, non-combustible, excellent thermal, fire, and acoustical properties. Medical and coloured ceiling tile options available • Various edges available – exposed grid, bevelled edge, semi-concealed, and concealed grid Rockfon Eclipse suspended clouds • Innovative and aesthetically-pleasing frameless acoustical island • Various shapes and sizes • High sound absorption contributes to acoustic comfort Codina Deckmetal ceilings • Steel/aluminium options, various colours & finishes available, hidden LED light panels Vogl Ceilings • 12 standard perforations available, custom designs possible, seamless perfect joining, no plastering needed, continuous look Fibran Insulation • Stonewool insulation for all purposes and applications – walls, floors, ceilings, and roofing SoundTRAX – acoustic panelling • Stretch cloth covered profiles acoustic panelling • Great for walls and ceilings • Can create wall paper like effects Above mentioned companies carry European test certificates for all products.

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Contact us: Unit 21, Federated Centre, Paterson Rd, PE T: 082 446 7724 E: sales@greenacoustics.co.za W: www.greenacoustics.co.za


TIMBER

CASE STUDY

Single Low Ea

5.73

0.66

4.06

0.63

Clear double (3/6/3)

4.23

0.72

3.0

0.68

Tinted Double

4.23

0.59

0.56

0.56

Tinted double low Ea

3.4

0.66

2.41

0.62

Tinted double 3.4 0.54 2.41 0.51 low Ea Worst Case Whole Glazing Element Performance Values Source: Sans204 2011 Edition 1  

Conclusion Timber has created some of the most beautiful and renowned structures in history. With excellent insulation properties and warm aesthetics, timber has become a favorite amongst architects and home-owners alike. It is important for consumers to be able to make informed decisions about their timber products, with information about where the timber comes from, and how it was harvested being paramount. As one of the only completely renewable resources available, it is essential that industries and governments globally support sustainable harvesting organisations, and work with them to secure the future of the planets forests.

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TIMBER

CHAPTER TITLE

References • 1. Cubbage, F. Moore, T. Henderson, and M. Araujo, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 2008, Costs and Benefits of Forest. Certification in the Americas, Book Chapter for: Natural Resources: Economics, Management, and Policy, Frank Columbus, Editor-in-Chief, Nova Science Publishers. • 2. Cubbage, F. Moore, S. McCarter, K. (North Carolina State University) Diaz, D., (Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria), & Rios, E., Dube,F., (Universidad de Concepción, Chile), Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 2009, Impacts of FSC and PEFC Forest Certification in North and South America, Southern Forest Economics Workers Meeting, viewed 24 January 2014, http://sofew. cfr.msstate.edu/ • 3. Ensuring legal trade and strengthening forest governance, 2014, Barcelona, Spain, EU FLEGT Facility, European Forest Institute, viewed 25 January 2014 (www.euflegt.efi.int). • 4. Forests Illegal logging/FLEGT Action Plan, 2014, Belgium, European Commission, viewed 24 January 2014, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/illegal_logging.htm. • 5. Hickey, M. & King, C.2001, Cambridge, the Cambridge Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Terms. Cambridge University Press. • 6. Moore, S. Cubbage, F. & Eicheldinger, C., 2012, Bethesda, Impacts of Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) Forest Certification in North America, Society of American Foresters, viewed 24 January 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.5849/jof.10-050. • 7. Owen, J. 2013, Wiltshire, Kit and Modern Timber Frame Homes The Complete Guide. The Crowood Press Ltd. • 8. Sustainability Report, 2011, Atlantis South Africa, Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), Swartland Doors and Windows p9-10, p32-33. • 9. Understanding Timber Preservation: A Guide to Timber and Its Treatment against Biological Degradation, 2012, Isando, The South African Wood Preservers Association, viewed 24 January 2014, http://www.sawpa.org.za/understanding.html. • 10. What is the FLEGT Regulation and how will it work, United Kingdom, 2012, Central Point of Timber Procurement, Department for Environmental Food and Rural Affairs. • 11. Why is timber a renewable resource, 2011, Australia, Forest and Wood Products Australia Ltd (FWPA), viewed 24 January 2014, http://www.forestlearning.edu.au/forests-sustainability/ wood-renewable/timber-as-a-renewable-resource.

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SWARTLAND Innovation and Sustainability Swartland Boudienste is SA’s leading manufacturer of quality wooden doors and windows for the DIY, building and construction sectors. Established in 1951, Swartland’s founding proposition was to craft fine quality wood products that would stand the test of time. At Swartland, we understand that our own business sustainability is directly linked to the sustainability of planet Earth and, in particular, to the sustainability of natural resources which form such an important part of our existence as a company. Swartland’s success is directly attributable to its ability to integrate traditional values with visionary thinking around topics such as continuous improvement and sustainability. Our vision for the next three to five years is for the company to be a shining example of sustainability stewardship. We aim to grow the company whilst reducing relative consumption of natural resources and whilst advocating and activating sustainable business practices in everything that we do. Swartland incorporates some of the world’s best standards and practices in operations, such as ISO9000, and in 2012 we embarked on a GRI Sustainability Reporting process which is aimed at increasing communication with stakeholders around transparency and accountability. Our sustainability reports contain key information in an easy to read format (see example illustrations on the following 2 pages). We believe that we are establishing comparative advantage in our sector, particularly with our channel customers – large retailers that are increasingly introducing supply chain sustainability criteria into procurement policy. Our GRI reporting process not only provides all stakeholders with the information that they require, but drives us towards improvement in all key areas of the business. Executives and key management have registered with the Good Business Framework Executive Development Programme in Sustainability for 2014 where we will be targeting further goals within the areas of internal capacity, reputation and advantage. For further information or to download our sustainability report, please scan the QR Code or enter the link in the GBF logo.

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0° 20ʼ 33.48”N 9° 33ʼ 37.83”E

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CHAPTER 0 BRICKS

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CLAY AND CONCRETE BRICK

M.N. Dlamini BE (Candidate Researcher) CSIR

Introduction Brick is one of the most used and versatile building materials in use today. Bricks can be defined as modular units connected by mortar in the formation of a building system or product. Commonly the word brick is used to refer to clay bricks, which are manufactured from raw clay as their primary ingredient. However concrete brick has also become a favoured material in recent times. This review will adumbrate the impact of these building materials on energy use and the environment.

Clay brick Clay bricks are arguably the most common brick type used in construction today. The same can be said for antiquity, since clay bricks are found in numerous old and ancient structures. Though numerous theories exist, it is not known when man first discovered that through heating moulded plastic clay to a high temperature, a hard and durable product could be formed. The key to clay bricks and their success over the ages is in the simple process used to manufacture them. Clays (e.g. Kaolinite) are an abundant raw material which can be extracted relatively cheaply from the earth. With the addition of water clays become plastic and are easily extruded and moulded into any desired shape. This ability to be worked and shaped is an ideal property for producing uniform identical units such as brick, as moulds could be reused quickly. Over time the use of moulds has diminished as modern brick manufacturing techniques have focused on extrusion which is more efficient. Traditionally clays are fired in a kiln with temperatures ranging from 1000째C to 1200째C depending on the clay (Clay Brick Association, 2002).

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PROFILE

Q ASSOCIATES CHARTERED QUANTITY SURVEYORS + PROJECT MANAGERS + GREEN BUILDING CONSULTANTS

Q Associates is a chartered quantity surveying and green building consultancy, incorporated in 1991 to meet the growing need for integrated professional services in Nigeria’s expanding construction industry. The firm’s detailed knowledge of the Nigerian Economy and the local building industry enables it to effectively administer, monitor and control the project development and implementation process from inception to completion, through the application of rigorous professional standards. As passionate advocates for environmental responsibility, the firm actively promotes the adoption of sustainable design and construction practices in the Nigerian built environment. Q Associates has therefore not only incorporated “green practices and technologies” into its operations, but has also invested in the training and professional development of its staff in sustainable design and construction technologies. In addition therefore to traditional project management and quantity surveying, Q Associates thus has the necessary expertise to provide a full range of sustainable design and construction consulting services. Our goal is always to assist clients to procure buildings based on best practices, emphasizing long term affordability, functionality, quality, sustainability and efficiency. Q Associates team is currently led by Danjuma Waniko, a Chartered Quantity Surveyor and Green Star SA Accredited Professional with over 2½ decades experience in the Nigerian construction industry. Over the years, the firm has also assembled a team of competent, resourceful and dedicated construction industry professionals, and, as the need arises, collaborates with other experts or sector specialists in order to maintain the highest standards of service delivery to clients. Q Associates seeks to partner with companies contemplating an entrance into the vibrant Nigerian property market, proposing to bring its experience and expertise in sustainable design, specifications and construction to promote a greener built environment for Africa. 4th Floor, Hamza Zayyad House, 4 Muhammadu Buhari Way, Box 9389, Kaduna, Nigeria Plot 805, Off Ebitu Ukiwe Street, Off Mike Akghibe Way, Jabi District, Abuja, Nigeria www.qassociatesltd.com • +234(803)2015428 info@qassociatesltd.com • q_associates_ltd@yahoo.co.uk

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Figure 1: Clay brick processing can be highly mechanised as seen in the first image (left), the image on the right shows the simplicity of the process, with bricks being processed in a rudimentary kiln.

Figure 2: Modern brick manufacturing schematic (www.construction-machine. org)

The sequence in the manufacturing of modern clay brick may be generalised into the following stages. • Mining • Size reduction • Screening • Forming and cutting (Extrusion) • Coating or glazing (surface treatment) • Drying • Firing and cooling

The stage in which the most energy is consumed is the firing stage. This stage is the most contentious because it calls into question the amount and type of energy sources used. In South Africa common fuels used in the kilns are coal, gas or oil (Clay Brick Association, 2002). The use of hydrocarbons has the undesirable result of releasing greenhouse gas such as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This invariably has a negative impact on clay brick as a green building material.

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CASE STUDY

BRICKS

Energy use and environmental impact of clay brick Concerns about the environmental impact of various construction materials, including clay brick, have prompted manufacturers to undertake detailed analysis on the environmental impacts of their products. Think brick Australia (2010) commissioned a life cycle assessment on clay brick. The study which was based on assessing the environmental impact and energy consumption linked to clay brick over a 50 year period, found that the dominant cause of energy and associated emission of greenhouse gases was related to the long term operation of the structure built with the clay brick. The specific structure used by Energetics in their model was a brick house with varying floor, wall and orientation configurations. The study presented the following key findings: • The embodied impacts (of clay brick) over the lifetime of a house (50 years) can be around half (45%-49%) of the total greenhouse gas emissions when compared to the energy consumption for heating, ventilation and cooling. When other energy requirements during the use of a house are taken into account the contribution of embodied impacts falls to 10%. • When energy consumption for HVAC (during 50 years) is taken into account, the maximum effect of wall construction type on total GHG impacts is between 7% and 12%. This study asserts that “when other energy requirements during the use of a house are taken into account the contribution of embodied impacts falls to 10%”(Think Brick Australia, 2010) . This statement should be read with cognisance of the numerous assumptions made in determining the environmental impact during the entire lifecycle. These assumptions include; the design and layout of a house built using brick, the house’s orientation and the climatic region in which the house is built. The quantities arising from these assumptions can be wide ranging and highly variable, which brings into question rationale in measuring the environmental impact of brick after the manufacturing stage. Currently a study has been commissioned by the Clay Brick Association in South Africa to conduct a full lifecycle assessment on clay brick. While energy consumption and greenhouse emission are critical parameters for measuring the greenness of a technology, other important effects of brick manufacture are also considered by a case study undertaken to measure the sustainability of clay brick.

Figure 3: A brick kiln in Kabul Afghanistan The type of fuel has a significant effect on the environmental impact of the brick product (source: www. nature.com).

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Moedinger (2013) proposes that the degree of sustainability be measured by criteria such as, total energy content, consumption of the environment, emissions (including GHG’s), raw materials depilation, waste generation, recyclability, capital costs and durability. The energy embodied in clay brick compared to other construction materials studied by Moedinger [3] are shown in the table. Bulk density kg/m3

Energy content MJ/m3

Brick fired with fossil fuels

700

2524.2

Reinforced concrete

2400

5264.9

EPS

20

1928

Rockwool 80 1399.4 Table 1: Embodied energy for selected construction materials (Adapted from Fritz Moedinger)

Bulk density kg/m3 Brick fired with fossil fuels

700

Energy content MJ/m3 2524.2

Brick fired with renewable fuels 700 910 Table 2: Embodied energy of clay brick fired with fossil and renewable fuels Data from the case study shows that brick performs favourably when compared to reinforced concrete EPS and rock wool in so far as embodied energy is concerned. Table 2 adapted from Moedinger’s (2005) case study shows that by using renewable fuels the embodied energy in clay brick is reduced by more than half, meaning that once fuels and cleaner energy sources are developed, there is potential for clay brick to be even greener. The renewable fuel used in the study was biogas. Other criteria specifically relating to the manufacture of clay brick include land for mining, emissions of the production process and the consumption of raw materials. Since the production of building materials varies significantly, no direct comparisons to other competing construction materials were presented in the study.

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CASE STUDY

Concrete brick and blocks Concrete bricks are brick sized concrete prisms used for building purposes. They are an attractive alternative to clay for brick manufacturers because their production does not require high temperature kilns and the associated infrastructure and operating costs that accompany them. In essence concrete bricks and blocks are a mixture of a binder (usually Portland cement), sand, aggregate and water. The nature of concrete brick and block manufacture can range from being highly labour intensive to being highly mechanised. The manufacturing process can be summarised into the following stages. Raw materials are first purchased, sand, stone and aggregate are sieved and separated into their desired size fraction. The appropriate type of cement for cement blocks and other conditions is procured. From there on, the cement, aggregate and sand are mixed with water together with any suitable admixture. The mixing may be done by workers using shovels, or in more mechanised production large pan mixers could be used. Once the concrete has been mixed and it is suitably plastic, it can be moulded. Again the type of moulding can be simple human powered moulds or mechanised brick making machines, which use electricity or diesel to mould and compact the bricks.

Figure 5: Concrete provides flexibility for manufacturing; the figure shows two manufacturing scenarios, one that is highly mechanised and one that is labour intensive.

Energy use and environmental impact of concrete brick Portland cement, being the most critical component in conventional concrete blocks and bricks is also the component which has undergone the most amount of processing. The processing of cement involves heating clinker to a temperature approaching 1450째C in a rotary kiln, this high temperature coupled with carbon dioxide released during the decarbonisation reaction in the production of cement, produces a material with high embodied energy and high emissions of greenhouse gas. Approximately 1 tonne of CO2 is released into the environment for every tonne of Portland cement produced (Davidovits, 2011).

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CASE STUDY

Building product

Density (kg/m3)

Thermal Primary conductivity energy (W/mK) demand (MJeEq/ kg)

Global Warming Potential (kg CO2-Eq/ kg)

Water demand (l/kg)

Cement

3150

1.4

4.235

0.819

3.937

Cement mortar

1525

0.7

2.171

0.241

3.329

Reinforced Concrete

2546

2.3

1.802

0.179

2.768

Concrete

2380

1.65

1.105

0.137

2.045

Table 3: LCA result is for cement and concrete [4]

Table 3 shows life cycle assessment results for cement and concrete materials. Cement is shown to be the most energy demanding and carbon emitting material in the list. Concrete brick may be comparable to cement mortar and concrete as the density of concrete blocks may fall within their range. Concrete brick produced in an efficient block yard will typically have cement contents less than 16% by mass (Cement and Concrete Institute, 2010). Aggregate takes up the majority of the volume in concrete block which helps to reduce the embodied energy generated by Portland

Figure 6: Aggregate being crushed THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK

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CONTACT NO: 079 197 9248 079 145 6088 FAX NO: 086 241 8245 EMAIL: m.vigar@yahoo.com MCVigar construction and trading is 100 % blacked owned company providing high quality products and services by four male and one female persons from the previously disadvantage group. The company is based within the Northern Cape Province in John Taolo Gaetsewe District Council and the locaI Municipality of Moshaweng. The managing members have vast experience in civil engineering and farming. The enterprise specializes in mining construction, road construction, building, plant machinery, building materials and supply delivery of materials and further ensuring that the level of services rendered is of high acceptable standard within the time frame and budget.

MISSION In pursuit of our vision, we will strive to serve our clients with excellent service promptly whilst giving attention to maintain strong relationship that accommodate the needs of the customers by providing quality service, value for money and instil pride of ownership. We will provide fair and progressive employment practices in accordance with the company’s requirements for skills and the potential of its employees, and reducing unemployment. Finally we will generate sustainable return on investments, which will reward its members and secure funding for its continued growth.

DELIVERY CAPACITY The company has fairly enough capacity to enable it to deliver assignment of any magnitude.

EQUITY PLAN VISION Mcvigar construction and trading is dedicated to be the leading Black Trading Company in the whole of the SADC region.

SERVICES

It is the intention of the company to empower as many youth, women and physical challenged persons, in all spheres of their operation and to elevate them to the management positions as it grows from strength to strength. Is an exciting business opportunity that address the unmet need of having a fully labour intensive construction where applicable that also has a complete skill development and transfer to the unskilled labours.

Riversand Supplier and Delivery to; G1, G2, G3, G4, G5, G6, G7,G8 and G9 Precious Stone Precious Dust Renovation Building Road development and construction Carwash Mechanical workshop Farming Fencing and Other Services

PHYSICAL ADDRESS, HOUSE NO 205, MADIBENG VILLAGE, KURUMAN 8460 POSTAL ADDRESS, P O Box 2575 KURUMAN 8460


CASE STUDY

BRICKS

cement usage. Aggregate is a naturally occurring material, however in places such as South Africa, aggregate crushing is required in many cases. The energy consumed in crushing will increase the embodied energy of the final concrete block product.

Conclusions Clay brick and concrete brick are in wide use in construction. Both materials have distinct advantages over each other. Clay brick production is a simple and continuous process from raw clay to finished brick. Clay brick provides the benefit of having its environmental impact being linked primarily to the energy inputs required for production. Therefore as technology advances and clear sources of fuel are developed clay bricks can only become more sustainable. Concrete bricks are simple to produce when all the ingredients are at hand. Concrete bricks can be manufactured on the site of construction thereby saving energy and cots related to transportation. Portland cement is the most environmentally contentious ingredient in concrete brick and blocks. However cement technology has moved successfully towards the replacement of cement clinker with waste materials such as fly ash and ground granulated slag. This replacement has the double advantage of replacing a material with high CO2 emissions with a material, which would under ordinary circumstances end up as waste.

References • Clay Brick Association (South Africa), “Clay brick manufacture, A technical guide”,2002 • Energetics report for Think Brick Australia, “LCA of Brick Products”, 2010 • Moedinger, F. 2005. Sustainable clay brick production – A Case study. In: The 2005 World Sustainable Building Conference. SB05, Tokyo, pp. 4085–4092. • Ignacio Zabalza Bribián*, Antonio Valero Capilla, Alfonso Aranda Usón, “Life cycle assessment of building materials: Comparative analysis of energy and environmental impacts and evaluation of the eco-efficiency improvement potential” Building and Environment 46, 2010 • Cement and Concrete Institute, “How to make bricks and blocks”, 2010 • Davidovits, Geopolymer cement, a review, 2013. • Clay Brick Association website, http://www.claybrick.org/content/life-cycle-assessment-researchenvironmental-impact-clay-brick-building ,07/2013

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PROFILE

‘COROBRIK’S ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY PROFILE’

Clay brick intrinsically sustainable and in harmony with natural environments

1. Preface: With sustainability established as a global imperative, Corobrik continues to take active steps to enhance the sustainability of Corobrik’s business in all three dimensions - economic, social and environmental, and through the process of reducing environmental impacts, compound the value that the generic intrinsic properties of clay brick contribute to sustainable built-in environments.

2. Clay Brick – Intrinsically Sustainable: Fired clay brick is one of only a few man-made walling materials that is proven reusable and/ or recyclable. Robustness and extreme durability mitigates future carbon debt associated with refurbishment and replacement of less durable building materials while longevity provides the time opportunity for embodied energy to dissipate. The mineral properties and inert non-toxic qualities of fired clay brick well recognised for meeting all necessary requirements for healthy living, further defines clay brick as a sustainable building material. It is such qualities, coupled with the colourfast maintenancefree attributes of face brick that help mitigate future carbon debt associated with painting, that adds further substance to clay bricks sustainability proposition. And then one cannot overlook the natural thermal performance properties of clay brick, proven through extensive empirical and modelling research to support greater thermal comfort conditions within South African climates and lower the operational energy usage Clay brick walling supports thermal comfort conditions of buildings. In the above graph from the study by WSP Green by Design of a 40 m² low cost house, the three double skin Corobrik clay brick walled alternates [with the requisite thermal capacity and low R-values] accounted for the generally superior thermal performance, greater thermal comfort

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PROFILE and lower energy usage for heating and cooling than the insulated lightweight walled alternates [with higher resistance but low thermal capacity]. The sum total of research is, that for climates akin to South Africa, clay brick walls for houses can be specified to assure greatest thermal comfort and optimal energy efficiency with best payback for the level of insulation applied, outperforming comparable insulated lightweight walling. The heating and cooling energy savings of clay brick construction can be significant, as shown in the table below collated from the full Lifecycle Assessment by Energetics in Australia. This LCA found that the heating and cooling savings provided by cavity brick walling over or beyond 50 years offset clay brick walling’s higher embodied energy to provide a lower total energy usage [embodied plus operational] compared to timber frame insulated weatherboard in most situations, with insulated cavity brick walling providing lowest total energy usage and lowest GHG emissions in all situations. THERMAL MODELLING OF VERDANT AND SIROCCO HOUSE PLANS AVERAGE HVAC GREEN HOUSE GAS (kg CO₂-e) EMISSIONS OVER 50 YEARS Extracted from Energetics Full Life Cycle Assessment

Insulated Timber Frame

Insulated Timber more/(less) GHG than Double Brick Insulated R1.3

Orientations

Uninsulated Double Brick

Newcastle Climatic Zone

N,S,E&W

54137

51236

60457

11.67%

18.00%

Melbourne Climatic Zone

N,S,E&W

73050

63641

72570

(-0.66%)

14.03%

Melbourne Climatic Zone

N,S,E&W

64924

65010

72554

11.75%

11.60%

Average GHG

N,S,E&W

64037

59962

68527

7.01%

14.28%

Location

Insulated Double Brick (R1.3)

Insulated Timber more/(less) GHG than Double Brick

These performance attributes of clay brick, along with South Africa’s strong masonry tradition and society’s broad preference to live in brick houses, combine to underpin clay bricks pre-eminent status for sustainable house construction.

3. Making Corobrik’s Business Greener: Corobrik’s approach to reducing environmental impacts in the business has concentrated on quarrying clay materials within a sustainable development framework, achieving greater resource efficiencies and lowering the consumption of non-renewable resources. Progress made has elevated the environmental integrity of Corobrik’s products beyond the sustainable qualities generic in fired clay. The interventions include: 3.1 Dematerialisation Through investment in advanced extrusion technologies dematerialization with enhanced product quality, and performance attributes have been achieved. Resultant energy usage reductions through dematerialization include:

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PROFILE • Reductions in drying and firing energy usage in the order of 20% when compared to a ‘standard’ 3 core-hole brick with 20% perforations. • Reduced diesel usage per thousand bricks delivered. • An 8% reduced mortar usage on site reducing the carbon footprint associated with the cement component of mortar.

Corobrik’s Kliprug quarry – now a residential estate with vineyards

Efficiency through advanced technologies

3.2 Lowering the carbon footprint through the use of cleaner burning fuels For each giga joule of energy, natural gas releases just 48kgs of CO2 compared to 97kgs of CO2 emitted from coal. In 1996 Corobrik committed to a process of converting to natural gas for the firing of its kilns. Today, Corobrik has six major factories using natural gas as a primary fuel for the firing of its kilns, bringing to the South African market clay bricks with embodied energy values in line with best international practice for the clay types and the manufacturing technologies employed. Further conversions are being pursued but remain dependent on the availability of natural gas at the factory gate. Corobrik has the distinction of being the first company in South Africa to be issued Certificates of Emissions Reductions by the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism for its fuel switch programme – Lawley Factory conversion. Corobrik presently has two CDM projects registered with UNFCCC. 3.3 Lowering electrical energy consumption Teams are in place at all operations with a mandate to reduce electrical energy usage. Through power correction interventions and modifying shift activities thereby circumventing high electrical energy usage at peak periods, electrical energy usage has dropped significantly throughout with further savings being explored.

Dematerialised multicore bricks fired with natural gas

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3.4 Use of recycled materials in the production process Most ‘green’ brick waste is recycled back into the clay production processes. Burnt brick waste is


PROFILE either crushed as aggregate for use in road building applications, or the manufacture of concrete products. Surplus aggregate is returned to the quarry from where it came. In addition suitable waste materials from other waste streams are regularly evaluated for their suitability as a recycled component in our the brick manufacturing processes. At this stage we have not been able to source suitable waste materials that meet the environmental requirements of a ISO 14001 certified factory. 3.5 ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management Certification at factories Corobrik has 10 factories with ISO 9001 Certification with others busy with the accreditation process 3.6 ISO 14001:2004 Environmental Management Systems Certification at factories Corobrik has 5 factories with ISO 14001 Certification with others busy with the accreditation process It is the two processes of achieving Quality and Environmental certification, coupled with Corobrik’s commitment to employing international best practices at its operations that has helped drive down Corobrik’s carbon footprint and enhance eco systems around operations.

4. The Carbon Footprint of Corobrik bricks: Corobrik Factory Product Type in Imperial Format Kg CO₂/m² Single Skin Brickwork

Avoca 1 Transverse Arch Kiln

Lawley 2 Transverse Arch Kiln

Midrand Tunnel Kiln

Clay Plaster Bricks

Clay Face Bricks

Clay Face Bricks

29.3

33.8

23.2

As calculated by CSIR Built Environment, the embodied energy of clay bricks from three typical technologies Corobrik employs, ranges between 23.2 and 33.8 Kg CO2/m² single skin of brickwork. This equates to between 215 and 250 tCO2 per tonne of bricks against the international average of approximately 300 tCO2 per tonne of bricks. Ideas and interventions with the potential to effect incremental reductions in emissions are continually being assessed and implemented where appropriate.

5. Continuous improvement: Building on progress made, sustainability at Corobrik is set to take a step further during 2014 through the services of “The Good Business Framework”. The programme is designed to broaden the depth of understanding, knowledge and commitment in the business for addressing the sustainability imperative. In addition to the above, Corobrik will continue to invest in research to understand how brick may be better specified in buildings to lower environmental impacts and to help develop specifications for masonry walling able to facilitate optimal thermal performance outcomes – greatest energy efficiency and payback for the built cost. This is presently being advanced through our membership of the Clay Brick Association of South Africa, where Corobrik is involved in the commissioning of the ground breaking full Life Cycle Assessment of clay brick in South Africa being undertaken by the University of Pretoria. This assessment is to consider the contribution of clay brick to sustainability in the three dimensions - environmental, economic and social.

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NET-ZERO CONSTRUCTION

TOWARDS NET-ZERO CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE

Llewellyn van Wyk Built Environment Unit CSIR

Introduction Most of the attention focused on green building seems to be paid to energy efficiency, and perhaps water conservation, if the publicity given to green buildings in the media is used as a yardstick. And while those are necessary and critical components, other equally important issues such as waste reduction should not be overlooked, even though it may not be as ‘trendy’ as energy efficiency. In the current economic and environmental market, business owners along the entire value chain are increasingly becoming aware of the necessity for savings and cut backs, but many remain unaware that choosing creative waste management solutions can lead to significant cost savings and add significantly to the triple bottom line. Waste is defined in the National Environment Management: Waste Act as: “Any substance, whether or not that substance can be reduced, re-used, recycled and recovereda) That is surplus, unwanted, rejected, discarded, abandoned or disposed of; b) Which the generator has no further use of for the purposes of production; c) That must be treated or disposed of; or d) That is identified as a waste by the Minister by notice in the Gazette, and includes waste generated by the mining, medical or other sector; but – (i) A by-product is not considered waste; and (ii) Any portion of waste, once re-used, recycled and recovered, ceases to be waste.” Construction waste, which is classified under general waste, and is defined as “waste, excluding hazardous waste, produced during the construction, alteration, repair or demolition of any structure, and includes rubble, earth, rock and wood displaced during that construction, alteration, repair or demolition” (DEA 2012), is just that: a waste of raw and often scarce materials; a waste of energy; a waste of chemicals and additives; and a waste of human resources. In reality, it represents a waste within the three pillars of sustainable development, namely, economic feasibility, social wellbeing, and environmental stewardship. The purpose of this chapter is to provide information and methods to clients, developers, contractors, and professional service providers of construction and demolition projects to assist in reducing the amount of waste generated during the entire construction and demolition process.

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A R C H I T E C T U R E

LYT ARCHITECTURE

LYT Architecture began life as Tyser Pellegrini some 25 years ago as a small mining focused architectural practice and through several iterations, most recently as TPS.P Architects, has become one of the largest and most successful practices in the country. In September 2012, the practice was re-launched as LYT Architecture, a brand which reflects not only a new management structure and style, but also a focus which builds on the successes and expertise of the past and which looks to the future as a pro-active wealth creating enterprise seeking to address many of the pressing issues in South Africa through a design orientated solutions driven approach. While maintaining its position as a leading commercial practice, LYT remains the most diversified design and architectural practice in South Africa with significant skill and experience in the design and delivery of mining, infrastructure, industrial, educational, residential, commercial, hospitality, retail and transportation projects, both in SA and abroad. Notwithstanding the tough economic circumstances in 2013, the practice looks forward to an exciting year with several large commercial and retail projects in the ground as well as a promising list of imminent new work across the full spectrum of its operations and services. Key to LYT’s success has been its ability to maintain and grow strong relationships with its client base and its “can-do” approach.

LYT’s current projects: New building for TWP Worley Parsons (Green Star Rating) Head Office for Group 5 for Atterbury (Green Star Rating) Unilever Production Buildings (LEED Certification) Maretlwane Outdoor School, the first Green Star Educational Building

Contact US

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NET-ZERO CONSTRUCTION Reducing waste demonstrates corporate responsibility, provides compliance with green building requirements, and ultimately reduces project costs. Overview of the problem Municipalities are required to report, inter alia, on their waste management practices in terms of the Waste Act (No 59 of 2008). Waste information must be reported to the National Waste Information System (SAWIS) and must include data on the quantity and type or classification of waste generated, stored, transported, treated, transformed, reduced, re-used, recycled, recovered and disposed of. The third national baseline study reported that South Africa generated approximately 108 million tonnes of waste in 2011 with 98 million tonnes of this landing up in landfill sites (DEA 2012). Of the total waste generated about 59 million (55%) tonnes is general waste, 48 million tonnes (44%) is currently unclassified, and about 1 million tonnes (1%) is hazardous waste (DEA 2012). Only about 10% of the total waste generated was recycled in 2011 (DEA 2012). There are five broad categories of municipal solid waste (SAWIS 2014): • i) Biodegradable waste: food and kitchen waste, green waste, paper, etc. • ii) Recyclable material: paper, glass, bottles, cans, metals, certain plastics, etc. • iii) Inert waste: construction and demolition waste, dirt, rocks, debris, etc. • iv) Composite wastes: waste clothing, polystyrene, waste plastics including toys, etc. • v) Domestic hazardous waste and toxic waste: medication, paints, chemicals, light bulbs, fluorescent tubes, spray cans, fertilizers and pesticide containers, batteries, shoe polish, etc. Three types of waste dominate the total general waste stream: non-recyclable municipal waste (35%), construction and demolition (C&D) waste (20%), organic waste (13%), and metals (13%) (DEA 2012).

Figure 1: Example of construction waste on a typical construction site

One of the main impacts of landfilling is air pollution from landfill gas (CSIR 2011). Typically landfill gas comprises of about 50 – 55% methane, 40 – 45% carbon dioxide (both of which are

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NET-ZERO CONSTRUCTION greenhouse gases) and the remainder to complex organic compounds that do not compose, some hydrogen sulphide and other sulphide compounds (CSIR 2011). Landfill development, operation and closure can be costly. Poor landfill operations are often ascribed to insufficient resources including funding allocations (CSIR 2011). While the development and operation of landfill sites is costly, there are also costs related to closure and rehabilitation of such facilities. The impacts of a landfill site on the environment do not cease at the end of its operational phase: the landfill needs to be rehabilitated to minimise impacts, while landfill gas and leachate may need to be continually monitored for years after. Depleting natural resources together with the environmental impacts of waste and the diminishing capacity of landfills is increasing the need for reduced waste generation (CSIR 2011).

Overview of the South African policy environment Waste in South Africa is currently governed by means of a number of pieces of legislation, including: Legislation impacting on waste management in South Africa

Impacts on construction

South African Constitution Act (No 108 of 1996)

Right to an environment that is not harmful to health or well-being, and to protection of the environment by preventing pollution and ecological degradation, promoting conservation, and securing ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources

Hazardous Substances Act (No 5 of 1973)

Controls substances which may cause injury or ill-health or death because it is toxic, corrosive, an irritant, or strongly sensitising or flammable

Environment Conservation Act (No 73 of 1989)

Provides for the protection of the environment, control of environmental pollution, and control of activities which may have a detrimental effect on the environment

Occupational Health and Safety Act (No 85 of 1993)

Provides for the health and safety of persons at work and the health and safety of persons in connection with the activities of persons at work

National Water Act (No 36 of 1998)

Contains a national water resource strategy including for the classification of water resources and resource quality objectives, pollution prevention, the general use of water and permissible water use

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The National Environmental Management Act (No 107 of 1998)

Provides for co-operative environmental governance and for the enforcement of environmental management laws

Municipal Systems Act (No 32 Provides for the core principles, mechanisms and processes of 2000) that are necessary to enable municipalities to move progressively towards the social and economic upliftment of local communities including, inter alia, access to essential services Air Quality Act (No 39 of 2004)

Provides for the protection of the environment by providing reasonable measures for the prevention of pollution and ecological degradation and for securing ecologically sustainable development, providing national norms and standards regulating air quality monitoring, management and control

National Environmental Management Act: Waste Act 2008, (No 59 of 2008)

Adopts a waste hierarchy, promotes cleaner production, waste minimisation, re-use, recycling and waste treatment, with disposal seen as a last resort

Table 1: Legislation impacting on waste management in South Africa Policy impacting on Waste Management in South Africa White Paper on Integrated Proposes a shift towards pollution prevention, waste Pollution and Waste minimisation, cross-media integration, institutional Management for South Africa integration, and involvement of all sectors (1998) National Waste Management Strategy (2011)

Sets goals and targets for the promotion of waste minimisation, re-use, recycling and recovery; ensuring the effective and efficient delivery of waste services; growing the contribution of the waste sector to the green economy; creating awareness; achieving integrated waste management planning; ensuring sound budgeting and financial management; providing measures to remediate contaminated land; and establishing effective compliance

Table 2: Policies impacting on waste management in South Africa

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Policy impacting on Waste Management in South Africa White Paper on Integrated Pollution and Waste Management for South Africa (1998) Proposes a shift towards pollution prevention, waste minimisation, cross-media integration, institutional integration, and involvement of all sectors National Waste Management Strategy (2011)Sets goals and targets for the promotion of waste minimisation, re-use, recycling and recovery; ensuring the effective and efficient delivery of waste services; growing the contribution of the waste sector to the green economy; creating awareness; achieving integrated waste management planning; ensuring sound budgeting and financial management; providing measures to remediate contaminated land; and establishing effective compliance

Towards Zero Waste: Waste management strategies Zero waste is based on the concept that everything can be redesigned and repurposed for use by someone or something else (Environmental Expert 2014). Table below indicates the average composition of construction and demolition waste: Type of material

Percent of total solid waste

Wood

27.4

Asphalt/concrete/brick/dirt

23.3

Drywall

13.4

Roofing

12.0

Miscellaneous mixed

11.9

Metal

8.8

Paper

2.7

Plastics

0.5

Table 3: Average composition of C&D waste From the above table it can be seen that the disposal of C&D to landfill sites is unnecessary. The project below, the construction of low income houses in Kleinmond, illustrates the use of modular construction to reduce construction waste: all the dimensions of the building are based on the modular dimensions of the hollow concrete masonry block used, thereby reducing the need for cutting.

