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INTRODUCTION The perception studies here are based on the parameters outlined in Tadahiko Higuchi’s book, The Visual and Spatial Structure of Landscapes. In examining a landscape, foreground, middleground, and background are used as a standard for measuring landscape distances. This is based on the theory of space in traditional landscape painting and photography, where they function as an important compositional element in creating depth on a flat surface.

Trees Foreground

Higuchi used a tree as his measurable element, but since there aren’t any trees on Owens Lake, the studies that follow examine other elements, both natural and manmade. While the Higuchi analyses conducted in this studio are similar to Higuchi’s findings on trees, they vary in details and distances. Generally, in the foreground, elements are recognized as individual units from any point of observation and people are able to scale themselves in relation to the object. For example, on a tree, leaves, trunks, and branches are discernable as belonging to particular trees and people know the relative size of each object.

Trees Midground

Trees Background

In the midground, outlines of objects are visible but not the small details. Objects are sensed as groups and texture, rather than individual. Variations in the shape of terrain become important compostional elements. In the background, the eye can only observe major topographical features such as valleys or crests. With the influence of atmospheric perspective, texture is uniform and color is visible only as lighter or darker parts of an overall blur. The most visible aspect of long distance views is the outline of mountains against the sky.

Longitudinal Surfaces and Angles of Incidence

In addition to distances, landscapes can also be examined in a more abstract fashion. The appearance of the scene is equivalent to the total visual effect of the individual planes, which depends largely on the angle between the individual planes and line of vision. This is called the angle of incidence.

Height of Vantage Point and Area of Visibility

CONTENTS PERCEPTION OVERVIEW

PERCEPTION: EARTH

PERCEPTION: WATER

PERCEPTION: VEGETATION

PERCEPTION: INFRASTRUCTURE

VIEWSHED ANALYSIS

Higuchi Analysis Summary Distance Comparison

1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12

13 Control Stations

14 Key Analysis Summary

Berms Textures Gravel BACM Tillage BACM

Reflections Salt Crusts BACM Pond Size Pond Edges

Color + Density Color Contrast Shadows Emotion


HIGUCHI ANALYSIS

summary

Higuchi Analysis Summary Background Midground Foreground

Several of the Higuchi analyses conducted are compiled on this page with images for comparison. The values to the right of each image represent the average values for each element examined. What is categorized and seen as foreground, midground, and background differ based on the elements and objects being examined, the location of each site, and the position of the viewer. While tillage makes a bold statement and can be clearly seen from a distance, fine-textured elements have a shorter foreground since they must be seen up close.

WATER SALT CRUST

WATER REFLECTION background 2 miles and beyond

background 200’ and beyond

midground 66’ to 1 mile (or the nearest berm)

midground 50’-200’

foreground 0’-66’

foreground 0’-50’

EARTH BERMS

VEGETATION DENSITY background 2625’ and beyond

background 435’ and beyond

midground 241’-2625’

midground 183’-435’

foreground 0’-241’

foreground 0-183’

EARTH GRAVEL

EARTH TILLAGE background 1,250’ and beyond

background 250’-2000’

midground 750’-1,250’

midground 50’’-250‘

foreground 0’-750’

foreground 0’-50’

Higuchi Perceptual Analysis // Owens Lake Studio // Fall 2011 Fall 2011 / Owens Lake Studio USC Landscape Morphologies Lab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012 USC Landscape Morphologies Lab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12


HIGUCHI ANALYSIS

distance comparison

Distance Comparison Diagrams

3/16 MILE 990’

Foreground Midground

FOREGROUND + MIDGROUND

Background

In these diagrams, the actual distances of foreground, midground, and background (in the lower left diagram) are reprented to show how it varies depending on the landscape or object.

1/8 MILE 660’

control stations

berms

foreground: 0-350’’ midground: 350‘-1300’’’ background: 1300‘-2640’’

foreground: 0’-241’ midground: 241’-2625’ background: 2625’ and beyond 1/16 MILE 330’

textures

tillage

foreground: 0-135’ midground: 40-550‘ background: 280’-1305’

foreground: 0’-750’ midground: 750‘-1250’ background: 1250’ and beyond

vegetation density

reflections

foreground: 0-183’ midground: 183‘-435’ background: 435’ and beyond

foreground: 3’-66’ midground: 66‘-1320’ background: 1320’-2 miles

1/16 MILE 330’

BACKGROUND control stations

berms

textures

salt crusts

gravel

foreground: 0-50’ midground: 50‘-200’ background: 200’ and beyond

foreground: 0’-50’ midground: 50‘-250’ background: 250’-2000’ 1/8 MILE 660’

tillage

vegetation density

1/2 MILE

salt crusts

gravel

1 MILE

reflections

3/16 MILE 990’

Higuchi Perceptual Analysis // OwensFall Lake Studio FallStudio 2011 2011 / Owens//Lake USC USCLandscape LandscapeMorphologies MorphologiesLab Lab////Owens OwensLake LakeResearch Research////Last LastModified Modified7/23/2012 6/19/12


1/14PERCEPTION PERCEPTIONSTUDIES STUDIES 1/14

BERMS BERMS 1/2 1/2

EARTH BERMS [Berms are one of the most prominent and prevalent man-made features on site]

KEY FACTS Berms are used for roads, boundaries for shallow flood cells, and have many other uses on site.

