Galerie Meyer – Oceanic & Eskimo Art, catalogue for Tefaf 2013

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Galerie Meyer O c ea n ic A rt & E sk im o A rt

Early Oceanic Art &

Archaic Eskimo Art

While I was preparing this catalogue for my sixteenth year at TEFAF I gave thought to the differences between the worlds of those who made these marvels and our world that collects them. I thought and wrote quite a bit on the subject - but in the end realized that “less is more“... The title of the catalogue speaks for itself, as does the quality of the objects herein. Some people say “a picture is worth a thousand words” and it's true ! So let your eyes roam these pages and discover the wondrous forms and the sculptural beauty of these selected artworks from the ancient cultures of the warm isles and cold arctic shores of the Great Pacific Ocean. AJPM

The B/W images of the pieces in this catalogue are on a scale of 1/1 Le texte en français de ce catalogue est téléchargable sur le site internet de la galerie

Galerie Meyer O c ea n ic A rt & E sk im o A rt A N T H O N Y J P M E Y E R

1 7 R u e d e s B e a u x -­‐ A r t s P a r i s 7 5 0 0 6 F r a n c e TEL: + 33 1 43 54 85 74 FAX: + 33 1 43 54 11 12 GSM: + 33 6 80 10 80 22 www.galerie-­‐meyer-­‐oceanic-­‐ Syndicat National des Antiquaires Syndicat Français des Experts Professionnels en Œuvres d’Art et Objets de Collection Chambre Européenne des Experts d’Art


A pair of thin bakeka or chiefly currency rings. Solomon Islands, Melanesia. Tridacna gigas (giant clam shell). 14,8 Ø cm & 13,8 Ø cm. 19th century or earlier. Provenance : “Huize Loreto”, Marist F a t h e r s m o n a s t e r y, L i e v e l d e , t h e Netherlands.


A rare form of stone money used for ceremonial transactions as well as mundane expenditures. Circular shell or stone money is found throughout the Pacific (New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Yap & Vanuatu) and well back into the earliest stages of Chinese civilization. Calcite rings were carved from massive stalactites and stalagmites, which grow over thousands of years in limestone caves. Possibly Erromango Island, Vanuatu. Calcite (calcium carbonate). A piece of European trade cloth is attached. 15,5 x 6,5 cm w/o cloth. 20th century or earlier.

3 A small amulet in the form of a male ancestor figure. The sharply angled and thin nostrils as well as the concave facial planes are reminiscent of the general North Coast style. The figure appears to have a protruding chest bone and wears some form of pubic cover. Lower Sepik or North Coast regions, Papua New Guinea, Melanesia. Wood with traces of original pigment. Carved with stone tools. Pre-colonial period. 14,1 cm. Ex coll. : C. Delora, USA. Mounted on a signed wood display base by Kichiz么 Inagaki (c. 1920/1940).

4 A rare cylindrical object described as a headrest but for which the actual function remains unknown. Michael Rockefeller describes this object type but states that he never saw any used as headrests. Lorenz River, Asmat Area, Indonesian New Guinea, Melanesia. Wood (alstonia) with native pigments. 85,5 cm. 19th/20th century.

A very fine and early “T” bar pounder, or penu, used for crushing breadfruit into a pudding called poi. This superbly carved example is marked at either end of the bar with double notches, an indication of royal ownership. Maupiti Island, Leeward Islands, Society Islands, Polynesia. Dense fine grained basalt. 15.2 x 12.5 cm Ø. 18th century or earlier. Provenance : a Tahitian-French family, France; Michel Thieme, Amsterdam. This example represents the finest alliance of superb form and mundane function. While used as kitchen tools, the pounders of the “T” bar type were the exclusive property of the royal families. Years of acquired skill and effort were put into play here to produce an object of deceptively simple elegance from the hardest volcanic stone that existed on the islands. The elongated triangular sectioned “T” bar design is exclusive to the island of Maupiti and is the most elegant of all the various types of pounders from the Pacific island cultures. The rapport between the sweeping circular lower section and the more formal upper half is perfect - providing a balanced tool of pure sculptural beauty.