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PROFILE

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Figure 2: Use of modular construction to reduce waste

• • • • •

The waste management hierarchy comprises five waste management categories (SAWIS 2014): Waste prevention (reduction); Minimisation Re-use; Recycling and energy recovery; and Disposal. This hierarchy can be graphically represented as follows:

Figure 3: Waste hierarchy Ideally every construction project should have a waste management plan (WMP) to avoid high disposal costs, reduce the amount of material consumption, and to reuse and recycle as much of the discarded material as possible. Waste can add to a building’s cost in five areas: • Original cost of material delivered to site • Labour cost associated with cutting of material

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NET-ZERO CONSTRUCTION • Labour cost associated with collection and storage of waste on site • Cost of removal from site • Cost of managing the landfill site included in the rates account from the municipality Implementing a waste management strategy will reduce these project costs in the short term and ultimately the environmental costs in the long term. The following table provides goals and strategies for the building sector: Goals

Strategies

Prevention Rethink design: construction materials come in shapes and sizes and any use of the material that does not work with that shape and size will result in waste. Use a modular approach to design based on the materials to be used in the construction (see Figure 2) Consider the use of prefabrication as greater accuracies can be achieved in a controlled, factory environment Wherever possible use standardised components and avoid ‘one-off’ product design Specify asphalt paving with recycled content Specify concrete mix containing fly ash Specify materials without a finish if possible: for example, epoxy coating aluminium or steel requires that material to be removed before it can be recycled or re-used. Accurate estimating and ordering will reduce waste on site Reduce packaging: have the material delivered wherever possible, without packaging. Where this is not possible, ensure that the packaging is collected and re-used by the supplier Minimisation

Implement efficient material saving construction techniques Prepare a waste management plan for each construction project

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NET-ZERO CONSTRUCTION Store materials so they are not damaged Utilise excess concrete for parking stops, gutters, signage bases, etc. Keep Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) cut-offs for use as drainage pipes in retaining walls Order materials having a recycled content Re-use

Source salvaged materials wherever possible, and ensure that any work requiring alteration is done through deconstructing rather than demolition Re-use bricks, crushed concrete and asphalt as aggregate, sub-base material or fill

Processed (chipped) wood can be used for mulch, composting bulk agent, animal bedding, and fuel

Carpets and underlay can be re-used in the furniture industry as stuffing for sofas and chairs

Recycle

Establish an in-house recycling programme based on waste separation

Make subcontractors responsible for their own wast

Separate and recycle asphalt and concrete

Separate and recycle rebar and other materials

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NET-ZERO CONSTRUCTION Disposal

Make disposal the last resort for waste management

Table 4: Waste management goals and strategies for the building sector

Conclusion Construction and demolition waste is just that: a waste. The construction industry has within it the ability to significantly reduce the amount of C&D waste that lands up in landfill sites through implementing waste management strategies along the entire value chain. The benefits of doing so will not only accrue to the project, but ultimately to generations still to come.

References • CSIR (2011). Municipal waste management – good practices. Edition 1. CSIR, Pretoria. • SAWIS (2014). ‘Municipal solid waste’, sourced from http://sawic.environment.gov.za/ retrieved Thursday, 16 January 2014. • Environmental Expert (2014). Zero waste program initiative by EnviroSolutions, retrieved from http://www.environmental-expert.com/ Accessed Friday, 17 January 2014. • DEA (2012). National Waste Information Baseline Report, Department of Environmental Affairs, Pretoria.

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CHAPTER 0

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CHAPTER TITLE

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SUSTAINABLE MATERIAL USE

FROM PATH TO PROCESS TRANSITIONING FROM GREEN TO SUSTAINABLE MATERIAL USE

Naa Lamkai Ampofo-Anti Building Science and Technology Competence Area CSIR Built Environment

Introduction Building and construction activities consume more raw materials by weight than any other industry sector – about 50% of all the materials extracted from the Earth’s crust annually are transformed into building and construction materials and components (Koroneos and Dompros, 2005). Extraction, manufacturing and transportation effects represent a contribution that each building material or component makes to the overall environmental burden of a building. Once a building is occupied, it is the constituent materials which determine contributions to the outdoor environmental effects listed in Table 1B and to indoor environmental quality. At the end of service life (EOSL) a building material may be disposed of at a landfill, leading to wastage of materials and embodied energy and contribution to toxic loading in the environment. A fundamental objective of sustainable construction is to use resource efficiency strategies and ecological principles to sharply reduce and even reverse these environmentally harmful effects of building materials use. 1A: Examples of ‘green’ material measures

1B: Examples of sustainable material measures

Recycled content

Energy use

Resource re-use

Material use

Rapidly renewable materials

Water use

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PROFILE

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SUSTAINABLE MATERIAL USE Local / regional materials

Acidification potential

Global warming potential

Table 1: Green versus sustainable measures

Toxicity potential

However, resource efficiency and ecological principles are not easily understood by the green building community (Cole, 1999). Hence, as is the case with other economic sectors, significant efforts are being expended to replace conventional materials with ’green’ materials in the belief that any industry efforts aimed at environmental improvement is a contribution to sustainability. However, there are important differences between ‘green’ and ‘sustainable’ measures. There are also different ways to measure industry contributions to sustainability. In the last two decades the question of how to measure sustainability has received much attention from researchers and thinkers alike. While their proposals vary from theoretical to practical, together they articulate two main approaches - relative and absolute measures. Both approaches are informed by systems thinking. This chapter aims to articulate to the green building community the value and importance of transitioning the measures for materials selection from ‘green’ to ‘sustainable’ This chapter is divided into four sections. Section one clarifies the difference between the terms “green” and “sustainable”. Sections two and three briefly present the principles and methods of the two approaches to measuring industry contributions to sustainability and examine their short comings and limitations. Section four discusses the findings and proposes a future direction for sustainable materials use. The basis of the chapter is a study of the published literature. The scope of the chapter is environmental sustainability and therefore the term sustainable is used mostly in reference to this pillar of sustainable development.

The difference between green and sustainable and why it matters ‘Green’ is an approach that has the potential of making the world less unsustainable, but does not make the world sustainable (Yanarella and Levine, 2008). ‘Green’ attempts to measure environmental improvements relative to current typical practice or requirements. Similarly, the guidelines that offer direction on how to improve upon current practices only implicitly acknowledge sustainability as a goal (Cole, 1999; Yanarella and Levine, 2008). For example, a product in a certain category might be identified as the ‘greenest’ not because it is environmentally benign but simply because the available alternatives are much more environmentally destructive. ‘Green’ aims for quick wins or to ‘pick the low hanging fruit’. The product of concern is marketed on the basis of a single environmental attribute, typically, energy efficiency, thereby painting it as ‘greener’ than a full environmental analysis would do. For example, the concept of the net zero energy building (NZEB) is lauded for reducing the operational energy of buildings to zero but the proponents are silent on the embodied effects of (i) materials used in the various building life cycle stages and (ii) the life cycle stages (making, using, maintaining and disposal) of the novel technologies that deliver renewable energy. In a market survey of more than 1000 ‘green’ consumer products this ‘sin’ of the hidden trade-off was the most frequently committed, accounting for 57% of the results (TerraChoice, 2007). By contrast, a notion central to the concept of sustainability is that human well-being must be stabilised within the carrying capacity of the earth without leaving present or future generations

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SUSTAINABLE MATERIAL USE worse of (Figge and Hahn, 2003). Thus social and economic development needs to take place within planetary boundaries that define the safe limits outside of which the earth system cannot continue to function in the stable Holocene-like state conducive to human development. The boundaries are tightly coupled – if one is transgressed, the others are also under threat. Indications are that several of these boundaries have already been exceeded (Rockstrom et al, 2009). The mass flow of building materials through our industrialised society is an important contributing factor (Kibert et al, 2000). It follows that (i) a reduction in the absolute resource use of a product would be an indication of a positive contribution to sustainability (ii) physical indicators describing and quantifying resource flows must logically form the basis of any method claiming to measure sustainability (Cole, 1999) (iii) all three dimensions of sustainability ought to be assessed in a comprehensive manner (Yanarella et al, 2009; Cole,1999). Given that economic activities such as building and construction do not create or destroy matter, but merely changes its location, form and value (Hawken et al, 2010) two positions on the prerequisites for sustainability have emerged – weak and strong (Malovics et al, 2008). Weak sustainability adherents argue that even if the quantity of natural capital is decreasing by creating man-made capital, total capital can be maintained, which would be enough to fulfil the criteria of sustainability. The advocates of strong sustainability on the other hand are less permissive, arguing that natural capital cannot (or only to a limited extent) be substituted by man-made capital and may suffer irreversible harm, so that it is necessary to maintain not only the aggregate but also the amount of available natural capital. Based on the two interpretations of sustainability, two approaches to measuring industry contributions to sustainability have emerged – relative and absolute. Both approaches adopt the strong sustainability position. The first measure investigates efficiency while the second focusses on effectiveness. The following sections describe the two industry routes to sustainability and also investigate their shortcomings and limitations.

The eco-efficient route to sustainability According to the proponents of relative measures, eco-efficiency, which relies on technological innovations to reduce the material content of products without reducing their utility (Dobers and Wollf, 1999), is the only means to bridge the gap between a finite supply of resources and sinks one on the other hand; and an ever growing demand for resources on the other hand. The eco-efficiency concept was developed academically by Schaltegger and Sturm (Kicherer et al, 2007). Thereafter, the concept was promoted prominently in Changing Course (1992), written by Stephan Schmidheiny in collaboration with the WBCSD , as the strategic path for business to follow to contribute to sustainable development. According to Changing Course, “Eco-efficiency is reached by the delivery of competitively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life while progressively reducing environmental impacts of goods and resource intensity throughout the whole life cycle to a level at least in line with the earth’s carrying capacity.” Eco-efficiency may also be viewed as “Adding maximum value with minimum resource use and minimum pollution” (Dobers and Wollf, 1999). Eco-efficiency is concerned with two dimensions of sustainability – environmental and economic. There is a strong focus on technological solutions whereby innovative technologies are developed to reduce the resource intensity of products and abate overall life cycle environmental impacts while maximising business profits hence it is frequently referred to as “doing more for less”. To measure eco-efficiency, two key sustainability assessment tools, namely, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) are combined to ensure that both dimensions of sustainability are covered in the analysis.

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SUSTAINABLE MATERIAL USE Much of the published literature on eco-efficiency has focused on dematerialisation as an important means of achieving eco-efficiency (Dobers and Wolff, 1999). Dematerialisation focuses on the input side of material flows and the use of products, rather than on disposal options, the rational being that the reduction of total material throughput of any product also limits the full range of embodied effects– associated with the product life cycle. The extent to which dematerialisation must take place (or alternatively, eco-efficiency must be increased) for the environmental impact of the global economy to remain below the Earth’s carrying capacity has received much attention from environmental scientists. A factor of ten, reflecting a tenfold reduction of material flow per unit of service to be realised over a period of 30-50 years, is promoted in the 1994 Carnoules Declaration. Other researchers anticipate that more radical long-term reductions in material flows, that is, a factor of 50, may be necessary to accelerate the global shift towards a steady state economy (Reijnders, 1998). However, in the 1998 book The Factor Four: Doubling Wealth, halving resource use, Hawken et al (2010) suggests that society could aim for the more moderate Factor four target as a short to medium term measure. The variations in the Factor X reflect different projections of the key variables, differences in the interpretation of carrying capacity, different assessment contexts, and different time perspectives (Anders and Hauschild, 2011). In the worst case scenario, future products and systems may need to be improved to the point where they provide the same services as today, but at 2% the resource use and emission rate of current technologies. To be successful, dematerialisation entails appropriate action by the key product value chain actors at all levels of society, that is, production, consumption and regulation: • To stem the flows of virgin raw materials, government subsidies need to be withdrawn so that the costs can be internalised by the extractive industries. • Manufacturers need to apply resource efficient and cleaner production (RECP) methods in their production processes and integrate extended producer responsibility (EPR) considerations into the product value chain. RECP is a company-level approach to using resources efficiently and reducing environmental pollution while saving costs. EPR is mainly implemented through environmental regulation which imposes a duty on manufacturers to internalise costs by taking back post-consumer products. EPR is currently included in South African waste policy. The main benefit of EPR is that it transforms the conventional cradle-to-grave industrial model into an innovative closed loop model that diverts EOSL products away from waste disposal into either direct re-use or a range of product recovery management (PRM) options. • The consumer’s role is to create an enabling environment for resource use to be optimised and for wastes to be minimised. This is achieved by creating a demand for services instead of capital goods. • Building designers would need to “plan for the funeral at the birth”, that is, buildings and building components would need to be deliberately designed for ease of disassembly at EOSL.

Shortcomings and limitations of eco-efficiency Eco-efficiency has no direct relationship with absolute sustainability In using LCA to quantify eco-efficiency, the actual effects of human interactions with ecosystems are not fully reflected in the assessment because ecosystems are generally not included in the system boundary, but rather treated as a source of resources and a sink for waste (Bjorn and Hauschild 2012). Furthermore, an assessment based on LCA measures potential – not actual

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PROFILE

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SUSTAINABLE MATERIAL USE – environmental impact, thus the result of an assessment can only show that a product has improved, but how much closer that improvement brings the product to the goal of absolute sustainability remains unknown. (Bjorn and Hauschild, 2012; Figge and Hahn, 2004).

Eco-efficiency may contribute to unsustainability The advocates of the eco-efficient route to sustainability presuppose that growth will always be accompanied by technological innovations that favour dematerialisation. However, the total environmental impact of economic activity is not only dependent on technological advancements but also on population size and the level of per capita consumption (Huesemann, 2004). The relationship between environmental impacts (I), population (P), affluence (A) and eco-efficiency / technology (T) is expressed through the equation I = PAT, also known as the IPAT identity (Huesemann, 2004; Ehrenfeld, 2005; Reijnders, 2008; Bjørn and Hauschild, 2012). Since affluence (A) and population (P) are on the rise globally, impacts (I) may exceed (or may have already exceeded) a defined sustainability level leading to a diminished ability of ecosystems to supply resources and provide sinks for pollution (Bjørn and Hauschild, 2012). Despite this, the overarching aim of eco-efficiency is to improve production technology (T) to the furthest extent possible without addressing the consumption aspects (P and A). However, according to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the environmental impact of a given technology (T) can never be reduced to zero, hence there is a lower limit beyond which it is impossible to improve eco-efficiency (or reduce resource use) further. Besides, the historical evidence indicates that improvements in technology will often have the opposite effect from that originally intended (Huesemann, 2004). In some cases, a product may move further away from the goal of sustainability if the growth in volumes consumed outweighs the efficiency gains (Huesemann, 2004; Bjørn and Hauschild, 2012). For example, when the energy source for heating private homes was switched to cleaner fuels, the building occupants generally chose a higher indoor temperature (Bjørn and Hauschild, 2012). Better eco-efficiency might therefore lead to growth and thus to an increased use of environmental resources (Figge and Hahn, 2004). This effect has been observed in many different contexts and is known as the ‘the rebound effect’ (Huesemann, 2004; Bjørn and Hauschild, 2012; Reijnders, 2008). Thus in the absence of restraints on consumption (P and A) eco-efficiency interventions merely exacerbate unsustainability.

The eco-effective route to sustainability According to the proponents of absolute sustainability, effective as opposed to efficient measures are the primary guarantors of sustainability. As a strategy for sustainable design of products the eco-effectiveness concept was first promoted as an alternative to eco-efficiency through the book Cradle-to-cradle: changing the way we make things by William McDonough and Michael Braungart (2002). The overarching philosophy behind cradle-to-cradle (C2C) is to achieve absolute environmental sustainability by increasing the positive impacts of products through eco-effectiveness. Eco-effectiveness is fundamentally different from eco-efficiency in that it is modelled on the successful interdependence and regenerative productivity of natural systems (Braungart, et al, 2006). It uses systems thinking in a new, cyclical approach that transforms the product life cycle into a closed loop in which there is no longer a ‘grave’ because the waste from old products are ‘metabolized’ to become ‘food’ (resources) for new products. While eco-efficiency seeks to reduce the negative environmental impact of doing business, eco-effectiveness is premised on the belief that business solutions ought to be life sustaining, restorative and regenerative in addition to being effective (Young and Tilley, 2006). Other similar approaches and philosophies that use or call for

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SUSTAINABLE MATERIAL USE the use of natural systems functioning as a basis for sustainable product design include but are not limited to The Natural Step and Biomimicry. The C2C product design and development process is founded on three key principles, namely, waste equals food, use current solar income and celebrate diversity. Waste equals food shifts the design mentality from one of creating waste that has to be thrown away to one which turns end-of-service-life (EOSL) products into ‘nutrients’ for making new products. To operationalize this principle, materials should either be defined as technical or biological ‘nutrients’ – mixing the two results in a product that can only be downcycled at EOSL. Technical ‘nutrients’ should be designed for industrial recycling, while biological ‘nutrients’ are designed to be recycled by living systems. This is illustrated in Figure 1. This first principle works hand in hand with Product Service Systems (PSS) a voluntary business model which applies principles similar to EPR whereby manufacturers retain ownership of products thus the business focus is to sell services and functions instead of capital goods. The second principle, use current solar income, suggests that as long as the energy required to fuel manufacturing processes, including continuous loop recycling, is derived from renewable sources, then there are no quantitative constraints on the amount of energy used throughout the product life cycle. The purpose of the third principle, celebrate diversity, is to encourage designs which respect and enhance local cultures and protect the environment.

Figure 1: The eco-effectiveness concept In practice, the stepwise strategy set out in Box 1 is implemented to transform conventional products into eco-effective products (Braungart, et al, 2006). The stepwise strategy serves as a design aid at two distinctive levels. At the material level, an in-depth analysis, and possibly reformulation of all materials that go into the making of an eco-effective product is required to ensure that they can fall into one of two categories – technical or biological nutrient. At the product level, the strategy stimulates service life planning. Hence, if the intention is to re-use, repair or re-manufacture the product at EOSL then it has to be appropriately designed – for example, for ease of disassembly. Table 2 sets out a practical interpretation of the “five steps to eco-effectiveness”. Certification is now available from the Cradle-to-cradle Products Innovation Institute. Four levels of certification are available, namely, basic, silver, gold and plantinum Step

Requirements

1

Free ourselves from the need to use harmful substances (e.g. PVC, lead, cadmium and mercury)

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Begin making informed design choices (e.g. materials and processes that are ecologically intelligent , respectful of all stakeholders, and which provide pleasure or delight)

3

Introduce substance triage (a) phase out known and suspected toxins (b) search for alternatives to problematic substances, and (c) substitute for them “known positive” substances

4

Begin comprehensive redesigns to use only “known positives”, separate materials into biological and technical, and ensure zero waste in all processes and products

5

Reinvent entire processes and industries to produce “net positives”, that is, products that actually improve the environment

Table 2: Five steps to eco-effectiveness Source: Kibert, 2006

Shortcomings and limitations of eco-effectiveness Continuous loop recycling has hidden trade-offs Continuous loop recycling is inherently energy intensive. Hence, a future C2C society may minimise virgin raw materials extractions but increase the overall energy demands of our industrialised society (Bjørn and Hauschild, 2012). Furthermore, zero waste systems are not possible due to the Second Law of Thermodynamics whereby materials are dissipated in use just as energy is, so complete recycling is impossible (Kibert, 2006). Simply put, materials will be lost in recycling processes and due to entropy, will naturally seek to return to background concentrations for natural materials and very low concentrations for synthetic materials. C2C and other similar approaches do not address this potentially difficult issue when suggesting that recycling of technical materials is desirable. Eco-effectiveness may entail phasing out of many existing materials and may hamper the development of novel materials C2C presumes that at end-of-service-life (EOSL) a technical “nutrient” can be separated easily into the original pure, material fractions for purposes of recycling. In reality, this may amount to phasing out many existing materials and also restricting innovation. For example, a composite material cannot undergo continuous loop recycling as it represents a practically inseparable mix of materials (Bjørn and Hauschild, 2012). Applying C2C would be particularly problematic in the building and construction industry due to the great number of materials that are known to be difficult if not impossible to recycle (Kibert, 2006).

Disposal of biological “nutrients” by composting may harm the environment The C2C presumption that nature can safely process biological “nutrients” is problematic because biomaterials are made by combining natural and synthetic materials resulting in a new material that has no precedence in nature (Kibert, 2006). Hence, whether biodegradation has a positive influence (nutrients) or negative impact (waste) on eco-systems is not firmly established. In

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SUSTAINABLE MATERIAL USE addition, species reaction is unpredictable and for some, growth may be inhibited, for others, it could be stimulated (Bjørn and Hauschild, 2012). The available evidence suggests that this presumption will lead to violation of C2C Principle 3. For example, the replacement of a forest with an FSC certified plantation results in the loss of many species for which the forest system once provided habitats.

Complete reliance on solar income may not be achievable Reliance of the global economy on renewable energy as the only source of energy for powering our industrialised society is not practicable. Because ecosystems rely on solar radiation for their functioning, wholesale global diversion of solar energy for human use can have immediate and adverse effects on the very same ecosystems which provide services essential to human wellbeing. If biomass were the primary source of energy worldwide, production would need to increase seven-fold to meet the needs of the present generation and forty-fold by 2100 if economic growth follows the pattern predicted by IPCC (Huesemann, 2004). The land allocation implications are prohibitive and unachievable because all agricultural land may need to be co-opted to grow energy crops. Similarly, other sources of renewable energy such as wind, hydroelectric, photo voltaic and solar thermal would all have major environmental impacts if deployed at a large enough scale.

Discussion and future directions This chapter attempted to make clear the difference between the terms “green” and “sustainable” and the implications for measuring the environmental burden that each building material contributes to a building’s overall footprint. The two terms have been used interchangeably but the literature indicates that they are fundamentally different. Green benchmarks environmental improvements against existing products. As such, it is never known whether an improvement effort lowers or increases absolute environmental burdens. Green “picks the low hanging fruit”, that is, incremental improvements are achieved in part of a system while leaving relatively intact the larger system within which the product is embedded. This approach has been shown to encourage hidden trade-offs. By contrast, sustainability measures environmental improvements against reductions in the flows from and to nature. It follows that measuring the environmental burden associated with a product would entail (i) whole system analysis to discover the causative factors for unsustainability (ii) quantification of the reductions in resource use and pollution described in terms of actual environmental issues, for example, reduction in GHG emissions or reduction in toxicity. Two approaches to measuring industry contributions to sustainability have been reviewed – eco-efficiency and eco-effectiveness. It is clear that the two differ fundamentally from each other. Eco-efficiency uses dematerialisation strategies to reduce the negative environmental impacts and cost of doing business. When dematerialisation strategies include extended producer responsibility (EPR), materials are diverted from the traditional, linear trajectory into a closed loop that maximises their service intensity. Eco-efficiency is however a relative measure which is somewhat focussed on short term environmental improvements that have been shown to cause long-term adverse effects, especially when it is used without EPR. Furthermore, eco-efficiency cannot assess toxicity hence complementary tools such as Risk Assessment (RA) would be needed in building material applications. By contrast, the advocates of eco-effectiveness believe that industry solutions can repair and even regenerate eco-systems. Eco-effectiveness starts with the assumption that materials can only be used sustainably within closed loops which mimic the functioning of natural systems.

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Figure 2: Two approaches to measuring industry contributions to sustainability Hence, a number of strategies which include C2C design, positive lists and Product service systems (PSS) are applied to encourage the use of “solar income”, eliminate waste and foster continuous loop recycling. However, the positive message of eco-effectiveness comes with a number of caveats. The enormous energy requirements of large scale continuous loop recycling are not likely to be met even if the energy source were “100% solar income”. Because of the Second Law of Thermodynamics continuous loop recycling is likely to cause widespread dissipation of materials and environmental impact is as yet unknown. Similarly, the biological “nutrients” which are supposedly “good” for nature do not in fact have a precedent in nature and could potentially disrupt ecosystem functioning. Despite the differences in their approaches to sustainability and the shortcomings and limitations, eco-efficiency and eco-effectiveness do agree on one issue – materials loops need to be closed to accelerate the local, regional and global shifts towards sustainability, and progress

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SUSTAINABLE MATERIAL USE made towards sustainability needs to be quantifiable. Methods for measuring the environmental performance of materials would therefore need to extend beyond EOSL to focus on a range of options which instead of discarding used materials as waste will preserve them as resources. The key issues needing to be addressed to facilitate closed loop materials cycles for buildings are: • Implementation of extended producer responsibility (EPR), PSS or a similar policy framework. This is likely to create an enabling environment for building material and component manufacturers to internalise costs. • Design for deconstruction at the building level. This will enhance recovery of components at EOSL and also make maintenance and refurbishment work easier as building components can be readily removed and replaced • Design for extended service life and disassembly at the component level. This will enable direct re-use, re-manufacture and repair, which recover as much of the economic as well as and ecological value of a components as possible, to be prioritised over other actions such as recycling that entails greater resource use. • Design for recycling on the material level with the proviso that (i) materials manufacturing and use are benign (ii) materials dissipated from recycling are harmless. Recycled materials would thus replace virgin raw materials as the predominant resource for the manufacture of new building materials and components. The mines of the future will be the cities, not virgin mountainsides; the timber lots will be old houses, not virgin forests; and steel mills will be located near the junk yards and other sites where raw material is available. While virgin materials will continue to be needed, they will only supplement recycled inputs, rather than vice versa (Young and Sachs, 1994).

References • Bjørn, A. and Hauschild, M.Z. 2012. Absolute versus relative environmental sustainability: what can the cradle-to-cradle and eco-efficiency concepts learn from each other? Research and Analysis, 17(2): 321-332. • Braungart, M., McDonough, W. and Bollinger, A. 2006. Cradle-to-cradle design: creating healthy emissions – a strategy for eco-effective product and system design. Journal of Cleaner Production, xx (2006): 1-12. • Cole, R.J. 1999. Building environmental assessment methods: clarifying intentions. Building Research and Information, 27(4/5): 230-246. • Dobers, P. and Wolff, R.1999. Eco-efficiency and dematerialisation: scenarios for new industrial logics in recycling industries, automobile and household appliances. Business Strategy and the Environment, 8, 31-45. • Ehrenfeld, J.R. 2005. Eco-efficiency: philosophy, theory and tools. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 9(4): 6-7. • Figge, F. and Hahn, T. 2004. Sustainable value added: measuring corporate contributions to sustainability beyond eco-efficiency. Ecological Economics, 48(2): 173-187. • Hawken, P., Lovins, A. and Lovins, L.H. 2010. Natural capitalism: the next industrial revolution.10th anniversary edition. London: Earthscan

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SUSTAINABLE MATERIAL USE • Huesemann, M.H. 2004. The failure of eco-efficiency to guarantee sustainability: future challenges for industrial ecology. Environmental Progress, 23(4): • Kibert, C.J. 2006. Revisiting and reorienting ecological design. • Kibert, C.J., Sendzimar, J. and Guy, B. 2000. Construction ecology and metabolism: natural system analogues for a sustainable built environment. Construction Management and Economics, 18, 903-916. • Kicherer, A., Schaltegger, S., Tschochohei, H. and Ferriera, B. 2007. Eco-efficiency: combining life cycle assessment and life cycle costs via normalisation. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 12(7): 537• Málovics, G., Csigéné, N.N and Kraus, S. 2006. The role of corporate social responsibility in strong sustainability. The Journal of Socio-economics, 37(2008): 907-918. • Reijnders, L. 1998. The factor X debate: setting targets for eco-efficiency Journal of Industrial Ecology, (1): 13-22. • Roström, J. et al, 2009. A safe operating space for humanity. Nature, 461(472-475) • Schmidheiny, S. 1992. Changing course: a global business perspective on development and the environment. Available at library.perdana.org.my/Bk_scan/363.705-SCH-1.pdf, accessed on 28 June 2013 • TerraChoice Environmental Marketing, 2007. Six sins of green washing. Available at http:// sinsofgreenwashing.org/ accessed on 28 June 2013 • Yanarella, E.J., Levine, R.S. and Lancaster, R.W. 2009. Green versus sustainability – from semantics to enlightenment. Sustainability, 2(5): 296-301. • Yanarella, E.J., Levine, R.S. 2008. Don’t pick the low hanging fruit! Sustainability, 1(4): 256-261. • Young, W. and Tilley, F. 2006. Can business move beyond eco-efficiency? The shift towards effectiveness in the sustainability debate. Business Strategy and the Environment, 15: 402-415 • Young, J. E. and Sachs, A. 1994. The next efficiency revolution – creating a sustainable materials economy. Available at http://www.worldwatch.org/node/869

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“Buildings offer the greatest

opportunity for energy conservation.”

How energy efficient is your building?

Consumer Trust: Consumers will value and recognize your membership, knowing this support is a commitment to SAFIERA's focus on energy efficient research & development and trust the independent/non-biased nature of its structure

Cutting Edge Information: Members also receive continuing electronic updates on activities of interest that affect the fenestration or insulation industry.

Your Voice will be Heard: Influence how the SAFIERA rating and labelling system works. Only members may vote on issues and documents at the subcommittee and committee levels, or be elected to leadership positions.

Save your Organization Money: Receive discounted testing rates and, in the case of manufacturers, reduced charges for certifying products.

Hi Marina Please have a look at the link below to help with the opening of the SFIERA site

and maybe make one opening header blue and the other colour

5

Administered by

Have your building systems tested in the Rotatable Guarded Hot Box and rated with the South African Fenestration & Insulation Energy Rating Association. Why Testing & Rating is important • Verify compliance with the National Building Regulation SANS 10400:XA Energy Usage in Buildings • Provides performance comparison • Assists the professionals to make informed decisions during rational design • Promotes energy efficiency by providing a base line for product development and improvement • Consumer benefit - Energy Efficient Building Envelope


PROFILE

SAFIERA Dedicated to improving energy efficiency of the building envelope

The focus of the South African Fenestration and Insulation Energy Rating Authority (SAFIERA) is to improve energy efficiency of the building envelope, which is an important aspect of energy conservation. SAFIERA was established by the Association of Architectural Aluminium Manufacturers of South Africa (AAAMSA) in 2006 to support its drive to promote energy efficiency in the building industry. SAFIERA administrator Des Schnetler says the Association is giving attention in particular to building envelope research, which focuses on the structural elements that enclose a building (walls and roofs), and materials research, which concentrates on the materials within the envelope systems (such as glass and insulation). An important facet of an energy-efficient building envelope is the performance of the fenestration (window & frame) and skylights. “The building envelope provides the thermal barrier between the indoor and outdoor environment, and its elements are the key determinants of a building’s energy requirements that result from the climate where it is located,” she states. SAFIERA’s primary goals are to determine and register the heat transmission values of fenestration and insulation systems of the building envelope and to provide an independent, accurate, and reliable performance rating system. Methods for demonstrating thermal performance include thermal simulation using a proven computer modeling program combined with ISO standard methods of calculation and by using the “U” values obtained from actual testing in the Rotatable Guarded Hot Box. With the promulgation of the Energy Efficiency Regulations in November 2011 it is compulsory for fenestration systems to comply with SANS 10400-XA Energy usage in buildings. In accordance with this SABS Standard all fenestration air infiltration shall be in accordance with SANS 613 Fenestration products — Mechanical performance criteria. SANS 613 tests not only for air infiltration but also wind deflection, water penetration and structural strength of fenestration systems. The standard determines that air leakage (AL) through a specimen under a pressure difference of 75Pa shall not exceed 2 L/s/m² through the fenestration product. Infiltration through gaps in the window assembly causes discomfort and wastes energy. AL is a performance rating indicating the amount of airflow through a window during laboratory tests. AL is expressed in liters per second per square meter of window area. The lower the AL, the more energy-efficient the window. Generally, once the air leakage has been determined, the specimen will be tested in the RGHB (Rotatable Guarded Hot Box) to determine the thermal transmittance (U-Value of U-factor). A window’s ability to insulate is expressed as its “U-factor,” which is a measure of heat flow through the entire window. The lower the U-factor, the more slowly the window conducts heat in and out of a building. The frame can have substantial impact on a window’s energy performance. It is necessary to validate computer-modelling results against physical testing as a means of reality checking. Once a specific specimen has been tested, simulation can address the many

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PROFILE permutations of size and configuration which exist within any range of products. Simulation is carried out via the computer modeling program THERM. In order to make an informed decision on a fenestration product’s performance, an Architect would require the following information: • Thermal Transmittance (U-Factor or U-Value) (W/m².K) • Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) • Air leakage (AL) • Design wind load (Maximum deflection 1/175 of span) Rated products & systems will have a SAFIERA certificate which certifies that it has been energy rated. The ratings apply to the effect of the whole system including the relative contributions of glass and frame. The AAAMSA Group Tel: +27 11 805 5002 Fax: +27 11 805 5033 E-mail: aaamsa@iafrica.com Website: www.aaamsa.co.za

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CHAPTER 0

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CHAPTER TITLE

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INNOVATIVE BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES

THE PERFORMANCE OF INNOVATIVE BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES IN SOUTH AFRICA’S CLIMATIC ZONES

Dr. Dirk Conradie Senior Researcher Build Environment Unit CSIR

Introduction This chapter quantifies the thermal performance of a cross section of Innovative Building Technologies (IBT) in South Africa’s climatic zones. An IBT in the context of this chapter means a South African Agrément certified building system, but the term excludes masonry, that is currently predominantly used in South Africa. A misconception exists that IBT’s are inferior to masonry construction and furthermore that heavy weight construction such as masonry is preferable within the South African context (Lyons, 2009; Kumirai, 2012). Previous chapters, Maximising the Sun (Conradie, 2011), SA Climate Zones and Weather Files (Conradie, 2012) and Appropriate Passive Design Approaches for the Various Climatic Regions in South Africa (Conradie, 2013) detailed various aspects of the South African climatic characteristics that impacts directly on the design of comfortable and energy efficient buildings. The latter introduced some quantification of the appropriate passive strategies that is effective within the particular climatic regions. In the above publications the new CSIR Köppen-Geiger map was introduced to support the study the South African climate. This map was used as a background climatic grouping method in a number of research projects to quantify appropriate passive methods to make structures within the different climatic regions more comfortable.

