The Sustainable Energy Resource Handbook Volume 3

Page 1


Sustainable Energy Resource Handbook Energy Efficiency South Africa Volume 3

The Essential Guide



The vision of the Department of Energy is to make adequate and affordable energy available to developing communities through a mix of providing alternative energy resources at a reasonable cost. The aim is to satisfy the basic needs of the developing sector and at the same time promote the effective utilisation of South Africa’s existing and new energy sources. This target can be achieved mainly by promoting and facilitating energy efficiency and by the production of renewable energy. South Africa needs to use all the energy resources available to it responsibly and efficiently and environmental issues need to be taken into account, the Department of Energy therefore support all role players that are contributing towards more sustainable practices in the energy sector. The Department of Energy welcomes Volume 3 of The Sustainable Energy Resource Handbook and endorses it.




The Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) is pleased to support volume 3 of the Sustainable Energy Resource Handbook. This volume’s focus on energy efficiency highlights the importance of the demand side of the energy equation. An increase in efficiency is often more easily achieved than an increase in generation capacity; particularly in an emerging market context. This handbook makes an enormous contribution by highlighting the range of resources available in this area. During the ten years since its founding in Johannesburg alongside the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, REEEP has acted as a market catalyst for both energy efficiency and renewables in developing countries and emerging markets. It has done this in three ways:


REEEP has supported 154 clean energy projects in 57 countries – often as a risk-taking cornerstone investor - disbursing €14.4 million and leveraging an additional €29.4 million in co-funding.


Together with REN21, REEEP finances and operates, the leading clean energy information portal which currently attracts 220,000 users per month. Its 198 country energy profiles draw information from Linked Open Data sources and package it all together in a user-friendly, easily digestible dossiers.


REEEP supports champions via sub-networks such as Sustainable Energy Regulation Network (SERN), which compiles overviews of energy policy in 163 countries; Renewable Energy in International Law (REIL), providing high-level, off-the-record policy discussions; and the Energy Efficiency Coalition (EEC), which spawns national networks to take action on EE.



the path to optimisation

Let Attune™ Advisory Services lead you to complete operational and energy efficiency. The best kind of optimisation plan is one that helps you reach your unique business goals. To get you on your way, Honeywell has created Attune Advisory Ser vices, a complete suite of building management and cloud-based ser vices designed to continuously improve energy and operational efficiencies at your facility. We’ll make observations, process the information and give you the recommendations you need to help improve energy and operational performance. Plus, it’s the only program providing access to our worldwide team of experts. When you need an energy management plan that is comprehensive, customisable and ready to grow with your business, you’re going to want Attune Advisory Services.

To put your facilities on the path to energy optimisation, contact your Honeywell representative, call call +27 (0)11 695 8000 or visit or visit

© 2012 Honeywell International Inc. All rights reserved.


South Africa produces about 45% of all the electricity generated on the continent and as our economy expands, so does our demand for energy. 49M is a national initiative, endorsed by government and business partners, that encourages South Africans from all walks of life to embrace energy savings as a national culture, and join the global journey towards a sustainable future. 49M believes that whether you are a business owner or you are simply concerned about the environment, every choice you make, no matter how big or small, has the ability to make a huge difference to the country’s energy consumption. The initiative calls on all sectors to collectively play a role to save 10% of current electricity consumption and the environment whilst reducing financial bottom line in the process. Many businesses have already realised significant savings and have reduced their carbon footprint through demand management initiatives such as retrofitting lighting and optimising with energy efficient machinery and equipment. 49M encourages and endorses certain South African projects and initiatives that are directed at the promotion of energy efficiency and The Sustainable Energy Resource Handbook is such a project. We support the Handbook’s objectives and encourage readers and contributors in their various capacities, to join the 49M initiative and to align their business activities with the principles of energy efficiency.



ediTor’S noTe

It is my pleasure, on behalf of my publishers, Alive2Green, to present Volume 3 of The Sustainable Energy Resource Handbook. This Volume sets out to improve understanding and create an awareness of at least a small fraction of the myriad of energy challenges we face. Our experiences with this Volume’s two predecessors, made it more demanding to achieve an even higher standard for Vol. 3. Indeed, with lesser energy availability and with energy price increases as an ongoing reality, the whole energy industry needs to lift standards. This time around, the numerous resources of the United Nation’s UNIDO programme have become available. Being actively involved myself in the practical execution of a UNIDO energy project, it is a privilege to have UNIDO material for this volume. These energy efficiency projects directly involve various South African industry role-players, who are actively reducing their energy usage, by making efficiency improvements.

Erik Kiderlen Managing Partner Ashway Investments

With this in mind, it can be categorically stated that South African industries are now changing the energy paradigms. These have been in existence since 1891, when South Africa built its first power station in Kimberley. Fortuitously, as worldwide engineering innovations to improve sustainability and efficiency are developed, our South African legal frameworks are being adapted to meet these new realities. Some impending legislative frameworks are addressed in this Volume. We are fortunate, in this energy-challenged country, to have so many dedicated and passionate energy professionals. Amongst them, scientists, engineers and system developers grapple daily with these issues. This Handbook could not have been compiled without their willingness to share ideas and concepts. An assessment of today’s issues leads one to conclude that energy efficiency improvement is the most justifiable implementation strategy at the present moment in South Africa’s energy history. We need to take heed of Albert Einstein’s admonishment : “ We cannot solve problems by using the same thinking we used when we created them. We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if mankind is to survive… ” My personal thanks to the numerous professional colleagues and associates who willingly contributed to this Volume, and to all those involved in making it a reality. I am very grateful for all your effort and co-operation. May all your energies increase exponentially !

The SuSTainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)



TECHNOPOL ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING PRODUCTS Technopol established in 1993, manufactures and supplies Expanded Polystyrene Insulation Products to both domestic and export markets. In our Springs factories we mould and process Expanded Polystyrene Products into a multitude of Insulation Solutions. As a bulk Insulation producer, we work closely with consumers and contractors to develop systems for the building Industry. We manufacture Insulation Elements for Wall, Roof and Floor Applications. All our products are Fire Retarded and produced without using any CFC’s of HCFC’s. Technopol is a founder member of both the Expanded Polystyrene Association of South Africa and Thermal Insulation Association of SA and we are proud to be part of the initiative to protect our environment by implementing energy efficient living. Let’s look at the price we pay for thermal comfort If you can afford electricity, remember the irresponsible consumption of this resource results in fossil fuel emissions polluting our environment, i.e. Sulphur, CO2 and NOx (GHG Emissions). For those who can afford air-conditioning equipment, be reminded they contribute to the HCFC build up in our atmosphere. We now know that HCFCs have a thousand times the heat trapping ability of CO2. If the reduction of GHG emissions is our objective then HCFC liberating processes should be reduced. If you can’t afford the above, you have to burn coal and wood to prevent element exposure. This could damage your lungs and cause respiratory diseases thus placing major cost pressures on the health care system in SA. All this while creating smoke pollution and liberating more GHG. The solution is so simple Design energy efficient and introduce sufficient thermal insulation and see the benefits:  Energy costs for space heating and cooling will reduce by between 35 and 60 percent.  Energy resource will be conserved.   

Pollution will be reduced. GHG emissions will reduce. Occupants will be healthy because of the thermal comfort of their dwellings.

All these benefits for less than 10% of the average building cost. Contact us Lammie de Beer,Managing Director Technopol (SA) Pty Ltd, 9 Wright Road Extension, Nuffield P.O. Box 2445, Springs, 1560 Telephone 011 363 2780 Fax Email Website

011 363 2752

Publisher’s Note

What a great time to be involved in the energy sector in South Africa. Not only are we part of the global drive towards cleaner energy resources and energy efficiency, but because of South Africa’s long history and dependence on cheap electricity, and our relatively recent initiatives to finance new generation, we are experiencing a much steeper curve where energy efficiency interventions are concerned. Energy efficiency activity, in the last eight months in particular, has escalated dramatically and it’s wonderful to see such high levels of initiative, collaboration and willingness by all stakeholders as we look towards what for many organisations has become ‘business unusual.’ I have recently become involved with the 49M initiative as an ambassador, and this role has brought me closer to some of the great energy efficiency stories that are emerging from our business sector. South Africa’s top companies are factoring future (total) energy costs into their forecasts and implementing immediate interventions in order to remain competitive.

Unwavering commitment to sustainable solutions.

Volume 3 of the Sustainable Energy Resource Handbook is focused entirely on energy efficiency and has been edited and compiled by Erik Kiderlen. Erik’s involvement has ensured that the Handbook is incredibly current, relevant and meaningful for sector stakeholders in South Africa and I am grateful to him for his contribution. I am also grateful to the editorial contributors and to our advertisers, who will hopefully share my opinion that this Volume has raised the bar and is bound to play a major role in the promotion and implementation of energy efficiency projects and practices in our country.

ComfortPoint™ Open: next generation of building management system with the ability to improve facility comfort while cutting energy and operational costs. Simply Smart. For more information visit

Sincerely Lloyd Macfarlane Director Alive2green

Helping customers go green, responsibly.

the sustaiNable eNergy resource haNdbook (eNergy efficieNcy)

According to the International Energy Association buildings account for nearly 40 percent of energy used in most countries, and nearly 70 percent of all electricity use, making them a prime target to reduce utility costs. This year alone Honeywell Building Solutions introduced two new offerings addressing energy and operational efficiency. Attune™ Advisory Services: combining cloud based technology with analytics and facility know how to reduce utility bills and operating expenses up to 20 percent. For more information visit

With over 100 years of HVAC, automation and energy management expertise, Honeywell’s commitment to sustainable solutions is unwavering.

To learn more about Honeywell’s building solutions, call +27 (0)11 695 8000 or visit


© 2012 Honeywell International, Inc. All rights reserved.

PEER REVIEW Alive2green has introduced and is committed to peer reviewing a minimum number of published chapters in all Sustainability Series handbooks. The concept of Peer review is based on the objective of the publisher to provide professional, academic content. This process helps to maintain standards, improve performance, and provide credibility.

ALIVE2GREEN PEER REVIEW PROCESS The Publisher and the Editor allocate a reviewer to an article and then send it to the reviewer who is well acquainted with the topic. Reviewers return an evaluation of the work to the Editor, noting weaknesses or problems along with suggestions for improvement. The Editor notes the reviewer’s recommendations and will either publish the article without changes, request that the author amend the article in accordance with recommendations or reject the article but encourage revision and invite resubmission. The Editor evaluates reviewer submissions and is under no obligation to accept recommendations. The Editor may also add his or her opinions and recommendations to those of the reviewer before passing these back to contributors. Peer reviewed articles may not necessarily have incorporated all recommendations made by the reviewer but are likely to have been amended from the original version. Alive2green is proud to have embarked on the journey of peer review and now strives to achieve certain objectives in this process which include, but are not limited to: • Extremely high standards of published material • Acceptance of handbooks in academic institutions, including as prescribed text books • Increased publicity and exposure for handbooks in global academic circles • Increased exposure for contributors and editors within academic, industry and peer-review circles • Increased quality of learning texts for Alive2green online learning modules which are based on handbook content. • Relevant and extensive coverage for advertisers within the handbooks and online.




Sustainable Energy Resource Handbook Energy Efficiency South Africa Volume 3

The Essential Guide

Sales Manager Louna Rae Advertising Sales Tichaona Meki

Editor Erik Kiderlen

Images Aurecon, Graeme Williams,,

Publisher Lloyd Macfarlane Editorial Manager Siann Silk Contributors A Botha, AndrĂŠ Ferreira, Braam Dalgleish, Dr Gerhard Bolt, Dr JF van Rensburg, Erik Kiderlen, Eskom, Gustav Radloff, HPR Joubert, Jonathan Skeen, Luke Osburn, Philip Hammond, Professor Ernst Uken, Professor LJ Grobler, R Pelzer, Richard Palmer, Samantha Taggart, Tim James, UNIDO, Vivienne Walsh, Wim Jonker Klunne Peer Reviewers Peter Geddes, Erik Kiderlen

Directors Lloyd Macfarlane Gordon Brown Andrew Fehrsen Principal for Africa & Mauritius Gordon Brown Principal for United States James Smith PUBLISHER

Marketing Manager Cara-Dee Macfarlane Accounts and Administration Wadoeda Brenner Suraya Manuel

The Sustainability Series Of Handbooks

PHYSICAL ADDRESS: Address needs to change to : Unit 201 4 Regent Road Sea Point Cape Town TEL: 021 987 3722 FAX: 086 6947443 Company Registration Number: 2006/206388/23 Vat Number: 4130252432

ISBN No: 978-0-620-45068-3. Volume 3 first published in July 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or in any form without the prior written consent of the publisher. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the Publisher or the Editor. All editorial contributions are accepted on the understanding that the contributor either owns or has obtained all necessary copyrights and permissions. IMAGES AND DIAGRAMS: Space limitations and source format have affected the size of certain published images and/or diagrams in this publication. For larger PDF versions of these images please contact the Publisher.








Chapter 1

Introduction to Energy Efficiency Professor Ernst Uken


Chapter 2

Introduction Erik Kiderlen








Chapter 12 Enterprise PC power management Tim James

Chapter 3

Sustainability: Legislative Prescripts Erik Kiderlen

104 Chapter 13 The role of consultants- Ethically advancing efficiency interventions in the built environment Richard Palmer

Chapter 4

Practical outcomes of Sans 10400 XA and 204 Wim Jonker Klunne


Chapter 11 Effective water heating using heat pumps for households, commerce and Industry Eskom

110 Chapter 14 Energy Efficiency through optimisation of water reticulation in deep mines Dr Gerhard Bolt, Dr JF van Rensburg, A Botha

Chapter 5

Energy Modelling Software Luke Osburn

Chapter 6

122 Chapter 15

Chapter 7

132 Chapter 16

Energy Efficiency Opportunities resulting from splitting a compressed air ring HPR Joubert, Dr JF van Rensburg, R Pelzer

Energy modelling in buildings results from the Manenburg Civic Centre Jonathan Skeen

Energy efficiency in Municipal Buildings-City of Cape Town Case Study Vivienne Walsh

Chapter 8

Critical Aspects which Affect LED Reliability and LED System Reliability, Performance and Lifespan Philip Hammond


The National Energy Barometer Survey Professor LJ Grobler, Gustav Radloff, Braam Dalgleish

144 Chapter 17 The economic and social dividends from industrial energy efficiency interventions144 Erik Kiderlen

Chapter 9

Energy Optimisation- Using less together Samantha Taggart

150 Chapter 18 80

Chapter 10

Green Leasing- Forthcoming trend in South African commercial property AndrĂŠ Ferreira

Industrial Energy Efficiency improvement project South Africa. Moving towards a more energy efficient industry UNIDO



EVERY LITTLE BIT HELPS. “Use electricity wisely and together we can create a brighter future for all South Africans.”


Minister Malusi Gigaba



Prof. Ernst Uken Head: Energy Institute Cape Peninsula University of Technology


You are reading one of 28 000 Energy Efficiency Handbooks dedicated to improve the efficiency of power producers and distributors, as well as the effectiveness of industry and residential users of electricity. South Africa is experiencing a crucial imbalance between supply and demand in 2012 and the following chapters are aimed at helping you see how you can play a role in averting the current power challenges until the Medupi Power Station comes on stream. Engineers throughout the world are being taught that efficiency is something good. It describes a good professional design and depicts something one should strive towards throughout one’s career. Energy efficiency has become a buzz-word of late, implying that one should promote a more responsible way of life. This chapter is aimed at clarifying the difference between efficiency and effectiveness. Both must be observed in the supply side, as well as in the demand side of energy.

Efficiency or Effectiveness?

Linguists may assist the reader, but often it helps to compare languages as well, to capture the true meaning of what is really meant. According to the Oxford Dictionary, Efficiency ‘is the ability to produce a desired effect or product with a minimum effort or expense or wastage. In production, it is the ratio of useful or effective work to total energy expended, or heat taken in. Summarily, it is the output divided by the input’. Effectiveness or Efficacy, on the other hand, ‘is the ability to bring about the intended or desired effect or result. It is making a striking/remarkable impression and being fit for work or service’. This already becomes a bit complicated for engineers, who like to think in terms of keywords rather than resorting to a philosophical discourse. Does the English/Afrikaans Dictionary help? Accordingly, Efficient is cited as “doeltreffend, vaardig”, but then is added in the wider sense of the word: “saaklik, nuttig, waarde” and even erroneously: “geskik, doelmatig, werkdadig”. Effective is given as “effektief, treffend, bekwaam”, but then the following, which also appear under Efficient are repeated: “geskik, doelmatig, werkend” and even “doeltreffend”. Obviously, the local linguists did not see a big difference between efficiency and effectiveness, but can other disciplines live with this?

The Marketing fraternity sees obvious differences:

Efficiency is ‘doing the thing right, by minimising resources, costs and the time taken’ and Effectiveness is ‘doing the right thing on a broader scale, achieving customer satisfaction according to numbers or over a lifetime’. Researchers in this field claim that ‘Internal process measures are concerned with Efficiency, whereas customer and business value perspectives relate to Effectiveness’. In their Business Dictionary they even give the following business tips : ‘In Efficiency a comparison is made of what is actually produced or performed versus what can be achieved with the same consumption of resources (money, time, labour, etc). BUT a rapidly growing market should not worry about efficiency. It is more important to grow fast”…. (and be effective ?). This is a very clear message for the authorities, opinion formers, business leaders and journalists to follow. How does this affect the engineers?

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)



For Energy Systems (generation or conversion): Efficiency, ή = Output in kW ÷ Input in kW Obviously both kW labels cancel out and the resulting answer may be expressed in % For Lighting : Effectiveness or Efficacy = Lux ÷ Watt Note that ‘a system becomes more energy efficient, if it uses less energy for the same service level’. This is important for monitoring the success of energy-saving Demand Side Management (DSM) interventions. Here only examples are given, but more details follow in subsequent chapters on the important fields of power generation; lighting; and water heating.


The power producer/supplier should consider the following, before making choices: • the availability in time and space of raw materials to be used, • their capital and running costs for processing them, • their level of and threat to all forms of pollution, • their residual impact on the environment, once mined, • the social acceptance of various technologies and possible threats, • their possible influence on climate change and even possible global warming. • The various options available to utility companies and private power producers have become increasingly important in the recent past. Many more criteria have emerged than merely the generation efficiency, shown in Figure 1:

Figure 1.1: Generation efficiencies [8]

Figure 1 is taken out of a trade report of 2003, before Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) came in its own. It does, however, rank wind, nuclear and biomass (35%) below coal (42%) and oil (40%). Waste, small diesel, PV Solar and Geothermal rank poorly as far as efficiency is concerned. Figure 1 also suggests that more attention could be given in South Africa to tidal and small hydro schemes and gas. Over 90% of the country’s electricity is currently generated from coal, which is the major polluter, placing South Africa amongst the 10 worst polluters in the world. The reason for continuing to use coal is its abundance and cost-effectiveness. In power generation, coal is at least processed locally into electricity, instead of it all being exported as a raw material. Even if cleaning up the process is expensive, much more needs to be done to appease the environmentalists in this regard. Nuclear power is a cleaner option, since it avoids the emission of large quantities of greenhouse gases [8]. After the Fukishima natural disaster, countries like Germany have over-reacted by getting out of the nuclear field. Unlike Japan, which lies on 3 oceanic plates, the whole of Africa rests on a single plate, thus guaranteeing a stable substrate. The chances of experiencing a tsunami or an earthquake-triggered disaster in South Africa are therefore very remote. It is, however, important that the international safety standards are upheld and closely followed by competent staff at all times, in order to avoid a disaster as occurred in Chernobyl.


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


Having looked at some of the criteria applicable to the supply of electricity, it remains to consider relevant examples of efficiency and effectiveness on the demand side, namely lighting and water heating, respectively. Both have and still do play a significant part in South Africa’s energy efficiency and demand side management (EEDSM) programme. Simply switching off the lights or the geyser will do nothing to efficiency, since the service level is temporarily turned off. It will, however, affect the effectiveness with which electricity is being used; thus reducing the electricity bill and helping the supplier and distributor out of their dilemma.


Since the electricity shortage in the Western Cape in 2006, Eskom has sponsored the replacement of approximately 47 million incandescent lamps with more efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), mostly in the residential sector on a country-wide basis. The reason for this relatively inexpensive intervention may be seen in Figure 2:

Figure 1.2: Average lighting efficacy in lumen/watt [10]

Although the improved efficacy or effectiveness is convincing the expected life also has to be considered, since light bulbs will not last forever. New technologies like LEDs have in the meantime also been developed and commercialised. In Table 1, the efficacy and average life of popular light sources are given: Table 1.1: Comparison of efficacy and average life of lamps [11]


Efficacy (lumen/Watt)

Ave life (hours)






8 000



>50 000

According to Table 1, LEDs are clearly best choice lamps for specific purposes. LEDs offer many variations in colour, etc and they focus a beam of light onto a selected object, better than conventional incandescent or CFL lamps. The life of LEDs is appreciably curtailed, however, if they are allowed to get hot in confined spaces. Osram claims that for a 25 000 hour lifetime, you require only 1 x LED lamp, versus 2,5 x CFLs versus 25 x Incandescent lamps. The energy required in the production of LEDs and CFLs is also appreciably lower than for incandescent globes. When considering an energy-saving lighting strategy, one should at least consider the following: Light efficacy/effectiveness options in lumen per Watt; plus Energy consumption in Wh; plus Cost per lamp and fitting; plus Average lifespan (eg decay factor) per lamp. In all cases, one must ensure that the service levels are maintained and that they are adequate for the specific tasks to be performed. Only then can an informed decision be made.

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)




The good intentions of the South African Government of saving energy by rolling out 1 million solar water heaters (SWHs) by 2014 seems to be shifting towards assisting the smaller households, who could not afford running hot-water systems before, with low-pressure geysers. By February 2012 over 138 000 of the latter had been rolled out versus only about 45 000 high-pressure geysers. The reason for the relatively slower uptake by the high income groups for high-pressure SWHs appears to be the lower rebate of approximately 35% of total cost, versus a virtual total, full rebate for the lower income groups. Market forces have thus overruled energy efficiency and effectiveness with the result that planned energy savings will not be met. A very useful comparison was made locally between solar water heaters (SWHs or geysers) and heat pumps. Based on these results, Table 2 was compiled, showing that both the heat pump and SWH consume significantly less electricity than conventional geysers. For households of up to 4 users, heat pumps and SWHs consume virtually the same amount of electricity. For even larger households, B&Bs, hotels and hostels, heat pumps consume less electric power than their SWH counterparts. At this level, conventional electric geysers consume approximately double of what SWHs and especially heat pumps would consume. Table 1.2: Electricity demand by Geysers versus Heat pumps and SWHs with electric back-up [14]

Electricity consumption (kWh) per annum Geyser type & Home size




2 users

3 740

1 450

1 170

4 users

7 400

2 940

2 730

6 users

10 729

4 320

5 970

3kW(150L) 4kW(200L)

1,3kW Electric 3,6 kWThermal

200L 300L

In cases where energy demand is not the main criteria, a comparison may be made between the capital costs remaining, after the Eskom rebate has been granted. These values are given in Table 3, assuming a flat-rate rebate for approved domestic heat pumps of R4 500. Table 1.3: Comparison of capital cost, after deducting Eskom rebate on domestic Heat pumps and SWHs [15]

Geyser type

SWH size

SWH (Rand)

Heat pump (3,6 kW)

2 users


R12 100-R15 200

R7 500

4 users


R17 500

R7 500

6 users


R17 500

R7 500

The authors conclude that the investment payback period for heat pumps in households with 4 and more persons is less than 2 years, dropping to 1,3 years when the household grows to 6 people. Small households of up to 2 people, or homes with a remote granny flat, may consider installing a separate mini-geyser of 15 litre capacity. This would even suffice for a shower. Although the heating efficiency is the same as any electrical geyser, its effectiveness is superior, since only as much water is heated as is being used, thus appreciably reducing the standing losses.


Fundamentally one should always aim at promoting energy efficiency, but for large-scale, national programmes, often other criteria become equally or even more important. These include effectiveness 20

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


in terms of cost, time and life span. Investors invariably want to know the pay-back period before committing themselves. In practice, political ambitions and opportunities for job creation may also overrule calculated energy savings.


[1] The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, Sixth Edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1975, 1368p [2], last accessed April 2012. [3] Bosman DB, van der Merwe IW and Hiemstra LW. Bilingual Dictionary. Eighth Edition, Tafelberg, September 1984.1351p. [4], last accessed April 2012. [5] Hasan H and Tibbits H. Internet Research, vol 5, no 10, 2000, p439-450 [6], last accessed April 2012 [7] Wikipedia, last accessed April 2012 [8] Eurelectric & VGB Power Tech, 2003. Trade report, private communication, 2003. [9] Etzinger A. The changing nature of DSM in South Africa. ESI Africa, Issue 1, 2012, p5-8 [10] Lighting efficiencies. (last accessed in November 2011) [11] Lighting, (last accessed in November 2011) [12] Osram bulb tests. (accessed in November 2011) [13] Eskom solar water heating programme. (Accessed March 2012 [14] Rankin R.D. and van Eldik M., ‘Comparison of heat pump water heaters and solar water heating systems’, MTech Industrial Pty Ltd, North-West University, October 2010. (private communication) [15] Uken E. Can energy efficiency solve South Africa’s problems? Proceedings of the Domestic Use of Energy Conference, 3-4 April 2012, Cape Town, p85-89. [16] Wheeler J, Reineck KM and Uken E. Evaluation of the Q10 and Q15 Inventum mini-geysers. CPUT Energy Institute, Cape Town. Unpublished confidential report, May 2012.

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 2: IntroductIon

IntroductIon Energy resources need to be adequately protected – not exploited – and fairly distributed – not annexed – if there is to be any chance at all of supporting the 6,7 billion individuals on this planet today. Protection means careful and efficient use, allowing for greater application of renewable resources, thus keeping as much of the non-renewable resources as possible for use by future generations. Likely to be 7 billion, soon ! The context of this publication is that energy distribution and its usage are due for major changes. However, today’s archaic economic parameters are based on a ‘growth at all costs’ premise. In the same vein, government legislation at present seems to be based on an ‘increasing rateable values’ mindset. This mindset is equally due for major changes, as now a Resource Misuse penalty tax needs to be considered. This puts the context of this Volume into the field of ‘mindshift changes’. The present economic and governmental processes make such mindshifts almost impossible in the fast-shrinking time frames available for making them. One approach would be to create ‘pockets of excellence’ by concerned professionals. It is hoped that the readers of this Volume will, in their own way, contribute towards the creation of such pockets by concerned professionals, students, academics and politicians. This Volume has been structured around 4 perspectives on Energy Sustainability. They have been grouped in this manual as follows:

Part 1 – LegIsLatIve

The legislative parameters. Here reference is made to Sustanaiability Legislation, and to regulatory standards.

Part 2 – technIques

The measurement and evaluation parameters, reference to energy barometers, modeling techniques and actual technique outcomes.

Part 3 – technoLogy

The application of these techniques and underlying technology, identifying energy efficiency potential savings, both in desktop and real practical scenarios.

Part 4 – InternatIonaL exPerIences

The social costs and benefits of energy efficiency interventions are often not costed in, due to a lack of cost techniques. However, there is progress in this regard.

some cLarIty on defInItIons –

• Energy efficiency improvement means using less energy to achieve the same level of service. • Renewable energy is that energy from a source, where it is replaced by natural processes at the same or greater rate than its consumption. • Sustainable energy is that energy which is produced and consumed in such a way that it supports human development over the long-term, in all its social, economic and environmental dimensions.


Retrieved 20 June 2012 Retrieved 21 June 2012

Retrieved 22 June 2012 Retrieved 22 June 2012

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


Enviroplus Energy leading the way with bioenergy and landfill gas technologies

Cogeneration – the perfect sustainable energy solution The use of cogeneration - combining the use of heat and power (CHP) to produce heat and electricity - is infinitely more efficient than other methods. Unlike the classic power plant, where the heat produced is wasted, CHP units use the generated heat for heating. They thus save some 40% in fuel which otherwise would be burnt in boilers to produce that heat.

Given also that CHP allows for energy to be produced at or near the point of use, this saves on transportation/distribution costs. The efficiency of cogeneration units is thus around 80-90%: compare this to new coal-based power stations which run at between 40-50% efficiency.

Energy savings and environmental benefits

l For the same amount of fuel, the user gains nearly twice as much energy, part of which could be sold. l Because cogeneration units produce power with the greatest efficiency, they offer the most economical and ecologically sound energy solution. l Cogeneration units can be used as emergency sources of electrical energy. l Cooling generation - with absorption exchangers, it is possible to use the generated heat to produce coolants for air-conditioning. This is called Tri-generation, the combined production of electricity, heat and cold. Shown here is the biogas station at a pig farm which uses manure slurry from the piggery, agricultural residue and other biological waste from processing plants as the source for the biogas production.

Enviroplus™ Group

The energy centre is equipped with 3 TEDOM CHP units: total output is 1 000 kWel and 1 000 kW thermal energy. engineering services


Enviroplus Energy profile

nviroplus Energy focuses on developing energy solutions: we are among the few engineering companies in sub-Saharan Africa with the technological expertise to design and implement bio-energy projects. This specialist company within the Enviroplus Group was formed to serve the electrical and thermal power generation industries, from biological processes through to the supply, commissioning and ongoing operation of CHP (Combined Heat and Power) systems. More than a decade ago we recognised the need for South Africa to consider alternative energy methods and have undertaken relevant research. We also represent Tedom s.r.o. in Africa and have access to their biogas plant and landfill projects technology. Tedom’s products include cogeneration units.

“About 200 MW of electricity could potentially be generated from biogas-from-waste projects around the country, with a number of projects potentially being able to generate up to 10 MW of electricity on site.” Dr Andrew Taylor, CAE Energy

Contact us for more information – email:

Main office:

tel: +27 (0)11 838-8765

Samancor House, 88 Marshall Street, Johannesburg

fax: +27 (0)11 832-3283 cell: 082 852-5793



the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)



Erik Kiderlen Managing Partner Ashway Investments


• RSA is on a par with the rest of the world in terms of its efforts to set energy savings targets. • Legal frameworks are being drawn up. The Western Cape has such a framework, presently out for comment, namely “Western Cape Sustainability Draft Bill”. • This framework identifies need for research, co-operation between national, provincial and municipal spheres of government. • The Western Cape draft legislation identifies the need for a Provincial Integrated Sustainable Energy Plan, and an Advisory Forum. • This legislation allows for provincial authorities, using the Energy Plan and Advisory Forum, to develop sustainable energy plans and targets. • As per all legislation, allowance is made for regulations to be proclaimed by the Minister of the Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning. A clause-by-clause analysis of the relevance in terms of this Handbook’s objectives, is given below. Some practical comments are made. It is best to read with the Bill at hand, as it follows the same structure.