6 A chief’s or priest’s ceremonial meat dish, or dave. The outer upper edge of the platter is decorated with a fine incised rim while the edge of the underside has a wide rim incised with bands of alternating striations and a squared pierced suspension lug. Fiji Islands, Polynesia. Vesi wood (intsia bijuga) with a fine patina of use and age. 45 cm ø x 3 mm thick. Early 19th century. Ex coll.: The artist John E. Grant, Victoria, Australia. Exhibited : TOUS CANNIBALES. La Maison Rouge, Paris, 2011 & ALLES KANNIBALEN?. Me Collectors Room, Berlin, 2011. John E. Grant was the art-master at the Technical School in Daylesford, Victoria (Australia). Following the destruction during WWI of the town of Villers-Bretonneux in France, he was commissioned to carve wooden panels consisting of Australian fauna and flora for the school which was rebuilt with funds donated by the citizens of Daylesford. With his wife, they owned the “Hallow bank“ guesthouse at 6 Harts Lane in Daylesford from 1905 to 1955, and after his death Mrs. Grant kept it going until the early 1960’s. Around 1906/1908 Grant had purchased a group of Fijian artifacts from a traveler in Kyneton and this group of pieces (including the present plate) was on display in the Billiard Room of the guest house until the death of Mrs. Grant and the closing of the hotel. Note the round platter in the 19th century postcard as well as several other “eye“ shaped vessels similar to N° 7.

7 An “eye“ form dave ni burau, or dish for serving yaqona (kava), a narcotic beverage made from the root of the piper methysticum. Kava was ceremonially drunk by priests in the bure kalou, the spirit house, before going into trance and communing with the ancestors. It was also consumed at important feasts. Women prepared the beverage by chewing the root into a pulp, mixing it with water, straining and serving the kava from these superb bowls in special cups made from half coconut shells. This example is unusual, as it never had feet. A suspension lug in the form of an “H“ is carved on the rear outer edge. Fiji, Melanesia. Vesi wood (intsia bijuga). 48 x 19,5 x 4,5 cm. 18th/19th century. Provenance : acquired in the 1930’s by a French wool buyer based in Queensland; thence by descent.


A very large chiefly adze blade or toki poutangata (which translates as : ceremonial nephrite adze blade). The nephrite blades and other jade implements were considered to be taonga (treasures) and both the material and the art-works were the exclusive property of the chiefly bloodlines. This toki is unusual as it is pierced at the heel with a bi-conical hole. The jade, in reality nephrite, or “greenstone“ as it is called in New Zealand is of exceptional quality. The Maori call it pounamu and have many names for the different types and colors. In this case the toki pounamu illustrated here is of the rare Kahurangi type of jade. Kahurangi is named after the clearness of the sky and the natural white spots in the stone give a cloudlike effect. This can also be obtained by heat-treating, which the Maori artists used to create small whitish cloudlike spotting that further enhances the blade. Nephrite, when subjected to temperatures of above 840°c, undergoes a color change as certain chemical elements within the stone are modified. The Maori are known to have used heat to modify the color to suit their taste, including creating spots by the application of embers to the stone’s surface. Maori, New Zealand, Polynesia. Nephrite (jade). 33,4 cm. 15th/18th century. See an identical example, also pierced, in the Te Papa Museum, Wellington, N° ME018613.