Classification of IBT systems To quantify the performance of the various IBT systems a classification system has been developed for a set of representative IBT systems to facilitate performance investigations such as climate modelling and performance ranking. The technological composition of the building systems (Table 1) shows what distinguishes one building system from the next such as the superstructure and in some cases the superstructure finishes. A detailed analysis of the superstructure composition was therefore carried out for one typical representative system (indicated in light blue, Table 1) within each of the categories ranging from A to G and the results were then applied to the entire sub-group.

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INNOVATIVE BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES Classification Category

Agrement certified building system

Classification

Light Building System (LBS), steel structural frame

Amsa Building System Alternative Steel Building System FSM Building System Space Frame Building System Vela Building System

A

Light Building System (LBS), steel structural frame, insulated foundations

Imison 3 Building System Imison Stud Building System

B

Light building system (LBS), panels, lightweight concrete

Cemforce GRC Building System Mi Panel Building System Goldflex 800 Building System Goldflex 100 Building System Goldflex 800 Seismic Building System

C

Hybrid Building System (HBS) Automapolyblok Building System Aruba Building System Blast Building System Insulated Concrete Panel Building System Rapidwall Building System Styrox Building System

D

Heavyweight Building System (HWBS), panels, dense concrete

Banbric Building System Robust Building System

E

Heavyweight Building System (HWBS), building blocks

BESA 2 Building System Hydraform Building System Izoblok Building System

F

Masonry construction

Masonry without ceiling insulation

G

Table 1: Classification of Building Systems ranging from light to heavy weight Due to the fact that social infrastructure, such as schools, normally do not have air conditioning and could be constructed in any of the twelve Kรถppen-Geiger climatic regions of South Africa, the use of appropriate building systems with compatible thermal performance becomes very important. To improve the internal thermal comfort further the application of the correct passive techniques would make the building more comfortable (Conradie, 2013). In the past both aspects were often sadly neglected and led to very uncomfortable infrastructure. For example if classrooms are overpopulated as well then it often becomes unbearably hot. When selecting a construction method for a particular region of South Africa, the thermal performance of the particular construction must be known and secondly what the most appropriate passive responses

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INNOVATIVE BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES would be to make the building more comfortable. The latter has already been explored in previous chapters. To address the first question of identifying building systems with appropriate thermal performance, a calibrated thermal model of a typical classroom was developed in Ecotect™. A thorough calibration process compared the results of the thermal model with in-situ measured data to ensure accuracy. The mass and other characteristics of the building envelope was used as a basis to group twenty three different IBT building systems into six basic building system classification types (A to F) that range from light to heavyweight building systems. The six classification types were thermally analysed in a cross section of 38 cities and towns that are representative of all the Köppen-Geiger climatic regions found in South Africa. The following Agrément Certified building systems were assumed to thermally represent five out of the six building system classification types: • Automapolyblok Building System • Banbrick Building system • Goldflex 800 Building System • Imison 3 Building System • BESA 2 Building System Over and above this list, a Light Steel Frame (LSF) construction, that is rapidly gaining acceptance (Barnard, 2013), was modelled to thermally represent the remaining building system classification group. Finally, a base line construction method was also analysed, that is, a traditional masonry construction that is currently predominant in South Africa (Category G). Three additional categories G1, D1 and E1 were added to represent insulated versions of Masonry, Automapolyblock and Banbrick respectively that have better thermal performance. Building system

Description

Ceiling

Classification

LSF

Highly insulated

Insulated

A

Masonry

No insulation (No cavity wall as per DH Peta Secondary School)

Not insulated G

Automapolyblock

Combination of thermal mass and insulation

Not insulated D

Banbrick

Thermal mass

Not insulated E

Goldflex 800

Combination of thermal mass and insulation

Insulated

C

Imison 3

Highly insulated, less thermal bridging Insulated

B

BESA 2

High thermal mass (bitumen emulsion Insulated stabilised adobe blocks)

F

Masonry

High thermal mass

G1

Insulated

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Automapolyblock

Combination of thermal mass and insulation

Insulated

D1

Banbrick Banbrick

Thermal mass

Insulated

E1

Table 2: Description of modelled building systems used to characterise systems in Table 1 above The amount of heating and cooling energy that will be required to maintain thermal comfort (20°C – 24°C as stipulated by SANS 204) in the different building systems was calculated. The detailed results are presented below for each Köppen-Geiger climatic region.

Köppen-Geiger classification To facilitate grouping of the various systems within climatic regions the existing CSIR KöppenGeiger map was used. The Köppen-Geiger climatic classification is internationally still the most well-known and widely used general climatic map type (Kottek et al., 2006). However it is recognised that the Köppen-Geiger map uses empirical functions based on temperature and precipitation and would not always accurately reflect the thermal comfort of a person within the particular climate (Auliciem et al., 2007). Thermal comfort is determined to a large extent by a combination of dry bulb temperature and relative humidity (Auliciem et al., 2007). At the moment the CSIR is creating new specialised maps based on, for example, Standard Effective Temperature (SET) to address abovementioned shortcoming. In the interim the CSIR Köppen-Geiger map is still used to quantify the current South African climatic conditions accurately as illustrated in Figure 1 until the completion of newer specialised thermal comfort maps. The current Köppen map was created by the CSIR from 20 years of temperature and precipitation data (1985 – 2005) based on a 1 km x 1 km grid. The algorithms as described by Kottek (2006) were used to compile the map. This classification uses a concatenation of a maximum of three alphabetic characters that describe the main climatic category, amount of precipitation and temperature characteristics. (Table 3) Main climates

Precipitation

Temperature

Symbol

Description

Symbol

Description

Symbol

Description

A

equatorial

W

desert

h

hot arid

B

arid

S

steppe

k

cold arid

C

warm temperate f

fully humid

a

hot summer

D

snow

s

summer dry

b

warm summer

E

polar

w

winter dry

c

cool summer

d

extremely continental

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F

polar frost

T

polar tundra

Table 3: Köppen-Geiger categories (Kottek, 2006)

Figure 1: CSIR Köppen-Geiger map based on 1985 to 2005 Agricultural Research Council data on a fine 1 km x 1 km grid (Author)

Effective strategies One of the accessible methods that could be used to determine passive design strategies to make a given construction more comfortable is the bioclimatic chart that is today typically overlaid on the psychrometric chart. Bioclimatic design is used to define potential building design strategies that utilise natural energy resources and minimise energy use (Visitsak et al., 2004). To address the problems of the original Olgyay (1963) chart, Givoni developed a chart for “envelop-dominated buildings” based on indoor conditions. In 1979, Milne and Givoni combined the different design strategies of the previous study of Givoni (1969) on the same chart. The GivoniMilne bioclimatic chart is currently used by many architects. Software such as Ecotect™ has a psychometric chart with Givoni-Milne overlays. Figures 3 to 13 below illustrate the characteristics of the various climatic regions. This is the basis of determining which passive design strategies using the principles of the Givoni-Milne approach could be used to improve the comfort of buildings in the context of various different Köppen climatic regions in South Africa. The weather files used in the analysis were generated by the author using the Meteonorm software. The correlation between the weather file and the relevant Köppen climatic region was done by means of the high resolution CSIR developed Köppen map. The detailed performance tables below were created by means of exhaustive simulation of a typical classroom using Ecotect. The set of tables below quantifies the performance of abovementioned IBT’s grouped by Köppen climatic region and analysed for 38 representative locations. In Figure 2 the green block indicates the comfort region as defined by Watson and labs. The ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals Comfort Model, 2005 was used previously to quantify appropriate passive measures to improve comfort. In this model it is assumed that people are dressed in normal winter clothes, Effective Temperatures of

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PROFILE

PROLITH AFRICA Solutions are derived on the basis of state of the art, yet costeffective, materials which complement the overall architectural theme

With legislation and codes of practice within work and residential environments demanding reduced levels of noise, so the need for Prolith acoustic insulation increases. In addition, the demand for effective thermal insulation is increasing, in part due to energy-conscious considerations. As such, Prolith Africa is able to source and supply the best products required to meet a variety of needs. Working with architects, engineers and developers, we are able to ensure that specifications are met at the development stage of a project and are thus able to play a significant role in controlling acoustic and thermal insulation costs. Prolith (Celenit) – Fir wood fibres bonded with white Portland cement – not effected by water and self-draining. A totally fireproof product.Will not ignite.All celemit products carry a 25 year warranty. Sonowool LX- A semi-rigid thermo-acoustic mineral wool that is non combustible, water resistant and self-draining . It is dimensionally stable and carries a 25 year guarantee against loft erosion. A totally green product. Roxul RX –.A fully imported non-combustible product with up to 1100degrees celcius melting point. It offers excellent thermal and sound absorption performance. It is carries a 25 year guarantee against loft erosion. A totally green product.

Prolith Thermocoustic Blanket is specified where the requirement for Acoustic & thermal insulation materials are less rigid. A none irritant fully recyclable environment friendly acoustic and thermal insulation 40mm thick blanket that reduces energy costs and regulates and suppress high noise levels for an all round better living and working habitat. Can be used in cavity walls, dry walling, over purlin and over ceilings.It is non-combustible with 450degrees celcius melting point. Dr DANNY LIEBENBERG CONTACT INFO (011) 794-4505 info@prolith.co.za www.prolith.co.za Share Call : 086 137 3333 PO Box 2705 Randburg 2125 SOUTH AFRICA

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Figure 2 Watson and Labs Building Bioclimatic Chart, based on the original Psychrometric chart based Bioclimatic Chart of Givoni. 20°C to 23.3°C measured at 50% relative humidity are applicable, which means the temperatures decrease slightly as humidity rises. The upper humidity limit is 17.8°C Wet Bulb and a lower Dew Point of 2.2°C. If people are dressed in lightweight summer clothes then this comfort zone shifts 2.8°C warmer. Software Such as Climate Consultant v5.4 developed by Robin Liggett and Murray Milne of the UCLA Energy Design Tools Group with technical support from Carlos Gomez and Don Leeper also supports the Adaptive Comfort Model of the ASHRAE standard 55-2004. However the latter do not provide quantified insights in the comprehensive set of strategies. In tables 4 to 14 below the top part of the set estimates the amount of energy in kWh that would be required to achieve thermal comfort for a particular construction method. This consists of a Heating Load (H.L.), Cooling load (C.L.) and Total Load (T.L.) columns. The bottom part estimates the number of annual hours that the particular structure would be comfortable if no heating or cooling interventions are made. This consists Too Hot (T.H.), Too Cold (T.C.) and number of comfortable hours (Com). The best building system groups has been marked with light blue. The following method was used to calculate rating for each system in the top table of each set. The average energy requirement was first calculated for the particular system in all the available locations. Then the minimum and maximum energy requirement was determined. Then the inverse of the average energy usage divided by the minimum energy usage multiplied by five created a score out of five. In other words, the less the total energy requirement, the better the system. The best building system groups has been marked with light blue. The following method was used to calculate the rating for the bottom table of each set. In this case the average number of comfort hours was first calculated for the particular system in all available locations. Then the minimum and maximum comfort hours of the set of averages were determined. The last step was to divide the average comfort hours for a particular system by the maximum average comfort hours multiplied by five to determine a performance score out of five. To understand the numerous figures in the performance tables better and the characteristics of the particular climate a special overlay of the Watson and Labs psychrometric chart in Figure 2 and an annual climatic analysis of one representative location for that climatic region have been created. The darkness of the coloured blocks gives an indication of the amount of annual hours that the specific temperature/ humidity combination occurs. It is therefore a good indication of

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INNOVATIVE BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES the fundamental characteristics such as hot, cold and humid. Over the years the comfort areas defined on the psychrometric chart changed quite a lot. In certain cases two areas were identified, one for summer and one for winter. The area indicated by blue is the comfort area as defined in the Ecotect software, whereas area 7 is the comfort area as defined by Watson and Labs.

Aw (Equatorial, Winter Dry) This type of climate occurs currently in only 0.2% of the surface area of South Africa. Although it is currently a small area it is very likely to expand significantly with climate change over the next century. A tropical area such as Richards Bay that is close to Maputo analysed below has a very humid climate. The most effective strategies are Sun Shading of Windows, Fan Forced Ventilation Cooling and Dehumidification. The best IBT’s with regard to energy requirement are class A, B, G1 and D1 and for comfort hours are G, C, F and G1. (Table 4)

Table 4: Quantified annual energy requirement in kWh (Top table) and number of comfortable hours (Bottom table) for Köppen climatic classification Aw (Author)

Bsh (Arid Steppe, Hot Arid) 16.59% of the country’s area falls within this category. If the other arid categories such as Bsk, Bwh and Bwk are included, 70.89% of the country’s area has an arid climate. In this hot arid region Sun Shading of Windows, High Thermal Mass, Evaporative Cooling, Fan Forced Ventilation Cooling and Passive Heat Gain strategies are most beneficial. The best IBT’s with regards energy requirement are class A, F, G1 and D1 and for comfort hours are G, C, G1 and D1. (Table 5)

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Table 5: Quantified annual energy requirement in kWh (Top table) and number of comfortable hours (Bottom table) for Köppen climatic classification BSh (Author)

Bsk (Arid Steppe, Cold Arid) This is currently the largest arid climate type in South Africa with 23.81% of the surface area. Shading in the summer and heat gain in winter is important because it gets very cold in winter. Being an arid region evaporative cooling is also efficient in some areas indicated below. The best IBT’s with regards energy requirement are class A, C, F, G1 and D1 and for comfort hours are G, C, B, F, G1 and D1. (Table 6

Table 6: Quantified annual energy requirement in kWh (Top table) and number of comfortable hours (Bottom table) for Köppen climatic classification BSk (Author)

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PROFILE

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Bwh (Arid, Desert, Hot Arid) This climate type occurs in 16.29% of the surface area and is an extremely harsh climate. Sun Shading of Windows, High Thermal Mass, Evaporative Cooling and heat gain strategies in winter is beneficial. Alexander Bay is an anomaly due to the fact that it is close to the sea and the very cold Benguela sea current that change the climatic characteristics. The best IBT’s with regards energy requirement are class A, F, G1 and D1 and for comfort hours are G, F, G1 and D1. (Table 7)

Table 7: Quantified annual energy requirement in kWh (Top table) and number of comfortable hours (Bottom table) for Köppen climatic classification Bwh (Author)

Bwk (Arid, Desert, Cold Arid) This climate type occurs in 14.2% of the surface area and is also extremely harsh with cold winters. The most beneficial strategies are Sun Shading of Windows, Evaporative Cooling and Heat Gain in winter. The best IBT’s with regards energy requirement are class A, F, G1 and D1 and for comfort hours are A, D, C, B and D1. (Table 8)

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PROFILE

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Skywater, like the hydro for your house Skywater was born out of a passion for renewable resources before we even knew the term! As a kid I loved windmills, and one of my favourite places was my uncles dam on the west coast. It was the only water for miles and there was constantly a stream of little visitors. We don’t all have space for windmills, but if you’ve got gutters, you’ve got rain harvesting equipment. Sadly our water resources are under pressure and we want to help those who want to make a difference. Not only do we do gutters and downpipes, fascia and eaves work, we can help with Rain Tanks and Grey Water Systems. Rain Tanks mean you can fill your pool, water a veggie patch and wash the car for free! A Grey Water System means your lawns are watered for free! Yes, it makes financial sense, but it’s also an opportunity to be the change you want to see. Ask not what you have reaped today, but rather what you have sown. We love the fact that a good-looking part of your home can also work hard to help lower your water consumption. Skywater was born out of a passion for helping people harvest rainwater. Our rainwater capture systems are far more than just a tank at the back of the house. We developed and manufacture the adjustable Skywater GutterGuard. We designed and redesigned the Skywater Downpipe Filter until we were happy that something that works hard, doesn’t have to be hard on the eye. If you want to capture rainwater, your project is our passion.

Greywater Systems A short-term investment for a long-term solution - pumps water to your garden while you bath or shower Features: • Pumps water to your garden whilst you bath or shower • No large storage tanks cluttering your garden • The only affordable fully automated water distribution unit on the market • No offensive odours or bacteria build up normally associated with storage tanks • For use with low pressure sprinkler systems • Automatically irrigate your gardens at times when water evaporation is minimal We bring out the good in grey water. Pierre@skywater.co.za 0822 958 957 021 683 6506

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Table 8: Quantified strategies for Köppen climatic classification Bwk (Author)

Cfa (Warm temperate, Fully Humid, Hot Summer) This climatic region, only 3.7% of the surface area, is part of the warm temperate family of climates in South Africa that consists of Cfa, Cfb, Cfc, Csa, Csb, Cwa, Cwb and Cwc. Strategies that are beneficial in these high humidity areas are inter alia Sun Shading of Windows, Fan Forced Ventilation Cooling and Heat Gains in winter. Dehumidification is also beneficial. The best IBT’s with regards energy requirement are class C, F, G1 and D1 and for comfort hours are G, C, F and G1. (Table 9)

Table 9: Quantified annual energy requirement in kWh (Top table) and number of comfortable hours (Bottom table) for Köppen climatic classification Cfa (Author)

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Cfb (Warm temperate, Fully humid, Warm summer) 8.06% of the surface area falls in this category. Beneficial strategies are Sun Shading of Windows and heat gains in winter. Fan Forced Ventilation Cooling still works, but is not as beneficial as with Cfa. The best IBT’s with regards energy requirement are class C, F, G1 and D1 and for comfort hours are C, F, G1 and D1. (Table 10)

Table 10: Quantified annual energy requirement in kWh (Top table) and number of comfortable hours (Bottom table) for Köppen climatic classification Cfb (Author)

Csa (Warm temperate, Summer dry, Hot summer) This is a rather problematic winter rainfall region that covers only 0.44% of the surface area in the Western Cape Swartland area. The only strategies that can be considered here from a passive point of view are Sun Shading of Windows and heat gains in winter. Fan Forced Ventilation Cooling contributes surprisingly little. The best IBT’s with regards energy requirement are class C, F, G1 and D1 and for comfort hours are G, C, G1 and D1. (Table 11)

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Table 11: Quantified annual energy requirement in kWh (Top table) and number of comfortable hours (Bottom table) for KĂśppen climatic classification Csa (Author)

Csb (Warm temperate, Fully humid, Warm summer) This climate is a winter rainfall area that covers 1.59% of the surface area in the vicinity of Cape Town. Beneficial strategies are Sun Shading of Windows and heat gains in winter. Evaporative Cooling is not efficient at all. The best IBT’s with regards energy requirement are class A, F, G1 and D1 and for comfort hours are C, B, F, G1 and D1. (Table 12)

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Table 12: Quantified annual energy requirement in kWh (Top table) and number of comfortable hours (Bottom table) for Köppen climatic classification Csb (Author)

Cwa (Warm temperate, Winter dry, Hot summer) This climatic region covers 2.69% of the surface area and includes the central part of Pretoria. Recommended strategies are Sun Shading of Windows, Fan Forced Ventilation Cooling and heat gains in winter. The best IBT’s with regards energy requirement are class A, F, G1 and D1 and for comfort hours are G, C, F, G1 and D1. (Table 13

Table 13: Quantified annual energy requirement in kWh (Top table) and number of comfortable hours (Bottom table) for Köppen climatic classification Cwa (Author)

Cwb (Warm temperate, Winter dry, Warm summer) This relatively high lying climatic region covers 12.1% of the surface area and is also known as the “Highveld”. It includes Johannesburg and parts of Pretoria. Strategies that can be considered include Sun Shading of Windows, heat gains in winter and to a lesser extent Fan Forced Ventilation

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INNOVATIVE BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES Cooling. The best IBT’s with regards energy requirement are class A, C, F, G1 and D1 and for comfort hours are C, B, F, G1 and D1. (Table 14).

Table 14: Quantified annual energy requirement in kWh (Top table) and number of comfortable hours (Bottom table) for Köppen climatic classification Cwb (Author)

Conclusions The analysis above clearly indicate that IBT’s perform well in all the climatic regions found in South Africa. Although this chapter concentrated on the thermal performance of the various systems many other factors also need to be considered before a final selection is made. The psychrometric chart overlays provided some insight into the climatic characteristics of the various regions that lead to specific energy requirements and impacts directly on the number of hours that a particular structure would be comfortable. This is also a direct indicator of which passive measures would be most appropriate to make the building more comfortable. Currently 0.2% of the country’s area is equatorial, 70.89% arid and 28.91% has a warm temperate climate. Previous chapters indicated that with climate change the western parts of the country will progressively become hotter and dryer whilst the eastern parts will increasingly change to higher rainfall areas. The current small tropical area is likely to extend down to East London in a 100 year’s time. One of the elementary design mistakes, informed more by fashion than by reason, is architects’ infatuation with over-glazing (CIBSE, 2008; CIBSE 2007). This could lead to both overheating in summer and undercooling in winter or unwarranted air-conditioning. The study indicates that in all climatic regions of South Africa Sun Shading of Windows is highly beneficial. When selecting an appropriate IBT for the delivery of social infrastructure with regards climate considerations four main criteria must be taken into account. The first criterion is the current Köppen-Geiger climatic region, the second the thermal performance of the actual building system under consideration, the third the most appropriate passive strategy to make it more comfortable and the fourth is the expected climate change over time. A step wise worked example is described below. In this example it assumed that a new school needs to be designed near Bloemfontein in the township of Mangaung. Step 1: In this step refer to the CSIR Köppen-Geiger map to determine the main climatic region. The detailed tables lists 38 cities and towns to make the climate identification easier.

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Step 2: Once the climatic region has been determined go to the specific detailed tables above for a particular climatic region that summarises the performance for a particular ABT System within that climatic region. The one that would be best from a climatic point of view would be the system with the least kWh energy required on an annual basis to make it comfortable. Step 3: Once the system with best thermal/ energy performance has been determined, the designer can determine the set of most appropriate passive strategies that could be used to make it even more comfortable, especially during periods when the temperature/ humidity combinations would be outside the bioclimatic comfort regions described in Figure 3 and 13. For example in the case of Bloemfontein the following passive strategies would be most beneficial. (Conradie, 2013): • Sun Shading of Windows (In Summer) • Internal Heat Gain • Passive Solar Gain Low Mass • Passive Solar Gain High Mass Step 4: As a final check consider the expected long term climate change by referring to the climate change maps. (Conradie, 2013). Read this in conjunction with the detailed CSIR climatic map in Figure 1. This will give you an indication of the expected change in Köppen-Geiger climatic category. As a general rule the West of the country will get significantly drier and the East much wetter and tropical within the next 100 years. A good understanding of the basic principles using bioclimatic principles will lead to far better “climate aware” and environmentally conscious energy efficient architecture.

Figure 3: An overlay of the Maputo climate on the Watson and Labs psychrometric chart to illustrate the fundamental climate characteristics. (Author)

Figure 4: An overlay of the Kimberley climate on the Watson and Labs psychrometric chart to illustrate the fundamental climate characteristics. (Author)

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Figure 5: An overlay of the Bloemfontein climate on the Watson and Labs psychrometric chart to illustrate the fundamental climate characteristics. (Author)

Figure 6: An overlay of the Upington climate on the Watson and Labs psychrometric chart to illustrate the fundamental climate characteristics. (Author)

Figure 7: An overlay of the De Aar climate on the Watson and Labs psychrometric chart to illustrate the fundamental climate characteristics. (Author)

Figure 8: An overlay of the Durban climate on the Watson and Labs psychrometric chart to illustrate the fundamental climate characteristics. (Author)

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Figure 9: An overlay of the George climate on the Watson and Labs psychrometric chart to illustrate the fundamental climate characteristics. (Author)

Figure 10: An overlay of the Wellington climate on the Watson and Labs psychrometric chart to illustrate the fundamental climate characteristics. (Author)

Figure 11: An overlay of the Cape Town climate on the Watson and Labs psychrometric chart to illustrate the fundamental climate characteristics. (Author)

Figure 12: An overlay of the Central Pretoria (Forum) climate on the Watson and Labs psychrometric chart to illustrate the fundamental climate characteristics. (Author)

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Figure 13: An overlay of the Johannesburg (OR Tambo Airport) climate on the Watson and Labs psychrometric chart to illustrate the fundamental climate characteristics. (Author)

References • Auliciem, A. and Szokolay, S.V. 2007. Thermal Comfort. In PLEA NOTES: Passive and Low Energy Architecture International, Design Tools and Techniques. Department of Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane. • Barnard, J. 2013. Southern African Light Steel Frame Building Association (SASFA). In Southern African institute of Steel Construction 2013 Annual Report. Edited by Reneé Pretorius. • CIBSE. 2007. Sustainability, CIBSE Guide L. The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, London. • CIBSE. 2008. CIBSE Concise Handbook. The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, London. • Conradie, D.C.U. 2013. Appropriate Passive Design Approaches for the Various Climatic Regions in South Africa. In The Green Building Handbook, the Essential Guide, Vol. 5, 101-117. • Conradie, D.C.U. 2012. Designing for South African Climate and Weather. In The Green Building Handbook, the Essential Guide, Vol. 4, 181-195. • Conradie, D.C.U. 2011. Maximising the Sun. In The Green Building Handbook, the Essential Guide, Vol. 3, 147-159. • Givoni, B. 1969. Man, Climate and Architecture. Elsevier Publishing Co. Ltd., New York, NY. • Kottek, M., Grieser, J., Beck, C., Rudolf, B. Rubel, F. 2006. World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Vol. 15, No. 3, 259-263 (June 2006). • Kumirai, T. and Conradie, D.C.U. 2012. Thermal Mass versus Insulation Building Design in Six Climatic Regions of South Africa. In The Green Building Handbook, South Africa Volume 4, pp. 201 – 215.

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• Lyons, M. 2009. A comparative Analysis Between Steel, Masonry and Timber Construction in Residential Housing. BSc (Hons.) (Construction Management), Faculty of Engineering, Built Environment and Information Technology, University of Pretoria. • Milne, M., and Givoni, B. 1979. Architectural Design Based on Climate, in D. Watson (Ed.), Energy Conservation Through Building Design, McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, NY: 96-113. • Olgyay, V. 1963. Design With Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism. Princeton • University Press, Princeton, NJ: 14-32. • Visitsak, S., Haberl, J.S. 2004. An Analysis of Design Strategies for Climate-Controlled Residences in Selected Climates. Proceedings of Simbuild 2004, IBPSA-USA National Conference, Boulder, CO, August 4-6, 2004.

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PROFILE

SPECIALISED HEATING APPLICATIONS ABOUT INFRARED ENERGY. Infrared or radiant energy is the most practical way to add warmth to spaces like patios, terraces, verandas, enclosed areas, or any indoor or outdoor setting where heated air cannot easily be contained and re-circulated. SHA’s Infrared elements emit a safe, clean wavelength of light that is only absorbed by solid objects, transferring heat directly to a person, table or floor rather than heating the air. For this reason infrared heat can be distributed very evenly, and will not simply “blow away” in windy or drafty conditions.

ENJOY CLEANER, GREENER HEAT. In today’s world, protecting our environment has become a top priority. With SHA’s CUMFITHEAT range of heaters, you can entertain outside without producing the negative environmental effects created by most gas-fired heaters or outdoor fireplaces. Traditional gas burners are often less than 50% efficient and emit carbon monoxide and other hazardous gases as a by-product of combustion and burning fuel. By contrast, our energy-efficient infrared fixtures convert over 90% of input electrical energy directly into radiant heat, and can operate for just a couple of Rand per hour. The Cumfitheat range of electric IR zone heaters are safe for use indoors and outdoors, operate silently, emit no greenhouse gases or unpleasant odors and do not require ventilation. In addition, the cumfitheat heater components and packaging are completely recyclable. All of our products are proudly manufactured in South Africa in our factory in Benoni.

WHY CHOOSE INFRARED HEAT IN YOUR HOME? With SHA’s Cumfitheat range of heaters, you can enjoy outdoor living spaces year-round with inviting, energy-efficient comfort and warmth. The electric infrared heat from a SHA heater can be directed onto seating areas, is not diffused in windy conditions, and does not waste heat in

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PROFILE a 360째 circle like other traditional heating options. For these reasons and more, SHA heaters are perfect for residential locations like pool decks, outdoor rooms and patios. They are also the perfect heating solution for a garage or workspace / station. Cumfitheat heaters are available in a wide variety of models and sizes, to offer you maximum efficiency, versatility and convenience. Our heaters are designed with low clearance requirements, for a clean look that creates minimal visual impact. Adjustable swivel mounts allow for ceiling or wall installations. In addition to conserving energy, using SHA heaters reduce long-term heating and maintenance costs. Our heaters offer simple electrical installations with a single utility and incur lower acquisition costs than a permanently installed gas heater. With no tanks to refill and no igniters to replace, they are easy and inexpensive to maintain over the long term.

WHY CHOOSE INFRARED HEAT FOR YOUR BUSINESS? Warehouses. Factories. Alfresco dining rooms. Nightclub courtyards. Restaurant patios, etc. In each setting, customizable comfort is as important as style. With a Cumfitheat IR heating system, you can offer your patrons the best of both worlds. Our heaters are versatile enough to install in a variety of indoor and outdoor applications. They are also available with accessories such as a presence sensor, thus only turning a heater on in the presence of a person and turning off when there is no longer a presence sensed. This results in a massive saving in the cost of heating. SHA heaters can be wall mounted, ceiling mounted or pole-mounted and installed in windy locations, beneath canvas awnings, or in settings without significant ventilation. When it comes to heating options, SHA products offer a vast array of possibilities. Unlike gas heating units, SHA heaters have minimal clearance requirements and conform to IEC60335-2-30 requirements for mounting as low as 2.1 meters. Our products are available in many sizes, and all wattages, to meet the needs of a broad range of indoor and outdoor spaces. Heaters can be grouped and regulated in different zones, to provide adjustable comfort and minimize energy consumption. The controls used with SHA heaters offer added convenience, ranging from simple on/off switches to presence sensors to power controllers. In addition, SHA products offer long-lasting quality and value. They can be installed with low capital expense and minimal labor. There are no expensive gas tanks to refill and no risk of heaters running out of fuel in the middle of the evening. With no moving parts and minimal maintenance, SHA heaters can provide years of trouble-free service.

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Maintenance Free

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PROFILE

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CHAPTER 0

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SANITATION

SANITATION: USER PERCEPTIONS AND ACCEPTANCE

Louiza Danke Principal researcher Built Environment Unit CSIR

Introduction Sustainable sanitation facilities and their accessibility to people for sustainable lifestyles have become of critical importance in South Africa (Landman, 2004). The Millennium Development Goal 7 (MDG7) Target 10 is to halve the number of people who do not have access to basic water and sanitation by 2015 (UN, 2000). The South African government in response to the global sanitation related challenges set out higher targets and committed itself in ensuring that all buckets in formal established settlements will be eradicated and all households have access to basic sanitation by 2010 (DWAF, 2003). However, due to slow progress in delivering basic sanitation infrastructure, this target of universal access was moved to 2014 (SALGA, 2009). In support of reaching this target, every poor South African is provided with a subsidy for access to a reliable supply of six kilolitres of potable water per month within 200 metres of the household and, at a minimum, a safe and reliable Ventilated Improved Pit toilet (SFWS, 2003). Poor households are defined as those that have a monthly household expenditure below R1100 (DWAF, 2003, dplg, 2005). The Water Service Act (Act No. 108 of 1997), the principal policy regulating water service provision in South Africa, legitimises the right to basic sanitation by articulating that (Section 3): • everyone has a right of access to basic water supply and basic sanitation; • every water services institution must take reasonable measures to realise these rights; and • every water services authority must, in its water services development plan, provide for measures to realise these rights.

Background The South African government has committed to address water and sanitation services backlogs by 2014 and has made great strides in reaching this target. But almost 700 000 households still do not have access to the basic water and sanitation services and more than 2.3 million households have sanitation services that are below basic sanitation requirements and standards (Wilkinson & Pearce, 2012). Research showed that many of the households that were provided with basic water and sanitation services have joined the backlog again due to the infrastructure not being used

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SANITATION for the purpose it was intended (Duncker, Wilkinson, Du Toit, Koen, Kimmie, & Dudeni, 2008). This research also showed that in most cases the technology provided seemed to be adequate in providing the sanitation services, however, the use of the technology and its acceptance by the user were key factors that impacted on the sustainability of the technology. This chapter shows some of the results of assessments that were conducted by the CSIR and draws the attention to the user issues and their impact on providing sustainable sanitation services in addressing the sanitation backlogs in South Africa.

Sanitation According to the National White Paper on Basic Household Sanitation in South Africa (DWAF, 2001), “sanitation refers to the principles and practices relating to the collection, removal or disposal of human excreta, household waste water and refuse as they impact upon people and the environment. Good sanitation includes appropriate health and hygiene awareness and behaviour, and acceptable, affordable and sustainable sanitation services”. Sanitation thus includes both the ‘software’ (understanding why health problems exist and what steps people can take to address these problems) and ‘hardware’ (toilets, sewers and hand-washing facilities). Together, they combine to break the cycle of diseases that spread when human excreta and waste are not properly managed (DWAF, 2002). The minimum acceptable basic level of sanitation is therefore a system for disposing of human excreta, household waste water and refuse, which is acceptable and affordable to the users, safe, hygienic and easily accessible, and which does not have an unacceptable impact on the environment; and a toilet facility for each household together with appropriate health and hygiene awareness and behaviour. A basic sanitation facility is expected to meet policy requirements, as well as adhere to minimum design standards and norms that are applicable to all types of sanitation facilities provided. It therefore has to be a sanitation facility that is safe; reliable; environmentally sound; easy to keep clean; provides privacy; provides protection against the weather; well ventilated; keeps smells to a minimum; prevents the entry and exit of flies and other disease-carrying pests; enable safe and appropriate treatment and/or removal of human waste (as set out in the Strategic Framework for Water Services); and accompanied by appropriate health and hygiene education. The Strategic Framework for Water Services (DWAF, 2003) defines basic sanitation services as the provision of a basic sanitation facility, the sustainable operation of this facility and the communication of good sanitation, hygiene and related practices. Safe sanitation, which includes ventilated improved pit (VIP) toilets, ecological sanitation (such as urine diversion toilets), pourflush and flush toilets, is about offering people dignity and health. Without it, people (mostly children) suffer from incidence of disease and death, women and children remain at risk of attacks, school days and work days are lost to the economy, and the environment is increasingly polluted with human waste (Van Vuuren, 2008).

