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Name: Student Number: Academic Year:

Alec Borrill 07027752 5

Module Number:

ADP030N

Module Title:

Design Level 4. Subject and Context

Unit:

Unit 2. Patrick Lynch.

Clarity, Orientation and the City Quarter


Relationships The subtle relationships which engage buildings across and within the PIazzetta are glimpsed briefly.


Relationship of Space The arrangement of spaces, from arrival to performance sets the space up as a piece of Urban Theatre.


The Facade Enclosing the spaces of the Piazzetta and the subsequent Piazza St Marco are a series of linked elevations, containing a multitude of typologies behind regulated facades. Relationships from the plan lead to exploring further subtle relationships regarding the engagement of the spaces and their further connection with the hinterland.


Study of Facades Top: Above:

Palazzo Ducale di Venezia, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana,

1309-1424, West Elevation 1537-1553, East Elevation


Solid and Void Encasing the Piazzetta are the facades of the Doges Palace and Sansovino’s Library. The structure of Venitian architecture, due to the ground conditions relies on centralised structure, enabling delicate screen facades, animated by people, light and shadow.


Relationships The aesthetic relationship shown left is key to opening up an understanding of further proportional relationships. These occurring across the Piazzetta and beyond to the Piazza St Marco, and the City and the life of Venice.


Piazzetta Facade Proportions The part of the Piazza between the Doge’s Palace and the Biblioteca Marciana, Sansovino’s Library, is the Piazzetta San Marco. It is open to the lagoon at the mouth of the Grand Canal, and is known for the columns of Venice’s two patrons, Marco and Todaro, that stand by the water’s edge. These columns constituted the official gateway to Venice; when there were no official guests in the city, gambling was permitted in the space between the columns. It was also the site of executions. The elevations to this urban room do not overpower as they are in proportion to the space. When designing the Library Sansovino used the height of the Palace and the width of the square to dictate the resultant height the library building.


Campanile di San Marco Proportions The tower is 98 meters tall, and stands alone in a corner of St Mark’s Square, near the front of the basilica. It has a simple form, the bulk of which is a plain brick shaft, 12 meters on a side and 50 meters tall, above which is the arched belfry, housing five bells. The initial construction in the ninth century, during the reign of Pietro Tribuno, built on Roman foundations, and was used as a watch tower. The base of the campanile is part of the logetta which housed the barracks of the guard for the Doge’s Palace. The logetta was built by Sansovino, completed in 1549. In July 1902, the campanile collapsed completely, also demolishing the logetta. It was decided to rebuild the tower exactly as it was. The new campanile was inaugurated on 25 April 1912, on the occasion of Saint Mark’s feast day. The Campanile and Logetta close of the Piazetta and create an urban room, An important proportional relationship we discovered was that the distance from the middle of the Campanile to the east corner of the Doge’s Palace is exactly the same as the height of the Campanile. This relationship could explain why when in the square you feel that the Campanile does not dominate the space, but contributes to the room.


Framing of Time The St Marks Clock Tower is situated on the north side of the Piazza. It houses the most important clock in the city, Torre dell’Orologio or the Moors’ clocktower. It was constructed as a display of Venice’s wealth, and as an aid to sailors on the Grand Canal about to depart on a voyage. The building was designed by Mauro Codussi and constructed between 1496 and 1499. It has five bays, of which the central bay is the widest. This bay incorporates a two-storey gateway, with the large clock face above, topped by a single storey tower with a depiction of a Lion of St Mark against the night sky, while two blackened bronze figures intended as giants but known as the “Moors” stand on top and ring a bell on the hour. The clocktower is framed through the Columns in the Piazzetta and it is seen as a backdrop to the entrance to Venice from the water, it displays the time of day, the dominant sign of Zodiac and the current phase of the moon. The clock fulfilled a resolutely practical role in what was a mighty maritime empire in centuries past. Seafarers setting out from the Grand Canal could rely on this faultless timepiece to decide the most favourable time for setting out to sea.


Route to Justice The Doge’s Palace not only housed the doge’s apartments, it also was the seat of government and the city’s courtrooms in addition to serving as a jail. In the second half of the sixteenth century Antonio da Ponte ordered the construction of the New Prison, built by Antonio Contin around 1600 and linked to the palace by the Bridge of Sighs. From the Sala del Maggior Consiglio (Courtrooms) a series of passageways and stairways leads to the Bridge of Sighs. Situated at the top of the palace, just below the leaded roof, are the piombi cells. These cells are hardly inviting but prisoners here were far more comfortable than those who were left to fester in the pozzi. The pozzi were dank dungeons at ground level. The windowless cells of these ancient prisons are still covered with the graffiti of convicts. Prisoners were often led from the prison across to the courtrooms in the Doge’s Palace, they would then have a trial and their sentence would be read between the ninth and tenth column on the west facade of the palace.


