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land, naval & homeland security magazine | December 2020 - January 2021 | Vol VIII | Issue 3

a magazine dedicated to aerospace & defence industry

Navy Day Special Issue

Admiral Karambir Singh, PVSM, AVSM, ADC Chief of the Naval Staff, Indian Navy

Interview with Chief of Naval Staff Page - 08

in association with

Editorial Indian Navy’s future lies in local tie-ups, adequate budget allocation Shedding its buyer tag and leaving no stones unturned to transform itself into a ‘builder’, the Indian Navy definitely looks ahead to achieve an all-round indigenisation, not just to protect the country’s long coastline, but also to provide the country a ‘blue water navy’ to ensure peace in the Indian Ocean Region. Celebrating another Navy Day, the Indian Navy has reiterated its commitment to uphold the national mission of ‘Make in India’, and to implement the Indian Navy Indigenisation Plan (INIP) 2015-2030 with the support of the private sector. The government decision raising the FDI cap in the defence sector from 49 per cent to 74 per cent through automatic route has already encouraged the Indian industrial firms to collaborate with foreign companies and develop key niche technologies for the aerospace and defence sector. But, looking at the current scenario, a larger private participation is required in the development of naval platforms and weapons. So as to assert its superiority in the region, the Indian Navy will have to grow at a fast pace for which induction of a large number of ships, submarines and aircrafts is required. And, all these platforms will have to be equipped with state-of-the-art weapons and sensors. The local support is also required for development and maintenance of equipment for handling aircrafts, arms and ammunition, and several other core military technologies indigenously to enhance the country’s naval capabilities. The future also lies in deployment of unmanned weapon systems, robotic soldiers and sophisticated machines which can operate in all environments while confronting the hostile neighbours. It is to develop Indian Navy as a credible force that the demand for adequate budgetary resources is being raised. Though a long-term budgetary support is required to develop all capabilities, the Navy’s share in the defence budget dropped to around 12 per cent from around 18 per cent it was being allotted in the past. Currently ranked fifth among the powerful navies of the world, the Indian Navy should have its due budget allocation even if the aim is just to retain its position. Above all, the increasing role of Indian Navy in countering the challenges by a hostile China is being stressed over the recent times. It has to exploit the gaps in China’s force levels, and its vulnerability in the Indian Ocean. For an effective deterrence, as experts point out, it has to be credible not just through ownership of assets but also through a strong will of the nation to use them. Sunny Jerome Managing Editor For Publishing Articles, Advertisements Editor, Sailors & Warriors, Aeromag Asia, B-2, SAPPHIRE, 1st, Block, 3rd Cross, Prakruthi Township, Babusapalya, Kalyan Nagar, Bangalore - 560113, Karnataka, India Call: +91 94490 61925 | Tel: +91 80 43747492 Email: defencenews@aeromag.in Printed at Rashtrotthana Mudranalaya, 19/1, K.G. Nagar, Bangalore - 19


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Regional Representatives Berlin, Germany Detlef Becker E : dw.becker@arcor.de T : + 497 112317595 M : + 491 701626053 Paris, France Marie-Thérèse Bonfigli E : mt.bonfigli@indavia.com M : +33 (0)6 89 20 95 68 Moscow, Russia George Smirnov E : gs1972@yandex.ru M : +7 (906)711-03-51 / (495)644-17-33 Cairo, Egypt Dr. Ashraf Rashed E : all@freezone-egy.com T : + 2 01222164036 New Delhi Wg.Cdr.(Rtd) G.C.Mahabhatra E : sw@aeromag.in T : + 91 9818903111 Tamil Nadu Sundaram Ramaswamy E : aerospacesundar@gmail.com T : + 91 9443222805 Sunny Jerome Managing Editor Preethi M. Associate Editor

Content 06 Indigenisation: Indian Navy Takes a Big Leap Forward 08 Thrusting Outwards in Maritime Dominance 12 Xcelerating’ Digital Transformation: Siemens leads the way 16 A Two-Front War Round the Corner? 19 GSS pledges continued support to Indian Navy 20 Corrosion Protection of Steel in Marine Environment 22 Malabar Exercise: Checking the Chinese ambitions 24 Building an invincible armada 28 Navy sign MOU with CODISSIA 30 ‘Maritime Theatre Command’ in Near Future, Says Navy Chief 31 Navy Chief reviews operational readiness at sea 34 Successful Test Firing of BrahMos by Indian Navy 36 SAMDeS, a key think tank creating strategic discourse 38 IAF Chief Reviews LCH Programme, Takes a Sortie 40 Dominating the Triad of Underwater, Surface and Air 42 Basin trials of IAC successful

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Indigenisation: Indian Navy Takes a Big Leap Forward


eaving behind an era of imports and dependence, the Indian Navy is all poised for an exponential growth as firm steps are being taken towards an all-round indigenisation, which will be crucial for protecting the country’s long and vulnerable coastline in future. Upholding the national mission of ‘make in India’, the Ministry of Defence is already promoting procurement of major equipment through Indian vendors, thus encouraging the Indian industrial firms to collaborate with foreign companies, to develop key niche technologies and be the prime contractor. The government’s intention to give a major boost to indigenization in the defence sector is clearly evident in the extensive Indian Navy Indigenisation Plan (INIP) 2015-2030, which is currently under implementation. Besides, moves to rope in the private sector has already begun and the FDI limit has been


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raised from 26% to 49% and up to 100% on a case-to-case basis for niche technologies. Private players like Tata, Mahindra, Reliance, Kirloskar, L&T and Godrej have defence-related units and some of them have collaboration agreements with foreign firms. The government has also set up the Technology Development Fund, simplified procedures and has trimmed the list of defence products which cannot be manufactured by nongovernment agencies, to encourage indigenisation in the defence sector. The giant steps being taken by the Indian Navy to play a significant role in protecting the country’s coastline could be seen in the backdrop of China’s ‘String of Pearls’ project, which also underscores the role it can play in the country’s naval architecture and its responsibility, now equal to that of the army, the air force and the paramilitary

forces, in guarding the nation. New carriers are being designed and manufactured in India, and it’s obvious that indigenisation is picking up. The Era of Dependence The Indian Navy in the past had acquired most of its technology through import from diverse sources. The aircraft carriers like Vikrant, Virat and Vikramaditya were all imports and the N-powered INS Chakra is another example. The expertise needed to manage the operation and maintenance of the imported weapons was always a headache. The reason was the failure of research organisations and industry to develop any reliable major systems within a reasonable timeframe. This lack of credible R&D in military sciences and technologies, inadequate amalgamation between R&D and the manufacturing

sector, the near absence of an integrated approach among users, designers and manufacturers have been some of the important reasons for India’s inability to achieve satisfactory levels of self-reliance in many crucial defence technologies. Other problems like technology-denial have also affected the local development and manufacture of military knowhow. Towards Indigenisation Now, the INIP 2015-2030 has superseded the Indigenisation Plan 2008-2022 and the results of the two plans are there for all to see today. About 80 ships have been designed since the start of the indigenous shipbuilding programme in the 1970s under the aegis of the Directorate of Naval Design and about 48 state-of-the-art ships and submarines are under various stages of construction. The future will certainly see major progress and those days when imports were the backbone of the Indian Navy may be forgotten soon. The indigenisation process is already a success is some areas. To cite an example, adequate expertise in the hull design and construction of various types of warships has been acquired to some extent. Ample expertise and production capabilities are available in propulsion systems (barring marine gas turbines) and related auxiliaries and support services like air conditioning, refrigeration and other vital areas. There is reasonable self-sufficiency in power generation and distribution systems, communication systems, combat management systems, sonars and electronic warfare systems. Some electronic equipment like microprocessor-based automated power management systems for installation on ships are also being supplied locally. Other systems that are being manufactured locally are hull construction materials, boilers, electronic warfare systems, sonars, gunfire control systems, supersonic missile systems and torpedo tube launchers. In many areas, more progress is needed and considering the current trends, this is achievable Though the Indian Navy possesses design capabilities and to some extent the production base, considerable performance enhancements are required in the area of underwater

weapons and sensors, multi-function radars, IT based systems, and some other equipment. This is because their critical subsystems and components are imported. Gas turbines of all naval ships are imported. This situation may not change overnight. But many rays of light can be seen in the INIP 20152030. A start has been made towards this end. General Electric’s LM 2500 gas turbine is being manufactured under licence. In course of time, there will be progressive increase in its indigenisation. Private Participation At the moment, the role of local industry in the development of naval platforms and weapons isn’t much. Under such circumstances, the public and private sectors have a lot of work to do. The private industry has been involved in manufacture of various missile, rocket and torpedo launchers. A number of missile handling equipment has also been manufactured by local industry. But the number of vendors is limited and a larger participation may be needed. Firms like L&T, Mahindra Defence and Tata Power Strategic Electronics Division (SED) are in this field and have successfully partnered the Navy in the development of the launchers and handling equipment. The Indian Navy is bound to grow at a fast pace in the coming years with the induction of a large number of ships, submarines and aircraft. These platforms will have to be equipped with state-of-the-art weapons and sensors. These equipment are certain to allow the Navy to assert superiority in the area where it will operate. The requirement of these equipment is based on maritime security requirements with a definite timeframe for development. The manufacture of submarines is another vital area. The Scorpene project is progressing at Mumbai’s Mazagon Dock Limited under a transfer of technology programme from France’s DCNS (NAVAL Group). The construction of naval vessels under P-75(I) is also being taken up in India. All this has offered an excellent opportunity for indigenisation of equipment and systems.

of the second aircraft carrier. Local industry support is being sought for the development and maintenance of various handling equipment for them. A lot of equipment for handling aircrafts/ arms/ammunition will be required. Some of these equipment that are being imported presently have to be developed by the Indian industry. The development of this kind of core military technologies indigenously will significantly enhance naval capabilities. Therefore, there is a great need to study the trends of technological advancements in order to invest in inducting them. The salient feature of future wars will be the deployment of unmanned weapon systems, robotic soldiers and sophisticated machines which can operate in all environments. Space, cyber space and asymmetric dimensions are likely to assume greater importance and advancement in critical technologies like sensors, robotics, communication and electronics will be the highlights of future warfare. So it is an imperative for the Indian Navy to keep up pace with the development of technology globally. This alone will help it tackle the threat from hostile neighbours that is growing with each passing day. There is little doubt that the Indian Navy is poised for an exponential growth in almost all areas. But this growth will be possible only with the participation of the public and private sectors. The beginnings of their participation are there for all to see. And this is bound to a make the Indian Navy a major force not only in the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal but also in the distant waters of the South China Sea.