This act is mandated to “provide for measures to facilitate and promote sustainable energy practices” – it is referenced to Section 24 of the Constitution and specifically provides for effective facilitation. It defines i.a. Energy Efficiency as “economical and efficient use of energy resources”. This is very broad with no set targets. It is hoped that any regulations framed under this Act will specify more narrowly defined % of efficiency. Regarding definition of efficiency, it could be compared to the ratio of the amount of thermodynamic work performed by a process (i.e numerator) to the maximum amount of work that could be performed in theory (i.e. nominator). This ratio would then take into account unavoidable losses owing to the Second Law of thermodynamics. This more cumbersome definition could be used by a Standards Authority to prescribe ‘classes of efficiency’. This would ‘level the playing field’, enabling direct comparisions of energy-efficiency interventions. (UNIDO Industrial Development REPORT 2011) The organ of state definition includes any institution performing a public function. This would include the SA Bureau of Standards, who has more recently published energy efficiency prescripts. This is discussed in another section of this Handbook. The renewable energy definition mentions natural non-depleting resources, from solar to wave tidal energy. Again, this is very broad based. For RSA’s legislation to be internationally aligned, this definition should be “Primary Energy”. This refers to energy embodies in natural resources, before they undergo any human-made conversions or transformations. Examples are coal, crude oil, sunlight, wind, running (moving) streams of water, vegetation and uranium (UNIDO ibid). the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)



Sustainable energy has a socio-political definition: This definition will refer to energy generation, and use, in ways that support human development over the long term in its social, economic and environmental dimensions. Hence the need for more precise efficiency and cost targets.


Objectives in the Act are i.a. to mitigate contributions to Climate Change as it relates to sustainable energy practices. No mention is made of the option to adapt to climate change by e.g. more sophisticated engineering control and operating strategies of machinery and installations. A further objective is to promote safety, health and environmental aspects (as embodied in existing health and safety legislation) when using ‘cleaner or sustainable’ energy. This objective is second tier, in that the actual equipment for the conversions of natural energy into electricity (photo- voltaics) is not part of this ‘promote safety’ objective. It is well known that a host of safety and health risks occur in the extraction of substrata materials as used in the manufacture of some photo-voltaic componentry and panels (the ‘first tier’ of the Safety objective). Another objective is encouragement of an economically viable energy efficiency industry, and the promotion of sustainable energy research education and awareness. All these objectives are to be achieved via a Sustainable Energy Advisory Forum. Such a Forum is bound to be limited by budgetary constraints, which will probably necessitate directing its efforts to a selected few of the aforementioned objectives. It is thus prudent for energy efficiency protagonists to ensure their inputs into this Forum.

integrated energy Plan

The legislation instructs the Minister to develop and publish a Provincial integrated Sustainable Energy Plan. This plan must provide for interventions that will assist in achieving objectives. Implications, although not stated, could be mandatory % reductions in energy consumption, energy consumption tax penalties, and other punitive measures. These could be regulated as part of the Act – with obvious procedural submissions to departments of Finance, Trade and Industry etc. as is normal government practice. This plan requires that municipalities be requested to provide to the Minister details of their measures to improve energy efficiency. If these municipalities are also the supply authority (distinct from national supplier ESKOM), situations could arise where municipalities will prescribe to consumers that Energy prescripts (e.g. SANS 204) be met before they will authorize their designated approval, such as approval of building plans by Building Control officers. This will be beneficial for meeting efficiency targets. Municipalities must monitor, review and report to the Minister on their performance in terms of this Integrated Energy Plan. The Minister, in turn, must then report to all departments in the government of this province.

cOllectiOn Of energy data

According to present format of this proposed legislation, the Minister must create a database of sustainable energy. This database can be made available to energy planners. The Minister can request data from any source, in terms of the Promotion of Access to Information act.

advisOry fOrum

Minister may establish this Forum, which must advise him/her on legislation, amongst other things. This legislation would promote national and provincial sustainable energy norms and standards. 28

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


This further accentuates the prescripts already in force, being the National Building Regulations and Energy Efficiency regulations (SANS 10400 and SANS 204). The Minister must invite nominations by interested parties, which could be from energy components, property owners, commercial operators, etc.. The Minister must also ensure that the Forum is broadly representative and multi-disciplinary – opening up representation by trade associations and institutes within the energy efficiency field.

Guidelines and standards

The Minister may develop guidelines on, i.a., sustainable energy plans, targets and energy data collection. Particularly the latter aspect requires careful validation, as numerous efficiency claims can be made. These claims may not all be from the same baseline or benchmark and could be misleading. Claims will therefore require expert validation from the authorities, and careful monitoring by municipalities, to avoid overlapping and under-design of sustainable energy and efficiency improvement equipment.

ConCludinG remarks

• In the above, some general comments on proposed legislation have been put forward. • It must be obvious to even the casual observer,that those operating in the sustainable / efficiency energy field are faced with a conundrum of legislative stipulations. • However, due to governments present lack of capacity and funding it is highly unlikely that the Act, or similar acts from other provinces, will be enforced, in toto, in the near future. • Practical experience in dealing with government has shown that, at best, government may appoint ‘capacity service providers” ( i.e. consultants, university research faculties, etc.) to administer part of the act. • In this way, the sustainable / efficiency industry can provide input into most aspects of this legislation. • It should be the energy-efficiency industry’s aim to meet this legislation, but to a realistic set of standard and time-frames for a developing country such as RSA.

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chapter 4: Practical outcomes of saNs 10400 Xa aNd 204


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 4: Practical outcomes of saNs 10400 Xa aNd 204

Practical outcomes of saNs 10400 Xa aNd 204

Wim Jonker Klunne Senior Researcher CSIR

The new standard SANS 10400 norm which will be used to regulate the energy usage in new buildings has become effective in November 2011, along with the revised SANS 204. The first section of the new standard, SANS 10400-X, is devoted to energy-efficiency in buildings, and is called SANS 10400-XA. The objective of the new standard is to have the South African building industry move towards more sustainable and less resource intensive building practices. At the first introduction of SANS 204 the building industry was forced to change, making sure that energy usage is reduced. With the new norms in place the South African Bureau of Standards, in their press release, did relate the possible savings of thermal ceiling insulation and high-performance window systems into all new residential and commercial buildings to an estimated 3500 MW in electricity saving by 2020. Which is almost twice the size of South Africa’s only nuclear power plant, Koeberg (1800 MW). This is the main point underlying the recent publication of SANS 204, Energy efficiency in buildings: a huge reduction in energy consumption, equivalent to a new nuclear power plant.[1] This can be achieved by introducing sensible and practical measures that save energy when new buildings are designed and built accordingly. And by ultimately making the three parts of this standard mandatory, the government will slowly but surely begin to achieve savings in energy and savings in the costs of providing that energy. The National Building Regulation (NBR) has been updated to include Part X which addresses environmental sustainability and Part XA which establishes requirements for energy efficiency in new buildings. The National Standard SANS 10400 (building code) is made up of various parts. Parts A to W are “Deemed-to-Satisfy” rules which, if adhered to, will ensure compliance to the National Building Regulations. Each part covers different aspects of the construction and finishing of buildings. These are the minimum standards that ensure the health and occupational safety of the occupants in these buildings. Minister Davies of the DTI added that the Energy Efficiency regulations will contribute positively towards government’s goal of creating five million jobs by 2020. “Opportunities will be created in the manufacturing sector as well as the installation services when we produce and install one million solar water heaters by the 2014/15. If we achieve this, the estimation is that we can create around 18 000 jobs,” said Davies. According to Minister Davies, the energy efficient building regulations will contribute to the drive to use electricity in a more sustainable manner, to encourage industrial development through sectorial support and ultimately to create more jobs. It will also contribute to South Africa’s green industry and climate change mitigation initiatives [2]. the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


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With the implementation of Part X, South Africa has pro-actively joined the international community in an attempt to become more environmentally conscience. Persons planning a new development or additions and alterations are now compelled to include measures that make their endeavour energy efficient. This is achieved by ensuring that floors, walls, windows, ceilings and roofs are insulated correctly according to the geographical location of the development. Orientation of the buildings, hot water heating, energy demand and consumption are also addressed in the new regulation. For the most part, the architectural practitioner will comfortably cope with the additional demands that this regulation brings. However the calculation of heat gains and conductance through glazing elements, virtual simulation of energy demand and consumption and perhaps even hot water consumption will add immensely to the practitioners’ time and liability in performing the calculations necessary in order to ensure compliance. The provisions of the National Building Regulations can be satisfied by adhering to the requirements of all the prescriptive regulations, or by complying with all functional regulations. The latter is done through adopting building solutions that comply with the deemed to satisfy requirements of the corresponding part of SANS 10400 and certifying that the building solution has an equivalent or superior performance to a solution that complies with the “Deemed-to-Satisfy” provisions. Complying with the energy the XA annex, i.e. the energy regulation, can be done in four ways. Option 1 is rational design by a professional “competent” person. The thermal performance of building needs to be calculated and should be equal or better than specified in SANS 10400-XA. The other three options are so-called “Deemed-to-Satisfy” options where either all elements of the building will follow the prescribed requirements, or the thermal performance of the building is being calculated and the maximum energy consumption and demand are in line with the tables in XA (see tables 4.1 and 4.2) or, as last option, the building should perform equal or better than a reference building (to be proven by a thermal performance calculation software package). To reach a state of “Deemed to satisfy” SANS 10400-XA outlines the following design parameters that have to be taken into account (units of R are m2K/W): • Orientation: Living rooms and major areas of glazing should face north with the longer axis of building to run east / west. • Shading: roof overhang must shade northern windows from summer sun and eastern & western windows need to be minimised or screened. • Roofing: the roof assemblies have to be insulated to achieve the R value as indicated in table 7 and have a thickness as given in SANS 204 table 10. • Underfloor heating: insulation to be added under the floor with a minimum R value of 1. • Walls: non-masonry walls need to have R values as given in the norm, while double skin masonry with plaster inside or render outside complies as does single leaf of minimum 140 mm with plaster inside and render outside. Other masonry walls will need to have a minimum R value of 0.35. • Fenestration: air leakage may not exceed 2 L/s/m fenestration area with a limit of 0.306 L/s/m for fixed glazing and 5 L/s/m for revolving/swing doors. Fenestration more than 15% area relative to the nett floor area per storey then should seek solar heat gain and heat conductance in compliance with SANS 204 / 4.3.4. Fenestration of up to 15% area relative to the nett floor area per storey does comply. • Roofs and ceilings: must achieve the minimum total R-value as specified in the standard, depending on the climatic zone (see map) and direction of the heat flow. • Services Lighting and power: depending upon occupancy and activity, the minimum lighting levels shall be determined in accordance with the requirements of SANS 10114-1 and SANS 104000, while in general designers are encouraged to use daylighting in their designs to reduce the energy used 32

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• Mechanical ventilation and air conditioning: air conditioning or mechanical ventilation systems (or both) installed in buildings shall comply with the relevant national legislation and designed to best practice. Furthermore all chilled water, hot water and refrigeration piping, conditioned air duct work and flexible ducting shall be insulated to limit heat gain or loss (or both) to not more than 5% from source to furthest point of delivery on a system • Hot water supply: a of minimum of 50% of the annual average heating requirement for hot water must be provided by means other than electric resistance heating (geyser) or fossil fuels. Options mentioned in the norm are solar heating, heat pumps, geothermal heat, renewable combustible fuel and heat recovery from alternative systems and processes, although the norm does not limit the options to these. Conditions herewith are hot water demand determined in accordance with table 2 and table 5 of SANS 10252-1:2004, storage requirement based on maintenance of a hot water temperature of 60 C, while solar water heaters should comply with the relevant norms and all exposed hot water service pipes (SANS 10252-1) shall be clad with insulation with a minimum R-value in accordance with SANS 204 (exposed hot water pipes with a 80 mm diameter with a minimum R-value of 1.00 and pipes with a diameter greater than 80 mm diameter with a minimum R-value of 1.50). With this new set of standards South Africa is clearly set on a road to reduce energy consumption in its buildings and to be aligned with its peers around the world. Table 4.1: Maximum Energy Demand

Table 4.2: Maximum Annual Consumption


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chapter 4: Practical outcomes of saNs 10400 Xa aNd 204

Climate zones

Figure 1: Climate zones



[1] SABS, SABS - Energy Efficiency - Overview, 2012 (2011). [2] DTI, Media statement: Minister Davies Says the Energy Efficiency Building Regulations Will Boost Job Creation, (2011).


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


Call for Interest: Research and Academic Stakeholders

Background As both a leading supplier of content and an owner of more than 16 content platforms, Alive2green reaches thousands of sector-relevant decision makers on a regular basis and is held in high regard by those who need and use these science based content platforms. In order to maintain the highest levels of content, Alive2green makes use of local and international thought leaders, academics and experts who contribute articles and papers for publication and for presentation. This is a key component of the value proposition that Alive2green provides for unlock new streams of high quality, relevant content in the years to come.

Research Projects Within the context of this objective, Alive2green Research (A2GR) will be launched in 2012 and this division will tackle industry research in key sectors, in consultation with industry stakeholders. The objective of this department will be to develop a limited number of Research Projects that are linked to industry problem-statements and/or opportunities within vertical sectors of the green economy. Emphasis will be on quality and depth of research and on the dissemination of the research across the Alive2green media platforms and across other third party platforms. The number of Research Projects that are activated will increase over time as capacity is built and as Research Stakeholder participation increases. Academic Stakeholders Universities and selected tertiary academic institutions will develop partnership relationships with A2GR and with the Research Stakeholder around Research Projects and will: • Be the (virtual) host academic institution for the Research Project • Contribute to the Research Project where possible • Participate in peer-reviewed articles, interviews and in presentations of the research • Make use of the Research Project and the research content to activate Masters and/or PhD studies for selected students • Provide consulting services to the project Research Stakeholder where necessary

Research Stakeholders Research Projects will be activated by A2GR in a collaborative environment with Research Stakeholders, that: • Are able to work with A2GR to identify meaningful research gaps in relevant sectors • Require the research for strategic commercial objectives and/or • Are well positioned to leverage the research for advantage and/or • Would value the research as a necessary contribution to an organisational mandate Where possible and where applicable, each Research Project will be aligned with selected Academic Stakeholders.

Call for Participation Alive2green Research is calling for interest from key industry stakeholders in the green economy who are interested in participating in Research Projects either as Research Stakeholders or as Academic Stakeholders. Interested parties will meet with A2GR to agree on the principles of association and will then jointly facilitate the development of deep-research gaps for consideration. Enquiries Stakeholders interested in obtaining further information should please contact Lloyd Macfarlane on or on 083.3000257


PETROLEUM PETROLEUMAGENCY AGENCYSA SA South South Africa's Africa's oiloil and and gas gas exploration exploration industry industry regulator regulator Petroleum Petroleum Agency Agency SASA hashas three three main main roles: roles: to to promote promote oil oil andand gasgas exploration exploration andand production production in South in South Africa, Africa, to to regulate regulate thethe oil oil andand gasgas exploration exploration andand production production industry industry in our in our country country andand to archive all geo-technical data produced through exploration. These roles apply to both to archive all geo-technical data produced through oil oil andand gasgas exploration. These roles apply to both conventional unconventional resources. conventional andand unconventional gasgas resources. The Agency must advise government issues regarding exploration production, The Agency must alsoalso advise government onon issues regarding oil oil andand gasgas exploration andand production, carry special projects at the request of the Minister. andand carry outout special projects at the request of the Minister. The Agency encourages investment sector assessing South Africa's The Agency encourages investment in in thethe oil oil andand gasgas sector by by assessing South Africa's oil oil andand resources, presenting these opportunities exploration exploration gasgas resources, andand presenting these opportunities forfor exploration to to oil oil andand gasgas exploration andand production companies. Our team geoscientists study existing data identify prospective production companies. Our team of of geoscientists study existing data to to identify prospective resources - these then presented investors local international conferences resources - these areare then presented to to investors at at local andand international conferences andand exhibitions, through direct presentations exploration companies through advertisements. exhibitions, through direct presentations to to exploration companies andand through advertisements. is to ensure explorers understand regulatory regime country PartPart of of ourour rolerole is to ensure thatthat explorers understand thethe regulatory regime of of ourour country andand to advise government in the formulation of regulations in line with international norms. to advise government in the formulation of regulations thatthat areare in line with international norms. Compliance with all applicable legislation in place to protect environment is very important to us, Compliance with all applicable legislation in place to protect thethe environment is very important to us, rights cannot granted unless satisfied with Environmental Management Plan. andand rights cannot be be granted unless wewe areare satisfied with thethe Environmental Management Plan. Explorers must prove financial technical ability meet their commitments safeExplorers must alsoalso prove financial andand technical ability to to meet their commitments in in safeguarding rehabilitation environment. The plan requires public consultation a clear guarding andand rehabilitation of of thethe environment. The plan requires public consultation andand a clear demonstrationthatthatvalid validconcerns concernswillwillbe beaddressed, addressed,andandmust mustsatisfy satisfyboth bothprovincial provincialandand demonstration national authorities. national authorities. The Agency is involved in CSR initiatives both indirectly through operators, well directly The Agency is involved in CSR initiatives both indirectly through its its operators, as as well as as directly through own programmes. Production right holders must a social labour plan in place through its its own programmes. Production right holders must putput a social andand labour plan in place involvespreviously previouslymarginalised marginalisedsectors sectorsof ofthethepopulation populationin inthethebenefits benefitsflowing flowingfrom from thatthatinvolves development. These plans approved monitored Agency. The Agency administers development. These plans areare approved andand monitored by by thethe Agency. The Agency alsoalso administers Upstream Training Trust development specialist skills natural sciences, thethe Upstream Training Trust forfor thethe development of of specialist skills in in thethe natural sciences, engineering technology. The Agency own CSR programme includes development engineering andand technology. The Agency hashas its its own CSR programme thatthat includes development skills through internships, while regularly involved social outreach events such of of skills through internships, while staffstaff areare regularly involved in in social outreach events such as as house-building with Habitat Humanity. house-building with Habitat forfor Humanity.

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chapter 5: EnErgy ModElling SoftwarE


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 5: EnErgy ModElling SoftwarE

EnErgy ModElling SoftwarE

Luke Osburn Researcher


The construction industry has turned to energy modelling of buildings in order to assist them in reducing the amount of energy consumed by buildings. However, while the energy loads of buildings can be accurately modelled, energy models often under-predict the energy consumed.

EnErgy ModElling aS a dESign tool

Energy modelling can be effectively used as a design tool to aid decision-making within the project and is best brought into the project during the conceptual design phase. Often decisions made early on during the design phase of a project can significantly impact the energy load of a building including such facets as shape, orientation and the facade. Additionally some energy saving initiatives require good integration with the building design and the overall aesthetic appeal of the building. While a suitable competent person can render advice in this regard, energy modelling allows the benefits to be quantified within certain assumptions and can be used to guide the overall design process. Additionally not all energy saving measures are equal and they differ in potential gains and upfront capital costs. Energy modelling can serve to identify the potential gain of such interventions and can be used to identify the most cost-effective interventions. Also, buildings are often unique constructs and an in-depth energy analysis is usually required for each building.

EnErgy ModElling aS a VErifiCation tool

A much simpler application of energy modelling is to use it to predict the energy consumption of a building and this is becoming increasingly important for property developers as verification is required for certification with the South African Green Star rating tool. Internationally it is becoming increasingly required by building regulations that buildings demonstrate energy efficient design and this can often be demonstrated through appropriate energy modelling. While energy modelling can be used to demonstrate compliance with such tools or legislation its true benefit is accrued from guiding the building design process to a practical energy efficient design rather than just predicting energy consumption.

aVailability of EnErgy ModElling toolS

There is a plethora of available tools that have been developed in order to perform building energy modelling. Currently there are 377 tools listed within the United States Department of Energy’s Building Energy Software Tools Directory. The different tools can be very different to each other as well as their scope or focus, being able to model certain building characteristics very well, while using simpler algorithms for other heat transfer modes or energy uses. Considering the complexity of these tools, it is unlikely for any simulationist to have a strong working knowledge for more than a handful of these tools. It is also important for the the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 5: EnErgy ModElling SoftwarE

simulationist to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the tool which he is using so that it is not used inappropriately.

Complex or Simple

Energy software tools also vary greatly in the level of complexity that they provide, with some being appropriate to model large buildings with complex HVAC systems while others are more suited for small residential dwellings. Complex tools offer the technical rigidity to provide accurate results for complex buildings, and while they could be used to model simpler building constructs, by their nature they require detailed inputs and are more time consuming to use. Simpler tools are generally easier to use, make a higher number of assumptions and require fewer inputs. Simpler tools are also generally focussed on specific building classes due to the assumptions that they make within their algorithms. However, for the class of buildings they focus on, they can provide acceptable results. Within these applications the application of simpler tools should be considered as a cost saving mechanism while providing the required level of accuracy. The utilisation of complex tools also generally require a greater level of fundamental knowledge of energy use within buildings, fundamental heat transfer mechanisms, as well as how these are modelled within the tool.

energy Software CertifiCation

Initially when large numbers of energy software tools became available it became clear that there was little if any objective quality control over the accuracy of such tools. Consequently, the International Energy Agency, with the assistance of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, developed the series of Building Energy Simulation Tests (BESTEST) in order to evaluate the accuracy of such tools. While such tests are largely comparative in nature, that is, the results from different tools are compared to the results of others for the same well defined building constructs, they are very capable in identifying flaws and bugs within the algorithms of the tools. Additionally, if results do vary, this is not to necessarily due to any of the results being “wrong” but rather that they are just different from the results from other tools. However, when results do vary significantly they should be investigated. Usually under such circumstances a flaw in the programming is identified. More recently, the American Society for Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) has released a standard, ASHRAE 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs. This standard was based on much of the previous work that was used in order to produce the BESTEST standards. Interestingly ASHRAE 140 does not carry any pass or fail criteria. The test cases are composed of both comparative test cases as well as analytical ones, with the analytical test cases actually having a “correct” answer. However, due to the strength of such tests to identify errors within the algorithms of such programmes, it is generally required by most legislative requirements that any software to be used within any building regulations be tested against such a protocol or against a national specific protocol. For property developers and clients who are interested in producing an energy efficient building, and who want to use energy modelling to aid in this goal, it is important that they understand the limitations of the energy software being used and to which standards it complies.


Energy modelling software is a tool, and like all tools it requires a competent user in order to be used effectively. Depending on the complexity of the building, the user should have a strong 40

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working knowledge of the components of which he or she is modelling as well as the heat transfer mechanisms involved. The software vendors usually provide training for the software; however, this is usually a short course in how to use the software and not training in how to perform accurate energy modelling.


The International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA) is a non-profit international society of building performance simulation researchers, developers and practitioners, dedicated to improving the built environment. While IBPSA does not provide any certification for energy modellers, they do provide the appropriate environment for such professionals for knowledge sharing and networking. The Association for Energy Engineers (AEE) provides a certification course titled Certified Energy Manager (CEM), which is a general energy management course. It does not directly deal with energy modelling but provides a large amount of relevant knowledge that an energy modeller should have. In order to qualify as a CEM, significant appropriate experience and prior education is required in addition to passing an exam. ASHRAE is launching a qualification titled Building Energy Modeling Professional certification, however, it is only to be launched on January 27, 2010, and this will be the first exam date for the qualification. It will unfortunately be some time before there is a significant quantity of such professionals within South Africa. The purpose of this certification is to certify individuals’ ability to evaluate, choose, use, calibrate, and interpret the results of energy modelling software when applied to buildings, systems energy performance, economics and to certify individuals’ competence to model new and existing buildings and their systems with their full range of physics.


ASHRAE 90.1-2007, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. ASHRAE 140-2007, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs. Judkoff, R. and J. Neymark. (1995). International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test (BESTEST) and Diagnostic Method. Neymark, J. and Judkoff, R., International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST), 2002.

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)



Bosch Projects Durban-based Bosch Projects is a solutions-driven organization that has extensive in-house multi-disciplinary expertise fully capable of engineering optimum solutions for our clients. Regions of activity range from South Africa to the rest of Africa, Asia, the East and the Americas. With offices in South Africa and Brazil, our response time to meet our Client’s needs is rapid and delivery is based on an ISO 9001 Quality Management System. Bosch Projects is able to offer the most up-to-date, proven technology insofar as MiniHydropower is concerned. Bosch Projects also offers services relating to irrigation and water resources. These include agriculture developments, hydrology and flood control and water resource studies for either green field or brown field projects. Other aspects relating to water includes distribution both bulk and reticulation; pump stations and river abstraction and dams. Design and construction monitoring is also undertaken by the agriculture section of Bosch Projects


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chapter 5: EnErgy ModElling in Buildings


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 5: EnErgy ModElling in Buildings

EnErgy ModElling in Buildings rEsults froM thE ManEnBErg CiviC CEntrE Jonathan Skeen MSc (Energy & Enviro) BSc (Eng) Sustainable & Renewable Energy Engineer Emergent Energy (Pty) Ltd

Modern property developers want buildings that are both more comfortable and more energy efficient. Balancing both of these requirements is a difficult challenge for the full project team. In the context of historically low energy prices, architects have placed less emphasis on the energy impacts of their design choices, while engineers have ensured thermal comfort by specifying heating and cooling (HVAC) equipment large enough to meet the worst case demand, regardless of the inherent energy efficiency of the overall building design. Thus environmental concerns and electricity bills have not typically shaped the design process. As a result, building components – including building fabric, HVAC systems and lighting systems – have been developed compartmentally: with little in-depth interaction amongst the design team on how to improve the combined efficiency of the overall system. Consider, for example, the design of a building’s façade. Typically the realm of the architect, façade design affects daylight penetration into interior spaces. Improved daylight penetration reduces the amount of electric lighting required, and can cut the heating effect of interior light bulbs: reducing the energy use of HVAC systems which must counteract it. the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 5: EnErgy ModElling in Buildings

Understanding the impacts of individual design choices requires a means of quantifying a myriad of knock-on effects under the full range of potential operating conditions. Energy modelling allows the design team to model and predict the effect of all design choices: from window sizes, to wall materials, to fan and chiller selections. It enables the development of a more integrated design, where structural elements and electrical and mechanical systems fit together more seamlessly, and are designed as a single energy-using system, rather than multiple parallel systems. A variety of energy modelling software tools are available to South African design teams. The most effective and useful of these allow the user to simulate both thermal conditions and daylight penetration, under a dynamic range of external weather conditions. Software packages – such as DesignBuilder with EnergyPlus, AutoDesk’s web-based Green Building Design Studio, and Google SketchUp with the EnergyPlus add-in – allow users to visually represent their building designs and understand the manner in which they use energy. It is a field of software development that is rapidly progressing, with the power and usability of the available packages improving quickly. These tools can provide strong, quantitative evidence on the cost benefit of various design interventions aimed at improving comfort and energy efficiency. Energy modelling during the development of a proposed public safety building in the US town of Raleigh, North Carolina (City of Raleigh, 2011) showed that a high performance façade (with wall U values of 0.391 and window shading coefficients of 0.322) would yield a 14.5% reduction in required cooling air volume, an 8.8% reduction in cooling plant load, and a 17.8% reduction in heating plant load, over an equivalent building meeting ASHREA3 energy standards (Heikin, 2011). Further analysis found that the financial impact of these changes would add just 0.54% to projected baseline costs. However, it was also found that the knock-on effects of improving the building envelope would ultimately lead to an overall building cost reduction. This is because the improved design would require smaller chillers and air-handling units, smaller heating and cooling pipes and pumping units, less equipment insulation, and would require less of the building space to be dedicated to HVAC plant. Furthermore, annual energy consumption was projected to fall by 5.2% relative to the equivalent ASHRAE building (Heikin, 2011). Energy modelling and integrated design approaches, as well as the skills required to effectively apply them, are emerging in South Africa. To this end number of project management, architectural, and consulting engineering firms are engaging in projects with goals of sustainability and energy efficiency, while adopting the skills and tools needed to deliver comfortable, cost-effective and energy efficient buildings. Many of these projects are aiming for accreditation by the Green Building Council of South Africa (GBCSA), an organisation established in 2007 with the aim of developing a more sustainable local built environment. To this end the council has developed a series of ratings tools which address a variety of sustainability criteria, with a particular emphasis on energy use and renewable energy generation. To date the GBCSA has certified nearly twenty new South African buildings under its Green Star SA program, and has a growing list of upcoming projects (GBCSA, 2012).

The Manenberg CiviC CenTre

The new Manenberg Civic Centre was developed in line with the Green Star SA guidelines, and is currently undergoing assessment for a Green Star SA rating. The design team, led by architect Ashley Hemraj of the City of Cape Town – placed a heavy emphasis on sustainable energy use. As such, a number of interlinking design choices were taken in order to improve the overall, integrated energy efficiency of the building. Key interventions included: 46

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chapter 5: EnErgy ModElling in Buildings

• • • • • • •

The selection of insulating wall and roof elements, using novel systems such as thick sandbag walls. Optimization of daylight penetration while avoiding excessive solar gain. The use of efficient HVAC equipment, incorporating heat recovery technology. The implementation of lighting controls and occupancy sensors. The use of efficient bulbs, and the implementation of a ‘reduced’ lighting scope. The use of solar water heaters. The incorporation of a hybrid wind and solar PV renewable energy system.

Tasked with modelling the energy use of the building, Emergent Energy – a Cape Town consultancy specialising in renewable energy and energy efficiency – undertook a detailed analysis of these interventions using DesignBuilder with EnergyPlus. By simulating the building’s thermal conditions and electricity demand every ten minutes for a full year, they were able to develop a detailed picture of how each of the energy-using systems in the building would consume electricity under varying conditions. As a baseline, a notional building model was also developed with the same overall shape and volume of the actual building, but with its building fabric, glazing, HVAC systems and lighting systems set according to the “SANS 204: Energy Efficiency in Buildings” standard (SABS, 2011)4. In parallel, high level modelling of the renewable energy systems was undertaken using the RETScreen software tool (RETScreen, 2012).