A rare form of short war club, or kolo, used as a throwing weapon. It is carved with six large stylized human heads. The two hexagonal separators are carved as beveled rings offering a very elegant and “Gothic” solution for the transition from the smooth cylindrical grip up to the faceted striking head. The butt has the typical peaked, pierced lug and a small stud is carved at the summit of the head. Lifuka Island, Tonga, Polynesia. Iron Wood (casuarina equisetifolia). 52,5 cm. 19th century. The heads with featureless faces, other than for the nose, are direct stylizations of the heads and faces of the female “Goddess of Lifuka” figures, five of which were acquired by the missionary Rev. John Williams from King Taufa’ahau at Lifuka (Lifuga) upon his conversion to Christianity in 1830. Lifuka is the main island in the Ha’apai group at

Oldman collection, Plate 46

the center of the Tongan Archipelago and Taufa’ahau later became King of all Tonga taking the name George Tupou I. Weapons of this type with their probable direct relation to the female figures were possibly exclusive to a ruling or priestly cast. The rarity of the type, in both collections and in the literature may be related to their extreme social value and the refusal of owners to part with an object of great importance. The renowned English collector W. O. Oldman owned two short clubs and 3 long ones presenting the same stylized faces as on the present example along with two “Goddess of Lifuka” figures. Te Rangi Hiroa (Sir Peter Buck) writes in 1937 that Oldman, in correspondence with him, reasoned that clubs of this typology with faces, identical to those of the female Lifuka figures, had to come from the same island.


Oldman collection, Plate 51

A royal necklace, or lei niho palaoa. The walrus ivory hook is suspended on a necklace made of a single strand of square-braided human-hair (approximately fifty hairs in thickness). On some necklaces the strand can reach the extreme length of some three hundred and fifty meters. Necklaces of this type were worn only by chiefs, kings & queens. The hook-form pendant is perfectly carved with a rounded beveled point, a waisted and flared shaft, and a concave top. The patina is exceptionally fine and the wear is indicative of prolonged use resulting in a smooth glossy surface with a fine deep honey coloration. Hawaii, Polynesia. Walrus tusk (odobenus rosmarus divergens), human hair, and olona fiber (touchardia latifolia). Pendant : 8,5 cm. Pendant & hair bundles : 25 cm w/o string. 18th/19th century. This lei niho palaoa was collected on Oahu between the 9th and 20th of July 1839 by FĂŠlix Randon de Grolier, officer on board the ARTEMISE under the command of Capitaine de Vaisseau Cyrille Laplace (circumnavigation of 1837-1840). The necklace has remained in the family since the return of the expedition to France in 1840. The ARTEMISE was sent to the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) to protect the French Catholic missionaries who were in the process of being persecuted and ousted by the King under pressure from North American Protestant missionaries. Commander Laplace threatened to bombard Honolulu in retaliation and the King, Kamehameha III, issued an Edict of Toleration on 17 July 1839 effectively restoring the rights of the Catholic missionaries, allowing them to return to the islands and to establish the Roman Catholic Church in Hawaii.



An exceptionally fine comb with 15 tines carved from a thick section of a large bamboo embellished by the natural node line and “leaf button“. While of deceptive simplicity this comb actually represents a highly stylized talé, the large, wide, figurative board to either side of the door of the chiefly house. New Caledonia, Melanesia. Bamboo. 19th century. 26,2 x 9,4 x 4 (depth) cm.

A large and powerful chiefly war-club of the “bird-head“ type known as go porowa ra maru (in Paici language). New Caledonia, Melanesia. Wood with tapa and sinnet binding on the shaft. 19th century. 72,2 x 36,5 x 9,1 cm.

12 These two pieces were collected in the 19th century by Maréchal des Logis Charles August Daenes (b. 1864) of the State Penitentiary, or “Bagne“, in New Caledonia before 1903. As a member of the 1st Légion de Gendarmerie, he was awarded the “Médaille Militaire“ in 1903.


A section of tapa covering from the long tube of a vungvung mask. The decor is remarkable for its “modernism“ and its extreme regularity with the alternating triangles of black and the now faded red pigment on the natural sun-bleached barkcloth. Baining People, New Britain, New Guinea, Melanesia. Tapa and natural pigments. 19th/20th century. 234 x 75 cm. Provenance : collected before 1931 by Ragnar A. Lindahl who established a copra plantation on the Gazelle Peninsula in the early 1920’s and later became the Swedish Consul to New Guinea.