Developing Core Technologies Then there is the planned induction

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The Indian Navy was able to address very early the challenges posed by Covid-19 pandemic in the operational domain and quickly put into place processes and protocols to ensure that operational readiness of its units was not affected. And, that was crucial for evaluating the maritime security environment in the Indian Ocean Region on a continuous basis, especially considering the live situation with China across the LAC in Ladakh, points out Admiral Karambir Singh, PVSM, AVSM, ADC, the Chief of the Naval Staff of the Indian Navy in an exclusive interview with Aeromag Asia. Besides, in the backdrop of Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan’ and a significant hike in FDI cap in defence sector, the Indian Navy, with selfreliance and indigenisation as its foundational aspects, will remain committed to ensure that indigenous shipbuilding delivers dividends, both technologically and economically, the Chief of the Naval Staff asserts. Excerpts from the interview: Admiral Karambir Singh, PVSM, AVSM, ADC Chief of the Naval Staff, Indian Navy


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Thrusting Outwards in Maritime Dominance Admiral, in the face off with the Covid-19 pandemic, how – if at all – has the Indian Navy changed in its priorities with regard to Float, Move and Fight segments? There is no doubt that we are currently grappling with an extraordinary situation. However, regardless of the challenges, ‘Fight’ is, and shall always be, the top priority for the Indian Navy. Our singular aim is to remain a ‘Combat ready, Credible and Cohesive Force’ ready to meet present and future challenges in the maritime domain. The pandemic did pose some challenges in the operational domain. These were, however, addressed very early during the outbreak and the Indian Navy was able to quickly put into place processes and protocols to ensure that operational readiness of our units was not affected. Apart from this, while the Indian Navy met all its operational tasking, it is also concurrently contributing to the national effort in fighting the pandemic. Our operational readiness has been aptly showcased by our willingness and ability to look ‘outwards’ and render assistance to our friendly nations in IOR (Indian Ocean Region), when the natural tendency is to look ‘inwards’. In this context, the Indian Navy undertook Operation Samudra Setu to repatriate around 4,000 Indian nationals from IOR countries during the Covid-19 pandemic. We also undertook Mission Sagar to provide ration, stores, medicines and medical team to littoral nations in the

IOR. At the same time, fully mission ready ships were also deployed across the vast expanse of our areas of interest through missionbased deployments. We are also brainstorming on lesson learnt from the pandemic so as to integrate changes in our acquisitions, operations and training philosophies. What was the most challenging aspect of the repatriation mission undertaken by the Indian Navy to bring back our stranded citizens in Iran, Maldives, Sri Lanka and the Arabian Gulf countries in the wake of the coronavirus outbreak? As part of ‘Operation Samudra Setu’ conducted from May to Jun 20, Indian Navy undertook evacuations of approximately 4,000 Indian nationals from Maldives, Sri Lanka and Iran. We worked closely with our Missions in order to ensure the success of the evacuation. Covid-19 pandemic has had significant impact on ships and seafarers due to the enclosed environment and forced ventilation systems onboard ships. You

are all well aware of the challenges faced by MV Diamond Princess off Japan following the outbreak of Covid-19 onboard. It was in these trying times and difficult conditions that the Indian Navy took up the challenge to evacuate our overseas citizens. The greatest challenge for the Indian Navy was to avoid any incident of outbreak onboard the ships during the evacuation operation. Rigorous measures were put in place and medical/ safety protocols unique to the operating environment of ships were implemented. These were strictly followed onboard the ships undertaking Operation Samudra Setu. Ships best suited for Covid-19 related social

distancing norms vis-à-vis medical arrangements and carrying capacity, undertook the operation. Ships were specially provisioned with medical facilities onboard and Covid-19 related equipment. Women officers and military nursing staff were also embarked for women passengers. The operation was even more significant considering the live situation with China across the LAC in Ladakh. How do you propose to meet the challenges posed by China in the Indian Ocean region and consequent maritime contingencies? The Indian Navy is aware of deployments of various navies in the IOR and Gulf of Aden. Activities in the maritime domain

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are monitored closely by the Indian Navy. As a professional force, we evaluate the maritime security environment in the IOR, on a continuous basis. Capability and capacity in the form of force readiness and force planning of the Indian Navy is shaped to meet any challenges in the region. In which sphere does the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan drive make the biggest impact on Indian Navy’s operational assets? On May 12, 2020, the Prime Minister had announced a ₹ 20 lakh crore economic relief package for ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyaan’. Needless to say that, the government is taking steps to promote the indigenous industry. The Indian industry is evolving at a rapid pace and quality products are being manufactured within the country. This is being leveraged by Navy to develop systems and equipment to replace foreign origin items with indigenously developed ones. While we have achieved considerable progress in ‘Float’ and ‘Move’ category, indigenous development of high-end technologies,

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their translation into defence hardware, induction and standardisation in the ‘Fight’ category are the main focus areas for the Navy. ‘Self-Reliance’ and ‘Indigenisation’ have been foundational aspects in our force development plans over the last several decades. We have been able to transform from a ‘Buyer’s Navy’ to a ‘Builder’s Navy’. Shipbuilding and nation-building are synonymous and the Indian Navy is committed to ensure that indigenous shipbuilding delivers dividends, both technologically and economically. While boosting domestic defence manufacturing, how would an import embargo plan and hiking foreign direct investment in defence manufacturing through automatic route to 74% reflect on the Navy’s acquisition plans? Whilst the import embargo is also called ‘Negative List’, I like to call it as ‘Indigenisation List’ as it better reflects the core concepts of ‘Self Reliance’. The first indigenisation list of 101 defence items was announced by the government in Aug 20.

The objective of this list is to apprise the Indian defence industry about the anticipated requirements of the armed forces and offers them an opportunity ‘to manufacture items in the indigenisation list by using their own design and development capabilities or adopting the technologies designed and developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)’. The Technology Perspective and Capability Roadmap (TPCR) first issued in 2013 and later revised in 2018 also had a similar objective. However, it would be vital for the R&D agencies and Indian defence industry to meet the timelines as mentioned in the indigenisation list, to enable the defence services to maintain the desired levels of capability and operational readiness. Enhancement of FDI to 74% through automatic route is likely to accrue significant benefits to the defence sector. It would encourage multinationals to set up manufacturing bases in India or engage local companies. The enhanced controlling rights with foreign OEMs (original

equipment manufacturers) would incentivise sharing technology, thereby boosting tech base in the country. Availability of niche technology through the FDI route would also provide opportunities to Indian enterprises to leverage available technology, by shortening the learning curve through strategic partnerships. Enhancement in FDI would boost technological know-how and overall competitiveness of the Indian industry to offer solutions not only in India, but also for export. In Naval aviation, what is the status of the twin-engine deck-based fighter and such integration into the Combat Management System? The LCA (N) Mk1 programme was established to meet IN Carrier based fighter requirement. It has been designated as a technological demonstrator as the aircraft does not meet the navy’s operational requirements (ORs). Considerable lessons have been learnt during its developmental journey viz. proving of niche technologies such as Arrestor Hook System, Light Weight Strengthened Undercarriage and technologies to demonstrate Carrier Compatibility Testing. To gainfully utilise this expertise and to meet Indian Navy’s requirements, we along with DRDO (ADA) and HAL, have embarked on the critical indigenous project to develop a Twin-Engine Deck-Based Fighter (TEDBF). The ORs have been finalised and preliminary design review is being undertaken by ADA. It is planned for the aircraft to be integrated into the combat management grid of the Navy.

An AS9100D & CE Certified Company An emerging MSME in the fields of aerospace and defence, Aerospace Engineers Private Limited (AEPL) is now certified AS9100D, ISO14001, ISO45001, NADCAP, CE Marking and ZED. It was founded in 2011 for manufacturing high precision non-metallic parts (rubber, plastic & composite), metallic parts and assemblies. And, since the beginning AEPL has been working on the ‘Make in India’ Concept. Over the years, the company has indigenised more than 15,000 parts which include high precision and critical sub-systems for helicopter (military, navy & coast guard) programme, fighter aircrafts MiG29, Sukhoi 30 MKI, MiG 29K (under development), missiles, torpedoes and rocket programme. Some of the critical assemblies like canopy seal are developed and supplied for MiG29, R. Sundaram Su30MKI, Kiran, (MiG29K and MiG29 trainer under development). Lubrication oil pump (Geo Managing Director & CEO, Rotor) for ALH is under development for naval helicopter, while hose assemblies (metal hose Aerospace Engineers Pvt.Ltd. as well as rubber hoses which use fluids like hydraulic oil, lubrication oil, fuel and pneumatic with pressure rating up to 210 bar working pressure), rubber fuel tank for UAV programme, (rubber fuel tank for HAWK (Navy) is under discussion for development), composite assemblies like convergent and divergent nozzle for AKASH, numerous details for Brahmos, Igniter and TVC assembly for LRSAM, fuel restrictor valves, solenoids, etc., are being designed, manufactured, assembled and qualified with approved and authorised agencies like CEMILAC, RCMA and DGAQA. AEPL which practice AS9100D QMS with high discipline work force of about 300 employees, strongly believes on ‘Vocal for Local’ and is proud to point out that most of the employees are from the nearby village. With their efforts, AEPL is making high-quality parts for aerospace and defence and its manufacturing facility is approved by DGAQA. World class facilities are also available for manufacture of rubber products. Dust-free rubber manufacturing is a unique facility in India. As many as 30 rubber presses (32 tonne to 500 tonne) are available with a maximum bed size of 1250 x 1250mm. So far, AEPL has developed 122 compounds which meet various standards (international & Europe). These compounds are duly certified by CEMILAC. For the manufacturing of high precision machining parts, the company has 25 CNC machines (Turning Centres, Machining Centres, Turn Mill Centres, Mill Turn Centres, 4 and 5 Axis setup, CNC wire cut, Poly turn, etc.) These parts are being supplied for own assembly shop, HAL (Tejas), ALH, LPSC, VSSC, ISRO, Apollo Aerospace, BDL and DRDO. AEPL also has inspection facilities like CMM, VMM, UTM, Profile Projectors, Ultrasonic Testing and LPT, besides environmental test and testing facilities for rubber and metallic parts. The company, now, is focusing on sub-system developments like sub-assemblies of aircraft, OH and refurbishing rubber fuel tanks, gear box maintenance, actuator repair and overhaul, world class testing facilities for aerospace and defence requirements, clean room facility for composite manufacturing, which are planned in its new facility at Hosur (near Bangalore).

