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RONDA GOYESCA


Ronda Goyesca

Aitor Lara


Mariana Pineda

/

Federico GarcĂ­a Lorca

,WZDVWKH\VD\WKHJUDQGHVWEXOOĂ€JKW Ancient Ronda had ever seen, ZLWKĂ€YHEUDYHEXOOVDVEODFNDVMHW DOOWUDLOLQJULEERQVGDUNDQGJUHHQ And every minute I thought of you; if only my sad friend, I thought, if only she could be here too, my dearest Mariana Pineda! The ladies came with gay abandon in open coaches one by one, WKHLUIDQVLQFLUFOHVDOODĂ XWWHU ZLWKVHTXLQVJOHDPLQJLQWKHVXQ The males of Ronda mounted came showing off their elegant paces, with grey hats so broad of rim DQGFRFNHGOLNHWKLVWRKLGHWKHLUIDFHV The bullring was so tightly thronged, LWVSXQDERXWOLNHD]RGLDF CalaĂąa hats and tall mantillas RQVPLOHVWKDWĂ DVKHGIURPZKLWHWREODFN And when the matchless Cayetano strode so manly on straw and sand, his suit a fresh-cut apple colour LQĂ€QHVWVLONDQGVLOYHUEDQG among the troupe he stood apart a truly handsome, brave gallant,

DQGZKHQKHIDFHGWKHÀHUFHVWEXOOV that ever Spain has reared and bred, LWVHHPHGWKHYHU\VN\ZRXOGWXUQ DFKHVWQXWEURZQWRPDWFKKLVKHDG You should have seen how gracefully he spun his hips and turned his waist, his perfect timing and his poise, ZLWKFDSHDQGFORWKWKHUHZDVQRKDVWH Not even Pedro Romero polishes off the stars so clean; ÀYHEXOOVKHVOHZÀYHEUDYHEXOOV DOOWUDLOLQJULEERQVGDUNDQGJUHHQ So deftly did his sword unfold ÀYHUHGFDUQDWLRQVWRWKHVN\ and spinning on vermillion wings, DVGHOLFDWHDVDEXWWHUà \ with every pass he brushed his suit RQKRUQDQGVQRXWRIPDVVLYHEHDVW The bullring and the afternoon vibrated to the violent feast, and wafting on the smell of blood ,FDXJKWDEUHDWKRIPRXQWDLQDLU But every minute I thought of you: if only my sad friend, I thought, if only she could be here too, P\GHDUHVW0DULDQD3LQHGD

Extract from the play by Federico GarcĂ­a Lorca, 1925

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Mariana Pineda

/

Federico GarcĂ­a Lorca

IUHQWHDORVWRURV]DtQRV que EspaĂąa crĂ­a en su tierra, parecĂ­a que la tarde VHSRQtDPiVPRUHQD ÂĄSi hubieras visto con quĂŠ gracia movĂ­a las piernas! ÂĄQuĂŠ gran equilibrio el suyo con la capa y la muleta! ÂŁ0HMRUQL3HGUR5RPHUR toreando las estrellas! &LQFRWRURVPDWyFLQFR FRQGLYLVDYHUGH\QHJUD En la punta de su espada FLQFRĂ RUHVGHMyDELHUWDV \DFDGDLQVWDQWHUR]DED ORVKRFLFRVGHODVĂ€HUDV como una gran mariposa GHRURFRQDODVEHUPHMDV /DSOD]DDOSDUTXHODWDUGH vibraba fuerte, violenta, y entre el olor de la sangre LEDHORORUGHODVLHUUD Yo pensaba siempre en ti; yo pensaba: si estuviera conmigo mi triste amiga, ÂĄmi Marianita Pineda!

En la corrida mås grande TXHVHYLRHQ5RQGDODYLHMD &LQFRWRURVGHD]DEDFKH FRQGLYLVDYHUGH\QHJUD Yo pensaba siempre en ti; yo pensaba: si estuviera conmigo mi triste amiga, ¥mi Marianita Pineda! Las niùas venían gritando sobre pintadas calesas, con abanicos redondos ERUGDGRVGHOHQWHMXHODV <ORVMyYHQHVGH5RQGD VREUHMDFDVSLQWXUHUDV los anchos sombreros grises FDODGRVKDVWDODVFHMDV /DSOD]DFRQHOJHQWtR (calaùÊs y altas peinetas) JLUDEDFRPRXQ]RGtDFR GHULVDVEODQFDV\QHJUDV Y cuando el gran Cayetano FUX]yODSDML]DDUHQD FRQWUDMHFRORUPDQ]DQD bordado de plata y seda, destacåndose gallardo entre la gente de brega