A n e x t re m e l y l a rg e u ’ u , a n elaborate and stately type of warclub or ceremonial mace. The Janus head of this club is decorated with 16 human representations carved as heads and faces within faces. There are 6 lizards and 15 minute etua (stylized tiki figures with raised arms) incorporated into the engraved ornamental tattoo-like bands below the secondary “eyenose“ mask on either side of the club. The butt terminates in a crescent-form, pierced finial. The u’u represents a male ancestor re d u c e d t o i t s most basic body parts : a head at


the top of the shaft and a stylized penis at the bottom. The dark patina is obtained by soaking the finished club in the mud of a taro patch and then laboriously oiling the weapon with coconut oil, sealing in the deep brown to black coloration. While u’u are surely weapons they were most probably emblems of status and power reserved for an elite minority, possibly warrior chiefs or even priests. Although the object type appears from a distance to be standardized in format, the extreme individuality of the carved and incised motifs cause each u’u to be a unique work of art. Marquesas Islands, Polynesia. Toa wood, iron-wood (casuarina equisetifolia). 18th/ 19th century. 153,5 cm. Provenance : a New England private home.

The presence and style of the striated lizards with their tails ending as the hands under the chin of the central head along with the style and placement of the minute etua figures places this remarkable u’u within the workshop of an artist - whom I’m tempted to baptize the “Master of the Lizard” - and who appears to have carved at least three of the examples published in the monumental opus on Marquesas art by Karl Von den Steinen in 1925 and 1928 : the Hans Meyer example in Leipzig (vol. III, pl. / T, N° 2 a:b); the Vienna example (vol. III, pl. / U, N° 2); and the Bremen (C) u’u (vol. III, pl. / U, N° 3). The structure of the lizards’ hind feet and their overall body decor, the incorporation of the tiny squared stylized tiki figures in the “tattoo” sections and the wide, high, joined “eyebrow-to-ears” of the face masks all point to the same hand having produced the three weapons. This stylistic identification may one day proved fruitful in establishing an iconographic code allowing the placing of u’u in their geographical and chronological context, which is presently impossible.

The u’u as a weapon and more importantly a prized prestige object is one of the main iconic art-works from the Pacific. It is recognizable above all and often vigorously sought after by collectors. Steven Hooper on the British Museum website suggests that perhaps as few as two hundred of these stately war-clubs are still in existence. The club representing the most elementary male form reduced to a large head at the top and a penile finial at the bottom - carries a multitude of ancestors. They are carved in the typical Marquesas “tiki“ style as heads and faces, which function as the features of the two main Janus heads and as embellishments all over. The u’u is one of the few object types that display what I might call, for want of a better description, the “Marquesas pantheon“. In this way it can be linked to the staff-gods and mace-gods of the Cook Islands; the godimages, drums, bowls, paddles, and staffs of the Australs; as well as to the drums and bowls of Hawaii. The art of the Marquesas is one of the few styles wherein the ancestral links to the original Western “homeland“ appear to be visually evident as with the bronze heads of the Sanxingdui Culture, from the ancient Kingdom of Shu in Sichuan province, China, which date back to 3600 BP. This culture flourished about 1500 years before the Marquesas Islands were settled and while there is, as yet, no evidence of a direct link between the two cultures, the stylistic similarities of the facial structure (ears-eyes-nose) are quite striking.


A rare, archaic monetary dish or tolúk used exclusively by women. Although frequently referred to as “money”, these valuables are not currency in the ordinary sense but treasured objects, often with extensive individual histories, which are exchanged between families on important occasions such as births, marriages, or deaths. These trays, or dishes are made with individual plates of turtle shell, which are immersed in hot water to soften. Once pliable the plates are placed in two-part, wooden molds, which are strapped together and further heated to press the plates into the desired bowl-like form. Still within the mold, the turtle shell is placed in cold water to harden. Exchanged between families, tolúk are owned and used exclusively by women, and are presented as ritual payment to female in-laws for food or services, such as assistance in the preparations for a feast. Through years of exchange and handling, tolúk acquire individual histories and a rich, glossy patina - old and storied trays are valued far more highly than more recent examples. Belau (Palau), Caroline Islands, Micronesia. Hawksbill turtle shell with a superb patina of age and handling. 19th century or earlier. 16,7 x 9,4 x 2,3 cm. Provenance : Kunstkammer Georg Laue, Munich.