Make In India

Made For India

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Xcelerating’ Digital Transformation: Siemens leads the way Siemens has been providing a comprehensive digital twin and thread to the aerospace and defence industry to successfully execute the programmes that are transforming air travel, space exploration, and defence. How crucial is the digitalization of the industry in the present age and how to seam and support the process with its product and services? As companies seek to develop new products faster Dale Tutt and manage their costs Vice President, better, they also need to Aerospace and Defense Industry, manage their risks. And quite Siemens Digital Industries Software frankly, they need to develop high-performing products. Siemens, during the With all the innovation challenging times of Covid-19 going on, all the software development, and the amount pandemic, has been providing of electrification we’re seeing in solutions to its partners and new products, the benefits that customers to accommodate you get when you start using a changes and adapt quickly, comprehensive digital twin and the digital thread along with the helping them not just to solutions within our Xcelerator survive but to thrive in portfolio enables companies in this digital era. Dale Tutt, these industries to thrive in this age the Vice President of of digitalization. Our Xcelerator portfolio, brings all our products Aerospace and Defense and services together, and can scale Industry for Siemens to any size of the company. They Digital Industries Software, include CAD, PLM, manufacturing says his company will solutions, model-based systems engineering (MBSE), supply chain continue invest in already management and product support. powerful manufacturing It is also important to remember that solutions and foster Siemens, first of all, is a manufacturing digital transformation, company, and we have real-world experience in the digital transformation ‘which is critical for the of factories. We are able to leverage our A&D industry’. Excerpts own experience, as well as our Xcelerator from an interview: portfolio to help customers through their digital transformation. Before customers

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make any large investments in a new factory, they need to be able to simulate it and have the confidence that it’s going to work, whether it’s going to accelerate their process and increase their productivity. The power of that digital transformation is how much faster our customers can move when it’s time to start ramping up the production rate. If they are building aircraft, how can they move from getting the first airplane out the door to building 10, 20 or 50 a month? True digital transformation requires a strong understanding of your manufacturing processes. This is where what we call “virtual commissioning” becomes important. A customer can use simulation to validate whether their factory is going to meet their needs. Then, as they move from that initial factory setup to the production line, there is the continual opportunity to optimize production by leveraging data from the factory floor. Once the factory is up and running, the digital twin can be used to validate and optimize the production line and processes throughout the life of the factory. This is how companies become more flexible, better able to accommodate changes and accelerate all of their processes through the use of the digital twin. Digitalization is critical for these industries right now. Who are the major clients worldwide? Siemens serves almost every major A&D company in the world right now, as well as many medium and small-sized companies and start-ups. The list of major companies includes Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, Rolls Royce, General Dynamics Land Systems Division and Raytheon Technologies. In Russia, Sukhoi and United Aircraft Corporation are our customers. We also have customers in China, Japan, and Korea – really all over the world. In India, we work with clients such as HAL and numerous major Indian defence labs. Additionally, major space players worldwide are using Siemens’ Xcelerator, including companies such as SpaceX, United Launch

Alliance and Rocket Lab. We have a lot of companies using our solutions worldwide in all sectors of aerospace and defence. Global unrest is driving a significant investment in land defence systems modernization, and there is a high demand for technological advancement in sustainable weapons systems. What are the products and services offered by Siemens in land Defence system? When we talk about products, services and solutions used in land defence systems, it’s really the same tools and solutions we offer throughout the A&D industry. Whether it’s in modelbased systems engineering (MBSE), product design, simulation & analysis, manufacturing or product support, the same tools and offerings are used for the design and development of land defence systems. We’re able to provide defence companies with an end-to-end and closed loop solution for the full product life cycle.

The pandemic has certainly created some challenging times for us, and a lot of our customers have gone through major changes as a result. But, the companies which were already on a path towards digital transformation were able to adapt more quickly.

Aerospace and defence industry in India has been thriving over the last decade with a consistent boost by central government through various policies. How does Siemens look at Indian market for its business? Could you shed some light on business in India? As we look at India, we see huge growth opportunities for the A&D industry. Today, there’s a huge push to develop Indian products and Indian aircraft, to develop indigenously. We see huge potential in India with many growth opportunities for companies starting to develop new aerospace and defence products. Our role as a leader

in digital transformation for aerospace and defence is to bring the Xcelerator portfolio to companies both big and small. We are helping customers with their digital transformation, and as a result of implementing our products, we see these companies designing, developing and verifying new products faster as they move into their certification programmes. Just as important is helping our customers for a smooth transition into manufacturing and product support. We see the business opportunity in India as a way how we could partner with these companies and help them be successful. The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all sectors of industry over the last seven months, thus testing the endurance of most leading companies. How Siemens has managed to overcome the challenges posed by the pandemic? The pandemic has certainly created some challenging times for us, and a lot of our customers have gone through major changes as a result. But, what we are witnessing is that the companies which were already on a path towards digital transformation were able to adapt more quickly as they moved into this remote work environment. Companies needed to make adjustments to how their factories were set up, and we were able to work with them providing solutions, for example, that enabled them to revise how their factories are laid out to ensure safe social distancing, while still maintaining productivity levels. Siemens has also worked with companies to add more automation. It’s really about working with our customers through this difficult period not only to help them survive, but to come out stronger and better positioned to produce faster with less cost as the economies around the globe recover. In the quest to make products lighter yet stronger, manufacturers are increasing their use of composite materials in both aerospace and defence industries. Siemens Simcenter is at the leading edge of composite analysis and is widely used. Could you talk more about Simcenter? While Siemens adds value through the individual solutions around design, analysis and manufacturing, the area

True digital transformation requires a strong understanding of your manufacturing processes. This is where what we call “virtual commissioning” becomes important. A customer can use simulation to validate whether their factory is going to meet their needs.

in which our customers see the most value is our digital thread that provides continuity from requirements into design, analysis and then into the testing and actual fabrication of the part. Through this comprehensive digital thread, the entire process can be completed as efficiently as possible with no need for data translations from engineering to manufacturing. It’s a fluid and seamless process that starts with Fibersim, which is integrated with our NX software for composite design and analysis. It is then sent to Simcenter to be analyzed for structural integrity, which is extremely important, especially for aerospace where the structures need to be as light as possible, yet as strong as possible. As the product moves from engineering into production, the digital thread continues with manufacturing execution systems and manufacturing planning systems. It further extends into the automation that’s used to build the parts and then after the parts are produced, for analysing and actually inspect those parts and to close the loop both on the quality processes and the manufacturing processes to ensure that the manufactured part meets the requirements of the design. Model-based systems engineering (MBSE) also plays a major role here. It’s a big part of the composite design and manufacturing process. Through an MBSE digital thread, aircraft level requirements flow down into the structure and those requirements then flow into individual parts. Adhering to the most stringent requirements during the design of the product makes it easier to verify and validate

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that those requirements are met in the end product. An MBSE digital thread streamlines and maintains connectivity back to the requirements from design through manufacturing and into use, creating a closed-loop environment. Finally, I would like to mention additional technology that we see on the factory floor. For example, electronic work instructions as well as augmented reality (AR) can help ensure technicians are not just looking at where the ply layouts are located, but are able to incorporate newer visualizations. This can free up technicians from managing a lot of paper. The information is all digitalized and readily available. They can see how the parts move. As our customers develop more complex products it’s important to bring more visualization to the factory. Siemens Digital Industries Software has developed a new approach to assess the fatigue performance of 3D printed components to improve the understanding of the printed performance of the printed product. Could you elaborate more on Siemens advanced 3D printing technologies? Additive Manufacturing (AM) holds a lot of promise for the A&D industry, and will eventually change how we design and manufacture components, as well as how we support products in the field. As manufacturers adopt additive, they will need to address regulatory challenges and understand how to optimize the performance of the printed component, which is crucial for aerospace products. And, as leaders in additive manufacturing, Siemens Digital Industries Software is developing and delivering simulation-based solutions to improve the understanding of the material structure and predict the performance of printed components. One of these challenges for additive is the fatigue performance of printed components, since the AM process is highly dependent on the geometry of the parts - making it extremely challenging to predict the performance of AM materials. The key factors that influence fatigue performance include the microstructure of the printed materials, porosities within the printed component, surface roughness and residual stresses that result from the printing and sintering processes.

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The combination of these factors makes it difficult to have a single mathematical model to predict fatigue performance. If we are going to use AM for safety critical, load-bearing components, it’s vital that our customers be able to predict the effects of these additive manufactured-induced local artifacts on the fatigue performance of the part. At Siemens, we have developed a new approach to assess the fatigue performance of 3D printed components by leveraging the power of machine

We will continue to develop more powerful solutions for MBSE in order to accelerate product development. We plan to add more simulation and analysis tools that will replace physical testing with virtual testing to accelerate or streamline certification processes.

learning (ML) to develop a material model that can predict the effect of the AM-induced local artifacts on the fatigue properties of the material. Using ML, we are able to develop the fatigue properties, represented with SN curves, using a limited set of training data that is experimentally determined for different conditions such as orientation of the build, different surface treatments, and heat treatments, and then use this to predict the SN curves for untested conditions. Using ML, you are able to quickly develop a material model for your printed components that is flexible and requires limited testing to develop. With the AM-enhanced durability simulation in Simcenter 3D Specialist durability, you get the best of both worlds using experimental data and physics based modeling to improve your understanding of the fatigue performance of your printed parts. We are probably the only company that offers this type of approach to additive via our end-to-end digital thread.