Piazzetta Parallel Facades The Piazzetta was formally completed with the construction of the Library, The building on this site was originally used to house precious codices that Cardinal Bessarione had bestowed on the Republic. This building was defined by Palladio as “the richest and most ornate building that has perhaps been built from antiquity to the present day”. It was built with two orders of arches made up of a Doric colonnade and an upper Ionic floor, embellished with ornaments, culminating at the top in a surrounding balustrade. After constructing a 1:200 model of the Piazzetta we realised that the library was laid on a very interesting geometry. The building in plan is at a 10 degree angle to the Doge’s palace but when viewed from the water they appear parallel. This persectival geometry then draws your eye straight into the Piazza from the water but when you view the Piazzetta from the Piazza it draws your eyes through the columns and out across the water towards San Giorgio Maggiore. On this discovery, conversations with Alun lead us to Piero della Francesca’s image of an ideal city, where the facades of the buildings appear perfectly parallel.


Art of Festival The Piazzetta has always been seen as a space for entertainment to take place. During the 1600’s it was a hive of activity with all kinds of performances ranging from plays to public executions. As previously mentioned Eugene J Johnson describes the space as a theatre, with San Giorgio Maggiore and the water often the backdrop to many plays. Johnson describes this as “a backdrop of the four elements, earth, air water and fire (the sun being visible for most of the day), framed by the two columns. During the theatrical performance the cities procurators would stand in the balconies of the library to enjoy the festivities.


Framing of Columns of Justice The Piazza was the home to many festivals during the calendar year but it was also a scene of justice in Venice, between the columns of Mark and Theodore capital execution took place. The Doge attended the event in order to witness the meaning of public punishment for treason, peculation or heinous crimes. Some nobles, accused of treason, were beheaded between the two pink marble columns of the Ducal Palace’s colonnade, from which the Doge usually looked out on these spectacles. There was enormous public participation, often observed from aboard boats moored in the Basin. In earlier times sentences of death used to be proclaimed from a position between the of the ninth and tenth columns on the west elevation of the Doge’s Palace. This is why after analysing the space we felt that the Campanile was built away from the Library because it allowed views from the west entrance to the Piazza. This view was very important because it was seen as a reminder to the population of Justice and what could happen to them if they broke the law.


Piazza San Marco Surface Proportions The Piazza was paved in the late 13th century with bricks laid in a herringbone pattern. Bands of light stone ran parallel to the long axis of the main piazza. These lines were probably used in setting up market stalls and in organizing frequent ceremonial processions. This original pavement design can be seen in paintings of the late Middle Ages and through the Renaissance such as Gentile Bellini’s Procession in Piazza San Marco of 1496. In 1723 the bricks were replaced with a more complex geometrical pavement design composed of a field of dark igneous trachyte with geometrical designs executed in white Istrian stone, similar to travertine. This design was laid out by Venetian architect Andrea Tirali. The overall alignment of the pavement pattern serves to visually lengthen the long axis and reinforce the position of the Basilica at its head. This arrangement mirrors the interior relationship of nave to altar within the cathedral. The ground surface in both squares help frame and define the spaces, we discovered that the patterns are proportionally relative to one another. Although the current pattern was laid in 1723, it is understood that Tirali followed the previous proportions from the original design. This relationship would then explain a clear example of how the two separate urban rooms relate proportionally to one another.


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Relationships The relationships between the buildings also exist on a far more subtle level, spanning both architectural style and periods of time.


Screened Buildings Looking into the method of construction, the whole of Venice is built on vertical timber piles packed close together and buried into the ground. This rules out digging perimeter foundations to the buildings, as this would focus the load onto too a small area.

As a result, all internal walls are incredibly thick, carrying the load, and the external facade of the building stands, like a mask, as a self supporting structure. The depth of the void between the external wall and the accommodation within captures the shadows of the evening and morning sun, constantly changing the elevation of the Palace.


Basilica Vicenza While Visiting Vicenza and the collection of Palladio’s buildings there I considered the Basilica. The ‘screen’ added in 1549, surrounding irregular medieval buildings offers a civic presence to the square it addresses. The columns of the screen melt into the ground plane, the original building appears to grow within its white civic addition. The doubled columns of the screen create an independent series of volumes, resulting in a building in itself.