An extremely rare jawun, or bicornual basket woven from brown lawyer cane fiber. The weaving technique is remarkably complex and this is the only type of double point basket in Australia. Nyawaygi or Wargamaygan people of Northeastern Queensland, Australia. Lawyer cane (calamus caryotoides) and plant fiber. 24 (w/o handle) x 27 cm. Pre 1900. Provenance : acquired in the 1930’s by a French wool buyer based in Queensland; thence by descent. See the example in the National Museum of Australia, Sydney N° 2005.0081.0001 which has lost its handle. Bicornual foraging baskets are unique to the rainforest Aborigines of Northeastern Queensland between Cairns and Ingham, just to the North of Townsville. In the latter part of the nineteenth century European herders and Chinese miners established settlements in the area. Conflicts over land and resources resulted in restricting the Aborigines’ access to areas of lawyer cane. This, coupled with the distribution of food to those living as laborers on farms and at missions, saw the production of jawun all but cease.

A very rare ancestral effigy composed of a very large head on a stylized conical body. The head with pointed chin and smiling face is typical of the Vao Island art style and can be favorably compared to a well known canoe prow figure-head from Vao in the Musée du Quai Branly, Paris (N° 71.1936.31.1). The arms are well defined with powerful shoulder blades and hands with splayed fingers; and the figure’s spine is prominently featured as a raised ridge down the rear. Vao Island, Northeastern Malekula, Vanuatu, Melanesia. Coral. 23 cm. 19th/20th century. Provenance : acquired from a private museum in Scotland in the 1970’s.


Archaic Eskimo Art

Okvik Punuk Thule Yup’ik


A gut scraper in the form of a deep oval cup with a sharpened edge, which is used to remove fat and tissue from skins and intestines for the making of bags and clothing. Decorated with incised concentric, spurred circles. Old Bering Sea Culture (OBS III), Saint Lawrence Island, Bering Strait, Alaska. Fossilized walrus tusk. c. 300 /500 AD. 11 x 3,3 x 2 cm. Provenance : collection of Alyce & Larry Frank, Arroyo Hondo, New Mexico. Ill. : Wardwell, A. : ANCIENT ESKIMO IVORIES OF THE BERING STRAIT. Hudson Hills Press, NY, 1986, p. 50, fig. 33.


An extraordinary transformation amulet representing a snowy owl (bubo scandiacus) with a human head turned 180° to the rear. The breast of the bird is cut through to form an attachment point and this ornament was probably sewn onto a shaman’s costume or perhaps a hunter's wood visor. The eyes were once inlaid either with baleen, walrus whisker or perhaps pyrite. Punuk to early Thule Culture, Alaska. Fossilized walrus tusk. 600/1500 AD. 3,9 cm.


An unusual form of human representation - probably for the use of a shaman. The figure seems to be female and there are faint traces of delineation around the collar as if representing tattooing or clothing. Punuk Culture, Saint Lawrence Island, Bering Strait, Alaska. Fossilized walrus tusk. 600/1200AD. 11 cm.


A fine archer's wrist guard with seal fins or whales flukes jutting from the top. Punuk Culture, Saint Lawrence Island, Bering Strait, Alaska. Fossilized walrus tusk. 600/1200 AD. 7,6 cm.


A rare needle case carved with geometric designs. Okvik Culture, Saint Lawrence Island, Bering Strait, Alaska, USA. Fossilized walrus tusk. 200 BC – 300 AD. 7 cm.