The Royal Australian Navy has completed an overhaul of its configuration management framework and supporting information systems with the addition of Siemens Teamcenter aerospace and defence software. What is the role of such a tool for the navies worldwide? We are seeing a lot of Navies, Air Forces, and I would extend this to Defence Departments in general, using the comprehensive digital twin and Teamcenter within the Xcelerator portfolio to manage product support. If the customers execute a major upgrade, they use Teamcenter to manage all of that data. The role of this tool, given the vast amount of information it takes to design and build a warship, is to store and manage data over the lifetime of that ship. Naval ships have extremely long lifecycles that may last 50 to 75 years and customers need to be able to manage each configuration and understand what work has been completed to maintain that ship throughout its entire lifecycle. Teamcenter provides the best configuration management framework in the market today. The tool allows customers to know every serial number of each ship, all its configurations, and how well each configuration has been maintained. Because the ship builders have this information at their fingertips, they can start planning the addition of a new capability, like a new radar system, or if they want to replace an existing radar system. They have all the knowledge about how the ship has been constructed, and how it’s been maintained. They are able to quickly bring in new capabilities and do it faster, while reducing cost – all with less risk because they have confidence in knowing the configuration and knowing they are not going to have any surprises when they start doing the modification in the depot. I think that’s where companies are seeing the benefit of using Teamcenter in the Defence Departments around the world, and certainly with the Navies and Air Forces such as the Royal Australian Navy. Digital transformation will be critical for the manufacturing industries to increase productivity, flexibility and accelerate innovation as leading service

provider and digitalization. What is the road map ahead for Siemens? Could you share the goals for the coming years? When we look at Siemens’ goals for the coming years, we want to continue to work with companies to develop and provide new solutions to help customers improve on how they execute their programmes. We want to help them develop and certify new products faster, be more flexible in the manufacturing processes, and to help them meet the innovation challenges

of the future such as more autonomous aircraft, green propulsion, urban air mobility and high-speed transportation. We will continue to develop more powerful solutions for MBSE in order to accelerate product development. We plan to add more simulation and analysis tools that will replace physical testing with virtual testing to accelerate or streamline certification processes. We will continue to invest in our already powerful manufacturing solutions, bringing more simulation to support

virtual commissioning of production lines, augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) to improve the technicians’ experience, and data analytics that will help companies enhance and further optimize their production lines and processes. And finally, we will continue to extend these solutions to enable our customers to improve their product support processes. We will continue to partner with our customers to foster their digital transformation, enabling them to not just survive, but thrive in the digital era.

OshoCorp receives 2300 Cr. Army order for 125mm APFSDS Tank Ammunition


shoCorp Global has been accorded project sanction order for development & supply of 125mm APFSDS specialised ammunition for its mainstay battle tanks as per Make II guidelines of Ministry of Defence, Government of India. The selection process has been conducted over three years. The 125mm APFSDS (Armour Piercing Fin Stabilised DiscardingSabot) ammunition is the primary tank ammunition, utilised for destruction of enemy tanks. The advent of superior protection technologies now available globally, results in improved protection levels of Armoured Fighting Vehicles (AFVs). The aspect of DoP (Depth of Penetration), which defines the terminal effects of the ammunition, is a major consideration to defeat the enhanced protection levels of AFVs. Ashutosh Khate, CEO, OshoCorp Global said that the company is developing and manufacturing an improved APFSDS Ammunition with


minimum DoP of 530mm and higher, in order to enhance the lethality, within the existing ‘safety’, ‘consistency’, and ‘shelf life’ criteria. This ammunition will be fired from the existing barrels, presently fitted on the T-72, T-90 tanks. OshoCorp design & engineering team has been working on development of 125mm APFSDS Ammo project as per the end-user requirements and confident to manufacture the same as per the Make II guidelines of Indigenous content. Initially there is need to develop upto 250 rounds each for T-72, T-90 tank platforms for trial and approval, subsequently produce Quantity 85,000 rounds of ammunition. This project is being executed by OshoCorp’s weapons and Ammunition

division “vSalute”, said Khate. The project will help our country towards self-reliance in specialised Ammo manufacturing technology and fulfill the Prime Minister’s vision of AtmaNirbhar Bharat. Col PK Juneja, Head Special Projects at OshoCorp, said that the current project cost is more than INR 2300 Crores (USD 330 Million) and it has huge potential to generate future domestic & export business which can be many times more than the current project cost, as ammunition is a continuous requirement and current demand is based on backlogs. In the export market, the countries using T-72and T-90 tanks can be benefited by purchasing India developed 125mm APFSDS Ammunition.

India- Indonesia Defence Partnership Expo

webinar between India and Indonesia with the theme “Indian Defence Industry Global Outreach for Collaborative Partnerships was held under the aegis of Department of Defence Production, Ministry of Defence through SIDM. This webinar was part of the series which are being organized with friendly foreign countries to boost defence exports and

achieve defence export target of $5 billion in the next five years. Key officials from both sides participated in the webinar and spoke about the need to leverage opportunities for modernizing armed forces and in indigenization of the defence industry. Indian companies such as L&T Defence, Ashok Leyland Limited, Bharat Forge, Tata Aerospace and

Defence, MKU, Goa Shipyard Limited and Bharat Electronics Limited. made company and product presentations on major platforms / equipment. From Indonesian side PT. Pindad, PT. Pal, PT. LEN, PT. Dahana and PT. Dirgantara made presentations. The webinar was attended by more than 150 participants and more than 100 virtual exhibition stalls have been set up in the Expo.

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A Two-Front War Round the Corner?

A maritime perspective on whether China and Pakistan are acting either in collaboration or collusion with each other, in waging war against India An armed conflict with China might lead India into a two-front war scenario, involving China and Pakistan, observes Admiral RK Dhowan, PVSM, AVSM, YSM (Retd), the former Chief of the Naval Staff of the Indian Navy. Currently the chairperson of Society for Aerospace Maritime and Defence Studies (SAMDeS), Admiral Dhowan stresses the need for India to maintain a high deterrent posture by the armed forces, and calls for allocating adequate budgetary resources to ensure a timely development of the Navy as a credible and balanced force. Admiral RK Dhowan PVSM, AVSM, YSM (Retd) Former Chief of Indian Navy & Chairperson, SAMDeS How ready you think India’s Armed Forces are in countering the challenges being posed by China’s PLA across the LAC? What are the chances for such localised conflicts in attaining the dimensions of a battle? While the Indian Army was engaged in giving a befitting response to flexing of muscles by the PLA (Army) across the LAC, the aircraft and helicopters of the Indian Air Force were deployed from the forward bases and maintained in a high state of alert. The assets of the Indian Navy, in terms of the P-8I Long-Range Maritime Patrol and Reconnaissance Aircraft, and the MIG29K fighter aircraft were also deployed in a synergized combat dimension with units of the Air Force and the Army for specific missions along the Northern border. In the Indian Ocean Region, Indian Navy assets were deployed for exercises and specific missions. The Armed Forces of India were ready to counter any challenges or misadventures by China. It is therefore said that two armies by themselves do not go to war, neither do two navies or two air forces. Two nations go to war, and the armed forces

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of the country have to be united for joint preparation and joint operations to counter any threats, challenges and external aggression. But, the escalation matrix for two nations to come to blows and engage in war is a gradual and deliberate process. Several institutionalised mechanisms between potential belligerents and world bodies try and prevent its uncontrolled escalation. The seeds of conflict are sown in localised disputes which results in skirmishes and raids, handled at the local commanders’ level. Simultaneously diplomatic engagements, propaganda and informational campaigns are launched to help resolve the conflict. When diplomacy collapses wars happen. A nation’s industrial might, its population, its social and political culture, its economy and its commitment to the cause are vital factors in the decision to go to war. If such a battle erupts, the onus to protect the country’s maritime interests would be mainly on the Indian Navy. How different would be a war at sea from one across land frontiers?

The country’s quintessential maritime character and vital geo-strategic location in the Indian Ocean are twin factors that define the Indian Navy’s vast maritime interests. The responsibility of protecting these interests falls squarely on the shoulders of men in white uniform. However, the war at sea is uniquely different. Unlike the land frontiers, there is no visible geographical demarcation of ‘ours and theirs’. The medium of conflict ranges from the sub-surface, surface, air, electronic and cyber to space. The vagaries of weather play a significant role on both the man and his machine in warfighting. And, finally a targeting mistake can trigger a world war. To explain, a torpedoed tanker carrying crude for the belligerent may be built in Japan, owned by Greek, flagged in Panama, chartered in the UK, manned by Philippian, Bangladeshi and Norwegians, insured in Belgium and carrying Saudi crude worth millions of dollars paid by traders in Dubai and Singapore. Therefore, when navies get engaged in war, the reverberations of conflict could impact the economy of many nations.

Considering the present tensions India has with her neighbours China and Pakistan, is there a possibility for the duo to act in collaboration and engage in an armed conflict against India in the near future? Within war itself, a ‘two-front war’ is an escalation where a nation has to engage two nations acting in concert on two temporally and spatially separated fronts. The possibility of such a ‘two-front war’ as an outcome of the present tensions with both neighbours who also have a clear common interest to gain access to heights and control the BRI is a real and pressing reality. The possibilities depend upon which nation escalates and engages in an armed conflict against India. China and Pakistan could possibly choose either a collaborative or a collusive approach depending upon who instigates the war. A collaborative ‘venture’ would be overt and all resources, including its personnel, of one nation could be available to the other. On the other hand a collusive understanding would not make ‘personnel’ available but equipment and other support could be provided. These approaches could lead to the following scenario: (a) India is engaged in an armed conflict with Pakistan and China intervenes with actual combat deployments in support of Pakistani forces. The cost of conflict (to China) in such a scenario would be inordinately high. Consequently, the likelihood of such a scenario is relatively low. (b) India is engaged in an armed conflict with Pakistan and China offers moral, technical and logistic support to Pakistan. The likelihood of such a scenario is high, as it involves minimal costs and few adverse implications for China. (c) India and China are engaged in an armed conflict and Pakistan supports China by activating India’s Western front. Islamabad would probably not hesitate in joining hands with China, whether overtly or covertly, as desired by China. The likelihood of such a support being extended by Pakistan to China, both overt and covert, is apparently high. It may, therefore, be assumed that an armed conflict primarily with China is quite likely to lead India into a two front war scenario, involving China and Pakistan.