Some research results In 2006/07, the then National Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF), as the regulator of water services in the country that was responsible for monitoring water sector performance, developed a Strategy and Theoretical Framework for Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting of water supply and sanitation projects (Scheepers, Duncker & Wilkinson, 2006). A key element of this Strategy and Theoretical Framework is a spot check assessment process (research methodology and data gathering tools), which was developed and piloted by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) from 2006 to 2008.

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SANITATION The spot check assessments entailed the gathering of data/information through direct objective observations and short interviews with beneficiaries and maintenance personnel at project sites across the country (see Figure 1), to obtain a general view of a situation at a certain point in time of a project.

Figure 1: Location of projects assessed during the spot check assessments (Duncker, et.al. 2008). The responses to observations and interview questions were captured on checklists. The checklists were designed specific to a project type (household, subsidised housing, clinics and schools) and assessed the compliance of rural water and sanitation services to policy requirements (appropriateness and reliability of the water or sanitation facility, as well as the training/awareness raising received by beneficiaries) and to technical design norms and standards (as set out in various SANS documents and technical standards documents and guidelines, such as the Red Book), the quality of the physical structure, its design and its construction. Data captured from checklists were analysed and distilled into specific models pertaining to project types (household, subsidised housing, clinic, school). Each project was assigned a compliance score, which was reflected as a point between 0 and 100. A threshold of 95 points for compliance/non-compliance of a project was selected based on in-depth discussions with a number of scientists, statisticians, water and sanitation specialists and relevant role players. This meant that: • A project that scored between 95 and 100 points was considered as a ‘compliant’ project (i.e. complied with the standards and norms as set by government). The deviation of 5 points was considered small enough to not have a significant impact on the sustainability of the services. • A project that scored below 95 points was considered as ‘non-compliant’ (i.e. did not comply with the standards and norms as set by government) and in danger of not being sustainable. The scoring system was developed to illustrate the different levels of compliance/non-compliance of sanitation infrastructure. Seven categories (from A+ to F) and the colour coding (from green, yellow, orange, dark orange and brown to red) were used to identify and depict the compliance ratings of projects and entities (taps and toilets) to policy requirements, norms and standards (see Table 1 below).

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SANITATION

Alphabet

Points

Category

Description

letter A+

100

Compliant

Total compliance to policy requirements, norms and standards.

A

B

95-99

81-94

Acceptable

Small but acceptable deviation from policy requirements

compliance

and/or norms and standards - projects functional.

Partially

Deviation from policy requirements and/or norms and

non-compliant

standards - could impact on daily functioning/operation.

NON-COMPLIANT

Investigation required. C

66-80

Non-compliant

Deviation from policy requirements and/or norms and standards -that has a major impacton daily functioning/ operation. Intervention required.

D

51-65

Very

Large deviation from policy requirements and/or norms

non-compliant

and standards -projects functional only part time. Restoration required.

E

26-50

Strongly

Minimal compliance to policy requirements and/or norms

non-compliant

and standards -projects not operational most of the time. Rehabilitation required.

F

0-25

Extrememly

Unacceptable deviation from policy requirements and/

non-compliant

or norms and standards -projects not operational most of the time. Rehabilitation urgently required to resolve functionality.

Table 1: Compliance scoring system for spot check assessments. The following definitions were used in the scoring system to describe the actions required at project level: • Investigation: refers to the need for a close or systematic study, detailed examination or inquiry to uncover facts and information related to the project in order to solve a problem or resolve an issue. This may include the re-visiting of a project to collect, process, report, store, record, analyse, evaluate, produce, and disseminate information related to the project or entities within a project, and thus inform corrective action or intercession. • Intervention: refers to an orchestrated attempt to compel a project to get help for a problem – an action that produces an effect, on a project or entities within a project, intended to alter the course of an incorrect process or activity. • Restoration: refers to the act of making new again, a process of carrying on alterations and repairs to a project or entities within a project with the intention of restoring it to its original form, often involving reinstatement of missing or badly damaged parts.

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SANITATION • Rehabilitation: The process of returning a project to its original functional state, by means of reconstruction, repair or alteration that makes efficient use of the system possible. This compliance scoring system illustrated the nuances of the levels of compliance/noncompliance of water and sanitation projects, making it easy to identify where the challenges are and what should be addressed first to improve the chances of sustainability of sanitation services provision. The data captured from about 400 checklists for rural sanitation infrastructure provided at rural households, housing projects, clinics and schools (covering 6 725 toilets) are discussed below with specific reference to the differences between the technology itself, which is reflected by the ‘Standards’ component, and the user issues, which are reflected by the ‘Policy’ component, in order to extract the issues pertaining to the use and acceptance of the sanitation technology.

Rural household sanitation The data analysis highlighted a range of components for rural household sanitation projects that were non-compliant (C rating). As the colour-coding in Figure 2 indicates under the ‘Standards’ component, the technology in general seems adequate and compliant, or close to compliant, with norms and standards (green and yellow), apart from the pits of VIP toilets that scored a D (orange) mainly because these pits were full and could not be accessed to be emptied.

Figure 2: Assessment of rural household sanitation, 2007/08. However, the results under the ‘Policy’ component, which encompass the user aspects, show a different picture (amber and brown). The data indicated that there was a lack of communication (awareness raising, training, information sessions and information posters) with beneficiaries of

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SANITATION sanitation facilities on sanitation, hygiene and the operation and maintenance of their newly built toilets. This means that the use of the technology was usually incorrect and the maintenance was poor. Linked to the lack of communication was that hand washing facilities (soap and water) were not available at, or close to, the toilet and therefore hand washing was not practised by those households. The risk of spreading waterborne diseases were thus not minimised, which negated the provision of sanitation services in order to minimise the spread of waterborne diseases.

Clinic sanitation In general, sanitation services at rural clinics were partially non-compliant (B-rating) for the ‘Standards’ component and non-compliant (C-rating) for the ‘Policy’ component. The colourcoding again indicates that the technology was mostly compliant, or close to compliant, with norms and standards (green and yellow depicted in Figure 3).

Figure 3. Assessment of sanitation at rural clinics, 2007/08 The non-compliance with norms and standards underlined the user aspects again - toilets without doors, toilet doors that were damaged or could not be locked, pits of VIP toilets that were full and pedestals, cisterns and slabs of toilets that were broken and not repaired or replaced, i.e. poor maintenance and lack of ownership. The colour-coding for the ‘Policy’ component (amber and orange) highlights the areas of concern and again it is about the use of the technology. Communication about sanitation practices and hygiene, as well as training on the operations and maintenance of sanitation facilities at rural clinics, was the least compliant. Almost half of the staff at the rural clinics said they had not received any sanitation or hygiene training about the specific toilet facilities that were installed at the clinic. About 10% of toilets at clinics were not used for sanitation purposes, they were locked of were used as storage areas - a situation that contributed to the inadequate toilet/patient/staff

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SANITATION ratio –too few toilets were available at rural clinics for either the patients or the staff. Some clinics also did not have the required hand washing facilities per toilet for patients at, or close to, the toilets. In most cases water and soap were not available to patients visiting rural clinics, which is a major concern in terms of the possible risk of spreading waterborne diseases within these health centres through physical contamination.

School sanitation Sanitation services at rural schools were generally non-compliant (C) on both the ‘Standards’ and the ‘Policy’ components. The colour-coding in Figure 4 shows that the sanitation facilities was under severe strain (amber, orange, brown and red), especially VIP toilets of which most pits were full, pedestals were broken or not there and a generally unhealthy environment existed around the toilet buildings. The colour-coding shows that the ‘Policy’ component, which is the user aspect, was very noncompliant (amber, orange, brown). An urgent need was identified in terms of communication and training at rural schools of learners and educators on sanitation practices, health and hygiene aspects at the school to prevent the spread of waterborne diseases.

Figure 4. Assessment of sanitation at rural schools, 2007/08 In view of the lack of relevant sanitation and hygiene communication (toilets for male learners were in general much dirtier and in a poorer condition than the toilets for female learners), the spread of waterborne diseases through fluids (especially the seepage or leakage outside toilets), flies (broken and open pits, toilets and vent pipes) and fingers (inadequate hand washing facilities) is very high. Urgent attention needs to be paid to the proper maintenance and cleaning of toilets (inside and outside) at rural schools, as well as the provision of water and soap at the hand washing facilities of these toilets. The non-compliance rating for the capacity (C-rating), highlighted that most rural schools did not have enough toilets for female and male learners. The inadequate numbers of toilets that


SANITATION did exist were not used by learners due to the condition and non-reliability of the facility. Many female learners opted to go home to use the toilet (or the veld) and were absent from school for long periods of time.

Factors influencing sustainability of sanitation facilities The discussions above showed that a sanitation facility was generally present and in a usable state – green and yellow colours – with some technical aspects that needed attention, such as vent pipes that were too short, doors that were attached inadequately, and hand washing facilities that were not provided. The discussion also showed that the sustainable use of the technology/ facility is a big challenge – brown to red colours. Sanitation facilities were generally subject to incorrect maintenance, misuse and/or non-use; therefore the sustainability of sanitation services is in question. Research over the last few decades by Drangert, et.al. (2006), Duncker, et.al. (2008, 2007, 2006), Duncker, Matsebe & Moilwa (2007), Duncker & Matsebe (2006, 2004), Matsebe (2012) and Wilkinson & Pearce (2012) have shown that certain critical elements need to be considered for sanitation facilities to be sustainable. The technology should be well designed, constructed to specifications using the correct materials, comply with policy requirements, norms and standards and should have technical support for repairs and maintenance. However, even if the technology is designed and built well, the use of the technology is the most important critical element - a technology is only as good as its user. A number of aspects regarding users of a technology or facility affects the sustainability of sanitation services. These aspects were distilled from a number of research projects and are summarised below:

User expectations and needs Users have certain expectations, sometimes very high expectations, usually due to sanitation being used as leverage for obtaining political votes. False promises were made by many politicians, promising water-borne sanitation to all, even in arid parts, or very mountainous parts, of the country. Users expect to receive water-borne sanitation and regard anything else as being substandard or below par. This resulted in a negative attitude towards the technology provided and, in some cases, the toilets were vandalised to prove that they were not appropriate to their situation and culture. Sanitation products are often the subject of aggressive marketing by the manufacturers, particularly at the levels of local government and service providers whose decision-making officials may not always have sufficient technical background to adjudicate the products’ efficacy. Users may not understand and/or are not aware of context specific challenges, implementation costs and maintenance costs related to their choice of sanitation facilities. Free basic sanitation might mean to some users that all aspects regarding sanitation should be free, even the maintenance and repairs, and that it should be provided by government. Most aspects of sanitation, apart from cleaning the toilet, are not regarded as the responsibility of the household/owner. Some users may not be willing to pay for a toilet they do not want. Everybody wants a flush toilet but many cannot afford this service. Some might be able to pay for a toilet and for its operation and maintenance that is not a flush toilet, but still appropriate for their environment, but because it is not the toilet they wanted, they are not willing to pay.

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SANITATION Many users may not be able to pay for a toilet because of the poverty levels in the country. Even when provided with basic sanitation through a subsidy, the household may still be too poor to buy cleaning materials for maintaining the toilet, or spare parts to repair the toilet.

Users’ level of knowledge about different technologies and services Users are generally not awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of different sanitation technologies. A plethora of toilet technology types are available and used in South Africa, such as buckets, chemical toilets, simple pit toilets, ventilated improved pit toilets, dehydrating and composting toilets, urine diversion toilets, vacuum technology toilet systems, anaerobic toilets, aqua-privies, flush toilets with septic tanks or conservancy tanks, flush toilets that recycle water, flush toilets with small bore solids free sewers, and flush toilets linked to central water treatment works. Users have limited access to knowledge sources and examples of technologies and have to rely on hearsay and what other users believe the technology does or does not do. Information regarding sanitation technologies is not always successfully communicated to the end-users; reports are normally aimed at technical practitioners, not decision-makers or community members who may not always have sufficient understanding of the reality of the technology and its potential benefits and shortfalls in different contexts. Many users are unaware of existing subsidy streams and/or the processes involved in applying for sanitation facilities.

Users’ perceptions and attitudes Due to the lack of knowledge, ownership and the sense of responsibility regarding sanitation is not present, especially at household level. Many users are not proud of the sanitation technology they are provided with by the government, unless it is water-borne sanitation. Having a flush toilet gives households status in their communities, especially in remote rural areas, which means that any sanitation technology that is not water-borne will not be regarded as adequate. Traditional taboos play a major role – in some instances a household needs two toilets as, for example, the daughter-in-law is not allowed to use the same toilet as her husband’s father when she is menstruating, which forces her to use the veld again (Duncker & Matsebe, 2004). Social beliefs based on incorrect information play a role – some users believe that breathing in the smell of the contents of a pit toilet causes tuberculosis. Some believe that using a toilet that has airflow through the pedestal to a vent pipe causes miscarriages and stomach infections.

Operation and maintenance Ease of operation and inexpensive or no maintenance are key factors for the successful operation and maintenance of a toilet. A flush toilet is ‘out of sight – out of mind’, the same as using the veld. No more consideration is required by an individual after using either a flush toilet or the veld. Any sanitation technology in-between requires effort, money and responsibility. Availability of spares and the willingness/ability of households to pay for operation, maintenance and repairs are stumbling blocks for the longevity of a sanitation facility. Institutional and technical support for maintenance and repairs are necessary. Users may not know where to get spare parts and may not know how to repair the toilet, especially if they were not trained in the operation and maintenance of the toilet.

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SANITATION Training and refresher training in operation and maintenance are vital. Many users may be illiterate or may be very old and may not be able internalise the message after only one training session in the use and maintenance of the toilet. Refresher training is needed for users to internalise the content of the training session.

Health and hygiene issues: The importance of sanitation and awareness of sanitation and hygiene issues, i.e. practising good sanitation, are still not being paid enough attention in a household. Other issues, such as having a house with electricity, a cell phone, a job and access to drinking water, are more important for households than practicing good sanitation and hygiene.

Conclusion The spot check assessments highlighted the fact that the technologies provided for water and sanitation are generally adequate for the provision of sanitation services (with the proviso that these technologies were constructed adhering to the relevant specifications, standards and building code), but that these technologies are under strain due to their incorrect use, abuse and lack of proper maintenance by their users. Water sector services and projects should not be viewed one-dimensionally, but holistically. The interaction between, and integration of, technical aspects and social dynamics contribute to the long-term operation of facilities and the sustainability of services delivery. Appropriateness is the key to sustainability - not only the appropriateness of the technology or toilet in its context, but also appropriateness for the users, which includes the context they live in. Eradicating the sanitation backlog with each household having a toilet will become a reality once users have enough knowledge, can make informed choices and decisions, implementation is context-specific with participative decision-making and regular hygiene promotion and support for maintenance are provided.

References • dplg. 2005. Study to Determine Progress with and Challenges Faced by Municipalities in the Provision of Free Basic Services & Supporting those Municipalities Struggling with Implementation. Final Study Report. [Available online at: www.cogta.gov.za/.../77-free-basicservices-study-2005.html]. • Drangert, J-O, Duncker, L., Matsebe, G. & Abu Atukunda, V. 2006: Ecological Sanitation, Urban Agriculture and gender in peri-urban settlements: a comparative study of three sites in Kimberley in South Africa and Kampala, Kabale and Kisoro in Uganda. SAREC Report No SWE2002-136(13). University of Linköping, Sweden. • Duncker, L., Wilkinson, M., Du Toit, A., Koen, R., Kimmie, Z. & Dudeni, N. 2008. Spot check assessment of rural water and sanitation services for the water sector, 2007/08. Report to DWAF. Pretoria, South Africa. • Duncker, L. & Wilkinson, M. 2008. An M&E system for scoring rural water supply and sanitation projects to South African policy, design standards and norms. World Water Week, 19 August 2008. Stockholm, Sweden.

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SANITATION • Duncker, L., Wilkinson, M., Du Toit, A., Koen, R. & Elphinstone, C. 2007. Spot check assessments of MIG water and sanitation projects 2006/07. Report to DWAF. CSIR/BE/PSS/IR/2007/0503/A, Pretoria, South Africa. • Duncker, L.C., Matsebe, G.N. & Moilwa, N. 2007. The social/cultural acceptability of using human excreta (faeces and urine) for food production in rural settlements of South Africa. Water Research Commission Report No TT310/07. Pretoria, South Africa. • Duncker, L.C., Matsebe, G.N. & Austin, L.M. 2006: Use and acceptance of urine diversion sanitation systems in South Africa. Water Research Commission Report No 1439/2/06. Pretoria, South Africa. • Duncker, L.C. & Matsebe, G.N. 2006: Ownership and use of urine diversion sanitation systems in South Africa. CSIR research report No CSIR/BE/IPDS/IR/2006/0049/B. Pretoria, South Africa. • Duncker, L.C. & Matsebe, G. 2004: Research Reports on Urine Diversion Sanitation for Northern Cape, Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Pretoria, CSIR Publication. BOU/C647. • DWAF. 2006. Strategy and Theoretical Framework for Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting of Water Sector Projects. [Available online at: www.dwaf.co.za]. • DWAF. 2003. Strategic Framework for Water Services. Government Printer, Pretoria. • Landman, K. 2004. Alternative technologies for CSIR demonstration facility/offices. STEP Report, BOU / I 353. CSIR: Pretoria. • Matsebe, G. 2012. Perceptions of the users of urine diversion dry toilets in medium density mixed housing in Hull Street, Kimberley. Thesis for MSc in Development Planning. University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. • SALGA. 2009. Strategic sanitation review on operations, maintenance and sustainability of Ventilated Improved Pit toilets including aspects of sustainability related to the eradication of buckets within the Free State Province. Report to SALGA, June 2009. • The Presidency. 2005. Proposal and Implementation Plan for a Government-wide Monitoring and Evaluation System – A Publication for Programme Managers. September 2005. [Available online at: http://www.thepresidency.gov.za/main.asp?include=docs/reports/proposal/index.html • Scheepers, E., Duncker, L. & Wilkinson, M. 2006. Monitoring, evaluation and reporting – Strategy and theoretical framework. Report to DWAF. CSIR/BE/PSS/IR/2007/0502/A, Pretoria, South Africa. • Van Vuuren, L. 2008. ‘African Ministers unite in fight against backlogs’ in The Water Wheel, March/ April 2008. Vol 7, No 2. Published by the Water Research Commission. Pretoria, South Africa. • Wilkinson, M. & Duncker, L. 2013. Guideline for the effective and efficient use of sanitation subsidies in South Africa. Report to the Water Research Commission, Deliverable 6: [Unpublished]. • Wilkinson, M. & Pearce, D. 2012. Sanitation Subsidies in Perspective: - How to Increase the Effectiveness of Sanitation Subsidies in South Africa. The perceived and substantiated drivers of change in the economic and social cost of construction of subsidised sanitation facilities. Report to the Water Research Commission, Deliverable 2: [Unpublished]. • Wilkinson, M.J., Duncker, L.C. & Du Toit, A. 2008. Technical guidelines and supporting notes for spot check assessment of rural water and sanitation projects. CSIR. Pretoria, South Africa.

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PROFILE

African Water Controls cc

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African Water Controls cc Tel: +27 11 331 9425 • Fax: +27 86 770 5345 Email: contact@africanwater.co.za Web: http://www.africanwater.co.za 68

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PROFILE

NEOPERL is the German maker of the internationally renowned and industry-leading Pressure Compensating Aerators (PCA) and Constant Flow Regulators (CFR). Quite simply, these devices have been proven to achieve anywhere from between 40% and 60% savings in water consumption – which translates to between 40% and 60% savings in your residential or commercial water bill, while protecting your faucet’s original manufacturer’s warranty. Furthermore, in some developed countries such as Singapore and Australia, products are required by law to be labelled according to their water efficiency. This programme is known as the Water Efficiency Labelling and Standards (WELS) Scheme, and by installing a PCA or CFR, any product can be turned into a top-rated WELS product. But most importantly, while other water-saving devices result in noticeably weaker water pressure, NEOPERL’s high-precision mechanism ensures a constant and fixed flow rate, which means an unnoticeable difference in terms of water pressure, in both residential and commercial applications.  

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PROFILE

“Free NEOPERL water savers for Italian households� -One of the energy-saving measures used by several Italian energy suppliers was to provide NEOPERL water savers to their customers free of charge. In 2006 and 2007, a total of 7.5-million NEOPERL water savers were distributed throughout the country. The energy suppliers were then able to fulfil the commitments set out by the new directive. Reducing water consumption means that the energy required to process water is saved and that CO2 emissions are reduced. The consumer saves money and makes a contribution towards the environment and climate protection.

South Africa:

In 2012 Eskom initiated a rollout programme that supplied their consumers with free solutions for saving energy, of which energy-efficient shower heads where included. We supplied tens of thousands of our showerheads with Neoperl regulators to the market, and in addition to that hundreds of thousands of regulators to other suppliers so they could turn their showers into pressure-compensated showers. Although we cannot claim that all showers rolled out had our Neoperl technology, we do believe that those clients who did receive a shower with our technology included will benefit from a long-lasting, superior shower and predictable savings.

United Kingdom:

In 2011 with the help of the utilities Neoperl supplied water and energy saving devices to 4 million households. To date any household in the UK can request regulators from their utility company. 70

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CHAPTER 0

CHAPTER TITLE

View from platform to Le Morne Brabant

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CORNICHE BAY INTEGRATED RESORT SCHEME

By Graham A Young Director: Newtown Landscape Architects and Department of Architecture, Landscape Architecture Programme University of Pretoria

and Johan-Nel Prinsloo Department of Architecture, Landscape Architecture Programme University of Pretoria

Introduction Graham Young and Johan-Nel Prinsloo both landscape architects in the Department of Architecture and through NLA + GreenInc Landscape Architects, were involved with the planning of a resort scheme in Mauritius. Their aim was to take an atypical view of the planning and layout of the scheme and to introduce a new way of thinking about resort development on the island that was embedded in sustainable thinking and place making that related to the inherent qualities of the landscape and culture of the region, rather than trying to create an artificial ‘palms and white sand’ scenario so prevalent on the island and favoured by most developers. Fortunately the client, along with the lead architects, Foster + Partners from London, shared this enlighten view. The Corniche Bay Integrated Resort Scheme is situated near the town of La Gaulette on the south western coast of Mauritius on the border of the Le Morne World Heritage Site. The scheme comprised of 120 hillside villas, a Gary Player signature golf course, a 150 room beachfront Banyan Tree hotel and spa. A master plan for the project was conceived by Foster + Partners architects of London in collaboration with ARUP engineers. The landscape architects were intimately involved in reviewing and informing the master plan, conceptualising the landscape design approach and conducting research for the establishment of an on-site indigenous nursery. The project as a whole aimed to become a new benchmark for hotel development on the island that promotes a sustainable approach that is responsive to the complex Mauritius context and offers an experience beyond sun, sea and sand. The project has already been cited in development guidelines by the Mauritian government as an example for future developers. In working with Prizker-prize winning Foster + Partners, the landscape architects sought to produce a landscape architectural response that is of international standard.

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CORNICHE BAY INTEGRATED RESORT SCHEME This article first appeared in Innovate Magazine Issue 8 2010 a bi-annual publication of the University of Pretoria’s Faculty of Engineering, Built Environment and Information technology.

Design approach Following the popularity of Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland (1865), ‘As dead as a dodo’ has become a common phrase that denotes something which is unambiguously and unequivocally dead. Once being the home of the extinct Raphus cucullatus, The Republic of Mauritius has become an archetypical landscape of the tension between human intervention and the biophysical environment. Since the Portuguese set foot on the island in 1509, the island has become a collector of the exotic: less than 2% of the island’s vegetation cover can be considered indigenous and the concept of a ‘first people’ is non-existent. The island is a kaleidoscope of peaceful paradoxes: invasive guava plants that line the roads have become the objects of festive fruit picking outings on public holidays, the clear ocean waters are strewn with beautiful Hindu offerings, Catholic shrines are entombed in mystical Banyan trees from the east, the biologically competitive Casuarina trees littered on the coastlines leave no room for natural forests, but create high canopies that provide shade for the endless picnic-goers…a highly contested ground. It is thus impossible to imagine and naïve to untouched Mauritius; an island isolated from the world. Working within this context, the formulated design approach was to extract the layers (physical and non-physical) of the site through research and site analysis and conceive a landscape design which, as a new layer, critically responds to this depth of context. These layers can loosely be grouped under the bio-physical and cultural contexts, and the proposed context of the master plan.

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Bio-physical context and landscape design response Found The 176ha site is situated on the south western coast of Mauritius with dramatic views to Le Morne Brabant, lle aux Bentilier (referring to the coral formations found in the vicinity of the island, named after Catholic stoups found at church entrances), the village of La Gaulette and the setting sun over the Indian Ocean. The site can topographically be classified into a hillside- and a coastal-area, separated by National Road B9 running parallel to the coastline. The lush green vegetation of the site can easily deceive the onlooker to think that it reflects a healthy eco-system. On the contrary, the hillside area of the site is largely overtaken by invasive species such as Albizia lebbeck (fr. Bois noir) and star grass. The former is a fast growing exotic pioneer tree and the latter was planted as grazing for deer when the site was used as a hunting ground post 1993. Prior to this, the site was cleared of its indigenous vegetation for the cultivation of sugar cane. The lower, coastal part of the site is choked by exotic and invasive eucalyptus and acacia species, but a mangrove forest on the southern edge has significant ecological value. There are two Banyan trees (a fig, usually Ficus benghalensis, with aerial shoots that descend to the ground to form additional trunks) on the site which are culturally significant as they signify gathering places (or a place of business) and eternity in Hindu mythology. Another significant characteristic of the site is the presence of various drainage lines that run down the slope of the hillside transporting storm water run-off to the ocean. These lines are characterised by dense vegetation and smooth rocks and pebbles that line their surfaces. Basaltic rocks are scattered throughout the site. Albeit thus for the dramatic topography and views, the site is ecologically ‘as dead as a dodo’.

Villa Unit section

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CORNICHE BAY INTEGRATED RESORT SCHEME

Response In light of the above, rehabilitation of this scarred landscape became a central – and problematic – concept of the landscape design. The complexity of rehabilitation in Mauritius can be understood given that few nurseries stock a limited palette of indigenous plants and little is known about the ‘original’ island ecologies. Although the Mauritian Wildlife Foundation (MWF) has done excellent work in collecting and propagating indigenous plants to ensure gene preservation, the project has not yet reached a scale where it can start to feed the commercial nurseries. Exacerbating the problem, is the fact that the marketing image of a lush tropical environment has been entrenched in the expectations of visitors to the island, and most hotel developments seek to provide this image through landscaped gardens of exotic tropical vegetation that require extensive irrigation in what is a surprisingly dry climate – the nurseries continue to supply this demand and a commitment (as we have seen evolving in South Africa) to ‘going indigenous’ is not present. The first response to the problem was the proposal of an on-site nursery dedicated to the cultivation of indigenous plants – a first for commercial Mauritius. The facility would be established and operated by a local nursery, employ local labour and was envisioned to work in close cooperation with the MWF. If successful, the nursery would be seen to become a destination in itself and work with other future developments in the Le Morne area to expand this ambitious and necessary project. It was hoped that this would be the beginning of a paradigm shift for the nursery industry in Mauritius. The second response was the development of a strategic, phased approach to the rehabilitation of the site. Phasing is necessitated by the mentioned lack of planting stock, the need for an immediate green environment when the development is operational and budgetary constraints. Briefly, the strategy was to plant all areas disturbed during construction (villa- and hotel buildingsites and road verges) with fast growing indigenous plants that are more commonly available. Rarer species that would require special cultivation and not available en masse, would be planted in spaces that are visually pronounced (e.g. pathway crossings and courtyards) to communicate their significance and evoke interest. An understanding of the plants through education is thus promoted by design and an important contributor to the botanic paradigm shift. Since most indigenous trees, for example the Ebony (Diospyros tessellaria; fr. Bois d’ Ebene), are extremely slow growing, selected exotic trees (e.g. the Albizia’s) would be kept for their spatial, sculptural and sheltering value until the indigenous trees have grown sufficiently – a necessary measure to provide habitable outside spaces when the sweltering sun turns to the west and the Indian Ocean winds thunder against the land. Exotic species such as the Eucalyptus would be removed from the outset as they would inhibit succession. Another response to the bio-physical context inspired one of the most important concepts of the master plan, namely the idea that the drainage lines become ‘green fingers’ that connect the hillside with the ocean: These lines also become the main structuring device of pedestrian movement from the upper slopes down to the golf course and beachfront hotel. Visitors are immersed into the landscape (away from the views experience from the buildings) into dense forests in which water bodies are discovered.

Cultural context and landscape design response Found Already known by Arab sailors in the 10th century, Mauritius has been inhabited by Portuguese, Dutch, French, British, Indian, African and Chinese farmers, business men, aristocrats, slaves and soldiers of Buddhist, Muslim, Hindu and Christian belief. This rich cultural diversity is reflected in

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CORNICHE BAY INTEGRATED RESORT SCHEME the colourful tapestry of celebrations, shrines, building styles, temples, churches, dress, languages, decorated buses and thematic resorts. Artists and writers such as Malcolm de Chazal breathe life into the landscape with their images and words: “The light would reach us more quickly in the morning and fade more slowly at night if the whole earth were divided into vast flower beds that called forth the light at dawn and clutched it longer at nightfall. Nature instituted summer for flowers long before man took summer over for his own uses.” Significant to the vicinity of the site is Le Morne Brabant, a mythical volcanic rock that rises from the sea. Apart from its strong visual presence, it has become a symbol of the resistance against slavery after a tragic event that occurred in the nineteenth century: The almost inaccessible cliffs of the outcrop were frequently occupied by groups of maroons (runaway slaves) in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to avoid capture. After slavery had been abolished, a police expedition was sent on 1 February 1835 to inform the hideaways of their new found freedom. They saw the policemen, thought they were coming to capture them, and jumped to their deaths. Since then Le Morne has become associated with the abolition of slavery and was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list in 2008. The Le Morne Cultural Landscape Management Plan states that ‘Le Morne Brabant peninsula is one of the most striking landscapes of Mauritius’ and “Le Morne holds great importance in the history and memory of Mauritius”. The site itself carries a memory of a route used by maroons leading up the hill. The exact location of the route is not known. More recently the site was used as a hunting ground and the platforms from which huntsmen would wait on their prey are still present.

Response The cultural diversity and resulting lack of a well defined architectural vernacular render a thematic response to an existing style problematic. Most hotel developments on Mauritius are however stylistically modelled after vague images of sugar plantation mansions or primitive (Polynesian) ‘island huts’ – landscape elements such as street furniture often perpetuate these themes. In contrast, the Corniche Bay landscape design did not attempt to stylistically reflect any one of the many cultures (real and imagined), but rather take cues from local patterns (e.g. salt pans), building techniques and materials (e.g. basaltic rock walls), and contemporary landscape architecture design ideas. In responding to the dense meanings of the landscape, it was decided to design spatial interventions that evoke interest and hint at content, rather than to translate ideas literally into form. As with the ecological education, the content (e.g. slave history) would be accessible through a digital field guide. The most obvious response to the cultural landscape is however the layout of the master plan which is affected by the fact that the site is partially located within the Le Morne World Heritage Site buffer zone – in order to create a diffused edge (to prevent a definite boundary line in the landscape) ‘fingers’ from the site were allowed to penetrate the heritage site and vice versa.

Master plan and landscape design response Found As mentioned, a master plan for Corniche Bay “drawn from the natural topography of the site” was conceived by Foster + Partners and Arup engineers in 2006. The master plan consists of

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a road network following the contours of the site, a nine-hole golf course on the hillside area with the slightest slope, villa sites that are orientated for optimal privacy and views, a beach reclamation strategy, an infrastructural system that promotes sustainability (e.g. grey water harvesting and solar heated geysers) and an architecture with “curving timber constructions [that] undulate from one building to the next, giving the whole hotel development a bold and unified language that blends with the organic forms of the surrounding gardens.” (F+P booklet, 2006)

Response The first response was to critically evaluate the master plan and inform the proposed landscape related concepts. Most importantly, the concept of a lush, tropical environment was questioned in light of the findings concerning the bio-physical environment as discussed previously. The complexities of the planting strategy were brought to the master plan and thereby added an important layer to the scheme on a planning (e.g. cost estimation and nursery site selection) and conceptual level (visualisations of the landscape that departed from the tropical settings of the original marketing images). Another area of concern was the drainage line crossings: The road layout included high-level crossings that required extensive and disrupting earthworks. The landscape architects proposed low-level crossings by means of low water bridges that would collect pockets of water and immerse the visitor into the landscape – juxtaposition to the general spatial experience on site that is dominated by long distance views.

Banyan Tree Hotel unit landscape

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CHAPTER TITLE CORNICHE BAY INTEGRATED RESORT CHAPTER SCHEME 0

Villa site plan

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Tree Hotel unit garden

Ebony forest walk

Landscape design responses Villa landscape The landscaping around the hillside villas provide the paradox of privacy and prospect through a grading of vegetation density and height: one approaches the villa through a dense broad-leaf forest, enters the unit and is encouraged to move forward by the linearity of a planted interior wall, moves through the simplistic interior space and is spatially released onto a deck where the dramatic views over low, flowering plants to Le Morne and the ocean are revealed - framed by the sculptural Bois noir’s (until the indigenous trees are sufficiently mature). Privacy during landscape establishment is ensured by the use of a screen – a repetition of vertical timber poles – that wraps around from the back to the sides of each unit. The screens are positioned to define outdoor showers that are linked to the bathrooms – tall trees contribute to a sense of showering in a forest rain.

Cultural landscape interventions The genus loci of areas on the site which have special qualities was amplified through subtle designed interventions. As mentioned, these areas are linked to a digital field guide – the experience of landscape is exalted by the knowledge of landscape. These areas include a viewing platform with reference to Le Morne, rest areas in the drainage lines where small pockets of water would be collected, a sculptural intervention that alludes to the maroon pathway, sunken walled gardens and Banyan tree clearings.

Banyan Tree resort unit gardens Whereas the hillside villas are focused on an experience of views and mountainside, the primary concern for the hotel units is the connection with the sea. A patterning of dense vegetation strips that run acutely to the coastline ensure privacy between the units, with low vegetation in front of the decks allowing visitors to enjoy views of the sun and the sea that touch in the west. These green

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CORNICHE BAY INTEGRATED RESORT SCHEME

Walled garden at Villa

Villa garden

streaks are contrasted by white sand paths that lead to the beachfront and black strokes of basaltic stones that allude to the dark beaches found naturally on Mauritius. The landscape architects proposed that the roofs of the units be re-designed to accommodate planting to minimise the visual impact on the landscape – the idea was considered.