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)



Emergent Energy Emergent Energy provides energy efficiency and renewable energy solutions and consulting services to Southern African enterprises using state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies. The company is 50% owned by Saratoga Private Equity, 25% owned by Sekunjalo TSG (a listed black empowered diversified industrial company), and 25% owned by management. Emergent Energy is a Level-4 BEE Contributor. Emergent Energy is run by a dynamic, growing team of engineers with extensive experience in the technical, economic, and policy aspects of renewable and sustainable energy. Our Services: Large and Small Renewable Energy Projects- We offer full technical consulting services for renewable energy developers, with our international partner, 3E. We also provide a full range of small and off-grid renewable energy solutions. Sustainable Buildings- We provide a comprehensive consulting service to property owners & managers aimed at creating more efficient and comfortable buildings. We offer energy and daylight modelling, CFD analysis, and guidance on Green Star accreditation and energy regulation compliance. Industrial and Commercial Energy Efficiency- We help our clients achieve significant energy savings at their homes, factories, schools and hotels, through comprehensive energy analyses, and integrated use of modern energy technologies. Energy Policy-We undertake policy consulting for large and small renewable energy developers, and assist in the development of corporate and public sustainable energy strategies. Our Latest Projects Chevron Headquarters, Cape Town- Emergent Energy is undertaking detailed thermal and daylight modelling of the new Chevron Headquarters in Cape Town, in collaboration with leading architects and engineering consultants. Efficient Bulk Hot Water - Emergent Energy has recently delivered several innovative ENERGIE hot water systems to clients including D’Ouwe Werf Hotel, Bishop’s Diocesan College, Somerset College and St. Cyprian’s College. Mombo Luxury Game Camp, BotswanaEmergent Energy recently commissioned a 90kW solar PV-diesel hybrid system in the Okavango Delta. The system is one of several off-grid projects installed or under current development. Contact Details Tel: +21 (0) 21 1000 007 Fax: +27 (0) 86 653 6234 Email:

chapter 5: EnErgy ModElling in Buildings

Figure 5.1

Figure 5.2

Figure 5.1 compares the monthly electricity demand resulting from key energy users5 of three scenarios, namely: the notional SANS 204 compliant building, the actual building with no renewable energy; and the actual building with a 15kW solar PV array. Without the use of renewable energy systems, the building operators could have expected to use around 30% less electricity than the equivalent building meeting SANS 204 standards. With the PV system included, the saving increases to nearly 60% annually. This excludes the effect of the 5kW wind turbine which has also been installed at the centre, which can be expected to further reduce electricity consumption by approximately 5%. The financial implications of the design interventions are significant. Assuming a standard commercial tariff for small power users in Cape Town, the building operators can expect to save around R50, 000 per annum on their large energy uses – a total reduction of approximately a third. With the introduction of renewable energy systems, this increases to well over R90, 000 per annum – or nearly two thirds of the total. Projected monthly electricity bills for the three scenarios are shown in Figure 5.2. The results are a testament to the power of integrated design in matching hard engineering goals with the aesthetic, social and economic goals of the architects. Achieving the level of detail and accuracy required to properly assess the different interventions simply cannot be achieved using standard engineering calculations. Energy modelling, by comparison, can provide real economic impetus for more sustainable design choices, especially where the capital costs are high, and payoffs are not clearly understood.


City of Raleigh. 2011. City of Raleigh: City Projects: Clarence E. Lightner Public Safety Centre. Online. Available: PWksConstMgmt/Articles/ClarenceELightnerPublicSafetyCenter.html. Accessed: 28th May 2012. GBCSA. 2012. Project Directory. Online. Available: Accessed: 28th May 2012. Heikin, J. 2011. High Performance Starts with Integrated Design and Energy Modelling. Facilitiesnet, January 2011. Online. Available: http://www.facilitiesnet. com/hvac/article/High-Performance-Starts-with-Integrated-Design-and-Energy-Modeling--12179. Accessed: 25th May 2012. RETScreen, 2012. RETScreen International: Empowering Cleaner Energy Decisions. Online. Available: Accessed: 30th May 2012. SABS. 2011. Home: Webstore: SANS 204: Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Online. Available: php?id=1400025022. Accessed: 30th May 2012. 1 The U value, or heat transfer coefficient, of a building element refers to its ability to transfer heat between two volumes of varying temperature. An element (such as a wall) with a high U value will transfer heat more readily, whereas an element with a lower U value will provide greater resistance to the flow of heat (and will therefore be a better insulator). 2 The shading coefficient (SC) is the ratio of the solar gain from direct sunlight that passes through a window plane, relative to a standard, clear glass pane. Windows with a higher SC value allow greater solar gain in internal spaces, whereas windows with a lower SC value are more resistant to solar gain and its resulting internal heating effect. 3 ASHREA is the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers. The society publishes a variety of building standards, a number of which address energy use in the built environment. 4 At the time of the analysis the SANS 204: 2011 standards had not been released. As such, the results reported here are based on the SANS 204: 2008 standards. 5 Figures 5.1 and 5.2 only account for key internal energy users. External lighting is excluded, as is domestic hot water energy use. the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


The City of Ekurhuleni is finding innovative ways of reducing Carbon Shadows, such as: 路

Installing solar water heaters;

Installing energy efficient lamps, and control gear to make lighting more efficient;

Installing energy efficient streetlights and traffic light signal heads; and

Generating electricity from landfill gas.

Have you started to assess your own carbon footprint? What are you doing to reduce this footprint to conform to industry standards?

Ekurhuleni Energy Reliable and economical, your electricity future in good hands. Ekurhuleni consists of the greater areas of Alberton, Boksburg, Germiston, Kempton Park, Tembisa, Edenvale, Benoni, Brakpan, Springs and Nigel.

RENEWABLE ENERGY, ENERGY EFFICIENCY, AND DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT AT EKURHULENI METROPOLITAN MUNICIAPLITY The Metro has an energy and climate change strategy which was approved by Council in April 2007. An office within the energy department was established to look at energy issues within the Metro. The division is headed by Tshilidzi Thenga: Director Energy Services and is assisted by his secretary Ina Slabbert. Below are some of the achievements by the Metro and future plans.

SOLAR WATER HEATING The Metro has installed about 3,200 solar geysers in Council owned buildings since October 2009 and the number is on the rise. From the 3200 units, 1350 are low pressure systems installed on hostels and the remainder on rental council owned flats. A Memorandum of Agreement has been signed between the Metro and the Solar Academy of Sub Saharan Africa (SASSA) for the mass rollout of these low pressure systems to low cost housing at no cost to the Metro. It is envisaged that at least 120 000 low pressure solar water heaters will be installed in over a three- year period.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT There are interventions undertaken to ensure that municipal buildings are energy efficient. These interventions include retrofitting old lighting with new energy efficient T5 lighting technology, installation of occupancy sensors with or without daylight harvesting. Efforts were undertaken to ensure that streetlights are also energy efficient by replacing mercury vapour lights with high pressure sodium. The phasing out of mercury vapour lights is contained in the Council’s policy. Finally traffic lights are being retrofitted with low power LED to make them energy efficient. An important aspect of implementing these projects is the measurement and verification process which is required in order to verify the savings achieved by such intervention.

POWER GENERATION Ekurhuleni has four landfill sites that produce adequate methane to generate electricity with an estimated capacity of about 8 Mega-watts. Processes have been initiated to ensure that the ultimate goals of the strategy to generate power from landfill gas is achieved. Going forward the development of multiple solar Photovoltaic (PV) farms is in the pipeline and a lot of groundwork has been done to ensure successful implementation of such projects. For more details please contact

10 Years of Service Delivery Excellence

Tshilidzi Thenga, Director: Energy Services 011 999 5599, Ina Slabbert, Secretary

chapter 6: EnErgy EfficiEncy in municipal buildings – city of capE town casE study


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 6: EnErgy EfficiEncy in municipal buildings – city of capE town casE study

EnErgy EfficiEncy in municipal buildings – city of capE town casE study Vivienne Walsh BSc (Mech Eng) UCT Certified Energy Manager Energy and Climate Change Unit Environmental Resource Management Department City of Cape Town


The City of Cape Town is one of the first municipalities in South Africa to implement an energy efficiency performance contract in order to save electricity in Council owned and operated buildings. This article explores how an energy efficiency retrofit was done in four Council buildings, and describes the savings which have been realised through this project.


The City of Cape Town has recognised the importance of energy efficiency in improving Cape Town’s energy security and is committed to reducing its electricity consumption by 10% (CCT, 2011a). This is particularly important as South Africa faces serious electricity supply constraints. The City has a responsibility to lead by example on improving the resource efficiency within its own operations, as it is asking households and businesses to do the same. A well run City is one that ensures that all public funds are spent as efficiently as possible and saving electricity helps to reduce operational costs, and allows limited resources to be spent elsewhere. The City is also committed to reducing the environmental impact of its operations, and reducing its energy consumption helps to minimise the carbon emissions and pollution associated with electricity generation and consumption in South Africa.

Energy breakdown in cape town

The City of Cape Town accounts for 1.4% of all energy consumed in Cape Town; this is particularly significant as the City is the single largest consumer in Cape Town.

Figure 6.1: Cape Town energy consumption by sector, 2007 (CCT, 2011b, page 26) the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 6: EnErgy EfficiEncy in municipal buildings – city of capE town casE study

Electricity use in the City of Cape Town

It is estimated that buildings make up 16% of electricity consumed in Council operations1, and projects which make an impact on buildings’ energy efficiency would have a noticeable effect on total electricity consumption.

Figure 6.2: City of Cape Town electricity consumption by City operations, 2007 (CCT, 2011b, page 42)


The City of Cape Town demonstrated its commitment to sustainable energy development in 2006 with the establishment of the Energy and Climate Change unit; housed within the Environmental Resource Management Department. This project was initiated and managed by Wouter Roggen, Principal Engineer and Certified Energy Manager within this Energy and Climate Change Unit and was later taken over by Vivienne Walsh. To the best of our knowledge this project was the first performance contract successfully implemented by a municipality in South Africa. An energy services company (ESCo) called Shared Energy Management (SEM) was appointed in 2009/10 to carry out audits and energy efficiency retrofits in four City owned administrative buildings; namely Plumstead, Ottery, Fezeka and Durbanville. These buildings were chosen specifically because they are large administrative buildings with a strong public interface and are distributed around the city. Preliminary audits and then detailed audits were conducted in the four buildings, which investigated energy consumption by looking into lighting, space heating and cooling, water heating, computer usage and staff behaviour and working habits. The detailed audit contained a proposed implementation plan for each building, which was reviewed and approved by Mr Roggen. This implementation plan proposed various technical interventions, as detailed in Table 1. The ESCo was required to guarantee the savings on an annual basis, through the submission of a bank guarantee to the City of Cape Town. This guarantee is based on the energy consumption and energy demand reductions outlined in the implementation plan, and is converted into a financial amount based on the relevant City electricity tariff amount (such as the Small Power Users: High Consumer or the Large Power Users: Low Voltage tariffs). Should the savings be less than anticipated, the ESCo would be 54

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chapter 6: EnErgy EfficiEncy in municipal buildings – city of capE town casE study

required to supplement the realised savings with their own funding to reach the guaranteed amount. If the savings are higher than guaranteed, the guarantee period is shortened, and the ESCo is released of the commitment earlier.

Project interventions and resulting savings

energy breakdown in the four buildings

Each building has a different energy consumption profile, as can be seen in the table below, and the interventions in each facility differed as a result. Table 6.1: Energy consumption breakdown in each building (SEM, 2010)

Main building services




Hot Water & Other

Total Energy (MWh/ Annum)


General Administration, Revenue, Planning and Building Development Management







General Administration, Fire Department, Traffic Services, Rondevlei Sub Council, Law Enforcement, City Parks, Electrical Maintenance







General Administration, Revenue, Health Department, Forestry, Water Works, Family Court







General Administration, Public Library, Council Chambers












technologies installed

Each building received lighting retrofits, as lighting generally made up the majority of energy consumed. The original implementation plan proposed the replacement of T12 fluorescent light fittings with T8 fittings, but Mr Roggen recognised that even though it would result in a longer payback period, the benefits of pursuing a more efficient fitting would be beneficial in the long run particularly as municipal projects have the ability to entertain longer payback periods than commercial businesses. As a result, all facilities received T5 light fittings. Lighting control gear was also installed in various locations. The payback period on solar water heaters is very long in these administrative facilities, as there is not much demand for water heating. As each building has a public interface, it was recognised that the visibility of installed solar water heaters be an excellent opportunity to promote their use, and also to demonstrate the City’s commitment to energy efficiency. Further technical interventions included installing power factor correction units, to provide a maximum demand saving; installing timers on air-conditioning units to ensure they were switched off after hours; and installing controllers on air conditioning units, to limit upper and lower set points of the units’ thermostats. Guaranteed energy consumption and energy demand savings from the interventions can be seen in the tables below. the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 6: EnErgy EfficiEncy in municipal buildings – city of capE town casE study

Table 6.2: Annual energy consumption savings guaranteed from energy efficiency retrofits (kWh) (SEM, 2010)

Lighting Daylight control for outside lights

Lighting - high efficiency lighting and control gear

HVAC - operating hours optimisation

Intelligent thermostat control on HVAC

Solar Water Heating

Total savings (kWh)



118 830

10 260

18 500

8 310

155 900



56 900



20 030

76 930


5 550

25 540

3 570


5 150

39 810



61 400



4 230

65 630


5 550

262 670

13 830

18 500

37 720

338 270

Table 6.3: Average energy demand savings guaranteed from energy efficiency retrofits (kVA) (SEM, 2010)

Power factor correction

Lighting high efficiency lighting and control gear

Intelligent thermostat control

Solar Water Heating

Total savings (kVA)



















Behaviour Change

While the ESco was only required to guarantee savings resulting from the technical interventions, the opportunity existed to incorporate behaviour change interventions. Each building resident has control over a number of electrical appliances, such as their office equipment, air-conditioner or lighting. The aim of the behaviour change work was to inform the residents of the savings which could be realised from the technical interventions which they could see taking place, but that, through their own actions, the savings could be increased even further. Posters were put up in each facility, and the recorded savings are tracked monthly on each poster, which allowed the residents to monitor the performance of their buildings, and monitor the impact that their actions could have on the project’s success. It was also intended that staff would also implement electricity saving measures at home as a result of the project.


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


Figure 6.3: Behaviour change poster for Plumstead Municipal Building; stickers are used to track actual consumption in each facility (SEM, 2010)

Three hour workshops were held at each facility on ways to save electricity, both in the workplace and at home. Resources were distributed in public areas, where building residents and members of the public have been given useful and relevant information. There has also been extensive interaction with the building managers, focusing on the retrofits taking place and the role of facilities management in helping to reduce consumption even further.

Resulting energy savings

The technical interventions and behaviour change work have resulted in significant savings across the four buildings. The ESCo has guaranteed the savings across all of the four buildings combined; if one building over-performs and another under-performs the total savings will be calculated, and the ESCo is bound by this total. This means that only one guarantee is submitted each year, which is less of an administrative burden, while still ensuring that the overall performance of the project is on line with what was promised.

Plumstead: resulting energy savings are more than those guaranteed

Plumstead was the only facility to receive air-conditioning set point controllers. It is expected that the vast savings seen in Plumstead are as a result of this installation and from improvements in building resident behaviour. This has influenced the performance of the whole project, as Plumstead’s energy consumption is at least twice that of any of the three other buildings and HVAC in Plumstead accounts for 39% of energy consumed.



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     ’                   ’ 

chapter 6: EnErgy EfficiEncy in municipal buildings – city of capE town casE study

Figure 6.4: Energy savings resulting in Plumstead administrative building, year 1 (SEM, 2011)

Ottery: resulting energy savings are less than those guaranteed

During the first two months following the completion of the retrofit, the savings at Ottery were seen to be much lower than the savings guaranteed. After the first two months the rate of savings is on track with what should have been realised, but there is a two month delay. The reason for this underperformance was not known, but it is believed that it could be the result of building residents making maximum use of the new technologies installed, particularly the new lights.

Figure 6.5: Energy savings resulting in Ottery administrative building, year 1 (SEM, 2011)

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chapter 6: EnErgy EfficiEncy in municipal buildings – city of capE town casE study

Calculating Fezeka’s energy savings

During the preliminary audit, it was discovered that the meter for the Fezeka administrative building was faulty, and that the historical readings obtained were not representative of the actual electricity consumed. A two week recorded profile was therefore extrapolated over a full year to substitute actual electricity consumption information. The resulting baseline for Fezeka was therefore not accurate, and a methodology for evaluating the savings in Fezeka was developed. As similar technologies were installed in other facilities, an assumption was made that the average savings across all three of the other buildings would be representative of the savings achieved in Fezeka. This is not entirely accurate, as Fezeka did not receive air-conditioning retrofits as were installed in Plumstead, but it was a workable solution, and the margin of error was determined to be acceptable. The resulting savings in Fezeka can be seen in the figure below.

Fezeka: resulting energy savings calculated

Figure 6.6: Energy savings resulting in Fezeka administrative building, year 1 (SEM, 2011)

Changes to Durbanville Civic Centre

It is inevitable that changes, such as renovations or changing number of staff, will occur in these facilities over time. In Durbanville for example, the resident count was originally 80 people, but has increased to 130, and 27 new air conditioners have been installed. The savings resulting from the technical retrofits would still be present, but they would be hidden by the electricity consumed by the new equipment. In order to address this, the impact of the new installations has been calculated, and the baseline upon which savings are compared has been adjusted accordingly. The baseline used in Durbanville has been adjusted upwards by 3620kWh per month and by an average of 18.4kVA every month for the period 01 January 2012 to 31 December 2012.


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 6: EnErgy EfficiEncy in municipal buildings – city of capE town casE study

Figure 6.7: Energy savings resulting in Durbanville administrative building, year 1 (SEM, 2011)

Total savings compared to guaranteed savings (Rand)

The overall savings realised exceeded the guaranteed savings for the first year within 10 months. This is an excellent indication of the success experienced in this project, and the value of a performance contract in ensuring that the savings promised are realised. It is difficult to identify which savings can be allocated to behaviour change interventions, but it is possible that the over performance of this project thus far is due, at least partly, to successful engagement with building managers and tenants.

Figure 6.8: Total financial savings resulting across all 4 administrative buildings, year 1 (SEM, 2011)

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 6: EnErgy EfficiEncy in municipal buildings – city of capE town casE study


The project detailed in this article followed on from previous investigations into energy consumption within Council buildings, starting in 2003. Funding from the Sustainable Energy for Environment and Development (SEED) programme, run by Sustainable Energy Africa, and ICLEI’s Cities for Climate Protection Campaign allowed for audits and energy efficiency retrofits of other facilities, and the learnings from that project helped to shape the design and implementation of this project. Funding for these four buildings was received from DANIDA, the Danish International Development Agency. Grants such as these have acted as a stimulus for building energy efficiency work within the City. The outcomes of this project and the proven success of the method of contracting with ESCo’s has motivated the City to allocate its own funding to further retrofits; and while it is not possible to ringfence savings realised (because of municipal financial legislation and regulations), the demonstrable benefits of this type of investment has been critical in transforming this project into a priority programme in the City, which can receive budget year on year.

Lessons Learnt and chaLLenges

We have identified a number of learnings and challenges from this project. Some of these are outlined briefly below.

Length of payback/guarantee period

The decision to install solar water heaters on facilities where the demand for hot water was very low has resulted in a long payback period for the overall project. The overall payback period for the project is an estimated 7 years (tariff dependent). Future projects may omit the installation of solar water heaters where they are not deemed necessary, unless existing geysers burst and need to be replaced, in which case heat pumps and other water heating solutions will also be considered.

Maintenance requirements

The maintenance cost across the four buildings is reported to have decreased, as light bulbs installed tend to have longer lifespans, however, the maintenance required to maintain the guaranteed savings, through counting and checking lights, maintaining HVAC systems and cleaning the solar water heaters has a cost associated with it. The benefit of holding the ESCo to the guarantee for the duration of the payback period, as required through this project, results in a lengthy, and potentially unnecessary, maintenance contract. Future projects will have a guarantee period for up to two or three years, during which time the ESCo must prove the savings, and is required to carry out effective maintenance training to City facilities managers, in order to transfer skills and ensure that savings are sustained after the ESCo’s obligation has been fulfilled. This handover of skills is critical, and an absolute necessity to the continuing success of such projects.

setting the guaranteed saving amount

The guarantor will naturally want to underestimate the savings guaranteed (or set the level as low as possible) whereas the project manager will want to maximise the savings. The actual savings guaranteed would therefore be a compromise between the two parties’ goals. Reaching agreement on this could potentially be challenging.

Behaviour change impact

The impact of behaviour change interventions can be hard to measure, and if the ESCo is monitored solely on the technical interventions, as in this project, benefits from improved behaviour would help to act as a ‘safety net’.

next steps & concLusions

The success of this project has helped to motivate for further energy efficiency building retrofits. Funding received from the Department of Energy has been used to audit fourteen City buildings, including libraries, clinics, workshops and administrative buildings. The savings from this project are 62

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chapter 6: EnErgy EfficiEncy in municipal buildings – city of capE town casE study

expected to be in the order of 547MWh each year from lighting retrofits alone. The Cape Town Civic Centre will also receive a lighting retrofit (paid for through the City’s budget) and it is anticipated that this will result in savings of 3,800MWh per year (PDNA & Agama, 2011). The City is also developing an ‘Internal Energy Management Policy’, and one aspect of this will focus on replacing geysers with efficient water heating technologies.


CCT, 2011a: City of Cape Town, 2011, Moving Mountains, Cape Town’s Action Plan for Energy and Climate Change CCT, 2011b: City of Cape Town, 2011, Cape Town 2011, State of Energy and Energy Futures Report Both City of Cape Town documents above available: PD Naidoo & Associated & Agama Energy, January 2011, Baseline Audit Report (Detailed Audits and Energy Efficiency Interventions Specifications at the Civic Centre, Hertzog Boulevard) Shared Energy Management, 2010, Detailed Energy Audit Reports (Durbanville Civic Centre; Fezeka; Plumstead Administrative Offices; Ottery) Shared Energy Management, December 2011, Monthly Performance Reports (Durbanville Civic Centre; Fezeka; Plumstead Administrative Offices; Ottery)

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


University of Pretoria’s New Energy Research Initiative By Dr Jörg Lalk, Graduate School of Technology Management The University of Pretoria has recently embarked on the

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energy security.

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In the last year the university has evaluated relevant

the world today, and the only of its kind in South

government policies and strategies pertaining to the

Africa. This school plays an important role in this

wider energy theme in South Africa and concluded that

sub-theme, together with the Faculty of Economic

a focused and concerted effort is necessary to ensure

Sciences which is doing sterling work in the area of

that the country is successful in bringing the goals of the Integrated Resource Plan, generally referred to as the IRP2010, to fruition. The university has concluded that a number of sub-themes in the wider energy theme need to be addressed, namely •

Energy production, with specific emphasis on clean coal, nuclear and of course renewables such as solar and wind.

Energy distribution, two notable aspects would need to be addressed, namely so-called Smart Grids and Energy Storage.

Energy optimisation, an area where the university is particularly well placed in that it hosts the National Hub on Energy Efficiency and Demand Side

energy cost modelling for example. •

Environment. No argument for sustainable energy can be made without a serious focus on environmental impacts of chosen energy sources. The university is quite active in this field and has made some unique contributions in, for example, the minimisation and management of nuclear waste.

It is evident that the current energy theme focuses almost exclusively on electricity generation research. This is not an oversight but is simply done from a cost perspective. The current energy theme is expected to grow to also include other energy areas such as bio-fuels.

Management. Specific areas being researched include thermal and process optimisation and energy efficiency. •

Advanced materials. In many instances new energy technologies call for unique material attributes, notably in high temperature applications. mediachef4305

The university is particularly well positioned for such research thanks to direct spin-offs from research the university did for the defunct pebble bed modular reactor project.

General enquiries can be made to Dr J. Lalk: E-mail: • Website:

Universiteit van Pretoria • University of Pretoria • Yunibesithi ya Pretoria Privaatsak • Private Bag X20 Hatfield 0028 • Suid-Afrika • South Africa • Afrika Borwa Tel: +27 (0) 12 420 4111 • Fax: +27 (0) 12 420 4555

Beyond Engineering mediachef4301

The only graduate school of its kind in South Africa, GSTM provides skills solutions in Engineering Management, Technology Management, Innovation Management and Project Management to practising engineers and scientists!

The Graduate School of Technology Management (GSTM) within the Faculty of Engineering, Built Environment and Information Technology at the University of Pretoria, one of South Africa’s leading research universities, functions beyond the traditional boundaries set for post-graduate training in engineering. Degree programmes: Masters in Engineering Management (MEM) Masters in Project Management (MPM) Masters in Technology Management (MTM) Hons in Technology Management (MOT) Year programmes and short courses: Project Management Engineering Management Technology Management Maintenance Management Logistics Systems Engineering For more information on programmes offered by the GSTM, visit

Universiteit van Pretoria • University of Pretoria • Yunibesithi ya Pretoria Privaatsak • Private Bag X20 Hatfield 0028 • Suid-Afrika • South Africa • Afrika Borwa Tel: +27 (0) 12 420 4111 • Fax: +27 (0) 12 420 4555

chapter 8: The NaTioNal eNergy BaromeTer Survey


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 8: The NaTioNal eNergy BaromeTer Survey

The NaTioNal eNergy BaromeTer Survey

Braam Dalgleish Senior Projects Engineer Energy Cybernetics

Gustav Radloff Managing Director Energy Cybernetics

LJ Grobler Director Energy Cybernetics


Industry and the commercial sector are by far the biggest contributors to South Africa’s energy consumption. The rapidly escalating cost of energy, current difficulties experienced on the local energy front and a growing awareness of the environmental impact necessitates the need for business to rise to these challenges and engage with Government in order to secure South Africa’s energy future. Our country’s continued economic growth and development depend on it! In response to this challenge, Energy Cybernetics launched the Energy Barometer which aims to develop a comprehensive, reliable and accurate energy consumption comparison database of South African buildings enabling building-owners to assess their energy intensities and compare these with their historic consumption as well as to the industry average of buildings in the same sector. This campaign runs annually and entries open in July – watch the press for details or contact us at The ultimate aim is to create an awareness of consumption levels and the emissions footprint for each facility, with a view to become more environmentally aware and to play a much-needed role in energy conservation.

WhaT iS The value of uSiNg The eNergy BaromeTer?

The value for organisations to participate in the Energy Barometer is four-fold: • Benchmarking: The Energy Barometer provides every participant with a report, mapping their performance rating and ranking against other organisations of similar type as well as against the industry average. This gives organisations a foundation on which to base their energy optimisation projects and monitor their improvement. The Barometer’s long-term goal is to launch a web-based energy benchmarking-system accessible to all participants. • economic: Embarking on improving a generally neglected area of operations such as energy efficiency, often leads to simultaneous, unexpected improvements in other areas, in the long-term yielding higher throughputs and better quality products as a result of improved total business efficiency with significant bottom-line gains. • marketing: In an increasingly environmentally conscious world, a building with a positive energy profile is much more marketable than one with an energy profile that disregards the environment. • Tax rebate: Initiating energy efficiency projects will align participants with the objectives of Government’s Power Conservation Plan and as a result they may qualify for the accompanying tax rebates. These tax rebates are now closer than ever with the publication of the first round of the regulations in September 2011 which are now out for public comment. the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 8: The NaTioNal eNergy BaromeTer Survey

The energy BaromeTer adjudicaTion Process

The Energy Barometer compares buildings’ energy consumption on an ‘apples-to-apples’ basis, taking into account factors such as climatic conditions, location, occupancy, and floor area, amongst others. Simplified, this means that participants’ energy bills for a particular year are assessed and normalised in relation to these parameters. The Barometer then calculates the average of the normalised annual energy consumption for all the buildings in a particular category. This average becomes the benchmark and is assigned a value of 100 on the Barometer. All participants can evaluate their energy consumption in relation to this calculated industry average. The process is based on state-of-the-art scientific normalisation techniques on par with international standards and best practice. A rating of 120 therefore implies that the building in question uses, on average, 20% more energy than other buildings of a similar type. Similarly, a rating of 70 would imply that the building in question uses on average, 30% less than the industry average for buildings of a similar type. Using this data, each participant can benchmark him/herself against the industry average. The energy savings potential in buildings due to the information provided by the Energy Barometer is enormous. A good rule-ofthumb is that an energy saving of between 10% and 30% can be achieved by implementing measures that have a payback period of less than three years. Over the long-term more energy efficient operations generally yield higher throughputs and better quality products with a positive impact on the economy. Furthermore, through the Energy Barometer, a participant can track their progress on a year-to-year basis with regard to the industry average. This way, organisations can establish a foundation on which to base their energy optimization projects and monitor their improvement going forward.

resulTs of energy BaromeTer 2010

The Energy Barometer poses absolutely no risk that any participant will ever be “named and shamed” or that any company-specific information will become public knowledge. The only names ever provided are those of the winners in the respective categories - even then, names are only provided if permission was obtained. No third party will ever have access to any company-specific information. The only information any participant will receive is their own position relative to the industry average of the facilities in their category. It is up to each individual participant to decide if they want to make their position on the Barometer known - i.e. if they want to frame and proudly display their annual Barometer certificate. This non-disclosure of information guaranteed by the Energy Barometer makes presenting all results in a report tricky. The results of Energy Barometer 2010 are therefore given in three blocks: Bottom 33, Middle 33, and Top 33. An average Energy Barometer score was calculated for each of those blocks. I.e., the average Energy Barometer score for the top 33% of all participants, the score for the middle 33%, and the score for the bottom 33%. Should scores for different blocks be very similar, it is purely an indication of the energy performance in those two blocks is very similar. Each participant would have received an Energy Barometer certificate that shows the individual score. The score on that certificate could be used to see where the facility ranks in terms of the rest of the industry. The following paragraphs show the results of the assessed sectors: • Head offices • Shopping centres • Hotels • Hospitals • Bank Branches • Where it is possible the comparison between the 2009 Energy Barometer and the 2010 Energy Barometer scores are also shown.