Extracto de Mariana Pineda, obra de teatro de Federico GarcĂ­a Lorca, 1925

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4


Reminiscencia y sombra

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Recollection and Shadow

9tFWRU*yPH]3LQ

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DQLPDO7KHH[DFWRSSRVLWHWRZKDWLQSULQFLSOHWDNHVSODFHLQWKH EUHHGLQJRI6SDQLVKĂ&#x20AC;JKWLQJEXOOV ,WVHHPVOLNHHYHQWKRXJKWUXO\HFRORJLFDOUHDVRQLQJLV DFWXDOO\RQRXUVLGHWKHGHEDWHLVEHLQJORVWE\WKHSUREXOOĂ&#x20AC;JKWLQJ faction, as can be surmised by the aforementioned decision by the Parlament de CataluĂąa and similar initiatives that are presently EHLQJSODQQHG6KRXOGWKLVDWWLWXGHEHFRPHJHQHUDOL]HGVKRXOG WKHPDMRULW\RUHYHQWKHUXOLQJPLQRULW\FRQVLGHUEXOOĂ&#x20AC;JKWLQJD symbol incompatible with European ideology, then this would give ULVHWRWKHTXHVWLRQRIZKDWWRGRZLWK5RQGDUHYRNHLWVV\PEROV" 'HVWUR\DQXPEHURILWVPRQXPHQWV"([SHOLWIURPD(XURSHWKDWLV DV\PSWRWLFWRZDUGVRXUKRSHVRIĂ&#x20AC;QDOO\EHLQJUHFRJQL]HGDVHTXDOV WRWKHQDWLRQVWKDWFRQVLGHUWKHPVHOYHVFOHDQFOHDUDQGODERULRXV" In short, what version of Europe would have room for the ancient DQGHYLGHQWO\KLJKO\FLYLOL]HGFLW\RI5RQGD" Many years ago, when all over the world many of us built RXUVFKHGXOHVDURXQGWKHĂ&#x20AC;UVW6DWXUGD\RI6HSWHPEHUWKHGD\ ZKHQ$QWRQLR2UGyxH]FDUULHGRXWKLV\HDUO\HSLSKDQ\LQ5RQGD I wondered for what strange reason a place so far removed from WKHHFRQRPLFDQGFXOWXUDOFHQWHUVDSODFHVXEMHFWHGSROLWLFDOO\WR the last regime in Europe with fascistic inclinations, a small city that was only relieved from its southern isolation by virtue of, at the time rather obscure, literary references, was to the deepest FRUHRIRXUVXEMHFWLYLW\WKHQXFOHDUUHIHUHQFHWKHVSLULWXDO KLJKOLJKWRIWKH\HDU Even then, similar images to the ones captured today by Aitor Lara shaped the surroundings of the ultimate event of the Goyesca, inside and outside the bullring of Ronda, and, as a matter RIIDFWWKHRQHVLQFOXGHGLQWKLVERRNVHHPWRWDNHXVEDFNWRWKDW WLPHDOWKRXJK,VXVSHFWWKLVZDVQRWWKHDXWKRU¡VLQWHQWLRQ$QG \HWSULRUWRVHHLQJWKHPLQWKHZRUNRI$LWRU/DUDVXFKLPDJHV ZHUHQRWSUHVHQWLQP\PLQG 2QWKHRQHKDQG,VLPSO\GLGQRWKDYH$LWRU/DUD¡VFDSDFLW\ to retain WKHPOLWHUDOO\WRNHHSWKDWZKLFKLVĂ HHWLQJLQHVVHQFH EXWZKLFKDOZD\VĂ&#x20AC;QGVQHZSURWDJRQLVWVDQGFLUFXPVWDQFHVWR UHSHDWLWVHOI+HQFHWKHVHQVDWLRQWKDWWKHVHLPDJHVDEVROXWHO\ UHFHQWVHHPWRHYRNHDQRWKHUWLPH6RPHRIWKHPWUDQVFHQGERWK the social and the spatial aspect, such that, had they been published LQDGLIIHUHQWFRQWH[WQRERG\ZRXOGKDYHEHHQDEOHWROLQNWKHP WR5RQGDRUHYHQWREXOOĂ&#x20AC;JKWLQJWKDWKXPDQVKDGRZWKDWVHHPVWR UXQDZD\IURPDFRPSURPLVLQJFROGZHDSRQWKHGRXEOHUHĂ HFWLRQ RIEDUVRUDOZD\VZLWKLQDZRUOGRIVKDGRZVWKHDZNZDUGFXUYHG FRUULGRUÂŤ Yet among the images that are framed within the context RIEXOOĂ&#x20AC;JKWLQJDQGWKHVRFLDOXQLYHUVHWKDWUHYROYHVDURXQGWKH celebrations of the GoyescaWKHUHLVJUHDWGLYHUVLW\6RPHRI