Relationships of a View An analysis of the scene from where the relationships began. The connected planes of the model represent the levels of visual importance in relationship between the three buildings which make and address the piazzetta.


Harmony of Scale Throughout the city the diverse scales of the Civic and Religious with the Domestic offers a rich pallet of usage and materials. San Francesco della Vigna 1554, Andrea Palladio.


Victoria Street Existing Urban Model The Palace of Westminster is located in the foreground


Proportion From Venice and the readings regarding Sansovino’s Library the rectangular proportion came into question. The colonnade surrounding this area in front of the cathedral has a square proportion to the openings. Changing this to a rectangular arrangement produces a different feel to the space, one to now occupy.


Victoria Station The result of two stations, the clarity of an original design has been confused with recent additions. South Terminal: Here the original layout remains, with instant clarity to exit and entry. Removing the additions to reintroduce the exits and entry points to the North Terminal is a primary task.


Space to Orient Exiting the station there is no clarity to your location, you are completely disorientated. The station entrance addresses a ‘square’ of taxi’s, buses and scores of people moving in all directions. The location of Victoria Street is not apparent. Instead of the Station addressing buildings opposite the neighbouring properties have their backs turned to face London’s busiest train terminal.


Access to the Palace The existing routes to the palace are disorientating and numerous.


Access to the Palace The confusing of exiting Victoria is highlighted with TFL advising passengers for Buckingham Palace to alight at Green Park instead of the much closer Victoria underground station.


City Relationships The processional route of the Mall, starting at the East Facade of Buckingham Palace, continues on a line through the city to the Tower of London and the first Royal Palace, the White House at the Tower of London.


Webb’s Vision Reviewing the layout by Webb not only linked to the Palace but on a city scale axial lines of symmetry and further relationships with London become apparent. Looking at the route defined by Webb’s Mall it seems to set up a symmetrical relationship where Piccadilly is reflected as Victoria Street, creating a rectangular link between Leicester Square, Constitution Hill, Victoria Train Station and The Houses of Parliament.


Belgravian Influence Taking the Axis from Webb’s masterplan creates a section of land, fronting Buckingham Palace road. Inheriting the urban grain of the west ties the two districts of Belgravia and Victoria together.


Proposal The proposal offers 1. A . Returning to the original design. 2. Space to understand on arrival. A public space is created to front the station. 3. Orientation of the underground. A clearer access point off the New Civic Square. 4. An axis to the Palace. A clear route from the station. 5. The creation of an Urban room, between the three projects. Through the use of Materials, Proportion and Scale of the Buildings.


City As A Series Of Set Pieces District of Belgravia, Cubitt & Basevi, London. Creating a series of architectural pieces the focus of the district is unlike the rest of London. The consistency of Material finishes (stucco) to the long facades reinforce the atmosphere.


Wilton Crescent The entry to the district from Knightsbridge. Unlike Nash’s crescent at Regents Park, where the crescent form addresses the landscape, here the aspect of Belvrave Square is blocked by a terrace of houses.

Belgrave Square In an attempt to move away from the Georgian Square Cubitt here access the space from the four corners. Though due to the Mansions occupying these positions, the number of roads increases to nine, isolating the square within.

Corner Mansions As mentioned, the position of these are problematic. They neither particularly enhance the space, or engage with the square as a whole.


Eaton Square Originally the formal beginning of the route from St James’s Palace to Hampton Court the feeling of the space today is still processional. Again, the vast unoccupied space feels oppressive, with the car in control.

Churches Two elements to ‘relieve’ the never ending stucco. The formality of Eaton Square is recognised with the Church of St Peter Facing the Gardens. St Micheal’s on Chester Square is orientated with the entrance on the other side of the square, creating an off centre, less formal relationship.

Chester Square Belgravia’s most intimate square. The size and position of the road in relation to the Houses and Park invite you. The separated nature of Eaton Square is not apparent here. There is a feeling of community.


Study of a Belgravia City Block The stuccoed facade presents Belgravia to the city. The residential element of the block, is a thin veneer. London, a city built on trade, occupies the heart of the block, the mews, where trade and activity to the running of the houses occur.

The Materiality of the mews houses varies from one residence to the next.


Chester Square, London Cubitt

Chester Square, London Cubitt

Clarence Terrace, Regents Park, London Decimus Burton Here the screen becomes independent of the facade.