The central garden The L-shape of the main hotel building forms a central space that could be read as the heart of the resort. The dining areas and individual spa treatment rooms are arranged around this space giving it additional importance. The space acts as an anchoring point from which a series of lines create a visual and spatial connection to the sea. These lines become the ordering device for pathways and the gardens which celebrate and feature coastal vegetation.

Beachfront Only the portion of the seafront that is outside the World Heritage Site buffer zone was to be converted to a sandy recreational beach. The area within the buffer zone was been conceptualised to enhance the natural and rugged beauty of the shoreline with sand only being introduced above the high water mark. A timber pathway runs parallel to the coastline and is interrupted by a series of pavilions from which visitors can experience solitude in contrast with the energetic activities of the recreational beach. In line with the design approach of celebrating and responding to the real contexts of the site, the beachfront is serially interrupted by pockets of basaltic boulders that would hold soil for the growth of salt-tolerant coastal vegetation that positively disrupt the marketing images of white sands and palm trees.

Project significance For its sustainable approach and contextual sensitivity, the Corniche Bay integrated resort scheme has been cited by the Government of Mauritius as a precedent for future hotel developments on the island. From a landscape architecture point of view, the project introduces a botanic paradigm

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CORNICHE BAY INTEGRATED RESORT SCHEME

shift with a rigorous zeal towards applying, where possible, an indigenous planting palette. The design is also a shift from the thematic responses that are most frequently encountered on similar commercial projects and hopes to be a contemporary place rooted within the patterns of the island’s ecological, cultural and built environments. Although endeavours to design places with meaning are always contentious, it has here been attempted – not ignored nor prostituted – to design a place where the visitor is immerged into the layers of the landscape through a network of spatial (in situ) and informative (ex situ) references. The intention of the project is to not only allow the visitor to enjoy the obvious resort experience, but to be immersed in the culture – historic and contemporary - of Mauritius and be grounded in the landscape of the place.

Credits: The Team The Client Tratorio Holdings (Mauritius) Ltd Landscape Architects Graham Young (Project leader, Designer) Anton Comrie (Designer) Johan-Nel Prinsloo (Designer) Johan Barnard (Designer) Nadia Moolenaar (Designer) Architects Foster + Partners, London Project Managers Mace Environmental Consultant Arup SIGMA Ltd, London

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Mini

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PROFILE

MONKEY TOWER Monkey Tower™ is a new product developed by a Phd engineer Alan Watt and is available for the first time on Southern Africa exclusively through Boom Access Platforms (a Division of Audentia Commodities (pty) Ltd). Monkey Tower™ produce safe, fast and easy to use access platforms. Alan was working on a phd in deployable structures at Cambridge University. Alan’s phd was in developing new concepts for unfolding structures for satellites, this involved making satellite dishes, solar panels etc small enough to fit inside the tight constraints of the launch vehicle envelope. Additional constraints involved substances that can’t be uses in space, like oil or grease (it just disappears in a vacuum) and it is best to avoid motors as power is severely limited before the solar panels are deployed. Alan worked at the Jet Propulsion Laboratories of NASA in Pasadena California for part of this Phd. Towards the end of the phd he entered a business plan competition with the idea of the Monkey Tower (although by a different name then) and won about £20k in funding with further funding coming from the UK government. There’s a lot that makes this equipment unique, besides that it can be set-up by a single person in 5 minutes, it can be towed behind any vehicle, it’s safe because safety latches automatically lock ladders in place, and toeboards and handrails are permanent fixtures so they can’t be forgotten. It’s human-powered so there are no batteries to die or diesel to refill as with with Cherry Pickers or scissor lifts. It can fit through a single door, and its lightweight at only 380kgs it won’t damage floors. The Monkey Tower™ can take a safe load of up to 250kg, meaning two people can work on the platform at any one time. The Monkey Tower™ Mini can take a 150kg load and at 90kg’s can easily fit into the back of a van or on the back of a bakkie. The Monkey Tower™ is firstly a time saver, being erected in less than 5 minutes, while the Monkey Tower™ mini can be erected in less than 60 seconds. Secondly, the Monkey Tower™ is a labour saver. Both the Monkey Tower™, and the Monkey Tower™ Mini can easily be erected by a single person. Thirdly, the monkey is very safe to use, meeting European health and safety regulations, the Monkey Tower™ will provide increased safety for labourers. Fourthly, the monkey towers are manually operated, saving the user from the hassle of having to charge or refill their hydraulic access equipment. Finally, the monkey towers are very light, making them easily manoeuvrable and protecting floors from the damage of heavy scissor lifts. The Monkey Tower ™ has a maximum platform height of 4.5 metres, with an optional additional metre taking it to 5.5 metres (a working height of 6.5/7.5 metres). The Monkey Tower™ Mini has a maximum platform height 1.9metres with a working height of 3.9 metres.

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PROFILE

CORNUBIA INTEGRATED HUMAN SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT Cornubia, Durban, South Africa Pangaea Consulting is the lead Project Managers in partnership with LDM Consulting on this National Government Priority Project. Cornubia, a joint venture between National and Provincial Departments of Human Settlements, eThekwini Municipality and Tongaat Hulett Development, is set to be eThekwini and the Province’s largest sustainable integrated Human Settlement initiative. A 1300ha multi-billion Rand project, Cornubia will be a mixed-use mixed-income development, incorporating industrial, commercial, residential and open space uses. The housing project is being developed along the principles of ‘breaking new ground’ and to promote the achievement of non-racial, integrated society through the development of a sustainable, integrated human settlement with associated economic opportunities for the citizens of eThekwini Municipality. The entire Cornubia Housing project area has a potential yield of 28 000 residential units and will be developed in phases. 15 000 subsidised units will be provided, and the balance will be a various types of housing opportunities and forms of tenure which will cater for different income groups while meeting the objectives of inclusionary housing. These will include social housing for rental and, affordable bonded housing. The mixed income portion will provide an opportunity to boost the gap market which is in line with one of the elements of “Improved property market” as envisaged in Outcome 8. The entire development has an estimated construction value of R25 billion over a period of approximately 20 years. the project is projected to create 43 000 new sustainable jobs and 387 000 temporary construction jobs.

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PANGAEA CONSULTING is a professional service provider, specializing in the provision of professional services to the built environment sector of our economy. The company is poised to usher in a renaissance of professionalism to the Civil Engineering, Program Management, Project Management and Construction Management disciplines of the industry. Each project is assessed to establish the human capital required in executing the appointment to ensure project success and should it be necessary to call on additional resources the company has established strategic alliances with other built environment professionals with similar work ethos. For work packages where adequate best practice processes and procedures exists in the industry, PANGAEA CONSULTING will focus on ‘turning ordinary things to extraordinary’ to achieve success and where there isn’t, the company will endeavour to break new ground in terms of research, adaptation and adoption of multiple best practice guidelines to fulfill the needs at hand, for project success. The company commits to work in partnership with its clients to achieve the common goal of project success. In partnering with the client, PANGAEA CONSULTING will undertake a program of skills transfer in its field of expertise, to PDI and HDI persons who show an aptitude in the built environment Civil Engineering and Project Management fields.

Tel: 031 267 2185 Fax: 031 267 0292 Email: info@pangaeahe.co.za Physical: 6 Queens Avenue, Westville, 3629 Postal: PO Box 2289, Pinetown, 3600 www.pangaeahe.co.za

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CHAPTER 0

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CHAPTER TITLE

Photo courtesy of Hotel Verde THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK


WIND ENERGY IN SA

REVIEW OF THE WIND ENERGY ACTIVITIES IN SOUTH AFRICA

Stefan Szewczuk Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)

Introduction South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is a country located at the southern tip of Africa. It has 2,798 kilometers of coastline that stretches along the South Atlantic and Indian oceans. To the north lie the neighboring countries of Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe; to the east are Mozambique and Swaziland; within it lies Lesotho, an enclave surrounded by South African territory. South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area, and with close to 53 million people, is the world’s 24th-most populous nation. South Africa’s electricity supply industry remains dominated by the state-owned and vertically integrated utility, Eskom, which ranks seventh in the world in terms of electricity sales. Eskom generates 96% of the country’s electricity, which amounts to more than 70% of the electricity generated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Eskom was established in 1923 as the Electricity Supply Commission (ESCOM) by the government of South Africa in terms of the 1922 Electricity Act and renamed to ESKOM in 1986. Private generators contribute about 3% of national output (mostly for their own consumption) and municipalities contribute less that 1%. Eskom’s electricity infrastructure is heavily dependent on coal (92%) with nuclear, hydroelectricity, bagasse and emergency gas turbines accounting for the rest. Eskom owns and controls the national integrated high-voltage transmission grid and distributes about 60% of electricity directly to customers. The remaining electricity is undertaken by 185 local authorities that buy bulk supplies of electricity from Eskom. Eskom also imports power from Mozambique and to a lesser extent from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia, It has sold electricity to neighbouring countries (Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe). Imports and exports constitute about 5% of total electricity on the Eskom system. Eskom operates a number of notable coal fired power stations, including Koeberg nuclear power station in the Western Cape Province, the only nuclear plant in Africa. The uptake wind energy in South Africa depends on whether robust policies and regulations have been put in place. The South African Department of Energy’s energy White Paper on Energy [1] is the most crucial document from which the various supporting mechanisms are then derived. The White Paper sets out five policy objectives and then considers what they mean for demand sectors (energy users), supply sectors and crosscutting issues. The White Paper makes mention of the government’s commitment to renewable-energy options for the country. However, it does not set out implementation plans and targets for renewable energies in the country’s energy

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WIND ENERGY IN SA balance. This weakness prompted the government to develop a White Paper specifically for new and renewable energy [2]. To build on the Energy and Renewable Energy White Papers, the current iteration of the Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) for South Africa, [3], initiated by the Department of Energy after a first round of public participation in June 2010, led to the Revised Balanced Scenario (RBS) that was published in October 2010. It laid out the proposed new build electricity generation fleet for South Africa for the period 2010 to 2030. The IRP was derived based on the cost-optimal solution for new build options (considering the direct costs of new build power plants), which was then ‘balanced’ in accordance with qualitative measures such as local job creation. In addition to all existing and committed power plants, the RBS included a nuclear fleet of 9,6 GW; 6,3 GW of coal; 11,4 GW of renewables; and 11,0 GW of other generation sources. Additional cost-optimal scenarios were generated based on the changes. The Policy Adjusted Integrated Resource Plan has allocated 10,3% to wind in the overall generation capacity, in third place after coal, 45,9%, and nuclear, 12,7%.

South Africa’s wind climate South Africa’s wind resources are influenced by the large scale weather patterns that have distinct characteristics between summer and winter. Summer Winds In summer, the ‘westerlies’ are situated well to the south of the continent (Figure 1). The southeastern Trade Winds (A) influence the north-eastern part of the region. These winds can be strong, curving sometimes from the Limpopo Province (N) into the Free State Province (F), or moving over far northern areas, such as Zimbabwe and Zambia (Z). In the west, the South East Trade Wind (B) caused by ridging of South Atlantic High, are often strong and persistent. The strong ‘westerlies’ are only able to influence the western, southern and south-eastern coastal areas and adjacent interior. Figure 1: Summer winds over South Africa

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Figure 2: Winter winds over South Africa


WIND ENERGY IN SA Winter winds In winter all the circulation features (Figure 2) are situated more to the north than in summer. Strong winds and gusts during winter are usually caused by strong cold fronts, moving mostly over the southern half of South Africa, and also by the ridging of the high pressure systems behind the fronts. The ‘westerlies’ influence the weather of the southern and central parts of the subcontinent to a large degree. Cold fronts often move over these areas and may reach far to the north. The strong ‘westerlies’ are only able to influence the western, southern and south-eastern coastal areas and adjacent interior. When the Atlantic high pressure system moves more eastwards and stays strong, gale force winds can spread to the KwaZulu-Natal coast as far north as the Mozambique Channel.

South African wind energy programe (SAWEP) In 2001 the then Minister of Minerals and Energy requested international assistance to establish a South African wind energy industry. The South African Wind Energy Program (SAWEP) Phase 1 was formulated to undertake projects with funding from the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and the Danish Government. The goal of SAWEP Phase 1, [4], is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions generated by thermal power generation in the national inter-connected system. SAWEP’s objective is to install and operate the 5.2 MW Darling wind farm and prepare the development of 45 MW combined wind farms. SAWEP is also intended to contribute to South Africa’s national development objectives by diversifying power generation in South Africa’s energy mix; setting up a wind energy industry that could generate employment and by promoting sustainable development and making use of South Africa’s renewable and natural resources. SAWEP Phase 1has been divided into six main outcomes to contribute to first lowering of identified barriers. Each component is associated with specific outputs and a set of activities. • Increased public sector incremental cost funding, by assisting the Government of South Africa with detailing the most appropriate financial instruments that should be made available to stimulate commercial wind energy developments; • Green power funding initialized, by assisting initiatives geared towards green power marketing and setting up and implementing Tradable Renewable Energy Certificates (TRECs) as well as implementing a green power guarantee scheme; • Long-term policy and implementation framework for wind energy developed, by assisting the Government of South Africa; • Wind resource assessment, by assisting interested public and private sectors entities with the generation of reliable wind energy data and other necessary information for wind energy development; • Commercial wind energy development promoted, by assisting private sector developers with the (pre-) feasibility of a number of wind farms up to 45 MW installed capacity. • Built capacity building and strengthened institutions, such as key government departments, public agencies, wind farm industry (e.g. South African Wind Energy Association) and independent private firms. SAWEP Phase 1 also aims to achieve two key strategic outputs that will guide South Africa on wind energy development. The first strategic outputs is the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) that is

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WIND ENERGY IN SA intended to play a significant role in providing information for potential investors for wind farms on areas that have opportunities. The second key strategic output is the development of a Wind Industrial Strategy for South Africa. This will help determine the possibility of establishing a wind industry in South Africa. The Wind Industrial Strategy project aims to play a strategic role in paving the way for the gradual phasing in of wind energy in South Africa by informing the South African Department of Trade and Industry’s plans for the local manufacture of wind turbines and the associated components.

Wind atlas for South Africa (SAWEP-WASA) Several studies have been carried out to assess the wind energy potential of South Africa and the estimates range from a very low 500 MW to an extremely high estimate of 70,000 MW. The first attempt at estimating South Africa’s wind energy potential was done in 1995 by Diab, [5], who reviewed and assessed meteorological data that was sourced from the South African Weather Services. Diab concluded that wind power potential is generally good along the entire coast with localised areas, such as the coastal promontories, where potential is very good, i.e., mean annual speeds are above 6m/s and power exceeds 200 W/m2, that moderate wind power potential areas include the Eastern Highveld Plateau, Bushmanland, the Drakensberg foothills in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal and areas with low wind power potential include the folded mountain belt (vast region of very complex and diverse terrain), the Western and Southern Highveld Plateau, the Bushveld basin, the Lowveld, the Northern Plateau, the Limpopo basin, Kalahari basin, the Cape Middleveld and the KwaZulu-Natal interior. The upper limit of wind energy available to be captured in South Africa was estimated by Diab to be at 3GW, [6], with an expectation that 198000 GWh could be supplied by wind in 2002. As part of a larger scale project of the (then) Department of Minerals and Energy, ESKOM and the CSIR, compiled the South African Renewable Energy Resource Database (SARERED), [7]. This database provided the resource potential for solar, hydro, biomass and wind for South Africa. The wind component of this database was also known as the South African wind atlas. This wind atlas is based on the merging of two micro-scale analyses using DTU Wind Energy’s WAsP model (Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program). The input data for both analyses was meteorological data that was obtained from the South African Weather Services. This wind atlas, for the first time, provided more detail as to the possible locations of areas of good wind resources in South Africa but not of a quality that could be used for planning purposes. This lack of quality provided part justification for the development of an accurate wind atlas for South Africa as part of the South African Wind Energy Program (SAWEP) that is discussed later in this paper. Commissioned by the African Development Bank with the support of the Canadian International Development Agency, Helimax prepared a quantitative map of wind speeds for the African continent at a resolution of 50 km, [8]. The main purpose of the project was to identify target countries for investment in wind energy by the African Development Bank. In total eight countries were identified for priority investment by the Bank in wind energy projects: Tunisia, Morocco, South Africa, Mauritania, Madagascar, Cape Verde, Mauritius and Eritrea. No indication of possible wind energy production is given by the study A meso-scale wind map of South Africa was produced by Hagemann, [9] in 2008 as part of his Doctorate research at the University of Cape Town. His thesis explores the utility of the MM5 regional climate model in producing detailed wind climatology for South Africa in the context of wind power applications. In terms of the resultant meso-scale wind atlas of South Africa a significant inland wind resource was discovered over the three Cape Provinces which

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WIND ENERGY IN SA was previously unknown. Hagemann puts forward the case that South Africa’s wind resource is higher than some previous studies have suggested and is comparable to some of the windiest markets in the world. The study analysed wind speeds across South Africa for three scenarios to estimate for South African wind power penetration for wind farm development. This current published estimation of South Africa’s potential wind resource. See Table1 All of the scenarios show that South Africa has a very high wind resource and that even under the low case substantial wind energy generation is feasible. Based on the work done by Hagmemann a meso-scale map of average annual wind speeds at 10m for South Africa is given in Figure 3 The main objective of the new Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) is to develop and employ numerical wind atlas methods and develop capacity to enable planning of large-scale exploitation of wind power in South Africa, including dedicated wind resource assessment and siting tools for planning purposes. The development of a WASA would therefore accelerate the investment in wind energy. This is in line with the South African government’s objectives of reducing greenhouse gases and diversifying energy supply and also developing human capacity to support the emerging renewable energy industry. Case

Assumptions

Result

Low Case

All sites within 3 km of existing infrastructure (66+ kV grid, roads); 60 m hub height; minimum of 35% capacity factor

20 TWh of feasible annual electricity generation corresponding to approx. 6,000 MW of installed wind power capacity

Central Case

All sites within 4 km from existing infrastructure; 60 m hub heights; minimum of 30% capacity factor

80 TWh of feasible annual electricity generation, corresponding to approx. 26,000 MW of capacity

High Case

All sites within 5 km from infrastructure; 100 m hub height; minimum of 25% capacity factor Table 1: Scenarios for wind development by Hagemann

157 TWh of feasible annual electricity generation corresponding to approx. 56,000 MW of capacity

Figure 3: Average annual wind speeds at 10m above ground

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Aluminium's properties and features support the critically important need to reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions, a major contributor to global warming. LIGHT Aluminium is light. About 1/3 the weight of steel. STRONG Aluminium alloys can achieve strengths similar or in excess of steel. Aluminium is durable and corrosion resistant. BEAUTIFUL Aluminium is attractive as milled, while surface finishing achieves a wide range of textures. MANUFACTURE Aluminium can be rolled, extruded, forged and cast. ALUMINIUM ROLE IN SUSTAINABILITY z

Aluminium is increasingly being used in the manufacture of vehicles. The major benefit is light weighting. } less fuel is used.

z Major applications are found in architecture and building construction: Smart design ensures thermal insulation. } less energy used to condition the living and working spaces. z In packaging aluminium is used to cut the weight of containers (cans for beverages, laminated cartons, and foil containers for food.)

These are a few of many examples of the contribution that aluminium makes to reducing energy expended, reducing GHG emissions. WASTE MINIMISATION z At the end of its life, aluminium components (scrap) are collected and recycled. } Aluminum's role in waste minimization. HEALTH The postulated link between Aluminium and health risks is a long dead issue. Flawed research methodology led to an erroneous assumption. EMBODIED ENERGY AND LIFE CYCLE 75% of all aluminium ever smelted is still in use. Aluminium is a durable, corrosion resistant material with a long service life. Aluminium can be recycled indefinitely with no loss of properties. Up to 95% of aluminium in buildings is recovered and recycled. Re-melting aluminium requires less than 5% of the energy needed to produce primary aluminium from aluminium oxide. A significant portion of aluminium is remelted. This lowers the effective embodied energy dramatically. Together with the advantageous strength to mass ratio, the embodied energy of aluminium in use is similar to that of competing materials.

} less fuel used.

Helvetia House, Greenvale Road, Wilbart,Germiston Tel: +27(11) 455 5553 z Fax: +27(11) 455 5554 z E-mail: afsa@afsa.org.za z www.afsa.org.za


WIND ENERGY IN SA

The WASA project team consists of DTU Wind Energy of Denmark, CSIR, the University of Cape Town, (UCT) the South African Weather Services SAWS and the South African National Energy Development Institute, and (SANEDI). Phase 1 of this project is scheduled to be completed in April 2014. Including assessing the various wind atlases for South Africa site selection criteria was developed as to the sites where the 10 wind measurement masts were to be erected. Site visits were undertaken, interactions done with the various landowners and the relevant agreements to erect the masts were completed. The sites where the masts were erected are near Alexander Bay, Calvinia, Vredendal, Vredenburg, Napier, Sutherland, Prince Albert/Beaufort West, Humansdorp, Hartebeeshoek and Ntshe. These sites are representative of terrain types, suitable for meso- and micro-scale modelling and geographically spread out evenly over the project area. The wind measurement stations were designed to meet International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards and MEASNET guidelines. (MEASNET is a co-operation of companies who are engaged in the field of wind energy and want to ensure high quality measurements, uniform interpretation of standards and recommendations as well as interchangeability of results. See http://www.measnet.com) The sensors are proven of high quality and individually calibrated. The instrumentation was arranged on the masts to minimise errors and uncertainties caused by flow distortions. The 60 meter masts were designed, procured and manufactured in South Africa. The measurement equipment was designed and delivered from DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. In accordance with South African Environmental Impact Assessment procedures, basic assessment procedures were negotiated and an application document submitted. After the environmental approvals were obtained, site preparations were initiated and the erection of the 10x60 meter masts completed. The entire wind measuring system and the transmission of wind data to the CSIR’s Stellenbosch campus was commissioned during September 2010. The data that is collected can be monitored on www.wasa.csir.co.za Monthly wind measurement data files are made available for download by anyone entering their registration information. Registration includes coordinates, affiliation and the intended use by the interested party. The data for each month will be made available after a quality check by the project team and is available on the following website: http://wasadata.csir.co.za/wasa1/WASAData. With the availability of one year’s worth of wind measurements the first verified Numerical Wind Atlas was produced for the coastal region of the Northern Cape Province, the Western Cape Province and most of the Eastern Cape Province. This Numerical Wind Atlas is a generalised, climatological (30-year) annual mean wind speed [m/s] 100 m above ground level and is shown in Figure 4.

Wind energy industrial strategy (SAWEP) The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) of South Africa and then Risø-DTU, now DTU Wind Energy, of Denmark undertook this investigation into the development of a wind energy industrial strategy for South Africa and published a report in 2010, (Szewczuk et al [10]) that was delivered to the United Nations Development Program. The objective of this investigation was to provide the necessary information for the South African Department of Trade and Industry to develop the official wind energy industrial strategy for South Africa.

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Figure 4: WASA wind resource at 100m wind speed Internationally, energy policies are developed with an express intention that they lead to important industrial outcomes. Lund, [11], investigated the impacts of energy policies on industry growth in renewable energy. Lund showed that energy policies can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in sustainable energy, including that for the wind energy industry. Market deployment measures that enhance home markets will in most cases lead to growing industrial activities in that country even when the related industrial base is relatively weak. However, irrespective of the domestic market situation, investment or research and development support to strong industries in related fields may be a powerful way to help diversification into the wind-energy field and to generate new export opportunities. Considering the whole value/supply chain of the wind-energy production may be useful to position and identify industrial strengths but also to focus the energy policy measures optimally, in particular when industrial impacts are important to policy makers. Market deployment actions would basically influence the downstream part of the supply chain more, but would also cause upstream impacts. Lund also suggests a possible industry evolution path. A successful windenergy industry expansion process leads to exports and foreign operations, and to a global industrial profile. This has been the case for many wind-energy companies and industry growth may happen through acquisitions, organic growth, mergers and other business processes. Lewis and Wiser, [12], examined the importance of national and local policies in supporting the development of successful wind- turbine manufacturing companies by exploring the motivations behind establishing a local wind-power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind-turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in 12 countries. Lewis and Wiser first examined strategies for local industry development, including models for wind turbine manufacturing, technology acquisition and incentives for technology transfers. The potential benefits of a domestic wind-power technology manufacturing industry were described, as well as barriers to entering this business. The experiences of some of the major existing or emerging national wind markets around the world were analysed, focusing on 12 countries: Denmark, Germany, Spain, the United States, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Japan, India, Brazil and China. All of these countries have either fostered, or are attempting to foster, the development of a domestic wind-technology manufacturing industry, though to varying degrees. The importance of sizable and stable home markets in supporting emerging local wind-power technology manufacturers were discussed, and the policy mechanisms used by these countries to directly or indirectly support localisation of wind-power technology manufacturing were highlighted. In many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer’s success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind-power market. Whether

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WIND ENERGY IN SA new wind-turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilisation of their turbines in their own domestic market, which in turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for windpower technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry. Lewis and Wiser further describe the extent to which a local wind industry may aspire to manufacture complete wind-turbine systems, to manufacture certain components and import others, or just to serve as an assembly base for wind-turbine components imported from abroad. The South African policy and regulatory environment and support mechanisms were analysed. These support mechanisms are in place as per international ‘best practice’. Independent Power Producers are the organisations that will operate wind farms that will be developed in South Africa. Gratwick and Eberhard, [13], analysed Independent Power Producers (IPPs) in Africa at country-level and at project-level to obtain insights into what mechanisms would be needed to make IPPs’ success more likely. Country-level mechanisms that the South African government would need to provide to make an IPP’s success more likely include: • Favourable investment climate in terms of stable macroeconomic policies and good repayment records in a legal system allowing for contracts to be enforced and laws to be upheld. • A clear policy framework embodied in legislation that specifies a market structure, roles, and terms for private and public sector investments. • Lucid, consistent and fair regulatory supervision improving general performance of private and public sector assets. • Coherent power sector planning with energy security standards in place and clarified planning roles and functions, as well as built-in contingencies to avoid emergency power plants or blackouts. • Competitive bidding practices with a transparent procurement process to potentially drive down prices. • Project-level mechanisms that are likely to contribute to the success of IPP investments are: • Favourable equity partners with preferably local investment as well as experience in developing country project risk, and expectations of a reasonable and fair ROE. • Favourable debt arrangements including low-cost financing where the share of local capital softens the impact of foreign exchange differences, and flexibility in terms and conditions. • Secure and adequate revenue streams through commercially sound metering, billing and collections by the utility, a robust Power Purchase Agreement, and security arrangements where necessary • Credit enhancements and other risk management and mitigating measures including sovereign guarantees, political risk insurance, partial risk guarantees and international arbitration. • Positive technical performance in terms of availability and capacity factors as well as sponsors that anticipate potential conflicts, like operations and maintenance or budgeting issues. • Strategic management and relationship building where sponsors create a good image through political relationships, development funds, effective communications and well-managed contracts. • The economics of wind projects were investigated, including the costs of the components of a wind turbine. According to Blanco, (14), the key parameters that govern wind-power costs are: • Capital costs, including wind turbines, foundations, road construction and grid connection

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WIND ENERGY IN SA • • • •

Variable costs, the most significant being the operation and maintenance of wind turbines The electricity produced The discount rate and economic lifetime of the investment. The discount rate and economic lifetime of the investment reflect the perceived risk of the project, the regulatory and investment climate in each country and the profitability of alternative investments. The capital costs of wind projects can be divided into several categories: • the cost of the turbine itself (ex-works) which comprises the production, blades, transformer, transportation to the site and installation (71% of total cost); • the cost of grid connection, including cables, sub-station, connection and power evacuation systems when they are specifically related to and purpose-built for the wind farm (12% of total cost); • the cost of the civil work, including the foundations, road construction and buildings (9% of total cost); and • other capital costs, including development and engineering costs, licensing procedures, consultancy and permits, and monitoring systems (8% of total cost).

Economics of South African wind projects One of the key factors affecting the development of a wind- energy scheme is that of supply chains associated with the integration of a complete wind-energy scheme where it is seen that a turbine ex-work comprises 71% of total project value. Aubrey, [15], discussed the supply-chain challenges associated with the procurement of the components of wind turbine itself and presented a diagram that illustrates the components that make up a large 5MW wind turbine and their share of total wind turbine cost. Further discussions with South African wind industry stakeholders revealed that there was consensus that the cost distribution as presented by Aubrey is similar to that for a South African wind project. Hence, the capital cost breakdown as described by Aubrey will be used for further analysis of a typical ex-works wind turbine for a typical South African wind-energy project. However, it should be noted from Aubrey’s breakdown of a wind turbine has three components the tower (26%), the rotor blades (22%) and the gearbox (13%) make up approximately 60% of the value of a wind turbine To assist in analysis of the economics of a South African wind- energy project, it is important to establish costs under South African conditions. In this context of developing a full wind- energy project it is useful to establish the average cost/MW of a project in South African currency, the South African Rand (ZAR). Cost figures were sourced industry stakeholders revealed the following range of costs/MW: • US$2.5million/MW or ZAR25million/MW (average conversion rate in August/September 2013 of ZAR10:US$1) • €1.6million/MW or ZAR21.6million (average conversion rate in August/September 2013 of ZAR13.5: €1) From these figures an average cost per MW is ZAR23.3million. Since this discussion relates to South African projects, further analysis will be in the South African currency, ZAR. Based on the weighting of the capital cost of a wind project from Blanco, [14], and Aubrey, [15], the weighting of the components that make up a turbine ex-works, the cost breakdown per MW for a South African wind project is presented in Table 2.

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WIND ENERGY IN SA Item

%value

Cost (Rmillion)/MW

Grid connection

12

2.80

Civil works

9

2.10

Other capital costs

88

0.18

Tower

18.7

1.86

Rotor blades

15.8

3.68

Rotor hub

1.0

0.23

0.86

0.20

Main shaft

1.36

0.32

Main frame

2,0

0.47

Gearbox

9,20

2.14

Generator

2,44

0.57

Yaw system

0,89

0.21

Pitch system

1,89

0.44

Power converter

3,56

0.83

Rotor bearings

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2,55

0.59

Brake system

0,93

0.22

Cables

0,68

0.16

Screws

0,74

0.17

Table 2: Cost breakdown of components/MW of a wind-turbine project For every ZAR23.3million spent on developing 1MW of wind energy in South Africa, it will assist decision makers if it can be established how much of the ZAR23.3million could be spent in South Africa and under what scenarios such spending could happen.

Scenarios for local manufacture Developing possible scenarios for a South African wind-turbine manufacturing industry an understanding is needed of the supply chain associated with the global wind-turbine industry. Supply chain management is essential to wind-turbine supply. The relationships between manufacturers and their component suppliers have become increasingly crucial, and have come under increasing stress in the past few years as global demand has required faster ramp-up times, larger investments and greater agility to capture value in a rapidly growing sector. Supply chain issues have dictated delivery capabilities, product strategies and pricing for every turbine supplier. Pullen et al, [16], provides an overview of the turbine component supply chain and illustrates the fact that the market is highly concentrated for multiple segments, including blades, bearings and gearboxes. It should be noted that the South African industry has a high propensity to innovate, [17]. Building on an existing aerospace industry where experience has been built over the years on manufacturing aircraft components out of composite materials, the same basic materials used in wind-turbine blades, South African industry has the know-how and ability to manufacture wind-turbine blades, for instance. It is beneficial to the South African economy that as much of this ZAR23.3million/MW is spent in South Africa as possible Based on the above; four scenarios for the localisation of wind- energy projects have been proposed and are: • Scenario 1: Low-industrial content • Scenario 2: Medium-low industrial content • Scenario 3: Medium-high industrial content • Scenario 4: High industrial content

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WIND ENERGY IN SA Scenario

Assumptions

1. Low-industrial content

29 Grid connection, civil works, other capital costs, fully imported wind turbines

R6.58 million

2. Medium-low industrial content

47 Grid connection, civil works, other capital costs, tower locally made, rest of turbine imported

R10.95 million

3. Medium-high industrial content

66 Grid connection, civil work, other capital costs, tower, blades, generator and nacelle made locally, rest imported

R15.4 million

4. High industrial content

87 Grid connection, civil works, other capital costs, most of turbine made locally, except for specialised items such as gearbox, rotor bearings

R20,27 million

% value

Local spend/MW

Table 3: Scenarios for the localisation of wind-energy project spend

Renewable energy independant power procurement program (REIPPP) South Africa has a high level of Renewable Energy potential and presently has in place a target of 10 000 GWh of Renewable Energy. The Minister of Energy has determined that 3 725 megawatts (MW) to be generated from Renewable Energy sources is required to ensure the continued uninterrupted supply of electricity. This 3 725 MW is in accordance with the capacity allocated to Renewable Energy generation in IRP 2010-2030. This REIPPP has been designed so as to also contribute towards socio-economic and environmentally sustainable growth, and to start and stimulate the renewable industry in South Africa. Details of the REIPP can be found on the following website: http://www.ipprenewables.co.za/ The allocation of the 3 735 MW per generation technologies is presented in Table 4 with onshore wind being allocated 1 850MW

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ECO TUNNELS

Why an Eco-Tunnel - Growing FRESH is BEST

Economical • Ecological • Sustainable • Durable Extending your growing season and using less water to nurture your plants is only the start. Shield your plants from disease and wipe out the effects of solar radiation in one fell swoop with our globally sought-after products. These are just some of the additional benefits of investing in one of the most economical yet innovative gardening products available today. The DIY kit couldn’t be easier to assemble and our comprehensive manual outlines everything that you’ll ever need to know about growing – in no time at all you’ll be able to get into the garden and enjoy a harvest to be proud of. Do you ever wonder how the food on your plate was produced? Was it sprayed with dangerous toxins, such as herbicides, pesticides, or fungicides? Unfortunately, more than not the answer is yes. Some adverse health effects linked to pesticides usage include: cancer, nerve and brain damage, and hormonal imbalances. Children tend to be the most prone to these symptoms. Producing your own food allows you to be sure that it is not chemical laden and jeopardizing your family’s health. The enzymes, vitamins, and minerals, only stay present for so long once the vegetable is ‘dead’, therefore the sooner you can eat it the more lively and nutrient dense it will be.

C: 081 392 6048 • W: www.eco-tunnels.co.za • E: ecotunnels@gmail.com 242

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WIND ENERGY IN SA Technology

MW

Onshore wind

1 850

Concentrating solar thermal

200

Solar photovoltaic

1 450

Biomass

12,5

Biogas

12,5

Landfill gas

25

Small hydro

75

Small projects

100

Table 4 Allocation per generation technologies In terms of the REIPPP Bidders will be required to bid on tariff and the identified socio-economic development objectives. The tariff will be payable by the Buyer pursuant to the PPA to be entered into between the Buyer and the Project Company of a Preferred Bidder. The first two rounds of the bidding process have reached financial closure and the successful bidders are currently constructing their REIPPP facilities. The 15 successful wind farms from Bids 1 and 2 and the locations of these wind farms can be seen in Figure 5. Details of which are in Table

Figure 5: Location of bids 1 and 2 wind farms

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No.