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chapter 8: The NaTioNal eNergy BaromeTer Survey

What could the scores mean?

An Energy Barometer scorecard distribution as in Figure 8.2 could indicate that in the category a small number of participants have started energy management and consequently improved their energy performance drastically compared to the rest.

Figure 8.1 : Similar Energy Performance

Figure 8.2: Some in the category has improved their Energy Performance

An Energy Barometer graph as shown in Figure 8.1 could indicate that the Energy Performance in the category is very similar. This result could indicate a successful concerted effort to reduce energy consumption across the whole category.

An Energy Barometer scorecard distribution as shown in Figure 8.3 could indicate that some in the category has already done major work to improve their energy performance, whilst other have just started and the other group is still lagging behind. Energy saving potential exists in these variations.

Figure 8.3: Wide spread distribution in Energy Performance across the category

An Energy Barometer scorecard distribution as shown in Figure 8.4 could indicate that the majority of participants have already improved their energy performance. The Bottom 33 raking could be an indication that those participants did not do anything yet to improve their energy performance.

Figure 8.4: Most in the category has already started improving their Energy Performance

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)



THE CHEMICAL AND ALLIED INDUSTRIES’ ASSOCIATION The Chemical and Allied Industries’ Association (CAIA) was established in 1994 to promote a wide range of interests pertaining to the chemical industry. These include fostering South Africa’s science base; seeking ways to promote growth in the sector; promoting the industry’s commitment to a high standard of health, safety and environmental performance; and consulting with government and other role players on a wide variety of issues. Membership is open to chemical manufacturers and traders as well as to organisations which provide a service to the chemical industry, such as hauliers and consultants. CAIA is the South African custodian of the international Responsible Care initiative, which has been adopted by 53 countries worldwide. This is a key component of the work of the Association. CAIA obtains guidance on the implementation of the initiative through, the International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA). Over 150 members are now signatories to Responsible Care in South Africa.

Responsible Care is an initiative of the global chemical industry in which companies, through their national associations, commit to work together to continuously improve the health, safety and environmental performance of their products and processes, and so contribute to the sustainable development of local communities and of society as a whole. It encourages companies and associations to inform the public about what they make and do, about their performance including reporting performance data, and about their achievements and challenges. As a relatively intensive user of energy, the chemical industry contributes to the generation of greenhouse gases through its consumption of various energy sources. CAIA has been collecting energy consumption data from Responsible Care signatories since 2003. The energy intensity of production based on electricity use has reduced significantly since data collection began and energy efficiency has improved by 25%. CAIA also recently launched a guidance document for the development of site level carbon footprints which includes a comprehensive review of energy use on a site.

Contact details M D Booth, Director Information Resources Tel: 011 482 1671; E-mail:

chapter 8: The NaTioNal eNergy BaromeTer Survey

Head Offices Category

The Energy Barometer scores of the different blocks in the Head Office Category presented in Figure 8.5 shows that there is a large variation between the top 33 and the bottom 33. The top 33 scored an average of 59 whilst the bottom 33 scored an average of 160. This large variation suggests that there may be significant opportunity for energy and cost savings in Head Offices.

Head Offices: 2009 and 2010 Comparison

Figure 8.6 shows a comparison of the Energy Barometer 2009 and 2010 results. There are no drastic changes in the Energy Performance of the two years for the Head Office category.

Figure 8.6: Head Office Energy Barometer: 2009 and 2010 Comparison Figure 8.5: Head Office Energy Barometer

Shopping Centres Category

The Energy Barometer scores of the different blocks in the Shopping Centre Category are presented in Figure 8.7. There is some variation between the Top 33 and the Bottom 33 however it is not drastic. There is undoubtedly a potential energy and cost saving opportunity for the Bottom 33 if measures could be put in place to ensure the Energy Performance is on par with the average of industry.

Figure 8.7: Shopping Centres Energy Barometer

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chapter 8: The NaTioNal eNergy BaromeTer Survey

Shopping Centres: 2009 and 2010 Comparison

Figure 8.8 shows a comparison of the Energy Barometer 2009 and 2010 results. It is interesting to note that in 2009, the Top 33 had (on average) almost twice the energy performance of the Middle 33 and the Bottom 33. Comparing 2010 to 2009 doesn’t show this huge variation between the Top 33 and the Bottom 33. The Middle 33 improved significantly. Keep in mind that more shopping centres joined during 2010 – which also has an impact on the results since the sample size gets bigger and more representative of the entire industry. This should also be kept in mind when looking at the performance of the top 33 – during 2010, their performance has a lower score than it did during 2009 – this does not mean that the top 33 performed any worse – it simply means the rest of the field is catching up to the top 33.

Figure 8.8: Shopping Centre Energy Barometer: 2009 and 2010 Comparison

Hotels Category

The Energy Barometer scores of the different blocks in the Hotels Category are presented in Figure 8. 9. The Energy Performance in the Hotels category is very close between the three blocks. The Bottom 33 scored on average 114, the Middle 33 was rated as 100, and the Top 33 scored 87.

Figure 8.9: Hotels Energy Barometer


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chapter 8: The NaTioNal eNergy BaromeTer Survey

Hospitals Category

The Energy Barometer scores of the different blocks in the Hospitals Category are presented in Figure 8.10. There is some variation between the Top 33 and the Middle 33 however it is not too drastic. There is a reasonably big gap between the Middle 33 and the bottom 33 - which implies that there may be room for improvement by those who find themselves at the higher end of the scale.

Figure 8.10: Hospital Energy Barometer

4.6 Bank Branch Category

In the bank branch category we find that there are significant differences between Top, Middle and Bottom 33 – especially the Bottom 33 seem to have great opportunity for improvement.

Figure 8.11: Bank Branch Energy Barometer


The Energy Barometer aims to develop a comprehensive, reliable and accurate energy consumption comparison database of South African buildings enabling building-owners to assess their energy intensities and compare these with their historic consumption as well as to the industry average of buildings in the same sector. The information is valuable as it provides building owners, facility managers and portfolio managers with a quick assessment of potential savings by improving energy performance. Results of Energy Barometer 2010 show that in certain categories energy awareness levels are higher than in other categories. Even within certain categories, there is a major difference in energy performance of Top 33 and Bottom 33 participants. the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)



Department of Energy South Africa’s Minister of Energy, Ms Dipuo Peters, supports the year of sustainable energy access as outlined by the United Nations’ Secretary-General in his personal foreword to the “Sustainable Energy for All Framework for Action”. Access to energy is the golden thread that connects economic growth, increased social equity, and an environment that allows the world to thrive. Widespread energy poverty condemns billions to darkness, to ill health, to missed opportunities for education and prosperity ‘’ . Responsible for the development of all Energy related policy including electricity, nuclear,clean energy, and hydrocarbons (fossil fuels such as petroleum products, gas, and coal), South Africa’s Department of Energy will actively celebrate the 2012 year of sustainable energy . During this period the department will heighten interaction with communities, industry, investors, business, government departments, and academia through a number of platforms including indaba’s on the Integrated Energy Plan, National Electrification Indaba and Liquid Fuels. The 20-year Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) 2010-30 is the national plan for energy provision in the face of the need to reduce over-dependence on environmentally unfriendly fossil fuels such as coal which is currently the primary source of energy for South Africa. The IRPs long term goal is for the provision of a new fleet of generation capacity that also promotes cost efficiency and job creation. Thus, the IRP makes provision for 9,6 Gigawatts of nuclear power; 6,3 Gigawatts of coal, 11,4 Gigawatts of renewable, and 11,0 Gigawatts of other generation sources. Developed with the intention to implement periodic reviews in line with sector environmental changes, the DoE will engage stakeholders in consultations towards a revision of the IRP during 2012. The Integrated Energy Plan seeks to provide an energy roadmap for the entire energy sector, and will test various scenarios of policy options that can be considered for the future energy landscape. One of the outputs from the IEP is a framework which will enable the evaluation and assessment of different policy proposals. While the IEP may not answer all policy questions that face energy policy makers – key policy questions which the IEP should answer will be defined. The strides made in the progress towards energy access for all South Africans since the 1990’s to date are commendable. This has been achieved through programmes such as the Integrated National Electrification Programme (INEP). At its establishment, the programme was known as the National Electrification Programme (NEP), with the sole purpose of availing electricity to 64% of South Africa’s rural and peri-urban population who had been denied access. Up until this point electricity was accessible to only 36% (3 million) of the population primarily located in towns and cities. In 2000 the Integrated National Electrification Programme was born with the mandate to promote integration

PROFILE across all national connectivity programmes including those of municipalities and Eskom. Thus, INEP’s target for 180 000 annual household connections is all inclusive. The sectoral partnership approach in this instance has been highly effective with the annual target exceeded by 30 000 connections - the average stands 210 000 grid and offgrid connections. To date, 82% of formal housing, which equates to 75% of all households, have been electrified. This is a significant achievement considering population growth and household growth over the years. The 20 Year Liquid Fuels Infrastructure Plan or Liquid Fuels Road Map sets out to lay a foundation and provide a framework for ensuring security of supply in the medium-to-long term in a manner that is cost effective and supportive of the country’s growth and development goals. Amongst other factors, the roadmap will provide government with a clear picture of infrastructure requirements such as refineries, storage and handling facilities; create an environment that encourages investment in the sector; improve price stability of liquid fuels; promote an integrated government-wide approach to dealing with liquid fuels; and empower stakeholders to deal with sector supply disruptions. To date initial investigative work on the Road Map has commenced and, the project is now at the data collection stage and is due to be concluded during the 2nd quarter of 2012/13. With the growing demand for constant access to energy compounded by the depleting resource base and the need for cleaner energy sources due to climate change issues, today’s challenge is to make provision for clean energy sources. This has led to the call for the Department of Energy to become the custodian for the development of policies that recognise and promote the importance of clean energy within the overall energy policy space. In support of this need, the South African National Energy Development Institution (SANEDI) was established to spearhead research and development initiatives for energy related technologies with a key focus on efficiency and mitigation of greenhouse gases. There are a number programmes that the department has put in place to address the many energy access challenges that face individuals and communities on a daily basis. Yet the magnitude of the national need has not constrained the Ministry of Energy from playing a role in the international and continental efforts aimed at increasing access for all the marginalised peoples of the world. The Ministry actively participates in international bodies such as the International Energy Association as well as the African Energy Ministers forum. During 2011 the Department hosted the IEA conference as well as the 1st African Energy Ministers Conference. Attended by Ministers and senior country representatives from more than 35 countries, the AEMC culminated in a Declaration that commits members to decisive actions in the fight towards the reduction of the global carbon footprint. The commitment was made inspite of the recognition that African Union member states are among the lowest carbon emitters globally, yet are amongst the most vulnerable to the ramifications of climate change. In the light of these issues and challenges, it is encouraging to realise that the world is taking a stand in addressing the latter. This year, the world unites in the fight against energy poverty towards the creation of a desirable future for all. Join the Department of Energy in embracing the United Nations call for the global village to act in the name of “sustainable energy for all” in 2012. “Working together we can do more in the energy sector”

chapter 9: EnErgy OptimisatiOn – Using LEss tOgEthEr


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 9: EnErgy OptimisatiOn – Using LEss tOgEthEr

EnErgy OptimisatiOn – Using LEss tOgEthEr

Samantha Taggart Communications Manager Energy Partners

For one of South Africa’s largest retailers, sustainability is more than just being a ‘green’ company, their approach ensures resilience as a business, reducing impact on the environment through adopting more sustainable practices across all core activities. Less than 18 months ago they partnered with a Cape Town based energy optimisation company and embarked on a rigorous journey toward an optimal energy environment. Through an intensive active energy management program a total cumulative savings of R190 million has been realised to date. This being a 26% reduction in energy intensity from their 2008 baseline. In order to reach the stretch goal of a 40% saving by 2015, the next critical phase is the initiation of technical projects.

Figure 9.1: The retailer’s energy journey to date

What has thE jOUrnEy LOOkEd LikE tO datE:

The energy optimisation company conducted a thorough engagement process with their client, following specific steps to achieve set objectives. The first task was acquiring accurate consumption data through a verified metering system. This involved careful site inspections as well as investigations of the site reticulation, aligning meter positioning with the overall goals of the project. This process of setting up a metering system and verifying data accuracy typically takes two to three months. With meters installed, commissioned and verified, reporting was established. This is a process that requires a high degree of customisation and client interaction. For example, the retailer has three different levels within the organisation that require reports: store managers, regional managers and the overall program management. Each of these role players requires very different information relevant to their needs within the business, and each of them requires relevant information from their report within a minute or less. Another key part of this program is setting up baselines against which to measure improvement. This was done with historical bills, however where historical meter data is available, this is preferred for an accurate view of their consumption trends. The baseline also needs to be adjusted for operational changes to the site in the baseline period. A fairly generic site would take one month, a specialised site with particular reporting requirements would take two months. the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 9: EnErgy OptimisatiOn – Using LEss tOgEthEr

Once measurement and reporting systems were in place, the emphasis shifted. The first project implemented has been the eradication of energy wasting behaviour. This active behaviour management program typically includes training for personnel, development of daily reports and monitoring tools, as well as the establishment of a management process for enforcing correct behaviour. Enabling technological interventions were also installed such as key switches and door sensors where required.

The nexT phase of The journey:

Having addressed the underlying behaviour changes, which led to high energy savings with minimal capital outlay, the next phase of the journey began. With accurate real-time meter data and in depth diagnostics, the energy optimisation company was able to identify significant savings through technical interventions. Areas of opportunity included refrigeration, lighting, voltage optimisation as well as air conditioning, with refrigeration as the initial focus.

Figure 9.2: Technical opportunities identified to achieve energy goal

As with the behaviour optimisation project, reports have been generated for the refrigeration project. The unique benefit of such a reporting tool is that it ensures daily monitoring of energy performance keeping energy optimisation a priority as well as making individuals accountable in their specific area of responsibility.

Figure 9.3: Dashboard reporting for refrigeration

The refrigeration project will optimise through advanced control technologies as well as implementing new technologies such as variable speed drives (VSD), electronic expansion valves (EEV) and anti-

chapter 9: EnErgy OptimisatiOn – Using LEss tOgEthEr

sweat heater controls. Along with these, load reduction initiatives such as night blinds and plant room ventilations will be implemented. Commencing with 130 stores, the average consumption savings per site is ~30% which equates to roughly 55GWh and in the first year a R45 to R53 million saving. This has a ~8% impact on the full portfolio. Beyond the core energy optimisation returns, the retailer also qualifies for Eskom funding. Although many have experienced a three to six month wait for approval of SOP funding through Eskom, the Energy optimisation company was successful in gaining approval for 15 sites in merely two weeks. With a total of 35 sites approved to date, this equates to a R49 million saving with a further 95 sites still ahead. Implementation has already commenced on eight sites moving from the old refrigeration systems to an optimal energy refrigeration solution.

Image 9.1: Energy optimised refrigeration Compressor rack

Once the refrigeration project is complete, implementation of the lighting project will commence, this will see a further 55% saving, contributing 5% reduction to the portfolio. An estimated R45.8 million is projected for the full technical project journey, which includes voltage optimisation and air conditioning. This rand value is significant in that it equates to a 42.4 to 51.4 GWh reduction in energy consumption. As one of South Africa’s largest retailers, the commitment to being a more responsible business is contributing to the energy environment of their staff, customers as well as the broader landscape of South Africa. Having been awarded numerous awards for their efforts towards a more sustainable business, the results they have achieved on their energy optimisation drive have added to this recognition. They received the ETA award for Energy Efficiency Awareness and the Africa Energy award for Energy Efficiency Project of the year. It has been an exciting journey which proves that with full commitment from businesses to embark on a responsible energy journey, powerful results and great rewards will be achieved.

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 10: Green LeasinG – ForthcominG trend in south aFrican commerciaL ProPerty


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 10: Green LeasinG – ForthcominG trend in south aFrican commerciaL ProPerty

Green LeasinG – ForthcominG trend in south aFrican commerciaL ProPerty André Ferreira South African Representative Global Real Estate Sustainability Benchmark (GRESB)

In South Africa, the Green Building Movement steadily gathers momentum, with 5 Buildings Certified and more in the process of undergoing certification. A critical discussion that is to arise, as witnessed in international markets, is the operation of these certified assets and the peculiarities from such designation. Green Leasing plays an important role in the distribution of rights and responsibilities between landlord and tenant in an, ideally, equitable manner that the maximum value can be extracted from a Green Star Certified Building. With the introduction of a Green Star SA Commercial Interiors rating tool in the tenant market in South Africa, the focus is definitely set to shift towards the errors of commission and omission of current leases and the role that Green Leases can play in ameliorating such transition. What is a Green Lease? It is a conventional lease that takes into account issues of sustainability as an added focus to the traditional leasing discussion of location, space, amenities, cost apportionment, duration , rental rate and escalation for renewal. The additional areas of focus relate in so much as to: 1. Ratio of Energy Cost Saving Sharing between tenant and landlord 2. Obligations for the landlord to pursue Green Building Rating at a future date 3. Specifications for minimum Green Star SA Commercial Interior Standards 4. Adherence to Environmental Benchmarks (Water, Waste, Electricity) 5. Determination of penalties and incentives for over or under performance relative to Environmental Benchmarks 6. Split in Tenant and Landlord Capex Contribution towards green measures 7. Access to Tenant Space for Building Fine Tuning and Commissioning of Systems 8. Common Area Charges and the role of incentives and rebates 9. Clauses for reasonable efforts by landlord and tenant to retain Green Building Certification during duration of the lease. The driving force behind Green Leasing internationally has been the issue of the Split Incentive Problem. This is where a tenant on a Triple Net Lease pays for utility costs, thus the landlord is not incentivised to invest in energy efficiency measures as such benefits flow through to the tenant in the form of lower operating costs which do not compensate for the return to accrue from the investment. Thus a clause is required in leases which stipulate the ratio of which energy savings are shared in particular for capex targeted at Energy Efficiency as well as to provide the tenant with the option of co-investing in such long term expenditure. Alternatively another creative method for the landlord to recover costs is to negotiate an extension of lease terms on the same rental rate with reduced operating costs. A building may be marketed to a tenant on the basis that it is in the process of securing a Green Star Office or Retail certification. In the case of an existing building this may be due to an overall planned refurbishment that is set to disrupt a tenant’s tradability. In order to ensure that a reward is attained from the resulting business disruption, it is important that a tenant include in the lease a commitment from the landlord for Green Star Certification with penalties for non-attainment. This together with the prospect of a lower rental escalation on the renewal of the lease. the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 10: Green LeasinG – ForthcominG trend in south aFrican commerciaL ProPerty

As the market for green space expands and tenants become conscious of the options for environmentally friendly space, given two equal offerings, one certified and the other not, the choice becomes increasingly simplified. It would represent a significant opportunity cost for a tenant to be contractually tied to a landlord that does not enforce the original promise of Green Star Certification for the entirety of its Gross Letable Area (as controlled by itself in common area as well as the space of other tenants). Disposal of tenant fit out material and the choice of materials that is included in the tenant refurbishment becomes an important discussion towards the overall sustainability of the building. Equally the choice of operating hours and choice of equipment (electrical, heating, water usage) that is used in the tenant space all contribute towards the sustainability credentials of a building. Likewise, from the perspective of the landlord, it is important to ensure that the Green Core and Shell of the building which they provide to tenants, and certified to high standards, is not contaminated in the long term by inferior unsustainable practices from a tenant. A 5 Green Star and above building will require the attraction of tenants that pursue Green Star SA Commercial Interiors to high standards. Tenant fit-out remains a significant unquantified environmental impact in the South African Commercial Property industry, with tons of waste produced and often disposed in less than environmentally friendly ways. To mitigate from such risks it is evident the need to stipulate minimum Green Star SA Commercial Interior specifications. This clause does not need to apply to currently certified Green Star SA buildings. It could apply to all high performance buildings and especially those with long term aspirations to seek a certification as budgeted in future building renovation capex. In a prior article Published in the Sustainable Energy Resource Handbook Volume 2 (Andre: 2011) it was demonstrated to the property asset management industry the value of adopting environmental benchmarking practices. The introduction of Green Leasing will further enhance the added benefit of these benchmarks in the process of impartial enforcement. Benchmarking reduces subjectivity and enables a quantitative basis for determining appropriate compensation (for over or under) performance of industry agreed benchmarks. If a building is specified to deliver for example 200 Kwh/ m2 of electricity consumption, benchmarks enable tenant and landlord to determine performance relative to it (of say 230 kwh/m2). Subsequently the analysis shifts to the sources of over or under performance being either landlord induced (adherence to maintenance schedules, development of building management manual for tenants, building fine tuning of systems) or tenant (non adherence to building users guide requirements, installation of inefficient and non-sustainable equipment, etc). An example of an established benchmarking system is that of the Global Real Estate Sustainability Benchmark (GRESB), a non-profit organisation in the Netherlands that has 21000 buildings in its database. GRESB is a, industry-led organization committed to assessing the sustainability performance of real estate portfolios (public, private and direct) around the globe. The dynamic benchmark is used by institutional investors to engage with their investments with the aim to improve the sustainability performance of their investment portfolio, and the global property sector at large. On its website it states that “GRESB’s mission is to enhance the disclosure of sustainability reporting and ultimately to enable its members to achieve strong sustainability performance. By uncovering the sustainability best practices in the industry, GRESB shows the way forward for the real estate sector. Benchmarking current sustainability performance can help generate and strengthen the market forces needed for the necessary change”. With GRESB’s membership including significant commercial property funds such as a RRREF, Legal and General, Hermes Real Estate and Axxa Real Estate as well as members in regions with local benchmarks (e.g. Australian Super) it becomes increasingly relevant to South Africa as it seeks to develop a local benchmark with funds such as Growthpoint, Redefine and New Europe Property Investment (NEPI) with international operations. A motivating factor for the introduction of green leases and its significant role as a stimulus to the Green Building Market in South Africa is the split incentive dilemma. In other words, the challenge created 82

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chapter 10: Green LeasinG – ForthcominG trend in south aFrican commerciaL ProPerty

by triple net leases, in which benefits from landlord investments towards building improvements, including those for energy and water efficiency, flow directly to the tenant. This is where it is necessary to contract the amount of savings that is shared between tenant and landlord, using industry benchmarks (rather than solely equipment specifications) to determine the extent of the saving upon which the sharing is to take place. For example, let’s suppose that there is an A Grade Office building in Durban CDB that has undergone significant refurbishment. The benchmark for a building in this category and geography is found to be 250 kwh/m2. During the lease negotiation it was determined, by the third party outsourced property management company, that due to its operational efficiency, it can guarantee a performance of 230 Kwh per m2 (equivalent of national average). At the end of the financial year the electricity meter readings reveal that the actual amount consumed is in fact of 260 Kwh / m2. The landlord, represented by the property management company, has not delivered on its performance and the excess of 30 Kwh/m2 is under contention. Multiplied by the GLA and then by the weighted average consumption price, the total Rand value of inefficiency is exposed. At the beginning of the lease negotiation it is determined the ratio that this to be shared, based on a certain pre agreed list of interventions (specified in the Building Users Guide) not followed adequately by either tenant or landlord. If in this instance, of an outsourced property management firm, is employed, dependant on the manner in which it the external party is compensated, will determine if it can reasonably act as an impartial referee to the discussion. A schedule of ratios is determined for the errors of omission by either tenant or landlord (50:50, 60:40, etc). Within this discussion of split incentive is the contentious definition of common area and determining the appropriate allocation of costs between both parties. Green Leases open up the possibility as well for the inclusion of capital co-investment or leasing strategies for the deployment of onsite renewable energy solutions such as roof top solar panels. This effectively representing a levy surcharge that the landlord accrues in order to settle the interest payment of the capital expenditure (if fully acquired) or to pay the utility provider the additional charge for green power. In many instances the landlord leases the rooftop space to the solar photovoltaic operator and the rental amount sufficiently compensates for the cost of leasing the equipment, its maintenance and cost of power (depending on scale). If there is a shortage in leasing cash flow between landlord and energy provider, the landlord can pass the difference via a Green Lease to the tenant. Similar to clauses that take into account tenant business disruption arising from significant building refurbishment, it is important to not ignore the role of contracting preferential times for building fine tuning of systems in tenant spaces, by the independent commissioning agent as appointed by the landlord. These visitations by the landlord, although disruptive to the business of the tenant, are required specially if building systems are provided as part of the core & shell of the building and thus falling within the responsibility of the landlord in ensuring adequate ventilation, heating and cooling levels. Potentially contentious is the negotiation of common area charges between tenant and landlord. More specifically as it relates to sustainability the rationing of costs incurred by the landlord for Green Star SA Certification, Recycling facilities, alternative transportation (in particular hybrid vehicle sharing in office complex) and building improvements of the common area. If these interventions result in positive cash flows accruing to the landlord, for example from carbon credits or from additional municipal and or national rebates these need to be netted from the costs that are passed onto the tenant. Carbon credits can originate from small scale CDM projects for methodologies such as Solar Water Heating, Energy Efficiency (in particular variable speed drives of Chillers) and alternative energy generation. These small scale methodologies would be applicable to portfolio wide interventions and not at a single building level with the relevance being in national tenant lease negotiations. An unexplored impact is that of the introduction of a Carbon Tax in South Africa in 2013-2014 fiscal period and the implications upon landlords. It would appear prudent on the part of the tenant to ensure that such tax is not passed through via the lease (as an additional electricity surcharge). the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)



IMBEWU Sustainability Legal Specialists (Pty) Ltd IMBEWU is a legal specialist consultancy providing services to the South African and international markets, specialising in all aspects of environmental, climate change or health and safety law. IMBEWU collaborates with the law firm Warburton Attorneys ( in order to provide specialist environmental litigation and other legal services, including commercial services and providing attorney client privilege, where appropriate. The following is a select list pf the services that IMBEWU provides: • Development Planning & EIA Related Advice • SHE Electronic Legal Registers and Audits • Climate Change and CDM Specialist Legal Advice • Biodiversity, conservation, marine and coastal management law • Capacity building and training • Monitoring of new developments • Corporate Sustainability reporting • Other legal advisory and consulting services


53 Dudley Road, corner Bolton Avenue, Parkwood, Johannesburg, 2193 Tel: 011 214 0660/1 Fax: 011 880 6577 Email: Website: /

chapter 10: Green LeasinG – ForthcominG trend in south aFrican commerciaL ProPerty

An often overlooked dilemma is the issue of the maintenance of Green Building Certification. Although not debated in the South African context it seems inevitable that such discussion will arise in the future, as logic would dictate, that a building cannot be merely certified once and retain such status indefinitely. It would be the equivalent of expecting a 5 Star Hotel to operate at such standards indefinitely or not be subjected to higher future revised standards. The risk thus retains for the tenant of the being tied to a lease agreement in which a Green Building Certification is placed under contention or is set to lapse within the specified lease period. In such event adequate compensation would be required for the time that the tenant operates in a downgraded “conventional” building in spite lease terms (rental, duration, etc.) having been negotiated on the basis of Green Certification. International examples of Green Leasing Practice abound. In France, Axxa Real Estate has implemented Green Leasing in 43% of office space in France. The Better Buildings Partnership in the UK, released the Transactional Agents Sustainability Guide with a checklist of items for brokers and managing agents to investigate in the sale/purchase of a commercial property. The BBP is a collaboration of London’s leading commercial property owners and allied organisations, supported by the Mayor of London and the Greater London Authority with the aim of developing solutions towards improving the sustainability of London’s existing buildings. Growthpoint Properties, South Africa’s largest listed property fund on the JSE, has announced its intention to launch green leasing and environmental benchmarking practices in its portfolio. The trend is flourishing internationally and emerging locally, and it will be interesting to see how, in a complex South African Leasing environment impacted by the Consumer Protection Act, Green Leases will unfold with the progressive current and projected growth in Green Building Certified Commercial Property Assets.


André (2011), “Benchmarking – An Analysis of Office & Retail Properties’ Electricity Consumption”, Sustainable Energy Journal Green Lease Guide For Commercial Office Tenants (2012) – Investa Property Group Transactional Agents Sustainability Toolkit (2012) – Better Buildings Partnership Global Real Estate Sustainability Benchmark ( Embracing Our Green Journey – Growthpoint Properties (2012) Axxa Real Estate Sustainable Development Report 2011-12

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)



49M – Remember your Power Background Energy efficiency is rapidly becoming an increasingly important topic in many countries around the world. South Africa is therefore taking steps through the 49M initiative, to try and reduce electricity consumption through implementing renewable energy solutions for households and businesses across the nation. 49M, South Africa’s Largest Energy Saving movement was launched in March last year by Deputy President Kgalema Montlanthe as a response to the country’s constrained power system and global environmental needs. The need for reduction in carbon emissions and the use of renewable energy sources is a pressing issue in terms of the social, economic and environmental wellbeing of Mzansi. It demands the attention of decision-makers both the public and private sectors of our country.

About 49M The call to save electricity and to reduce electricity consumption has been prompted by South Africa’s constrained power system, the global need to reduce our country’s carbon footprint, and the need to save money as a result of the economic downturn and rising electricity prices. 49M is an initiative that encourages South Africans from all walks of life to band together and save electricity. South Africa produces about 45% of all the electricity generated on the continent and as our economy expands, so does our demand for energy.

PROFILE 49M is about a better future for all South Africans economically, socially and environmentally. The initiative asks that we look for a sustainable future and a better tomorrow for all. Remember, energy efficiency is not only a national concern, it is a global concern. An initiative like this is not unique to South Africa as many other countries are doing much the same to ensure sustainability in the long term. Whether you’re a business owner or you’re simply concerned about the environment, every choice you make, no matter how big or small, has the ability to make a huge difference to the country’s energy consumption.

Engagement with Business and Individuals 49M is mobilising and partnering with South Africans and through activations will create awareness, provide solutions, and create a network through which South African’s can talk, encourage, and explore new solutions for the country’s success.