Building Studies These photographs present three qualities, shadow, reflection and transparency; all related to a buildings skin and its function, atheistic and experience.


Flawless Skin Stucco hides blemishes left behind from the building process. The variation between levels of care and repair offer glimpses of real life behind these anonymous facades.


Hidden Uses Buckingham Palace East Facade. Domestic scale exists alongside that of the Civic.


Masked Buildings The Basilica, Doges Palace and Buckingham Palace all wear masks offering a civic presence to the public. Due to their size, they’re also microcosoms of the function of the cities they find themselves in, containing offices, function rooms, community facilities and residential accommodation.


Victoria Street Proposal Urban Model, identifying the proposal within the other Units proposals.


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Transport City Masterplan

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Victoria Station Concourse Civic Square Community Square Hotel and Arts Cinema Proposed Headquarters for TFL Supporting Office Buildings

City Hall Office Building Residential Building Westminster Library and Archive

Chapel Halls of Residence Studio Building Observation/Bell tower Dining Hall


Aerial View The clusters of previous development are removed to continue Webb’s masterplan, connecting the New Civic Square with Victoria’s Monument.


View West towards the Civic Square. Showing other proposals lining Victoria Street.

Right: Street level view West. Showing existing buildings in the foreground with the proposal behind.

1/500 Site Model To explore the relationships between the proposals within the Unit.

Far Right: View from Victoria Street into the New Civic Square. Hotel Arts Cinema

TFL Offices

City Hall


View North East towards the Community Square.

1/500 Site Model To explore the relationships between the proposals within the Unit.

Right: The view up Buckingham Palace Road. Far Right: The Hotel and the TFL building refocus the presence of the North Terminal Elevation to the new public square.


Proposed North Terminal View from the cleared concourse, with the re-instated entry points and the civic square beyond. A new ground plane of granite pavers flows into the Civic Square


Campanile relationship with the Urban Room

New Relationships Setting out the new Urban Rooms took precedent from the studies of Piazzetta St Marco. Using the existing office block tower (Portland House) as the Campanile for the community space. In the Piazzetta the tower is exactly sets out the distance of buildings, and here the height, 101m defines the length of the square and the position of the library facade.

Connection of the every day with that of the ceremony

Relationship of the facades surrounding the Urban Room


The Facade Enclosing the spaces of the New Civic Square are a range of Elevations, respecting and referencing the Urban relationships learnt at the Piazzetta.


Composite

Residential Scale

Corinthian

Ionic

Doric

Tuscan

Commercial Scale

Civic Scale

Facade Proportions The transparency of the facade clarifies. The proportion of Transport, Civic, Commercial and Domestic come together to frame the space. Testing the variable orders, relating to Palladio’s interpretations of the classical Named Orders. The question of budget and quantity of material to create the screen is bought into question. Due to their close spacing the Composite, Corinthian and Ionic order appear too close. The application onto a tube exit also needs consideration, widths of escape routes and stair access for example.

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Characters to the Space Facing the Station entrance is the representative facade of Westminster City Hall. A place for consultation, conversation and ceremony. The Doge’s Palace offers a precedent.


The Civic Square The new square offers a space to orientate on arrival to the city.


The Civic Block The Civic block is made from three components: The creation of the ground plane, offering a raised public realm. This raised ground also offers the City Hall the topography of settlement, although, unlike Alto’s town hall, the archives of the people, and not only programme underpin the building. A collection of timber buildings upon the raised ground. A screen, offers solar shading to the South Elevation This also unifies the civic facade of the collection of buildings and typologies, to the urban square.


Screen The Southern elevation encases a series of access routes and terraces behind a pre-cast concrete screen. The skin of the space melt and move as people pass out of from the station. Shadows from the occupants fall on the solid building behind, animating the facade.


Gego Dibujo sin Papel 85/18 [Drawing without Paper 85/18] 1985 Gego played with the idea of the stable and unstable elements of art. The stable elements of art is the sculpture itself, while the unstable elements consist of the constantly changing shadows and the slight movement in her design due to the fragility of her materials.


Elevations, Stable and Unstable Elements The study of shadow play on the surface of the Casa d Oro is followed by looking at Gego’s work. The play of the shadows on the elevations of the Civic buildings within the screen will offer a constantly changing aethetic to the civic square. Over time, the oak cladding to the buildings is variably exposed to the south facade sun, turning parts a silver grey. Overtime, as the light levels across the facade vary there will be a photographic effect of exposed light and shadow.