Name of wind farm

Capacity MW

Location

1

West Coast 1

90.8

Vredenburg

2

Hopefield Wind Farm

65.4

Hopefield

3

Gouda Wind Farm

135.2

Gouda

4

Dassiesklip Wind Farm

26.2

Caledon

5

Noblesfontein Wind Farm

72.8

Noblesfontein

6

Tsitsikamma Community 94.8 Wind Farm

Tsitsikamma

7

Red Cap Kouga Wind Farm

77.6

Port Elizabeth

8

Jeffreys Bay Wind Farm

133.9

Jeffreys Bay

9

MetroWind Van Stadens 26.2 Wind Farm

Port Elizabeth

10

Grassridge Wind Farm

59.8

Port Elizabeth

11

Cookhouse Wind Farm

135

Cookhouse

12

Amakhala Emoyeni (Phase 1)

137.9

Bedford

13

Waainek Wind Farm

23.4

Grahamstown

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Dorper Wind Farm

15

97

Molteno/ Sterkstoom

20.6

Komga

Chaba Wind Farm Table 4: Details of bids 1 and 2 wind farms On 29 October 2013, the South African Department of Energy sent letters of appointment as Preferred Bidders to seven Bidders who submitted Bid Responses for onshore wind on the Third Bid Submission Date. The total wind generation capacity allocated to the third bid is 787MW. Financial close for these bidders is scheduled for 2014, where after construction of the successful wind farm bids can commence

Discussion Based on the policy and regulatory documents that various South Africa Government Departments have put in place to support a renewable energy industry a model has been developed that relates the different stakeholders with their respective roles as well as to indicate the collaboration and partnerships between the various stakeholders from country-level to project-level, Szewczuk et al,[10]. In Figure 6, the different groupings of stakeholders are represented in different colours: • Government departments – Blue • Government Implementation Agencies – Red • Private sector stakeholders - Green. This model illustrates the stakeholder and function relationships from a country-level down to a project-level. Each organisation, as depicted on the left, operates within its specific mandate and due to the complex nature of developing wind farms collaboration between the various government departments and partnerships with industry stakeholders is needed to meet project objectives. The objective of this model is to highlight the list of role-players in the development of wind energy projects and since more than one role-player is linked to any process item on the left careful coordination by role-players is needed to reduce bureaucracy. A large number of links to a process item on the left is an indication of where bottlenecks are likely to occur i.e. a large number of stakeholders active around that role, with a potential for coordination problems and misalignment. The South Africa Department of Trade and Industry (the dti), has an obligation in terms of the Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP), [18], to support the development of the South African wind energy industry. The IPAP has prioritised Green Industries as one of the emerging sectors with a high potential for employment creation. The roll-out of the REIPPP provides an opportunity to develop a local wind energy manufacturing industry. Within the context of the REIPPP, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of the optimum level of localisation that can be achieved in South Africa and under what conditions. During the first half of 2014 the dti will be undertaking a study on the development of the wind energy industry localisation roadmap, in order to explore the localisation potential of the wind energy. This study seeks to build on the outcomes of the study undertaken by Szewczuk et al, [10] by

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Figure 6: Stakeholder and function relationships from country-level to project-level

providing an update on the status quo from 2010 to date, and developing a detailed strategy on how localisation imperatives will be rolled out. The author has been invited by the dti to be a member of the Project Steering Committee for the development of the South African wind energy localisation roadmap. As a final comment, the South African government has established the necessary and robust framework for the establishment of a wind energy industry in South Africa. The effectiveness of

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WIND ENERGY IN SA the various policies, regulations and strategies will be visible in the short to medium term when the wind farms that are currently under construction are commissioned

Acknowledgements The author led the investigation into the development of the SAWEP wind energy industrial strategy and wishes to thank the funders of this project: the United Nations Development Program and the Royal Danish Embassy of South Africa. Acknowledgement is also given to Niels-Erik Clausen, Helen Markou, Tom Cronin and Jørgen Kjærgaard Lemming, all from DTU Wind Energy of Denmark who also worked on the project. The author is also the CSIR project manager on the Wind Atlas for South Africa and wishes to thank the funders of this project: the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Danish Government. In this project acknowledgement is given to Eric Prinsloo and Eugene Mabille (CSIR Stellenbosch), Jens Carsten Hansen, Niels Gylling Mortensen, Andrea Hahmann (DTU Wind Energy), Chris Lennard (University of Cape Town) and Andries Kruger (South African Weather Services).

References • DME 1998: White Paper on the Energy Policy of the Republic of South Africa, Department of Minerals and Energy, Pretoria. • DME 2003: White Paper on Renewable Energy, Department of Minerals and Energy, Pretoria. • DoE 2011: “Integrated Resource Plan for Electricity 2010-2030, Revision 2, Final Report, Department of Energy. • UNDP Project Document, Government of South Africa, United Nations Development Program, Global Environment Facility Technical Assistance to the South Africa Wind Energy Program (SAWEP), PIMS 163 • Diab, R. 1995, “Wind atlas of South Africa”, Department of Minerals and Energy, Pretoria. • Diab, R. 1988, “The wind energy resource in South Africa”in Renewable Energy Resources and Technology Development in Southern Africa, eds. A. Eberhard & A. Williams, Elan Press, Cape Town, pp. 157. • DME/Eskom/CSIR, South African Renewable Energy Resource Database (SARERD), database available from CSIR. • Hélimax Énergie inc., 2004, “Strategic Study of Wind Energy Deployment in Africa”, prepared for the African Development Bank, March 2004 • Hagemann K., 2008, “Mesoscale Wind Atlas of South Africa”, Thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Cape Town. • Szewczuk, S.; Markou H.; Cronin T.; Lemming, J.K.; Clausen, NE.; 2010, “Investigation into the Development of a Wind Energy Industrial Strategy for South Africa”, Prepared for the UNDP • Lund P.D., 2009, “Effects of energy policies on industry expansion in renewable energy”, Renewable Energy, 34, 53-64

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WIND ENERGY IN SA • Lewis, J.I.; Wiser R.H., 2007, “Fostering a renewable energy technology industry: An international comparison of wind industry policy support mechanisms”. Energy Policy,35, pp.1844-1957 • Gratwick, K.N.; Eberhard, A., 2008, “An Analysis of Independent Power Projects in Africa: Understanding Development and Investment Outcomes”. Development Policy Review, 26, pp. 309-338. • Blanco, M.I., 2009, “The economics of wind energy” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13, pp.1372-1382. • Aubrey, C., “Supply chain: the race to meet demand”, Wind Directions, January/February 2007, pp. 27-34 • Pullen, A.; Hays, K.; Knolle, G. Wind Energy: The Facts, Industry and Markets. • Buys, A., 2007, “Measuring Innovation”. Essays in innovation, No2, pp. 52-54 • The dti, 2010/11 - 2012/13 Industrial Policy Action Plan February 2010

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PROFILE

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A R C H I T E C T U R E

GREEN BUILDINGS COMPLETED 2013-2014 BY LYT ATCHITECTURE

stepping up the green agenda

LYT ARCHITECTURE’S GREEN STRATEGY

LYT Architecture aims to be one of the premier Green Design Architectural companies in South Africa. Not only have they designed and built a number of GreenstarTM buildings, like the Group Five headquarters In Waterfall Estate and the TWP Headquarters in Melrose Arch, but they have designed a number of other green buildings, including outdoor adventure schools, school boarding houses, high tech office blocks and also the Green School Concept (featured in the Handbook of 2012). Every architect and Technician in the office has attended the Greenstar Accreditation course and a number have written the exam and are now accredited Greenstar Practitioners. LYT are also members of the Green Building Council. Although not all buildings that LYT works on are able to be rated as GreenstarTM buildings, all our work incorporates good Green Design Principles.

Notable features: • 90% recycled structural steel • High percentage of locally sourced materials • High Efficiency HVAC with Ice-makers, Economy cycle for air conditioning with night air purging • Main atrium 17m x 96m

Group 5 Headquarters,Waterfall, 5 star building


PROFILE

Notable features: • Rainwater Harvesting for toilets (site fully utilized) • High Efficiency HVAC , Economy cycle for air conditioning with night air purging via atria. • District cooling • Double Glazing & shading and shading devices • High percentage of locally sourced materials

TWP / Worley Parsons Headquarters, Melrose Arch, 4 star building

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PROFILE

IJS ELECTRICAL AND CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS (PVT) LTD IJS Electrical and Construction Projects (Pty) Ltd was established in 2010 and registered in 2012 as a result of the various ,yet specific demands in the industry.IJS Electrical and Construction Projects (Pty) Ltd discovered that many problems and compromising arose from insuÿient and often incorrect exchange of information regarding the requirements or needs of the client in relation to the abilities or qualifications of the service provider. The Electrical and Construction industry has become very competitive over the past 5 years and very often ,companies are guided by the cost alone, while neglecting to consider the importance of the services required.IJS Electrical and Construction Projects (Pty) Ltd oer the best possible at the rates negotiated with our clients and based on their specifi c requirements and needs. Description of the Business We plan to market a complete line of electrical and construction products and services. Targeted Market and Customers Our customers will be discount department chain stores, residential and commercial clients Growth Trends In This Business The market for household electrical and commercial services is growing as population grows and new household formationsplace. This is especially true in expanding economies as the standards of living make further gains. Also household purchases are increasingly being made through large chain discount retailers which I plan to focus on serving. Pricing Power We will not initially enjoy pricing power in marketing widget accessories. Discount chains and commercial clients will be primarily interested in price. Our ultimate goal is to build a line so unique and promote it so e˛ ectively that consumers will be willing to pay a premium. Our long-term objective is to build a market that is not entirely based on price.

EQUIPMENT All equipment necessary for the carrying out of the Electrical and Construction requirements

OUR MISSION, VISION, VALUES AND PHILOSOPHY

OUR VISION To be the best, not necessarily the biggest provider of Electrical and Construction Services in South Africa .IJS Electrical and Construction Projects has the vision to extend its services nationally. We currently operate in Gauteng. IJS Electrical & Construction Projects wants to set precedents for other Electrical & Construction Companies with regards to expertise and professionalism . We aim to form strategic with strategic alliances with business partners that share our vision i.e

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PROFILE • Provide the highest quality services • Give top services delivery in a quick and efficient manner • Maintain and expand an outstanding reputation as being the best Electrical & Construction • company • OUR MISSION • We aim to always offer a welcoming environment • We remain cheerful, courteous ,well trained and focused on pleasing our clients • We strive to become the first destination of choice for electrical & construction services • To offer our staff a workplace where they can prosper and grow in a dignified, fun and rewarding manner. OUR VALUES Integrity An IJS Electrical & Construction Projects employee is honest and therefore trusted to work unsupervised on the customer’s premises and with valuables. IJS Electrical & Construction Projects never compromises in its demand for integrity also includes openly expressing one’s opinion, reporting improprieties and not withholding information. Vigilance Professionalism entails seeing, hearing and evaluating. An IJS Electrical & Construction Projects employee is always attentive and often notices things others don’t. Their vigilance is necessary in order to be aware of potential risks or incidents that may take place on the customer’s premises. Helpfulness When needed, an IJS Electrical & Construction Projects employee will lend assistance ,even if it is not directly related to his or her job. As part of an ongoing e˛ort to make life easier, an IJS Electrical & Construction Projects employee will always help if an incident occurs that requires intervention. BUSINESS PHILOSOPHY Our business philosophy is to create value and improve quality for you .The three components of our philosophy are:

BUSINESS PHILOSOPHY Our business philosophy is to create value and improve quality for you .The three components of our philosophy are: Services - Provide Optimal Service Create a mutual beneficial partnership Business - Build Meaningful Partnerships Create a business relationship that is a win – win Client - Understand Clients Needs Build an Electrical & Construction program that is in line with your expectations and profile

Tel:

011 039 6979 011 025 7398 Fax: 086 6111 080 Mobile: 072 0777 836 E-mail: ijsprojects12@gmail.com Address Homemarkers Village, Oÿce Number 08,

Homemarkers Village Oÿce No. 08 Turf Club Street Turfontein 2191 Turf Club Street , Turfontein, 2091

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CHAPTER 0

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CHAPTER TITLE

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GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL SA

EXTENDING THE REACH OF GREEN BUILDING RATING TOOLS IN SOUTH AFRICA Green Building Council of South Africa The Green Building Council of South Africa has released new rating tools to enable more owners, tenants and clients to participate in achieving the objectives of green building.

THE EXISTING BUILDING PERFORMANCE TOOL The new rating tool will allow effective and objective measurement of an existing building’s environmental performance in operation. It will assess key performance indicators (KPIs) relevant to specific environmental issues, such as energy and water consumption. This tool should allow property owners the chance to make every building a greener building thereby leveraging benefits such as lower operating costs, higher returns on assets and increased property values. To date, the GBCSA’s efforts have focused on new buildings - advocating specific design and technical interventions to be implemented before and during construction to improve environmental impact and performance. This tool is a natural progression of the rating tolls suite and will open up a new sector for green building especially because new buildings only account for approximately 102% of a company’s property portfolio. This tool will therefore allow property owners to embrace sustainability across their portfolio. This new rating tool signals the GBCSA’s shifting focus to include transformation of the existing building stock in South Africa, where a critical mass can be leveraged and make a substantial difference in the impact of the built environment on the natural environment.

THE INTERIORS RATING TOOL The Green Building Council South Africa is currently developing an interiors tool – a green building rating tool that addresses tenant interior fit outs across different market segments. This has been facilitated through sponsorship from Standard Bank and Saint-Gobain. Officially launched in PILOT format at the recent Green Building Council Convention on 17th October, the tool has been developed in response to demonstrated market need. The current suite of rating tools cover only base buildings and not interior fit outs. At the much-anticipated launch, a panel of industry experts involved in the development of the tool, will unpack the credits and invite projects to register and test the pilot tool. This tool enables tenants to commit to environmental sustainability: tenants can now decide, independently of the building owner, whether they wish to comply with green building standards within their own office space. This new tool has enormous potential to influence a much broader target group when compared to the other GBCSA rating tools – predominantly due to the high volumes of tenancies and their regular fit outs.

An invitation to register as a pilot project during this initial phase is available online at http://www.gbcsa.org.za/

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REACH STARS FOR THE

PPIHLAOSTE

PIL O T

PHAS

E

EXISTING BUILDING

INTERIORS

PERFORMANCE TOOL

TOOL

SUITE OF TOOLS FOR NEW BUILDINGS PILOT

PHAS

E

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CATEGORY An optional extra category to new building tools only.

LOOK OUT FOR OUR NEW ONLINE EDUCATION PLATFORM The new platform will offer both online and face to face learning that aligns our education with the above rating tools. New education offerings launching in 2014: Green Star SA accredited Professional programme for Existing Buildings Green Star SA accredited Professional programme for Interiors Green Star SA for Contractors Greening Communities Intro to the Green Star SA Interiors tool Intro to the Green Star SA Existing Building tool We still offer: Green Star SA accredited Professional UPGRADED CONTENT programme for New buildings Economics of Green building

SAVE THE DATE

GREEN BUILDING CONVENTION 10-12/09/14

www.gbcsa.org.za


CHAPTER GREENTITLE BUILDING COUNCIL CHAPTERSA 0

MEASURING AND IMPROVING ON PERFORMANCE LEVELS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS IN SOUTH AFRICA Lloyd Macfarlane interviews Francois Retief(GBCSA) about the recently launched Green Star SA Existing Buildings tool:

LM: How does the Green Star SA Existing Building Tool differ from the As Built/Design tool and what are the key elements of the tool? FR: Where the new building tool is aimed at 2% of the built fabric, the existing building tool aims at the other 98% of the market. It is focussed on making existing buildings operate as efficiently as possible. The rating will expire after a three year period to ensure that buildings are consistently monitored for efficiency. The tool is structured in the same way as the new building tool with eight categories covering management, energy, water, transport, emissions, land use and ecology, materials and innovation. There is also the energy and water benchmarking tool that is a separate offering but is the first rung on the ladder towards achieving an existing building rating… if you can’t measure you can’t manage. Green Star SA Design/As-Built ratings reward design initiatives that are predicted to improve a building’s environmental performance. An operations tool however measures the actual environmental performance achieved.

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LM: What kinds of buildings are eligible? FR: The rating tool has been developed to cater for a broad range of commercial buildings

including office buildings, retail buildings, public assembly buildings and more. Existing buildings are considered buildings that have been operational for a period of 12 months.

LM: How is the PILOT phase going and when will that end? FR: We have had a great response to the pilot phase, and of the applications received, we have

invited 50 projects to participate in the Pilot phase. Compared to the 50 new buildings we have certified in the 6 years since our founding – we are set for a period of phenomenal growth. The Pilot projects will seek certification under the rating tool during 2014, and this feedback will inform the development of v1 of the rating tool.

LM: Can buildings that have achieved a green star rating under the As Built/Design tool

incorporate the Existing building tool? If so, what incentives are there to motivate them to do so?

FR: Yes, buildings can go for all ratings if they fit the criteria. What we see happening in Australia is

that buildings are now differentiating themselves by going for all the ratings. Also with the Interiors tool the power is placed back in the hands of the tenant who can get a space rated despite the rating of the overall building. The motivation to the building owner is an efficiently operated and managed building on an ongoing basis. This reduces operating costs and increases the return on investment. If the building has already been designed according to green building principles, then it has a much better potential to perform well and to achieve an Existing Building Performance rating. The rating in effect validates the performance that was predicted at design stage of the building, ensuring the building continues to perform as intended by the design.

LM: Has GBCSA started with professional training on the tool yet? FR: Yes, at end of March the GBCSA is launching a new education platform that will introduce two more Accredited Professional programmes and aligning our education offerings with all our tools. This now means we have three AP programmes, one for new buildings, one for existing buildings and one for interiors. We will be offering part of these programmes online for ease of learning.

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PEER AFRICA BUSINESS PROFILE 2014 Mission Create an enabling local environment for ownership and implementation of affordable, accessible and appropriate self-help bottom-up sustainable development solutions in Africa and other developing nations and communities. This will be done based in part via implementation and promotion of the SA enhanced peoples housing processes outlined in the SA human settlement development policy, but taking these processes to the next generation via integrated energy, environment and empowered features linked to the government community resource organisation model as seen in our award winning iEEECO™ Model. Our aim is to address the root causes of poverty, starting with the gap in implementationoriented knowledge, address barriers to appropriate skills and accessible and affordable technology which can vastly improve the availability of sustainable basic services. We interpret the National Human Settlement policy in terms related to efficient and appropriate self-help oriented opportunities and a shift away from the “free houses for all” concept. “Our interpretation of human development is a capacitated government and local private sector working hand in hand with the target beneficiaries themselves to implement the required planning and delivery skills and compassion for sustainable integrated energy, environment and empowerment solutions that address related poverty conditions. By addressing these root causes, we aim to see bottom-up sustainable development projects take hold.” D.L. Mothusi Guy It is also our aim that the main of this work be completed by local small medium enterprises as the ideal catalyst to fast-track local development and empowerment in Africa and the developing world.

Origins It is now as easy to build an energy-efficient, low-carbon footprint, resilient community as it is to “build a slum” Our philosophy is that appropriate knowledge and experienced-based methodologies can lead to developmental opportunities under shared local ownership between community and government. Our experience has proven that iEEECO™ development enables collaborating local government and community-based projects to “leap frog” the environmental and social degradation experienced by developing countries as economies grow. Development can be done with socio-economic elements embedded in climate, environment projects with the pursuit of happiness in mind. PEER Africa and its teams of multi-disciplinary affiliates have planned, managed and implemented, with NGOs and community based organizations and all spheres of government the transition of a number of informal settlements to sustainable, resilient communities. In most cases, interventions were designed by PEER and the community stakeholders, and were in-part implemented by the project’s beneficiaries with the support of SA government subsidy funds. This represents an investment of more than R400 million by government over the past 18 years. The investment has paid off with many of the beneficiary communities now receiving basic services, contributing to tax rolls and supporting the building of other sustainable communities throughout South Africa.

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PROFILE PEER Africa working hand in hand since 1995 with it’s affiliates, has a proven track record in working with government on difficult issues and assisting local emerging suppliers and community based organizations and firms to be in sync with current international climate and sustainable development visions, but most importantly linking to South African policies, Emerging Medium Enterprises , black and woman economic empowerment, skills and technology transfer priorities and spending plans as outlined in the National Development Plan.

What Makes the PEER Group Approach Unique? In order to focus on the integration of viable communities and sustainability concepts, PEER Africa developed the iEEECOTM (integrated energy, environment, empowerment, cost-optimised) methodology- a set of bottom-up project management preplanning and delivery guidelines, project design and lifecycle reporting and verification procedures that are a catalyst to local government and local SMEs to produce and maintain viable scalable sustainable communities. There are many informal settlements through-out SA that primarily depend on the informal economy. The iEEECO™ planning and design modules incorporates all local and best practice lessons learned elements of sustainability from other projects. This paradigm shifting community and stakeholder engagement methodology creates an enabling environment for beneficiaries to be an integral part of their own developmental program through the entire lifecycle of the project. The methodology enables fragmented and transient informal communities to organise into nonprofit and emerging small for profit medium enterprises (EMEs) in partnership with local and provincial government. Often this includes the understanding and collaboration between the local and provincial governments, private sector affiliates and the target community organisation. In some cases the community appoints or selected PEER Africa to support it in its endeavors. All financial arrangements with contractors are transparent and auditable by government, and the project leaders are employees of the community as well and paid accordingly.

iEEECO™ Affiliates PEER Africa and its extensive affiliate network of local professional service providers have several decades of collaborative experience successfully introducing innovative application and introduction of sustainable solutions that address integrated Greenfield development, upgrade informal settlement, peoples housing process, local Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) requirements. This collaboration is a part of our holistic approach to stakeholder empowerment-based development in South Africa throughout the South African Development Community (SADC) member countries and Haiti. Through our ongoing work in South Africa we have learned firsthand the market entry requirements, certifications, policies, standard contractual terms, and norms that must be

Young women are trained on how to install solar home systems

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Local community members trained on how to install solar home systems


PROFILE addressed to successfully deliver basic services and sustainable human settlements. We have developed strong relationships with commercial EERE service providers, regional Further Education and Training (FET) Colleges, the Skills Education Training Authority (SETA), Eskom, NGOs, and key ministries including the Department of Human Settlements, Trade and Industry, Treasury, Science and Technology, the Department of Environmental Affairs and the Department of Energy to name a few.

Current and Past projects activities

1. !Kheis Municipality (Northern Cape) off grid iEEECO™ Utility Benchmark Project Present The PEER Africa team was appointed by council to assist the municipality on a comprehensive strategic plan to be the countries first off grid municipality. The project includes integrated energy environment and empowerment of the local community and municipality staff. Considerations include the determination of the optimal renewable energy power generation, scaled integrated demand side management assessment of all top structures and energy and water demand elements within the boundaries of the municipality. 2. US Department of Energy/US Trade and Development Agency PEER and Affiliates is working hand in hand with local South African partners as a part of a recent award to facilitate US-SA renewable energy, energy efficiency, AMI and building technology solutions into SA and the rest of Africa. 3.Witsand iEEECO™ Integrated Human Settlement Project in Cape Town, South Africa, is developed by PEER Africa with support from PEER Global Environment and the International Finance Corp. (IFC),. The Witsand iEEECOTM Development Zone project is the rebuilding of informal settlements to sustainable, resilient communities. The introduction of the South Africa National Housing subsidy funding created a market for the design of new settlements incorporating affordable housing and soon enabled the formulation of a bottom-up economic recovery approach. In 1995, faced with 5 million homeless families living in deplorable, unsafe, unhealthy informal settlements, Nelson Mandela instituted the housing subsidy grant program, giving each income-qualified family the opportunity to have a home. PEER Africa working in hand-in-hand with all stakeholders saw an opportunity to demonstrate that sustainable communities could be created, by local people and locally formed SMEs working in partnership with government and the PEER team could learn to take care of their own informal settlement upgrade projects. The iEEECO™ program, which started as a sustainable human settlement developmental program and has evolved over the past 18 years into a fully embraced and awarded sustainable economic development best practice. Many of its features are transferable and scalable and can benefit poor governments in developing countries that are rebuilding. Beneficiaries become

Non-grid solar working during national power outage

PEER team working hand in hand with local municipalities to achieve off-grid utility status

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PROFILE project stakeholders, EMEs and workers, and are expected to take care of themselves and their communities. However, the greatest benefit is to the local government who have learned by doing and fast=tracked the transfer of sustainable development knowledge to the city and provincial officials. 4.Eskom Integrated Demand Side Management Project Nationwide, South Africa, is a residential and commercial resource efficiency and conservation program aimed to reduce peak electricity demand. In response to a fatal power failure that occurred in Cape Town in February 2006, the PEER Africa team provided recommendations and oversight to an emergency response demand-side management program. The goal was achieved and the entire Eskom driven effort removed around 400 MW of avoidable peak electricity load off the power grid in order to alleviate future power “blackouts” and “brownouts”. PEER Africa was hired by the power company, ESKOM, to design a turnkey business plan for 30,000 households, train and deploy a field team of EMEs and their workers to reduce the residential load to the grid over a 100 km2 area starting 20 km out of town along the west coast. Within 5 months, this program had empowered five EME Energy Service Companies (ESCO), trained over 300 historically excluded youth and removed 40 MW of unwanted power use from the electrical grid in the city. This shows project management competence and ability to work under crisis situations and empower local poor residents. 5. EnerKey University of Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa, Integrated Monitoring Evaluation Reporting Verification and Certification (MERVC) of Residential monitoring equipment and weather stations used by community members to validate installed EERE/IDM systems performance The PEER team established an onsite applied research feeder project in Cape Town that provided the German South African Megacity Alliance with community based research information about the impact of energy and water saving interventions in the lower income communities. The iEEECO™ prototype houses and EERE interventions were monitored using various equipment for the design and development of a community based verification and validation system. The purpose was to determine the impact of various demand side energy and water interventions and solar/wind off grid system performance measurement. The project spanned two years and the collected data is in the process of being analyzed and a report is expected in January 2014. The site is the source of many site visits and awareness session including the Energy Parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Energy who endorsed the project as a national best practice. 6.Green House Gas Emission Reductions New Home Construction, South Africa, is a Monitoring, Independent Validation and Verification of a pilot program designed to deliver energy efficient homes to the beneficiaries in the South African subsidized housing market. PEER Africa prepared a proposal for the International Utility Efficiency Partnership (IUEP) to receive grant funds to monitor a representative sampling of these homes to scientifically determine if they were performing as designed, using Energy 10, software developed by the USDOE and compared the results to a local South Africa package (Building Toolbox). The study successfully proved that the homes were behaving as planned and the physical results verified the occupants’ claims. PEER Africa’s D.L. Guy obtained a patent for the smart metering and data management and data logging equipment design. Results were used to assist in selling the nation’s first VERs for a low cost self-help community human settlement project based primarily on passive solar design. These are unique skills that PEER brings to selected governmental collaboration projects and the outcome of which is reported to the Science and Technology Cluster and the Human Resource Council to inform national policy makers.

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PROFILE

Awards and Recognition • PEER was a member of the 1995 U.S.-S.A. (Clinton–Mandela) Bi-national Commission to normalize relations and expand post-apartheid cooperation in the quest to bring basic services and opportunity to the majority of South Africans. In this capacity, PEER Africa was developed as a response to President Mandela’s request to address the basic living requirements of the most impoverished citizens of the nation and to empower local SMEs. • We have been recognized by the UNFCCC for having a best practice paradigm in the delivery of sustainable resilient communities that are affordable, energy efficient. • The South African government (Department of Energy) has now recognized PEER Africa’s iEEECO™ brand and outcomes over the years as a National Flagship Program and this has been a platform to enable the further development of the iEEECO™ commercialization and packaging in order to implement this process in communities engaging up to a million people. • The American Academy of Environmental Engineering awarded PEER Africa the 2012 Gold Award for superior achievement in sustainable development. • PEER Africa was awarded the 2009 Eskom Eta Award for advancements in the field of residential energy efficiency in South Africa. • The iEEECO™ program is the subject of several publications and documentary films as an international best practice

Future Areas of Focus • The firm is working with public and private stakeholders to design and develop the next generation iEEECO™ Human Settlement Greenfield Projects, one in each climatic zone in South Africa. The project is designed to be based on a leading edge innovation of the current enhanced peoples housing process (EPHP)/Non-grid Solar PV/Solar Home System set aside and show case local South African sustainable energy, environment and empowerment solutions. As such we have made provision for local FET Colleges and municipalities to gain practical hands on experience with climatically conscious “leap frog” developmental concepts. • The second area of focus is a return to the original motivation for starting the firm, which was the empowerment of the poorest of the poor. In this regard, PEER Africa has developed a multi-tier program targeting integrated upgrade of services and self-help programs for 1 million of the poorest of the poor households. The aim is to assist government to avoid service delivery delays due to silo and bureaucratic processes by offering a special purpose set aside delivery vehicle that can enable a coordinated cost optimised approach on a project by project basis. The model can reduce the time and cost of service delivery, local supplier development, community based ownership and a drastic uplift of the Gini coefficient factors that hold families in poverty. • Of critical importance is the FET College Post COP17 iEEECO™ program which brings local FET Colleges into the mainstream of market driven sustainable development while at the same time acting as a catalyst for vocational education to be fast tracked against market requirements. • PEER is also expanding into the non-residential sector by integrating the iEEECO™ OFF-Grid Utility and local manufacturing and assembly plant development projects linked to the above mentioned iEEECO™ programs. • PEER is returning to international and local funding sources to establish special purpose funding and delivery vehicles which can address the need for capital and project bridge finance. Douglas Mothusi Guy Email: ieeecodlg@gmail.com Cell: 082 579 6032 Website:www.peerafrica.co.za / www.peercpc.com Skypeaddress: ieeeco1 THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK

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RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLUTIONS

renewable energy, is one of our key selling points,” Naidoo explains. Being a company that specialises in electrical engineering, the company offers services as varied as feasibility studies, tendering and community liaison through to contract administration, inspections and post completion audits.

\

SNA Consulting Electrical Engineers When it comes to meeting the energy crisis being felt in South Africa in terms of alternative, less harmful sources of energy, One such company has stepped up to meet the challenges effectively. SNA Consulting Electrical Engineers was established in Durban back in 2003, generating an impressive list of projects which managing director Sydney Naidoo has personally seen through to their completion from the onset. Over the years, the company has built up an impressive clientele base that includes work for the local, regional and central governments as well as private developers in the commercial and industrial sectors. SNA has an incredible record of successfully completed electrical engineering projects. Some of these projects are technical, such as the installation of floodlighting, TV and radio broadcasting systems, and fire detection and evacuation systems in sports stadiums, while others are vitally important, such as the installation of operating theatres, intensive care wards and intercom systems in hospitals just to name a few. Most of the building services work done by SNA is simply designing and installing the commonly found items such as lighting systems, escalators and information display systems. According to the Director, the company's real passion lies in the efficient, clean use of energy. “Our expertise in energy management, particularly

SNA has developed an integrated design philosophy that focuses on solutions driven by technology while demonstrating an awareness of the impact that their projects will have on the environment. According to Naidoo, SNA lost some projects to the downturn, but at the same time managed to pick up work as a result of the downturn because of the main fact that their projects are saving people money.“The opportunities for renewable energy are rising because our customers have seen real savings,” Naidoo says. It's easy to see the truth in what Naidoo says just by taking a look at some of the energy management and renewable energy projects his company has been involved in. SNA Consulting Electrical Engineers has provided solar power plants and wind power plants to clients ranging from the Umgeni Eco-Tourism Centre and Umnini Thusong Centre, right through to the City Fleet Offices and Claremont Taxi Rank. Meanwhile, the firm's energy efficiency expertise has been sought out by clients as varied as the City Hospital, Kendra Retirement Homes, the ABSA Stadium and Pick'N'Pay, who have made use of SNA's expertise in several of their stores. SNA are constantly investing in keeping themselves on the cutting edge of energy technology even as competition continues to be strife with the demand for engineers with expertise in renewable energy increases. As a company, their methodologies and design approaches are informed by the latest thinking in the field. The most valuable asset a company like SNA has is the

expertise of its staff, and the company has a tightly constructed team well trained and experienced. Naidoo is responsible for the training of every team member in his company. DURBAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY: Over the years the firm has built incredibly strong ties with the Durban University of Technology, helping to assess its curriculum and provide practical training to students, several of whom have gone on to work for SNA. Today SNA has a compact team consisting of technologists, technicians and designers. “The advantage of a team this size is that it's a much more personal concern,” Naidoo explains. “We're all able to discuss everything on a daily basis, giving us plenty of opportunities to exchange ideas. It also allows me to keep a close eye on everything that goes into and out of the office.” This approach has led towards SNA developing some strong partnerships with its clients, and the company receives a lot of referral business thanks to its dedication to finalising projects within the deadline and within budget without sacrificing quality. SNA Consulting Electrical Engineers is becoming a trusted household name. It's no surprise that Naidoo is expecting the company's turnover to increase drastically over the next few years, and he's already planning to focus more of his company's efforts into the energy saving efforts . “Next we're going to be moving heavily into renewable energy,” he tells us. “At the moment roughly 60% of our business comes from building services, and 40% of it comes from energy management. Eventually we're aiming to have 30% of our business in building management, 40% of it coming from energy distribution and the rest of our business being generated through our renewably energy work.” As more people become aware of resource management for economic as well as environmental reasons, companies like SNA Consulting Electrical Engineers are going to be crucial in changing our perspective on how we do things.

SNA Consulting Electrical Engineers

3 St. Ives Road, Bellair, 4094

Tel : 031 465 3020

Fax: 031 465 2068

Email: admin@snaconsulting.co.za


PROFILE

SNA CONSULTING ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS

SNA Consulting Electrical Engineers was established in Durban in 2003 by Mr. S Naidoo, who specialises in Electrical and Electronic Engineering Services. Our services include: • Building Electrical Installations, • Green Building Installations, • Renewable Energy, • Emergency Power, • Electronic Security • Energy Auditing and Management. Our client base is spread between private developers, the industrial and commercial sectors, as well as local, regional and central government organisations. We strive towards an ideal partnership with our Client, based on mutual trust, respect and our determination to deliver a well-above average service. Our performance is deliberately quality orientated and seeks the optimum balance between Client needs and available budgets. The timely completion of tasks, innovative planning and design, the expert application of appropriate technology, stringent adherence to budgets and contract dates, as well as continuing key person involvement, are inherent, vital elements of all our projects. SNA’s integrated design philosophy as well as technology driven solutions always takes cognisance of the effect and impact on the project environment. Constant effort is put into ensuring that we stay abreast of the latest energy technology. We strive to develop and apply the most appropriate design approaches and methodologies during each project.