Partnerships and Endorsements 49M is endorsed by government and by various business partners who work with the initiative to generate momentum around energy efficiency projects and activities. Companies can participate in many different ways but can start by pledging their support for the 49M Initiative on, contact Anton Engelbrecht on (011) 214 1200 or email him at

Pledge Individuals and companies can pledge their support for the 49M Initiative. The collective power of these pledges will provide the platform and the impetus for large scale involvement by all South Africans

Take action There is a lot that you can do to help, from telling your coworkers and family about the 49M initiative to simply remembering to turn off the lights when you leave the room. If you’d like to become a 49M campaigner and see how else you can help, please contact us from our website – we would love to hear from you.

chapter 11: EffEctivE watEr hEating-using hEat pumps for housEholds, commErcE and industry


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 11: EffEctivE watEr hEating-using hEat pumps for housEholds, commErcE and industry

EffEctivE watEr hEating-using hEat pumps for housEholds, commErcE and industry articlE compilEd by Eskom

hEat pumps: thE potEntial to rEducE ElEctricity consumption in major sEctors of thE Economy

In an environment where electricity usage and costs are matters of increasing importance, the identification of technologies to lower electrical consumption is becoming critical, more so than ever before. In South Africa, this applies especially to industries such as mining where it is estimated that the amount of hot water used possibly exceeds the combined hot water consumption of all hotels, technikons and universities. Typically, an average-sized mining group can use more than 500 000 litres of heated water per day. A significant technology that is simple and effective in lowering electricity usage is the deployment of heat pumps. Heat pumps offer both households and other major consumers of electricity a significant opportunity to reduce costs related to water heating. A heat pump can save up to 67% of energy consumption, and in some circumstances even more than that. In South Africa the primary users of hot water in the commercial sector are found in six major sub-sectors.

Figure 11.1: Distribution of sanitary hot water consumers in the commercial sector.

Currently, most commercial enterprises, particularly those with major hot water demands for kitchens, laundries, restaurants, ablution facilities and industrial processes, heat their water with geysers and inline elements called calorifiers. Energy sources include gas, oil or coal.

thE tEchnology

Heat pumps use the reverse cycle of a refrigeration plant to heat water. In effect, it transfers heat from a source such as air or water to the water which is to be heated. In general, it is the larger commercial units that use water as a heat source, however, for the purposes of this chapter only air sourced units will be featured. the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 11: EffEctivE watEr hEating-using hEat pumps for housEholds, commErcE and industry

As in other refrigeration equipment, the heat pump system employs an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, refrigerant gas, and an expansion valve within a closed circuit. Latent heat is given off when the refrigerant gas is liquefied through the condenser and transferred to the surrounding water together with further “sensible” heat loss, effectively raising the temperature of the water to 65ºC. In some circumstances even higher temperatures can be attained. Generally there is no need for a hot water booster pump to achieve this result. In the case of a typical domestic heat pump, two types of configurations can be found. In the first case the entire system is contained in one unit that consists of a storage tank and a heat pump. In the second configuration the tank is separated from the heat pump. Heat pumps are typically mounted on the outside walls of buildings under the eaves or at ground level depending on the configuration of the system. It may seem strange that an electro mechanical device with moving parts - the electric motor driving the compressor - can be more efficient in heating water than a typical resistance-element geyser. In fact, a heat pump can be up to three to four times more efficient than a hot water system which is powered by a normal resistance element because for every kWh of electricity supplied to the heat pump, more than three kWh of thermal energy in the form of hot water is produced. A thermostat will keep the hot water at a constant temperature between 55ºC and 65ºC with 60ºC being the most commonly used setting. An additional benefit which is often used to increase the economic benefits of a heat pump, is that of the cooling system which can be utilised to simultaneously cool a building, or a specific area of a building. This is especially useful in the hospitality industry where cool air can be channeled into lobby areas thereby saving on the cost of a separate stand-alone air conditioning system. In a domestic situation the cooled air can be piped into the ceiling cavity to aid in keeping down interior room temperatures.

The accompanying diagram represents the major components typical of a refrigeration system or heat pump where the refrigerant gas is circulated in a continuous cycle. The liquefied refrigerant, mostly R134A, passes under pressure through an expansion valve into a partial vacuum. The sudden expansion of the high pressure liquid into a low pressure area (the evaporator) cools the gas down. The refrigerant gas which is now at a comparatively low temperature is then suddenly pressurised by the compressor. The sudden increase in pressure raises the temperature of the refrigerant gas considerably. This heated gas is routed through a condenser and emits heat to the water that is to be heated in a storage tank near to the actual heat pump. It can also be emitted into the surrounding atmosphere in the case of a refrigerator or air conditioning system. A point worth noting is that an air conditioning system with a reverse cycle heating facility is one of the most efficient ways of heating your home or office in winter. 90

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chapter 11: EffEctivE watEr hEating-using hEat pumps for housEholds, commErcE and industry

Heat pumps in major ablution facilities in mines

According to a survey commissioned by Eskom, about 580GWh of electrical energy is consumed per year to provide for the nationwide sanitary hot water usage in the entire commercial and industrial sectors. In the South African mining sector one of the major consumers of electricity is the ablution, or change house facilities. These are found at most major shafts and high density residential facilities. Mining change houses nationally consume approximately 10.6 million litres of hot water. This represents an average load of 66.2 MW which could be reduced by heat pumps as they use less energy to produce the volume of sanitary hot water required by a mine. Heat pumps provide showering capacity for mine workers on a daily basis, each miner requiring about 45 litres of hot water heated to 60ºC every day. This can account for 4% of all the electricity consumed by mines. Currently in the majority of instances, electrical resistance heating elements in hot water storage tanks are used to supply hot water to between 40 and 1 000 workers at any one installation. These elements are usually installed either inside the storage tanks or outside in an in-line heater vessel with the heated water supplied to the storage tank. Heat pumps can reduce this load on large water heating plants such as these by up to 66%, particularly in worker ablution facilities found on mines. Normally electrical resistance type heaters in centralised heaters are sized to heat the daily hot water requirement for each 12-hour shift. At a typical inlet water temperature of 15ºC, an amount of 26.5 Megalitres of hot water is required at 60ºC, an installed capacity of 135 MW is needed, including typical heat transfer losses. If heat pumps are used to heat this amount of water it would require 46 MW and result in a saving of 89 MW.

benefits of Heat pumps

The major benefits of heat pumps apart from efficiency and cost savings include: • Reduction of a building’s carbon footprint because no combustible gas is burnt in the heating process. Sufficient use of the system reduces the need for either coal or nuclear power stations. This is mainly due to the significant co-efficient of performance (COP) improvement factor compared to that of conventional resistance-element boilers. • The life of the boiler tank is lengthened due to the lack of chemical interactions between the element, and other metals such as copper used in the plumbing process. • Because water heated in a heat pump seldom exceeds 65ºC the risk of burns in shower s is reduced. • In cases where the cold side of the water heating system is used for air conditioning or HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) electricity consumption is reduced. By effective planning and use of both the hot and cold sides of an installation, capital amortisation can occur over a much shorter period, especially in countries where energy costs are high. The payback period can be as short as 12 to 18 months from date of installation. • The significant water heating efficiency combined with the cooling benefits favours the use of heat pumps in areas where there is a daily demand for hot water. In hotels, for example, the cold side can be used to supplement cold water usually circulated through fan coil units in bedrooms and kitchens. • Although initial equipment and installation costs are higher than those of gas or electric geyser systems, these are offset by lower operating costs. In South Africa, a typical payback period on a commercial system would be three to five years at the current electrical costs. As electricity costs increase this time frame will become shorter. • Normal maintenance costs are reduced using heat pumps . the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 11: EffEctivE watEr hEating-using hEat pumps for housEholds, commErcE and industry

• As electricity demand is lowered, concomitant improvements in levels of environmental impact will be seen. Heat pumps are internationally recognised as eco-friendly contributing to a lowering of greenhouse gas emissions by between 200-400%. Their widespread use will reduce the demand for fossil fuels - a major factor in South Africa where most power stations are still coal-fired. • Systems can vary in size from 125 litres domestic capacity units to very large commercial and industrial applications with heating and storage for thousands of litres of hot water. • Although bulkier than traditional boilers, they can usually be accommodated within existing spaces and do not always require additional buildings to house them. • Facilities which depend on standby generators can use heat pumps during power outages to produce hot water as they are more efficient than directly heating water with gas. • The energy produced is usually three to four times the input. A unit consuming 30kWh will produce outputs of approximately 100kWh of water heating ability. • Heat pumps can reduce the energy consumption of large water heating plants by up to 66% particularly in worker ablution facilities found in mines, where they can deliver the hot water needs of between 40 and 1 000 consumers on a daily basis.

Heat pumps case study at Zululand university (east campus)

In 2004 the University of Zululand asked Eskom to assist with the design of their new hot water system. The original hot water system consisted of resistance-element boilers and some very old heat pumps, and it was not coping with the hot water demands of the students. In order to meet the new requirements a resistance-element boiler system of 1.5MW was needed. The cost of such a system, with mild steel tanks, would have been approximately R3.6m. It was recommended that a centralised heat pump system with polyethylene tanks be installed at a cost of R4.2m. The cooling cycle of the heat pumps was used for air conditioning in the cafeteria. The hot cycle needed to heat over 220 000 litres of hot water required by the students. The annual savings realised by this system amounted to R310 000 per annum. This excluded the capital savings of a separate air conditioning system for the cafeteria.

Frequently asked questions

• How much do heat pumps typically cost? Costs vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, and according to the customers’ specific needs. On a typical domestic unit of approximately 250 litres water capacity, the cost of the unit itself would be between 3 and 7 times the cost of an equivalent domestic resistance-element geyser. The actual installation cost should be about the same or, in some cases, marginally higher. The figure for commercial units is probably within the same spectrum, but with a shorter payback period. The costs of domestic units are more in line with a solar water heating system. Notes: It is advisable for plumbers to make use of the newer multilayered plumbing pipes, and to use super insulation on longer runs. This eliminates the water wastage and delays in hot water reaching the hot water outlet. Heat pumps can also be used for underfloor heating within a building. They can also feed fan coil units with either hot or cold water. • What electricity source is required for installations? The majority of large commercial heat pumps use a threephase electricity supply, however, domestic units and smaller commercial units are all single phase. A small installation is defined as one with an output of up to 8kW. • do heat pumps need servicing? Yes. Suppliers will provide details of these requirements, however, they typically need less ser vicing than more conventional designs. • are heat pumps noisy? This depends on the size of the system and the design. Sources of noise in a heat pump system are usually produced by the compressor, in addition to air being blown through the evaporator radiator as air flows through the unit. Air noise is marginally higher than ambient background noise and is usually not distracting, especially as the heat pump is located away from work or sleep areas. On very large systems the noise level could cause distraction and therefore needs to be housed appropriately. 92

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chapter 11: EffEctivE watEr hEating-using hEat pumps for housEholds, commErcE and industry

• What factors affect the size of the heat pump I need? The amount of heating needed will depend on the amount of hot water required, the average ambient air and municipal water temperatures, humidity, available storage and space constraints. Generally, heat pumps should be considered for producing hot water for showering purposes. This is usually an easy conversion, especially where there are no fan coil units or underfloor piping installations. They should also be a major consideration for hotels and other applications where hot water is required. They become even more attractive where fan coil units are used to cool bedrooms, or conference areas, foyers and kitchens. These typical areas can be cooled by using the cold water produced by the heat pump on the cold side of the cycle.

To fInd ouT more

If you would like to find out more about heat pumps, and the benefits they could offer your business, browse through Eskom’s website on or contact Eskom’s IDM help desk via telephone at (011) 800 4744 or e-mail


1 . Cochrane, Brian and Cunliffe, Stanley. 2008. Q Energy SA 2 . U.S Department of Energy. 1997. Federal Technology Alert, Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters. Federal Energy Management Program 3 . U.S Department of Energy. 2003. A Best Practices Steam Technical Brief: Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings

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chapter 12: EntErprisE pC powEr ManagEMEnt


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 12: EntErprisE pC powEr ManagEMEnt

EntErprisE pC powEr ManagEMEnt Methods to maximise energy and cost efficiencies across desktop computing environments Tim James Director sustainableIT


There is a long standing myth that it is wrong to power down an organisation’s workstations. Staff members are often also specifically requested to keep devices powered on for security updates overnight. So why is this a problem and why should you care? The power consumption of a device is largely influenced by three factors: • Age of the device • Type of device and device strategy • Operational inefficiencies. In this chapter we explore the facts around these devices, paying particular attention to corporate best practice and how to optimise the environment, not only for maximum energy efficiency but also for improved operations.

do wE rEally nEEd to worry about workstation EnErgy?

An average PC and monitor consumes around 80 to 100 watts of energy in an idle state. Older technology and legacy CRT (cathode ray technology) monitors increase this consumption significantly. So for every device left on 24 by 7, you are effectively leaving on the equivalent of 2 to 3 40 watt light bulbs. So if these devices consume lots of energy, what is their impact relative to the rest of the organisation and in particular, the IT department? There is a misnomer that business should focus on the data center to reduce IT energy consumption. As early as 2007, research conducted by IT Analysts, Gartner, illustrated that as much as 39% of energy consumed by an average IT department is associated with PC’s and monitors whereas only 23% is attributed to the data center and servers (Gartner Inc, 2007). Hence, in organisations where IT is embedded in the operation, financial services and public sector being prime examples, PC energy consumption is a significant contributor to overall energy draw. Research conducted by the Alliance to Save Energy (Alliance to Save Energy and 1E, 2009) across the US, UK and Germany indicates that in excess of 50% of corporate workstations stay on overnight. In South Africa, analysis conducted by sustainableIT indicates that we are in a significantly worse state of affairs. In the majority of cases, the figure at South African companies is in excess of 80%. Figure 12.1 illustrates research conducted at a major South African corporation and shows circa 90% of workstations staying on 24 x 7.

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chapter 12: EntErprisE pC powEr ManagEMEnt

Figure 12.1 - Desktop power behaviour

EnErgy EfficiEncy and dEvicE choicE

The majority of companies have a PC refresh cycle of 3 to 4 years although in many we have seen workstations far older. Sweating assets is by no means a bad thing but from an energy efficiency perspective there have been significant improvements in recent years. Since around 2007, major vendors have focused their efforts in energy efficiency. To illustrate this, a Dell GX 620 (circa 2006) uses around 72 watts of energy in an idle state (Dell, 2006) whereas a more modern device, of significantly higher specification, an Optiplex 990 consumes just 50 watts (Dell, 2011). Another important point here is to focus on the idle consumption of the machine, the most common state over a 24 hour day. At peak load, perhaps when conducting a virus scan, the Optiplex 990 only increases to 82 watts. This, for a relatively short duration during the day does not have a significant impact on energy draw, and in most business usage, word processing etc., energy draw remains relatively constant at idle states. When refreshing devices best practice dictates that named brands should be sought that are Energy Star compliant. Dell, HP, Lenovo and Fujitsu Siemens all offer devices that are compliant, as well as provide datasheets on energy consumption in various states. ‘Clone’ machines or so called ‘white boxes’ should be discouraged from any procurement practices due to inconsistencies in manufacture. Finally, it goes without saying that equivalent LCD monitors use significantly less energy than equivalent CRT monitors. Siting Dell data, an E170S 17” LCD uses 15 Watts whereas an E773 CRT equivalent uses 70 watts (Dell 2008, 2011).

dEvicE choicE, what about thin cliEnts and cloud computing?

The choice of device has a significant impact on energy consumption. Here we distinguish between desktops, laptops and thin clients (also known as network access points). Laptops are the most energy efficient choice on a corporate network, typically drawing less than 20 watts, and should be encouraged where possible. Cost, manageability and security are often seen as barriers to laptop adoption and have to be considered when adopting your strategy. 96

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Traditional desktops, although getting more efficient, cannot compete with laptops in respect of energy efficiency. Desktops however, due to performance requirements, manageability and durability will remain in most networks for some time to come. The adoption of PC power management tooling discussed below can significantly decrease energy consumption on these devices. Cloud computing, which is the current hype within the IT industry is moving the delivery of applications to the data center and/or public providers like Amazon and Google. This encourages the implementation of network access points connected to a screen to deliver the end user computing experience. In terms of efficiency these devices are highly efficient, as little as 5 watts excluding the screen, but have drawbacks in terms of portability and processing energy is merely migrated to the data center. In the writer’s opinion, one strategy does not fit all in terms of device choice and business imperatives will dictate a hybrid strategy. Importantly, whatever is deployed should be managed in the most energy efficient manner.

ImprovIng operatIonal effIcIency through pc power management

Assuming you have desktop devices in your organisation, the key strategy is to get them powered down overnight. There is a myth that it is bad to power devices down, in fact modern workstations have a fault tolerance level of around 40 000 reboots. In general terms, smaller businesses running under 100 workstations in their organisation do not have a requirement for power management tooling. This is largely because automated patching and software updating is not performed on these relatively small networks. In these circumstances, staff should be encouraged to power down overnight and reboot their machines in the morning. In larger environments, automation is paramount to managing complexity and this is where PC power management tools like 1E’s NightWatchman, Verdiem and Joulex come into their own. In terms of PC power management there are broadly two options open to organisations: • Adopt base functionality inherent within Microsoft’s solutions • Deploy an enterprise power management tool

mIcrosoft technology

On the face of it, implementing a purely Microsoft solution is the obvious choice as many of the technologies involved (such as group policy within Active Directory) are already largely deployed throughout most large scale computing environments. With the advent of Windows Vista, Microsoft introduced a number of group policies to allow the setting of standard Windows power profiles. Group Policy is an excellent solution for managing general settings across large numbers of computers as it is recognised as being both reliable and scalable. However, there is often reluctance and procedural difficulties with making regular changes to these settings. Active Directory policies also have some significant limitations in terms of functionality and only allow machines to be put into sleep mode which is often not possible due to application requirements. Without the ability to wake devices, administrators will rarely adopt Active Directory as a strategy.

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)



SNA Consulting Electrical Engineers SNA Consulting Electrical Engineers was established in Durban back in 2003 by Mr. S Naidoo, who specialises in Electrical and Electronic Engineering Services. Our services include: • • • • • •

Building Electrical Installations Green Building Installations Renewable Energy Emergency Power Electronic Security, & Energy Auditing and Management.

Our client base is spread between private developers, the industrial and commercial sectors, as well as local, regional and central government organisations. We strive towards an ideal partnership with our Client, based on mutual trust, respect and our determination to deliver a well-above average service. Our performance is deliberately quality orientated and seeks the optimum balance between Client needs and available budgets. The timely completion of tasks, innovative planning and design, the expert application of appropriate technology, stringent adherence to budgets and contract dates, as well as continuing key person involvement, are inherent, vital elements of all our projects. SNA’s integrated design philosophy as well as technology driven solutions always takes cognisance of the effect and impact on the project environment. Constant effort is put into ensuring that we stay abreast of the latest energy technology. We strive to develop and apply the most appropriate design approaches and methodologies during each project.

Contact Details:

Telephone: 031 465 3020 Fax: 031 456 2068 Email:

chapter 12: EntErprisE pC powEr ManagEMEnt

PC Power ManageMent teChnology

PC power management technology (PCPM) has been around for over 12 years now and is the low hanging fruit in IT energy efficiency. There are a number of solutions on the market including 1E NightWatchman, Joulex, Verdiem, Bigfix, Faronics etc. A PC power management tool overcomes all of the operational requirements that an IT department insists upon, the most important being that devices are required overnight for maintenance/ management purposes. To address this, mature PCPM tools provide wake on lan or wake from sleep functionality that allow administrators to wake devices, perform maintenance and then shut them down again. These tools require no network changes which has been a stumbling block in the adoption of wake on lan technology. From a best practices perspective, a PCPM tool should include the following features: • The ability to baseline existing energy consumption based on machine make and model • Power off, Hibernate or Suspend systems at a specified time • Measure energy consumption, cost and CO2 emissions by location • Provide wake on lan, wake from sleep with zero impacts on the network. • Have no impact on the end user by backing up any open unsaved data prior to shutting down a workstation

SuMMary and ConCluSion

In any modern IT organisation there is no reason why any workstation should be left on 24 by 7 unless it is performing a critical business function. When devices are not in use they should be powered off or enter a lower power state and with tooling such as PCPM, this can be easily achieved with limited impact on the corporate network.

workS Cited

Gartner Inc., 2007, IT Vendors, Service Providers and Users Can Lighten IT’s Environmental Footprint Alliance to Save Energy and 1E, 2009, PC Energy Report 2009 United States United Kingdom Germany Dell INC, 2006-2011, Product Safety, EMC and Environmental Datasheets, compliance/dec_conform?c=us&l=en

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)



South African Agency for Science and Technology Advancement Energy Solutions from Emerging Technologies of Nanotechnology and Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology. All countries across the world are facing an energy crisis, with mounting pressure to find solutions. The current energy system is based on the use of fossil fuels, which are being depleted its use continues to have adverse effects on our environment. In addition, the demand for energy is increasing with the growing world population. Energy is a critical factor in economic and social development. The search for reliable, economical and renewable alternative forms of energy has become a top priority on the agenda of most countries worldwide, as the energy crisis continues to affect all industries with escalating costs across all sectors. The widely used phrase “fossil fuel economy� describes our dependency on fossil fuels. South Africa has acknowledged its need to find alternatives to the current fossil fuel energy system. The vision of the Department of Energy is that 30% of our energy should come from clean energy sources by 2025, primarily from nuclear and renewable energy sources. The sustainability of any energy system to be a viable alternative to fossil fuels will depend not only on the source of energy being renewable and clean, but also on the efficiency of the energy usage. Nanotechnology is referred to as an enabling technology, due to its vast potential to improve and refine existing areas of other technologies, cross-cutting various scientific disciplines and creating new opportunities. Nanotechnology is described as the manipulation of materials on a scale of the sizes of atoms and molecules. At this scale, materials often show unique properties or properties different to that found in the bulk materials. Properties like reactivity, electrical conductivity and strength have practical applications for new technology developments. In the energy sector, nanotechnology can be applied across all areas of the energy pathway. It offers the potential to reduce the costs of energy production, distribution and storage, to reduce environmental impact and to facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy. It has the potential to make a great contribution to a sustainable energy future. Nanotechnology can facilitate the more efficient capture of primary energy sources such as solar and wind power and convert it more efficiently into electricity and other forms of energy. This is particularly important in a country like South Africa with an abundance of solar radiation and regions of strong winds. Nanostructured materials in solar cells increase surface area to improve the harnessing of solar energy. Exciting developments in building-integrated photovoltaics is showing the potential for buildings of the future to generate their own power by harnessing solar energy through their structures. Nanotechnology is enhancing energy storage, for example making lithium-ion batteries heat-resistant, flexible and high-performing. Nanotechnology can help reduce loss in energy when power is distributed, due to the improved conductivity of nanoparticles like carbon nanotubes when used in power cables. Nanotechnology can improve energy efficiency, for example making lightweight materials for cars and aeroplanes.

PROFILE Nanotechnology also has an important role to play in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The hydrogen economy is receiving much attention as a possible option to develop a safe, clean and reliable alternative energy solution. In a hydrogen economy it is envisioned that hydrogen gas will be used as a universal carrier of energy, delivering energy to all points of consumption. Hydrogen gas can be produced from various sources, including renewable energy sources. Using renewable sources of energy would result in no net emissions of CO2, making the fuel cleaner. The production of hydrogen gas is currently quite expensive, yet much research is being carried out to improve its cost-effectiveness through different methods. Hydrogen is used in fuel cells to generate electricity. Fuel cell technology is efficient and reliable, and produces no harmful CO2 emissions. Nanotechnology is used within fuel cell membranes to make them more efficient, which leads to smaller, lighter, more durable fuel cells which are cheaper to produce. As a gas hydrogen has a large volume, creating practical challenges when it comes to storage for use in a fuel cell. Hydrogen can be stored in the form of solid metal hydrides, which can also be improved by nanostructured materials. Hydrogen stored in metal hydride powders is used in the South African-designed A hi fambeni hydrogen fuel cell-powered tricycle, developed by the Resource Driven Technology Concept Centre for South Africa (RETECZA), a collaborative public-private initiative ( The A hi fambeni is a proudly South African innovation, conceptualised for a low cost vehicle suitable for small businesses in South Africa. Hydrogen power is one of the many alternative energy options currently being developed. Nanotechnology is assisting not only in the renewable energy technologies, but also in cleaner coal technologies. There is still much work to be done in all aspects of the energy sector to be able to meet the ever-growing demands for cleaner, safer and affordable energy. Both the Nanotechnology Public Engagement Programme and Hydrogen South Africa Public Awareness Platform are initiatives funded by the Department of Science and Technology and implemented by the South African Agency for Science and Technology Advancement, a business unit of the National Research Foundation. Both programmes’ aims are to promote credible, fact based understanding of these technologies through awareness, dialogue and education to enable informed decision making on nanotechnology and hydrogen fuel cell technology innovations to improve the quality of life.

For more information visit:, or

chapter 13: The Role of ConsulTanTs - eThiCally advanCing effiCienCy inTeRvenTions in The BuilT enviRonmenT

102 the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 13: The Role of ConsulTanTs - eThiCally advanCing effiCienCy inTeRvenTions in The BuilT enviRonmenT

The Role of ConsulTanTs - eThiCally advanCing effiCienCy inTeRvenTions in The BuilT enviRonmenT Richard Palmer Pr Eng Lead Sustainability Consultant WSP GREEN by DESIGN

The emerging focus on environmental sustainability, coupled with rising energy costs, has resulted in a whole industry of energy efficiency interventions emerging in the built environment. Sustainability magazines are full of adverts for alternative technology and suppliers are clamouring to present the most optimistic energy savings data to get their products installed. However with all the promises of ‘halving monthly energy bills’, many clients may require an objective opinion on which set of promises apply to them. There is a staggering array of potential systems and options to improve energy efficiency: does one invest in solar photovoltaics; in lighting retrofits; in solar water heaters or heat pumps; performance films on glazed facades or new regenerative braking on your lifts? It is a bewildering space for the uninitiated and there is a critical role that independent consultants must play in assisting clients to select the most appropriate intervention for their business or home.

The ConfliCT of inTeResT

When it comes to the ethics of energy efficiency, the very first thing we must understand is the conflict of interest. A simple test is to determine where, and how much, those giving the advice stand to gain from a particular intervention. Typically, suppliers will have a vested interest in the selection of their particular product. While this certainly doesn’t imply that there is dishonesty in how the benefits of products are presented, it does mean that an impartial assessment of alternatives is going to be hard to come by. It is not just suppliers who have a conflict of interest in their advice. It is evident too for construction professionals whose fees are typically linked to the cost of systems installed - the more expensive the system, the higher the professional fee. There are good reasons for this with respect to risk management and it does not imply that professionals will go out of their way to advise high cost systems, but it may mean that passive alternatives (such as natural ventilation or solar control options) do not receive the attention they perhaps deserve. There are two key principles that clients can require of their professionals to manage both conflicts of interest noted above: • Firstly, establish the rules of the game - always compare apples with apples. • Secondly, appoint a referee - an independent consultant to manage the contested space between complex systems.

apples wiTh apples

One critically important role that consultants can play in advancing energy efficiency ethically is to provide an ‘apples with apples’ analysis of alternatives to meet a particular energy saving brief. This means the systems must be assessed based on the same principles, inputs and operating conditions. the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency) 103

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It is important that these inputs match the predicted operational conditions as closely as possible. For instance, a comparison of solar PV and solar hot water will vary hugely depending on the demand for hot water. Another important consideration is to select appropriate units for assessing energy efficiency interventions depending on the main driver for design. If cost is the major driver, it may be most appropriate to use Rands and cents, while if environmental impact is the main driver the carbon emissions due to energy use is the critical issue.

Appointing A ‘referee’ to mAnAge complex design

The next important role consultants should play is in assessing the impacts of building systems through integrated design. This consideration of multiple disciplines often requires a dedicated consultant with a broad understanding of all the systems. One of the often forgotten characteristics of buildings is their complexity: the final actual performance of building systems relies on a complex mix of technology covering a number of disciplines, and operations by a diverse range of users. For example, when considering alternatives in facade from an energy perspective, the interventions must be assessed by a mechanical engineer (savings on air-conditioning systems while still maintaining comfort) and an electrical engineer (lighting savings due to dimmers which account for natural daylight levels) while still achieving the structural and architectural requirements. So, at least four professionals – mechanical, electrical, structural and architectural - must have comprehensive input when analysing the energy performance potential of facades. The complexity of systems can be difficult to navigate for clients and consultants alike, as isolating the particular influence of a system is sometimes impossible - “is my saving coming from the better airconditioning system, or from my performance facade?” The assessment of complex systems requires a more holistic approach than just ‘apples with apples’. It may be prudent to include an independent consultant to take responsibility for the sustainability or energy agenda on a project as it allows the competing interests of all the professionals to be managed effectively. This role may include energy modelling and has been shown to be critical in successfully delivering energy efficient buildings. When scoping the involvement of this professional, the following should be considered: Firstly, it is critical that the consultant describes a clear base case - the ‘business as usual’ (BAU) approach to all the energy-using systems in a building. Once the performance of the BAU has been determined, the relative improvement of different interventions can be assessed, taking the complexities of interrelated systems into account. Next, each of the discipline specialists should provide preferred alternatives to the BAU for their respective systems. The consultant should then assess the energy benefit of each of the proposed interventions in turn. Once each of the interventions from multiple disciplines have been considered, the consultant should combine the most beneficial together and present an integrated solution, with the cost-benefit results to match. The operational performance must always be considered alongside the capital cost performance - to determine the overall energy and cost saving impact of the intervention. 104 the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

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A few points to consider when appointing someone to take responsibility for energy efficiency and sustainability are: • Familiarity and experience with multiple aspects of building design - while they may be specialists of one kind or another, they must be generalists first and foremost in the role of energy or sustainability specialist. • Accreditation with the Green Building Council of South Africa as a Green Star South Africa Accredited Professional (GSSA-AP). • Experience in energy modelling and the software to do a credible job of it (software must be BESTEST certified in line with the International Energy Association parameters). • A track record of successfully managing the energy and sustainability process on projects, not just understanding the theory.


Energy efficiency and sustainability are fast becoming critical elements in successful built environment projects, and there are a variety of vested interests in the field, so objective advice can be hard to come by. Consultants have a critical role to play in managing this terrain ethically, by transparently comparing systems on the same set of external considerations. When complex systems are being considered, as is often the case in buildings, dedicated energy or sustainability consultants can independently manage the contested space between different building systems, and advise clients on the most appropriate mix of interventions for their application.