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Victoria Underground District / Circle Line East Bound Platform Victoria Underground District / Circle Line West Bound Platform TFL Underground Information Ticket Barriers Staircase to Victoria Street / City Hall Commercial Space

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Stair to Upper Victoria Piazza Stair to District / Circle Line Underground Platforms Westminster Library, Victoria Street Entrance Ceremonial Room Reception Hall / Mayor Reception Room Westminster City Library Westminster Archives

7. Office Building Reception Entrance 8. Residential Access 9. Commercial Units to Buckingham Palace Road 10. Cafes (morning / lunch) to secondary Public Square 11. Lifts to Piazza Level 12. Fire Escape / Access

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Stair to Upper Victoria Piazza City Hall Entrance Colonnade / Hall Westminster Community Room Security Room Office Building Cafes (morning / lunch) to Raised Public Space

7. Restaurant with west facing Evening Terraces 8. City Hall One-Stop-Shop 9. Library Ascent Building Community Information 10. Terraces 11. Roof lights to Library Below

Westminster City Hall First Floor

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Commitee Room Gallery Landing to Entrance Hall External walkway Gallery space to Community Room Office Building Library Ascent Building Community Information

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Mayor’s Suite Lower Level 1. Meeting Room 2. Reception and P.A.’s. 3. Private Reception Room 4. Terrace 5. Lift Lobby

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Westminster City Hall Fourth Floor

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Westminster City Hall Fifth Floor

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Ceremonial Level 1. Lift and Stair Lobby 2. Ballroom 3. Banqueting Hall 4. External Stair up to Garden Area

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Kitchen Terrace Bar Partners Terrace

Westminster City Hall Eighth Floor

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Westminster City Hall Ninth Floor

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Residential Key: B. Bedroom L. Living Area T. Private Terrace


Raised Public Square Flowing form the New Public Square fronting the train station is the Westminster Library and Archive, the roof of which supports the buildings which combine within the screen as the new City Hall


Grosvenor Gardens

Buckingham Palace Road

Westminster City Hall

Westminster Archives

Residential Apartments

Palace Theatre District and Circle Line

Westminster City Hall Site Section bb Scale: 1/500

Victoria Train Station

TFL Headquarters

Westminster City Hall District and Circle Line

Westminster City Hall Site Section aa Scale: 1/500

Supporting Office Accommodation Library

Supporting Office Accommodation


Ninth Floor Roof Garden

Eighth Floor Ballroom Banqueting Hall

Seventh Floor Offices Sixth Floor Offices Gallery to Assembly Room

Fifth Floor Assembly Room Mayor’s Suite

Fourth Floor Mayor’s Suite Press Rooms

Third Floor Payment Area Upper Gallery

Second Floor Committee Chamber Gallery First Floor Community Room One Stop Shop Public Piazza

Ground Floor Library Cafes Underground Access Underground Level District and Circle line platforms

Westminster City Hall Section aa Scale: 1/200


Ninth Floor Roof Garden

Eighth Floor Ballroom Banqueting Hall

Seventh Floor Offices Sixth Floor Offices Gallery to Assembly Room

Fifth Floor Assembly Room Mayor’s Suite

Fourth Floor Mayor’s Suite Press Rooms

Third Floor Payment Area Upper Gallery

Second Floor Committee Chamber Gallery First Floor Community Room One Stop Shop Public Piazza

Ground Floor Library Cafes Underground Access Underground Level District and Circle line platforms

Westminster City Hall Section aa Scale: 1/200 & 1/500


Press Reception

Solid Precast Glass Reinforced Fair faced Concrete coping

Pre-fabricated Oak framed window element

Solid Precast Glass Reinforced Fair faced Concrete panel

Void panel fixing element

Fourth Floor +20.000

1200x1120x400mm Solid Precast Reinforced Fair faced Concrete Beam

Concealed 74mm diameter down pipe cast within column element

Grand Entrance Hall

1200x3600x400mm Solid Precast Reinforced Fair faced Concrete Pillar

Self Supporting Precast Concrete Screen

Westminster City Hall Screen and Building Interface Scale: 1/20

External Walkway/Terrace

City Hall


Banqueting Hall View across the Banqueting Hall while acceding the staircase.

Timber horizons engage the occupants and observers to the hall. White plaster walls continue the timber relationship with shadows falling from the trees in the roof top garden.


The Banqueting Hall awaits the congregation.


Raised Public Square Flowing form the New Public Square fronting the train station is the Westminster Library and Archive, the roof of which supports the buildings which combine within the screen as the new City Hall


01_THESIS PORTFOLIO