7KHUHDUHVHYHUDOPRQXPHQWVGHGLFDWHGWREXOOĂ&#x20AC;JKWHUVLQWKHFLW\ of Ronda, as well as a number of roads named after poets, some of whom are best remembered for the songs they wrote about the IRUPHU,QWKHFLW\RI5RQGD5DLQHU0DULD5LONHLVFRQVWDQWO\ EHLQJHYRNHGDQGDVPDOOHVWDWHQHDUE\ZKLFKRQFHEHORQJHGWRD GHIXQFWEXOOĂ&#x20AC;JKWHUKDVEHFRPHWKHUHVWLQJSODFHRI2UVRQ:HOOHV¡ DVKHVE\KLVRZQZLOO5RQGDZDVWKHSODFHRIELUWKRI)UDQFLVFR Giner de los RĂ­os, and a collective that carries the name of the pedagogue paid tribute some years ago to the memory of Miguel +HUQiQGH]ÂŤ Aitor Lara captures images of Ronda focused on the celebrations that revolve around the corrida Goyesca, and VRPHWLPHVRQO\ZLWKVXFKFHOHEUDWLRQVDVSUHWH[W2IWKHVRFDOOHG corridas de a pieEXOOĂ&#x20AC;JKWVFDUULHGRXWE\IRRWWKHUHLVRQO\RQHLQ 5RQGDHYHU\\HDU1HYHUWKHOHVVEXOOĂ&#x20AC;JKWLQJKDVFHUWDLQO\EHFRPH one of the symbols of the identity of the city, as it brings together WKHHVVHQFHRILWVFXOWXUH 'XULQJWKHKRXUVWKDWSUHFHGHGWKHYRWHWREDQEXOOĂ&#x20AC;JKWLQJ in the Parlament of CataluĂąa, a colleague and friend of mine from the University of Barcelona insisted on the argument that the geographic and cultural proximity of CataluĂąa to the rest of (XURSHUHQGHUHGWKHVXUYLYDORIEXOOĂ&#x20AC;JKWLQJXQIHDVLEOH,QVKRUW WKHSUDFWLFHKDGWREHDEROLVKHGEHFDXVHLWODFNHGDQ\WUDFHRI animalist sensibility and was, therefore, incompatible with the YDOXHVRIRXUHQYLURQPHQW7KRVHLQIDYRURIEXOOĂ&#x20AC;JKWLQJLQWXUQ tend to believe that the ones truly impervious to animal instincts are not the fans who demand that bulls be reared in a context that OHDGVWKHPWRIXOĂ&#x20AC;OOWKHQDWXUDOSRWHQWLDORIDFRPEDWLYHEUHHG ZKLFKGRHVQRWHQWDLORIFRXUVHWKDWVWRFNEUHHGHUVDFWXDOO\ UHVSRQGWRVXFKGHPDQGV EXWUDWKHUÂłMXVWE\ZD\RIH[DPSOHÂł SHRSOHZKRORFNWKHLUGRJVLQDĂ DWLQWKHFLW\/HWPHH[SODLQ 0DQNLQGKDVGRPHVWLFDWHGWKHZROIFKDQQHOLQJDQGXVLQJ the natural faculties of such animal to the point of turning it into a friend and an accomplice in the struggle against the adversities IRXQGLQWKHLUFRPPRQHQYLURQPHQW<HWLQRUGHUIRUWKHZROIGRJ WREHDQHIĂ&#x20AC;FLHQWRYHUVHHURIWKHODQGRUWKHĂ RFNVDVZHOODVWR be able to help in the activity of hunting, it must remain a wolfGRJLWVIDFXOWLHVPXVWVWD\VKDUSLWPXVWEHIDLWKIXOWRLWVVSHFLĂ&#x20AC;F QDWXUH7KLVLVQRWWKHFDVHZKHQLWLVFRQĂ&#x20AC;QHGWRDVPDOOXUEDQ space, or when it is treated as an exhibition piece, erected as the asthenic substitute of human company, conceived as the impossible palliative of the sort of loneliness for which only the complicity of speech and its succession from generation to generation can FRQVWLWXWHDGHTXDWHPHGLFLQH$VKHHSGRJNHSWLQDFLW\DSDUWPHQW is, all in all, a dog that does not display the potential of its breed and therefore is constrained to its generic form, reduced to mere