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency) 105

SKETCH 4394/12


15-18 AUGUST 2012 Expo Centre, Nasrec, Johannesburg, SOUTH AFRICA

TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS AN ECO-FRIENDLY BUILT ENVIRONMENT Hosting the full spectrum of green building and related industries in residential, commercial and industrial development


TRANSFORMATION TOWARDS AN ECO-FRIENDLY BUILT ENVIRONMENT EcoAfribuild will focus on the next generation of building and infrastructure, providing insight around the latest in global eco-friendly technologies and the transformation towards an eco-friendly built environment with a spotlight on energy efficient, resource efficient and environmentally responsible building design, materials, energy, services and interior environments. There will be a wide range of sustainable and innovative products on display, many of which will be on show for the first time in South Africa, reflecting the use of resources efficiently while creating healthier and more productive environments for people to live and work in. There will also be a focus on techniques and solutions to move towards greener cities and urban areas, and enhancing biodiversity. Daily interactive demonstrations, workshops and seminars will provide information on a wealth of natural, traditional and sustainable materials and traditional techniques, including the use of design, materials and technology to reduce energy and resource consumption and create improved human and natural environments. The exhibition will address issues such as excess energy consumption and the related CO2 emissions from burning carbon fuels, pollution of air, water and land, the depletion of natural resources, and the disposal of waste. It will look at building designs that reduce heat loads, maximise natural light, promote the circulation of fresh air and the use of energy-efficient air-conditioning and lighting, together with environmentally friendly, non-toxic materials. Also, areas such as the reduction of waste, the use of recycled materials, water harvesting and the use of renewable enery sources.

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chapter 14: EnErgy EfficiEncy through optimisation of watEr rEticulation in dEEp minEs


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 14: energy efficiency through optimisation of water reticulation in deep mines

EnErgy EfficiEncy through optimisation of watEr rEticulation in dEEp minEs Dr Gerhard Bolt (along with Dr JF van Rensburg and A Botha) North-West University

We identified three techniques to reduce water wastage and the subsequent water consumption of deep-level mines. These include leak management, stope isolation control and supply water pressure control. The outcome of the evaluation at mine 1 led to the implementation of all three water reduction techniques. Leak management realised a total daily reduction of 7 Ml with an additional reduction of 1,6 Ml per day from stope isolation and pressure control. An average daily energy reduction of 92 MWh was achieved. This relates to an estimated cost saving of R5 617 000 per annum. Further investigations revealed that a combined daily energy reduction of 170 MWh can be achieved by implementing water reduction techniques on five other mines. This relates to an estimated financial saving of R13 120 000 per annum.

ElEctricity consumption in mining

Extracting minerals is an energy intensive process. Gold and platinum mining in South Africa is responsible for approximately 47% and 33% respectively of the total electricity consumed by the mining industry. South Africa has some of the world’s deepest mines, reaching depths greater than 3700 m below the surface. One of the major concerns when mining at these depths is the high ambient temperatures as virgin rock temperatures could exceed 60°C. Ventilation and cooling in deep-level mining are of paramount importance to ensure a safe working environment. The use of air ventilation alone becomes less effective as depth increases, partly due to the air being heated through auto-compression. This led to the use of water as a medium to extract heat from the mine. Refrigeration plants, underground chilled water supply and the underground dewatering system all form part of the complete water reticulation system. Fig. 14.1 shows the breakdown of the average electricity consumption of a typical deep-level mining processes. The data used to calculate this breakdown was obtained from two gold mining groups in South Africa.

Fig. 14.1: Average mine process electricity consumption. the sustainable energy resource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 14: EnErgy EfficiEncy through optimisation of watEr rEticulation in dEEp minEs

Fig. 14.2: Virgin rock temperature (VRT).

The water reticulation system, associated with production (drilling and sweeping) and cooling (cooling cars etc.), is responsible for a large portion of the total electricity usage of the mine. A typical mine can, on average, pump between 15 Ml to 25 Ml water to the surface daily.

Water supply and demand

Water was initially used for dust suppression after blasting and during the drilling shifts, but is now used more widely in the mining industry. Cooling is one of the most vital roles of water in deep-level mining today due to the depths reached and the virgin rock temperature (VRT) present at these depths. The VRT in South Africa increases by approximately 12°C per kilometre of vertical depth depending on the region in which the mine is located. Fig. 14.2 illustrates the increase of VRT at different regions in South Africa as the depth below surface increases. With VRT reaching temperatures as high as 60°C, cooling becomes an engineering challenge. The water supply system of a deep mine consists of the refrigeration system; surface and underground chilled water storage dams; energy recovery systems and energy dissipating equipment. Water is stored in chilled water storage dams on the surface. This is because of the varying water demand as a result of different mining activities. From the surface storage dam water is gravityfed to the working areas via an intricate piping network. Chilled water is used as service water because of its cooling benefits. Some of the typical uses of water in the underground working areas are cooling cars and spot coolers, highpressure water cannons, drilling and water spraying. The used service water must be extracted from the mine along with other fissure water or groundwater. This is accomplished using the mine’s dewatering system. The dewatering system of a deep mine consists of settlers, hot water storage dams, dewatering pump stations and other free energy dewatering systems. The power consumption data for 2009– 2010 of several deep gold mines in South Africa was analysed. From this data it was concluded that, on average, the dewatering system accounts for approximately 15% of the total electricity consumption of the mine.

reducing Water demand

The South African mining industry offers significant potential for water supply optimisation. Large water consuming mines can be identified by establishing the functional relationship between water consumed and the combination of ore and rock hoisted. The combination of rock and ore is used as water consumption takes place in both production and development areas. 110

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The water consumption and hoist data obtained from several deep-level gold mines were collected. From this data it could be concluded that, on average, the deep-level gold mining industries in South Africa require approximately 2,45 kl water to mine a ton of rock. The water consumed as a function of rock hoisted is shown in Fig. 14.3. It can be seen from this figure that mine B and mine E require more water to mine a ton of rock than the average.

Fig. 14.3: Water consumption vs. mine production.

The following three techniques have been identified to reduce the water consumption in deep-level mining: • Leak management • Stope isolation control • Water pressure control system

Leak management

The water reticulation system on a mine consists of many kilometres of pipe columns supplying water from the surface to the deepest and furthest mining and development areas. Leaking pipes are a common problem in the mining industry. This is due to the extremely rough conditions these pipes are exposed to. Many leaks are caused by faulty gaskets and ruptured piping. In some cases the valves of the water hoses are left open and the water is allowed to run out freely. The fluid flow rate through a hole is expressed as a function of hole size (see Fig. 14.4). There are various techniques to identify leaks in fluid systems. Visual inspection of the column sections are by far the simplest and most cost-efficient method for detecting water leaks. A responsible person is assigned to each level and each section in the mining industry. It is this person’s responsibility to ensure that the

Fig. 14.4: Relationship between flow rate and hole size.

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chapter 14: EnErgy EfficiEncy through optimisation of watEr rEticulation in dEEp minEs

columns are in a good and acceptable operating condition. This can be accomplished by appointing a dedicated team whose priority must be to identify safety hazards and wastage. Identified leaks should be reported to the section foremen and mine managers. To simplify the management and implementation of leakage repairs, a data-capturing unit can be used on which the identified leak can be stored. The leak type, size and location are required to simplify the repair process. With accurate data, the leaks can be repaired quickly and effectively. Leak reports should be distributed weekly and feedback provided from the person responsible for the specific operational area. The water leak management and reporting system will simplify the maintenance of the water reticulation system. This system can also be used to track the progress and cost savings of the identified leak repairs. The installation of flow meters will also assist in identifying leaks by comparing actual water flow measurements with historic flows.

Stope iSolation control

Stopes are areas where the actual mining, drilling, blasting and scraping or sweeping of the reef takes place. The stope is accessed via the crosscut which is a branch of the main travel way. The water columns are usually situated along the travel ways with taps or valves at each crosscut to supply the stope area with water. Water is used primarily for cooling, drilling and sweeping purposes. Drilling and sweeping require manual intervention. Water wastage can easily occur at these stations if a worker forgets to close off the water supply after usage. A good practice would be to isolate the water supply automatically when no water consuming mining activities are taking place. With the stope-isolation system, significant water consumption reduction can be accomplished. The mine should usually be cleared by approximately 18h00 for blasting, after which the sweeping shift starts at approximately 22h00. If a flow rate of 2 l/s enters the stope area, then a water reduction of more than 28 kl per day can be achieved for the four hours of the blasting shift.

preSSure Set-point control

Tests were conducted by on a deeplevel gold mine. At a typical mining level the pressure was reduced and the flow rate logged to determine the relation between the flow and pressure. The result of this test is shown in Fig. 14.5, which shows that the water flow increases significantly with an increase one level to another, depending on the conditions of the downstream piping and mining equipment installed (such as cooling cars).

Fig. 14.5: Relation between water pressure and flow on a mining level.


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 14: energy efficiency through optimisation of water reticulation in deep mines

For pressure control, a pressure schedule for each mining level will be predetermined according to the mine shift schedule and pressure requirements. The valves will be controlled to the specified downstream pressure using a programmable logic controller (PLC), and feedback instrumentation. Each level will be controlled separately according to the level-specific requirements. During production shifts the water pressure will be controlled at a sufficient pressure so as not to interfere with the mine’s production capabilities negatively. During the afternoon shift, where minimal water is required, the pressure can be reduced to a value that will allow only sufficient flow to the BACs, cooling cars, and to the working areas where water may be required. Water leakages were present on the column supplying water to all the stopes. Therefore, pressure control valves on each individual level will be installed as close to the main supply column as possible. This will reduce water wastage on the entire level and not only in the stope areas, as is the case with stope isolation. In some cases the water supply to a particular level can be terminated completely during the blasting shift using the control valve. The valve should not be closed too quickly as this could lead to water hammer which would result in serious damage and even rupturing of the pipes and associated loss in production.

Case study

Mine A was selected as a case study. The mine comprises twin vertical and twin sub-vertical shafts reaching a depth of 3,6 km below the surface. Chilled water is gravity-fed to the various cascading storage dams through a single supply column. The water consumption of the mine and the electrical power consumption of the dewatering system were logged during a three-month baseline period. This mine consumes an average of 24 Ml chilled water per day. The total water consumption flow profile is shown in Fig. 14.6.

Fig. 14.6: Mine A water consumption baseline flow.

The dewatering system of the mine pumped an average of 26 Ml water to the surface every normal working day. The difference in water consumed and the water extracted (2 Ml) by the mine can be ascribed to fissure water. Fig. 14.7 shows the electrical power demand of the dewatering system. The case study entailed the implementation of all three the water optimisation techniques. The equipment necessary to implement pressure setpoint control and automated stope isolation on the mine, as well as a leakmanagement tools, were implemented. For leak management, the mine assigned two staff members to identify and report on water leaks. The report is sent to the person responsible for the section in which the leak is located. Regular feedback is then requested regarding the sustainable energy resource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 14: EnErgy EfficiEncy through optimisation of watEr rEticulation in dEEp minEs

Fig. 14.7: Electrical demand of the dewatering system.

the repair status of the leaks. As part of this study, a total of 30 stope isolation valves were installed at the working stopes on the main production levels. The mine installed a centralised blasting system clearance box at the entrance of each crosscut on the production levels. An auxiliary contact on the centralised blasting system is used to control the stope isolation valve. As the shift leader of each section clears his section, the valve closes and terminates the water supply to that section. As part of this study globe-type control valves were installed to enable pressure set-point control on the upper production levels. Due to financial constraints and the high cost of the valves, a decision was made to use a smaller globe valve and install this valve on a 100 mm bypass. A schematic of the valve and bypass section installed on each of the upper production levels is shown in Fig. 14.8.

Fig. 14.8: Bypass control valve assembly.

On each of these sections, a pressure transmitter and a nonintrusive ultrasonic flow meter were also installed. This was to enable water consumption monitoring of each individual level. During non-production shifts the main butterfly valve is closed off completely and the globe control valve is used to control downstream pressure. The control philosophy was programmed into the REMS-WSO energy management system, which will ensure optimised control 24 hours per day.

Results of optimised wateR demand

The implementation of leak management realised a reduction in water consumption of approximately 7 Ml per day, approximately 30% of the baseline water consumption. New leaks are still identified, logged and repaired on a daily basis.


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 14: energy efficiency through optimisation of water reticulation in deep mines

Fig. 14.9: Monthly average water consumption.

The average water consumption per month is shown in Fig. 14.9. The daily production data for each month was obtained from the mine. The production data confirmed that the average daily production did not decrease during the implementation period.

Fig. 14.10: Combined production levels water consumption.

The savings achieved by this leak management strategy has resulted in a significant decrease in water flow rate. This, in turn, has reduced the expected impact of the pressure control valves. Fig. 14.10 shows the predicted flow reduction due to pressure control and stope isolation. An additional reduction of 1,6 Ml per day is expected when the pressure control and stope isolation valves on the production levels are operational. Although this is 0,5 Ml less than originally expected, it does not pose a problem because the total savings have increased significantly due to leak management. A total water reduction of 8,6 Ml per day is expected to be achieved after implementation of the project. Fig. 14.11 shows the baseline electrical demand profile, as well as the measured actual demand profile

Fig. 14.11: Electrical demand reduction. the sustainable energy resource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 14: EnErgy EfficiEncy through optimisation of watEr rEticulation in dEEp minEs

achieved through leak management, stope isolation and pressure control. The actual power profile also shows a significant improvement over the projected profile. The shape of the power demand profile does not follow the optimised water demand profile. The reason for this is the lag in the system for cold water to reach the dewatering system. The reduction in electrical energy consumption results in a financial saving of R34 700 per day during high demand season, and R16 800 per day during the low demand season. This results in an estimated annual saving of R5 617 000 using the dewatering system. This financial saving is calculated using 2009/2010 Eskom electricity tariffs, assuming 22 working weekdays per month. With less water to be pumped, the mine should be able to shift the electrical load from the Eskom peak periods by utilising the storage dam capacities optimally. The optimised load profile is shown in Fig. 14.12. If load shift can also be implemented on the mine dewatering system, additional financial savings will be achieved. This will increase the total savings to R9 153 000 per annum.

Fig. 14.12: Optimised electrical demand profile with load shifting.

Expanding thE rEsults to othEr minEs

Investigations were also conducted on various other deep level mines to determine the potential savings that can be achieved by optimising the water reticulation system. The conclusions drawn from these investigations resulted in DSM projects being implemented on these mines. The expected savings for each of these projects are shown in Table 1. Table 14.1: Expected saving on other mines

Mine name

Daily water consumption

Daily energy consumption

Expected daily impact

Mine A Mine B

33 Ml 34 Ml

480 MWh 633 MWh

39,6 MWh 45,6 MWh

R2 949 000 R3 464 000

Mine C Mine D Mine E

25 Ml 70 Ml 15 Ml

330 MWh 377 MWh 264 MWh

39,6 MWh 36 MWh 9,6 MWh

R3 073 000 R2 858 000 R781 000 R13 120 000


Annual saving

Successful implementation of these projects will result in a total energy reduction of 170,4 MWh per day. This will reduce the average electrical power demand on the national electricity supply grid by 7,1 MW and realise a saving to the clients of R13 120 000 per annum. This excludes the possibilities of additional savings due to load shifting. 116

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In this case study, the biggest impact was achieved through repairing water leakages. Leak management results will depend on the existing condition of pipes in the mine as well as existing leak management programmes. Stope isolation valves will always be a viable option if not already in place. This will, however, be more difficult to monitor and control than automated control valves. High volumes of water flow on production levels will favour the installation of control valves on those levels. Flow meters on mining levels are also essential for proper flow management, control and monitoring. Improved management of mining water operations will result in huge savings and was not optimised in the majority of mines that were included in this study.


This paper was presented at the Industrial and Commercial Use of Energy conference, 2011 and is republished here with permission. For further information please contact

the sustainable energy resource handbook (energy efficiency)



The Case for Rooftop Solar PV Generating electricity through solar photovoltaics (PV) on rooftops is a climate change adaptation strategy. Not only does this offer clean energy, it offers energy security through localisation.

Solar power generation

Photovoltaics (PV) is the process of converting sunlight (photo) directly into usable electricity (volt). This is different to solar geysers which use the sun to heat water. In South Africa solar water heating is more common - thanks to subsidisation. But the time for solar PV has come. The first solar farms were recently contracted through the Independent Power Producer (IPP) procurement program. The price of PV is falling fast making it viable for companies and households to switch to solar PV.

Rooftop solar

The average building can generate a significant proportion of its electricity consumption by placing solar panels on top of the roof. Some can produce more than it consumes while others fall short. Many warehouses and large industrial structures can even be sources of power for the grid. What if we could cover every rooftop with Solar PV? A very high percentage of our energy needs will be satisfied eliminating the requirement for nuclear or coal-fired power stations.

Off-grid solar PV

Off-grid solutions are completely self-sufficient. During peak sunlight hours excess energy is stored in batteries for use at night or when the sun does not shine. To date most solar PV installations in South Africa were off-grid providing electricity where the national grid does not reach – and where the need was great enough to justify the cost. However, the economics of solar PV is changing fast. Prices started falling rapidly especially since 2008. There are many other situations where solar generation makes economic sense. From an environmental point of view it is the right thing to do.

Grid-tied solar PV and net metering

Grid tied solutions uses solar energy while the sun shines and the electricity grid when it does not. Excess energy is often fed into the grid during sunlight hours. This is encouraged in many countries through net metering – the meter runs backwards when feeding the grid. The electricity bill is the difference between what is consumed and what is produced - which can theoretically be zero. Although this is not yet commonplace in South Africa, many municipalities are starting to allow it. Rising Eskom prices and carbon tax will push companies to supplement their energy needs through own power generation. With net metering the business case becomes compelling.

Generating Rooftop Solar PV for the grid

Distributed Solar is preparing to participate in the government’s Small Projects IPP procurement program which will allow 1-5MW installations in South Africa to sell electricity to the grid. Do you have large warehouse or other industrial roofs reflecting valuable sunlight back into space? Be a pioneer. Let’s work together to put that roof space to good use.

Contact Details

Santa Scheepers,



the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 15: eNerGY eFFIcIeNcY OppOrtUNItIeS reSULtING FrOM SpLIttING a cOMpreSSeD aIr rING

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES RESULTING FROM SPLITTING A COMPRESSED AIR RING HPR Joubert, JF van Rensburg, R Pelzer North-West University, South Africa, and consultants to HVAC Int. (Pty) Ltd. and TEMM Int. (Pty) Ltd.


The purpose of this study was to implement an energy efficient strategy on a compressed air ring of a South African gold mine. The basis of the strategy was to identify the high- and low pressure end users and, if possible, divide the single compressed air system into two separate systems that would receive compressed air at different but correct operating pressures. Energy savings could then be expected because of reduced pipe friction losses as a result of lower operating pressures. Air leaks, through holes in the pipeline and other possible leak prone areas would also be reduced because of the lower pipeline operating pressure. It was possible to divide this compressed air ring into high- and low pressure sections. The reduced air flow in the low pressure section of the ring resulted in less air being lost through air leaks. Furthermore, smaller pressure losses were experienced over the length of the line as a result of reduced line friction. The resulting energy savings achieved was a direct result of the compressors being able to supply lower pressure compressed air to selected parts of the compressed air ring. High pressure compressed air was still maintained on the high pressure side and each compressed air system received compressed air at the correct pressure to maintain operational production as before.


Sustainable energy supply in South Africa requires ongoing new and innovative methods to ensure that production activities are maintained and to conserve energy. South African gold mines are one of the largest electricity consumers in the country [1]. The focus of the study was to reduce the electrical energy consumption of air compressors supplying compressed air to large compressed air rings at these mines.

Figure 15.1: Typical layout of a compressed air ring the SUStaINabLe eNerGY reSOUrce haNDbOOk (eNerGY eFFIcIeNcY)



The typical layout of a mining compressed air system consists of air compressors, a pipe network and air consumers. These air consumers, or end users, include rock drills, loading boxes, pneumatic valve actuators and refuge chambers. Figure 15.1 shows the typical layout of a compressed air ring. The air consumption, pressure requirement and time of use of the consumers also differ. Figure 15.2 shows the typical pressure and air flow consumption of a shaft. There are clearly defined periods of high and low consumption throughout the day. This is a result of the various combinations of pneumatic equipment in use. For example, rock drills are mostly used in the drilling shift. This requires a high pressure and high air flow.

Figure 15.2: Typical shaft consumption

Figure 15.2: Typical shaft consumption

Figure 15.3: Typical plant consumption

Figure 15.3 shows the typical compressed air system pressure and air flow supply of the gold plant before implementation of this energy saving project. The plant requires a constant high pressure for the pneumatic instrumentation though out the day. Constant air flow is also required at certain sections throughout the day since agitation operations continue without interruption. The different pressure and flow requirement for the various consumers presents an opportunity to implement a control strategy that will allow compressed air to be supplied more efficiently. 122

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Figure 15.4: Moody diagram


Air flowing over a long distance will be subject to relatively large pressure losses as a result of line friction. To calculate this pressure loss a few fundamental principles need to be taken into account. Due to the relatively large air flow speed, pipe wall roughness and long pipe lengths, only turbulent flow conditions are assumed to be present. The airflow in a pipe experiences resistance as a result of viscous sheer forces. The wall roughness plays an important role in determining the friction factor, ƒ. Experimental methods are mostly used to determine ƒ for a specific situation. The friction factor is a function of the Reynolds number (Nr) and ε ) [2]. relative pipe roughness factor (— D

Figure 15.5: Relative roughness of a pipe [2]

Figure 15.5 illustrates what is meant by the relative roughness of a pipe. When calculating the roughness of pipes that have been in use for some time, the absolute roughness of new pipes can only be used as estimates since the effects of rust and corrosion in the pipes will result in larger relative roughness values of the pipes. Using assumed relative roughness and Reynolds number values, the friction factor ƒ can be read off the Moody diagram shown in Figure 15.4. the SUStaINabLe eNerGY reSOUrce haNDbOOk (eNerGY eFFIcIeNcY)



Air density is calculated using the standard equation of state for a perfect gas [3]: p ρ= — RT

Where the variables are: Density – ρ temperature – T absolute pressure –ρ gas constant – R

[kg/m3]; [K] [N/m2]; and [N•m/kg•K]

For air, the gas constant is 287 N•m/kg•K at 298K, and 101 kPa [3]. The pressure loss, ∆p= (p1-p2) over a length of pipe can be calculated using the following equation [4] : ∆p=4ƒ

Where the variables are defined as: Loss of pressure – ∆p Density – ρ internal pipe diameter – d pipe length – l average velocity – υ friction factor – ƒ

[Pa] kg/m3] [m] [m] [m/s] and [dimensionless]

From this formula it is clear that the ∆p over a length of pipe will increase if: • The pipe length increases, • The rate of air flowing through the pipe increases, or • The air density increases.


The compressed air lost through air leaks in a compressed air system is a function of the pressure of the air in the pipe as well as the size of the leak. Most of the formulas used to calculate the compressed air lost through air leaks are derived empirically. The following formula can be used to calculate the volumetric flow rate of free air through a hole with a given size [5]: Vƒ=

Where the variables are defined as:

Volumetric flow rate –Vƒ Number of air leaks – NL Atmospheric air temperature – Ti Line air temperature – Tl Line pressure – Pl Atmospheric pressure – Pi Isentropic sonic volumetric flow constant – C1 Conversion constant – C2 Isentropic coefficient of discharge for square edged orifice – Cd Leak diameter – D Conversion constant – C3


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[m3/h] [dimensionless] [ºC]; [ºC]; [kPa]; [kPa]; [7.3587m/s K0.5]; [3600s/h]; [0.8]; [mm]; and [106mm2/m2].

chapter 15: eNerGY eFFIcIeNcY OppOrtUNItIeS reSULtING FrOM SpLIttING a cOMpreSSeD aIr rING


Automatic pressure control valves are used to control the air flowing through a pipe. The valve opening can be adjusted so that pressure loss over the valve will result in the required reduced system pressure downstream of the valve. Pressure transmitters installed in the air ring are used, not only to provide pressure metering at the specific location where it is installed, but also as a feedback process variable. This feedback process variable is used in the PID control loop to adjust the valve opening so that the pressure loss across the valve will provide the correct, reduced downstream system pressure.


The surface air ring of the mine that was used in this case study consisted of a pipe network that was approximately 40km long. Figure 15.6 is a simplified schematic layout of the mine’s surface compressed air network.

Figure 15.6: Surface layout of case study

The bottom three shafts shown in Figure 15.6 are the mine’s main production shafts. These shafts require a supply pressure of 590kPa during peak production hours which start at 07h00 and continue to 14h00. For the remainder of the day a pressure of 520kPa will be sufficient to sustain the system air pressure requirements of the end users in this shaft. Most of the mine’s compressors are also installed at these shafts. This allowed the compressed air supply pressure set point to be regulated at the pressure required for the high pressure side of the compressed air ring. For the implementation of the ring split strategy, two control valves were required. The location of the valves in the compressed air ring is indicated on Figure 15.6. Figure 15.7 shows a typical pressure usage profile for a normal production day of these shafts. This was also the pressure profile of the entire compressed air ring that was used before the ring split strategy was implemented. the SUStaINabLe eNerGY reSOUrce haNDbOOk (eNerGY eFFIcIeNcY)



Figure 15.7: Shaft pressure

Figure 15.8: Low pressure at the plants

The two valves are controlled from the central control room and isolate the high pressure side of the compressed air ring from the low pressure side. A low pressure set point of 440kPa is maintained in the low pressure side. It can be seen in Figure 15.6, that compressors are located on either side of the compressed air ring. The compressors located on the low pressure side are presently used as a backup in case additional air is required on the low pressure side of the ring. Because of the location of these compressors and the fact that they were used before the ring was split, no accurate flow data was available to compare the difference in flow rates before and after implementation. The effect of the reduced pressure and air flow was obtained by comparing the total amount of compressed air used over a period of one month with the corresponding values when the power baseline was originally measured. After implementation, the total amount of compressed air used was an average of 191,728 tons per month. This was 5,725 tons less than the average 197,453 tons of air per month consumed before the ring was split. This saving is a combination of the air saved as a result of a reduced line pressure leading to smaller line friction losses as well as the reduced amount of air lost through air leaks. Figure 15. 8 shows the pressure profile of the low pressure side after the control valves were installed and commissioned. 126

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The reduced energy consumption, which can be calculated from the area under the actual power profile of Figure 15.9, is clearly evident. This saving was achieved through a reduction in pressure on the low pressure side of 80kPa. Figure 15.9 shows the actual average power consumption, after project implementation, over a period of one month, against the original power baseline before the project was implemented. The average daily energy efficiency saving achieved was 43.2MWh.

Figure 15.9: Actual power profile vs baseline


Evaluation of the compressed air system at a gold mine showed that it is possible to reduce the pressure and air flow in certain sections of the mine. This was accomplished by installing automatic pressure reducing control valves in the compressed air delivery line. When these valves are signalled to reduce the downstream pressure, they cause the upstream pressure to increase. The increased upstream pressure will cause the compressors to reduce their output to stay within the output pressure set point range. The reduced output means less power is required and this will result in significant electrical energy savings. This saving can clearly be seen in the results of the case study.


[1] A. Hughes, M.I. Howells, A. Trikam, A.R. Kenny & D. van Es, “A study of demand side management potential in South African industries,” Energize, pp16–22, Sept. 2006. [2] R. L. Mott,Applied fluid mechanics, 6th ed. Upper Saddle River. Pearson Education Inc., 2006, p.228, 231, 233, 235, 237. [3] R.D. Zucker, Gas Dynamics, 2nd ed. Hoboken. John Wiley & Sons, 2002, p. 6, 88, 89. [4] M. A. Plint& L. Boswirth, Fluid mechanics: A laboratory course, London. Charles Griffin & Company Ltd., 1978, p55–59. [5] Y. Cerci, Y.A. Cengel& H.T. Turner, Reducing the cost of compressed air in industrial facilities, “Thermodynamics and the Design, Analysis and Improvement of Energy Systems”, 35: 175-186.


Principal Author: Rudi Joubert holds a master’s degree in electrical engineering. He is a project engineer at HVAC International (Pty) Ltd where he implements DSM projects. He is concurrently engaged in a PhD degree programme at the North-West University. Co-author: Dr Ruaan Pelzer holds a PhD in mechanical engineering and is currently a contract lecturer at the Engineering Faculty of North-West University. Co-author: Dr Johann van Rensburg holds a PhD in electrical engineering and is currently a contract lecturer at the North-West University. Presenter: The paper is presented by Rudi Joubert at the 2011 ICUE

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Cennergi Cennergi (Pty) Ltd. is a leading cleaner energy company whose foundation is in the South African Renewable energy market, however they aim to be a company operating in various Southern African countries with differing off-taker models.. Cennergi is a 50:50 joint venture between South African-based diversified resources company Exxaro Resources Limited (Exxaro) and The Tata Power Company Limited (Tata Power) of India, through its subsidiary Khopoli Investments Limited. Cennergi is based in South Africa and their key focus is the development, ownership, operation, maintenance, acquisition and management of electricity generation assets in South Africa and the rest of Africa. The initial project pipeline focuses on renewable energy projects in South Africa and Cennergi’ s strategy is to create a balanced portfolio of diverse generation assets.


The partnership of Exxaro and Tata Power and joint inputs from these companies, ensures that Cennergi possesses the skill set, track record and experience required for success. Positioned as a cleaner energy independent power producer (IPP), Cennergi, is well placed to operate a world class energy company capable of serving an expanding energy market through its development of a balanced portfolio of generation assets. Exxaro is the second largest producer of coal in South Africa and the largest supplier of coal to Eskom. The company has a strong track record in project implementation in South Africa. In 2007, Exxaro’s leadership recognised that to remain competitive and sustainable for all its stakeholders, the group must embrace ‘energy’ in its broadest context. Added to this was the South African government’s move towards implementing an independent power producer procurement programme. Exxaro then embarked on the formation of a new energy company whose sole purpose would be to generate power via a mix of renewable and cleaner energy sources. Tata Power is India’s largest integrated power company with a significant international presence. The company has an installed generation capacity of 5297 MW in India and a presence in all the segments of the power sector viz. generation (thermal, hydro, solar and wind), transmission, distribution and trading. It has successful public-private partnerships in generation, transmission and distribution across the globe. Tata Power is poised for a multi-fold growth and committed to ‘lighting up lives’ for generations to come.