If so, what preparations India should take to counter such an adversary in all domains including in the maritime domain? Wars may be fought by the armed forces at a physical level whether jointly or individually, but clearly it’s the entire national power of one belligerent pitched against that of the other which decides its outcome. A modern ‘two-front war’ must be planned as a national integrated, coordinated and harmonized effort of the entire capacity, capability and skill sets of the state to overcome the enemy decisively. Rather than confronting the adversary reactively at a chosen point-of-attack of his determination to stem or contain it, India should proactively create other points of attack to force the adversary to divide his forces and react to Indian initiatives. Simultaneously, it should draw the adversary into an engagement in a geographical area or a domain and at a time of India’s choosing, where combat potential of own Armed Forces is strong and that of the adversary is weak or vulnerable. In the maritime domain, this would imply exploiting gaps in the adversary’s Force Levels, ability to operate in certain sea areas, and deployment time periods where Indian naval supremacy is difficult to contest. Taking the maritime war to the South China Sea or in areas where China can support its surface combatants by its shorebased aircraft protection envelope is not a favourable option. China’s vulnerability is in the Indian Ocean where its merchant fleet transits over the sea lines of communication (SLOCs) carrying the goods, crude, commodities and resources that bolsters the Chinese economy. Has India identified every advantage she has over China and Pakistan in maritime and airborne power? Overall, every effort should be made to firstly identify those comparative advantages in maritime and airborne power that would exploit maneuverer and logistics in the design of battle. Forcing China to deploy its navy and divides its air force along extended logistics lines could result in reduction of its ability to support the land


dmiral RK Dhowan, PVSM, AVSM, YSM (Retd) is an alumnus of the National Defence Academy, the Defence Services Staff College and the Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, USA. The Admiral has commanded three front line warships of the Western Fleet and has served as the Flag Officer Commanding Eastern Fleet and Chief of Staff of the Eastern Naval Command. Important staff assignments held by the Admiral at Naval Headquarters during his distinguished career include Deputy Director Naval Operations, Joint Director Naval Plans, Assistant Chief of the Naval Staff (Policy and Plans) and Deputy Chief of Naval Staff. The Admiral assumed charge as the Vice Chief of the Naval Staff in Aug 2011 and was subsequently promoted as the 22nd Chief of the Naval Staff of the Indian Navy on 17 April 2014. He retired from the Navy on 31 May 2016 after a distinguished career of 42 years in uniform. Post his retirement, he took over as the fifth Chairman of the National Maritime Foundation (NMF), New Delhi, which is India’s premier maritime think tank. Lately, the Admiral is Chairperson, Society for Aerospace Maritime and Defence Studies. Email: adm_rkdhowan@samdesindia.in campaign. The concept of operations would need to synergistically dovetail several operational enablers, where India has decisive strengths such as Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA), Network Centric Operations and Cyber Warfare, joint-ness and coordination, Flexibility and

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Admiral RK Dhowan with Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar, Chief of Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Arup Raha, Defence Secretary G. Mohan Kumar, Army Chief General Dalbir Singh Suhag, Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief (FOC-in-C) of the Western Naval Command (WNC) Vice Admiral S P S Cheema during the Combined Commanders’ Conference 2015, on board INS Vikramaditya at Sea. Manoeuvre at sea to gain a favourable maritime environment in India’s area of interest for ‘Sea Control’ of the SLOCs, by the aircraft carrier battle groups and ‘Sea Denial’ by its submarines. At the same time, any adventures initiated by the Pakistan Navy should be separately addressed and a highly aggressive campaign launched to ensure its influence in the ‘two-front war’ is limited to local naval defence of their ports and harbours only. Effective deterrence could be a major step in preventing conflicts between nations. Do you think India has been able to maintain a high deterrent posture with its assets and warfighting capabilities? Effective deterrence is a qualitative aspect measured in terms of deterrent value, which in India’s case, has been covered in detail in the Indian Maritime Security Strategy (IMSS), ‘Ensuring Secure Seas’, 2015, “Strategy for Deterrence” To paraphrase its core intent and communication it is given that the “core of India’s deterrence, other than against nuclear coercion, will remain centered on conventional deterrence and conventional military forces”. Deterrence has to be credible to be effective and it does not come about through ownership of assets

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alone but a clear communication of the will of the nation to use it. Therefore, to maintain a credible high deterrent posture, there is a need to maintain operational warfighting capabilities and assets in adequate quantity and quality. Political signaling that these assets and capabilities would be used, when required, to protect and promote national interest, should the adversary ignore the deterrent value and actively seek conflict instead is the other component of credible and effective deterrence. What are the initiatives the Indian Navy currently requires to enhance its professional skills and combat potential, so that it can play a major role in guaranteeing peace in the region? The IMSS 2015 ‘Strategy for Conflict’ requires the Navy to continuously hone its professional skills in warfighting to maximize the Navy’s combat potential through operational enablers and innovative concept of operators and design of battle. The blue-print of the future Indian Navy envisages induction of a force level centered on three aircraft carriers, surface combatants, naval aviation assets and submarines both conventional and nuclear, along with cutting edge technology weapons and sensors, as part of a multidimensional

integrated force. It is mandatory to have a ‘Blue Water’ Navy for the country in the prevalent environment, which certainly is not a provocation to war, but is the surest guarantor of peace in the Indian Ocean Region. Adequate budgetary resources need to be allocated to ensure the timely development of the Navy as a credible and balanced force. The Indian Navy has to be allotted its due share of the budget which has slipped to a low of about 12% of the total share from 1718% some years ago. A comprehensive plan for the organised development of capabilities requires a long term budgetary support. The Navy’s share of the defence budget should be restored to 18% at the earliest instance. At the Apex level what needs to be done for India to be equipped to confront such challenges in the future? To meet any future challenges the armed forces should be adequatly equipped and prepared for a joint approach and synergistic operations at the theatre level. In this regard the planned theatre commands, including the maritime command and funtional commands such as cyber command, aerospace command and special forces command are steps in the right direction. There is also a need to continuously re-evaluate requirements, based upon technological advancements, geo-political developments, the areas of interest and influence and evolving operational philosophy of each service. This must be an exercise that is undertaken at the strategic level where the nation as a whole integrates across the board its Diplomatic, Informational, Military, Economic and Space resources as the constituents of the national plan for addressing the contingencies of a twofront war. The recently constituted Defence Planning Committee, while assessing the arithmetic of a two-front war could factor these considerations while evaluating the optional Indian response to a “worst case scenario” of a ‘two-front war’ with the possibility to open the “third front” at sea. As has been said “To be secure on Land, we must be Supreme at Sea”.

GSS pledges continued support to Indian Navy On Indian Navy Day, which falls on December 4, Godrej Security Solutions recalls its long association with the Indian Navy in providing security solutions and reiterates its commitment to help the navy enhance its security quotient


ndian Navy’s association with various organisations for decades has brought laurels to the country’s defence system and has helped the defence sector reach greater heights and transform with time. These associations have also made possible stregthening of core relations under ‚Make in India‘ initiative and Atmanirbhar Bharat despite the global pandemic. Godrej Security Solutions has been associated with the Indian Navy and Armed Forces for many years and has not only helped the sector evolve with time but also helped to enhance the security quotient by implementing advanced security solutions that has further helped the sector and also helped to secure the sailors at base. The association has enabled Godrej Security Solutions to supply watertight doors, hatches and emergency escape scuttles for the marines. GSS has also designed, developed and supplied pressure type doors and hatches for Indian naval submarines. As a part of Godrej Security Solution’s values and beliefs regarding tested and government certified products for its customers, it was the only vendor having Type Test certificate to supply A60 door with water-tight arrangement to the Indian Navy. Over the years, Godrej Security Solutions also received and executed prestigious orders for P15A and P15B from Mazagon Dock Shipbuilder in order to supply WT doors and hatches, which include CAT A and A60 arrangement to the Navy. The company also received and executed orders

for P71, first Indigenous aircraft carrier from Cochin Shipyard Limited to supply WT doors, besides orders for P28, LCU (Landing Craft Utility – 8 Shipsets) and SVL (Survey Vessel Large – 2 Shipsets) to supply water-tight doors and hatches. These orders and shipments have helped the Navy to continue seamless operations and help protect our nation. Godrej Security Solutions’ relationship with the Indian Navy has also achieved many milestones as a unit. In 2005, GSS Marine Solutions partnered with GRSE (Garden Reach Shipbuilding Engg, Kolkata) to supply WT doors and hatches for Indian Navy project P28. In 2007, GSS Marine Solutions partnered with Indian Navy to supply PT doors and hatches for submarines. The company is one of the approved vendors for Indian Navy to supply water-tight doors and hatches. The company started this journey from the year 2005 when it received order from GRSE to supply WT doors and hatches for project P28. Recently, in 2019 GSS Marine Solutions partnered with GRSE to supply emergency escape scuttles for Indian Navy SVL project. Apart from specialized and need specific security solutions for daily operations, Godrej Security Solutions has provided the Navy with fire and burglary resistant safes and locker cabinets for the offices to keep important documentation safe and has provided the Defence industry with a wide range of premise security

solutions which include access control and scanning systems like bollards, scanners and turnstiles. Some of these fall in the Defender Safes category that are primarily designed to protect against burglary and break-ins. These are helpful to protect important documents and deeds. Along with safes, Godrej Security Solutions has also contributed the fire resistant filing cabinets and fire resistant record cabinets. Apart from securing valuables and documents that are confidential in nature, Godrej Security Solutions has also provided the Navy with premises security solutions that consist of a wide range of products securing every entry and exist points on the docks. As a pioneer in the security solutions segment, Godrej Security Solutions is immensely proud of associations as such and will continue to contribute towards the protection of the nation. Associations such as these only strengthen bonds during these unprecedented times. Godrej Security Solutions also strives to grow with technological innovations and product development with a focus on ‘Make in India’ products and solutions to best suit the nation.