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SHUGHPRVODSDUWLGDGHORFXDOHVPXHVWUDODDOXGLGDUHVROXFLyQGHO 3DUODPHQWGH&DWDOXxD\RWUDVDQiORJDVTXHVHHVWiQIUDJXDQGR'H JHQHUDOL]DUVHHVWDDFWLWXGGHOOHJDUVHDFRQVLGHUDUSRUODPD\RUtD o por la minorĂ­a imperante que los toros son el sĂ­mbolo de algo incompatible con el ideario europeo, surgirĂ­a la pregunta sobre quĂŠ KDFHUFRQODFLXGDGGH5RQGD¢VXSULPLUVXVVtPERORV"¢'HVWUXLU DOJXQRVGHVXVPRQXPHQWRV"¢([SXOVDUODGHHVD(XURSDDVLQWyWLFD SDUDQXHVWUDVDVSLUDFLRQHVDVHUUHFRQRFLGRVDOĂ&#x20AC;QFRPRLQWHUSDUHV GHORVSXHEORVTXHVHDXWRFRQVLGHUDQOLPSLRVFODURV\ODERULRVRV" ¢(QTXp(XURSDWHQGUtDHQVXPDFDELGDHVWDYLHMD\DRMRVYLVWD FLYLOL]DGtVLPDFLXGDGGH5RQGD" Hace muchos aĂąos, cuando en diferentes lugares del mundo muchos ĂŠramos los que componĂ­amos nuestro calendario en IXQFLyQGHHVHSULPHUViEDGRGHVHSWLHPEUHHQHOTXHHQ5RQGD KDFtD$QWRQLR2UGyxH]VXHSLIDQtDDQXDOPHSUHJXQWDEDSRU quĂŠ extraĂąa circunstancia un lugar apartado de los centros de GHFLVLyQHFRQyPLFRV\FXOWXUDOHVXQOXJDUVRPHWLGRHQOR polĂ­tico al Ăşltimo rĂŠgimen fascistoide de Europa, una pequeĂąa ciudad a la que solo referencias literarias, entonces mĂĄs bien en la sombra, arrancaban de su aislamiento meridional, era para lo PiVH[LJHQWHGHQXHVWUDVXEMHWLYLGDGODUHIHUHQFLDQXFOHDUODFLWD HVSLULWXDOGHODxR Ya entonces imĂĄgenes anĂĄlogas a las que hoy recoge Aitor Lara constituĂ­an el entorno en la fecha cenit de la Goyesca, dentro \IXHUDGHODSOD]DGHWRURVGH5RQGD\GHKHFKRHVWDVGHOOLEUR parecen mĂĄs bien retrotraernos a aquella ĂŠpoca, aunque no creo TXHHOORVHGHEDDXQDLQWHQFLyQGHODXWRU<VLQHPEDUJRKDVWDQR SHUFLELUODVHQHOWUDEDMRGH$LWRU/DUDWDOHVLPiJHQHVQRHVWDEDQ SDUDPtSUHVHQWHV Por un lado, simplemente, no tenĂ­a la capacidad que tiene Aitor Lara de retenerlas, retener literalmente lo esencialmente IXJD]SHURTXHHQFXHQWUDVLHPSUHQXHYRVSURWDJRQLVWDV\ FLUFXQVWDQFLDVSDUDWHQHURFDVLyQGHUHLWHUDUVHGHDKtTXHHVWDV LPiJHQHVDEVROXWDPHQWHUHFLHQWHVSDUH]FDQVLQHPEDUJRGH RWUDpSRFD/DVKD\TXHWUDVFLHQGHQHOPDUFRWDQWRVRFLDOFRPR espacial, y de haber sido publicadas en otro contexto nadie hubiera podido vincularlas con Ronda y ni siquiera con la tauromaquia: esa sombra humana pareciendo huir de un arma blanca FRPSURPHWHGRUDHOGREOHUHĂ HMRGHUHMDVRVLHPSUHHQXQPXQGR GHVRPEUDVHOH[WUDxRSDVLOORFRQFXUYDWXUD 3HURHQODVLPiJHQHVTXHVtHVWiQFRQWH[WXDOL]DGDVHQ UHODFLyQDODWDXURPDTXLD\DOXQLYHUVRVRFLDOGHORVIHVWHMRVGH OD*R\HVFDODGLYHUVLGDGHVJUDQGH/DVKD\TXHDFHQW~DQHO DVSHFWRIRUPDOGHODSOiVWLFDWDXULQDDVtHVDVHYHUDĂ&#x20AC;JXUDGHXQ WRUHURFRQWHPSODQGRGHVGHORVPHGLRVODPXHUWHGHODQLPDO3HUR invito al lector a detenerse en aquellas en las que la tauromaquia

La ciudad de Ronda tiene varios monumentos a toreros y calles GHGLFDGDVDJUDQGHVSRHWDVDOJXQRVGHHOORVFDUDFWHUL]DGRV SRUKDEHUFDQWDGRDORVSULPHURV(QODFLXGDGGH5RQGDHV RPQLSUHVHQWHODHYRFDFLyQGH5DLQHU0DULD5LONH\HQXQD SHTXHxDĂ&#x20AC;QFDGHORVDOUHGHGRUHVSHUWHQHFLHQWHDXQWRUHUR\D IDOOHFLGRUHSRVDQSRUSURSLDYROXQWDGODVFHQL]DVGH2UVRQ:HOOHV (Q5RQGDQDFLy)UDQFLVFR*LQHUGHORV5tRV\XQFROHFWLYRTXH OOHYDHOQRPEUHGHOSHGDJRJRFHOHEUyKDFHXQRVDxRVODPHPRULD GH0LJXHO+HUQiQGH] $LWRU/DUDĂ&#x20AC;MDLPiJHQHVGH5RQGDFHQWUDGDVHQORVIHVWHMRV TXHVHRUJDQL]DQHQWRUQRDODFRUULGD*R\HVFD\HQRFDVLRQHV VLPSOHPHQWHFRQSUHWH[WRHQORVPLVPRV'HODVFRUULGDVOODPDGDV de a pie KD\HQ5RQGDWDQVRORXQDDODxR3HURSXHGHGHFLUVH que los toros son un sĂ­mbolo de la identidad de la ciudad y una FULVWDOL]DFLyQGHVXFXOWXUD (QODVKRUDVTXHSUHFHGtDQODYRWDFLyQDEROLFLRQLVWDHQHO Parlament de CataluĂąa, un colega y amigo de la Universidad de %DUFHORQDUHLWHUDEDHODUJXPHQWRGHTXHODSUR[LPLGDGJHRJUiĂ&#x20AC;FD y cultural de CataluĂąa a Europa hacĂ­a inviable seguir con las FRUULGDVGHWRURV/DWDXURPDTXLDGHEHUtDHQVXPDVHUDEROLGDSRU una intrĂ­nseca ausencia de sensibilidad animalista, incompatible FRQORVYDORUHVGHQXHVWURHQWRUQR/RVWDXULQRVWLHQGHQPiVELHQ DSHQVDUTXHLQVHQVLEOHDODFRQGLFLyQDQLPDOQRHVHODĂ&#x20AC;FLRQDGR que exige que un toro sea criado en un contexto que garantice las potencialidades naturales de un animal de combate (otra cosa es que los ganaderos respondan realmente a esta exigencia), sino mĂĄs ELHQÂłPHURHMHPSORÂłDTXHOTXHHQFLHUUDDVXSHUURHQXQSLVRGH FLXGDG0HH[SOLFR (OKRPEUHKDGRPHVWLFDGRDOORERFDQDOL]DQGR\XWLOL]DQGR las facultades naturales del mismo hasta hacer un amigo y FyPSOLFHHQVXOXFKDFRQWUDODDGYHUVLGDGGHOHQWRUQR0DVSDUD VHUHĂ&#x20AC;FD]YLJLODQWHGHODVWLHUUDVRHOUHEDxRFRPRSDUDVHUDX[LOLDU HQODFD]DHOORERSHUURKDGHSHUPDQHFHUWDOKDGHPDQWHQHU ODDJXGH]DGHVXVIDFXOWDGHVKDGHUHVSRQGHUDVXFRQGLFLyQ HVSHFtĂ&#x20AC;FDFRVDTXHQRRFXUUHFXDQGRHVFRQĂ&#x20AC;QDGRHQXQiPELWR GHH[SRVLFLyQRHQXQDQJRVWRHVSDFLRXUEDQRHULJLGRHQVXVWLWXWR astĂŠnico de la compaùía humana, en imposible paliativo de esa soledad para la que solo la complicidad en la palabra y el relevo de la misma en el ciclo de las generaciones constituye adecuada PHGLFLQD8QSHUURSDVWRUHQXQDSDUWDPHQWRFLXGDGDQRHVHQ suma, un perro que no despliega las potencialidades de su especie \DVtTXHGDVXEVXPLGRHQORJHQpULFRUHGXFLGRDPHURDQLPDO Todo lo contrario de lo que, en principio, constituye la crĂ­a de JDQDGREUDYR (QHVWHGHEDWHHQHOTXHODUD]yQDXWpQWLFDPHQWHHFRORJLVWD estĂĄ mĂĄs bien de nuestra parte, parece sin embargo que los taurinos