Contact Details:

Telephone: 012 675 6655 Fax: 012 675 6600 Address:Lakefield Office Park, Block A, Ground floor, 272 West Avenue, Centurion, 0157

chapter 16: CritiCal aspeCts whiCh affeCt leD reliability anD leD system reliability, performanCe anD lifespan


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 16: CritiCal aspeCts whiCh affeCt leD reliability anD leD system reliability, performanCe anD lifespan

CritiCal aspeCts whiCh affeCt leD reliability anD leD system reliability, performanCe anD lifespan Philip Hammond, M.I.E.E.SA, Director of Blair Hammond & Associates, Lighting Practitioners

The LED, the modern marvel and a lighting revolution, is not particularly well understood. In fact, the complexities of this solid state device are poorly understood by professionals and major users. We are accustomed to replacing lamps of all old technologies which are generally comparable with each other, irrespective of the manufacturer or brand. However, LEDs are far more complex to manufacture, to package and in terms of quality and performance. There are many different environmental, technical and application influences which will determine overall performance, light output and lifespan. The same wattage LED of different manufacturer’s brands can have widely different quality, performance and lifespan characteristics which means that unless you as a user or professional know what critical aspects to look for, the choice is difficult and cannot simply be made from looking at the outer packaging on the retail shop shelf. I will attempt to provide readers with a simple and brief insight into the most critical aspects within the confines of a single chapter. LED salesmen are often heard telling customers that the LED product is great because it uses the best LED Chipset in the world. I would fail in my responsibility towards you if I left you thinking that providing you use the best brand LED chipset, the LED product will be the best. The best LED chipset used in a poor quality LED lamp due to poor quality electronics, poor thermal management and other aspects will still suffer from more rapid light output depreciation and will fail prematurely. It is therefore essential for all who sell and use LED products, as well as architects and consulting electrical engineers who specify them, to have as much knowledge about these aspects as possible.

leD system reliability is not equal to leD reliability

LED system Reliability and LED Chip Reliability are often confused by the uninitiated and are two entirely different considerations. System reliability is influenced by: a. The LED chip set itself b. Connections within the system c. Thermal management d. Optical e. Mechanical assembly f. Electrical g. Electronic components

whereas LED Chip Reliability is influenced by: a. Lumen maintenance b. Colour stability c. End of life behaviour

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chapter 16: CritiCal aspeCts whiCh affeCt leD reliability anD leD system reliability, performanCe anD lifespan

LED Chip

The LED die emits blue light, the phosphor coating converts part of the light into white light. It is encapsulated in silicone for protection and then it is packaged into a mounting. The thermal performance normal specified in data sheets is for the LED as a whole and not the individual components of the LED. There is an absolute maximum temperature at which it can function beyond which the die simply fails. There is also a thermal runaway temperature at which certain parts of the die become hotter than other parts. This creates hot-spots which will cause the whole die to fail. The wavelength of the emitted blue light shifts with thermal aging. Whilst the shift may be small, remember that the phosphors absorb light in a very tight band of wavelengths. Any shift will result in a decrease in efficacy and ultimately lifespan as well.

ThE p-N JuNCTioN poiNT

The P-N Junction point is where the energy is released when the electrons excite the LED to produce light or photons. High temperatures are generated at this point known as the Junction Temperature (Tj). The heat generated will destroy the LED chip if not managed and effectively dispersed via the thermal management system of the device. LED specialists refer to thermal management which includes heat sinks, general design, insulation and encapsulation.

ThEory of hEaT SiNk DESigN aND purpoSE

The road safety project slogan is “Speed Kills”. The slogan I use for LED is “Heat Kills” - very simply if the heat is not properly dispersed the long life and maintained high performance of the LED will be adversely affected. Effective and efficient heat dispersion is critical for LEDs. Most LED’s data refers to testing at 25°C ambient (Ta). Some of the better manufacturers test their products at 40°C, while one top manufacturer tests at 85°C. Why? We know and so does the manufacturer that it is seldom that a LED product operates in normal ambient temperature of 25°C. It has been found that the environmental operating temperature is considerably higher – anything from 30°C to >50°C. It is accepted in expert LED circles that for every rise of 10°C above the test Ta, a commensurate increase in junction temperature (Tj) results. This results in the lifespan and the light output of LEDs being reduced by 50%. Simply – a lamp tested at Ta 25°C starts with a lumen output of 250lm and 30,000 hrs lifespan BUT after operating continuously at Ta 35°C, lumen output would drop to 125lm and lifespan would reduce to around 15,000 hrs. HOWEVER, it is even more important to remember that the light is deemed to have failed when the lumen depreciation exceeds 30%. Therefore that point would be reached within a far shorter time at around 6,000 hrs! Staggering but true. There are many other real examples where this has happened in South Africa and elsewhere in the world. What are the prerequisites of excellent heat sink technology? 1. The highest quality of aluminium to form the heat sinks should be used. 2. The design of the heat sink should provide for the maximum surface area to disperse the heat by conduction, convection and radiation fast and efficiently. 3. The fins of the heatsink should also be as thin or fine as possible in order to disperse the heat as efficiently as possible. 4. The LED chip and the driver should be properly separated. 5. The driver should be encapsulated in a module and porcelain insulator pads should separate the encapsulated electronic driver components from the chipset platform. 132

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6. The driver should be distanced and isolated from the chipset to prevent any heat transfer from the driver to the chipset and vice versa. How can you judge which is effective by observation? 1. A solid piece of die cast aluminium has limited surface area. The design uses conduction and does not maximise convection and radiation. 2. The electronics or driver are located very close to or directly adjacent to the LED chipset which will mean that the heat of both the driver and the junction temperature are transferred and impact on the chipset.


All LEDs require a driver in order to manage the forward voltage and current to excite the LED within the design parameters of the LED chip as specified by the LED chip manufacturers. Quality electronic components in the driver are essential. LEDs chips will last for an extremely long time BUT the limiting lifespan factor is the electronics. Many LED manufacturers use very simple circuitry and poor or average quality electronic components. Products known to use high quality or A-Grade military electronic components will ensure that the stated laboratory rated life will be achieved. The real limiting factor of the driver lifetime is the input capacitor. The input voltage is always buffered by a capacitor because of the fairly high impedance of a typical switching frequency. The capacitance needed depends on the power level of the driver and the switching frequency. Higher input current will require a higher capacitance. Switching at higher frequencies means that current is drawn for less time so less capacitance will be required.

ElEctrical BEhaviour

When performance changes due to heat, the forward voltage drops. Commonly constant current drivers are used, so as the lamp warms up, the voltage drops therefore so does the light output. Assume that the forward voltage at 25°C is 3.6V and assume that to make the calculation easy the dVf/dT is -3.6mV/°C. If the temperature increases by 100°C to 125°C, the forward voltage drops by -3.6mV/°C*100°C = -360mV to 3,24V. This drop is 10% of the room temperature forward voltage, therefore the power into the device is also reduced by 10% and so too is the light output. What is the answer? It is constant power drivers. We could measure the voltage across the LED and increase the current as the voltage dropped to maintain constant power. If we were putting 700mA into the LED at Ta, a power of 3.6V*0.7A = 2.52W. At 125°C, the voltage has dropped to 3.24V so the current must be increased to 2.52W/3.24V = 778mA, an increase of 11%.


LED dies emit blue light and the phosphor coating converts part of the light into white light. Other elements are the silicone encapsulant to protect the die and the phosphor mechanically and the package into which it is mounted. These components each contribute to the thermal performance of the LED and thermal ageing differently. Phosphors are tuned to absorb light at a certain wavelength and this will vary with the thermal excitation of the molecules. They degrade with temperature, re-emitting phosphors. The encapsulant should be mechanically strong and optically clear which is often a problem. Many manufacturers use epoxy mainly due to its lower cost but it turns yellow with age. Better manufacturers use silicone for high-brightness and high-power LEDs. Silicone is still a polymer and it too eventually turns yellow with heat and time which results in colour shift and efficacy of the LED. Manufacturers continuously search for better encapsulants. the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 16: CritiCal aspeCts whiCh affeCt leD reliability anD leD system reliability, performanCe anD lifespan

Optical EffEcts Of tEmpEraturE

The colour changes to some extent with changes in temperature. Data sheets should specify that the LED drops to L70 (70%) of initial brightness after the claimed lifespan of the LED eg 50,000 hrs. If the temperature of the device is managed to lower levels, phosphor degradation will be less and the time to reach L70 will be lengthened. Conversely, if the temperature is increased, the time to reach the L70 will be shortened. It is important to keep the LED chip temperature below 85°C. It is essential to establish what the absolute maximum temperature is - is it the die or the pad? There is a big difference between the two. If a manufacturer is putting 3W into a LED with a thermal resistance from junction to pad of 10K/W, that is a temperature difference of 30°C. This means that when the pad is at 85°C, the die will be at 115°C!

OthEr EffEcts Or influEncEs

Pulsing current into the LED will affect performance. Pulse width modulation (PWM) of the current is a preferred method of dimming. This is because the current into the LED does not vary, but the amount of time that the light is on does. If LEDs are dimmed by reducing current, there can be colour shift issues. If the LED is pulsed at a high frequency, the device reaches a temperature dependant on the average power. If the pulses are slow, there may be time between the pulses for the die to cool. This will positively impact on the L70 of the LED.

hOw tO assEss thE EffEctivEnEss Of thE thErmal managEmEnt Of a DEvicE

Different methodologies can be used to measure the different temperature points within a device to establish the effectiveness and efficiency of the thermal management of a particular device. Apart from physical temperature measurement under controlled conditions, thermography can be used. A combination of various methodologies will provide the best results. The ultimate is to ensure that the device runs at the optimal junction temperature (Tj) of about 65°C to 70°C. Temperatures measured on the chip, the internal heat sink as well as the outer heat sink at different points should not differ from chip to outer heat sink by more than about 4°C to 9°C. Many brands including some well-known brands have a temperature differential of between 19°C and 57°C. Remember “Heat Kills”. It is true that continued operation of LED devices at temperatures outside the differential limit of 9°C will result in reduced light output and shortened lifespan. L70 will be reached in shorter time.

aDDitiOnal lED rEliability infOrmatiOn

In recent years the rapid development of LED technology has produced key performance indicators including the current efficiency of LED devices emitting more than 200lm/W enabling these products to be used as a light source in various lighting applications including outdoor landscape lighting, functional lighting, commercial lighting, architectural lighting and sports field lighting. There are several major technical and cost issues, which include the energy efficiency of LED lighting, the LED white light colour not being appropriate for all lighting applications, LED lamp reliability, some short product life, while the price of quality LED lamps is generally still high. The United States “Energy Star” rating specifies requirements: a. Reliability index requires LED lighting lamp life to be a minimum of 35,000 hours. b. The total life cycle colour change in CIE1976 (u, v) may not exceed 0.007. 134

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chapter 16: CritiCal aspeCts whiCh affeCt leD reliability anD leD system reliability, performanCe anD lifespan

Solid State Lighting (SSL) requires that white LED devices in 2010-2015 achieve a minimum life of 50,000 hours. I have already stated that a LED light is a highly technical and complicated device and has certain inherent characteristics which affect the system reliability. These include the LED chips, packaged devices and power supply modules (drivers) and most important, reliable and efficient heat dissipation. The following is an analysis of these issues: 1. These are the most important considerations: a. The nature of failure. LED device failures are either pure failures or dependent failure. Pure failure not only refers to LED chip failure, but also to power drift and thermal management failure. Dependent failure refers to structural and encapsulated materials where epoxy, silicone, conductive plastic, phosphor, welding and wires are used. b. The law of ten degrees. If the temperature is increased by 10째C the light output can fall to 50% and even 25%. Laboratory test results show that when the temperature in a LED device rises by 2째C, a 10% decline in its life will result and when the temperature rose from 63째C to 74째C the average life expectancy dropped by 75%. The total LED package (LED chipset, the driver and heat sink) influences the way the device responds to operating temperature changes. Expected LED life based on drive current indicated by each coloured line and target LED junction temperatures is shown below.

c. The meaning of lifespan. The LM80 Test is used to determine LED lifespan. LED lifespan is conditional to the device operating within specified conditions, and lumen deprecation to 70% of its initial lumen output while maintaining a maximum of 0.007 in colour change. LED life expectancy means the working lifespan. Reliability testing includes reliability screening, environmental testing, life testing (long-term or short term). d. Long-term life test. The long-term life test is used to confirm whether the LED lamp life will achieve 35,000 hours or the hours claimed by the manufacturer. The United States ASSIST Union, Department of Energy (DOE) and the Illumination Engineering Society of North America (IESSNA) require electrical ageing of LEDs for 1000 hours before the lumen output was measured and regarded as initial lumen output. After 3,000 hours of rated current the measured lumen depreciation may not be more than 4%, and after a further 5,000 hours not more than 8% lumen depreciation. Further, measurement was conducted at 10,000 hours. At 10,000 hours lumen depreciation may not be more than 14% from the initial lumen output. Laboratory testing shows the LED lifespan can achieve 3.5 million hours but the question remains unanswered whether the Solid State electronics in the driver will be able to match that lifespan. the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 16: CritiCal aspeCts whiCh affeCt leD reliability anD leD system reliability, performanCe anD lifespan

In the graphic below, the results of DOE testing of twenty six LED products that were tested are shown. Five products failed quickly and another four products failed to achieve a lifespan of fifty thousand hours (50,000 hrs).

e. Accelerated (short) life test. Accelerated life testing of LEDs often increases the stress on the device (electric power or temperature). It is usually used to test temperature. Life expectancy is calculated by measuring the average LED life span which is the average working time before failure. This method shortens the LED lifespan test considerably and assists to determine the improvements of LED reliability. Temperature stress increases the lifespan test in the device, and is referred to as “Amalek Casey” (yamakoshi) or the slow degradation of the LED optical power formula. Coefficients obtained by the degradation temperature of different accelerated stress life test data, use the “Arrhenius” (Arrhenius) equation numerical analytical method using the ambient temperature. This is referred to as “degradation factor analytical method”, which adopts three different stress temperatures of 74°C, 80°C and 85°C. The test method is reliable.

What is the arrhenius equation?

The arrhenius equation is a simple, rremarkably accurate, formula for the temperature dependence of the reaction rate constant, and therefore, rate of a chemical reaction. 1. The equation was first proposed by the Dutch chemist J. H. van ‘t Hoff in 1884; five years later in 1889, the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius provided a physical justification and interpretation for it. Currently, it is best seen as an empirical relationship. 2. It can be used to model the temperature-variance of diffusion coefficients, population of crystal vacancies, creep rates, and many other thermally-induced processes/reactions. A historically useful generalization supported by the Arrhenius equation is that, for many common chemical reactions at room temperature(ambient temperature [Ta] 25degrees C), the reaction rate doubles for every 10°C increase in temperature.

General Comments

Life expectancy of traditional light sources (incandescent, fluorescent, and high intensity discharge lamps) are estimated through industry-standard lamp rating procedures. Typically, a large, statistically significant sample of lamps is operated until 50% have failed; that point is then given as “rated life” for that lamp. Based on years of experience with traditional light sources, lighting experts can confidently use lamp life ratings, along with known lumen depreciation curves, to design the lighting for a space, and to determine re-lamping schedules and economic payback. LED technology changes several aspects of this traditional approach: 1. LEDs usually do not fail abruptly like traditional light sources; instead their light output slowly depreciates over time. 136

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2. LEDs are often integrated permanently into the fixture, making their replacement difficult or impossible. 3. LED light sources can have such long lives that life testing and acquiring real application data on long-term reliability is problematic — new versions of products are available before current versions can be fully tested. 4. LED light output and useful life are highly dependent on electrical and thermal conditions that are determined by the luminaire and system design. Life claims by LED luminaire manufacturers should take into account the whole system, not just the LEDs. One of the key lessons learned from early market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps is that long life claims need to be credible and backed-up with appropriate manufacturer warranties.

LED DEvicE LifEtimE

White light LEDs provide general illumination. The selection of L70 or 70% is based on vision research indicating that in general lighting applications, the “typical” human eye does not detect the decrease in light until it exceeds 30%. LED manufacturers publish lumen depreciation curves based on testing of their products, extrapolating lumen depreciation to the 70% level. Depending on the application, other depreciation levels may be appropriate as end of life limits, such as L50 or L80. LED manufacturers make lumen maintenance projections based on extended in-house testing and statistical extrapolation, accounting for the effects of drive current and LED junction temperature of the device in operation.

LED LuminairE LifEtimE

The LM-80 test procedure addresses only one factor in the life of an LED luminaire – lumen depreciation over a prescribed test period. When LEDs are installed in a luminaire or system, there are many additional factors that can affect the speed of lumen depreciation or the likelihood of catastrophic failure. These include temperature extremes, humidity, moisture incursion, voltage or current fluctuations, failure of the driver or other electrical components, damage or degradation of the encapsulant material covering the LEDs, damage to the wire bonds that connect the LEDs to the fixture, and degradation of the phosphors. LED performance is directly linked with other components in the luminaire, all critical for understanding product reliability. Current testing efforts and related research have provided some confidence in the reliability of some components. But other characteristics of the technology, interactions, and application remain untested. Many LED luminaires are newly designed products, increasing the likelihood users will experience unanticipated problems relative to fixtures that have been manufactured and refined for years. LED luminaires are electronic assemblies involving several connection points, components and materials where degradation or failures can take place, in spite of the use of high-quality, durable LEDs. The life-time of an LED source is one important indicator of LED luminaire life but it would be misleading to rate the entire LED luminaire based only on the LED source. There is often a huge gap between the warranted life of a product and the expected life of the LED source in the luminaire.

rEsuLts of LED LuminairE rELiabiLity tEsting to DatE

The DOE CALiPER program began reliability testing on SSL luminaires as far back as August 2007. During testing some luminaires maintained output levels over the first 6,000 hours of operation (7 of 13 products are producing over 96% of their initial output), while others showed rapid lumen depreciation within the first 1,000 to 2,000 hours, and some products showed significant colour the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 16: CritiCal aspeCts whiCh affeCt leD reliability anD leD system reliability, performanCe anD lifespan

shift over the first 6,000 hours of operation. DOE CALiPER tests have not revealed any generalisable patterns can be observed yet.

Interim results from CALiPER lumen depreciation testing. May 2008. Source: CALiPER Round 5 Summary Report. The 13 products covered a range of LED configurations, including task lamps, replacement lamps, retrofit lamps, and outdoor area luminaires. At that point of testing, and taking into account the small sample size, conclusions cannot be drawn about the lumen depreciation performance of any particular category of products (based on size or application). The CALiPER continues to collect lumen depreciation and chromaticity maintenance data on a range of products, and to make testing results publicly available.

Key Points for LeD Luminaire reLiabiLity

LED luminaire life is also a function of the power supply, operating temperatures, thermal management, materials, and electrical and material interfaces. Definitive lifetime ratings will not be possible until more experience is logged with a wide range of LED luminaires in the field. Well how can we then assess LED luminaire reliability? Â

CoLour stabiLity

White LEDs are manufactured in different colours such as True White, Natural White or Warm White. Each colour may span a particular colour range for example a Warm White lamp may be from 2950K to 3200K whereas a Natural White lamp may be from 3750K to 4250K. This is done in terms of the ANSI binning which works on 7 Step McAdam Ellipses per colour. Top quality LED products are manufactured within a much narrower range such as a 3 step McAdam Ellipse. Why would they do this? It is done especially to ensure that there is greater colour stability. There are many installations where there is very poor colour stability including sites where big box brand products have been used. It is therefore very important to ensure that top quality LED products which use narrow step McAdam Ellipses to avoid having a variety of different colours within the same area.


I have endeavoured in the limited space of a chapter to provide you with basic insight into the critical aspects that affect LED light output, quality, performance and lifespan.


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chapter 16: CritiCal aspeCts whiCh affeCt leD reliability anD leD system reliability, performanCe anD lifespan

RememberSystem reliability is influenced by: a. The LED chip set itself b. Connections within the system c. Thermal management d. Optical e. Mechanical assembly f. Electrical g. Electronic components whereas LED Reliability is influenced by: a. Lumen maintenance b. Colour stability c. End of life behaviour When anyone or any company or organisation purchases LED products, they do so fully expecting the product to last for the number of hours claimed by the manufacturer, that their maintenance expenses will either disappear or be minimal and that they will have major energy savings. It is therefore imperative that we ensure that as professionals and those involved in LED lighting fully acquaint ourselves with the aspects that will affect the quality, performance and lifespan of LEDs. I urge readers to continue to learn as much as possible about these aspects to avoid being disappointed when inferior products fail prematurely.


a. Lenk, Ron and Carol, 2011. Practical Lighting Design with LEDs. New Jersey: A. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. b. Peters, Laura, 2011. US DOE makes LED reliability recommendation. Bristol, United Kingdom: PennWell International Ltd. c. Mottier, Patrick, 2010. LED for Lighting Applications. London, United Kingdom. ISTE Limited. d. Various US DOE CALiPER reports.

the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)



PEER Africa We have been at sustainable integrated development in South Africa since 1995. The Witsand iEEECO(TM) human settlement project is a national flagship project, see cop17 flagship projects. What we want to showcase is our 18 years of human settlement development targeting the poor, job creation, skills development and the overall enhancement of basic services via innovative integrated development methodology. This year we were selected as: 1. SA Flagship program COP17 2. American Academy of engineers Superior Achievement Award 2012 3. Hosted by the world bank GEF for iEEECO(TM) sustainable development methodology 4. Goven Mbeki 1st runner up 2012 SA DoHS 5. Eskom 2009 1st runner up eta Award 6. COP3 No Regrets Case Study Award, Housing as If People Matter, The story of Kutlwanong

iEEECO(TM) Rollout Program Highlight

As per our designation as a Flagship program we have drafted a 5 year program to rollout the iEEECO(TM) program with our national affiliates including Eskom DSM Youth development, EnerKey and VNA Solutions in Durban, Kalahari Solar/ KCIHT Northern Cape and WEHBSO in the Western Cape. Our focus over the next 5 years is to see the development of 6 new iEEECO(TM) human settlements one in each climatic region, which serve as a research, development and demonstration of the state of innovative and sustainable basic services and gap human settlement development and as a showcase South Africa technology, innovation and mitigation against climate change.

Scaled SMME Clean Development Enhanced Basic Services Program and "set aside"

The second focus is to work with government and private sector to provide a sustainable upgrade

Goven Mbeki Award 2012

WashingtonDCAAEEESuperiorAchievementAward2012Ambassador Rasool and Dr. Abron and the Witsand Project Leaders Nadeson ConsultingEngineersandWEHBSO


COP17 Delegates VNA Solutions, PEER Africa, Eskom DSMYouth and EnerKey Side Event Durban 2011.

basket of services for 1 million to the poorest of the poor existing households and small business located in informal and low income areas. We are looking at +- 100K households in each province. The program will start with establishment of regional stakeholder PPP agreements to adopt the concept. Finally we are keen to establish stakeholder agreements with research, universities and FET colleges PEER Africa pioneered the Eco-Home concept beginning in the mid-1990s with its efforts in Kimberley and subsequently in Gugulethu (Cape Town). PEER Africa’s innovation with the Eco-Home concept led to many firsts in terms of quality, low-cost housing in South Africa: 1. First organisation in South Africa to implement wide-scale energy-efficient homes for low-income communities 2. Pioneered the concept of “healthy homes” through measures to reduce indoor smoke inhalation 3. Innovated the connection between South African housing interventions and certified emission reductions through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 4. Developer of the concept by which local residents directly participate and gain training and employment from the housing construction process 5. Creator of a holistic approach to community development reflecting economic, environmental, and social sustainability priorities. 6. Developer and designer of SME clean special purpose development fund with GEF and IFC from 2000 to 2008 Many of the ideas first developed by PEER Africa are now considered best practice globally in the housing and energy-efficiency fields.

Contact Details:

Douglas ‘Mothusi’ Guy Tel:+27 (0) 82 579 6032 Email:: Website:

Dr. Bob Dixon GEF, Dr. Lilia Abron PEER Founder World Bank Global Environmental Facility (GEF) workshop on iEEECO(TM) as a possible service delivery tool for developing counteries world wide April 2012

chapter 17: The economic and social dividends from indusTrial energy efficiency inTervenTions


the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)

chapter 17: The economic and social dividends from indusTrial energy efficiency inTervenTions

The economic and social dividends from indusTrial energy efficiency inTervenTions Erik Kiderlen Managing Partner Ashway Investments

There are important environmental co-benefits, particularly when good maintenance practices are followed in an industrial activity. With full understanding and costing these co-benefits into the total project cost analusis, more favourable payback periods can result. The costing of co-benefits may present certain hurdles, as this is still a relatively new field for financial analysis. • The social dividend. It is well established that economic growth is driven by improvements in productivity arising from sustained technological change. Productivity gains are converted into higher profits that can be redistributed as increased wages; invested to expand output, benefiting inputproviding and output-using sectors; used for developing newer technologies and products; passed on to consumers in lower prices or translated into higher demand for existing goods. Whatever the transmission mechanism output and demand reinforce each other through multiplier effects in a virtuous cycle of higher growth, employment generation and rising living standards, which is the essence of development. • Productivity and employment gains. Industrial energy-efficiency gains lead to a similar virtuous circle. By reducing resource use, cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements increase firm and industry productivity, which leads to an expansion in employment. The employment impact takes place directly through the price elasticity of demand, which may result in higher demand for the goods produced. This higher demand affects both firms investing in industrial energy efficiency and manufacturers of energy-efficient equipment, which benefit from more orders.8 However, there may also be short-term employment losses until the impact of renewed demand kicks in, as a recent United Nations Environment Programme report on the green economy suggests (UNEP 2011). Evidence on the impact of energy efficiency on employment generation is still limited, especially for industrial energy efficiency. A recent study in the US state of Missouri on the impact of policies to promote energy-efficiency investments, including some in the manufacturing industry, estimated an impact of 8,500 net jobs by 2025 over and above the business-as-usual scenario (ACEEE 2011). A similar study for South Africa, but focusing on industrial energy efficiency (improvements in speed drives, motors, lighting heat and ventilation), estimated 4,000–60,000 new jobs over 2005–2020 in an efficiency scenario compared with the base scenario (Howells, House and Laitner 2005). While the overall impact of industrial energy efficiency improvements on employment is difficult to assess and might not be large overall, it might be larger among micro- and small enterprises in developing countries. Micro-, small and medium-size manufacturing firms frequently account for most industrial employment in developing countries and play a leading role in creating jobs, promoting growth and reducing poverty. But these firms also tend to be less energy efficient and more polluting (per unit of production) than larger firms, and they lack the in-house capacity to resolve their technical problems (Rath 2011). Thus, energy-efficiency options might offer them greater potential for closing their efficiency and productivity gaps and engaging in rapid growth. Greater job security is another social co-benefit (Kanbur and Squire 1999). In India, highly polluting and energy-inefficient practices in energy-intensive sectors have threatened many firms with closure for violating pollution standards. Workers would suffer job and income losses from plant closure. Energy efficient technologies could reduce the risk of lost income while contributing to higher returns, greater competitiveness the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


chapter 17: The economic and social dividends from indusTrial energy efficiency inTervenTions

and reduced business risk. Switching to energy-efficient technologies could also reduce the risk of competitive slippage in domestic and export markets as environmental standards become more stringent (Rath 2011). • Better access to energy. Industrial energy efficiency also has a key role in improving access to energy. Today, some 2–3 billion people are excluded from modern energy services and rely on traditional biomass for cooking and heating; Dragon Iron & Steel Co., L td. is a Chinese state-owned integrated steel plant in Shijiazhuang, the capital of Hebei Province. It produces 2 million tonnes of carbon structural round steel annually. The company uses waste heat from two converter furnaces to generate steam. An energy assessment noticed that the operating pressure was much lower than the design pressure and that the resulting low-pressure steam could not be used and was vented. The problem was caused by steam leaks in the pipes and furnace hoods. The company invested $720,000 to replace four gas hoods to recover heat and reuse steam. Annual savings are $900,000, and the payback period was about 10 months. Steam recovery of 14,800 tonnes a year also reduced carbon dioxide emissions, an environmental benefit. Source: Zeng and Rong 2010. Box 4.4 Chinese company secures environmental co-benefits 82 The economic and social l dividends from industrial l energy efficiency 4 “in many developing countries, energy shortages, unreliable and poor quality supply and inefficiencies in use have high economic costs in materials waste, capacity utilization and inefficient investment in standby equipment about 1.5 billion people have no access to electricity (AGECC 2010). Access to modern energy services, particularly for women and girls in low- and middle income countries, could help sustain industrialization by making possible income-generating activities, thus also lifting many out of poverty. Furthermore, in many developing countries, energy shortages, unreliable and poor quality supply and inefficiencies in use have high economic costs in materials waste, low capacity utilization and inefficient investment in standby equipment. Costeffective improvements in industrial energy efficiency could help control growth in energy use and waste, redeploy expenditure into energy infrastructure, enable adequate provision of energy services at affordable cost and fund better energy access. • Improved health outcomes. There are also health advantages of greater energy efficiency, as shown in the impacts of the change to high efficiency technologies in the brick industry in the Xuan Quan commune in Hung Yen Province of Viet Nam (Box 4.5) As highlighted in Chapter 3, greater energy efficiency reduces the atmospheric emission of damaging substances such as sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, smoke and airborne suspended particulate matter. Emissions from burning fossil fuels for industry, transportation and power generation are the largest sources of urban air pollution, with harmful effects on health (Rath 2011). Ardestani and Shafie- Pour (2009) estimated the health damage from air pollution in Iran at 8.4 percent of GDP. Introducing energy-efficient technologies and conservation practices can improve the health and life expectancy of factory workers, particularly by reducing upper respiratory tract illnesses and asthma attacks. The poor stand to gain the most, because pollution-intensive industries tend to locate in low-wage areas (Dasgupta, Lucas and Wheeler 1998). Mills and Rosenfeld (1996) detail a range of health co-benefits from energy-efficient technologies. Energy-efficient high-frequency electronic ballast, which prevents flickering in fluorescent bulbs, causes fewer headaches and less eyestrain among office workers than does standard magnetic ballast. Several forms of anxiety have been found to diminish after a shift to high-frequency lighting. Mills and Rosenfeld add that exposure to daylight also has positive health impacts since an absence of windows is correlated with an increase in transient psychosis and absenteeism by factory workers. Light also affects melatonin levels, which are related to psychological depression affecting about 5 percent of the population. High energy-efficient technologies can also improve the indoor environment, comfort and safety (Mills and Rosenfeld 1996). Variable-speed drives and air blowers and energy-efficient furnaces tend to be quieter than the equipment they replace. Glazed windows keep household and factory occupants cooler in hot weather and reduce external noise; doubleglazed windows can protect buildings against fire. Efficient lighting technologies such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) increase the reliability of warning signs, thus improving safety. Exhaust-heat recovery systems provide better ventilation than systems without heat recovery. 144