Objects of this type are recorded in several collections, however their function remains a mystery. The anthropomorphic form is quite obvious with the arms, torso and legs seemingly encased in a costume or suit of decorated material symbolized by engraved linear motifs. The collar and upper arm areas are decorated with bands of zigzag as if embroidered. The head of the figure does not exist but is replaced by a plain section pierced twice. There is a strong possibility that these ornaments were used in pairs as the end sections for some sort of wand or perhaps a spear. The two holes are probably for the attachment of the object to another via wood or ivory pegs. Punuk Culture, Saint Lawrence Island area, Bering Strait, Alaska. Walrus tusk. 18,2 cm. 600/1200 AD.


A large “finger-shaped“ wrist guard with superb engraved chevron decor. Wrist guards were used to protect the wrist from the hard and painful snap of the sinew bowstring. Old Bering Sea. Saint Lawrence Island, Bering Strait, Alaska. Fossilized walrus tusk. USA. 300/500 AD. 13,7 cm.


A remarkable ulu handle in the form of a crouching Arctic hare. This is, to my knowledge, one of the only examples of its type and illustrates the artist's capacity for individuality and innovation as well as observation in his creative process. A small naturalistic amulet of an Arctic hare was excavated in 1979 from a 1000-year-old Dorset Culture site on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Far North; it is now in the Canadian Museum of Civilization, Ottawa. The ulu is a crescent bladed knife historically exclusive to females. It is used to prepare skins, cut meat and fish and can also be used to cut hair or small items of wood. The ulu is considered to contain the knowledge of the ancestors and it is thus passed down through the female generations as a heirloom. The belly of the rabbit is slit to create a lodging for the stone blade. In the pre-metal period the blades were made of slate. Later on native copper and imported iron and steel were incorporated into the manufacture of ulu blades. Thule Culture, Alaska. Walrus tusk and baleen. 7,8 cm. 1000/1600 AD.


A powerfully built female effigy figure, which was probably used in ceremonial circumstances by a shaman. The face is perfectly carved with deep-set eyes and open mouth with protruding lips. A small fragment of wood or root is lodged between the right arm and body. Alaska. Walrus tusk. Early Thule period c. 1000/1600 AD. 8,5 cm.


An exceptional shaman's amulet or iinruq (iinrut), representing a half figure with extensive tattoos on both the front and rear of the torso. The smiling face is tattooed at the edges of the eyes and the mouth is decorated with an inset, blue, glass labret. Small half figures like this example were used by shaman as amulets in ritual circumstances. They represent protective spirits and were often fed with food and water. The presence of the labret on the chin indicates that this is a male iinruq. See a very similar figure in the collection of the Ethnologisches Museum Berlin (inv. n째. IVA4531). Yup'ik (Eskimo), possibly Cape Vancouver, Alaska. Walrus tusk and Asian or European trade glass-bead. 18th/19th century. 7.3 cm. Provenance : Collected by USN Lt. Commander Jefferson F. Moser (1848-1934), Captain of the USBF steamer Albatross (1897 to 1901) between October 12, 1897 and April 26, 1898 during a study on the causes of Alaskan salmon depletion for the US Fish Commission along the West Coast from California to Alaska. Moser was later promoted to Rear Admiral and many geographical features along the South coast of Alaska are named for him.

USBF steamer Albatross

28 A well-used yaaruin, or “storyknife” which is a traditional girl’s toy used for sketching pictures on the ground or in the snow. The pictures depict elements and events of daily life and illustrate a story or a game in which other children try to guess the artist’s subject. These stories were accompanied by songs. It is reported that a girl’s father or grandfather made a knife, giving it to her as a gift during Elriq, the Feast of the Dead. The storyknife was used up until puberty and upon the girl’s first menstruation the yaaruin would be given away along with the child’s dolls. Yup’ik Culture, Alaska. Walrus tusk. 18th/19th century. 24,5 cm. This example has a remarkably accentuated bend in the blade due to being carved from a strongly curved tusk.