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7KHPRVWVHDVRQHGDPRQJXVVWLOONHHSWKHPHPRU\RIDIUDLO EHLQJRYHUFRPLQJLQKLVVRXOWKHXQLYHUVDOLQFOLQDWLRQWREXFNOH and escape, the image of the Master of Ronda going through the VWDJHVRIWKHĂ&#x20AC;JKWIRUFLQJWKHEXOOWRFRYHUVRPHJURXQGDQG leading it to a series of passes that attended to the calls of the DXGLHQFHRQRQHHQGRUWKHRWKHURIWKHULQJ ´+HUH$QWRQLRÂľ  But the trace of this generous, truthful and severe image of the JUHDWPDWDGRUIURP5RQGDLVLQH[WULFDEO\OLQNHGWRRWKHULPDJHV which often coincide with disastrous occasions in the political life of our country and, even, of the rest of the world (such as the GoyescaWKDWWRRNSODFHWZRGD\VDIWHU3LQRFKHW¡VFRXS  Memories of the contrasting emotions that could be felt in the front rows of the bullring, where, together with the veritable H[FLWHPHQWDPRQJWKHFLWL]HQVRI5RQGD ZKRZHUHVWLOOWKH PDMRULW\DPRQJWKHVSHFWDWRUVRIWKHGoyesca), the equally sincere enthusiasm of a staunch supporter of Francoist syndicalism, sitting tall in his wheelchair, revealing not only the dialectic QDWXUHRIWKHKXPDQVRXOEXWDOVRFRQĂ&#x20AC;UPLQJWKDW.DQWZDVULJKW DQGWKDWDHVWKHWLFMXGJPHQWPDNHVXSIRUHPSLULFDOVXEMHFWLYLW\ HQDEOLQJLQWHUVXEMHFWLYLW\ZKLFKLVQRWKLQJRWKHUWKDQWKHPXWXDO UHFRJQLWLRQDPRQJWKRVHZKRVKDUHQRWKLQJLQFRPPRQ A touching, fragile, serene Ronda, but at the same time, and maybe inseparably, an almost preposterous Ronda, certainly a QDXJKW\5RQGDZLOOFRPHEDFNWROLIHLQWKHVRXORIUHDGHUVDV WKH\PDNHWKHLUZD\WKURXJKWKLVERRN$PDQRIEXOOVRQFHZURWH â&#x20AC;&#x153;Ronda, tenacious and hardÂŤĂ&#x20AC;[\RXUVKDGRZÂľDVDQHSLWDSKRI VRUWVIROORZLQJWKHGHDWKRIKLVJRRGIULHQG$QWRQLR2UGyxH]