VIEW FROM THE MAINLINE BY CELL T3

Distance is the most controllable factor in how visible a berm is to the viewer. Berms 0.5 miles (2640’) away are nearly indistinguishable from the background. Other factors can be used to “camoflage” berms that are not as far away by placing vegetation, rip rap of a different contrast, or a water line behind the berm. This gives the illusion of greater depth. Equipment or other recognizable, scalable factors in the view can ruin the perception of great distances. HAND MADE TOOLS, LIKE THE ANGLE OF INCIDENCE MEASURER IN THE IMAGE ABOVE, HELPED GUAGE DISTANCES ACROSS THE FLAT LAKEBED.

ARIZONA SPILLWAYS ALOW ONE POND TO OVERFLOW INTO ANOTHER WHILE PRESERVING THE INTEGRITY OF THE BERMS.

BERM SECTION The section to the right shows the construction of a typical berm surrounding shallow flood cells at Owens Lake.

8

25’

rip rap protects berms from erosion

3:1

4’ 0

10’

Higuchi Perceptual Analysis Research: Lily/ Kerrigan // Owens Studio // Fall Higuchi//Perceptual Analysis Research: Lily Kerrigan /Lake Fall 2011 / Owens Lake2011 Studio USCUSC Landscape Morphologies LabLab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012 Landscape Morphologies // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12


BERMS

BERMS 2/2

higuchi analysis

background

2625’ and beyond Individual stones of rip-rap cannot be discerned and the berm blends into the background.

midground

241’-2625’ Individual stones of the rip-rap cannot be discerned and appears as texture only. The berm is still an independent object.

KEY MAP (SECTION BELOW) Key map of perspective section below. Shows the plan view of Cells T29-4, T29-3, and T29-2.

foreground

0’-241’ Individual stones of the rip-rap can be identified, and the berm is seen as an independent object from the background. 1” = 4500’

BERM BETWEEN CELLS T36-1a AND T36-1b

PERSPECTIVE SECTION The section below shows a berm crossing diagonally through the viewer’s perspective, and delineates what is visible of a berm to a person from specific distances. While in the foregound the berm is clearly visible and distinct, about a half mile out it the berm appears indistinguishable from the horizon line to the viewer. background

2625’ and beyond

Graphic: Lily Kerrigan (modified)

midground 241’-2625’

foreground 0’-241’

NTS

Higuchi Perceptual Analysis Research: Lily/ Kerrigan // Owens Studio // Fall Higuchi//Perceptual Analysis Research: Lily Kerrigan /Lake Fall 2011 / Owens Lake2011 Studio USCUSC Landscape Morphologies LabLab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012 Landscape Morphologies // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12


2/14 PERCEPTIONSTUDIES STUDIES 2/14 PERCEPTION

wave

TEXTURES 1/1

dune

crack

pitted

flake

crust

clump

salt crust TEXTURE VOCABULARY

rip rap

EARTH TEXTURES OF SAND AND SALTS [Sand and salt crusts form a subtle palette of patterns which visually change across the landscape] CELLS STUDIED FOR TEXTURES

KEY FACTS Texture and patterns influence a view on a microscale, but covering a large area. Due to this small scale, textures on sand are most visible in the foreground while fade away in the mid and backgrounds, while textures on salt crusts are enhanced by colorful cyanobacteria and are more easily seen from the midground.

CELL T3SW

CELL T29-2

CELL T23NE

TEXTURES SECTION The section to the right shows a variety of textures and how they appear in the foreground, midground, and background.

DELTA (NON REMEDIATED LOCATION) foreground 0’-135’ Delicate wave patterns are most visible in the foreground and then fade away from view. viewpoint

midground 40’-550’ Crack, pitted and flake patterns are most visible through the close middleground.

background 280’-1305’ Crust and clump textures, like with salt crusts, and rip rap create deep grooves and can be seen from far away. Variations in light, shadow and color make these patterns more visible from longer distances.

0

100’

Higuchi Perceptual Analysis Research: Daniel Neri //Daniel Owens Studio // Fall Higuchi // Perceptual Analysis / Research: Neri /Lake Fall 2011 / Owens Lake2011 Studio USC Landscape Morphologies Lab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012 USC Landscape Morphologies Lab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12


BACM 3 GRAVEL

GRAVEL 1/1

higuchi analysis

3/14 PERCEPTION 3/14 PERCEPTIONSTUDIES STUDIES Gravel stones of greater than 0.5” diameter cover the ground to make a 4” thick blanket. This landscape is accessible but there is not much diversity or interest in a gravel landscape. Color and textures of individual gravel stones are only seen in the foreground, while larger scale designs and color massing can be seen in the midground.

background

250’-2000’ Stones become indistinct and one dominant color (solid gray) emerges. There is no variety in the landscape from this point on.

midground

50’’-250‘ Individual stones are still visible although shadows begin to merge. A wide variety of colors and textures are seen. Imprints, such as the tire tracks, are vislble and best viewed from this distance.

foreground

0’-50’ Individual stones and shadows can be seen, as well as a variety of colors and textures Image Credit: Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District

viewpoint

foreground 0’-50’

midground 50’-250’

background 250’ - 2000’

0

50’

Higuchi Perceptual Analysis // Analysis Owens/Lake Studio // Fall Higuchi Perceptual Fall 2011 / Owens Lake 2011 Studio USC Landscape Morphologies Lab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012 USC Landscape Morphologies Lab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12


BACM 4 TILLAGE

higuchi analysis

TILLAGE 1/1

4/14 PERCEPTION 4/14 PERCEPTIONSTUDIES STUDIES Tilling works by using a bulldozer to create rows by “clodding,” which creates non-emissive blocks of soil at the surface and buries previously exposed loose emissive surface material. Tillage with pulse flooding (as shown below) creates habitat for migratory birds during nesting season.

background

1250’ and beyond Topography is not defined and low points are not visible. Only soil is visible.

midground

750’-1250’ Rows are visible while shadows begin to merge into lighter and darker lines. Topography is still defined.

foreground

0’-750’ In this distance, soil texture, shadow, and microtopography is clearly shown. Water appears to cover greater area than soil. CELL T21 viewpoint

foreground 0’-750’

midground 750’-1250’

background

1250’ and beyond 0

200’

Higuchi Perceptual Analysis // Analysis Owens /Lake Studio // Fall Higuchi Perceptual Fall 2011 / Owens Lake2011 Studio USC Landscape Morphologies LabLab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012 USC Landscape Morphologies // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12


5/14 PERCEPTION PERCEPTIONSTUDIES STUDIES 5/14

REFLECTIONS 1/2 REFLLECTIONS

FRAMES FROM A TIME LAPSE CAMERA OVER THE COURSE OF ONE DAY

WATER REFLECTIONS [Reflections are one of the most aesthetically appealing features found on site] KEY FACTS The Owens Lake offers ideal conditions for reflections, a quality that can be preserved and harnessed for public trust. Although mountains are in reality, miles away, reflections of the mountains can appear very close to the viewer. The quality of reflection is based on several site-specific elements including what is being reflected, the color of water, the depth of water, the type and color of soils under the water, the position of the sun across the sky, the amount of disturbance, and the angle the viewer is looking at the water, which determines the point at which the water begins to take on the color characteristics of the sky.

TIME LAPSE STILL FROM CELL T36-2 FACING THE SIERRA NEVADAS

The most visible reflections are seen between 10am-3pm, on heavy clay soil and within 3 feet of the water's edge standing close to the water’s level. The Seirras and Inyo mountains reflect the best when they are within 2 miles of the pool. ‘Natural’ colored pools have the most aesthetic appeal

ANGLE OF INCIDENCE: IN THE IMAGE TO THE LEFT, FROM THE VANTAGE POINT ON TOP OF A BERM, THE WATER APPEARS YELLOWISH IN THE FOREGROUND AND TURNS THEN TURNS BLUE , WHILE IN THE IMAGE TO THE RIGHT, THE REFLECTION OF SKY FILLS THE ENTIRE IMAGE.

A TIME LAPSE CAMERA WAS USED TO RECORD REFLECTIONS THROUGHOUT THE DAY

REFLECTIONS SECTION The section to the right shows some of the key elements that make reflections an impressive and unique feature of Owens Lake. The section also shows the angle of incidence, the correlation between the height of the viewer and their distance to where the reflection appears to begin.

sun sun is directly overhead

angle of incidence 3’ reflection begins almost immediately for person 2

person 1

Based on observations made 9/18/11, between 11am and 2pm

person 2

Graphic:Janet Kiyoi

angle of incidence 66’ Water appears green in the foreground and does not change color until the midground for person 2, since they are higher above water level

water depth the shallow food dust control measure is ideal since shallow waters have less surface disturbance and creates a mirror-like reflection

soil clay soils found on site provide greater contrast and reflect better than lighter colored soils

mountains large mountains, like the Sierra Nevadas and Inyos, less than 2’ miles away make impressive reflections

NTS Higuchi // Perceptual Analysis / Research: Janet Kiyoi/ Lake Fall 2011 / Owens Higuchi Perceptual Analysis Research: Janet Kiyoi // Owens Studio // Lake Fall Studio 2011 USC Landscape Morphologies // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12 USC Landscape Morphologies LabLab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012


REFLECTIONS

higuchi analysis

REFLECTIONS 2/2

Since the color of water at Owens Lake is variable, reflections can make an impact on how ‘beautiful’ a view is by changing the appearance of the color of water. Sometimes reflections begin immediately at the water’s edge, while other times it does not begin until 60’ in, and the foreground appears its natural color before turning blue.

background

2 miles and beyond The mountains in the background provide materials for reflections as well as fill the background space. The nearest mountains to Owens Lake are 2.5 miles away, although they seem much closer because of their magnitude.

midground

66’ to 1 mile (or the nearest berm) Since there are no trees or other objects with height over a shallow pond, the middle ground is filled with the reflection. Since berms stop reflections and obscure what is behind it, the midground reflection can stretch from 66’ to 2 miles.

foreground

0’-66’ The foreground is defined by the color of water as it appears before the reflection begins . CELL T3SE LOOKING EAST TOWARDS THE INYOS

Higuchi Perceptual Analysis Research: Janet Kiyoi //Janet Owens Studio // Fall Higuchi // Perceptual Analysis / Research: Kiyoi/Lake Fall 2011 / Owens Lake 2011 Studio USC Landscape Morphologies Lab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012 USC Landscape Morphologies Lab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12


6/14 PERCEPTION PERCEPTIONSTUDIES STUDIES 6/14

SALT SALTCRUSTS CRUSTS1/2 1/2

WATER SALT CRUSTS [Salt crusts have a unique beauty found in the quality of its color and texture] KEY FACTS Salt crusts, as a potential BACM, have the ability to control dust waterlessly over time and also has unique public trust potential.

SOLID SALT ENCRUSTED SURFACE

Salt crust forms naturally on the edges of shallow flood ponds and over lateral shallow flood ponds. But since the soil underneath is still moist and the salt crust is delicate, it is not accessible without walkways and berms. The salt crust yields interesting colors and textures when viewed up close. Hypersaline pond cells tend to be colorful and can tint the salt crust different colors. DON’T TRY TO WALK ON THE SALT CRUST!

MICROSCOPIC HALOBACTERIA AND DUNALIELLA TINT WATER AND SALT CRUSTS REDDISH, BROWNISH, OR GREENISH HUES.

SALT CRUST SECTION The section below illustrates the distances at which colors and textures can be perceived, and at what point they become indistinguishable.

foreground 0’-50’

midground 50’-200’

background 200’ and beyond

viewpoint

0

30’

Higuchi Perceptual Analysis Hua Ye / Lake Fall 2011 / Owens Higuchi Perceptual Analysis // Research: Ye/ Research: Hua // Owens Studio // Lake Fall Studio 2011 USC Landscape Morphologies // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12 USC Landscape Morphologies LabLab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012


SALT CRUSTS

higuchi analysis

SALT CRUSTS 2/2

The salt crust is best viewed from a close distance, within 200’ or else it’s unique colors are not visible. The thin, delicate crust is difficult to access however, and cannot support human weight.

background

200’ and beyond Almost all the textures become invisible and only large scale colored water or salt crust is visible.

midground

50’-200’ The most variety of colors and textures can be seen at this distance

foreground

0’-50’ In this distance, the best quality of colors and textures can be seen CELL T23NE Higuchi Perceptual Analysis // Research: Ye Hua // Owens Lake Studio // Fall 2011 Higuchi Perceptual Analysis / Research: Hua Ye/ Fall 2011 / Owens Lake Studio USCUSC Landscape Morphologies Lab Lab // Owens LakeLake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012 Landscape Morphologies // Owens Research // Last Modified 6/19/12


7/14 PERCEPTION PERCEPTIONSTUDIES STUDIES 7/14

POND PONDSIZE SIZE1/1 1/1

WATER POND SIZE [A pond can seem intimate or expansive based on the viewing angle and perceived distance to the nearest berm] out of the cone of vision

KEY FACTS

distorted

Since the pools are all irregularly shaped, the perceived distance to the nearest boundary (usually berms) and the visible midground and background are what gives the impression of size and openness, rather than the actual size of the pool.

60°

distorted

VERTICAL 60 DEGREE CONE OF VISION

Visibility is determined by where the viewer is standing as well as the size of the pool. Due to the ‘cone of vision,’ people can mostly see a 60 degree angle vertically and horizontally, without turning their head. Horizontally, outside of the 60 degree view the view is distorted and the most a person can see is 180 degrees.

60° distorted blind to the right eye

distorted blind to the left eye eyes can’t see beyond 180°

Designing within these guidelines could include changing the shape of the pool to align with the cone of vision, strategically placing and shaping viewing platforms, and placing gravel behind the 1 mile line of sight to ‘hide’ it from view.

PLAN VIEW OF HORIZONTAL VISION FIELD Graphic: Janet Kiyoi

POND SIZE SECTION The following section shows at what point a lake feels small and pond-like, due to its distance from the nearest boundaries, and at what points they begin to feel mid-size or lake-like. At one mile away, boundaries are indistinguishable from the horizon and appears as a lake.

viewpoint

small pool 0’-600’ Berms within 600 feet block midground views and appear as a boundary, giving the perception of a smaller pool.

mid-size pool 600’-1760’ Pools with berms or boundaries within 1/3 of a mile are visible but do not block reflections.

LARGE POND VIEW SMALL POND VIEW(WITH BERM) THESE TWO IMAGES, TAKEN AT THE SAME LOCATION AT DIFFERENT ANGLES, SHOW HOW OBSTRUCTIONS SUCH AS BERMS CHANGE AN IMPRESSION OF POND SIZE.

lake-like pool 2640’-5280’ and beyond Berms one half to one mile away from the viewer are nearly indistinguishable from the horizon line and offers a more natural, 'mountain lake' appearance. 0

1000’

Higuchi Perceptual Analysis // Research: Janet KiyoiJanet // Owens Studio // Lake Fall Studio 2011 Higuchi Perceptual Analysis / Research: Kiyoi / Lake Fall 2011 / Owens USCLandscape LandscapeMorphologies MorphologiesLab Lab// //Owens OwensLake LakeResearch Research// //Last LastModified Modified7/23/2012 6/19/12 USC


8/14PERCEPTION PERCEPTIONSTUDIES STUDIES 8/14

POND PONDEDGES EDGES1/1 1/1

WATER EDGES [Edges, vastly multiplied from the existing lake condition, along shallow flood cells help define the vast landscape] KEY FACTS

EXISTING EDGE CONDITIONS Soil edges are found on earlier phases of dust control where rip rap wasn’t used Gravel edges are an alternative to rip rap, and have subtle textures

EDGES WITH HABITAT

Remediation by shallow flood cells have created more than ten times the amount of edges than the historic lake edge. Current edges are composed of either soil, gravel, or rip rap.

Berm edges with vegetation and rock provide shelter

Edge material along water can also provide habitat for plants and wildlife. By using a combination of edge materials, aesthetics and habitat can be enhanced.

A rip rap edge provides camoflage for birds and lizards

Since edges are in the foreground, colors, textures, and light reflections are easily seen. There is an opportunity to transform indistinct boundaries into engaging, scenic opportunities along the lake.

Rip rap prevents erosion and is used for deeper ponds. It can also provide habitat for nesting birds.

A vegetated isla nd edge is sought out because of its proximity to water

DESIGN GUIDELINES Edges can be reinforced by using a “banding” technique, alternating 50’ bands of gravel, rip rap, and water. This controls dust while adding interest and habitat value to existing edges.

Car edges are ideal habitat for some water bugs

EDGES SECTIONS Although shallow flood cells are similar, there is great variety in the distances, materials, and heights of each pond edge.

2’ 4’ textured rock and soil soil mix

12’ smooth soil

6’ crusty soil

4’ rip rap

SECTION LOOKING SOUTH FROM CELL T2-3 Graphic: Jeannette Pulnik (modified)

4’ light gravel

4’ dark gravel

5’ crusty soil

4’ black tarp

salt crust

SECTION LOOKING EAST FROM CELL T23NE

2’ small gravel

6’ rip rap

6’ 20’ partially submerged submerged rip rap rip rap

SECTION LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM CELL T17-1 0

30’

Higuchi Analysis / Research: Jeannette Pulnik /Lake Fall 2011 / Owens Lake 2011 Studio Higuchi Perceptual Analysis //Perceptual Research: Jeannette Pulnik // Owens Studio // Fall Landscape Morphologies // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12 USCUSC Landscape Morphologies LabLab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012


9/14 PERCEPTIONSTUDIES STUDIES 9/14 PERCEPTION

VEGETATION DENSITY DENSITY COLOR 1/2 DENSITY+++COLOR COLOR 1/1 VEGETATION

VEGETATION DENSITY + COLOR [Vegetation on site has strong aesthetic potential, depending on its density and resulting color and texture] KEY FACTS Patterns of vegetation on site range from individual units in sparsely vegetated areas, to clumps and groups of massing, which look different over distances. While sparse vegetation can appear attractive in the foreground due to its individual characteristics, in the background its character disappears and it may be overshadowed by other elements on site, such as soil. Units and color are separate but interrelated visual aspects of vegetation. Density looks at both units and color, as density determines at what point individual units become masses and colors blend into one.

NATURALLY CLUMPING VEGETATION ON SPRING MOUNDS

Design suggestions include planting unique character plants in the foregound where they are visible, while planting for swaths of color in the midground and background. Planting vegetation in groups is more visually appealing and breaks up space more effectively than sparsely scattered vegetation over an entire area.

SECTIONS The sections to the right illustrate how units, color, and density of vegetation appear in the foreground, midground, and background, and at what distances those perceptions occur.

UNITS

midground 294’-949’ Outline of individual plants are visible

foreground 0’-294’ Individual units of plants are visible

foreground 0’-91’ Variety of plant COLOR colors are visible

midground 91’-260’ Some variety, but mostly primary color visible

foreground 0’-183’ DENSITY Individual plants visible

Graphic:Cate Rilla (modified)

INSPECTING THE VEGETATION

background 949’ and beyond Only a mass of plants is visible

background 260’ and beyond Only the primary color is visible

midground 183’-435’ Dense vegetation has color and texture, while sparse vegetation appears even more sparse

background 435’ and beyond Dense vegetation appears green, while sparse vegetation appears primarily soil

0

100’

Higuchi Perceptual Analysis // Research: Cate Rilla // Owens Lake Studio // Fall 2011 Higuchi Perceptual Analysis / Research: Cate Rilla / Fall 2011 / Owens Lake Studio USC Landscape Morphologies Lab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012 USC Landscape Morphologies Lab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12


DENSITY + COLOR

higuchi analysis

DENSITY + COLOR 2/2

Distances over this flat landscape can be deceiving. While the foreground and midground take up much of this image, in actuality the background is the largest swath of land. But from this distance, the background only appears as a thin strip in one color.

This image has been analyzed for density alone. background

435’ and beyond Appears as one color. Dense vegetation appears primarily vegetation, while sparse vegetation may get overshadowed by other primary feature such as soil. As a result, vegetation may appear totally green or take on the brownish colors of soil.

midground

183’-435’ With dense vegetation, masses create a variety of color and texture. Sparse vegetation appears more sparse and may be overshadowed by other elements on site. Vegetation becomes indistinctive with its shadow.

foreground

0-183’ Individual units of vegetation and a variety of colors and textures are visible. CELL T36-1 Higuchi Perceptual Analysis // Research: Cate Rilla //Cate Owens Studio // Fall Higuchi Perceptual Analysis / Research: Rilla /Lake Fall 2011 / Owens Lake2011 Studio USC Landscape Morphologies // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12 USC Landscape Morphologies LabLab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012


10/14PERCEPTION PERCEPTIONSTUDIES STUDIES 10/14

COLOR CONTRAST 1/1

VEGETATION COLOR CONTRAST [Contrasting colors enhance views and can be controlled with the siting of elements] KEY FACTS The experience of color on Owens Lake largely depends on color context and the materials immediately adjacent to each other. Perceived value of lightness or darkness dominates the visual experience. Blue sky in the background accentuates the green of vegetation, while brown mountains in the background blur colors and the vegetation doesn’t appear as vibrant. Each type of material on Owens Lake can be applied adjacent to managed vegetation to shift the perceived color of vegetation.

BLUES, GRAYS, BROWNS AND GREENS ARE THE MOST COMMON COLORS FOUND ON OWENS LAKE.

COLOR PALETTE

MATERIAL PALETTE

AN ABSTRACTED COLOR PALETTE MAKES COLOR CONTRASTS VISIBLE.

DIFFERENT MATERIALS EITHER ENHANCE OR DIMINISH THE BEAUTY OF VEGETATION, THROUGH CONTRAST

The reflective quality of water mimics colors found in the background.

background: mountains midground: vegetation foreground: shallow flood pond

GRAVEL Lighter gravel creates high contrast and defines edges, while darker gravel obscures transitions and edges.

SAND Sand can either blend or provide contrast, depending on the type of vegetation.

The bright blue of the sky adjacent to the yellow-green of vegetation enhance each other.

background: mountains and sky midground: vegetation foreground: rip rap and sand

SKY Blue contrasts the most with green/yellow tones of vegetation. Elevated plantings can enhance adjacency. WATER Water reflects surrounding landscape elements and sky. Placing water nearby can bring in an open view of the sky.

Color perception shifts with distance. Vegetation in foreground appears dull, while vegetation in the background is highlighted by sky.

background: mountains and sky midground: vegetation foreground: gravel

MOUNTAINS Mountains provide much of the backdrop and contrast. Mountains look darker up close.

SHRUBS Naturally occurring upland species of shrubs appears grey/brown from a distance, with low contrast to vegetation. Graphic: Jessica Kostosky

Higuchi Perceptual Analysis // Research: Jessica Kostosky // Kostosky Owens Lake Studio // Fall Higuchi Perceptual Analysis / Research: Jessica / Fall 2011 / Owens Lake2011 Studio USCUSC Landscape Morphologies LabLab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012 Landscape Morphologies // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12


11/14 STUDIES 11/14PERCEPTION PERCEPTION STUDIES

SHADOWS SHADOWS1/1 1/1

FRAMES FROM A TIME LAPSE CAMERA, SHOWING THE PATH OF THE SUN OVER ONE DAY

VEGETATION SHADOWS [Shadow is a significant textural element on site through vegetation] KEY FACTS Many of the vegetated areas on the lake have shadows that are perceived as texture rather than as shadow alone. Part of this comes from long distances of view over flat expanses, as well as the uniform height of vegetation. 'Microtexture becomes dominant when individual plant shadows are not visible, but merge into groups of overall textured vegetation. The greatest shifts in texture in managed vegetation areas depend on the viewer's position relative to the sun and orientation of rows.

6 FACTORS AFFECT HOW VEGETATION’S SHADOW IS PERCEIVED:

1 HEIGHT: Taller species of desert vegetation such as saltbush and

seepweed create larger shadows than saltgrass and alkali pink. Unless other elements are present, such as a contrasting foreground/background material, taller vegetation is preferable for creating dramatic shadows and texture in the distance.

2 RELATIVE ASPECT: views looking north tend to be the least dramatic for shadows. this is extreme when looking at very low vegetation. best views occur looking south, where deep shadows are present.

3 DISTANCE: depending on species, saltgrass areas have greatest

shadow and texture when seen from less than 75 yards, with much of the shadow creating fine microtexture with increasing distance from the viewer.

4 ORIENTATION: Row orientation in managed vegetation impacts

whether shadow is partially obscured by furrows, as when seen obliquely, or exaggerated by them, as when the viewer is perpendicular to rows.

VIEWS PEPENDICULAR TO ROWS LOOKING NORTH WITH SUN INTHE SOUTHWEST. DUE TO THE PERPENDICULAR ROW ORIENTATION AND VEGETATION IN THE FOREGROUND, SHADOW AND MICROTEXTURE ARE VISIBLE.

5 TIME OF DAY: Dramatic lighting occurs in the morning and evening. Mid-day sun tends to be harsh in the reflective environment, flattening out colors.

6 EDGES: edges and open space around vegetation help create room for shadows to fall. Saltgrass casts a short shadow that cannot be seen distinctly if obcured by dense plantings.

VIEWER OBLIQUE TO ROWS LOOKING NORTH WITH THE SUN IN THE SOUTHWEST SKY. DUE TO RELATIVE ASPECT AND ORIENTATION, SHADOWS ARE BARELY VISIBLE. Higuchi Perceptual Analysis // Research: Jessica Kostosky // Kostosky Owens Lake Studio // Fall Higuchi Perceptual Analysis / Research: Jessie / Fall 2011 / Owens Lake2011 Studio USCUSC Landscape Morphologies LabLab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012 Landscape Morphologies // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12


12/14 PERCEPTIONSTUDIES STUDIES 12/14 PERCEPTION

EMOTION 1/1 EMOTION1/1

VEGETATION EMOTION [Berms are one of the most prominent and prevalent man-made features on site, used as boundaries for shallow flood cells] PLANT CHARACTERISTICS

1

Salix lasiolapis Juncoes balticus Distichlis spicata

Leafy, wild Tall, lush, sways in wind Deep, vibrant color

SHELTERED AND BOLD breezy

2

Salix lasiolapis Juncoes balticus Distichlis spicata

Wispy, green, sways in wind Mutli-colored with darker tones, diveristy in height Deep, vibrant oranges and reads, sways

SHELTERED AND NATURAL in motion

Distichlis spicata

Bright, makes interesting patterns, variegated diversity in color and height

IN MOTION bold playful

Distichlis spicata Atriplex parryi Sarcobatus vermiculates Atriplex Species

Variegated dry, yellowing gold, sparse Bright, variegated Large, deep green, attracts eye, bushy Dark transitions to mountains nicely

EXPOSED playful artificial sparse

Nitrophila occidentalis Sarcobatus vermiculates

Bright, brittle, diverse in color Deep color, bunched

PLAYFUL dry withheld bold

5 different vegetated scenes were analyzed., ordereed from most moist landscape to driest.

KEY FACTS Types of vegetation, color, patterns, and arrangements of vegetation are linked to our senses and provoke an emotional response. Lush, abundant, and tall vegetation give the feeling of shelter and safety, while dryer landscapes tend to feel more exposed. Vibrant colors express boldness while movement and random growth patterns appear playful.

ASSOCIATED EMOTIONS

TYPES OF PLANTS FOUND IN THE LANDSCAPE

VEGETATED LANDSCAPE

MOIST

3

4 DRY 5

Graphic: Kate Gymrek (modified)

By looking at the color, texture, and size, major characteristics were identified, with the strongest reaction highlighted

Higuchi Perceptual Analysis Research: Kate GymrekKate // Owens Studio // Lake Fall 2011 Higuchi // Perceptual Analysis / Research: Gymrek / Lake Fall 2011 / Owens Studio USC Landscape Morphologies Lab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012 USC Landscape Morphologies Lab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12


13/14PERCEPTION PERCEPTIONSTUDIES STUDIES 13/14

CONTROL STATIONS STATIONS 1/1 1/1 CONTROL

INFRASTRUCTURE CONTROL STATIONS [Remediation infrastructure and control stations are found all throughout the playa] KEY FACTS

DESIGN GUIDELINES

Remediation infrastructure is everywhere on site, in the form of electrical and mechanical equipment. There are 34 control stations that dot the length of the mainline, typically occurring at berm junctures.

Infrastructure can either be camoflaged or transformed into a colorful display of art. Aesthetic structures can enhance a view as well as provide depth perception. Control stations can be multipurposed to serve other uses, such as act as sun shelters and rest stops.

Structures can only be seen if they are within 0.5 miles of the viewer. In the vast landscape of the playa, perception of the structures can change, from an obstruction, to a destination, to an object of curiosity.

LOCATION OF CONTROL STATIONS (AXONOMETRIC VIEW)

To control its visibility and impact on the landscape, control stations can either be camoflaged or highlighted through the use of color.

REMEDIATION INFRASTRUCTURE CAN EITHER BLEND IN WITH THE BACKGROUND, OR STAND OUT

CONTROL STATIONS SECTION The section illustrates the distances at which control stations become visible.

viewpoint

foreground 0-350’ In foreground, equipment dominates the view. They become curiosities. The white color of the structure and the metallic piping reflect more sunlight. Panoramic views are interrupted.

midground 350’-1300’ In middleground, equipment has more presence. The view is slightly marred as equipment has more presence. They may appear as a blemish upon the panorama, or as a destination to get to.

background 1300’-2640’ In background, equipment is faintly visible on horizon. View is not interrupted.

0

200’

Higuchi// Perceptual Analysis / Research: Neri /Lake Fall 2011 / Owens Lake2011 Studio Higuchi Perceptual Analysis Research: Daniel Neri //Daniel Owens Studio // Fall USC Landscape Morphologies // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12 USC Landscape Morphologies LabLab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012


14/14PERCEPTION PERCEPTIONSTUDIES STUDIES 14/14

VIEWSHED ANALYSIS

VIEWSHED VIEWSHED ANALYSIS ANALYSIS 1/3 1/1

KEY

[Landscape scenes from major roadways were assessed for integrity and attractiveness ]

5. Owens River Delta

HWY 136 1. Alabama Hills 12. Spring Mounds 6. Remains of Swansea

13. Shallow Flood Pool

HWY 395

14. Freshwater Pond

7. Sand Dunes

8. Desert Scrub

15. Salt Crust 2. Desert Scrub

16. Tilllage

3. Plateglass Factory 17. Shallow Flood

9. Desert Scrub

18. Birds

10. Desert Scrub

19. Dry Pond

11. Desert Scrub

20. Managed Vegetation 21. Salt Crust 4. Entrance

HWY 190

22. Berm/Road

Owens Lake Studio // Fall Fall 2010 / Owens Lake 2010 Studio USC Landscape Morphologies LabLab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012 USC Landscape Morphologies // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12


VIEWSHED ANALYSIS

VIEWSHED ANALYSIS 2/3

14/14 PERCEPTION 14/14 PERCEPTIONSTUDIES STUDIES

HWY 395

LEGEND INTEGRITY ATTRACTIVENESS

3.00 2.00

Each image has been given a rating for integrity and attractiveness, based on the criteria below. 1. Alabama Hills

3.00 2.40

2. Desert Scrub

3.50 2.33

3. Plateglass Factory

2.17 2.33

4. Entrance

3.00 2.00

INTEGRITY

HWY 136

Scenic integrity is rated on a scale of 1 to 5. The higher the rating, the less interventions and human variations are visible and the existing landscape character is expressed at the highest level. The lower the rating, the landscape is dominated by deviations and does not represent the natural landscape character at all.