A small doll or effigy probably used by young girls and boys as a toy. The facial features are distinctly of the conventional Eskimo type with crescent-form closed eyes and mouth in a round face. Yup’ik Culture, Alaska. Walrus tusk. 19th/20th century. 5,2 cm.


A tool used most probably for the ceremonial piercing of the lips and ears during the “Rites de Passage“ or initiation rituals that mark the transition from the state of childhood to that of an adult. The piercings were filled with large ivory labrets or plugs often decorated with inlaid blue glass trade-beads. The handle here is decorated with two stylized seals that once had baleen-inlaid eyes. Yup’ik Culture, Alaska. Walrus tusk. 18th/ 19th century. 8 cm.

As always my thanks go to the TEFAF team and to STABILO for their excellent & ongoing work organizing the fair. My thanks to our photographer Michel Gurfinkel; our art-handlers Philippe Delmas & Francis Viera; our base-makers (Manuel Do Carmo, the Atelier Punchinello, and Francois Lunardi); and to our restorers Brigitte Martin & Edouard Vatinel. A special thanks to my faithful and hard-working assistants Manuel Benguigui in Paris & Fang in Maastricht. A special mention for Jos Hu and family, and of course to my wife and children for their unfailing support, patience and affection. For their assistance and support I give thanks to all of our friends and most notably : Maria & Daniel Blau, Will Channing, Laurent Dodier, Michael Hamson, the Polynesian Society & the Journal of the Polynesian Society, the Smithsonian Institution, Michel Thieme, the Trustees of the British Museum, & Renaud Vanuxem. Photo credits : All works of art Michel Gurfinkel, Paris. © Galerie Meyer - Oceanic Art, Paris. Except photographs N° 12 © Aaron Fallon, courtesy Michael Hamson. Other images : • Watercolor (inside cover) : Guerrier Marquisien avec massue Parahu à Kaouloha. Anonymous, c. 1840‘s. © Collection Cayetana & Anthony JP Meyer, Paris. • Postcard (N° 6) : group of Fijian Artefacts. Phototypie by A. Bergeret et Cie - Nancy. © Collection Cayetana & Anthony JP Meyer, Paris. • Photographs B/W (N° 9) : two illustrations from POLYNESIAN ARTEFACTS – THE OLDMAN COLLECTION. Memoirs of the Polynesian Society. vol. 15. The Polynesian Society, Wellington, 1953. • Photographs (N° 11, 12) : Maréchal des Logis Charles August Daenes © Galerie Meyer - Oceanic Art, Paris. Collection Renaud Vanuxem. • Photograph B/W (N° 13) : portrait of Ragnar Lindhal © Galerie Meyer - Oceanic Art, Paris. • Photograph B/W (N° 13) : Baining Fire Dancer © Collection Cayetana & Anthony JP Meyer, Paris. • Photographs B/W (N° 14) : various Polynesian objects. © the Trustees of the British Museum. • Engraving (page 24) : Habitans de l’Ile St. Laurent. Louis Choris (1795-1828), 1816 on board the Ruric, the Romanzoff expedition under the command of Lieutenant Otto von Kotzebue. © Collection Cayetana & Anthony JP Meyer, Paris. • Photographs (N° 27) : the Albatross & various publications. Photo source : Tanner, Z. L. 1897, Bulletin of the U.S. Fish Commission. v. 16, Plate I. © & National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Every effort has been made to ensure correct copyright procedure. In the event you feel that your copyright has not been correctly asserted please contact Galerie Meyer - Oceanic Art, Paris. Layout and artwork : Galerie Meyer - Oceanic Art, Paris. English to French translation : Manuel Benguigui. Reproduction or publication in any form or format, either whole or partial, of the items, images, photos, works of art and texts contained in this publication is prohibited without formal written approval. Printed by TREFLE COMMUNICATION, Paris. February 2013, two thousand copies.