WKHPHPSKDVL]HWKHIRUPDODVSHFWRIWKHSODVWLFGLPHQVLRQRI EXOOĂ&#x20AC;JKWLQJVXFKDVWKHVHYHUHVKDSHRIDPDWDGRUZLWQHVVLQJWKH GHDWKRIWKHDQLPDOIURPWKHDUHQDÂŤ%XW,HQWUHDWWKHUHDGHUWR SDXVHEHIRUHWKRVHLQZKLFKEXOOĂ&#x20AC;JKWLQJDQGLWVFRQWH[WEHFRPH merely an opportunity for the artist to capture what might have EHHQFDXJKWHOVHZKHUH,PDJHVVRPHRIWKHPWKDWVKRZWKH complexity of reality, its reticence to be reduced to a single DVSHFWVXFKDVZKHQDVLPSOHFLJDUHWWHEUHDNVWKHUHSUHVHQWDWLRQDO IUDPHZRUN DVLIDSDLQNLOOHUDSSHDUHGLQWKHKDQGVRIWKH SURWDJRQLVWRIDKLVWRULFDOVFHQH RUZKHQEXOJLQJH\HVPDNHD VLPSOHFRVWXPHORRNJHQXLQHO\WURXEOLQJ The bodies of the banderilleros, elaborately folded onto the H[WUDYDJDQWFRVWXPHVHPSKDVL]HWKHDQDFKURQLVWLFWKHDWULFDO DVSHFWRIWKHFHOHEUDWLRQVRPHWLPHVZLWKDWRXFKRIELWWHUQHVV Some images, ruthless or tender, dealing either with the audience DVDZKROHRULQGLYLGXDOL]LQJDJLYHQVSHFWDWRUVHHPWRDWWHVWWR an archaic truthfulness of sorts, which stresses both the ordinary nature, as well as the singular or celebratory moment, of the H[LVWHQFHRIWKHFKDUDFWHUVGHSLFWHG2WKHULPDJHVKRZHYHUDUH simply dreadful, confronting us with the dialectic poles of human nature, and with the ambivalent aspect concealed inside cultures URRWHGLQDQFLHQWYDOXHV7KLVLVKRZWLPHDSSHDUVLQWKLVERRN 7LPHQRWRQO\LPPXQHWRWKHSOR\VWKDWVHHNWRVKHOWHUWKH ERG\IURPLWVHIIHFWVEXWDFWXDOO\PDNLQJLWVHOIPRUHHYLGHQW WKURXJKWKRVHYHU\SURYLVLRQVWLPHLQWKHFRVWXPHVWKDWOLQN us to a tradition, perchance one that never was, or, in any case, one that has been lost without a trace and that has since been DUWLĂ&#x20AC;FLDOO\FRQVWUXFWHGWLPHLQWKHIROGVRIJDUPHQWVLPSRVVLEOH to use on day-to-day life and clearly distanced from a spontaneous FHOHEUDWLRQWLPHLQWKHIROGVRIWKHVNLQDQGWKHFRDWLQJVRI liquids that magnify them; time, which, according to Marcel Proust, shines its light to become visible in exclusively human bodies; time â&#x20AC;&#x201D; in this case â&#x20AC;&#x201D; caught in the bodies of souls LPEXHGLQWKHYDOXHVRISXULW\7URXEOLQJWKLVVRXJKWDIWHUSXULW\ ´%HFDUHIXOZKDW\RXZLVKIRUÂŤÂľ LVWKHVKDSHRIDIDPRXV writer disguised in the costume of all costumes, that of an arenero goyesco As I said before, those images of crepuscular purity have always been present in the recollections that live with many of us, faithful frequenters of the celebrations of the Goyesca, and SRVVLEO\HYHQPRUHYLYLGO\LQWKHRQHVWKDWWDNHXVEDFNWRWKH years when the GoyescaZDVGRPLQDWHGE\$QWRQLR2UGyxH]%XW EDFNWKHQVXFKWZLOLJKWZDVFRXQWHUEDODQFHGE\DEULJKWVSRW because in Ronda was, indeed, Antonio, who in the eyes or the fantasy of the poet, Jean Cocteau, fought â&#x20AC;&#x153;against the bull, time DQGKLPVHOIÂľ

8


los tiempos del toro para hacerle recorrer terrenos y ofrecer unos lances respondiendo a las llamadas que se le hacĂ­an desde XQRXRWURWHQGLGR Š£$TXt$QWRQLRÂŞ 3HURODKXHOODGHHVWD imagen generosa, verĂ­dica y severa del gran torero rondeĂąo HVWiLQGLVRFLDEOHPHQWHHQWUHOD]DGDDRWUDVFRLQFLGHQWHVDYHFHV con fechas funestas para la vida polĂ­tica de nuestro paĂ­s y aun del mundo (asĂ­ la Goyesca dos dĂ­as despuĂŠs del golpe de estado GH3LQRFKHW 5HFXHUGRGHORVFRQWUDSXHVWRVVHQWLPLHQWRVTXH FDEtDH[SHULPHQWDUHQXQRVWHQGLGRVGHODSOD]DHQORVTXH MXQWRDODHPRFLyQYHUtGLFDGHORVFLXGDGDQRVGH5RQGD TXH entonces aĂşn eran mayoritarios en la Goyesca), el tambiĂŠn VLQFHURHQWXVLDVPRGHXQFHQWXULyQGHOVLQGLFDOLVPRIUDQTXLVWD irguiĂŠndose en su silla de ruedas, mostraba no solo el carĂĄcter GLDOpFWLFRGHODOPDKXPDQDVLQRWDPELpQTXH.DQWWHQtDUD]yQ\ TXHHOMXLFLRHVWpWLFRUHGLPHGHODVXEMHWLYLGDGHPStULFDKDFLHQGR SRVLEOHODLQWHUVXEMHWLYLGDGHVGHFLUHOUHFRQRFLPLHQWRPXWXRDXQ HQWUHDTXHOORVTXHQDGDFRPSDUWHQ 8QD5RQGDFRQPRYHGRUDIUiJLOVHUHQDSHURDODYH]\ TXL]iVLQGLVRFLDEOHPHQWHXQD5RQGDTXHUR]DORHVSHUSpQWLFRXQD Ronda en cualquier caso tremenda, revivirĂĄ en el alma del lector al recorrer las pĂĄginas de este libro: ÂŤRonda dura y tenazĂ&#x20AC;MDWX VRPEUDÂŞHVFULELyHQXQDVXHUWHGHHSLWDĂ&#x20AC;RXQKRPEUHGHOWRURWUDV ODPXHUWHGHVXDPLJR$QWRQLR2UGyxH]