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Corrosion Protection of Steel in Marine Environment With the advent of technology, conventional polymers like Unmodified Alkyds, Chlorinated Rubber and Coal tar epoxies are progressively being replaced by Modified Alkyds and Epoxies, Polyurethanes, Silicone and modified silicones PAINT SCHEMES FOR MARINE ENVIRONMENT

Class ISO-12944 C5 M Im2

Degree of Corrosivity


Very High Marine Sea Immersion

Marine coastal, offshore, High Salinity Harbour areas with structures like sluice gates, jetties, offshore structures etc.

Following Durability of coatings are in practice, Low Durability – 2 to 5 Years, Medium Durability – 5 to 15 Years & High Durability – More than 15 Years Category

Surface Prepn.

Coating Type

Primer & DFT

C5 – M

Sa 2.5

High Solids

Zinc Rich Epoxy 75µ


Sa 2.5

High Solids

Zinc Rich Epoxy 75µ

Development of High-Performance Coatings - Driving Factors Extent of Surface Preparation - Dry not possible, Hydro Blasting not possible, Power tool / Hand tool cleaning, St2 / St3 cleaning for Surface tolerant coatings. Flexibility in Application – Airless/Conventional spray/ Brush/Roller. Recoating – Application of subsequent coats in shortest time. Compatibility – With existing/aged coatings. Meeting Environmental regulation – e.g. VOC (Volatile Organic Component) & Life of Coating Types of Paints & Coatings based on Resin/Polymer Chemistries: (High Performance Products in Bold Type) Air Drying - Normal Setting / Drying (1K): • Alkyd Based – Zinc chromate primer (IS/1874) & Full Glossy Exterior Finish (IS- 2932) • Etch Primer or Adhesion Promoter – For Aluminium substrate • Fire Retardant Enamels – Based on Typical pigments / additives – It has low flame spreading. • Intumescent Coatings – Fire Rating up to 1 Hour – Protects steel from reaching 550º C for given fire rating. Thick adherent char is formed when coating exposed to fire & subsequently protects steel. • Heat Resistant Aluminium Paint (Up to 600º C) – These are Silicone based products and are used for chimneys, boilers etc. Paint dissipates heat fast and protects substrate from corrosion also. Primer is Inorganic Zinc Silicate. • Heat Resistant Paint without Aluminium (Up to 250º C) – Modified Silicone based Topcoats having

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Intermediate & DFT

Top coat & DFT

Total DFT

Polyamine Epoxy 150 µ

Aliphatic PU 50µ


HS Epoxy Pamide150 µ

HS Epoxy Polyamide 150µ


various shades. Primer has to be Inorganic Zinc Silicate. • Fire Retardant Paint – Protective coatings are modified with certain fire-retardant components to make them fire retardant. e.g. Interior coatings of cabins on ship. Air Drying - Quick Setting / Drying (1K): • Etch Primer or Adhesion Promoter – For Aluminium substrate • PVC/ PVA Copolymer Paint – Primer & Finish • Chlorinated Rubber – Primer & Finish • Modified Acrylic Based – Primer & Finish – Paints dry very fast which gives more application job per day. Single component. • Pure Thermoplastic Acrylic – Primer & Finish – Fast drying with good overall properties. Single component and easy to handle. Air Drying & Chemical Reaction (2K) Epoxy Based: 1. Epoxy Enamel (IS-14209) 2. Epoxy High Solids (Requires Airless Spraying) – Low permeability. Therefore, less susceptibility to corrosion. 3. Epoxy MIO / Glass Flake (Barrier coats) – Very low permeability in glass flake epoxy. Ideal in offshore application. 4. Epoxy Solvent Free (Requires Airless Spraying) – Better version of Epoxy High Solids. Higher DFT in one coat and thereby saving in application cost. Tank internal coatings & Ballast tanks 5. Epoxy Surface / Moisture Tolerant (Polysulphide Modified or Based on Specialty Hardeners) – St2/ St3 Surface preparation is acceptable. Suitable for Water

Rosoboronexport offers mobile radar to detect stealth aircraft


osoboronexport (part of the Rostec State Corporation) has started promoting the P-18-2 Prima highmobility 2D surveillance and acquisition radar, developed and manufactured by PJSC NITEL and PJSC NPO Almaz, to the foreign market. "Rosoboronexport adds dozens of weapon and military equipment models to its export catalog every year. They acquire unique characteristics and set new trends in their segments of

the global arms market through the efforts made by Russian scientists, engineers and designers. We are starting to promote the Prima mobile radar, which offers a unique capability to effectively detect current and emerging low-visibility targets, including any stealth aircraft,” said Alexander Mikheev, General Director of Rosoboronexport and Deputy Chairman of the Russian Engineering Union. The Prima solid-state radar is based on modern hardware

Ballast Tanks. Low ambient temperature curing. 6. Epoxy Novolac (EPN) – High Chemical / Heat Resistance. Chemical tanks and equipments. 7. Coal Tar Epoxy (Cheaper coating – Recommended for under water / Ground). Polyurethane Based 1. Aliphatic PU (Polyol – Alkyd, Polyester etc & Hardener - Aliphatic Isocyanate) - IS 13213 2. Aliphatic Acrylic PU – IS 13213 – Good weatherability in polluted environment. Gloss retention & good cosmetic coating. Suitable for Ship Superstructure and above waterline. 3. High Solids Acrylic PU – Higher DFT per coat. 4. Aromatic PU – (Polyol – Alkyd, Acrylic, Polyester or Epoxy & Hardener – Aromatic Isocyanate). Specially recommended for High Degree of Chemical Resistance (Poor UV Resistance) when Acrylic or Epoxy polyols are used. Due to poor UV resistance these coatings are used as Primers & Undercoats. Common Primers – Epoxy Red oxide, Zinc Rich (IS-14589), Epoxy Zinc Phosphate, Surface Tolerant & Moisture

components and digital signal processing and generation technology. It features high energy potential and increased immunity. The radar is designed to detect, track, locate and identify air targets of various classes and types as friend or foe in both jamming and clutter environments, take the bearing of jammers, and feed radar data to users’ automated commandand-control systems. The P-18-2 is distinguished from most other radars available on the market by its high mobility achieved through the installation of all equipment and antenna post on one vehicle. At the same time, its crew consists of only two people who can operate both from the equipped cabin and remote workstations. The radar features a high level of automation and can be deployed and stowed within about 5 minutes.

The Prima radar operates in the VHF band and is capable of detecting any aircraft, including stealth ones. Its range coverage exceeds 320 km and elevation coverage is up to 45 deg. The minimum detection range is 500 meters. The developers have introduced a number of technology solutions to ensure the radar’s operation in a jamming environment, difficult terrain and in adverse weather conditions. The radar automatically detects and tracks low-speed and low-visibility targets in a clutter environment. The radar is equipped with advanced satellite navigation equipment exploiting GLONASS/GPS signals that provide automatic positioning. It has a built-in diesel power plant and a power take-off generator, and can also be connected to a three-phase generalpurpose electrical network.

Tolerant Epoxy, Polyurethane, Inorganic Zn Silicate (IS14946). Etch Primer or Adhesion Promoter for Aluminium Substrate Special Tips: Adhesion Promoter: Used on bare surface before primer coat on difficult surface like Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Glass. Also used on concrete. Zinc Based Primers: Disadvantages - These primers are not Acid/ Alkali resistant unless Top coated. Advantage – Cathodic Protection. Rust Converter (IS-13515): Rusted steel structures where normal cleaning is not possible. There should not be loose rust & Surface should be uniformly rusted. Rust is converted to stable Iron Phosphates. All Discussed Products are available with Morsun Coating Systems. Informations are available at https://www.arabiandefence.com/2020/12/03/ corrosion-protection-of-steel-by-high-performance-coatings-2/ http://www.aeromag.in/defencesingle.php?def=765

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Malabar Exercise: Checking the Chinese ambitions


he 24th edition of the two-phased Malabar exercises, which ended on Nov. 20, had a special significance as the Australian Navy participated in it for the first time since 2007. Moreover, this was the first time that all the four Quad or Quadrilateral Coalition members came together to show off their naval strength. And indeed it was a real show of strength that must have made some nations with overweening territorial ambitions in the region like China sit down and think. The Quad was conceived at

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an August 2007 meeting in Manila, held on the sidelines of ASEAN Regional Forum, between the prime ministers of India, Japan, and Australia and the vice president of the United States. The following month using the already existing Malabar exercise framework, established when they first began in 1992 between the Indian and US navies, a major naval drill was conducted between the navies of India, US, Japan, and Australia, with Singapore participating as well. China responded angrily and issued formal diplomatic protests.

A nervous Australia quickly backtracked from the Quad and made its intention clear to not participate in future Malabar exercises. Quad 1.0 was in limbo. The US India, and Japan eventually began to exercise trilaterally and Australia was not in the picture until this year There was speculation earlier that the possibility of angering China had prevented India from expanding the Malabar Exercise with Australia joining it. But in recent times, the importance of Australian participation was realised.