Bibliography Oceania :

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L'ART ANCESTRAL DES ILES MARQUISES - TE HAA TUPUNA KAKIU NO TEHENUA ENANA. Collective work: N. Berthelier, P. Bihouée, D. Blau, H. Guiot, AJP. Meyer, P. & M-N. Ottino-Garanger, C. Stéfani. Exhibition catalogue on the art of the Marquesas Islands at the Musée des Beaux Arts (june/october 2008). Musée des Beaux-Arts - Chartres, 2008. Gerbrands Adrian A. (ed.): THE ASMAT OF NEW GUINEA, The Journal of Michael Clark Rockefeller. The Museum of Primitive Art, New York, 1967. Beck, Russell J. & Mason, Maika: MANA POUNAMU, New Zealand Jade. Reed, Auckland, 1984, 2002. Bonnemaison, Joël; Kaufmann, Christian; Huffman, Kirk; Darrell, Tyron (ed.): ARTS OF VANUATU. Crawford House Publishing, Bathurst, 1996. Boulay, Roger (ed.): DE JADE ET DE NACRE. Reunion des Musee Nationaux, Paris, 1990. Clunie, Fergus: YALO i VITI. Fiji Museum, Suva. 1986. Corbin, George A.: THE BAINING: NEW BRITAIN in EXPLORING THE VISUAL ART OF OCEANIA. Sidney M. Mead, editor. The University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu. 1979. Ewins, Rod: FIJIAN ARTIFACTS, TASMANIAN MUSEUM AND ART GALLERY COLLECTION. Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart. 1982. Jacquemin, Sylviane: RAO POLYNESIES. Editions Parenthèses/Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Marseille, Paris, 1992. Hiroa, Te Rangi: ADDITIONAL WOODEN IMAGES FROM TONGA. In The Journal of the Polynesian Society. Volume 46, 1937, Volume 46, No. 182, p 74-82. Meyer, Anthony JP: OCEANIC ART / OZEANISCHE KUNST / ART OCEANIEN. Könemann Verlag, Köln. 1995. Meyer, Anthony JP: ART du/of VANUATU. Exhibition catalogue. Galerie Meyer, Paris. 1997. Phelps, Steven: ART AND ARTEFACTS OF THE PACIFIC, AFRICA, AND THE AMERICAS-THE JAMES HOOPER COLLECTION. Hutchinson & Co. LTD. and Christies, Manson & Woods, London. 1975. POLYNESIAN ARTEFACTS – THE OLDMAN COLLECTION. Memoirs of the Polynesian Society. vol. 15. The Polynesian Society, Wellington, 1953. Rosenthal, David: LES PILONS DES ILES DU PACIFIQUE in TRIBAL ARTS, LE MONDE DE L'ART TRIBAL. N° 11, Année III, Automne-Hiver 1996. Von den Steinen, Karl: DIE MARQUESANER UND IHRE KUNST. Hacker Art Books, New York. Reprint 1969. Website : National Museum of Australia (

Eskimo :

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Carpenter E. (ed.): Upside Down LES ARCTIQUES. musée du Quai Branly et la Réunion des musées nationaux, Paris, 2008. Fienup-Riorden, Ann: YUP'IK ELDERS AT THE ETHNOLOGISCHES MUSEUM BERLIN - Fieldwork Turned on its Head. University of Wisconsin Press, Seattle and London, 2005. Fitzhugh, W.W.; Hollowell, J.; Crowell, A.L. (ed.): GIFTS FROM THE ANCESTORS - Ancient Ivories of Bering Strait. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2009. Hurst, Norman: ARCTIC IVORY : Two Thousand Years of Alaskan Eskimo Art and Artifacts. Hurst Gallery, Cambridge,1998. Ray, Dorothy Jean: ARTISTS OF THE TUNDRA AND THE SEA. University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1961 Wardwell, A.: ANCIENT ESKIMO IVORIES OF THE BERING STRAIT. Hudson Hills Press, NY, 1986. Website : ('ik/HTML/OralTraditions.html)

10 - 15 September 2013 Paris 14 - 23 March 2014 Regent’s Park, London 17 -­‐ 20 October 2013

Galerie Meyer

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