y su entorno son para el artista mera oportunidad de captar lo que KXELHUDSRGLGRFDSWDUHQRWUDSDUWH,PiJHQHVHQDOJ~QFDVR TXHPXHVWUDQODFRPSOHMLGDGGHODUHDOLGDGVXUHVLVWHQFLDDVHU reducida a un aspecto, asĂ­ cuando un simple cigarrillo rompe el PDUFRGHUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ FRPRVLXQDSDVWLOODSDUDVXSHUDUOD MDTXHFDDSDUHFLHUDHQODVPDQRVGHOSURWDJRQLVWDGHXQDHVFHQD KLVWyULFD RFXDQGRXQRVRMRVVDOLGRVGHyUELWDGDQXQYLVRGH DXWpQWLFDLQTXLHWXGDXQPHURGLVIUD] En los cuerpos de los banderilleros, plegados muy DUWLĂ&#x20AC;FLRVDPHQWHDORVH[WUDxRVWUDMHVVHDFHQW~DHODVSHFWR DQDFUyQLFDPHQWHWHDWUDOGHOIHVWHMRDYHFHVFRQXQWRTXHGH DFLGH]$OJXQDVLPiJHQHVGHVJDUUDGDVRWLHUQDVUHODWLYDVELHQ DORVHVSHFWDGRUHVFRPRFROHFWLYRELHQDDOJXQRVLQJXODUL]DGR parecen dar testimonio de una suerte de veracidad arcaica, que marcarĂ­a tanto la cotidianeidad como el momento singular RIHVWLYRGHODH[LVWHQFLDGHORVVHUHVTXHUHSUHVHQWDQ2WUDV imĂĄgenes, sin embargo, son simplemente terribles, nos confrontan al polo dialĂŠctico del ser humano y al aspecto ambivalente que HQFLHUUDQODVFXOWXUDVDUUDLJDGDVHQYDORUHVGHOSDVDGR$SDUHFHDVt en este libro el tiempo: El tiempo no solo inmune a los artilugios que intentan no contemplarlo en el propio cuerpo, sino precisamente revelĂĄndose a travĂŠs de esos expedientes mismos: el tiempo en los disfraces TXHYLQFXODQDXQDWUDGLFLyQTXL]iVQXQFDYLYLGDRHQWRGRFDVR SHUGLGDVLQUHVFROGR\DUWLĂ&#x20AC;FLDOPHQWHFRQVWUXLGDHOWLHPSRHQORV SOLHJXHVGHYHVWLGRVLPSRVLEOHVHQODFRWLGLDQHLGDG\DOHMDGRV GHODĂ&#x20AC;HVWDHVSRQWiQHDHOWLHPSRHQORVSOLHJXHVGHODSLHO\ HQODVFDSDVOtTXLGDVTXHORVPDJQLĂ&#x20AC;FDQtiempo que, al decir de Marcel Proust, proyecta su linterna para hacerse visible en cuerpos exclusivamente humanos; el tiempo â&#x20AC;&#x201D;en este casoâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; en ORVFXHUSRVGHDOPDVHPEULDJDGDVHQORVYDORUHVGHOFDVWLFLVPR Inquietante en este casticismo buscado (ÂŤTen cuidado con lo que GHVHDVÂŞ ODĂ&#x20AC;JXUDGHXQFRQRFLGRHVFULWRUEDMRHVHGLVIUD]GH GLVIUDFHVTXHHVHOWUDMHGHXQDUHQHURŠJR\HVFRÂŞ Como ya he indicado, en la reminiscencia a la que apuntamos VLHPSUHPXFKRVGHORVTXHKHPRVVLGRDVLGXRVDORVIHVWHMRVGH la Goyesca, esas imĂĄgenes de crepuscular casticismo siempre han estado presentes, y si cabe con mayor impacto en los aĂąos en TXHOD*R\HVFDHUDFRVDGH$QWRQLR2UGyxH]3HURWDOFUHS~VFXOR tenĂ­a entonces luminoso contrapunto, pues en Ronda estaba efectivamente ÂŤAntonio luchando contra el toro, el tiempo y sĂ­ PLVPRÂŞHQODYLVLyQRHQVRxDFLyQTXHGHOWRUHURGH5RQGDWHQtDHO SRHWD-HDQ&RFWHDX Perdura en los mĂĄs veteranos de entre nosotros este recuerdo GHXQVHUIUiJLOYHQFLHQGRHQVXDOPDODXQLYHUVDOLQFOLQDFLyQD la renuncia y la fuga, imagen del Maestro de Ronda agotando

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(VWHWUDEDMRKDVLGRUHDOL]DGRSRUHQFDUJR GHOD5HDO0DHVWUDQ]DGH&DEDOOHUtDGH5RQGD GXUDQWHHOSULPHUĂ&#x20AC;QGHVHPDQDGHFDGDVHSWLHPEUH GHORVDxRV\FRQHOĂ&#x20AC;QGHJHQHUDU XQDUFKLYRIRWRJUiĂ&#x20AC;FRVREUHODVFRUULGDVGoyescas GHODIHULDGH3HGUR5RPHURGHODFLXGDG 4XLHURDJUDGHFHUD5DIDHO$WLHQ]DVXVLOHQFLR UHVSHWXRVRD1DFKR+HUUHUDVXDSR\R\FRQĂ&#x20AC;DQ]D D'LHJR&DUUDVFRVXVDELDLPSOLFDFLyQHQFDGDGHWDOOH \D)UDQFLVFR5LYHUD2UGyxH]ODOLEHUWDGFRQOD TXHKDFRQVHQWLGRTXHDFWXDUDHQODSOD]D 6HORGHGLFRDPLVDPLJRVTXHWHPSODQODĂ&#x20AC;HUD FRQIXHU]D\FODULYLGHQFLD

7KLVZRUNKDVEHHQFRPPLVVLRQHGE\WKH5HDO 0DHVWUDQ]DGH&DEDOOHUtDGH5RQGD 5R\DO&DYDOU\ $UPRU\RI5RQGD RQWKHĂ&#x20AC;UVWZHHNHQGRI6HSWHPEHU 2009, 2010 and 2011 in order to produce a photographic archive of the GoyescaEXOOĂ&#x20AC;JKWVWKDWWDNHSODFH LQWKHFLW\GXULQJWKH)DLURI3HGUR5RPHUR ,ZLVKWRWKDQN5DIDHO$WLHQ]DIRUKLVUHVSHFWIXO silence, Nacho Herrera for his support and his trust, Diego Carrasco for his insightful involvement in every GHWDLODQG)UDQFLVFR5LYHUD2UGyxH]IRUDOORZLQJPH WRDFWZLWKVRPXFKIUHHGRPLQWKHULQJ I dedicate it to my friends, who tame the beast ZLWKVWUHQJWKDQGFODLUYR\DQFH


Junta de Gobierno Teniente de Hermano Mayor

5DIDHO$WLHQ]D0HGLQD0DUTXpVGH6DOYDWLHUUD Fiscal

&DUORV$OEDUUDFtQ0DUWtQGH2OLYD Diputado Primero

Francisco Javier Linares Medina, Marquรฉs de la Vega de la Sagra Diputado Segundo

5DIDHO%HQMXPHD&DEH]DGH9DFD0DUTXpVGH9DOGHFDxDV&RQGHGHO*XDGDOKRUFH Ex Teniente

0DULDQR*yPH]GHODV&RUWLQDV$QGUDGD9DQGHUZLOGH Archivero

-RVp0DUtDGH$UHLO]D&DUYDMDO&RQGHGH5RGDV Portero

*DVSDU$WLHQ]D%HFHUULO Secretario

Juan de Mora-Figueroa Gayรกn &RPLVDULDGH3OD]D

$QQD*DPD]R+RKHQORKH Primer Comisario de Clarines

-RDTXtQ/ORUpQV*yPH]GHODV&RUWLQDV&RQGHGH3R]R$QFKRGHO5H\ Segundo Comisario de Clarines

&DUORV(VSLQRVDGHORV0RQWHURV%HUQDOGRGH4XLUyV0DUTXpVGH9DOWLHUUD Maestro de Ceremonias

-XDQ3HOHJUt*LUyQ9L]FRQGHGHODV7RUUHVGH/X]yQ Director General

Ignacio Herrera de La Muela


(GLFLyQ3XEOLVKHU La Fรกbrica 'LVHxRJUiร€FR*UDSKLFGHVLJQ (QD&DUGHQDOGHOD1XH] 7UDGXFFLyQ7UDQVODWLRQV 0RQWDJXH.REEH Fotomecรกnica / Reproductions Cromotex ,PSUHVLyQ3ULQWLQJ %UL]]ROLVDUWHHQJUiร€FDV ย‹GHHVWDHGLFLyQWKLVHGLWLRQ/D)iEULFD ยฉ de los textos / the texts: sus autores / their authors ยฉ de las imรกgenes / images: Aitor Lara ISBN 978-84-15303-92-3 'HSyVLWROHJDO/HJDO'HSRVLW M-25881-2012

Editor / Publisher Alberto Anaut Directora editorial / Editorial Director Camino Brasa Director de Desarrollo / Development Director )HUQDQGR3D] 3URGXFFLyQ3URGXFHU Paloma Castellanos 2UJDQL]DFLyQ2UJDQLVHU Rosa Ureta La Fรกbrica 9HUyQLFD 28014 Madrid 7 ) HGLFLRQ#ODIDEULFDFRP ZZZODIDEULFDHGLWRULDOFRP /DWLSRJUDItDXWLOL]DGDHQHVWHOLEURHV7LPHV5RPDQ \KDVLGRLPSUHVRHQSDSHO6\PERO7DWDPL:KLWHGHJU 7KHW\SHIDFHXVHGLQWKLVERRNLV7LPHV5RPDQ DQGLWKDVEHHQSULQWHGRQ6\PERO7DWDPL:KLWHJUSDSHU


Ronda Goyesca Aitor Lara  

Fotografías de Aitor Lara sobre las corridas goyescas en la plaza de toros de Ronda. Prólogo de Victor Gómez Pin. Edita La Fabrica en colabo...

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