This importance was evident in the words of Defence Minister Rajnath Singh. On October 27, following the Indo-US 2+2 dialogue, he said: “We agreed that upholding the rulesbased international order, respecting the rule of law and freedom of navigation in the international seas and upholding the territorial integrity and sovereignty of all states are essential. Our defence cooperation is intended to further these objectives. Both sides welcomed Australia joining the forthcoming

Malabar Exercise.” Rear Admiral Sudarshan Shrikhande, who retired in 2016 and earlier headed naval intelligence, said that “with the clearer enunciation of the Quad at the recent foreign ministers’ meet in Japan, it would have been counterproductive to the objectives of statecraft not to invite Australia.” Shrikande , a former defence advisor at the Indian High Commission in Canberra (2005-08), said the Quad “must, among other things, contribute to being a key instrument of deterrence that is necessary

keeping China in mind”. Phase-1 of Malabar Exercises, held off Visakhapatnam in the Bay of Bengal between Nov.3-6, witnessed the participation of Indian Navy units with USS

John S McCain (a guidedmissile destroyer), Australia’s Ship HMAS Ballarat along range frigate with an integral MH-60 helicopter, and Japan’s JMSDF Onami, a destroyer with an integral SH-60 helicopter. Complex and advanced naval exercises including surface, antisubmarine and anti-air warfare operations, cross deck flying, seamanship and weapon firing exercises were witnessed in Phase 1. Numerous other maneouvres were also conducted. The Indian Navy was led by Rear Admiral Sanjay Vatsayan, Flag Officer Commanding Eastern Fleet in the Phase I exercises. Indian Navy ships, including the destroyer Ranvijay, the frigate Shivalik, off shore patrol vessel Sukanya, fleet support ship Shakti and submarine Sindhuraj, took part In addition, the advanced jet trainer Hawk, the long-range maritime patrol aircraft P-8I, the Dornier maritime patrol aircraft, and helicopters participated in the exercises. Phase 2 was conducted in the Arabian Sea between Nov Nov.17-20. The joint operations centered around the Vikramaditya carrier battle group of the Indian Navy and Nimitz carrier strike group of the US Navy. The two carriers, along with other ships, submarine and aircraft of the

participating navies, were engaged in high intensity naval operations over four days. The exercises included cross-deck flying operations and advanced air defence exercises by MIG 29K fighters of Vikramaditya and F-18 fighters and E2C Hawkeye of Nimitz. Accompanying Nimitz was the cruiser Princeton and destroyer Sterett in addition to P8A maritime reconnaissance aircraft. In addition to Vikramaditya and its fighter and helicopter air-wings, the Indian side had indigenous destroyers Kolkata and Chennai, stealth frigate Talwar, Fleet Support Ship Deepak and integral helicopters also participated. They were led by Rear Admiral Krishna Swaminathan, Flag Officer Commanding Western Fleet. The indigenously built submarine Khanderi and P8I maritime reconnaissance aircraft of the Indian Navy also showcased their capabilities. The ‘non-contact, at sea only’ exercises, conducted in view of COVID-19 pandemic, showcased the high-levels of synergy and coordination between the four navies, based on their shared values and commitment to an open, inclusive rules-based international order. It is this commitment alone that will make China wary of playing mischief in the region.

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Building an invincible armada In its pursuit towards creating a blue-water navy, India is depending to a large extent on domestic shipbuilding firms. The recent indigenisation initiatives launched by the Government of India are expected to give a boost to the production of warships and other vessels required by the Indian Navy, in both public and private sectors


urrounded by oceans on three sides, India has found it essential to maintain a strong navy as well as a robust defence shipbuilding industry in order to protect the nation’s sovereignty. Moreover, around 95% of the country’s trade by volume and over 70% by value takes place by sea and the Indian Navy is the chief player ensuring security in the Indian Ocean Region. Since the 1960s, the India’s Ministry of Defence (MoD) has acquired several shipyards and starting with the construction of Leander-class frigates at the Mazagaon Dock Ltd (MDL), Mumbai the Indian Navy has been developing a self-sufficient domestic shipbuilding industry. Moreover, the

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Indian Navy’s in-house designing capability has also improved. According to data, the Directorate of Naval Design has created blueprints for 19 ship classes and over 90 warships have been built. Significantly, more than 40 out of the over 50 ships and submarines on order are being constructed in Indian shipyards at present. India now has eight public sector shipyards and 13 major private shipyards. Of the eight governmentowned shipyards, two are under the Ministry of Shipping, four are under the MoD and the remaining two are state public sector undertakings. The major shipbuilding centres in India catering to the Indian

Navy are the following. MDL, Mumbai Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL), Mumbai is India’s top defence PSU shipyard under the MoD and has delivered projects such as the Nilgiri, Godavari, Delhi and Shivalik class frigates, Khukri class corvettes and Project 15A. MDL can undertake construction of vessels up to 40,000 DWT and its infrastructure consists of three dry docks, four slipways and three wet basins. In July 2016, the shipyard completed the augmentation of infrastructure through the Mazdock Modernisation Project. Major ships under construction

include the P17A (Frigate) class, four ships of P15B (Destroyer) class, and six Scorpene class submarines. GRSE, Kolkata Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE), near Kolkata built India’s first indigenous warship, the INS Ajay, in 1961. Over the years, it has produced vessels such as the P-16A class which was delivered to the Navy between 2000 and 2005 and three anti-submarine warfare (ASW) corvettes (P28 class). GRSE was modernised in 2013. The yard completed delivery of its 100th warship, a Landing Craft Utility (LCU Mark-IV) in June 2019. GRSE has orders in hand for 22 more warships worth over US Dollars 3.74 billion. GSL, Goa Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL), situated in Vasco da Gama, Goa, is the smallest shipyard under the MoD and builds medium-sized vessels for the Navy and Coast Guard. The shipyard was a small facility established in 1957 by the Portuguese, and following Goa’s independence was leased to MDL, which controlled the shipyard till 1967. GSL has the capability to build ships up to 105 metres long, 3,000 DWT and 4.5 metres draught. Its product range includes fast patrol vessels, survey vessels, sail training ships, missile craft and offshore patrol vessels. Following a US Dollars 1-billion deal in October 2016 with Russia, the Indian government signed a contract for the construction of two Project 1135.6 (Talwar class) frigates at GSL with scheduled delivery

in June 2026 and December 2026. In May 2019, the shipyard launched the 10th ship of the 105 metre length improved Sankalp-class offshore patrol vessel (OPV) for the Indian Coast Guard. HSL, Visakhapatnam Located in Visakhapatnam, Hindustan Shipyard Ltd (HSL), the largest government shipyard, was transferred to the MoD from the Ministry of Shipping in February 2010. Having modern facilities, it has built offshore patrol vessels and inshore patrol vessels for the Indian Navy and Coast Guard, besides undertaking refit of naval submarines. With a draft of 7.5-10 metres, it can build ships up to 80,000 DWT. It is co-located with the Naval Shipyard and the Special Boat Centre where India’s nuclear submarines are built. The shipyard was modernised in 2018 to enable the construction of advanced vessels such as landing platform docks, and conventional and strategic submarines. In March 2020, the shipyard signed a US Dollars 2.3-billion deal to manufacture fleet support vessels in collaboration with a Turkish shipyard.

CSL, Kochi Cochin Shipyard Ltd (CSL) in Kochi is India’s only non-MoD-owned shipyard involved in naval shipbuilding and functions under the Ministry of Shipping. The largest shipbuilding and maintenance facility in India, CSL has facilities to build vessels up to 100,000 DWT and repair vessels up to 125,000 DWT. The yard is now constructing India’s first ever indigenous aircraft carrier. In April 2019, CSL was awarded a Rs 6,311 crore contract to construct eight anti-submarine warfare shallow water crafts for the Indian Navy. CSL was incorporated in 1972 as a Government of India company, with the first phase of facilities coming online in 1982. The company has Miniratna status. The first ship to roll out of the Cochin Shipyard was the MV Rani Padmini in 1981. CSL has also delivered two of India's largest double-hull Aframax tankers each of 95,000 DWT. CSL has secured shipbuilding orders from internationally renowned companies from Europe and the Middle East. The shipyard is building six 30,000

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DWT bulk carriers for Clipper Group of the Bahamas and the first three vessels have been launched. Eight platform supply vessels for the Norwegian Seatankers Management Company are also under construction. INS Vikrant Cochin Shipyard is currently building India's first indigenous aircraft carrier INS Vikrant. The carrier will be the largest warship built by CSL, the construction of which is expected to be completed by February 2021. Work on the design of INS Vikrant, also known as Indigenous Aircraft Carrier 1 (IAC-1), began in 1999, and the keel was laid in February 2009. The carrier was floated out of its dry dock in December 2011 and was launched in August 2013. The ship is expected to enter into service by late 2021. INS Vikrant is 262 metres long and 62 metres wide, and displaces about 40,000 metric tons. It features

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a STOBAR configuration with a ski-jump. The deck is designed to enable aircraft such as the MiG-29K to operate from the carrier. It is expected to carry an air group of up to 30 aircraft, which will include 24–26 fixed-wing combat aircraft, primarily the Mikoyan MiG29K, besides carrying 10 Kamov Ka-31 or Westland Sea King helicopters. The ship's combat management system (CMS) was developed by Tata Power Strategic Engineering Division in collaboration with Weapon and Electronics System Engineering Establishment and MARS, Russia. It is the first CMS developed by a private company for the Indian Navy. In February 2020, all the major structural and outfitting work was declared complete by the government. Shipyards in private sector Larsen & Toubro (L&T) and Reliance Naval & Engineering Limited (RNEL)

are the biggest Indian private sector companies engaged in defence shipbuilding. L&T participated in India’s secretive ATV nuclearpropelled submarine project, and its Hazira shipyard also built the Coast Guard’s OPV Vikram. However, RNEL, which was formerly known as Pipavav Defence and Offshore Limited, has faced problems in delivering a Naval OPV project. The private sector has made big investments and built extensive facilities related to defence shipbuilding. L&T set up a mega-shipyard in Kattupalli in 2012 and has been operating it successfully ever since. In fact, L&T’s Rs 4,000-crore shipyard at Kattupalli delivered the fifth Vikram-class OPV to the Coast Guard in March 2020. Several experts have pointed out that the future of India’s naval shipbuilding lies in involving the private sector companies and utilizing their massive infrastructure capacity. Pipavav also invested in a

huge shipyard in the Gujarat coast near Bhavnagar, with the largest dry dock in India and the first modular construction facility in the country. But, RNEL is now undergoing process under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code and is facing claims from several financial creditors. Meanwhile, there are reports that United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC) of Russia has evinced interest in buying the shipyard. The Russian Embassy in India, too, confirmed this development and in a statement said USC is looking forward to acquiring RNEL. According to experts, USC is interested in RNEL because the Russian firm is hoping to win the Indian Navy’s Project 75I, under which six conventional submarines are to be built. In case USC acquires RNEL, the company can build new submarines in India under the Make in India initiative. The embassy said USC is

currently auditing RNEL and assessing potential investment opportunities. “UCS has passed the accreditation procedure, which provided access to electronic accounts with financial and economic documents related to the Indian company,” said the embassy. “USC is expected to finalise its stance on further participation in the bidding procedure after completing the remote study of the documents provided by the

debtor’s trustee and the field review of the RNEL’s assets by USC’s specialists,” it added. Navy modernisation The Indian Navy has chalked out a Maritime Capability Perspective Plan – 20122027, which envisions a force of 200 warships and 500 aircraft to guard its Indian Ocean territories. In the 2019-20 defence budget, the Indian Navy was allocated Rs 41,259 crore. The MoD has also made an amendment to its Defence