ATTRACTIVENESS 3.80 2.30

6. Remains of Swansea

2.00 2.00

7. Sand Dunes

4.30 2.70

8. Desert Scrub

Attactiveness and aesthetics is rated on a scale of 1 to 3. Higher numbers indicate a distinctive landscape, where landform, vegetation patterns, water characteristics, and cultural features have unusual, unique, or outstanding scenic qualities, Low ratings are indistinctive without any positive attributes like variety, mystery, order, pattern, and balance.

3.67 2.00

HWY 190

5. Owens River Delta

The viewshed analysis was conducted using guidelines from the USDA Landsncape Aesthetics Handbook

3.67 2.33

12. Spring Mounds

3.57 2.35

10. Desert Scrub

3.33 2.33

11. Desert Scrub

3.00 2.00

2.80 2.10

14. Freshwater Pond

3.55 2.40

15. Salt Crust

3.10 2.30

19. Dry Pond

1.32 1.00

20. Managed Vegetation

MAINLINE NORTH

9. Desert Scrub

2.00 2.77

16. Tilllage

1.33 2.10

21. Salt Crust

2.00 1.83

MAINLINE SOUTH

13. Shallow Flood Pool

17. Shallow Flood Pool

2.17 2.00

18. Birds

2.00 2.67

22. Berm/Road

2.83 2.67

Fall 2010 / Owens Lake2010 Studio Owens Lake Studio // Fall Landscape Morphologies // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12 USCUSC Landscape Morphologies LabLab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012


VIEWSHED ANALYSIS

summary

VIEWSHED ANALYSIS 3/3

14/14 PERCEPTION 14/14 PERCEPTIONSTUDIES STUDIES

Conclusions drawn from the viewshed analysis revealed landscapes with the highest and lowest integrity and aesthetics. The viewshed analysis was conducted using the following guidelines from the USDA Landsncape Aesthetics Handbook.

HIGH INTEGRITY

MEDIUM INTEGRITY

LOW INTEGRITY

Vegetation and groundcover appear untouched and allowed to grow naturally

Vegetation appears natural but a road and power lines distract

Human intervention is obvious and tillage dominates the landscape

HIGH ATTRACTIVENESS

MEDIUM ATTRACTIVENESS

LOW ATTRACTIVENESS

INTEGRITY

Scenic Integrity indicates the degree of intactness and wholeness of the landscape character. Human alterations can sometimes raise or maintain integrity. More often it is lowered depending on the degree of deviation from the character valued for its aesthetic appeal. Landscapes with very high scenic integrity is intact with minute, if any, variations. The existing landscape character and sense of place is expessed at the highest level. High integrity landscapes appear intact. Although there may be deviations in line, form, color, texture, and pattern, they are not evident. Moderate landscapes appear slightly altered but deviations appear subordainte to landscape character. Low and very low landscapes are dominated by deviations not in sync with natural landscape character.

ATTRACTIVENESS

Scenic attractiveness measures the scenic importance of a landscape based on human perceptions of the intrinsic beauty. Distinctive areas are where landform, vegetation patterns, water characteristics, and cultural features combine to provide unusual, unique, or outstanding scenic quality. These landscapes have strong positive attributes of variety, unity, vividness, mystery, intactness, order, harmony, uniqueness, pattern, and balance. Typical landscapes have an ordinary or common scenic quality, with positive, yet common, attributes of variety, unity vividness, etc. Indistinctive landscapes are areas where landforms have low scenic quality. Often water and rockform of any consequence are missing in this clas sof landscapes. They have weak or missing attributes of variety, unity, vividness, etc.

Although the managed vegetation is man-made, the Although the scene is plain, the presence and color close mountain forms and ordered lines are attractive of water is distinctive

HIGH INTEGRITY + HIGH ATTRACTIVENESS

Vegetation is lush and appears natural, with variety, bright color, and mystery.

LOW INTEGRITY + LOW ATTRACTIVENESS

Human intervention dominates the landscape but does not add value in attractiveness at all

Water is missing from this dry pond and rock forms are not distinctive. Color is bland and lacks variety.

LOW INTEGRITY + HIGH ATTRACTIVENESS

The salt crust is obviously the result of human intervention, although the unique color and pattern is highly distinctive

Owens Lake Studio // Fall Fall 2010 / Owens Lake 2010 Studio USC Landscape Morphologies LabLab // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 7/23/2012 USC Landscape Morphologies // Owens Lake Research // Last Modified 6/19/12

Owens Lake Perception Compendium  

Owens Lake perception measurements from USC Landscape Architecture studio 2010, 2011.

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