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chapter 17: The economic and social dividends from indusTrial energy efficiency inTervenTions

and reduced business risk. Switching to energy-efficient technologies could also reduce the risk of competitive slippage in domestic and export markets as environmental standards become more stringent (Rath 2011). • Better access to energy. Industrial energy efficiency also has a key role in improving access to energy. Today, some 2–3 billion people are excluded from modern energy services and rely on traditional biomass for cooking and heating; Dragon Iron & Steel Co., L td. is a Chinese state-owned integrated steel plant in Shijiazhuang, the capital of Hebei Province. It produces 2 million tonnes of carbon structural round steel annually. The company uses waste heat from two converter furnaces to generate steam. An energy assessment noticed that the operating pressure was much lower than the design pressure and that the resulting low-pressure steam could not be used and was vented. The problem was caused by steam leaks in the pipes and furnace hoods. The company invested $720,000 to replace four gas hoods to recover heat and reuse steam. Annual savings are $900,000, and the payback period was about 10 months. Steam recovery of 14,800 tonnes a year also reduced carbon dioxide emissions, an environmental benefit. Source: Zeng and Rong 2010. Box 4.4 Chinese company secures environmental co-benefits 82 The economic and social l dividends from industrial l energy efficiency 4 “in many developing countries, energy shortages, unreliable and poor quality supply and inefficiencies in use have high economic costs in materials waste, capacity utilization and inefficient investment in standby equipment about 1.5 billion people have no access to electricity (AGECC 2010). Access to modern energy services, particularly for women and girls in low- and middle income countries, could help sustain industrialization by making possible income-generating activities, thus also lifting many out of poverty. Furthermore, in many developing countries, energy shortages, unreliable and poor quality supply and inefficiencies in use have high economic costs in materials waste, low capacity utilization and inefficient investment in standby equipment. Costeffective improvements in industrial energy efficiency could help control growth in energy use and waste, redeploy expenditure into energy infrastructure, enable adequate provision of energy services at affordable cost and fund better energy access. • Improved health outcomes. There are also health advantages of greater energy efficiency, as shown in the impacts of the change to high efficiency technologies in the brick industry in the Xuan Quan commune in Hung Yen Province of Viet Nam (Box 4.5) As highlighted in Chapter 3, greater energy efficiency reduces the atmospheric emission of damaging substances such as sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, smoke and airborne suspended particulate matter. Emissions from burning fossil fuels for industry, transportation and power generation are the largest sources of urban air pollution, with harmful effects on health (Rath 2011). Ardestani and Shafie- Pour (2009) estimated the health damage from air pollution in Iran at 8.4 percent of GDP. Introducing energy-efficient technologies and conservation practices can improve the health and life expectancy of factory workers, particularly by reducing upper respiratory tract illnesses and asthma attacks. The poor stand to gain the most, because pollution-intensive industries tend to locate in low-wage areas (Dasgupta, Lucas and Wheeler 1998). Mills and Rosenfeld (1996) detail a range of health co-benefits from energy-efficient technologies. Energy-efficient high-frequency electronic ballast, which prevents flickering in fluorescent bulbs, causes fewer headaches and less eyestrain among office workers than does standard magnetic ballast. Several forms of anxiety have been found to diminish after a shift to high-frequency lighting. Mills and Rosenfeld add that exposure to daylight also has positive health impacts since an absence of windows is correlated with an increase in transient psychosis and absenteeism by factory workers. Light also affects melatonin levels, which are related to psychological depression affecting about 5 percent of the population. High energy-efficient technologies can also improve the indoor environment, comfort and safety (Mills and Rosenfeld 1996). Variable-speed drives and air blowers and energy-efficient furnaces tend to be quieter than the equipment they replace. Glazed windows keep household and factory occupants cooler in hot weather and reduce external noise; doubleglazed windows can protect buildings against fire. Efficient lighting technologies such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) increase the reliability of warning signs, thus improving safety. Exhaust-heat recovery systems provide better ventilation than systems without heat recovery. 144

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United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) UNIDO’s Mandate

UNIDO has the unique mandate in the United Nations system to promote and accelerate sustainable industrial development in developing countries and economies in transition. The Organization works towards improving the quality of life in the world’s poorest countries by drawing on its combined global resources and expertise. UNIDO activities focus on the following three themes: • Poverty reduction through productive activities. • Trade capacity-building. • Energy and environment. In the area of energy and environment UNIDO promotes sustainable patterns of industrial consumption and production through cleaner technologies and processes in order to de-link economic development from environmental degradation.

UNIDO and Energy

UNIDO strives to promote a clean and efficient use of energy, to facilitate productive activities in rural areas by providing modern and renewable forms of energy, and to enhance the use of renewable energy for industrial applications. UNIDO helps developing countries and countries with economics in transition to achieve the following objectives: • Enhance the competitiveness of industry by increasing its energy efficiency and productivity. • Reduce carbon emissions of industry by promoting efficient, renewable and low carbon energy technologies. • Enhance access of the poor to modern energy services based on renewable energy technologies. • Increase the viability of enterprises by augmenting the use of locally available renewable energy sources. Delivering these objectives is critical to greening the industry and improving the quality and sustainability of global economic growth and environment. UNIDO is a strong advocate of global knowledge management and technology transfer. It develops and implements technical cooperation projects, a network for technology transfer and cleaner production centres. Its regional implementation offices provide strategic platforms and support in strengthening local and regional capacities, and facilitate knowledge transfer as well as South–South cooperation.


UNIDO’s Energy EfficiencyFocus Areas

The UNIDO Industrial Energy Efficiency (IEE) programme builds on more than three decades of experience and a unique expertise in the field of industrial development and technology transfer. It represents a pillar of the green industry paradigm that UNIDO promotes. Combining the provision of policy and normative development support services and capacity building for all market players, UNIDO aims at removing the key barriers to continuous improvement of energy efficiency in industries and ultimately transforming the market for industrial energy efficiency. UNIDO pursues a holistic approach involving policy, economic, technical, environmental and social aspects, to promote and support continuous energy efficiency improvement and the increased use of low carbon technologies in the industries of developing countries and emerging economies. The UNIDO IEE Programme is structured around four core thematic areas: 1. Energy management systems and standards 2. Energy system optimization 3. Low-carbon and advanced process technologies 4. Benchmarking UNIDO’s focus on energy management systems and standards and on energy system optimization aim to integrate energy efficiency into enterprises’ existing management structures for continual improvement and daily operations. Energy consumption in industry is inherently dependent on sector specific production processes and technologies. Recognizing that, UNIDO works to promote and support the deployment of low carbon and advanced process technologies that combine energy efficiency with the principles of product quality, sustainability and cost-effectiveness. Continual improvement of energy efficiency at the enterprise level requires sustained support of top management. Upgrading of industrial energy efficiency at country level requires sustained support of policy-makers and their constituencies. The ability and capability of enterprises and governments to measure performance and demonstrate benefits of their respective projects, programmes and investments are critical to secure such sustained support and ultimately achieve sustainable energy efficiency. In order to assist Governments and Industry in this regard, UNIDO also focuses on benchmarking and monitoring, reporting and verification frameworks. Recognizing that SMEs represent the backbone of socio-economic development in most developing countries and the fact that the potential for energy savings and increased productivity is remarkably high, the UNIDO IEE programme integrates a special focus on addressing the specific characteristics and limited resources of SMEs to implement energy efficiency. By understanding countries’ context and national priorities as well as a country's industrial structure, UNIDO programme combines and addresses these priority areas to best respond to stakeholders’ needs while levering opportunities for wide-scale sustainable industrial and socio-economic development.

Contact details

For more information about UNIDO programmes please visit our website:



the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)


MOVING TOWARDS A MORE ENERGY EFFICIENT INDUSTRY Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvement Project, South Africa

Compiled by United Nations Industrial Development Organisation

South African industry was built against the backdrop of relatively low energy costs, with the result that energy intensive industry practices and methodologies became the norm. Indeed, energy efficiency was not a national priority until relatively recently. The first moves towards energy efficiency programmes took place as late as 1998, with the release of the South African government’s White Paper on Energy Efficiency and the country’s first Energy Efficiency Strategy was launched in 2004. In this strategy, the critical role to be played by industry in reducing South Africa’s energy usage was highlighted: “The Industrial and Mining Sectors are the heaviest users of energy, accounting for more than two-thirds of our national electricity usage. Here lies the potential for the largest savings by replacing old technologies with new, and by employing best energy management practice” (foreword by then Minister of Minerals and Energy, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka). But it was only after rolling blackouts in 2008 exposed the country’s acute shortage of electricity generation capacity, that the Industrial Energy Efficiency Improvement Project (IEE Project) was introduced in South Africa by the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO). Launched in 2010, the IEE Project is a collaborative initiative between the South African government through the Department of Trade and Industry (the dti) and the Department of Energy (DoE), the Swiss Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID). The Project is implemented by UNIDO and is hosted by the National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa (NCPC-SA) at the CSIR. The IEE Project contributes to the sustainable transformation of energy usage practices in South African industry and aims to enhance national energy security, promote job creation and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. It facilitates the implementation of the new South African Energy Management Standard under the framework of the recently released international energy management standard ISO50001, as well as builds the capacity to introduce a system optimization approach in industry in South Africa. Currently, the IEE Project focuses on five sectors which are critical to industrial development in South Africa and have the potential to bring about significant reductions in the overall energy consumption of the country. The sectors are agro-processing, chemical and liquid fuels, mechanical engineering, automotives and mining - all of which are among the key sectors identified in South Africa’s Industrial Policy Action Plan. The objective is to contribute to the national energy demand reduction target of 15% by the year 2015 for mining and industry, and 12% for the country as a whole.


The Project is assisting the South African Department of Energy in the review of the National Energy Efficiency Strategy, which will guide energy efficiency practices in the country. The final draft strategy is currently with the DoE for internal review and submission to parliament. In addition, the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) released the South African Energy Management Standard ISO/SANS 50001 under the framework of the international energy management standard ISO 50001. The SABS has also released SATS 50010, the technical specification for the measurement and verification of energy savings. This specification will enable companies to provide proof of energy savings in order to qualify for government’s energy efficiency tax incentives. the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)



The IEE Project plays an active role in creating awareness and facilitating the implementation of the Energy Efficiency Strategy, the national standard based on ISO/SANS 50001 and SATS 50010.

OppOrtunities fOr participatiOn

It has been demonstrated time and again that energy efficiency saves industrial firms money, increases the reliability of operations and has a positive effect on productivity and competitiveness. The IEE Project provides a solid framework for businesses to follow when embarking on their journey towards becoming more energy efficient, resulting in cost savings, increased profitability, a reduced carbon footprint and enhanced international competitiveness through the implementation of energy management best practices. In countries and companies where energy management systems are relatively new, as in South Africa, between 10% and 20% savings have been reported by participating enterprises within the first two years of implementation. Participation options range from three-day audits serving as a starting block towards improved energy efficiency, to becoming demonstration plants where the measurable and verifiable impact of energy systems optimisation interventions recommended by the Project can be showcased. To date, seven medium to large companies have become demo plants and are currently pioneering the implementation of energy management systems within their operations. The goal is to have at least 25 companies participating as demo plants. In the case of the SMEs in the manufacturing sector, opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are identified by means of fully subsidised three-day energy audits, and recommendations are provided based on a review of plant layout and configuration, the identification of energy-intensive assets, and the analysis of energy consumption data. Raphulu explained that the objective is to raise awareness of the potential impact of energy management systems and enable the implementation of “quick wins”. “SMEs are also encouraged to make use of government incentives for capital investments to enhance energy efficiency, “he said. The sharing of results obtained through these initiatives are expected to stimulate the demand for industrial energy efficiency services in the country. In addition to the potential cost saving that is 150

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derived from participation, plants also benefit from the transfer of essential skills to their staff and the accommodation of a number of delegates on training workshops.

Training and capaciTy building

According to Raphulu, the availability of suitably skilled manpower is key to the sustainability of energy efficiency initiatives in industry. Energy efficiency skills are relatively rare worldwide, and in South Africa they are regarded as critical and scarce. One of the key activities of the IEE Project is thus capacity building and training. Training workshops on energy management systems (EnMS) and energy systems optimisation (ESO) are presented countrywide. The courses were introduced in August 2010 and presented by UNIDO appointed international experts. Training takes place at two levels, namely technical user level and expert level. EnMS training ensures a holistic approach, while ESO workshops currently focus on steam, compressed air, pumps, motors, process heating and fans. Technical user level training takes place over two days. The content is based on international best practice and incorporates science and theory, management processes, case studies, training on appropriate software and practical sessions where relevant. Approximately 650 delegates have attended the technical user level training thus far. The expert level course consists of theoretical and in-company practical modules spread over a number of months. Suitably skilled and experienced graduates from these groups are in the process of taking over from international trainers as part of the objective to build capacity locally. Almost 100 professionals have participated in the expert level training, and three groups have graduated to date. In addition to the training events, one-day introductory workshops on the principles and benefits of energy management systems and energy systems optimisation have been attended by almost 1,000 representatives of industry and all levels of government. Most training are now accredited with the relevant professional associations and participants can gain valuable Continuous Professional Development (CPD) points for attendance. Feedback from participants has been extremely positive and companies are already reaping the benefits. The training is presented in Durban, Cape Town and Pretoria. More details are on the IEE Project website or interested parties can email

conTacT deTails

For more information about training workshops and participation opportunities: Tel: +27 (0)12 841 2403 (Pretoria) 021 658 3983 (Cape Town) or 031 242 2365 (Durban) Email: Website: or For more information about partnership opportunities: Tel: 012 394 1567 the SuStainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)



Cennergi Cennergi (Pty) Limited was launched on 4 April 2012 with the objective of creating a balanced portfolio of electricity generation assets. Cennergi aims to be the leading cleaner energy independent power producer (IPP) in Southern Africa, serving an expanding energy market. The company’s diverse project portfolio confirms its commitment to both people and planet. Cennergi is a new South African energy company, made up on the one hand from the local experience of the Exxaro team in the development and implementation of large projects, and on the other from the global energy industry experience of the Tata Power Company. This partnership is designed to deliver sustainable energy solutions aimed at benefitting the national economy, local communities and the people of South Africa. It is this combination of local and international experience, combined with the fact that both shareholders are world leaders in their respect businesses and are significant companies in two of the world’s leading emerging markets who understand the long term nature of the energy business and what is required to make Cennergi a long term sustainable business in the energy sector. The South African government announced on Monday, 21st May 2012, that 19 project companies had been selected as preferred bidders during the second bidding window for the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Programme (REIPPP).Cennergi had two projects that received preferred bidder status. The projects are listed below.


The AmakhalaEmoyeni Wind Farm Project is a 139 MW wind farm consisting of 66 x 2.1MW turbines. It is located in the Blue Crane District Municipality located on commercial agricultural land, approximately 14km South West of the town of Bedford. The shareholding in the Project Company includes Cennergi, the Bedford Community Trust and the Cookhouse Community Trust. The dividends will be used to fund initiatives identified by registered beneficiaries. These initiatives will positively impact the socio-economic status of the Bedford and Cookhouse communities. The wind farm has also committed to spending 1.5% of its revenue on socio-economic development and 0.6% on enterprise development.

Thomas Garner, Chief Executive Officer at Cennergi


Tsitsikamma Community Wind Farm

The Tsitsikamma Community Wind Farm Project is a 95 MW wind farm consisting of 31 x 3MW turbines. As a truly South African entity, Tsitsikamma Community Wind farm has 56% RSA participation and 29% Black Shareholding. The project is being developed by a Project Company consisting of Cennergi, Watt Energy (a Port Elizabeth based, majority black-owned renewable energy developer) and the Tsitsikamma Development Trust, on the amaMfengu community land. In the early nineties, the Tsitsikamma Development Trust was established to manage the return of the land, forcibly removed from the Mfengu Community in 1977. The Wittekleibosch area, which forms the boundary of the wind farm, is one of the areas in the Tsitsikamma region that belongs to the Mfengu community. The wind farm has also committed to spending 1.5% of its revenue on socio-economic development and 0.6% on enterprise development. Our proposed economic development initiatives are borne out of a socio-economic study of the area conducted during the latter half of 2011. This study included discussions with local community leaders, municipal councillors, educators, local residents and the private enterprises in the area. With a strong focus on education and capacity building, the following is a list of the some of the investments/ initiatives to date by either the developers or their partners: • • • • • •

Installation of electricity to the Amamfengu Primary School in Clarkson. Donation of R90,000 for the building of ablution facilities at the Clarkson Primary School. Sponsoring of a bus to Clarkson and Amamfengu Sponsoring of a road maintenance program Sponsoring 2 x Paramedic Training Courses Sponsoring the building of community hall in Wittekleibosch

Contact Details:

Telephone: 012 675 6655 Fax: 012 675 6600 Address:Lakefield Office Park, Block A, Ground floor, 272 West Avenue, Centurion, 0157


IMBEWU Sustainability Legal Specialists (Pty) Ltd Since its establishment in 2000, IMBEWU Sustainability Legal Specialists (Pty) Ltd has been involved, both nationally and internationally, in the climate change legal arena. IMBEWU is thus a pioneer in South Africa in the practice of climate change and carbon markets law and related disciplines, and one of the most specialised legal consulting companies in this field. During this period IMBEWU has acquired and developed extensive knowledge and expertise in climate change legal issues and in the legal regimes applicable to the implementation of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. IMBEWU is currently involved in assisting the City of Cape Town in the development of two CDM Programmes of Activities, in the landfill gas-to-energy and waste water treatment contexts. IMBEWU’s tasks include legal process advice on environmental authorisations, interaction with the South African Designated National Authority for the CDM and on the CDM project cycle. These initiatives are part of the City’s broader strategy to reduce the environmental impacts of waste. For example, the successful completion of a landfill gas-to-energy component will: • generate greenhouse gas emissions reductions and improve air quality at the relevant landfill sites; • provide a source of renewable energy to the City; • generate revenue for the City; and, • assist the country in improving its standing in the race to dealing with climate change.


53 Dudley Road, corner Bolton Avenue, Parkwood, Johannesburg, 2193 Tel: 011 214 0660/1 Fax: 011 880 6577 Email: Website: /

Index of AdvertIsers coMPany



16, 86, 87

Aveng Group t/a Engineering & Projects Company

156, IBC

Bosch Projects (Pty) Ltd

42, 43

Chemical & Allied Industry Association


City of Ekurhuleni

20, 51

Department of Energy

74, 75

Distributed Solar

118, 119

Emergent Energy


Energy Partners


Enviroplus Design

24, 25



Honeywell Automation & Control Solutions SA (Pty) Ltd

6, 11

Imbewu Sustainability Legal Specialists

84, 154

Peer Africa

140, 141

Alive2green Peer Review


Petroleum Agency

36, 37

Riso Africa

2, 9, oBC


128, 129, 152, 153


100, 101


IfC, 1

Saint-Gobain Construction Products (Pty) Ltd


SNA Consulting


Solaire Direct


Specialised Exhibitions

106, 107



University of Pretoria Graduate School of Technology

64, 65

Alive2green Sustainability Series



146, 147 The SuSTainable energy reSource handbook (energy efficiency)




The Aveng Group’s experience spans the spectrum of power generation from traditional powered The Aveng Group’splants experience spans thecoal spectrum of to hydro power and windfrom farms. It also has power generation plants traditional coalexperience powered in nuclear power, having formed part of the consortium to hydro power and wind farms. It also has experience constructed the Koeberg Nuclear Station. inthat nuclear power, having formed part ofPower the consortium that constructed the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station. POWER The Power Division provides Project Development, POWER

Project Management, Engineering Construction The Power Division provides Projectand Development, Management Services. It is a skillsand intensive Project Management, Engineering Construction organisation Services. with highlyIt qualified experienced Management is a skillsand intensive technical and managerial staff. and experienced organisation with highly qualified technical staff. It drives and EPCmanagerial or EPCM solutions for utilities,

power producers, Itindependent drives EPC or EPCM solutionsco-generation for utilities, operations, waste energy operations, Original independent power to producers, co-generation Equipmentwaste Manufacturer (OEM) suppliers and other operations, to energy operations, Original major engineering companies the power generation Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)insuppliers and other and renewable energy sectors. major engineering companies in the power generation and renewable energyand sectors. Most Co-generation Waste to Energy projects

their existing industrial processes and plants and to reduce environmentally hazardous emissions, which their existing industrial processes and plants and to could also potentially have carbon emissions, credit advantages reduce environmentally hazardous which as analso additional benefit. could potentially have carbon credit advantages as benefit. • an Theadditional Operations Division operates and maintains

various types ofDivision plants, operates with majorand international • The Operations maintains companies OHSA 18001. various typesinofcompliance plants, withwith major international • companies Aveng Water provides, inwith addition to 18001. waste water in compliance OHSA treatment, established process technology • Aveng Waterwell provides, in addition to waste waterfor desalination, make-up treatment, wellcondensate establishedcleaning process and technology for water production. desalination, condensate cleaning and make-up • water In theproduction. Nuclear sector, Aveng E+PC’s Power Division for balance plant systems • Incan theexecute Nuclearpackages sector, Aveng E+PC’sofPower Division andexecute engineer solutionsfor to balance maximise can packages of local plantcontent. systems and engineer solutions RENEWABLE ENERGYto maximise local content.

require integrated solutions of existing processes, Most Co-generation and Waste to Energy projects while maintaining the original intent ofprocesses, the industrial require integrated solutions of existing complex, thus requiring thorough of while maintaining the original intentunderstanding of the industrial the business process plant for optimisation of before complex, thus and requiring thorough understanding project implementation. the business and process plant for optimisation before project implementation. The Power Team has the capability and broad

The Aveng Group is currently involved in the RENEWABLE ENERGY development of Renewable (RE) power The Aveng Group is currentlyEnergy involved in the generation projects throughEnergy its wholly owned development of Renewable (RE) power subsidiary projects Aveng E+PC. Aveng E+PCowned is currently generation through its wholly working with Acciona, international specialist subsidiary Aveng E+PC.anAveng E+PC isRE currently and partner, in developing RE projects, are working with Acciona, an international REwho specialist familiar withinthe latest technologies andwho stakeholder and partner, developing RE projects, are requirements. familiar with the latest technologies and stakeholder requirements. The Power Division of Aveng E+PC can execute

divisions within Aveng complement thewell Power Operating Groups withinE+PC, the Aveng Group, as as Division within in assisting identify value-add to divisions Avengclients E+PC,tocomplement the Power Division in assisting clients to identify value-add to

construction of the 90been MW ‘Te Apiti Wind Farm’, The Aveng Group has involved with the currently theoflargest in New construction the 90wind MW farm ‘Te Apiti WindZealand Farm’, and the southern hemisphere. currently the largest wind farm in New Zealand and the southern hemisphere.

experience to investigate, advise and The Power Team has the capability andimplement broad integrated to solutions in optimising andimplement incorporating experience investigate, advise and the most suitable or specialist technology to fulfil integrated solutions in optimising and incorporating specific The team also engineers, the most project suitableneeds. or specialist technology to fulfil designsproject and procures materials and balance specific needs. The team handling also engineers, of plantand systems in-house. designs procures materials handling and balance ofOperating plant systems in-house. Groups within the Aveng Group, as well as

Wind, and Division Photovoltaic (PV) E+PC projects onexecute an EPC or The Power of Aveng can EPCM basis with OEMs. Aveng E+PC Wind, and Photovoltaic (PV) projects onwill an source EPC or technology international EPCM basis from with OEMs. AvengOEMs E+PCand will specialists, source whilst the engineering and supply of the balance of technology from international OEMs and specialists, plant the andengineering site infrastructure are undertaken in-house. whilst and supply of the balance of plant and siteGroup infrastructure undertaken in-house. The Aveng has beenare involved with the

AVENG E+PC ENGINEERING & PROJECTS COMPANY Vineyards Office Estate, 99 Jip&De Jager Avenue, 1st Floor East Wing, AVENG E+PC ENGINEERING PROJECTS COMPANY VineyardsOffice Square South,99Bellville, 7530, Avenue, South Africa Vineyards Estate, Jip De Jager 1st Floor East Wing, T: +27 21 Square 912 3740 F: +27 21 9137530, 9220South Africa Vineyards South, Bellville, T:E:+27 21 912 3740 F: +27 21 913 9220 E:




A Basic Engineering Package was developed as part of the feasibility studyPackage for installing coking coal A Basic Engineering was a developed as plant part at mine in the vicinity of Ellisras. The of the the Matimba feasibilitycoal study for installing a coking coal plant Basic included a co-generation at the Engineering Matimba coalPackage mine in the vicinity of Ellisras. The plant makes Package use of theincluded processaoff-gasses and Basicwhich Engineering co-generation waste heat generated theprocess coking off-gasses ovens, to produce plant which makes usefrom of the and electricity the Matimba complex. It was waste heatforgenerated fromcoal the mine coking ovens, to produce estimated thatthe a total of 60MW couldcomplex. be generated. electricity for Matimba coal mine It was estimated that a total of 60MW could be generated. To supply a self-sufficient 10MW diesel power plant to provide electricity to the mining process until To supply a self-sufficient 10MWand diesel powerplants, plant to the localelectricity grid is established. provide to the mining and process plants, until the local grid is established.


The scope comprised the engineering for the Outer Battery Limits (OBL) which included theforFluidized The scope comprised the engineering the Outer Combustion (FCB) a 10 power Battery LimitsBoiler (OBL) whichboilers, included theMW Fluidized station, plantBoiler utilities suchboilers, as water treatment and Combustion (FCB) a 10 MW power cooling as wellsuch as the voltage and station, towers plant utilities as medium water treatment reticulation andas thewell plant and voltage OBL civils. cooling towers as platform the medium reticulation and the plant platform and OBL civils.


Tongaat Hulett Sugar (THS) is investigating the viability of sellingHulett powerSugar from one of its factories on the Tongaat (THS) is investigating the north viability coast of KwaZulu-Natal, In on order of selling power from oneSouth of its Africa. factories thetonorth maximise the power available sale,InTHS needs coast of KwaZulu-Natal, Southfor Africa. order to to improve factory. THS’s to maximisethe theenergy powerefficiency available of forthe sale, THS needs Technology Engineering Group (TEG) hasTHS’s appointed improve the & energy efficiency of the factory. Aveng E+PC&to assist themGroup to determine the appointed feasibility Technology Engineering (TEG) has of the factory optimisation. Aveng E+PC to assist them to determine the feasibility of the factory optimisation. Pre-feasibility study to install a 1 x 320 TPH FCB boiler with a 60MW Power Station, Pre-feasibility study to install 2011. a 1 x 320 TPH FCB boiler with a 60MW Power Station, 2011.Gas fired boiler with a Concept Study for a 1 x 100 TPH 20MW Power Concept StudyStation, for a 1 2011. x 100 TPH Gas fired boiler with a 20MW Power Station, 2011.





Aveng E+PC has experience in providing EPCM services for tank development projects in Africa. Aveng E+PC hasfarm experience in providing EPCM In addition this,farm Aveng E+PC has projects been involved in services fortotank development in Africa. assisting across with assessment and In additionclients to this, AvengAfrica E+PC hasthe been involved in refurbishment work required thethe tank farms and and assisting clients across Africaon with assessment associated utilities to restore them to comply with the refurbishment work required on the tank farms and required industry associated utilitiesstandards. to restore them to comply with the required industry standards.

AVENG E+PC ENGINEERING & PROJECTS COMPANY Vineyards Office Estate, 99 Jip De Jager Avenue, 1st Floor East Wing, AVENG E+PC ENGINEERING & PROJECTS COMPANY Vineyards Square South,99 Bellville, Africa Office Estate, Jip De7530, JagerSouth Avenue, 1st Floor East Wing, T: +27 21 912 3740South, F: +27Bellville, 21 913 7530, 9220 South Africa Vineyards Square E: T: +27 21 912 3740 F: +27 21 913 9220 E:


NICSIM DISTRIBUTION We at Nicsim Distribution CC have been appointed sole agents for the Raven Products in Africa. We have had the agency for several years and have shown a steady growth in sales year on year. Our biggest support is currently the DIY market however we are always striving to gain better exposure in the Architectural & manufacturing arena. As Raven is available in many leading hardware stores, this presents an immediate return on investment to the consumer while delivering a quick and ongoing reduction in energy use and carbon output. This is well illustrated where most Australian and South African homes still have little or no sealing of external entrance doors and in the case of timber windows virtually none! Internal door sealing also offers additional energy saving benefits when closing off unused rooms within a dwelling or commercial building which makes use of air conditioning and heating. The energy loss from an unsealed home through gaps around doors and windows can be up to 15%. Easy to understand when you consider the gap around the average door equates to a hole being the size of a house brick! Raven was established in 1950, Raven Products Pty Ltd is Quality Management certified to ISO9001:2000. Raven operates to Environmental ISO14001 & OH&S AS4801 standards. Raven is committed to better environmental outcomes in all product development and manufacturing processes and is an environmentally preferred product manufacturer with the internationally recognized organization Ecospecifier. For Architects, Designers and Builders visit and click on the Raven web site link “Architectural Door & Window Sealing” to download the latest Raven PDF Catalogue No.108. The site features new architectural door & window sealing products including Video and CAD file registered access. Raven’s world leading range of Door & Window seals exceed the mandatory requirements of Australian BCA & New Zealand NZ BIA and United Kingdom buildingregulations, for Weather exclusion, Energy containment, Acoustic noise Insulation, Passive protection Fire and Smoke Door sealing as well as disabled access & mobility thresholds for doorways. Importantly, Raven has all the Door & Window sealing solutions for Bushfire wise and 5 Star Energy rating design. The Raven Product is available internationally in over twenty five countries on four continents.

Contact details

Tel: 011 442 7799 Cell: 083 989 0704 Fax: 026 503 2638 E-mail : Website: