SUSTAINABLE URBAN DWELLINGS Sustainable Architecture // MSc02 ARCH // A&D // AAU // Group 06 // June 2016 Aleksandra Przesmycka // Brage Hult // Dennis Graves // Irene Ank JÃ¸rgensen // Kristian Bue Jensen
TITLE PAGE TITLE Sustainable Urban Dwellings
THEME Sustainable Architecture
SEMESTER MSc02 ARCH
PROJECT PERIOD 23.02.16 - 16.06.16
SUBMISSION DATE 01.06.16
SUPERVISOR Michael Lauring
TECHNICAL SUPERVISOR Kim Jønsson
................................................ Aleksandra Maria Przesmycka
................................................ Dennis Graves
................................................ Brage Mæhle Hult
................................................ Irene Ank Jørgensen
................................................ Kristian Bue Jensen
READING GUIDE This project deals with the design of of a building complex situated in the old industrial part of Aalborg center. The reader will be met by the methodology and a vision, followed by a graphical presentation of the finished design. Thereafter, a program containing analysis of site, climate and case studies, create a foundation for the project. Step by step the integrated design process will be elaborated through graphical, written and calculated material. And three workshops, leading up to the final presentation. Lastly, the report will be rounded up with an epilog consisting of a conclusion and reflection of the project. Hindmost, references, by Harvard method both regarding literature and illustrations, as well as an appendix which elaborate certain parts of the report.
TABLE OF CONTENTS The Waterfront ~ 76 ~ Design Criteria ~ 78 ~
01 // INTRODUCTION ~ 05 ~ Methodology ~ 06 ~ Sustainability ~ 08 ~
05 // DESIGN PROCESS ~ 81 ~ Siteplan ~ 82 ~ Dwellings ~ 88 ~ Detailing ~ 96 ~
02 // PRESENTATION ~ 11 ~ Vision ~ 12 ~ Concept ~ 13 ~ Complex ~ 14 ~ Dwellings ~ 22 ~ Indoor Environment ~ 36 ~ Energy Frame ~ 40 ~ Reuse of rainwater ~ 42 ~ Construction ~ 43 ~
05 // EPILOGUE ~ 103 ~ Conclusion ~ 104 ~ Reflection ~ 105 ~ References and Illustrations ~ 106 ~ 06 // APPENDIX ~ 109 ~ Appendix 01 ~ 110 ~ Appendix 02 ~ 110 ~ Appendix 03 ~ 111 ~ Appendix 04 ~ 112 ~ Appendix 05 ~ 118 ~ Appendix 06 ~ 120 ~ Appendix 07 ~ 120 ~ Appendix 08 ~ 121 ~ Appendix 09 ~ 122 ~
03 // ANALYSIS ~ 45 ~ Site Analysis ~ 46 ~ Climate Analysis ~ 56 ~ Theme Analysis ~ 64 ~ 04 // CASE STUDIES ~ 71 ~ Home For Life ~ 72 ~ Java Eiland ~ 74 ~
INTRODUCTION The first chapter gives an introduction to the project by first describing the methodology used to develope the project. The methodology guides the process and help to stay focused. The focus of this project is sustainability and in this chapter a short introduction to the theme of sustainability is presented.
METHODOLOGY The course module Sustainable Architecture needs a holistic approach that combines architectural awareness with scientific research. This methodology is developed for the concept of Problem-based Learning, which includes five iterative phases of the design. The phases through the process are not linear, as they are continuously revised when new information is revealed (Ill. 1.1). Therefore, the phases ensure that technical, aesthetic and functional aspects are integrated as part of the design process, from the very beginning. [Knudstrup, M.,2004] The initial phase of the design process, based on the PBL method, Problem Formulation, revolves around how to approach and describe the problem or the various encountered problems. The Problem Formulation phase determines the basis for the design and its development. The second phase described in PBL method is Analysis Phase. This part of the design is based on research and a broad study of different factors affecting the choice of the most suitable solution for the problem. All relevant data for the design topics and themes, such as: climate, site context, history and future of the place or social, environmental and economic sustainability are analysed and summarized in design parameters, which will act as guidelines throughout the design process. Thirdly, the Sketching phase concerns the development of the concept through various mediums by trials and iterations. Taking advantage of the Analysis phase and different analogue and digital tools, the process of sketching, make the concept gradually more detailed and defined. All information gathered and material produced through previous phases are compiled in the Synthesis phase. This is when all unclear thoughts and gained knowledge about the topic are synthesized in a more precise way, that could be the basis for the last, Presentation phase. In the last phase, Presentation phase, the final materials, including detailed drawings, diagrams or different forms of the project presentation are refined and prepared.
Ill. 1.1: Integrated Design Process INTRODUCTION // METHODOLODY 8
VITRUVIAN TRIANGLE Firmitas, Utilitas, Venustas, translated to Strength, Utility and Beauty, are three fundamentals described and developed by Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius (Ill. 1.2). These three motives are recognized as the three the most important architectural values, that should be considered as a cornerstone for any successful architectural design. However, the three; Firmitas, Utilitas, Venustas, values should not be considered separately. None can be alone and each of them is dependent on the other two to achieve harmonious architecture and/ or design. In order to understand architecture, it is necessary to recognize the mutuality of Firmitas, Utilitas, Venustas fundamentals. [Oâ€™Gorman, 1998]
Ill. 1.2: The Vitruvian triangle
INTRODUCTION // METHODOLODY 9
F cti o n
SUSTAINABILITY Sustainable development can be described as three interconnected domains that must be optimized simultaneously when designing a product or a process (Ill. 1.3). These three domains are: environment, economy and society. [Office of Environment & Heritage, 2015] ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Environmental sustainability is the ability to maintain all valuable qualities of the physical environment. In these terms, this means thinking about what type and amount of resources used, how to recycle and dispose of materials, but also how to prevent creating an excess of pollution or non-renewable resource depletion. Also it should a be considered how to manage and conserve the natural environment as well as possible, and since all domains are dependent on each other, preserving the environment also means saving money and improving the social comfort. [Green Innovations, 2004] ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY Economic sustainability is the ability to support a satisfying level of economic production or to create economic growth. It is also the term that defines the different strategies that uses the available materials to the greatest implementation. The aim of economic sustainability is also to promote the most efficient and responsible way of using resources that would lead to long-term benefits. In different words, it is necessary no only to consider the cheapest solution short term, but the most responsible and efficient for the future. [Office of Environment & Heritage, 2015] SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY Social sustainability is the ability of a social system to maintain a certain level of well being, including different social relationships, human interactions, good communication opportunities and cultural development. All this should lead to a general improvement in the quality of life for all segments of the population. The concept of social sustainability, compared to both environmental and economic, is the least defined and developed. This is due to the difficulties of defining a quality of common life goals for a whole population, consisting of diverse cultures, nations, religions, political parties, etc. [Hitchcock & Willard, n.d.]
INTRODUCTION // SUSTAINABILITY 10
Ill. 1.3: Sustainability
INTRODUCTION // SUSTAINABILITY 11
PRESENTATION The following chapter contains the presentation of the design for the sustainable housing complex. First, the vision and concept is presented. Second, the presentation of the site, including siteplan, sections, facades and visualizations. After this, three types of apartments are presented; one big family, one student and one small family apartment with plans, sections and visualizations. Lastly, the more technical aspects are presented, including the indoor invironment, ventilation strategy, energy consumption and construction principle.
VISION The vision for the project is to create a housing complex that is sustainable, both environmentally, economically and socially. The complex will accommodate diverse user groups and make it attractive to live in a dense urban context. The dwellings will meet the needs of different user groups by combining the qualities of the suburban lifestyle with those of the urban lifestyle setting the frame for the future identity of the industrial area in which the site is placed. Environmentally, the project will be designed to fulfil the energy requirements of 2020 as stated by the Danish Building Regulations, using only passive strategies. Active strategies will be applied as a mean to attain Net-ZEB standard. The sustainable measures of the project must be designed through a carefully integrated design process, by the practice of sustainable tectonics. Which does not limit itself to only being of a measurable value, but should also serve as an aesthetical and/or functional quality.
PRESENTATION // VISION 14
Ill. 2.1: Concept diagram
PRESENTATION // CONCEPT 15
SITEPLAN The housing complex has a FAR of 156 %. Calculations can be seen in appendix 01. Parking and fire strategy can be seen in appendix 02 and 03.
WORKSHOPS & OFFICE SPACES
WORKSHOPS & OFFICE SPACES
RAMP TO PARKING BASEMENT
Ill. 2.2: Siteplan with groundfloor of buildings PRESENTATION // COMPLEX 16
Ill. 2.3: Top view visualization PRESENTATION // COMPLEX 17
Ill. 2.4: Visualization of the street PRESENTATION // COMPLEX 18
Ill. 2.5: Site cross section 1:500 PRESENTATION // COMPLEX 19
Ill. 2.6: Visualization of the cafe PRESENTATION // COMPLEX 20
Ill. 2.7: Elevation of urban wall // South
Ill. 2.8: Elevation of urban wall // North
Ill. 2.9: Elevation of site // East PRESENTATION // COMPLEX 21
Ill. 2.10: Top view from south PRESENTATION // COMPLEX 22
Ill. 2.11: Elevation of point buildings // South
Ill. 2.12: Elevation of point buildings // North
Ill. 2.13: Elevation of site // West PRESENTATION // COMPLEX 23
TERRACE BUILDING The terrace building is placed to the northern edge of the site and contains apartments for big and small families. All apartments have a private open terrace giving them a feel of the suburban lifestyle in a high density housing complex. The apartments are raised half a storey above the street to give the residents some privacy but still keeping a close connection to the life of the street. All plans for each floor of the building can be seen in appendix 04. TOTAL GROSS AREA DWELLING SIZE (NET. AREA) NUMBER OF UNITS
5800 m2 60
Ill. 2.14: Terrace building cross section 1:200
PRESENTATION // TERRACE BUILDING 24
Ill. 2.15: Visualization of the terraces PRESENTATION // TERRACE BUILDING 25
BIG FAMILY APARTMENT // 1 STOREY
Ill. 2.16: Plan of 1 storey family apartment // 1:100 PRESENTATION // TERRACE BUILDING 26
Ill. 2.17: Visualization of the living room PRESENTATION // TERRACE BUILDING 27
BIG FAMILY APARTMENT // 2 STOREY
Ill. 2.18: Plan of 2 storey family apartment // 1:150
Ill. 2.19: Visualization of the top floor living room
POINT BUILDING // FAMILIES & SENIORS Three point buildings are designed for families and seniors and are placed along the southern edge of the site by the creek. All apartments have private balconies to the south and the groundfloor apartments have small gardens overlooking the creek. The apartments are designed to fit the needs of the residents in terms of space and functions while still being of high density. All plans for each floor of the building can be seen in appendix 04. FAMILY + SENIORS TOTAL GROSS AREA DWELLING SIZE (NET. AREA) NUMBER OF UNITS
2030 m2 19
Ill. 2.20: Point building cross section 1:200
PRESENTATION // POINT BUILDING - FAMILIES & SENIORS 30
Ill. 2.21: Visualization of the living room PRESENTATION // POINT BUILDING - FAMILIES & SENIORS 31
Ill. 2.22: Plan of 1 storey family apartment // 1:100 PRESENTATION // POINT BUILDING - FAMILIES & SENIORS 32
Ill. 2.23: Visualization of childrens room PRESENTATION // POINT BUILDING - FAMILIES & SENIORS 33
POINT BUILDING // STUDENTS Four point buildings are designed for students and are placed in the middle on the site along the street. In the bottom storey of all buildings are the public functions; workshops/ offices, a cafe and a common room for all residents on the site. Here the public functions have easy access from the street and also add to the diversity of the life in the street. The student apartments are small, but with enough space for both sleep, cooking and working. Small common rooms are placed on each floor for the students to socialize. All plans for each floor of the building can be seen in appendix 04.
TOTAL GROSS AREA DWELLING SIZE (NET. AREA) NUMBER OF UNITS
2770 m2 48
Ill. 2.24: Student building cross section 1:200
PRESENTATION // POINT BUILDING - STUDENTS 34
Ill. 2.25: Visualization of the kitchen PRESENTATION // POINT BUILDING - STUDENTS 35
Ill: 2.26: Plan of student apartment // 1:100 PRESENTATION // POINT BUILDING - STUDENTS 36
Ill. 2.27: Visualization of the bedroom PRESENTATION // POINT BUILDING - STUDENTS 37
INDOOR ENVIRONMENT For documenting a satisfactory indoor environment BSim is used for an hourly calculation hereof. The documentation is based upon a critical apartment, which could be bound to overheat during summer. The apartment is situated lateral as well as horizontal in-between other dwellings, where the plan shows chosen apartment for the study, with three thermal zones highlighted. The apartment is 91 square metres and fits a family of four. As a general rule the apartment is vented during summer and sustained by mechanical ventilation in winter, for the ability of using respectively less power and gain heat recovery when needed. The atmospheric indoor climate of category I of DS/EN 15251 is met as seen in the graph where the levels of co2 does not exceed 350ppm compared to outdoor pollution. The thermal indoor climate must meet category I of DS/EN 15251 is met by not having more than 100 hours above the allowable 26Â°C and 25 hours above 27Â°C. as seen in the graph. The last graph shows the mean temperatures of the different zones on the eighth of august, where it is shown how the indoor temperatures raise during the day and fall as the progresses. As documentation has shown the decisions made through the integrated design process and the detailing through BSim safeguarded the indoor environment.
PRESENTATION // INDOOR ENVIRONTMENT 38
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Ill. 2.28: Thermal zones for the apartment
Ill. 2.29: Hours above 26 and 27 degrees over a year
Co2 Livingroom/ Kitchen
Hours above 27
Hours above 26
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0
Ill. 2.30: CO2 levels in ppm over one day
TiMean Livingroom/ Kitchen
Ill. 2.31: Mean temperatures over one day
PRESENTATION // INDOOR ENVIRONTMENT 39
VENTILATION The ventilation principle is detailed for the terrace building, where a centralized ventilation system will be placed in the basement with pipes going up through the floors and distributing air to the apartments (Ill. 2.32). The need for ventilation in the apartments are calculated for both olf and CO2 pollution and the one that gives the highest air change, sets the dimensions for the ventilation system (Appendix 05). The sizes of all main and distribution pipes are calculated to make enough space for them in the apartments. The pipes in the apartments are hidden above a suspended ceiling. The apartments are designed for natural ventilation. Illustration 2.33 shows the principle for the terrace building, where some apartments have single-sided ventilation, while others have cross-ventilation and the top floor, 2 storey apartments have the possibility of both cross- and stack ventilation.
Ill. 2.32: Ventilation system for the terrace building
Ill. 2.33: Natural ventilation principle for the terrace building
PRESENTATION // VENTILATION 40
VENTILATION // DETAILING One critical apartment is chosen for detailing of the ventilation; a 2 storey family apartment on the 5th and 6th floor of the terrace building. Illustration 2.34 shows the distribution of the ventilation pipes throughout the apartments. The supply and extract pipes are placed on each side of the load bearing wall between two apartments, holes are cut in the wall to let the pipes go through, to the opposite apartment. The main pipes are placed behind a hallway closet and space is made behind the closet to let the supply and extract pipes cross each other. Focus for the detailing of the pipes has been to keep as short lenghts as possible. Air is supplied in the living room, childrens rooms and bedroom, and extracted from the bathroom and the kitchen. Because the apartment has 2 storeys both the supply and extract pipes have to go through the ceiling and up to the 2 storey. On the second storey the pipes are hidden inside closets as well, and because the rooms go up to the roof the pipes run along the pitch of the roof behind a small suspended ceiling.
Ill. 2.34: Detailing of ventilation pipes
PRESENTATION // VENTILATION 41
ENERGY FRAME As a means to reach building frame 2020 for the entire complex, by implementing passive strategies, and thereafter to become a net-ZEB building by applying renewables technologies, Be15 is used as a tool for documenting this. The building with only passive strategies is estimated to use 10,5kWh/m2 year, (Appendix 06) which is below the requirement stated by low energy class 2020 of 20kWh/m2 year. The envelope fulfils the requirements of low energy class of 2020 by having a heat loss of 3,45W/m2K, below the maximum of 5,7W/m2K. Building techniques, will ensure an airtightness of 0,1l/s m2 of the building. When applying renewable technologies, in the form of photovoltaics to cover the buildings annual energy consumption the goal of reaching net-ZEB status is achieved (Appendix 06). As seen in the columns diagram showing that the application of photovoltaics creates an surplus of energy. when reading the pie chart, presenting the total energy distribution of the dwelling complex. it is shown how it has been possible to greatly minimize the energy consumption of the building complex, by means of high efficiency technologies, equipment and building techniques.
30 El. for operation of building 4,2 kWh 10,5% Heat 5,3 kWh 13,3% Appliances 17,4kWh 43,5%
25 20 15 10 5 0
Domestic hot water17,4 kWh 32,7%
-5 -10 -15 El us 2 1.
in 2 4,
PRESENTATION // ENERGY FRAME 42
Ill. 2.35: Key numbers from BE15
Ill. 2.36: Visualization of the expression of monocrystalline PVs
Ill. 2.37: Diagram of PV system
PHOTO VOLTAICS Energy produced by monocrystalline photovoltaics, need to cover all appliances in the dwellings, along with the total energy use of the building. As a way of ensuring enough energy output from the solar cells the panel area is estimated based upon appliances (17,4kWh/m2 year), and energy frame 2020 of 20kWh/m2 which can be considered as worst case energy use at the moment. (see appendix 07) However, over time the output of the solar cells is bound to become less efficient [Canadian Solar Inc. Feb. 2016.] Therefore, every kWh/m2 below the 20kWh/m2, will safeguard that the energy produced by the solar cells cover the energy use over time (See appendix 08 for calculations). Renewable power upon the site, pose a problem, as it can only be used in the instant it is produced, where all excess energy has to be sold at a certain ratio, creating an economically unfavorable trade, between user and energy grid. Batteries are for this reason implemented throughout the complex, which allow the PV’s to collect power that charges the batteries, and then discharges them during the night. [Brian Stræde and Realdania Byg , © Realdania Byg 2015] Situated in the basement adjoining the inverters, which serves as a heat source in the otherwise unheated basements creating the possibility for students to dry their clothes in the laundry rooms. PRESENTATION // ENERGY FRAME 43
REUSE OF WATER To minimize the negative impact the housing complex has on the environment investigations on recycling the resources we use and the waste we generate have been made. Only amounting to 2.5 % of the water on earth, fresh water is one of our most carelessly used and depleteable resources. As such, ways to recover, reduce and reuse freshwater can make a positive and necessary impact on the environment. [Klimatilpasning.dk, u] However, not all water can be reused, and therefore water is divided into groups to signify their purity; Clean Water: Greywater: Blackwater:
Springs, Wells, Purified water, city water, rainwater Used water without toxic chemicals and/or excrement Contaminated water with toxic chemicals and/or excrement
Of the aforementioned groups, the state of clean water is self-explanatory, while blackwater is highly contaminated and should not be utilized at all. To increase the sustainable scope of the housing complex utilization of greywater is implement in the design, since it can be reused relatively safely with few precautions. [greywater.sustainablesources.com, 2016] The principle of this can be seen on illustration 2.38. In addition to rainwater, which will be collected from roof surfaces, greywater will be collected from most water based appliances, after being run through a filtering system. This water will then be used for cleaning cars, gardening, farming and even toilet water. In addition, greywater can be used to preheat new hot-water on its way out, lessening the energy demand to heat water.
Ill. 2.38: Diagram of rain water collection PRESENTATION // WATER 44
Ill. 2.39: Load bearing slabs and direction
Ill. 2.40: Load bearing walls
Ill. 2.41: Diagram of placement of details
CONSTRUCTION Since aiming for a sustainable housing complex, the construction of the building should, likewise, be of a sustainable solution. By investigating prefabricated and modular systems, the pros become apparent; cost effective, time saving, environmentally friendly and less waste consuming than on site fabrication. This of course requires the work to be within a service area of the fabrication site, so that prolonged transportation routes do not become an issue. [Bertelsen, et al.,2013] The main concern set by the building principles is the architectural expression, that more often than not, follow this kind of build, where faรงade and shape become monotone and characterless. It is therefore essential that the structural system is also flexible so that it can be fitting will many different aesthetical expressions and design solutions. Illustration 2.39 and 2.40 show the loadbearing elements of a section of the terrace building. Prefabricated concrete slabs are supported by load bearing concrete walls and lets the rest of the envelope be constructed as a lightweight construction allowing thinner walls and hereby more daylight in the dwellings. Illustration 2.41 shows where details are made. Detail drawing can be found in the drawings folder PRESENTATION // CONSTRUCTION 45
ANALYSIS The following chapter contains the analysis that have been made in the initiating phase of the project. The analysis is divided into site analysis, concerning the location and context of the project site, climate analysis, concerning the weather, shadow and noise conditions on the site and theme analysis, concerning the theme of sustainability, the users groups and density.
Ill. 3.1: Site location
ANALYSIS // SITE 48
PROJECT SITE The project site is placed in Aalborg, Denmark in the area called Håndværkerkvarteret, which is just south of the city center (Ill. 3.2). In pace with Aalborg’s population growth the municipality has chosen to reiterate this area. The Håndværkerkvarteret has previously been dominated by light industry, which through the last two decades has evolved into workshops and service centers. However, with new predictions of the city’s future and its flourishing population, the need for housing students, families and seniors is growing. The municipality’s vision is to transform Håndværkerkvarteret into a green dwelling area, connecting Godsbanen and Eternitten, while orienting architecture towards the stream or green areas with an architecturally “open” expression. [Aalborg Kommune, 2015(A)]
NORDKRAFT AALBORG CENTRUM
TRAIN STATION KONGRES & KULTUR CENTER
KILDEPARKEN ETERNITTEN KJÆRS MØLLE SØ
Ill. 3.2: Site location, Aalborg
ANALYSIS // SITE 49
Industry Residential Site Ill. 3.3: Mapping of functions
FUNCTIONS The area surrounding the project site is mainly divided in two parts: industrial and dwelling, with SĂ¸nderbro and Jyllandsgade as the dividing border (Ill. 3.3). Presently, the industrial area contains only few functions needed for a dwelling area and its users. However, on the opposite side of the dividing roads and within a radius of 500m, there is a diverse group of functions such as: food stores, kindergartens, elementary school, fitness centers, gas stations, restaurants, parks, church and even a police and fire station. The mapping of the functions helps to determine which additional functions, combined with the main housing project, could be relevant for the development of the site. The additional functions should add some life to the project site, especially during the day. For this reason, and because they are not already present in close proximity of the site, the additional functions are chosen to be a kindergarten, office spaces and a cafĂŠ.
ANALYSIS // SITE 50
Roads Site Walking path Ill. 3.4: Mapping of infrastructure
INFRASTRUCTURE The site for the project is surrounded by a well-developed infrastructure (Ill. 3.4). The main roads, Sønderbro and Østre Allé are heavily trafficked with both soft and hard traffic. Sønderbro is especially exposed to traffic, since it works as the entrance gate to Aalborg from the highway. The secondary roads, Hjulmagervej and Bødkervej, located to the north and west of the site, are less trafficked, since they mainly are entrance roads to the industrial areas. A pathway for pedestrians runs all the way from the south end of the site to Østerådalen, which is a large green area. There are not a lot of public parking spaces in the area. The closest one is located southeast after crossing Østre Allé. Access to public transport is provided by the bus stops, located within walking distance along Sønderbro. Traffic should be implemented in the design process, considering safety, noise and views. In addition, there is a need for parking spaces on the project site. The design must include 0,5 parking spaces per apartment. ANALYSIS // SITE 51
SERIAL VISION When walking along the site on Hjulmagervej, a row of trees create a separation to the road, sheltering the site (Ill. 3.5). The buildings surrounding the site to the north are open and low and make the area feel secluded and quiet in spite of the traffic. Reaching the southwest corner of the site the small creek becomes visible and adds a naturalness and serenity to the site. When walking east along the creek and crossing a small bridge the city becomes more and more present with increasing noise from the traffic on SĂ¸nderbro and taller buildings blocks the views, while you move along the worn down warehouse storages behind crippled holed fence. When designing the dwellings on the project site it is relevant to enhance naturalness of the creek by opening the buildings up towards south, and make the buildings denser and more closed towards the industrial buildings north of the site.
ANALYSIS // SITE 52
Ill. 3.5: Serial Vision ANALYSIS // SITE 53
SECTIONS For a better understanding of the site topography and the surrounding elements, three analytical sections, in combination with a building height diagram, are created (Ill. 3.7). As a graphical illustration the analytical section drawings are a measure to understand the limits of the site in terms of what it is possible to implement in the city without opposing the scale of the existing surroundings. It can also be a tool to understand how surrounding buildings, trees or infrastructure affect the site in terms of for example casted shadows, which can effect the buildingâ€™s indoor environment or the implementation of solar cells.
A Ill. 2.6: Mapping of building heights 4-5m
11 - 16 m
ANALYSIS // SITE 54
18 - 21 m
Ill. 3.7: Sections of context
ANALYSIS // SITE 55
Ill. 3.8: Mapping of vegetation
VEGETATION Areal vegetation, consisting of chestnut trees, is sparsely spread along the flanks of Hjulmagervej. The main quantity of trees is situated on the south side of the site, with various tree sorts following the creek, running lengthwise to the project site (Ill. 3.8). The trees are an additional quality for the outdoor green space around the creek and can be used for sheltering the building from strong winds or increasing it, reduce urban noise and create shade from the sun.
ANALYSIS // SITE 56
MUNICIPALITY VISION With the intention to create a possibility for architectural renewals, along Sønderbro, the municipality has begun shaping out municipal, as well as local, -plans for Håndværkerkvarteret (Ill. 3.9). Through an extended period of years, where land owners, citizens and the municipality will partake in an active dialogue, their vision is to form the location and its surroundings into a mix of an area of general imprinted quality, green environment friendly -industry with a need for a central location in the city and residential area. Furthermore, the overall area is expected to create a harmonious flow into Aalborg, as well as forming a connection between Godsbanen and Eternitten, by underlining the greenery at the borders and through the area, opening the possibility for new recreational connections between the areas and the city center location. New buildings are expected to be no more than 3 stories tall, with the exception of buildings located at the intersection between Sønderbro and Østre Alle, South-east neighboring the site, recently allowed a maximum of 7 floors to mark the city space and entrance to Aalborg. [Kommuneplan, 2015]
Influence of city center
Ill. 3.9: Mapping of the municipality’s vision for the area ANALYSIS // SITE 57
SUN & CLOUDS The latitudinal location of Aalborg determine the different lengths of day throughout the year. During the summer, days are long. The earliest sunrise is at 04:24 on 15.06 and the latest sunset is at 22:21 on 26.06 (Ill. 3.12), while the shortest day is in December with 6h39min of daylight (Ill. 3.10) [Weatherspark, 2015]. The sunlight is mainly cast from the south, but the angles of the sun differ throughout the year and day. This should be considered while thinking about the heat gain and designing shading, to prevent overheating of the building, but still utilise the sun for natural heating of the rooms. The sun and clouds (Ill. 3.11) are also important when implementing solar cells. The solar cells should be placed towards the south to best utilize the sun, and the clouds should be taken into consideration when calculating the effectiveness of the solar cells.
Ill. 3.10: Lenght of day
Ill. 3.11: Clouds
ANALYSIS // CLIMATE 58
Ill. 3.12: Sun diagram on site
ANALYSIS // CLIMATE 59
SHADOWS ON SITE The shadow study has been made using Google Sketchup to show how shadows are cast on the ground for the peak days throughout the year (Ill. 3.13). The analysis is made for different scenarios during the day: morning, noon and afternoon. Generally, the site is not much affected by shadows cast from the surrounding buildings. The worst scenario is during the winter, when shadows are long or there is not enough daylight in the morning and in the evening. The second worst scenario is in the spring and autumn morning, when the shadow from the tall building on the other side of SĂ¸nderbro almost reaches the project site. The shadows should be taken into acount when designing the outdoor areas of the building to make sure that they will have daylight. The shadows are also an important factor in heating and cooling the rooms of the apartments naturally, especially during winter, where there is not a lot of sun but a high demand for heating.
ANALYSIS // SITE 60
Ill. 3.13: Shadows on site ANALYSIS // SITE 61
WIND When designing a building it is important to take notice of how the wind acts around and on the project site. The urban environment has a large effect on the velocity of the wind as it can be increased or decreased by the building volumes, vegetation, trees or other urban elements. In Aalborg, the most common directions of the wind are southwest and west (Ill. 3.15). The wind is strongest during the spring and summer, when the wind speed can reach a peak of 18 m/s. These are also the seasons when the outdoor areas are used the most, and sheltering from the wind will be an important factor when designing these. Illustration 3.14 shows a more detailed analysis of the wind. One day for each month is chosen to give an impression of the direction, strength of the wind and its changes during the day. This will be useful when designing natural ventilation, to make sure that it is possible to ventilate enough during the whole day and still avoid draft. 01h
26 JAN 25 FEB 24 MAR 23 APR 22 MAY 21 JUN 22 JUL 23 AUG
24 SEP 25 OCT 26 NOV 27 DEC
CALM 0 - 4 m/s
5 - 8 m/s
9 - 12 m/s
Ill. 3.14: Arrow show wind directions during days ANALYSIS // CLIMATE 62
S Ill. 3.15: Wind directions during seasons ANALYSIS // CLIMATE 63
40% 30% 20%
10% thunderstorms Jan
Apr May Jun
Ill. 3.16: Precipitations
Ill. 3.17: Temperatures
PRECIPITATION & TEMPERATURES The daily average of local temperature, throughout the year, typically vary between -2°C and 21°C. During winter the temperature falls to -2°C, in February, and during summer rises to 21°C at the beginning of August. But sometimes the temperature is as low as -9°C and as high as 29°C (Ill. 3.17). [Weatherspark, 2015]. Precipitation in Aalborg vary throughout the year and is generally rather unpredictable. Precipitation does, however, occur the most in December and January, while in May precipitation is less likely (occurring 50% of the days) (Ill. 3.16). The most common forms of precipitation throughout the year are: Moderate rain, light rain and moderate snow [Weatherspark, 2015]. This results in rather high humidity of the air and cloudy sky, blocking and diffusing sun rays. The precipitation and temperature is important when designing the indoor climate. The outdoor temperature effects the need for heating and cooling and the precipitation, as well as tempertures, effect the possibility to ventilate naturally. Also the building should be designed in a way that prevents rain and snow from gathering on the roofs.
ANALYSIS // CLIMATE 64
>75 dB 70 - 75 dB Ill. 3.18: Noise on site
65 - 70 dB 60 - 65 dB 55 - 60 dB
Living in a big city, the noise from roads, events and industry contributes to the quality of living. The exposure of noise for a longer period of time can affect both the health on a physical and psychological level and the ability to communicate and learn. [Brüel & Kjær, 2002] The mapping (Ill. 3.18) shows the noise levels from the roads around the site at 1.5 metres above ground. [Miljøstyrelsen, 2012] The noise disturbance on the site is relatively low (around 60 dB corresponding to the sound level of a normal conversation), since it is mostly coming from Sønderbro, to the east. The distance between the site and road filters the highest levels of noise leaving a more tolerable sound level and only a relatively low distraction is required to block it. A sound barrier east of the site, or a clever arrangement of programs, might be a useful mean for creating a pleasant atmosphere for occupation. ANALYSIS // CLIMATE 65
USERS The focus for this project is, amongst other, to have a heightened social sustainability. The way of achieving this, in form of a lively community, is to unify diverse user groups with varying needs and routines. The graph on illustration 3.19 shows the population of Aalborg and their age. Here it becomes clear, that the most represented age groups are 21-25 years, 49-51 years and 68-71 years â€“ hence students, parents and seniors. These user groups will be the focus of this project (Ill. 3.20). STUDENTS Aalborg has evolved from an industrial city to a university city where every fifth citizen today is a student. Because of this Aalborg has a rapidly increasing need for student housing [Aalborg Kommune, 2015(B)]. Living as a student it is ideal to have a smaller space when considering economy and maintenance of the home. A one-room apartment is often enough, as most students live alone, with a focus on social and activity spaces. The everyday lives of students are filled with studies, work, sports and social activities and because of this they provide a lot of life to the urban landscape. FAMILIES Families with children have another perspective, since their rhythm is quite different and they have different needs. To be able to afford the family lifestyle the parents have to work a lot, and more and more parents also prioritize their career at the same time as the family.
Ill. 3.19: Age of the population of Aalborg ANALYSIS // THEME 66
Because of this the children spend a lot of time in day-care, creating a very hectic family life. It is important that the facilities needed in the family life, such as day-care, convenience stores etc., is in close proximity to the home to make the everyday life as easy as possible. [Faktalink, 2015] Safety and privacy are important qualities for families and they need to be provided to make it possible for families to live in a dense city. SENIORS Seniors have a very different lifestyle than the other user groups because they are home during the day, while the others are at work or school. This helps to ensure a lively area during the whole day and since most seniors like to be social they also contribute to the social environment on the site. When designing homes for seniors certain considerations have to be made. With increased age the mobility decrease and to have stairs in the home or large distances to walk is not ideal. Also close proximity to public transport is an important factor when seniors no longer are able to drive themselves. The intention for the project is to set the frame for a social and close knit community, where all its users are considered as an asset to the social community. The three user groups can all benefit from living close to each other and no matter where you are in the circle of life, you will have the optimal living conditions, both functionally and socially.
20 - 30 m2
70 - 80 m2
100 - 115 m2
60 - 70 m2
Access by bike Close to public transport Activity Affordable Social Outdoor spaces
Access by car Safe environment Affordable Privacy Outdoor spaces Close to schools / day-care / convinience stores
Access by car Safe environment Privacy Outdoor spaces Close to schools / day-care / convinience stores
Close to public transport Easy access (no stairs) Social Outdoor spaces
Ill. 3.20: User groups ANALYSIS // THEME 67
TYPOLOGIES & DENSITY The majority of the Danish population live in dwellings categorized as open-low (Ill. 3.21), and most people, especially families, prefer this way of living. The open-low dwellings are often regarded as the safest, with attached large private green spaces, away from heavy traffic. These types of dwellings, commonly located in suburban areas, use a lot of space and resources for infrastructure, such as traffic and supply channels. Therefore, it is necessary from a sustainable point of view, to have people live more densely â€“ the denser the city, the shorter the distance. [Pedersen et al, 2009] In terms of area utilization both dense-low and dense-high dwellings (Ill. 3.21) are much more efficient. The dense-low dwellings have a lot of the same qualities as the open-low, such as private garden and private entrance. The dense-low dwellings, however, share a wall, which decrease heat loss, while also shortening distances for supply channels. The dense-high dwellings mostly occur in urban areas, which are not appealing for the, initially stated, majority of the Danish population. However, with this type of dwellings it is possible to achieve a high floor area ratio (FAR) and hereby have high area utilization. Dense-high dwellings have the potential to be a more social way of living and there are large benefits in terms of diversity, energy use, infrastructure and resources. [Pedersen et al, 2009] The challenge for the future is, therefore, to create dense cities that embody the qualities of the open-low dwellings, so that even families would be attracted to the dense urban way of living, without impeding the expanding city and its current occupants. OPEN
Ill. 3.21: Typologies and density ANALYSIS // THEME 68
PASSIVE & ACTIVE STRATEGIES PASSIVE STRATEGIES The building should have an efficient envelope. The specific thickness will be developed through the integrated design process. As a general rule, the surface area of the envelope should be as small as possible, allowing a minimal heat gain/loss throughout the year. Daylight within the housing complex should be satisfactory in all rooms, meaning that the daylight factor should be at least 2% on average, but preferably >5% on average within the most used rooms. This will be achieved through careful consideration of applied materials, window and overhang dimensions as well as room program. These initiatives will help ensure lower electricity use and better indoor environment. The building will be constructed upon principles of natural ventilation, using wind as the driving force. The site is well exposed to the wind, allowing for implementation of singlesided, cross, stack and combined ventilation. When designing the natural ventilation, noise and pollution from SĂ¸nderbro should be taken into consideration. An acceptable efficiency and thermal comfort can be difficult to achieve with the natural ventilation, therefore mechanical ventilation with heat recovery might be necessary during colder seasons. Studies of shadows show that surrounding buildings will not affect the project site. Windows in the building envelope will, as such, need to be shaded during the summer and exposed during the winter. Therefore, a careful composition of shading system for the building is essential. The project could benefit from natural shading in terms of trees along the site or active, sensor controlled solar shading. Analysis has proven that the amount of shadow cast is minimal and that the site is exposed towards the south. This provides a possibility to use solar gains in a passive way to heat the building. For this reason, this should be a factor when designing the building on site or for outdoor spaces. Building thermal mass is important for its capacities to accumulate and release the energy through convection. This can be used to keep a steady temperature during night and day for both summer and winter. ACTIVE STRATEGIES As an active initiative, solar power could be harvested on the southern side of the site, using PV cells or thermal collectors. These solutions should be considered as an asset for both functional and aesthetical aspects of the building.
The goal for the project is to primarily use as many passive strategies as possible and then, secondarily, in order to achieve a zero energy building applying relevant active strategies. All active and passive strategies should be designed in an integrated way, by being a part of the architectural expression.
ANALYSIS // THEME 69
DGNB STRATEGY To ensure that environmental, economical and social sustainability are well integrated into the project, selective DGNB criteria will serve as design parameters, the criteria chosen are the ones found to be the most relevant strategies to implement, in addition to what is already given in the project requirements. ENV 1.1 // Life Cycle Assessment A building affects the environment from the manufacturing of materials, through the use of the building, to its deconstruction and reuse. The Life Cycle Assessment will document all resources used in the lifetime of the building. A full LCA will concern the final design, but it should also be considered during the design development, especially taking the choice of materials into consideration. ECO 1.1 // Building Related Lifetime Costs The purpose of this criterion is to minimize the overall lifetime costs of the building. This includes the constructions, supply, use and operation costs. The construction principle must be cheap to manufacture, transport, assemble and disassemble. The lifetime of the building parts, expenses for cleaning, inspections, repairs and energy supply cost must be considered from the beginning of the design process. SOC 1.6 // Quality of Outdoor Spaces The view and access to outdoor spaces enhance the interactions between users and affects the user’s well-being. The outdoor spaces should consider different needs and users, and assessments are as such divided into quantitative and qualitative criteria. The quantitative ones are: utilization of roof areas, outdoor spaces integrated in the facades, orientation of outdoor spaces and angle of views, while the qualitative are: outdoors accessible for diverse user groups and improvement of the microclimate. TEC 1.6 // Deconstruction and Disassembly A sustainable building should consider optimization of the consumption of materials. The materials should be environment friendly and easily disassembled and reused. The important factors of this criterion are: uniformity in choice of materials, easy disassembling of materials and building components, recyclable materials without harmful substances. SITE 1.4 // Access to Facilities In this criterion the location of the building is assessed according to the facilities in the nearby proximity. This is assessed together with the mappings of the functions in the area (page 50). The conclusion of the mapping of functions is that a café and offices will be implemented on the project site. The café should be present within walking distance (750 m) of the site. Offices are allowed to be placed within a bigger distance from the site. However, having more of these functions on or close to the site improves the quality of access to facilities.
ANALYSIS // THEME 70
ECONOMIC QUALITY 22,5% ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 22,5%
SITE QUALITY 100%
PROCESS QUALITY 10% Ill. 3.22: DGNB diagram
ANALYSIS // THEME 71
SOCIOCULTURAL & FUNCTIONAL QUALITY 22,5%
TECHNICAL QUALITY 22,5%
CASE STUDIES This chapter shows three case studies done in the initiating phase of the project. The case studies gives inspiration and help guide the design process. The three cases chosen are based on having one from each corner of the Vitruvian triangle; Home for Life as the technical, Java Eiland as the functional and The Waterfront as the aesthetical.
HOME FOR LIFE Home For Life is a 190 m2 single-family house located in Lystrup, Denmark. It was developed by the VELUX Group, VELFAC, AART Architects and Esbensen Consulting Engineers and completed in 2009 as the worldâ€™s first Active House [AART Architects, n.d.(A)]. Through a careful design of passive and active solutions Home For Life is a house that produces more energy than it consumes. By collecting solar energy and converting it to electricity and heat the building generates a surplus of 9 kWh/m2/year (Ill. 4.2) and after 40 years it will have produced the same amount of energy as used during the production of its building materials. To ensure very low energy consumption, sensors that register heat, CO2 and humidity is installed in all rooms. The sensors and an outdoors weather station are combined with a control system so that the house can adjust to the familyâ€™s needs. Automatic windows ventilate the house naturally, using the stack effect created between the one and a half storeys (Ill. 4.1). To ensure a good indoor environment in terms of daylight each room has at least two windows oriented in separate directions. The window area of the house is 40% of the total floor area, which is twice as much as a traditional house. The windows create visual connections to the surroundings, as well as functioning as a heat source in the rooms, generating half of the required heat for the house. [ActiveHouse.info, 2009] User investigations has proven to be an important factor in the construction of an active house, because the presumptions made by the developers do not always match the actual behaviour and needs of the users. The users can regulate the solar shading manually to achieve privacy in times where the house is in need of heating, hereby increasing the heat demand and as a result the actual energy consumption will be higher than the calculated consumption.
Ill. 4.1: Principle of Home for Life CASE STUDIES // HOME FOR LIFE 74
Ill. 4.2: Energy concumption and production
Ill. 4.3: The Home For Life
CONCLUSION The Home For Life will inspire the development of this project in the way it uses passive and active strategies to be completely CO2 neutral. Especially in the way the house uses precise placements of windows to achieve a high passive solar gain all year and high daylight factors in all rooms.
CASE STUDIES // HOME FOR LIFE 75
JAVA EILAND The urban design of Java Eiland, which is a part of the Eastern Harbour District of Amsterdam, was made by SjoerdSoeters architects. The island consists mostly of housing with green public areas, as well as some office spaces and parking garages. Due to its central location and the proximity of the old city centre of Amsterdam, the scale and expression of the complex resemble the one of Amsterdam city. The island is divided into smaller segments by four lateral canals. The dwellings on the site are very diverse because they were designed by many different architects. The buildings along the quay are suitable for the scale of the island while still keeping the human scale in mind by creating views through the buildings to the green areas. [Soerters Van Eldonkarchitecten, n.d.] Access by car is located outside the building blocks along the quay while a public walking and biking path is placed within the blocks along the green areas (Ill. 4.4). This creates a safe and quiet environment for the residents of the island, while the public access provides the area with the life and activity of the city. The four canals and small openings in the building structures creates lines of sight from within the blocks out towards the water, allowing access for residents as well as the public. From outside the building blocks are relatively tall, making a barrier between the road and the green areas. The inside of the blocks scales down towards the green public areas. Due to this, the inside areas gain the human scale and make the green spaces more intimate and pleasant to occupy.
- car access - walking path - view openings
Ill. 4.4: Mapping of the Java Eiland CASE STUDIES // JAVA EILAND 76
Ill. 4.5: Walking path on Java Eiland
CONCLUSION The Java Eiland will influence the project in the way it gives access to cars, bikes and pedestrians â€“ both residents and public â€“ but still dividing up the space to create safe, intimate and green spaces. Furthermore, the scaling of buildings that relates to the surrounding spaces will be considered while designing the dwellings.
CASE STUDIES // JAVA EILAND 77
THE WATERFRONT The Waterfront was erected on the harbour front in Stavanger, Norway in 2014 and was designed by AART architects as one of the biggest wooden housing project in Europe. The building complex consists of 128 very different apartments designed for a diverse group of users â€“ families, singles, young and elderly. All apartments have views to the fjord and the city to utilise the full potential of the location and daylight. [AART architects, n.d.(B)] The shape of the buildings is inspired by the Norwegian mountain landscape surrounding the city. The shifted geometries, inclined roofs and dramatic views make the building complex stand out on the edge between the city and the fjord (Ill. 4.6). The angles of the inclined roofs ensure different views from all apartments, let the sunlight enter the complex and create spaces sheltered from the wind. The roofs produce a play of light and shadow throughout the day altering the atmosphere of the place. The volumes are closed towards the harbour front promenade but open up in small passages or larger green areas to allow people to enter the complex. A central public square offers place for resting and playing. The wooden facades make the complex continuous and the tactile quality is warm and inviting. In this way the buildings relate more to the human scale, contrasted with the cold and grey surroundings of the mountains and the harbour front. The Waterfront housing complex becomes a small city that by using passages and outdoor spaces allows for people to meet and interact with each other.
Ill. 4.6: Form language of The Waterfront CASE STUDIES // THE WATERFRONT 78
Ill. 4.7: The Waterfront
CONCLUSION The Waterfront gives inspiration to the project in the way the aesthetical expression relates to the surroundings and history of the site and at the same time is created from a demand for views and daylight. The wooden facades will also be used in the project to give warmth to the buildings.
CASE STUDIES // THE WATERFRONT 79
DESIGN CRITERIA AESTHETICAL The architecture should embrace intimacy The architecture should be of human scale The architectural expression should define the future identity of the site The materials should be used to create a variety of atmospheres TECHNICAL The materials should be recyclable and environmentally friendly The construction should consist of prefabricated elements A daylight factor of >2% on average, for all occupational room The building must meet the energy class of 2020 with only passive initiatives The building should be a Net-Zero Energy Building The atmospheric indoor climate must meet category II of DS/EN 15251 The thermal indoor climate must meet category II of DS/EN 15251 FUNCTIONAL The building must be of no less than three storeys The building should have a floor area ratio of 100-200% Up to 10% of the total floor area should contain a cafe, kindergarten and office spaces The building must contain family dwellings, with a gross area of maximum 115 m2 (including at least three bedrooms) directly connected with an outdoor area of at least 20 m2 There must be Â˝ a parking space for every housing unit and adequate bicycle parking The complex should contain outdoor spaces relating to diverse user groups The building should be more open towards the creek and more closed towards the street
DESIGN PROCESS This chapter shows the integrated design process of the project. It is divided into three smaller sections: Site plan, Dwellings and Detailing showing the process from idea development to final ideas for the whole complex. The chapter shows both technical and aesthetical investigations as an integrated and iterative process where the technical demands for sustainable architecture helps find the aesthetical expression.