Contact us: T: (031) 465 3020 F: (031) 465 2068 E: admin@snaconsulting.co.za P.O. Box 70379, Overport, 4067 3 St. Ives Road, bellair, 4094

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CHAPTER 0

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CHAPTER TITLE

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ROOF-TOP SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC

James Dalrymple BA LLB LLM Director-SuperEnergy

ROOF–TOP SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC – Things to Consider According to a report by Frost & Sullivan, Solar Photovoltaic generated electricity could be cheaper than Eskom generated electricity by 2020. The report states that the cost of renewable energy technology is declining, whereas coal-based Eskom electricity continues to rise sharply. It is expected that grid parity for solar PV will be reached by 2018. (1) Grid parity is the point at which purchasing electricity generated by solar PV is equal to the price of purchasing electricity from the grid (Eskom). This is an important concept because it means that it makes financial sense to install solar PV both for domestic and commercial properties without government subsidy. Part 1 of this article looks into the various technologies available to enable a household to become off-grid, or energy independent and briefly analyses the pro’s and con’s of solar PV. Part 2 deals with the practical side, such as building preparation of both solar PV and solar hot water. Part 3 considers the National and Local Government’s role in the transformation of the energy system in South Africa.

PART 1 If approved, Eskom’s proposed electricity price hikes will see electricity tariffs rise by 110% over five years. This follows an already doubled electricity cost over the past three years. The more we hear about South Africa’s energy crisis and the escalation in tariffs so the idea of energy independence becomes more and more attractive. Before going off-grid and investing money into energy-generation, the first step should be to reduce energy consumption. Here are a few examples: • Switch off the lights when leaving the room and switch off electrical appliances when not in use. • Reduce the temperature of your hot water geyser. • Insulate your geyser with a blanket and the hot water pipes with lagging. • Install a water-saving shower head. • Install a Solar Water Heater or a Heat Pump. • Replace light bulbs and tubes with CFL or LED-lighting.

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PROFILE

ENERGIX INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL LED LIGHTING SYSTEMS Our company has been in operation since 2009 .We are a small company that specializes in the field of Advanced LED Technology we offer specific solutions for clients looking for quality products that are tailored for their needs and are not just a general importer of products. We are commited to offering our client the best products and prices in the field. Some of our products have been in use for 5 years now and they are still operating like new. Since then the technology has improved and the lumen output has increased tremendously , the prices have come down and now there are allot more companies offering led products. But we are not just another led supplier with the common LED products you find in this country, we offer unique solutions to companies with up to date advancements in the industry and are continually updating our products, and are proud to be the only company in S.A to offer a 10year warranty tube. Our 3 year 5 year and 10 year warranties are not just a statement , they are a commitment to our products quality and service should their be any problems or failures. We are commited to offering you replacements for any default products during the warranty term stated on the product. please feel free to find out more about our advanced lighting solutions should there be any interest in our products. Energix Solutions www.energix.co.za energix1@gmail.com C: 072 727 9634

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ROOF-TOP SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC • For cooking think about switching from electricity to LPG, biogas or biomass. • Replace appliances, like fridges, freezers, dish-washers, TVs, computers, printers and other electric equipment with ones that use less energy! – And never let them run on stand-by mode. • Improve the building envelope; this could include installing ceiling insulation and sealing off gaps around windows and doors. After considering the above energy reducing measures it may be beneficial to think about generating your own electricity from a renewable source. The renewable energy technologies for generating power, include Solar PV, Wind turbines, Bio-digesters and Hydro-electric systems, each of which are discussed below.

Villiersdorp – 450kWp Roof-top installation

1. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) With Solar PV there are three. system options: grid-tied, off-grid and hybrid. Grid-tied systems are the cheapest and lowest maintenance option. Off-grid systems are attractive to those who would like to be completely energy independent, and a hybrid system combines the best of grid-tied and off-grid solar systems. In urban areas Solar PV combines well with the national grid because the grid effectively acts like a battery and therefore saves you the expense of a battery bank or backup generator. Bear in mind however that a grid-tied system is of little help during a power cut so a hybrid may be needed. In rural areas it may be cheaper to install an off-grid PV system with a battery bank and backup generator.

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ROOF-TOP SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC

Grid-Tied Solar PV System A grid-tied Solar PV system is connected to the utility power grid. The Solar PV array generates electricity during the day and any excess which is not consumed by the household is fed into the national grid. At night the household buys electricity from the grid as normal. The offset between this buying and selling electricity means the grid effectively acts as ‘storage’ or a ‘battery’. Batteries are expensive, less efficient and require maintenance, so using the grid instead is a clear advantage. The cost and maintenance benefits of being grid-tied are convincing if the municipality allows net-metering (essentially allowing PV generated electricity to run your meter backwards) or if there is a feed-in tariff in place. The bottom line is that you get access to backup power and energy storage from the utility grid, while at the same time you help mitigate the utility company`s peak load. As a result, the efficiency of our electrical system as a whole increases. The disadvantage of a grid-tied system is that if there is a power cut, even during the day, the electricity generated by your PV system cannot be used by the household. The inverter automatically switches off the system if it does not get power from the grid. This is to prevent electricity entering the grid from independent sources if maintenance work needs to be done.

Off-Grid Solar PV Systems To ensure access to electricity at all times, off-grid solar systems require battery storage and in many cases backup generators. Off-grid solar systems can be cheaper than extending power lines in certain remote areas and living off the grid offers the satisfaction of self-sufficiency. This feeling is more important than saving money for some people. Energy self-sufficiency is a form of security. Power failures on the utility grid do not affect off-grid solar systems and the price of electricity can be locked in over a 25 year period, which is the guaranteed life span of a Solar PV system, as opposed to being vulnerable to Eskom price hikes. The disadvantages of an off-grid Solar PV system are mostly the cost and maintenance of batteries. Battery banks usually need to be replaced after about 5-10 years. Batteries are complicated, expensive and they decrease overall system efficiency, which further adds to costs. There is a lot more equipment needed for an off-grid system, which also increases the cost. It takes a lot of batteries to prepare for several consecutive days without access to sunlight or power from the utility. This is where backup generators come in. In most cases, installing a backup generator that runs on diesel is a better choice than investing in an oversized battery bank that seldom gets to operate at its full potential. For a greener option, there are generators on the market that can run on propane or bio-diesel as well as several other forms of fuel.

Hybrid Solar PV Systems Hybrid solar systems combine the best from grid-tied and off-grid solar systems. These systems can be described as grid-tied Solar PV with extra battery storage. Hybrid solar systems are less expensive than off-grid solar systems. There are no requirements for expensive backup generators and the capacity of the battery bank can be downsized. At the moment, off-peak electricity from the utility company is cheaper than diesel. The technology of energy storage is evolving rapidly, and the situation could look entirely different just another decade down the line. However, for the vast majority of homeowners, tapping the utility grid for electricity and energy storage is significantly cheaper and more practical than battery banks or backup generators.

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Progress to Mission Zero Interface achieves 90% carbon reduction in Europe. Interface, a leading carpet tile manufacturer and environmental pioneer, has recently introduced several innovations that are significantly reducing its impact on the environment further still, achieving 95% water reduction and 90% carbon reduction from January 2014 in Europe.

Our renewable energy usage

0% 1996

Our GHG emissions

95%*

17,238

Reduced by 90% from 1996 to 2014*

2014

tonnes

3,350

1996

Our energy Energy usage per unit of production has been reduced by 50% since 1996.

tonnes

1,550*

2013

tonnes

2014

Green gas from the grid Produced in Spakenburg, just 35km from our Scherpenzeel site. The bio-gas is created through

Interface’s Dutch manufacturing facility now operates with 100% renewable energy (both electricity and gas), using virtually zero water in its manufacturing processes and has attained zero waste to landfill. This is a key achievement for the facility and a significant step forward for the company as it strives towards Mission Zero – Interface’s pledge to eliminate any negative impact it has on the environment by 2020 and by doing so, become a restorative enterprise.

Our water usage

waste and put into the gas grid.

We have reduced water by 87% since 1996 and it is estimated we will reduce it by around 95% with a closed loop recirculation system already installed.

1996 reduced by

87%

2013 2014

Our new precoat line works at double the output and is more accurate. It uses 40% less gas but we’re aiming for 50%.

uses

40% less gas

Remaining 5% is used for drinking, showers, restaurant,

201 4

production line

Our

s

use

8%

les

ial

ter

a sm

199 6

sprinkler testing.

waste has been reduced to zero.*

Other initiatives: • Insulation of hot machine parts • Lower temperature materials

*

All 2014 calculations presented are predictions based on currently implemented initiatives and data from previous years. Figures from 1996 are measured data. © Interface Europe 2014

Interface dealer, South Africa:

www.kbacflooring.co.za JHB: 011 608 4270 CPT: 021 464 4320 info@kbacflooring.co.za

www.interface.com


ROOF-TOP SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC

Work in progress-Villiersdorp

Advantages of solar PV • PV panels provide clean – green energy. There are no harmful greenhouse gas emissions thus solar PV is environmentally friendly. • Solar energy is energy supplied by nature – it is free and abundant! • Solar energy can be made available almost anywhere there is sunlight. • Solar energy is especially appropriate for smart energy networks with distributed power generation – DPG is indeed the next generation power network structure! • Solar Panel costs are currently on a reducing track and expected to continue reducing for the next few years – consequently solar PV panels has indeed a highly promising future both for economical viability and environmental sustainability. • Photovoltaic panels, through photoelectric phenomenon, produce electricity in a direct electricity generation way • Operating and maintenance costs for PV panels are considered to be low, almost negligible, compared to costs of other renewable energy systems • PV panels have no mechanically moving parts, except in cases of –sun-tracking mechanical bases; consequently they have far less breakages or require less maintenance than other renewable energy systems (e.g. wind turbines) • PV panels are totally silent, producing no noise at all; consequently, they are a perfect solution for urban areas and for residential applications. • Because solar energy coincides with energy needs for cooling PV panels can provide an effective solution to energy demand peaks – especially in hot summer months where energy demand is high.


PROFILE

KITCHEN VENTILATION SYSTEMS Kitchen extraction searching for answers I have spent most of my life asking why questions – driving me and others bats. Worse I did philosophy as a major. So why do we need a canopy for a kitchen extractor and the answer came back – you don’t! This astounding find which bucks all perceived wisdom came about when I realised kitchen fume can collect itself by natural means which brings about a dramatic change in the need for power. In fact I might be able to reduce consumption to just 5% of the present usage. Picture a large steakhouse with fans needing 5 or 6 kilowatts costing around R6000 per month: imagine paying R300 instead. Imagine the saving from 200 000 odd kitchen extract systems – it may well save a whole power station. The key to this new understanding is simply that hot air rises making Indian smoke signals with a blanket possible. The smoke only diverts when disturbed by a breeze. This is the same thing in a kitchen. All the trouble starts when someone tries to tamper with this flow and fans are at the bottom of almost all extract problems. Now another interesting principle when coupled with the first brings about a profound change in how to manage kitchen fume. Coanda enunciated his principle around 1928 and it simply states that a moving body of air like kitchen fume will tend towards a fixed body like a wall. A mouth placed somewhere up the wall will trap particles easily – and cheaply. Some things you may feel will be lost like when boiling, but do not worry a canopy system does not capture all particles anyway. Within a year or two a thick layer of grease and grime will grace the canopy roof. Particles of oil are so small and light they are their own bosses. A micron is a billionth of a cubic millimetre and you can have up to 10 000 oil particles in just one of these. Your best chance of catching them is to not allow the freedom of a canopy but to rely on concentrating them by the Coanda effect. What it wont capture is smoke but if you are cooking properly you should not produce any! The after effects are also dramatic; no more massive supply side systems and because the air movement is so small it makes the breeze that disturbs an Indian message as well as kitchen fume easier to manage. Contact us: Trevor Pengelly T: (011) 782 7639 F: 086 672 3745 C: 083 513 4517 E: pengelly@mweb.co.za 19 Chirnside Road, Greenside, Johannesburg, 2193

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ROOF-TOP SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC • Residential solar panels are easy to install on rooftops or on the ground without any interference to residential lifestyle.

Disadvantages of Solar PV • As in all renewable energy sources, solar energy has intermittency issues; not shining at night but also during daytime there may be cloudy or rainy weather. • Consequently, intermittency and unpredictability of solar energy makes solar energy panels less reliable a solution. • Solar energy panels require additional equipment (inverters) to convert direct electricity (DC) to alternating electricity (AC) in order to be used on the power network. • For a continuous supply of electric power, especially for off-grid connections, Photovoltaic panels require not only Inverters but also storage batteries; thus increasing the investment cost for PV panels considerably • In case of land-mounted PV panel installations, they require relatively large areas for deployment; usually the land space is committed for this purpose for a period of 15-20 years – or even longer. • Solar panels efficiency levels are relatively low (between 14%-25%) compared to the efficiency levels of other renewable energy systems. • Though PV panels have no considerable maintenance or operating costs, they are fragile and can be damaged relatively easily; additional insurance costs are therefore of ultimate importance to safeguard a PV investment. (2)

Treetops and super energy, Picketberg

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PART 2 Most building surfaces are suitable for the installation of photovoltaic arrays, sloping and flat roofs. A distinction can be made between retro-fit and integrative solutions. Retro-fit solution– PV modules are secured to the existing roof. As a result, the PV system is an additional technical structural element of the building with the sole function of generating power. Integrative solution – building components of the roof are replaced with PV components – this is also known as building-integrated photovoltaics. The PV system becomes part of the building shell and in addition to generating power, performs functions such as weather protection, heat insulation, noise insulation and sun shading. (3) If you are building but are undecided or don’t have the budget for a Solar PV or Solar hot water system it is still worth speaking to your Architect and Builder because a small investment at the build stage can save on costs later when you do decide to install Solar PV or Solar Hot Water. You’ll need to start by assessing the following areas of your home for solar-readiness.

1. Check your roof The optimum placement of solar collectors will be on a North facing roof with open space and year-round solar exposure. Also assess that roof slope, the optimum is 30°. Check the age and condition of your roof, and that it conforms to current building codes for loading. Solar collectors/ arrays add approximately 1.5kg’s per square meter, additional load.

2. Check your utility room The optimum configuration for placement of your solar hot water tank (Solar Hot Water) and controls (Solar PV) will be in your utility room. Check to see if your existing hot water heater is aligned with where future solar collectors might best reside (on your roof ) and if space permits for additional equipment (floor, wall, etc.). If you are building new, these are important design considerations.

3. Check your pipe runs (solar hot water) The optimum course of conduit from your collectors to your utility room will be the most direct route. This reduces installation costs. Ensure there is room for a single chase or two chases. The pipe chase must also slope at >20° angle. If you are building new, these are important design considerations.

What to Expect from your Installer Roof • Your installer will conduct a solar site assessment to locate potential shading caused by existing structural or natural elements (trees, etc.) throughout the year. • He will locate on the roof plans of protrusion-free areas. Typical obstacles - chimneys, roof vents, skylights, gables. The roof plane will be designed to meet structural loads associated with the rooftop Solar PV or Solar Thermal collectors according to local building code. Your installer must assess the roof design and strength to ensure it complies with building codes for applicable loading and wind speeds. • Your installer will ensure the designated roof area has north or east to west facing orientation. The area must be located below the roof ridge, cannot extend beyond the roof edges, and must be above the vertical wall line.

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ROOF-TOP SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC • Your installer will design roof pitch and corresponding angles above horizontal (0°) to maximize output efficiency when the time comes to install your desired rooftop system.

SOLAR PV 4. Solar Assessment Your selected solar professional will conduct a solar site assessment at your home or future building site. This important step will inform design decisions and specifications whether your goal is to make your existing home or your new home solar-ready. The following needs to be ascertained at the site survey; • Site plan of the building to determine its orientation • Construction drawings of the building to ascertain roof slope, the usable area and the cable lengths • Photographs of the roof and of the electric meter location. • The following points should be borne in mind during the on-site visit. They form the basis for good planning. • Module type, system concept and method of installation • Desired energy yield • Financial framework • Usable roof space • Orientation and angle of inclination • Roof shape, structure, and type of roofing • Data on Shading • Installation sites for PV combiner/junction boxes, isolation facility and inverter • Meter cupboard and space for extra meters • Cable lengths, wiring routes and routing method • Assess equipment that will be needed for installing the PV array, such as scaffolding. (5)

Solar thermal 1. Your installer will install (Solar Hot Water) two 20mm nominal diameter continuous conduit constructed of rigid or flexible metal conduit, rigid PVC conduit, liquid tight conduit or electrical metallic tubing (per code). This conduit must run from an accessible attic or roof location, within the home’s envelope, to a designated location in the mechanical room of your home. 2. Your installer will choose conduit materials considering the maximum temperatures and pressures per design standards and specifications of a Solar Hot Water system and per code.

Workspace for future Installations 1. Attic: your builder should allow for ample workspace around terminations above attic insulation and between the conduit and roof decking. All terminations should be properly sealed and capped around attic penetrations and capped to maintain envelope tightness and fire ratings per code. 2. Roof: in cases where the home has no attic (e.g. cathedral ceilings), your builder will ensure all solar PV and SDHW terminations are sealed and flashed around the roof penetration with a rubber or corrosion-resistant flange/boot with gasket and capped to be air and water tight, per code.

Electrical and Plumbing 1. Standard Tank-type water heaters / instantaneous water heaters / Boilers with Domestic Water Heater Heating Loop: Your builder will install two copper ‘tee’ connections on your existing water heater’s cold water inlet; one copper or bronze ball valve will be installed on the pipe

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ROOF-TOP SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC between the ‘tees’ and left in the open position; two ‘closed’ copper or bronze ball valves will be connected to both ‘tees’ via short length copper pipe. These ball valves will be capped off to prevent back-flow, per code. 2. Space: Your builder will allocate space in the mechanical room for the installation of future installation of a Solar Process Hot Water storage tank. Your builder must not impede pathways, exits or access to other heating, cooling or ventilation equipment, per code and he must designate ample wall space for future installation of SHW controller, expansion tank, pump, inverter, controls and connection hardware. Your builder will ensure all work is compliant with the most current versions of all national electrical, plumbing and building codes.(6)

PART 3 Energy transformation

Battery bank Earlier this year South Africa became one of the 10 founding members of the Renewables Club, which is a political initiative with a worldwide goal of transforming the energy system. Founding members are China, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Morocco, South Africa, Tonga, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the Director-General of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).The 10 Renewables Club members currently account for more than 40 per cent of global investments in renewable energy. (7) In South Africa the main government driver for Renewable Energy projects is the Department of Energy’s Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Programme (REIPPP). Their website

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ROOF-TOP SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC states that South Africa has a high level of Renewable Energy potential and presently has in place a target of 10 000 gigawatts of Renewable Energy. (8) So from having had almost no large scale renewable projects on the table in 2011 South Africa could become one of the fastest-growing renewable energy markets in the world. At present, less than 1% of the country’s energy comes from renewables; this is expected to increase to about 3% by 2014, 12% by 2020 and 17% by 2030. (9)

Invertors

Energy revolution However the big question is - does the South African Government truly believe in renewable energy or are these initiatives window dressing? As some of the more weary energy experts surmise, the South African government knows that, if it wants money from the World Bank, it has to show it is looking at meaningful ways to reduce its carbon emissions and to improve its energy efficiency. (10) Another concern is that it seems the governments focus is on security of supply instead of broadening access to electricity. Currently buyers can only purchase electricity if they are part of the REIPPPP, but the process is complex and expensive so only large renewable projects with corporate and international funding can participate. If the government was serious about increasing access to small scale renewable energy generation they would introduce a feed-in tariff or at least allow net metering (discussed below). Historically South Africa has relied almost exclusively on coal (and a small amount of nuclear power) to grow its economy and meet its energy demands. Two new mega coal stations (Medupi (4,764MW) and Kusile (4,800MW)) are being built by Eskom while at the same time the government is promoting a nuclear build programme. Coal and nuclear based power is strongly lobbied for and political interests promote these industries. Local governments have not changed their revenue

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ROOF-TOP SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC structures to allow the energy system to transform. Renewable energy is often maligned as being expensive and in need of government subsidy, however coal and nuclear energy have been subsidised for many years without issue. (11) South Africa has the opportunity to leapfrog fossil-fuel based energy development by embarking on an ambitious renewable energy and energy efficiency programme. As discussed above, the Renewables Club aims to transform the energy system. Is the Government ready to support an energy revolution or do they intend to continue their support of the coal and fossil-fuel industries with some flashy but insufficient renewable projects to look good?

Local Government and Net Metering In order to transform the energy system, local government support is just as important. The Renewable Energy industry in South Africa already does not need feed-in tariffs all they need is the implementation of Net Metering. Net metering means that during the day when solar modules are generating electricity any excess power will go into the grid and the meter will run backwards. So you not only save by using power generated on your roof, you also reduce your bill by having your meter run backwards when you export your excess electricity. At night you will draw power from the grid and your meter will run forwards again as normal. This is the simplest way to effectively get paid for solar PV generation. With the exception of Nelson Mandela Bay Metro all other municipalities have not adopted net metering policies. The three main reasons given are: • Municipalities will lose revenue; • The Grid Tie inverter might reverse feed the grid when the grid is switched off, eg for maintenance, and an electrician working on the line might get electrocuted; • The grid might become destabilised.

1. Municipalities will lose revenue The municipality’s loss of revenue is the main impediment to their support of renewable energy – they stand to lose money, it is as simple as that. The other two issues are technical and easily overcome. Municipalities buy the electricity from Eskom and then sell it on to households with a large mark-up. Farmers, factories and mines – all big consumers – buy their electricity directly from Eskom. They pay a lot less than households, who have to pay additional costs for their electricity from the municipality. The municipalities seem to be against renewable energy, however Eskom is supportive because it saves them a lot of power which they can direct elsewhere. The debate therefor is not what would be the best energy system for the country but how to protect municipal revenues. This is extremely short-sighted and doesn’t take into account the economic benefits of an affordable stable decentralised energy supply. According to recent research released by Sustainable Energy Africa (SEA), the City of Cape Town could experience total electricity revenue losses of up to 4.5% and net revenue losses of 22% in the next ten years if energy efficiency measures and distributed renewable energy interventions are implemented at expected rates. A portion of electricity revenue in most municipalities is used in the general coffers for the entire municipality to function and deliver services to poor areas. (12) Even so it is unlikely that municipalities will be able to discourage the uptake of renewable energy since there is a general trend towards adopting these interventions. It is therefore high time they started coming up with a better plan than being obstructive. The uptake in renewable

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ROOF-TOP SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC energy has a number of benefits for the broader community of a municipality. In particular it benefits the local economy by keeping energy spend within the local municipality boundary instead of exporting energy payments outside of the municipality to Eskom. (13) One of the ways that municipalities propose to defend against revenue loss is to decouple charges for energy used from charges to use the local electricity network. Most municipalities currently include electricity department and local network costs into the kWh fee charged to consumers. Instead municipalities want to impose a monthly fee to use the local network that covers municipal costs. However this totally defeats the objective - which is to encourage the uptake of renewable energy generation. A fixed charge for network use will significantly discourage the adoption of solar PV, as savings for the customer are much less than if they are charged the normal residential tariff with net metering. such a scheme may not avert a revenue crunch anyway, as households may well choose to still install solar PV but limit its generation to ‘own use’ (14) – i.e. not feed back into the grid at any time, the result being a lose lose.

2. Islanding Solar PV electricity generation presents no danger to the grid or to maintenance staff because the system has an inverter grid guard which will switch off the system if there is no AC power source. In other words if there is a power failure, the system will shut down and no power will enter the grid, which will allow work to be carried out safely. Unfortunately this means that a grid tied solar PV system does not work during a power cut. You would need storage capacity (batteries) to keep the lights on during a blackout. (15)

3. The grid might become destabilised Large users of Renewable Energy such as Germany and Belgium notice problems on their grids when the Renewable Energy component reaches 20% of electricity supply, but it has taken these countries 20 years to get to this point and this with the incentive of Feed-In Tariffs. These are technical issues and Germany is well on its way to solving them. South Africa will have a blueprint by the time Renewable Energy reaches 20% of the electricity supply at least 10 years away. (16)

Conclusion South Africa has no real option but to rethink its energy strategy. With electricity scarcity, rising coal prices and blackouts, growth cannot be encouraged unless the country explores renewable energy. The true costs of coal and nuclear are not reflected in the pricing of these modes of energy production. Coal and nuclear have long benefited from taxpayer funded subsidies. The Renewable Energy industry has not had the benefit of this leveraging. In addition, the vast external costs of coal and nuclear make them unaffordable. External costs include less job intensity, substantial future expenses due to climate change impacts, and health expenses related to pollution as well as huge water shortage implications. The safety risks and long waste storage requirements of nuclear, as well as the cost of new builds, are unaffordable. These factors have not been factored into the financial or social cost of these methods of energy production. (17) There needs to be a definite policy and investment shift from coal and nuclear towards Renewable Energy. The Department of Energy needs to announce more ambitious targets that could see the electricity sector leading the stated drive of the Renewables Club to transform the energy system. The aim should be 49% of electricity produced from renewable sources by 2030, increasing to 94% by 2050. (18)

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his multifaceted, integrated event, traverses sectors emphasising oppor tunities for investors, policy makers, business people, and consumers to improve environmental and economic per formance be it through achieving ef ficiencies, introducing alternative approaches, and by unlocking value.

17 JUNE

• Green Building Conference • Vision Zero Waste Seminar

18 JUNE

• Green Building Conference • Sustainable Energy Seminar

19 JUNE

• Transpor t and Mobilit y Seminar and Exhibition • Water Resource Seminar and Exhibition • Green Business • Responsible Tourism Dialogue

20 JUNE

• Youth in the Green Economy

21-22 JUNE

• Green Home Fair

Featured Speakers

Featuring:

Dr. Elizabeth Farrelly- Sydney, Australia

Elizabeth Farrelly is a Sydney-based columnist and author who trained in architecture and philosophy, practiced in Auckland, London and Bristol, holds a PhD in urbanism from the Universit y of Sydney and is currently Associate Professor (Practice) at the Universit y of NSW Graduate School of Urbanism. As a longtime advocate of conscious urbanism, she was a keynote speaker at the 2011 Ecobuild in London and in 2012 delivered the Margaret Hendr y lecture to the Australian Institute of Landscape Architects on links bet ween feminism, urbanism and eco-consciousness.

Alberto Kalach- Mexico City, Mexico

Alber to Kalach was born in Mexico Cit y, studied architecture at the Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico Cit y, and completed graduate studies later at Cornell Universit y in Ithaca. In 1981 he founded the firm “Taller de Arquitectura X” with Daniel Álvarez. While he continues to direct TA X, in 2002 his interests also turned to the urban planning problems of his home town, and founded the communit y “México: future cit y” (Spanish: México: ciudad futura). His lake concepts were significant in solving existing water supply problems in Mexico Cit y.

Gaetan Siew- Port Louis, Mauritius

World citizen, Gaetan Siew’s leadership and his vision of a world of sharing allows him to mobilize and inspire world leaders around a creative consensus unleashing the full potential of our resources. Past President of the International Union of Architects UIA, he travelled the world to meet international institutions and governments promoting greater solidarit y. With his in-depth understanding of men, cities and global issues, he continues his mission as CEO of the Global Creative Leadership Initiative focusing on transforming traditional knowledge into new technology.

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ROOF-TOP SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC The renewable energy industry needs adequate financial and economic incentives to stimulate local manufacturing technology and to increase the number of investors in the industry. As start-up costs are high it is essential there is government backing. In addition, the grey area around grid connections needs to be cleared away, beginning with a clear net metering programme that allows for the inclusion of the small to medium renewable energy power producers. This would include a restructuring of the municipal revenue process removing the dependency on electricity tariffs. There is some good news on this in that Nelson Mandela Bay residents are able to grid connect their renewable energy systems to the national electricity grid. This initiative is called the Small Scale Embedded Generation (SSEG) Scheme and is the result of a partnership between the municipality and the National Energy Regulator of South Africa (NERSA) in approving systems of up to 100kW to be grid connected.(19) This is an important step as the SSEG scheme has the potential to significantly impact on the electricity cost to the consumer. The initiative allows consumers to install a green energy solution which would independently meet most of their energy needs while still offering the stability of the national grid. (20) The 100kW restriction is however unfortunate and arbitrary but it is a start and a net metering framework needs to be rolled out nationally.

Ground Mount

Recommendations • Government commitment to energy decisions must show a clear move away from fossil fuels and there must be synchronisation of government policy throughout the various departments addressing energy issues. • Adequate financial and economic incentives need to be in place to allow for stimulating local manufacturing of Renewable Energy technology equipment and to increase the number of investors in the industry. This must begin with greater Renewable Energy investment from the state utility Eskom. • As start-up costs for Renewable Energy is high it is essential that there is government backing. The use of state funds must be directed towards investment in Renewable Energy and not coal or nuclear. • Administrative deficiencies such as those experienced in the REIPPPP process need to be removed. • Clarity is needed around the grid tie legislation, beginning with a clear national net metering programme that allows for the inclusion of the small to medium Renewable Energy power producers. • Dedicated and maintained local content drivers must be in place to ensure that local investors, producers and manufacturers, project developers gain experience.

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ROOF-TOP SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC • Improved access to the grid by independent power producers is required with grid priority given to Renewable Energy. • Load management also needs to improve through the use of smart grid technology and decentralised energy systems. • Government, namely Department of Energy (DoE) and Eskom, need to invest in Research and Developmemt (R&D) for Renewable Energy beyond current pilot projects and research, as well as storage and cheaper production methods. • Eskom should produce a 20 year road map showing the utilities increased investment in Renewable Energy and away from coal and nuclear. (21)

James and Claude- Viliersdorp

References • http://www.pv-tech.org/news/solar_energy_to_undercut_coal_in_south_africa_frost_sullivan • https://www.capetown.gov.za/EN/ENVIRONMENTALRESOURCEMANAGEMENT/ ENERGYEFFICIENCY/Pages/PracticalSteps.aspx • http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/blog/post/2012/12/ advantages-and-disadvantages-of-solar-photovoltaic-quick-pros-and-cons-of-solar-pv • http://irenew.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Solar-Ready-Brochure-IRENEW.pdf • Planning & Installing Photovoltaic Systems – A guide for Installers, Architects, and Engineers, UK 2008 p199. • http://www.pv-tech.org/news/solar_energy_to_undercut_coal_in_south_africa_frost_sullivan • http://cleantechnica.com/2013/06/01/renewables-club-founded-by-10-countries/ • http://cleantechnica.com/2013/06/01/renewables-club-founded-by-10-countries/ • http://www.energy.gov.za/ • http://mg.co.za/article/2013-10-25-00-mzansi-turns-over-a-renewable-leaf • http://mg.co.za/article/2013-10-25-00-mzansi-turns-over-a-renewable-leaf

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PROFILE ProfILe

techNoPol eNergy efficieNt BuildiNg Products Technopol established in 1993, manufactures and supplies Expanded Polystyrene Insulation Products to both domestic and export markets. In our Springs factories we mould and process Expanded Polystyrene Products into a multitude of Insulation Solutions. As a bulk Insulation producer, we work closely with consumers and contractors to develop systems for the building Industry. We manufacture Insulation Elements for Wall, Roof and Floor Applications. All our products are Fire Retarded and produced without using any CFC’s of HCFC’s. Technopol is a founder member of both the Expanded Polystyrene Association of South Africa and Thermal Insulation Association of SA and we are proud to be part of the initiative to protect our environment by implementing energy efficient living.

Let’s look at the price we pay for thermal comfort

If you can afford electricity, remember the irresponsible consumption of this resource results in fossil fuel emissions polluting our environment, i.e. Sulphur, CO2 and NOx (GHG Emissions). For those who can afford air-conditioning equipment, be reminded they contribute to the HCFC build up in our atmosphere. We now know that HCFCs have a thousand times the heat trapping ability of CO2. If the reduction of GHG emissions is our objective then HCFC liberating processes should be reduced. If you can’t afford the above, you have to burn coal and wood to prevent element exposure. This could damage your lungs and cause respiratory diseases thus placing major cost pressures on the health care system in SA. All this while creating smoke pollution and liberating more GHG.

The solution is so simple

Design energy efficient and introduce sufficient thermal insulation and see the benefits: • Energy costs for space heating and cooling will reduce by between 35 and 60 percent. • Energy resource will be conserved. • Pollution will be reduced. • GHG emissions will reduce. • Occupants will be healthy because of the thermal comfort of their dwellings. All these benefits for less than 10% of the average building cost.

Contact us

Lammie de Beer,Managing Director Technopol (SA) Pty Ltd, 9 Wright Road Extension Nuffield P.O. Box 2445, Springs, 1560 Telephone: 011 363 2780 Fax: 011 363 2752 Email: info@technopol.co.za Website: www.technopol.co.za 214

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SMA Invertor

Small solar PV- Stanford

• Koplow, D & Kretzmann, S. 2010. G20 Fossil-fuel Subsidy Phase Out: A review of current Gaps and Needed Changes to Achieve Success. November 2010. p.9 • http://www.greenpeace.org/africa/Global/africa/publications/climate/RenewableEnergyReport_ PoweringTheFuture.pdf • Van De Putte, J; Short, R 2011. Battle of the Grids. How Europe can go 100% renewable and phase out dirty energy. • Van De Putte, J; Short, R 2011. Battle of the Grids. How Europe can go 100% renewable and phase out dirty energy. • Diesendorf, M. 2010. The Base Load Fallacy and other Fallacies disseminated by Renewable Energy Deniers. Energy Science Coalition, March 2010. p. 2, 3, 7 • Ackerman, T; Tröster, E; Short, R; Teske, S. 2009, [r]enewables 24/7, Infrastructure needed to save the climate. • http://www.nmbbusinesschamber.co.za/blog/posts/ bay-electricity-consumers-the-first-to-go-green • http://urbanearth.co.za/articles/ energy-efficiency-and-decentralised-energy-generation-could-negatively-impact-municipal • http://mypowerstation-sa.blogspot.com/2012/02/david-lipschitz-on-net-metering-2012-02.html • http://urbanearth.co.za/articles/ energy-efficiency-and-decentralised-energy-generation-could-negatively-impact-municipal • http://mypowerstation-sa.blogspot.com/2012/02/david-lipschitz-on-net-metering-2012-02.html • http://mypowerstation-sa.blogspot.com/2012/02/david-lipschitz-on-net-metering-2012-02.html • http://www.greenpeace.org/africa/Global/africa/publications/climate/RenewableEnergyReport_ PoweringTheFuture.pdf • http://www.greenpeace.org/africa/Global/africa/publications/climate/RenewableEnergyReport_ PoweringTheFuture.pdf • http://www.nmbbusinesschamber.co.za/blog/posts/ bay-electricity-consumers-the-first-to-go-green • http://www.nmbbusinesschamber.co.za/blog/posts/ bay-electricity-consumers-the-first-to-go-green

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Concrete was there‌

New and independent, The Concrete Institute, created for concrete and related industries, incorporating the original School of Concrete Technology, the Information Centre and Technical Advisory services.

www.theconcreteinstitute.org.za

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THE CONCRETE INSTITUTE PROVIDES INVALUABLE ADVICE ON CONCRETE AND CEMENT The Concrete Institute has been created to provide independent, unbiased information, publications as well as accredited and internationally recognised training on concrete technology to the construction industry. The Institute is mandated to continue offering the following vital services previously offered by the Cement & Concrete Institute (C&CI): • Education and training: – With the skills challenges facing the industry, this is an essential requirement for the future of a qualified and suitably skilled construction industry of the future. The Concrete Institute through its School of Concrete Technology offers a range of internationally-recognised courses including Introduction to Concrete; Making Concrete Bricks and Blocks; Mortars, Plasters, Screeds and Masonry; Concrete Practice; Concrete Technology; Concrete Structures: Analysis & Design; Properties of Concrete for the Structural Designer and Constructor and the highly acclaimed Advanced Concrete Technology course (which is currently underway at The Concrete Institute’s School of Concrete Technology); • A comprehensive Information Centre – Inherited from the renowned C&CI facility, this is one of the largest and most respected sources of information on concrete in the southern hemisphere and widely used by the industry and students as a valuable reference source for technical information. The information centre is equipped with state-of-the art computerised information systems and produces a number of valuable publications. It can also provide information about forthcoming relevant seminars and conferences on concrete technology; and • Consulting – The Concrete Institute offers invaluable advice on concrete-related issues including on-site visits by technical staff. For more information: T: 011 315 0300 E: info@theconcreteinstitute.org.za W: www.theconcreteinstitute.org.za

The Concrete Institute can provide advice on any concrete problem: from building a fishpond in the garden to the construction of concrete highways

Bryan Perrie, Managing Director of The Concrete Institute.

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SOLAR WATER HEATERS

Ntombifuthi Ntuli Director: Renewable Energy Industries Department of Trade and Industry

WILL SOLAR WATER HEATERS DELIVER ON THE PROMISE OF GREEN JOBS? Introduction In 2008, South Africa experienced a severe power crisis that had a severe negative impact on the economy (Calldo, 2008). This was the first signal that the future of electricity supply was in question unless drastic measures were taken to address the situation. Before then, electricity had always been abundantly available at low prices in the world of 0.25c/KWh on average (Edkins et al, 2010) due to cheap coal and the fact that power stations had long been paid off. However, due to economic growth, population growth and electrification of new households, the demand for electricity started to exceed the supply, leading to a crisis. The 2008 power crisis, as well as the steep increases in electricity prices – around 170% between 2008 and 2013 – resulted in awareness amongst average South Africans about the need to use electricity more efficiently. Government also focused on strengthening energy efficiency and energy generation policies and initiatives. Government initiatives involved implementation of the Energy Efficiency Strategy of South Africa which was approved in 2005, which set a national target for energy efficiency improvement of 12% by 2015 (Department of Minerals and Energy, 2005). Eskom’s New Build Programme was approved with a plan to finance it through the multiyear price determination which would see electricity prices increasing from 0.25c/kWh in 2008 to about 66c/kWh by 2013. The second revision of the Integrated Resource Plan was approved in 2010, which mapped out South Africa’s electricity supply plan from 2010 up to 2030 (Department of Energy, 2011). One of the initiatives that were seen as a low hanging fruits in terms of achieving a reduction in the energy demand was that of solar water heaters (SWHs), since water heating accounts for almost one third of a household’s energy needs (Gouws and Le Roux, 2012). According to Gouws and Le Roux (2012) electricity utilization of the residential sector in South Africa is estimated to account for almost 35% of the peak demand, with water heating consumption at approximately 40% of this peak demand. It has been proven that implementing energy efficiency measures in buildings demonstrates significant reductions in energy usage. Buildings are responsible for more than one third of total energy use and associated greenhouse gas emissions in society, both in developed and developing countries (Cheng et al, 2008). The International Energy Agency (IEA)

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SOLAR WATER HEATERS statistics estimate that globally, the building sector is responsible for more electricity consumption than any other sector, which amounts to 42.5%. The installation of one million SWHs by 2016 is one of the programmes that aims at reducing the demand for electricity by 630 MW (Maia et al, 2012). The Green Economy Accord (Department of Economic Development, 2011) also recognises the importance of solar water heating systems in addressing climate-change targets, reducing demand for grid electricity and increasing the number of South Africans who have access to hot water, while creating jobs in terms of manufacturing the units and in their installation. The objective of this paper is to analyse the job creation potential of the SWH industry. The history of the SWH industry will be discussed in order to set the scene. In order to determine the estimated size of the South African market, the future of the industry is discussed. The paper then delves into the designation of SWH, which discusses government interventions on creation of local industry. Finally, job creation in the SWH industry is discussed before drawing conclusions of the discussion.

The History of SWH in South Africa The South African SWH industry experienced significant growth during the periods 1979 to 1983 averaging 42% per year (supported by marketing efforts by the CSIR during the late 1970s and early 1980s). Growth in the period of 2005 to 2008 reached an average of 72% per year prompted by Eskom and CEF marketing efforts during that period (Edkins, et al; 2010). Three peaks can be seen in Figure 1 which depicts the distribution of glazed units between the domestic and commercial sectors over the period 1973 to 2005. The graph indicates that there was a shift between 2001 and 2005 from domestic to commercial applications (Holm, 2005).

Figure 1 Glazed domestic and residential units Source: Holm (2005)

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SOLAR WATER HEATERS Cawood and Morris (2002) (in Banks and Schäffler, 2006) estimated that approximately 484 000 m2 of SWH collectors had been installed in South Africa by 2002, while Holm (2005) indicated approximately 756 000 m2, delivering approximately 993 GWh/annum. In 2008, for the first time in South African history, total (glazed and unglazed) collector sales reached 100,000 m2. According to Edkins, et al (2010), sales expanded by up to 400% during the first four months of 2008 during the load shedding period. The number of active companies in the SWH industry was also thought to have grown from 21 companies in 2007 to over 100 in 2008. After the 2008 power crisis, the market for SWHs in South Africa continued to pick up. This growth was supported by a number of programmes that were all aimed at relieving pressure off the Eskom grid while reducing the climate change impact of the electricity sector in South Africa. A draft of the South African National Solar Water Heating Framework and Implementation Plan was presented in November 2009, which highlighted a target of one million SWHs within the following four and a half years within all categories of formal households (Edkins, et al; 2010). The Eskom rebate programme was set up as part of the Demand Side Management (DSM) programme. This created significant demand for SWHs particularly in the low pressure segment. The programme increased the uptake of SWHs to 220 000 during the 4 year period 2008 – 2012. Over and above the Eskom programme, the Department of Energy (DOE) set up a programme funded through the national fiscus called the Division of Revenue Act (DORA) funding (through Eskom). This fund was aimed at supporting municipalities in order to escalate installation of SWHs. Under this programme, 25000 units were installed. There was significant funding directed towards SWH installation from the Donor agencies such as DANIDA, whereby 5000 units were installed. Up until around 2008, South Africa had a moderate sized SWH industry, with 19 manufacturers identified by Cawood and Morris (2002) (in Banks and Schäffler, 2006), and only 11 identified by Holm (2005). According to Banks and Schäffler (2006) there were two main types of panels sold at the time, namely: low temperature unglazed panels, mostly used for swimming pools and glazed medium temperature panels, used for domestic or commercial water heating. Schäffler (2008) warned that even though a wide range of products was available on the market at the time, the industry was faced with severe limitations in terms of SWH standardisation, awareness, affordability and financing, which ultimately prevented widespread technology adaptation. Over the last five years the South African SWH market has been dominated by imported evacuated tube collectors. According to Holm (2013) the total reported installations amounted to 325 774 in 2013. Of these 60 282 units are flat plate systems and 265 492 (82%) are low-pressure evacuated tube systems. Thirteen local SWH companies were identified by LTE Energy (2012) that manufacture SWH flat-plate panels. There is only one company that manufactures evacuated tube collectors in South Africa, which was established in 2013.

The Future of the SWH Industry in South Africa The demand for SWHs is expected to increase between 2013 and 2016. This was first hinted at in the Green Economy Accord (Department of Economic Development, 2011) whereby government, business, labour and civil society committed to increasing the roll-out of SWHs to one million units by 2014. According to the Accord, government committed to ensure that the goal of installing one million SWHs at household level by 2014 is reached. Business committed to working with government to develop, establish and then publicise a sustainable funding plan to support the installation of one million SWH systems. Business, labour and community constituents welcomed the legislative requirement that solar water heating or other forms of low carbon water heating

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SOLAR WATER HEATERS methods will be required in new buildings which was expected to be promulgated before the end of 2011, and committed to working with government on an awareness campaign to promote compliance with the new legislation. The parties further committed to improve localisation of components, secure support from the insurance industry for replaced units, secure guarantees on installed units, promote the marketing of solar water heating systems and promote uniform technical and performance standards for SWHs. Several of the Green Economy Accord commitments have been, and continue to be, put into action. In 2012 government committed financially to the target of one million SWHs by announcing a budget of R4.7 billion for the roll-out between 2013 and 2016. This fund would cancel the rebate system which would be replaced by direct procurement by Eskom. This change of model would allow government to align the SWH programme with industrial development imperatives, thus increasing the potential for local job creation. However, between 2007 and 2010, the market experienced volatile growth, plagued by malfunctioning products, fly-by-night companies, and incorrect installation and application of the products. Nevertheless, market growth continued, albeit slower than expected, as many suppliers experienced a decline after this initial boom. This was caused by the negative reputation that SWHs were receiving, due to conflicting information and incorrect product application, as well as initial challenges in the development of the rebate program.

Evacuated tubes manufactured in South Africa, Source;Zakhele Mdlalose (DTI) DORA funding is expected to continue playing a part in the 2013/14 financial year. A total of R114.4 million was approved in the financial year 2011/12 for three municipalities (Sedibeng, Musina and Umsobomvu) for the installation of 30,000 SWH units. The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) has facilitated the amendment of Building Regulations. The new regulations, SANS 10400 XA – Energy Usage standard, which was promulgated in November 2011, stipulate that any new commercial and residential building will have to receive at least 50% of its hot water

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SOLAR WATER HEATERS requirements from renewable energy sources such as solar water heating. This requirement is estimated to create a demand of about 500 000 SWH systems between 2013 and 2016. The LTE study estimated that the private buyers’ market will increase to about 20 000 high pressure units per annum during this period. The last issue addressed in the Green Economy Accord with regards to SWHs that may have a significant positive impact on the future market of the SWH industry is the insurance replacement market. The signatories of the Accord committed to secure support from the insurance industry for replaced units. This requires serious negotiation between government and the insurance industry to ensure their buy-in as the geyser replacement market is a huge potential that remains untapped. All these initiatives by government are intended to increase the local demand for SWHs, thus increasing the size of the local market. The demand created supports the local content requirements and increases the economies of scale required to justify local manufacturing.

Designation of SWHs The revised Preferential Procurement Policy Framework Act (PPPFA) regulations, which came into effect on the 7 December 2011 empower the DTI to designate industries, sectors and sub-sectors for local production at a specified level of local content. The Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP) prioritises Green Industries, as one of the focus sectors with potential for contribution to economic growth. SWHs is one of the Green Industry Sectors that were given priority in the IPAP 2012-13. The objective was to designate this sector in order to increase the demand and develop local supply through regulation and development of local industry thus creating more employment and technical skills on installation, maintenance and services (Department of Trade and Industry, 2012). The research on the designation of SWHs was finalised in 2012 and concluded that most of the local manufacturers produce storage tanks and most of the emerging manufacturers produce flat plate collectors, at small scale. A local content level of 70% was to be prescribed for SWH systems procured through government programmes. This encourages creation of a domestic market and increased export opportunities to the rest of Africa and other markets for the domestic producers, which in turn increases opportunities for local employment creation. The designation of SWHs has been finalised and will be implemented with the next roll-out of SWHs through Eskom and municipalities. The key to successful creation of local industry is the security of the market with a long term view. The South African government has ensured that there is a significant market size and that there will be adequate demand for SWHs over the next five years, which should sustain local manufacturers. Government, through the DTI, provides several manufacturing incentives, including the Manufacturing Investment Programme (MIP), the Section 12i tax Incentive, the Manufacturing Competitiveness Enhancement Programme (MCEP), and the Foreign Investor Grant (FIG). Financial support is offered for various economic activities, including manufacturing, business competitiveness, export development and market access, as well as foreign direct investment. All these incentives are aimed at enhancing local manufacturing activities that are promoted through localisation.

Job Creation in South African SWH Sector All the work that has been executed by government within the SWH industry has been aimed at reducing energy poverty by increasing access to water heating, while creating an industry that will result in job creation. According to Maia, et al (2011) installation of SWHs is the biggest driver of job creation in this sector, due to the high labour-intensity of retrofitting hot water systems in high income housing. One of the early investigations into the potential for green jobs

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SOLAR WATER HEATERS conducted by Agama Energy Study in 2003 (Austin et al, 2003) indicated that the most optimistic projection of employment in the SWH industry was 118,421 direct jobs by 2020, while offsetting the consumption of 13,560 GWh. However more recent investigations have been conducted, and in their Green Jobs Report, Maia, et al (2011) argued that despite progressive market growth, the number of jobs in the manufacturing of solar panels is expected to remain relatively low due to the economies of large scale in production, needed to attain a high degree of competitiveness and sustain manufacturing viability through export market penetration. The study further argued against the expectation of job losses in the electric geyser industry since electrical geyser producers would shift to SWH tank production asthe market expanded. The allocation of R4.7 billion by government to meet the target of one million solar water heaters by 2016 that is stipulated in the Green Economy Accord is positive sign that government is committed to the objectives of job creation through the green economy. Government expenditure will create a market that is expected to boost the local industry, especially considering the recent designation of SWH products. Designation has increased the prospects for job creation, since there will be an increase in sustainable manufacturing jobs. The IDC/DTI SWH Designation study (LTE Energy, 2012) suggested that in 2011 only around 200 people were employed in SWH manufacturing in South Africa compared to around 1,300 people employed in SWH installation. This therefore is due to change as imported products will be playing a minimum role in the local market. With the introduction of the high-growth phase, the job creation is expected to increase to 1000 jobs in manufacturing and around 8000 jobs in installation, according to LTE (2012). The IDC/TIPS/DBSA (Maia, et al; 2011) study conducted an analysis on the potential job creation by the SWH industry and concluded that in the short term only 158 manufacturing jobs will be produced, in the medium term this figure is expected to increase to 555, and then increase to 1225 in the long term. They were not very conservative with the installation jobs, considering that retrofitting geysers in middle to high income households may prove to be labour intensive. Therefore in terms of installations, the study suggested 1345 jobs in the short term, 8932 jobsin the medium term and 16278 in the long term. In total the study suggests that 17622 jobs may be created in a long term. Wlokas and Ellis (2013) add that the potential for job creation in manufacturing, retail sales, as well as system design and installation needs to result from increased adoption of SWH technology in addition to local job creation from business development in SWH-related technologies. They further emphasise the importance of training local residents as this creates capacity for maintenance. Wlokas and Ellis (2013) suggest that the challenge in enhancing the employment impact of the low pressure SWH industry lies in ensuring the creation of long-term employment and support of enterprise development, which will require progressive government policies, and providing funding and guidance for the installing companies to allow them to engage with local job creation in a meaningful way. One method that South Africa is implementing in order to make headway with regards to job creation in the SWH industry is designation. The SWH tanks and collectors have been designated at 70% local content each and that implies that as these products begin to be manufactured locally, the job creation projections in the previously mentioned studies will begin to be realised. While trying to increase the number of jobs in the SWH market due consideration has to be given to the fact that continuous training of installers is key to the long term success of the programme, as the programme will be up-scaled. According to Wlokas (2011) SWHs not only provide employment

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SOLAR WATER HEATERS creation for the country, but they also contribute positively to the alleviation of energy poverty through providing a constant source of heated water.

Conclusion As demonstrated in this paper, the SWH industry in South Africa has a long history of existence; it is not new technology and is definitely not a new phenomenon. Even before the designation of SWH, there were more and more locally manufactured products being introduced in South Africa. These had a tough battle in the market due to the influx of cheap (sometimes poor quality) imports, which made local manufacturers uncompetitive. However, the SWH programme is funded from the South African fiscus and with the high level of unemployment in the country, it would be inappropriate for South Africa to support job creation in other countries by importing their products, hence the importance of localisation. Both the IDC/TIPS/DBSA Green Jobs Study and the IDC/DTI Solar Water Heater Designation Study give an indication that the potential of job creation from local manufacturing of SWHs may not be as significant as anticipated. However, with the size of the market, local content requirements, establishment of more local factories, sourcing of components such as glass and aluminium locally, and restricted entry of cheap imports, South Africa may be in a position to balance the economies of scale and increase the number of manufacturing jobs. It must be noted that not only new jobs are important in this regard, retaining existing jobs is as essential. The geyser manufacturing industry is well established and therefore not a lot of new jobs are expected in this sector, most new jobs will come from manufacturing and assembling of collectors. The current Eskom procurement system for SWHs makes local content a requirement thus stimulating local employment. The past four years has been a good learning phase for the SWH industry and it is believed that sufficient skills have been developed in order to ensure that quality standards are met in terms of installation. As SWHs are rolled out the importance of involving local communities cannot be overemphasized. It remains a responsibility of the installing companies (either voluntarily or through contractual obligations) to employ people within the benefiting communities and ensure that they receive appropriate training (whether formal or informal) to deliver quality installations. However basic skills levels are key to ensuring that these people are trainable, and that is the responsibility of government. This paper set out to answer the question of whether the SWH industry will deliver its part of the 300 000 jobs committed in the Green Economy Accord to be delivered by the green economy by 2020. Based on the analysis and the history of job creation in this sector since 2008, the recent designation of SWHs for local procurement, and the projected job creation figures, it seems this industry has a very high potential to deliver on the green jobs commitment. The pace at which the commitments made in the Accord are being implemented gives confidence that government is serious about creating an enabling environment for this industry to develop and reach its full potential.

References • Austin, G., A.Williams, G. Morris, R.Spalding-Fecher and R. Worthington (2003), Employment Potential of Renewable Energy In South Africa, Report by AGAMA Energy (Pty) Ltd, The Sustainable Energy and Climate Change Partnership, Johannesburg, pp 42 • Banks, D., and J. Schäffler (2006), The potential contribution of renewable energy in South Africa: Draft Update

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SOLAR WATER HEATERS • Report, Sustainable Energy and Climate Change Project, Johannesburg, pp 20 -21 • Calldo, F. (2008), Eskom’s power crisis: Reasons, impact & possible solutions, Report compiled for Solidarity Institute, Pretoria, pp 13 -14 (www.solidarityinstitute.co.za) • Chang, K., W. Lin, G. Ross and K Chung (2011), Dissemination of solar water heaters in South Africa, Journalof Energy in Southern Africa, Vol. 22 No 3 • Cheng, C., Pouffary, S., Svenningsen, N., Callaway,M., The Kyoto Protocol, The Clean Development Mechanismand the Building and Construction Sector – A Report for the UNEP Sustainable Buildings and Construction Initiative, United Nations Environment Programme, Paris, France , 2008, pp. 1. • Department of Economic Development (2011), New Growth Path Accord 4: Green Economy Accord, Republicof South Africa. • Department of Minerals and Energy (2005); Energy Efficiency Strategy for South Africa, Republic of South Africa • Department of Energy (2011), Integrated Resource Plan 2010 to 2030, Republic of South Africa • Edkins, M., AMarquard and H. Winkler (2010), South African Renewable Energy Policy Roadmaps, Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town. pp. 1-3, 8 • Gouws, R., and E. Le Roux (2012), Efficiency and cost analysis of a designed in-line water heating system compared to a conventional water heating system in South Africa, School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa, Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, Vol 23 • Holm, D. (2005), Market Survey of Solar Water Heating in South Africa for the Energy Development Corporation (EDC) of the Central Energy Fund (CEF), Sandton • Holm, D. (2013), The status of solar water heaters in 2013, Energize - April 2013, pp 54 • LTE Energy (2012), Designation of the Solar Water Heater Industry, A joint study by Department of Trade and Industry and Industrial Development Corporations, Pretoria, pp. 34 • Maia, J., T.Giordano, N. Kelder, G. Bardien, M. Bodibe, P. Du Plooy, X. Jafta, D. Jarvis, E. KrugerCloete, G. Kuhn, R. • Lepelle, L. Makaulule. K. Mosoma, S. Neoh, N. Netshitomboni, T. Ngozo, and J. Swanepoel, (2011), Green Jobs: An Estimate Of The Direct Employment Potential Of A Greening South African Economy. Industrial Development • Corporation, Development Bank of Southern Africa, Trade And Industrial Policy Strategies. Johannesburg. pp. 22 -38; 89 • Schäffler, J. (2008), UNDP/GEF Solar Water Heaters (SWHs) for Urban Housing in South Africa, Nano Energy, Johannesburg, 2008 • South Africa’s renewable energy policy roadmaps; • Wlokas, H. L. (2011) What contribution does the installation of solar water heaters make towards the alleviation of energy poverty in South Africa?, Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, Vol 22 No 2 • Wlokas, H. L. and Ellis, C, 2012, Poster - How does the low-pressure solar water heater roll-out create employment in local communities?, Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town • Wlokas, H. L., and C.Ellis (2013), Local employment through the low-pressure solar water heater roll-out in South Africa, Research Report Series, Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, pp 4 – 5

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PROFILE

SIYAYA GAS (PTY) LTD Siyaya group of Co.’s

We are a group of business men from the Petroleum, Franchise and Industrial development environment. We saw the need for a turnkey operation in the LPG industry for the up and coming entrepreneur. We love to upgrade South Africa entrepreneurs and hope to play our part in addressing the problem of job creating and of pollution by providing envirnmentally friendly energy. WE FEED THE ENTREPRENEURIAL FLAME OF THE LPG INDUSTRY.

The Industry Approximately 400,000 tons of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is manufactured and sold in South Africa each year, generating a turnover of about R1.5 bn. Manufacturing occurs at all local refineries, from both crude oil and coal. LPG is not a by-product of the refining process, but a primary product in its own right. End users of LPG vary across the spectrum from industrial users and farmers - who need space and process heating and certain machinery needs, to hotels, restaurants and resorts - that operate a range of appliances such as geysers, ovens, hobs and water heaters, and home users - for which it is often a primary energy source for cooking, lighting, refrigeration and space heating, and in leisure activity from gas-braai to camping lights.

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PROFILE

Residential At Total Safety Solutions we are in the business of providing safe and reliable piped gas & fuel solutions for your home. Our LPG piped gas for homes offer a considerable advantage over other household fuels.

Services > LPG Reticulate Installation LPG is a highly subsided fuel and with the Government opening the channels for the private sectors to import LPG and to sell in the Indian Market, it is quite obvious that this subsidy shall be withdrawn gradually and shall be eventually set at par with the market price. Therefore central storage system with larger capacity will definitely have price advantage. The concept of the LPG Reticulate system is the best alternative to the conventional LPG cylinder distribution system and with the overall demand for LPG increasing in the domestic and commercial sectors, causing and increased demand on the bottled LPG cylinders, reticulate LPG supply system stands to have numerous advantages as detailed hereunder

Advantages of LPG Reticulate Installation • • • • • • • • • • •

Continuous supply of gas round the clock assured at the turn of the tap. Easy operation and handling. System based on modern technology available. Future increased demand can be met easily. Clean and safe system. Minimum running! Operation cost. Houses when locked, refills possess problem, but in reticulated system, no such hurdles. No cylinder handling hassles. Space in the kitchens saved by not having any cylinder. Excellent customer services ensured. Perfectly safe system which incorporates various safety devices like the Over Pressure Shut-Off Devices, Under Pressure Shut-Off Devices, Fire Fighting Systems etc. • Multipoint utilization possible to facilitate usage of LPG in water heater (Geyser), LPG Generators, High pressure Cooking burners etc. within the individual dwelling units.

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Services > Domestic Pipeline Installation Whether it’s cooking your favourite meal, or providing a hot shower for your children, LPG piped gas is the ideal solution if you are looking for reliability as well as savings. A totally safe solution, we are in the business of providing safe and reliable piped gas & fuel solutions for your home. Our LPG piped gas for homes offer a considerable advantage over other household fuels. As a fuel, LPG is more economical, efficient and safe. In addition to the environmental benefits, you can depend on our supply and support services all year-round, all the time. We supply LPG piped gas solutions for Apartments, Row Houses, Bungalows, Large Housing Complex and societies. LPG CYLINDERS CAN BE STORED OUTSIDE YOUR KITCHEN AND COOKING BURNERS ARE CONNECTED BY MS/COPPER PIPING WITH APPROPRIATE CONTROL DEVICES.

Where else can this be applied? • LPG Gas Geysers / Water heaters in bathrooms. • LPG Fire places and convectors during winters. • Many other applications. Has this system been tried and proved to be safe, reliable and beneficial? We are still involved and have completed many small and mega projects with various real-estate builders and developers and the systems are operating successfully. The current on-going projects are in various stages of implementation.

We create the Opportunity We are engaged in the marketing and sales of LPG and through franchising provide the opportunity, the know-how and the product. Our Franchisees can compete with all the big roleplayers in the Gas Distribution Field with an effective and efficient business model. We deliver a Turnkey operation

The Benefits We as Siyaya Gas have invested substantial resources into our business model and this resulted in economizing costs and streamlining our business model which, added to our marketing and sales strategy that is designed to operate within the prescriptions of the current legislation and to capitalize on the opportunities afforded therein, ensure competitive prices.

Contact us: Our Head office is situated in Monte Vista in the Western Cape with our first two franchises in Gauteng and Cape Town. The company is engaged in the marketing and sales of LPG processed from imported crude oil and natural gas as produced locally and imported from abroad supplied to us by local Refineries. T: 021 820 3442 F: 086 510 0521 C: 074 931 7223 E: hugo@siyayagas.net Address: Head Office, 24 Arnhem Avenue, Monte Vista. 7460 Hugo Smith (General Manager)

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INDEX OF ADVERTISERS COMPANY

PAGE NUMBER

AAAMSA

161; 162; 163

ACUSTIC DESIGN AND ENGINEERING (PROLITH)

170

AFRICAN WATER CONTROLS

207;208; 209

AFRICA GATEWAY SUPPLIERS

132

ALUGRO (PTY) LTD

180

ALUMINIUM FEDERATION SOUTH AFRICA

234

ANTALIS 204 AQUA EARTH GEOTHERMAL

222

ARCELOR MITTAL

12; 74; 75

AUDENTIA COMMODITIES (PTY) LTD

224; 225

BASF

64; 65

BELGOTEX FLOORCOVERINGS (PTY) LTD

62; 63

BEVERATECH ENGINEERING

308; 309

BIO SEWERAGE SYSTEMS (PTY) LTD

28

BLACK JILLS ENGINEERING

18

BLUESCOPE STEEL

36; 37; 38; 39

BRANDBILD 104 BULKMATECH ENGINEERING

30

C-DYNAMICS CC

146

CAPE CONTOURS LANDSCAPES

56

CHEMICAL SPECIALITIES (PTY) LTD

4; 5

CLAY BRICK ASSOCIATION

14

COROBRIK

124; 125; 126; 127

DPI PLASTICS

10

ECO TAPS

174

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SOLUTIONS

20; 21

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INDEX OF ADVERTISERS COMPANY

PAGE NUMBER

ECOTUNNELS 242 ENERGIX 270 EVAPCO SOUTH AFRICA (PTY) LTD

16

FLOROFIX TRADING t/a STRUCTATHERM PROJECTS

46

GEBERIT SOUTHERN AFRICA (PTY) LTD

158

GENUS POWER SA

150

GLOCK ENERGY

152

GREEN ACOUSTICS

106

GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL SA

258

GREEN ENERGY SOLUTIONS

272

HOLM JORDAAN GROUP (PTY) LTD

249; 250; 251

HULAMIN (PTY) LTD

216

HYPENSIA 116 I-BUILD 118 ICI DULUX (PTY) LTD

194; OBC

IJS ELECTRICAL CC

234; 255

ISOVER ST GOBAIN

8

IXIA 616 (PTY) LTD t/a A SANDSTONE STORY

43

KEVIN BATES FLOORING AND CARPETING

274

KHRONE PTY LTD

190; 191

KITCHEN VENTILATION SYSTEMS

276

KYASOL GREEN TECHNOLOGIES (PTY) LTD

88

KZNIEETR

142; 143

LIMPOPO WATER INITIATIVE (PTY) LTD

58

LYT ARCHITECTURE

252; 253; 130

MAGPRO IMPORTERS AND DISTRIBUTERS

20; 21

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Thermoshield features & benefits • Reduce inside temperature by up to 45% • Cut air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment running costs by up to 40% • Reduce ultraviolet penetration by up to 96.6% • Eliminate 80% of ‘thermal shock’ (expansion and contraction of roof sheets – the leading cause of roof wear and tear) • Greatly inhibit rust, increasing roof life • Improve working and living conditions, thereby improving productivity Natures Touch features & benefits • Fully washable wall coating • 0 VOC • No odour • Sheen finish • Ideal for baby rooms, hospitals, call centres, kitchens and shopping centres


INDEX OF ADVERTISERS COMPANY

PAGE NUMBER

MCVIGAR CONSTRUCTION AND TRADING

122

PLASCON

IFC, 1

MPONENG HOLDINGS

80

PANGAEA CONSULTING ENGINEERS

226; 227

PESCATECH CLEANING SOLUTIONS

310

PT AFRICA COATINGS

214

Q ASSOCIATES

114

RIAAN STEYN ARCHITECTS (PTY) LTD

156; 286

RICKARD AIR DIFFUSION (PTY) LTD

26

ROMANO SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING (PTY) LTD

102

SAFINTRA SOUTH AFRICA (PTY) LTD/ SAFAL GROUP

2; 3

SAVAGE DODD ARCHITECTS CC

44

SCARAB TECHNOLOGIES

94

SHALUZA DESIGNS

78

SHARED ENERGY MANAGEMENT

96

SIKA SOUTH AFRICA (PTY) LTD

304; IBC

SIYAYA GAS (PTY) LTD

301; 302; 303

SKYWATER SAG

176

SNA CONSULTING ENGINEERS

266; 267

SPECIALIZED HEATING APPLICATIONS CC

188; 189

SUSTAINABILITY WEEK

284

SWARTLAND GROUP

109;110; 111

SYSTEM AUTOMATION AND MANAGEMENT

202

TECHNOPOL 288 THE CONCRETE INSTITUTE

290;291

TURNER AND TOWNSEND (PTY) LTD

84; 85

UNIVERSITY OF JOHANNESBERG

52; 53

URBAN EDGE GAUTENG

136

WALLCHEN MANUFACTURING

300

WILITE CC t/a ECOWATT

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PROFILE

BEVERATECH ENGINEERING Beveratech Engineering has grown from an Engineering company serving the wine,food and beverage, fishing- effluent industries to more recently Bio Gas, Bio Diesel, Solar and Wind Energy Sectors. We are currently involved in Bio Gas and Bio Diesel Projects and planning our own solar system, which will be marketed to business to cost effectively, changeover to Renewable Energy. Beveratech Engineering has extremely dedicated personnel to meet our clientele needs and deadlines. No challenge is too big for us to handle.

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PROFILE

WIND TOWERS We are proud to be part of South Africa’s movement to creating a greener country for us all. With more than 100 years of cumulative experience in various sectors of manufacturing,which include boiler and large tank manufacturing, rigging, fishmeal/stick water plant, canning equipment, pressure vessels, steam dryers, winemaking equipment and large range of other engineering products. The move towards building wind towers sections comes as a natural transgression for us and fits in with our core business.

BIO GAS

Teaming with an international Bio Gas company, Bereratech Engineering is now part of building bio gas plants in South Africa. Six plants are planned for manufacturing in 2014 and a further 10 plants in 2015. With our engineering background and manufacturing capabilities we are set to enter this market with our whole team involved.

BIO DIESEL

Beveratech Engineering is involved with the completion and commissioning of a prototype Bio Diesel plant for the Western Cape with commissioning and completion planned for early 2014. More plants are planned for 2014 and 2015. These plants are set to run on nearly any oil by-product, plastic, rubber and other Bio matter.

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PROFILE

SIKA SOUTH AFRICA (PTY) LTD

SIKA GLOBAL Sika is a specialty chemicals company with a leading position in the development and production of systems and products for bonding, sealing, damping, reinforcing and protecting in the building sector and the motor vehicle industry. Sika has subsidiaries in 84 countries around the world and manufactures in over 160 factories. Its more than 16,000 employees generate annual sales of CHF 5.14 billion (2013). Sika AG Headquarters, located in Baar, Switzerland, was founded in 1910. SIKA SOUTH AFRICA Sika regards itself as a “multi-domestic” company, putting the needs of its local customers at the very centre of its business activities. The company’s products and systems, backed by comprehensive service packages, are carefully tailored to local market needs. On a local level, Sika always puts this sound business principal into practice. Sika strives to provide value-added products and full solutions. Sika’s products and systems are used in almost every aspect of modern living, from building bridges, dams, roads and harbours to high-rise buildings. Sika’s technology is also used for building cars, trucks, buses, boats and industrial products. When using Sika systems, quality, durability and sustainability are added to concrete.. Sika South Africa started trading in 1988 Our Promise Sika strives for global and local leadership in clearly defined target markets; Concrete, Waterproofing, Flooring, Roofing, Repair and Protection, Sealing and Bonding, as well as Industry. Sika’s innovative solution boosts efficiency, durability and aesthetic appeal of buildings, infrastructure facilities, installations and vehicles throughout production and use. Sika also prides itself on substantial contribution to sustainable development Our Values Each product and service reflects our commitment to the three core values that define our Company coined by Romauld Burkard who represented the third generation of Sika’s founder family, Winkler: Courage for innovation, strength to persist, and pleasure or working together Our Voice We speak from experience and with a global understanding. We talk knowledgeably about the local and geographical issues faced by our customers. We respond to our customers quickly, BUILDING TRUST.


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Sustainable yet durable Ecosure gives you the durability and stability of using a normal emulsion with the added bonus of having a lower environmental impact. THE PERFECT BALANCE OF SUSTAINABILITY AND PERFORMANCE.

We’re all under pressure to be sustainable these days, but traditionally, using eco-paints has meant sacrificing on performance. That’s why Dulux Trade has developed the Ecosure range: the range of waterbased paints that enables you to help meet your sustainability targets and maintain a professional finish.

NO 1 SILO, V&A WATERFRONT

For further information visit www.duluxtrade.co.za or call 0860 330 111

Green Building Handbook Vol 6 - Alive2green  
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