SITE PLAN The following section shows the process of designing the site plan. This includes typology studies, placement and size of public functions, placement of dwellings, parking strategies and connection to the context.
DESIGN PROCESS // SITE PLAN 84
Ill. 5.1: Typology studies
WORKSHOP 1 // TYPOLOGY The design process starts with a workshop focusing on typology studies. Different combinations of building volumes are placed on the site and the shapes and spaces are observed (Ill. 5.1). Working with a raised level creates a transition from public to private, which gives the dwellings the possibility of having private rooftop gardens. Having a more closed volume to the north in combination with more scattered volumes to the south creates a connection to the context and opens up for public green spaces by the creek and for the sun to access more of the site and buildings. Passages through the northern volume give the public access to the site, as seen in the case study of Java Eiland.
DESIGN PROCESS // SITE PLAN 85
RAISED LEVEL & ROOF TOP GARDENS After the workshop, the idea that is further developed is a raised public level taking up most of the site (Ill. 5.4). Here there will be placed workshops, office spaces, a cafe, a kindergarten and parking. The raised level will have a transparency to make the building lighter and welcoming in eye level (Ill. 5.3). On top of the public level the dwellings will become point-like to create spaces in between the buildings for semi-private and private rooftop gardens (Ill. 5.2). The high density and height of the buildings created problems with ensuring good daylight conditions in all dwellings and the area of the public functions is very large. Also, the dwellings are very disconnected from the context which can make it difficult to create a diverse life on the site.
Ill. 5.2: Section showing functions
Ill. 5.3: Sketch of the transparent public level
Ill. 5.4: Raised ground level with point buildings on top DESIGN PROCESS // SITE PLAN 86
THE STREET Due to problems with daylight, the point buildings towards south need to be placed with a distance to the buildings towards north. This distance is created by an urban street directed west-east on the site (Ill. 5.6). The public ground level is divided into smaller segments where the two volumes to east and west will mostly consist of parking and the volume to the north will have the public functions as workshops and offices. A public plaza is created in the middle of the street as a gathering point with a connection to the creek. The building at the northern edge of the site will create an urban wall towards the site, while the more open volumes to the south edge will open up spaces towards the creek, in this way relating to the surroundings, as seen in the case study of The Waterfront. The dwellings still have a point typology which creates spaces on top of the ground level for semi-private green spaces for the residents (Ill. 5.5). Access to all dwellings and public functions will happen from the street creating a diverse urban life.
Ill. 5.6: Diagram showing flows
PUBLIC GREEN SPACE
SEMI PRIVATE ACCESS STREET
Ill. 5.5: Diagram showing functions
Ill. 5.7: Cross section of the site DESIGN PROCESS // SITE PLAN 87
PUBLIC URBAN STREET
FAR = 180%
PUBLIC STUDENTS FAMILIES + ELDERLY
Ill. 5.8: Perspective of the street
The street is defined by the raised public level which makes a very closed and possibly dark space. The buildings on top of the ground level seem out of the human scale and does not relate very much to the site (Ill. 5.8). To create more light and connection, the volumes to the south are lowered half a storey (Ill. 5.9). This hides away the parking, lets more light into the street and creates more privacy in the dwellings when the floors are not aligned. The street still seems as a very closed space and there is still some shading, so in an attempt to open the street more passages from the street towards the creek are added (Ill. 10), as seen in the case study of The Waterfront where passages invites the public inside the building. The gardens on top of the ground level are kept as private spaces for the residents, but they still do not have a good connection to the rest of the site.
Ill. 5.9: Cross section of the street Ill. 5.10: Creating more passages to the creek DESIGN PROCESS // SITE PLAN 88
Ill. 5.11: Point buildings to the south and diverse outdoor spaces
Ill. 5.12: Parking strategy
Ill. 5.13: Cross section of the site DESIGN PROCESS // SITE PLAN 89
PUBLIC URBAN STREET
SEMI PRIVATE ACCESS STREET
PUBLIC GREEN SPACE
After the reconsidering of the street it is decided that a defined space does not necessarily have to be closed. Instead of having only one plaza along the street the raised ground level towards south is removed, opening up the street and creating lots of different, smaller spaces for both the resident and the public (Ill. 5.11). The parking is placed under the site instead with an entrance from only one side of the site, minimising the amount of cars around the site (Ill. 5.12). The raised level is kept towards north giving the dwellings more privacy and creating an urban wall to the street (Ill. 5.13), while the public functions are reduced a lot and placed in the ground floor of the point buildings for students. The point buildings for families and seniors will have ground level gardens, utilising the spaces by the creek for the residents.
DWELLINGS The next section describes the design process for the apartments. The design has been based on studies of orientation of rooms, daylight conditions, construction of walls and access system.
DESIGN PROCESS // DWELLINGS 90
N KITCHEN DINING
BALCONY / ENTRANCE (OUTDOOR SPACE)
E BEDROOM OUTDOOR SPACE
LIVING ROOM BALCONY
LIVING ROOM CHILDRENS ROOM
Ill. 5.15: Layout proposal of big family apartment
S Ill. 5.14: Orientation diagram
ACCESS THROUGH BALCONY // NORTH
ACCESS THROUGH BALCONY // SOUTH
ACCESS IN THE MIDDLE
Ill. 5.16: Different plan solutions
WORKSHOP 2 // DAYLIGHT & DWELLINGS The design of the apartments is introduced with a workshop on the layout of plans and daylight conditions. The different rooms are placed in an orientation diagram according to their need for daylight (Ill. 5.14). For example, the living room is placed to south-west so it will get the noon and evening sun, while the bedroom is placed to the east to have the morning sun. Based on this, different plan solutions are investigated (Ill. 5.15-5.16). Access is created through a private outdoor space, but this creates problems in using the facade area for the entrance space, that does necessarily need daylight. Therefore, studies are also made on having the access in the middle of the apartment which is decided to be a better solution. Here problems with large hallway spaces inside the apartment occurred. DESIGN PROCESS // DWELLINGS 91
WALL THICKNESS: 500 mm
WALL THICKNESS: 400 mm
AVERAGE: 1.5 %
AVERAGE: 1.7 %
Ill. 5.17: Study of daylight with different wall thickness
ROOM DEPTH 10 m
15 m DF
FACADE GLASS AREA
Ill. 5.18: Studies of daylight factor with different room depth
DAYLIGHT To ensure good daylight conditions in the dwellings different studies are made. First, a study of the influence of the wall thickness (Ill. 5.17). This shows that thinner walls let more daylight into the room, but the minimum thickness of the wall must also be determined based on energy consumption. Second, a study of the depth of the apartments and the amount of windows (5.18). With a window area of 40%, an apartment with a depth of 12.5 metres will not have the required 2% daylight factor in the middle of the space. The conclusion of the study is that if the apartments are deeper than 12.5 metres they will have to be designed so that the functions which do not need daylight are placed in the middle of the apartment. DESIGN PROCESS // DWELLINGS 92
Ill. 5.19: BE15 simulation CONCRETE BRICK WALL CONCRETE + METAL PANELS CONCRETE FACADE LIGHT WOODEN CONSTRUCTION CONCRETE WALL + PLASTER CONCRETE WALL + BRICKS
Ill. 5.20: Life Cycle Assessment of different wall constructions
CONSTRUCTION OF WALLS To determine if it is possible to have a non-loadbearing wall with a thickness of 400 mm, as a means for letting more daylight into the dwellings and maximising the usable floor area, a parametric BE15 simulation is created. The simulation shows the impact of having a high U-value for the wall, by having the energy consumption (BK20) as the defining factor (Ill. 5.19). The graph shows that a relatively high U-value for the walls still makes it possible to meet the energy frame, as long as the window area is does not exceed 20% of the facade. Seven different wall constructions, with the same U-value, are investigated through a Life Cycle Assessment of the materials to determine which materials are sustainable to use in terms of pollution, depletion and costs (Ill. 5.20). The study shows that a light wooden construction creates the least pollution, except for the ADPe which is caused only by the vapour barrier. DESIGN PROCESS // DWELLINGS 93
DESIGNING THE APARTMENTS When designing the apartments for the different users’ different aspects has been in focus. “The wall” to the northern edge of the site will be designed for small and big families with a more suburban feel but with high density. All apartments will have large open terraces connected to big common spaces as living room and kitchen (Ill. 5.22). Because of the depth of the apartments functions as entrance and bathroom are placed in the middle, where there is not much daylight. Placing the bathroom to the western wall in the apartment creates some problems with large hallway spaces and smaller common space to the southern facade. One type of point buildings is designed for families and seniors, with a more urban feel. All apartments have balconies that are more or less covered. Here the focus is on the design of cross ventilation in the living room and kitchen and the entrance is placed in the middle to give good daylight conditions (Ill. 5.23). Another type of point buildings is designed for students (Ill. 5.25). Students needs less private space and more social space than families and because of this, four student apartments are fitted on each floor with a shared common space for watching movies or playing games. The apartments consist of one room with their own bathroom, and one apartment one each floor is designed as a two-bedroom apartment to fulfill the needs of young couples. All apartments are adaptable to fit the needs of handicapped, so that cabinets can be removed and the spaces can be big enough for a wheelchair.
FAMILY TERRACE APARTMENTS
Ill. 5.22: Plan of a big family apartment
Ill. 5.21: Section of terrace building DESIGN PROCESS // DWELLINGS 94
FAMILY & SENIOR APARTMENTS
Ill. 5.23: Plan of a big and a small family apartment
Ill. 5.24: Section of point building for families and seniors
Ill. 5.25: Plans of different student apartments
Ill. 5.26: Section of point building for students
DESIGN PROCESS // DWELLINGS 95
ACCESS A study of the affect an indoor or outdoor staircase has on the energy consumption for the building is made using the BE15 simulation tool. Using a simplified space with the same total wall and floor area gives the results seen in the table below (Ill. 5.27) Here it can be seen that the placing the staircase inside the envelope is slightly better for the energy consumption than placing it outside. Since the difference is not very big other functional and aesthetical aspects will also influence the design of the access spaces.
A B Ill. 5.27: BE15 simulation of access
Ill. 5.29: Access inside the envelope
Ill. 5.28: Access outside the envelope
+ Privacy Less envelope
+ Visibility Less heated floor area
More heated floor area No visibility
More envelope Less privacy DESIGN PROCESS // DWELLINGS 96
TERRACE BUILDING - LIFT BEHIND STAIRCASE
Ill. 5.30: Lift placed behind stairs
In the terrace building the stairs and lift are placed outside the envelope. These vertical access spaces connects the people on the site with the parking basement, and therefore visibility and accessibility are important. First, the lift is placed behind the staircase. This makes the vertical access spaces visible for everyone but still with a very light expression. But problems occours with access to the lift on all levels, because of the raised half-storey.
TERRACE BUILDING - LIFT BETWEEN STAIRS Access to the lift from all levels is neccesary to accommodate the needs of the handicapped. Therefore, the lift is moved in between the stairs, making access on all half- and full levels possible. The expression of the vertical access spaces becomes somewhat more massive, but it also emphasizes where the access is. Ill. 5.31: Lift placed between stairs
POINT BUILDINGS - ACCESS INSIDE THE ENVELOPE In the point buildings the access space is placed inside the envelope for better energy consumption. This also gives more privacy for the residents and fits better with the expression of the typology.
Ill. 5.32: Access inside the envelope
DESIGN PROCESS // DWELLINGS 97
DETAILING The last section of the design process shows the detailing of the project. Here, materiality of PVs, pavement for the street, scale and identity of urban spaces and facade expression are investigated.
DESIGN PROCESS // DETAILING 98
Ill. 5.33: Model photo of PV study
Ill. 5.36: Model photo of study in different pavement directions
MONOCRYSTALLINE Efficiency: 16,9% Area (FAR = 100%): 1176 m2
POLYCRYSTALLINE Efficiency: 14,75% Area (FAR = 100%): 1348 m2
Ill. 5.34: Monocrystalline PVs
Ill. 5.35: Polycrystalline PVs
Ill. 5.37: Model photo of study in different pavements
WORKSHOP 3 // MATERIALS The third workshop focuses on materiality. First different solutions for the expression of PVs on pitched roofs are investigated (Ill. 5.33). Mono- and Polycrystalline PVs have the highest efficiency, but very different expressions (Ill. 5.34-35) and different ways of applying them to the roof is tested. Giving the PVs more purposes than just energy collection is also tested - for example using the PVs as overhang for the windows or as facade cladding. Also the materiality of the street is investigated. First the direction of the pavement and how it affects the flow is studied (Ill. 5.36). Pavement orientated along the flow direction speeds up the flow, while orientation across the flow slows it down. This can be usefull in making zones for different flows for pedestrians and bikes. Adding smaller niches with benches along the pedestrian path can slow down the flow even more and invite people to sit and meet each other (Ill. 5.37) DESIGN PROCESS // DETAILING 99
People can be percieved as people
Movement and body language becomes visible
Age, gender and other caratheristic become visible . Sreams for help is herable
One-way communication (theatre, church) becomes possible.
Facial expression and feelings becomes visible. Short conversations
Smells, feelings etc. Private conversations. Intimacy
Ill. 5.38: Diagram of building heights
Ill. 5.39: Scale of distances
CITIES FOR PEOPLE In order to detail the urban spaces in a way that makes people meet and interact, theories by Jan Gehl has been investigated. One aspect that becomes very important is the distances between people. Smaller distances, streets and buildings makes details visible and the space is experienced with high intensity and lots of impressions (Ill. 5.39). Also the height of the buildings surrounding a space is an important aspect. The first and second storey of a building can have a good connection to the street (Ill. 5.38). When you get above 5 storeys you are no longer a part of the city. This is important to take into consideration when designing the street and buildings surrounding it to ensure a lively space with good connections between people. [Gehl, J., 2010] DESIGN PROCESS // DETAILING 100
- Soft edge opens up the space - Only hard surfaces - transit space - Lack of intimacy 15 m
- Narrow spaces let no sunlight in - Parking takes up a lot of space - Facade diversity gives the space identity
Ill. 5.41: Nørregade plaza
- Cobbles slows down the flow - Low buildings let sun into the space - High diversity gives identity - Scale and trees create an intimate space
Ill. 5.42: Søndergade
Ill. 5.43: Peder Barkes Gade
Ill. 5.44: Bikuben
- Space gets wider and lets more light in - Building heights in a more human scale - Different zones for transit and stay
Ill. 5.40: Østerbro plaza
- Building height creates large shadows - Surrounding spaces are very open and out of human scale - Green and grass creates a space to stay
STUDY OF URBAN SPACES To get a sense of how different urban spaces are perceived a study of streets and plazas in Aalborg is made. Here it becomes clear that the bigger the space and buildings the less intimate the space feels. The width of the space and height of the buildings also affects the amount of sunlight a lot. Pavement plays a large role in how people behave in a space, and especially green spaces are nice to stay in. DESIGN PROCESS // DETAILING 101
Ill. 5.45: Wooden facades
Ill. 5.46: Combined wood and brick facades
Ill. 5.47: Brick facades
FACADE STUDY As previously investigated a light wooden construction is beneficial regarding the LCA and from the initial studies of the context (page 53) it is visible that the site is situated near a brick cladded urban block. Because of this, wood and bricks are tested as faรงade claddings. Illustration 5.45-5.47 show different solutions. Grey bricks in different depths are chosen for the facades because the aesthetical expression corresponds with an urban block, and also because bricks have a long life span with minimum maintenance. On the balconies and fixtures on the site wood will be used to give a warmer expression and invite people to stay and meet on the site. DESIGN PROCESS // DETAILING 102
EXPRESSION OF WINDOW FLUSH
PLACEMENT OF PANE INSIDE - No shading from the window sill - High passive heat gains - Sill can be used as furniture inside
- Clean facade expression - Focus on facade materiality - Shading inside window opening
- Small solar shading - Lower passive heat gains - Sill can be used both inside and outside
- Focus on windows - Flush has no function - Shading around flush
- Large solar shading - Low passive heat gains - Sill can only be used from outside
- Focus on windows - Deeper sill gives more shading - Shading on the facade OUTSIDE Ill. 5.48: Flush expression
Ill. 5.49: Pane placement
WINDOWS & SOLAR SHADING A study of the expression of the window shows how the focus can be shifted from the facade to the windows (Ill. 5.48). The chosen expression is to have a small flush, as the window sill is continued on the facade, to emphasize the windows and create a connection between the inside and the facades. For the placement of the pane in the window it is chosen to have them placed to the outside so that the sill can be used inside the apartments (Ill. 5.49). DESIGN PROCESS // DETAILING 103
EPILOGUE This chapter contains the ending of the report presenting the project. Here a conclusion on the process of the design is made as well as an reflection on the process and whether the projects achieves its anitial goals. Lastly, a list a references and illustrations is placed.
CONCLUSION The design, which is based upon the values of the Vitruvian triangle, ensures an integrated sustainable design of a housing complex of high aesthetical, technical and functional quality. The community on the site benefits from diverse user groups by creating a lively urban life where the surroundings let people meet and socialize. The site is utilized by having small niches for different activities, all relating to different user groups and personalities. The presence of nature separates the site from the urban city, welcoming people to stay on the site, while diverse pavements creates a connection to the city, guiding people through the site. The typologies are inspired by archi typical houses with an urban interpretation so that the home of the resident has its own identity while still fitting in as a part of a dense city. The implementation of public functions opens the complex up to the rest of the site ensuring a more diverse presence on the site on different times on the day. Fitting functions as car workshops, smaller office spaces and large common rooms in the housing complex lowers the need for the residents to travel to other places to fix their car or work, which causes less need for travelling by car. Integrated design of passive strategies ensures that the housing complex meet the energy requirements of 2020 while still having a design of high functional and aesthetical quality. PVs as an active strategy ensures Net-ZEB standards and also contributes to the aesthetical expression of the complex. PVs fitted on the roof and balconies creates an identity of the complex as sustainable architecture.
EPILOGUE // CONCLUSION 106
REFLECTION Throughout the project, technical and architectural aspects of the design were weighted, evaluated and changed a multitude of times to tune in the best outcome. Consisting of numerous iterations, carrying architectural and technical concerns of opposing, yet equal importance. The reflection is a navigation through the field of sustainable architecture and the integration hereof,within the design. Initially the project kicked off by shaping a program which contained multiple analysis of the site and inhabitants, setting the foundation for a sketching phase that commenced with 3 workshops in continuation of one another. Parallel to this, investigations of technical possibilities were executed, which presented an integrated loop of feedback, while exploring the early shapes of design. As progress was made, complexity advanced. The intertwining of details required follow-up on adjustments, since impact on the project grew larger than at their inceptive implementation. At which point simulation-tools, that took account for technical variations, were benefitted from, to find optimal design solutions which satisfied the technical criteria from the program. As the ambitions where highand the product of the work is no less than what was expected, the high level of expectancy and time available to process and document, means that solutions are executed upon qualified rationalization skills, and thereforeneedendorsement from technical or visual documentation. E.g. originally the project was meant to elucidate its sustainability, through a holistic LCA, where this aspect would be integrated on a lighter scale in the integrated design process, and therefore the project could gain value, to clarify its detailing through this. As time has shown, clarifying the focal strategy when treating, architecture, sustainability and economics, has in certain cases proven to be of outmost importance. Rationality sometimes commend what is to be a sustainable solution on a global level, but on a local level can have a positive economic output E.g. implementing battery storages for on-site produced electricity, discard the obligation to commend an unfavorable economic trade, where the electricity doesnâ€™t have to be sold to grid within the hour and purchased back during the night. When viewed from a global holistic perspective, the environmental impact of producing, will far exceed the corresponding emission of which would be the outcome of buying the energy through an unfavorable trade. Heat pumps were researched as a mean to implement renewables on-site (appendix XX), although it has proven difficult, because of the primary energy factor for electricity (1,8) compared with the fact energy factor for heating (0,6, resulting in a higher penalty in building frame 2020. When reviewing the process as a whole, a rational and well weighed product has emerged, with a focus on integrating social, architectural and sustainable solutions expressed through the architecture. EPILOGUE // REFLECTION 107
REFERENCES Aalborg Kommune, 2015(A), Håndværkerkvarteret – debatoplæg april 2015, [Online], Available at: http://referater.aalborgkommune.dk/Pdf.aspx?pdfnavn=16455271-13770743-1. pdf&type=bilag&id=36190, [Accessed: 21.03.16] Aalborg Kommune, 2015(B), Ungdommens Aalborg, [Online], Available at: http://www.aalborg.dk/ media/1582956/Ungdommens-Aalborg.pdf, [Accessed: 22.03.16] Aalborg Universitet, 1997, Grundlæggende Klimateknik og Bygningsfysik, Denmark AART Architects, n.d.(A), Home For Life, [Online], Available at: http://aart.dk/en/projects/homelife, [Accessed at: 22.03.16] AART architects, n.d.(B), Vandkanten, [Online], Available at: http://aart.dk/da/projekter/ vandkanten, [Accessed: 30.03.16] ActiveHouse.info, 2009, Home For Life, [Online], Available at: http://www.activehouse.info/cases/ home-life, [Accessed at: 22.03.16] Bertelsen, et al.,2013, Energikompetencer i byggesektorens erhvervsuddannelser – EUD, SBi 2013:19, [Online], Available at: www.sbi.dk, [Accessed: 06.05.2016] Brüel & Kjær, 2002, Urban noise, [Online], Available at: http://www.bksv.com/Applications/ UrbanNoise , [Accessed 30.03.16] Bygningsreglementet, 2015, Flugtveje og redningsforhold, [Online], Available at: http:// bygningsreglementet.dk/br15_00_id79/0/42, [Accessed: 26.05.16] Danmarks Statistik, 2014, Vielser og skilsmisser – skilsmisseprocent 2012, [Online], Available at: http://www.dst.dk/pukora/epub/Nyt/2013/NR139_1.pdf, [Accessed: 29.03.16] Faktalink, 2015, Familien Under Forandring, [Online], Available at: http://www.faktalink.dk/ titelliste/familien-under-forandring/hele-faktalinket-om-familien-under-forandring, [Accessed: 25.03.16] Gehl, J., 2010, Byer for Mennesker, Bogværket, Denmark Green Building Council Denmark, 2014, DGNB System Denmark, Green Building Council Denmark, Denmark Green Innovations, 2004, A Perspective on Environmental Sustainability, [Online], Available at: http://www.green-innovations.asn.au/A-Perspective-on-Environmental-Sustainability.pdf, [Accessed: 30.03.16] Greywater Irrigation, 2016, Greywater Irrigation, [Online], Available at: http://greywater.sustainablesources.com/, [Accessed: 20.05.16] Hitchcock, D & Willard, M, n.d., Confused about social sustainability?, [Online], Available at: https://www.sustainabilityprofessionals.org/sites/default/files/Confused%20about%20social%20sustainability_0.pdf, [Accessed: 30.03.16] Klimatilpasning, n.d., Regnvand som ressource, [Online], Available at: http://www.klimatilpasning. dk/sektorer/vand/regnvand-som-ressource.aspx, [Accessed: 20.05.16] Knudstrup, M., 2004, Integrated Design Process In PBL, [Online], Avalable at: vbn.aau.dk, [Accessed: 31.03.16]
EPILOGUE // REFERENCES 108
Kommuneplan, 2015, 1.1 Hjulmagervejm.fl, [Online] Available at: http://www. aalborgkommuneplan.dk/kommuneplanrammer/midtbyen/aalborg-midtby/11h1.aspx, [Accessed:31.03.16] Miljøstyrelsen, 2012, Støjkortlægning, [Online], Available at: http://miljoegis.mim.dk/ spatialmap?&profile=noise, [Accessed: 22.03.16] Office of Environment & Heritage, 2015, What is sustainability, [Online], Available at:http://www. environment.nsw.gov.au/households/sustainability.htm, [Accessed: 30.03.16] O’Gorman, J., 1998, ABC of Architecture, [Online], Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/books/ first/o/ogorman-abc.html, [Accessed: 31.03.16] Pedersen, PB, Andersen, ML, Christiansen, J, Justesen, R, Bundgaard, C, 2009, Sustainable Compact City, Arkitektskolens Forlag, Denmark Sheerwind, n.d., Sheerwind’s mission is to provide sustainable, affordable, electrical energy to anyone, anywhere, [Online], Available at: http://sheerwind.com/wp-content/uploads/ sheerwind/2012/09/SheerWind-summary-9.7.3.pdf, [Accessed: 31.03.16] Soeters Van Eldonkarchitecten, n.d., Amsterdam – Java Island 1991-2000, [Online], Available at: http://www.soetersvaneldonk.nl/en/stedebouw/waterfront/java.html, [Accessed: 28.03.16] Weatherspark, 2015, Average Weather For Aalborg, Denmark, [Online], Available at: https:// weatherspark.com/averages/28838/Aalborg-Nordjylland-Denmark, [Accessed: 30.03.16]
ILLUSTRATIONS All illustrations are own illustrations except: 4.1: http://www.velux.com/solutions/demo-buildings/home-for-life-denmark 4.2: http://www.velux.com/solutions/demo-buildings/home-for-life-denmark 4.3: http://www.velux.com/solutions/demo-buildings/home-for-life-denmark 4.5: http://www.bna.nl/project/grachtenpanden-op-het-java-eiland-amsterdam/ 4.7: http://aart.dk/da/projekter/vandkanten 5.34: http://www.indiamart.com/krishmasolar/solar-pv-modules.html 5.35: http://www.jcnsolar.com/Products/100WPolycrystallines.html
EPILOGUE // ILLUSTRATIONS 109
APPENDIX The last section contains all appendix reffered in the report. This includes all plans of apartments, parking, fire strategy, calculations of FAR, ventilation need and area of PVs. A study of different types of heat pumps is also added.
APPENDIX 01 // FAR CALCULATION FAR calculation is accounted for according to Bygningsreglementet 2.1, 2016.
The four point buildings housing the student dwellings each accounts for 713,68m2 The two outermost points buildings housing families each accounts for 615,37m2 The centred point building housing families accounts for 948,37m2 The northern wall, consisting of family dwellings accounts of a total of 9022,72m2 713.68đ?‘šđ?‘š ( âˆ— 4 + 615.37đ?‘šđ?‘š ( âˆ— 2 + 948.37đ?‘šđ?‘š ( + 9022.72đ?‘šđ?‘š ( = 14056.55đ?‘šđ?‘š ( đ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??šđ??š =
14056.55đ?‘šđ?‘š ( âˆ— 100% = 156.18% 9000đ?‘šđ?‘š (
APPENDIX 02 // PARKING Parking spaces for the residents need to be adequate, but because of the focus on sustainability â€“ and therefore a goal to minimize the use of cars, only 0.5 parking spots per unit is fitted on the site. The housing complex consists of 127 units which gives a need for 64 parking spots. Out of these, four parking spots are designed for handicap cars (Ill. 6.1). The parking is placed under the site with access from the eastern edge of the site. The dimensions of the parking spots as well as the access and turning spaces are determined from parking regulations for easy access. Through the parking basement there is also access to two workshops for cars, where the residents can repair or wash their cars, and the2.1 groundskeeper also has access to a workshop space. Bygningsreglementet - BR15, 2016, http://bygningsreglementet.dk/ [Assessed at 24.05.2016]
Ill. 6.1: Plan of parking basement (Own illustration) APPENDIX // FAR & FIRE STRATEGY 112
APPENDIX 03 // FIRE STRATEGY According to the Danish Building Regulations from 2015 a building should be designed so the evacuation can happen easily from safety routes or fire exits directly to the free. All staircases for each block acts as escape routes and have a width of 1,2 meters which provides good conditions for evacuation and rescue. All windows can be used as rescue openings and should be easy to recognize and use and should open to the ground or reachable by a fire latter. For the firetruck it is important that the distance from the truck access to the building access has a maximum of 40 meters. The access road needs a width of minimum 2.8 meters and additional 4 meters for the firetruck. As long as the building is less than 22 meters tall it is possible for the emergency services to rescue residents in case of fire. The load bearing walls and slabs acts as fire sections, and each apartment acts as individual fire cells to provide maximum safety. [Bygningsreglementet, 2015]
FIRE TRUCK ACCESS
FIRE CELLS FIRE SECTIONS
Ill. 6.2: Diagram of fire strategy (Own illustration)
APPENDIX // PARKING 113
APPENDIX 04 // ALL PLANS 1:200
WASHING & DRYING ROOM
STUDENT BUILDING // BASEMENT (- 3 m) (Storage and washing + drying)
STUDENT BUILDING // GROUNDFLOOR (0 m) (Cafe)
STUDENT BUILDING // 1.-3. FLOOR (+ 3 - 9 m) (Apartments)
STUDENT BUILDING // 4. FLOOR (+12 m) (Common room)
APPENDIX // ALL PLANS 114
VENT. IN WASH
WASH VENT. OUT
WASH VENT. OUT
2 Floor Plan Terrace Apartments
TERRACE BUILDING // 1. FLOOR (+ 1.5 m) 1:200
APPENDIX // ALL PLANS 115
TERRACE BUILDING // 2. FLOOR (+ 4.5 m)
VENT. IN WASH WASH WASH
VENT. IN VENT. OUT
WASH VENT. OUT
4 Floor Plan Terrace Apartments 1:200
TERRACE BUILDING // 3. FLOOR (+ 7.5 m)
TERRACE BUILDING // 4. FLOOR (+ 10.5 m)
APPENDIX // ALL PLANS 116
5 Floor Plan Terrace Apartments 1:200
TERRACE BUILDING // 5. FLOOR (+ 13.5 m)
APPENDIX // ALL PLANS 117
TERRACE BUILDING // 6. FLOOR (+ 16.5 m)
POINT BUILDING - FAMILIES & SENIORS BASEMENT (- 3 m)
POINT BUILDING - FAMILIES & SENIORS // GROUNDFLOOR (0 m)
POINT BUILDING - FAMILIES & SENIORS // 1. FLOOR (+ 3 m) APPENDIX // ALL PLANS 118
POINT BUILDING - FAMILIES & SENIORS // 2. FLOOR (+ 6 m)
POINT BUILDING - FAMILIES & SENIORS // 3. FLOOR (+ 9 m)
POINT BUILDING - FAMILIES & SENIORS // 4. FLOOR (+ 12 m) APPENDIX // ALL PLANS 119
APPENDIX 05 // VENTILATION CALCULATIONS The following calculations show an example of a big family apartment of 76 m2. The necessary volume flow for the apartments are an calculated onfamily both the experienced pollution (olf) and The following calculations show example based of a big apartment of 76air m2. CO2 pollution using the following formulas: The necessary volume flow for thethe apartments are calculated based on both the experienced air pollution (olf) and the CO2 pollution using the following formulas: OLF [Figure 1.17, GKB, pp. 40]: đ?‘žđ?‘ž1.17, GKB, pp. 10 âˆ— đ?‘žđ?‘ž OLF â&#x;š đ?‘‰đ?‘‰, = 40]: đ?‘?đ?‘? = đ?‘?đ?‘?[Figure # + 10 10 đ?‘‰đ?‘‰đ?‘žđ?‘ž đ?‘?đ?‘? âˆ’âˆ—đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘žđ?‘ž# đ?‘?đ?‘? = đ?‘?đ?‘?# + 10 ) â&#x;š đ?‘‰đ?‘‰, = đ?‘‰đ?‘‰) đ?‘?đ?‘? âˆ’ đ?‘?đ?‘?# c: Experienced air quality [dp] đ?‘?đ?‘?# :c:Concentration of supply [dp] Experienced air qualityair [dp] q: Pollutionof loads [olf]air [dp] đ?‘?đ?‘?# : Concentration supply đ?‘‰đ?‘‰) :q:Necessary flow [L/s] Pollution air loads [olf] đ?‘‰đ?‘‰) : Necessary air flow [L/s] To achieve an indoor climate of category II, as stated in the design parameters, the percentage of dissatisfied shouldan beindoor 20 %, climate and the of experienced airasquality then beparameters, 1.4 dp [Figure 1.18, GKB, of pp.dissatisfied 41]. To achieve category II, stated should in the design the percentage The concentration of the air is 0.05 dp for moderately [Table 1.7, GKB, 41] should be 20 %, and thesupply experienced air quality should then polluted be 1.4 dpcities [Figure 1.18, GKB, pp.pp. 41]. The concentration of the supply air is 0.05 dp for moderately polluted cities [Table 1.7, GKB, pp. 41] Pollution loads: From people: 1 olf / person (Sitting) Pollution loads:[Table 1.6, GKB, pp. 40] From theFrom construction: / m2 (Sitting) (Low pollution) [Table 1.6,pp. GKB, people: 10.2 olf olf / person [Table 1.6, GKB, 40] pp. 40] 9 âˆ— 76đ?‘šđ?‘š2[Table = 19.2 đ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘“đ?‘“ đ?‘žđ?‘ž = 4 đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘? âˆ— 0.2 1 đ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œ/đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘? + 0.2 đ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œ/đ?‘šđ?‘š From the construction: olf / m2 (Low pollution) 1.6, GKB, pp. 40] đ?‘žđ?‘ž = 4 đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘? âˆ— 1 đ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œ/đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘? + 0.2 đ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œ/đ?‘šđ?‘š 9 âˆ— 76đ?‘šđ?‘š2 = 19.2 đ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘“đ?‘“ 10 âˆ— 19.2đ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œ đ?‘‰đ?‘‰) = = 142.2 đ??żđ??ż/đ?‘ đ?‘ 10 âˆ— âˆ’ 19.2đ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œđ?‘œ 1.4đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘ 0.05đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘ đ?‘‰đ?‘‰) = = 142.2 đ??żđ??ż/đ?‘ đ?‘ 1.4đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘ âˆ’ 0.05đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘đ?‘‘ CO2 [Figure 1.14, GKB, pp. 29]: đ?‘žđ?‘ž đ?‘žđ?‘ž 1.14, đ?‘?đ?‘?CO2 = đ?‘?đ?‘?# [Figure + â&#x;š đ?‘‰đ?‘‰, GKB, = 10@pp. âˆ— 29]: đ?‘žđ?‘ž đ?‘žđ?‘ž đ?‘?đ?‘?# đ?‘‰đ?‘‰ đ?‘?đ?‘? âˆ’ đ?‘?đ?‘? = đ?‘?đ?‘?# + ) â&#x;š đ?‘‰đ?‘‰, = 10@ âˆ— đ?‘‰đ?‘‰) đ?‘?đ?‘? âˆ’ đ?‘?đ?‘?# c: Experienced air quality [ppm] đ?‘?đ?‘?# :c:Concentration of supply [ppm] Experienced air qualityair [ppm] q: Pollution of loads [m3/h] đ?‘?đ?‘?# : Concentration supply air [ppm] air flow [L/s] đ?‘‰đ?‘‰)q:: Necessary Pollution loads [m3/h] đ?‘‰đ?‘‰) : Necessary air flow [L/s] To achieve category II the experienced air quality must be a maximum of 500ppm above the outdoor CO2 concentration, which is 350ppm most ofmust Denmark. [Table B.4, DSEN_15251, pp.outdoor 36] To achieve category II the experienced airinquality be a maximum of 500ppm above the CO2 concentration, which is 350ppm in most of Denmark. [Table B.4, DSEN_15251, pp. 36] Pollution loads: It is assumed that people exhale 10 L/min with a CO2 concentration of 4%. Pollution loads: 4 10 10đ??żđ??ż/đ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘š It is assumed thatđ?‘žđ?‘žpeople exhale L/min with=a0.027đ??żđ??ż/đ?‘ đ?‘ CO2 concentration of 4%. âˆ— = 4 đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘? âˆ— 4 10đ??żđ??ż/đ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘š 60đ?‘ đ?‘ /đ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘š 100 đ?‘žđ?‘ž = 4 đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘? âˆ— âˆ— = 0.027đ??żđ??ż/đ?‘ đ?‘ 100 60đ?‘ đ?‘ /đ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘šđ?‘š 0.027đ??żđ??ż/đ?‘ đ?‘ đ?‘‰đ?‘‰) = 10@ âˆ— = 53.3 đ??żđ??ż/đ?‘ đ?‘ 0.027đ??żđ??ż/đ?‘ đ?‘ 850đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘? âˆ’ 350đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘? đ?‘‰đ?‘‰) = 10@ âˆ— = 53.3 đ??żđ??ż/đ?‘ đ?‘ 850đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘? âˆ’ 350đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘?đ?‘? Since the necessary volume flow is the biggest for olf pollution the ventilation system will be dimensioned from values. the ventilation system will be Since the necessary volume flow is the biggest forthese olf pollution dimensioned from these values. APPENDIX // VENTILATION 120
When choosing ventilation, there are mainly two systems to choose from; Centralized and decentralized. Too select the ideal system there are pros and cons to take into consideration to make sure that the most ideal system in combination with the project is used. In illustration 6.3 a few of these apparent pros and cons are stated for comparison, which finally can result in a choice for the project. The concluded, ideal, solution is the centralized system, avoiding excess cost for cleaning and maintenance, unfortunate use of individual heating, while gaining full ventilation and heat recovery at low cost without affecting the architectural expression of the project.
- Energy efficient conditioning of outside air
- Requires a larger amount of space for duct system
- Heat recovery at lowest possible cost
- Extra fire protection needed because of connecting air duct.
- Full ventilation with low cost - Does not affect facade expression
- Easy distribution of cooling capacity
- Can result in higher cost for complex in total
- Individual room temperature and fresh air volume flow adjustment
- Produce accoustical noise close to user.
- Low structure costs (smaller area and less fire protection required)
- Regular maintenance for each individual system needed. - Can transmit pollutant/smells to other apartments, across face of facade
Ill. 6.3: Comparison of centralized and decentralized ventilation systems (Own illustration)
DIMENSIONING OF PIPES
APPENDIX // VENTILATION 121
Without supplement 20,0kWh Total energy requirement
Supplement for special conditions 0,0kWh
Contribution to energy requirement Heat 5,3 El. For operation of building 4,2 Excessive in rooms 0,0 Energy frame Buildings 2020 Without supplement 20,0kWh Selected electricity requirements Total energy requirement Lighting
0,0 Heating of rooms 0,1 Heating of DHW Contribution to energy requirement0,0 Heat 0,0 Heat pump 5,3 Ventialtion 4,1 El. For operation of building 4,2 Pumps 0,1 Excessive in rooms 0,0 Cooling 0,0 Total el. Consumption 48,8 Selected electricity requirements Lighting 0,0 Heating of rooms 0,1 Heating of DHW 0,0 Heat pump 0,0 Ventialtion 4,1 Pumps 0,1 Cooling 0,0 Total el. Consumption 48,8
Total energy frame 20,0kWh
Net requirement Room heating Domestic hot water Cooling
APPENDIX 06 // ENERGY FRAME
4,3 13,1 0,0
Supplement for special conditions Total energy frame 0,0kWh 20,0kWh Heat loss from installations Room heating 1,0 Domestic hot water 0,0 Net requirement Output from special sources Room heating Solar heat Domestic hot water Heat pump Cooling Solar cells Wind mills
4,3 0,0 13,1 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0
Heat loss from installations Room heating Domestic hot water
Output from special sources Solar heat Heat pump Solar cells Wind mills
0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0
Ill. XX: BE15 key results // Only passive initiatives (Own illustrations)
Energy frame Buildings 2020 Without supplement 20,0kWh Total energy requirement
Supplement for special conditions 0,0kWh
Contribution to energy requirement Heat 5,3 El. For operation of building -5,8 Excessive in rooms 0,0 Energy frame Buildings 2020 Without supplement 20,0kWh Total energy requirement
Total energy frame 20,0kWh
Net requirement Room heating 4,3 Domestic hot water 13,1 Cooling 0,0 Supplement for special conditions Total energy frame 0,0kWh 20,0kWh Heat loss from installations Room heating Net requirement Domestic hot water Room heating Domestic hot water Cooling Output from special sources Solar heat Heat pump Solar cells Heat Wind loss millsfrom installations Room heating PVs (Own illustration) Domestic hot water
Selected electricity requirements 1,0 Contribution to energy requirement0,0 Lighting 0,0 Heat 5,3 Heating of rooms 0,1 4,3 El. For operation -5,8 Heating of DHW of building 0,0 13,1 Excessive in rooms 0,0 Heat pump 0,0 Ventialtion 4,1 Pumps 0,1 0,0 Cooling 0,0 0,0 Total el. Consumption 48,8 28,1 0,0 Selected electricity requirements 1,0 Lighting 0,0 Ill. XX: BE15 key results // With 0,0 Heating of rooms 0,1 Heating of DHW 0,0 Heat pump 0,0 Ventialtion 4,1 Output from special sources Pumps 0,1 Solar heat 0,0 Energy use by appliances Cooling 0,0 Heat pump 0,0 Total el. Consumption cells 28,1 The annual energy 48,8 use for appliances are estimated as a meansSolar to dimension area that needs to be covered Wind mills by photovoltaics. There are 72 family apartments and 48 student apartments, the assumptions is0,0 that they
APPENDIX 07 // ENERGY USE BY APPLIANCES use respectively 1.712kWh and 1.280 kWh.
(560 kWh + m2 * 16 kWh) for the student apartments [Kirsten Gram-Hanssen, SBi 2005:12:] 560 * 44,8m2 * 16 kWh = 1.276,8kWh 1.276,8kWh * 48 dwellings = 61.286,4kWh (1712kWh) [Brian StrĂŚde and Realdania Byg , ÂŠ Realdania Byg 2015] 1.712kWh * 72 Family dwelling = 123.264 kWh Total = 184.550,4kWh
APPENDIX // ENERGY FRAME 122
APPENDIX 08 // PV CALCULATION TOTAL ENERGY USE Appliances: 184.550,4kWh year Building related energy use: 20kWh/m2 year * 10603,8m2 = 212.076kWh 212.076kWh/1,8 + 184.550,4kWh = 302.370,4kWh Therefore, the total energy use is 302.370,4kWh
PHOTOVOLTAICS ASSESSMENT Monocrystalline photovoltaics with an efficiency of 18% is chosen based upon high efficiency, when comparing it to other types of solar cells. As initial calculations quickly showed, that the total area would become to vast when considering other types of solar cells. C*D*E B * A = C = > A = B/C A - area of panels - m2 B - peak power - 0,26 kW/ m2 C - installation efficiency - kW D - system factor - building integrated 0,8 E - solar radiation - 1152kWh/ m2, Oriented south 30o and 892kWh/ m2 Oriented south 90o Amount of solar cells needed to cover the total energy output 302.370kWh/921,6kWh = 328,09kW 328,09kW/0,26 kW/ m2 = 1.261,9m2 2
As such 1.261,9m will be the enough to cover the energy use if the building just reaches energy class 2020. The amount of solar cells applied to the building consist of 1.034m2 - Oriented south 30o The energy output of these are as such. 1.034m2 * 0,26kW/ m2 = 268,84kW 268,84kW * 1152W/m2 * 0,8 = 247.762,944kWh
155,76m2 - Oriented south 90o The energy output of these are as such. 155,76m2 * 0,26kW/ m2 = 40,4976kW 40,3kW * 892W/m2 * 0,8 = 28.899,08736kWh
247.762,944kWh + 28.758,08kWh = 276.662,03136kWh If the actual energy consumption for the building (10,8 kWh/m2) year is used for calculation the revised energy use will be 184.550,4kWh + (10,8 kWh/m2 * 10.603,8m2)/1,8 = 248.173,2kWh
248173,2kWh - 276.662,03136kWh = -28.488,83136kWh Therefore, an energy surplus of 28.489kWh, which amount of approximately 10 percent, will ensure that the solar cells will cover the energy demand for at least a decade.
APPENDIX // ENERGY FRAME 123
APPENDIX 09 // HEAT PUMPS Types of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems Three types of closed loop systems: Horizontal, vertical and lake/pond systems. The forth system is an open loop system. Horizontal This is the most cost effective installations. It needs land and needs trenches at approximately 2 meter times 60 cm. for normal housings
Vertical This is the most expensive solution and is used for bigger buildings like schools and commercial buildings and is often used in urban environment because of the spars land thatâ€™s available. By drilling holes (10 cm in diameter) 6 meters apart and to a depth of 125 meter.
Lake/pond This is the most economical solution if there is an adequate water area. The loops should be placed where the water doesnâ€™t freeze. Inside system lasts 25 years Outside loop lasts 50 years
APPENDIX // HEAT PUMPS 124
The project concerns a site in Aalborg, Denmark, which previously has been and still is of industrial importance. However, along with the cityâ€™s current expansion, the demand for dwellings has increased and as a result, the project area along Hjulmagervej has become highly attractive. This report focus on creating sustainable dwellings, residing within this problem statement. The approach to transforming the site, while having a focus on sustainable architecture, have been documented through energy class 2020, reaching Net-ZEB status and design parameters based upon analysis of the site. Technique, aesthetics and functionality are the keywords within the integrated design process used for developing these dwellings, which takes qualities normally found in suburbs and merging them with an urban context. This results in an environment that embrace social interaction with an aim to create a higher quality of living for its residents. Public semi-green spaces, intertwine the architecture, which will serve as a catalyst for the inhabitant, to embrace the community.