Procurement Procedure-2016 (DPP) to include guidelines to support the nomination of shipyards to undertake naval construction and repair work. In its 15-year indigenisation plan (20152030), the Indian Navy has supported collaborative agreements with Indian and foreign vendors for defence equipment production in country. In May 2020, after Prime Minister Narendra Modi called for an ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’ or self-reliant

India in the wake of the COVID-19 outbreak, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitaraman announced measures for the indigenisation of defence equipment. In August 2020, the MoD came up with a list of 101 systems that would be banned from imports in phases. This way, contracts worth Rs 4 lakh crore would be given out to domestic industries within the next seven years. Of this amount, almost Rs 1.4 lakh crore would be the share of the Navy.

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Navy sign MOU with CODISSIA

Rear Admiral Deepak Bansal, VSM, Admiral Superintendent NSRY (Kochi) and V Sundaram, Director CDIIC during the MOU signing.


ndian Navy, Naval Ship Repair Yard (NSRY), Kochi and CODISSIA (Coimbatore District Small Scale Industries Association) Defence Innovation and Incubation Centre (CDIIC) has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) at Coimbatore . Rear Admiral Deepak Bansal, VSM, Admiral Superintendent NSRY (Kochi) and V Sundaram, Director CDIIC signed the MoU on behalf of Indian Navy (NSRY, Kochi) and CDIIC

respectively. The MoU will foster cohesive involvement of both parties and help in solving problems projected by NSRY harnessing Government of India initiative of Atal Innovation Mission, which has been conceived to encourage innovation and technology development by engaging Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs), Startups and Research and Development Institutions and academia. The MoU allows NSRY to use world

class facilities of MSMEs based in Coimbatore for hardware development, material testing and analysis and obsolescence mitigation programmes in respect of legacy equipment. In addition to this, the Yard would be exposed to new manufacturing techniques, Industrial Safety and Quality Assurance which are being pursued by modern MSMEs. These would be vital for the yard especially as it is poised for major expansion in the wake of an enhanced charter. CODISSIA is a body comprising more than 2000 MSMEs, with an objective to promote and protect Small Scale Industries in Coimbatore. The Naval Ship Repair Yard, began as an Electrical and Engineering Workshop in 1945 to support a small flotilla of Royal Indian Naval Ships based at Kochi. After the nation’s Independence, it was renamed as Base Repair Organisation (BRO) in 1948. With the induction of new ships and enhanced tasking, the BRO was later rechristened as ‘Naval Ship Repair Yard (NSRY)’ in 1988.

BrahMos Cruise Missile Successfully Test Fired from Navy’s Stealth Destroyer, INS Chennai


rahMos, the supersonic cruise missile was successfully test fired from Indian Navy’s indigenously-built stealth destroyer INS

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Chennai, hitting a target in the Arabian Sea. The missile hit the target successfully with pin-point accuracy after performing high-level and

extremely complex manoeuvres. BrahMos as ‘prime strike weapon’ will ensure the warship’s invincibility by engaging naval surface targets at long ranges, thus making the destroyer another lethal platform of Indian Navy. The highly versatile BrahMos has been jointly designed, developed and produced by India and Russia. Defence Minister Rajnath Singh congratulated DRDO, BrahMos and Indian Navy for the successful launch. Secretary DDR&D & Chairman DRDO Dr G Satheesh Reddy, congratulated the scientists and all personnel of DRDO, BrahMos, Indian Navy and industry for the successful feat. He stated that BrahMos missiles will add to the capabilities of Indian Armed Forces in many ways.

AN INDIAN PARADOX Though the central government is actively pushing the modernisation of the Indian Armed Forces, technical evaluation, conduct of trials and benchmarking the cost are delaying the actual acquisition, says Shobhana Joshi, former Secretary Defence Finance who is currently the co-chairperson of the Society for Aerospace, Maritime and Defence Studies (SAMDeS).

Shobhana Joshi Former Secretary, Defence Finance


here are two major areas which contribute to delay in the acquisition of capabilities. One is technical evaluation and conduct of trials and the second is benchmarking the cost. Often, the Services Qualitative Requirements (SQRs) overstate the capabilities being sought, which can result in retraction of RFP (request for proposal) and this contributes to the delay. Adding India-specific requirements can also cause integration problems in standard off-the-shelf equipment. Benchmarking is another major impediment in the process and a CAG (Comptroller and Auditor General of India) report had highlighted that benchmarks have been more inaccurate than accurate. One of the reasons was the tendency to rely on Last Purchase Price which has sometimes resulted in comparison of systems of two different technologies or using incorrect escalation factor. It is suggested that

the competitive process should lead to price discovery and benchmarks should be applied only in single vendor cases.

dependency cycle of imports and India presented a paradox of having a defence industrial base yet importing weapons.

India’s tryst with self-reliance in defence sector India started out with the objective of self-reliance in defence with a domestic defence industrial base which would meet the needs of its defence forces. However, there were barriers to entry for the private sector as it was one of the reserved sectors. Though initially there were attempts to develop indigenous design capability, following the 1962 war with China and the USA arms embargo after the Indo-Pakistan war in 1965 , there was an urgency to upscale the defence capability and a licensed production model with Transfer of Technology became the model for manufacture of weapon systems, mostly erstwhile Soviet origin weapon systems. This model focussed on build to print capability and enabled India to produce a range of weapons from aircraft to helicopters, warships missiles tanks and combat vehicles. However, it did not create capacity for design and technology development. The weapons were primarily for domestic use as the license agreements often had restrictions on third country supply. Therefore, whenever weapon systems had to be upgraded or replaced it created a

Full potential of private sector remains untapped The defence sector was opened for private sector participation only from 2001 with an FDI cap of up to 26% which was periodically enhanced and current level is 74% under automatic route. However, data from Department of Defence Production website brings out that from 2016-17 to 2019-20 the share of the private sector in defence production was in the range of 1920% while that of the public sector and OFB (Ordnance Factory Board) was around 70%. In order to increase the participation of private sector, the government needs to reduce duplication of capacity in the public sector and OFB. The investments which have already been made on plant and machinery can be leased out to the private sector on long-term lease to optimize resources. Non-military and dual use products like transport and mobility vehicles should be manufactured only by private sector. Some incentives in the form of tax breaks should be given to encourage private sector to participate in defence manufacturing. Government should continue with its efforts to promote exports.

Passing out Parade at Naval Academy


n a spectacular Passing out Parade (POP) held at Indian Naval Academy (INA), Ezhimala, 164 trainees comprising Midshipmen (99th INAC and INAC-NDA), Cadets of the Indian Navy (30th Naval Orientation Course Extended) and two International trainees from Sri Lanka Navy passed out with flying

colours, marking the culmination of their ab-initio training. The parade was reviewed by General Manoj Mukund Naravane, PVSM, AVSM, SM, VSM, ADC, Chief of the Army Staff, who awarded medals to meritorious Midshipmen and Cadets on completion of the Ceremonial Review. Vice Admiral M A

Hampiholi, AVSM, NM, Commandant, INA was the Conducting Officer. The ‘President’s Gold Medal’ for the Indian Naval Academy B. Tech course was awarded to Midshipman Ankush Dwivedi. The ‘Chief of the Naval Staff Gold Medal’ for the Naval Orientation Course (Extended) was awarded to Cadet Cedric Cyril.

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‘Maritime Theatre Command’ in Near Future, Says Navy Chief


xtending the Indian Navy’s support for reforms in the defence sector, Admiral Karambir Singh, PVSM, AVSM, ADC, the Chief of the Naval Staff, has said that the force was looking at the establishment of the ‘Maritime Theatre Command’ in the near future, ‘which would further buttress the ‘joint planning and application of force’ in the maritime domain’. “As the primary manifestation of India’s maritime power, the Indian Navy stands ready to fulfil its mandate to protect our national interests in the maritime domain,” he told reporters at a news conference held in New Delhi ahead of the Annual Navy Day 2020 themed ‘Indian Navy -Combat Ready, Credible and Cohesive/’. On force level planning and future acquisitions, Admiral Singh said induction of new assets and capabilities was in progress in consonance with the navy’s long-term perspective plans. “Indian Navy’s commitment to self-reliance in defence production is evident from the fact that all 24 ships and submarines commissioned

Admiral Karambir Singh, PVSM, AVSM, ADC Chief of the Naval Staff, Indian Navy into the navy over the last six years have been built in India. Further, of the 43 ships and submarines, currently under construction, 41 are being built at Indian shipyards. These include the Aircraft Carrier -Vikrant, P-15B Class Destroyers, P17A class stealth Frigates and Scorpene class submarines,” he pointed out. Vikrant, the Navy chief said, was at an advanced stage of construction and that sea trials would commence in early 2021. “Visakhapatnam, the first of the P 15B destroyers is undergoing trials and is scheduled to

be commissioned next year. Himgiri, the second of the seven ships of P17A frigates will be launched later this month at GRSE, Kolkata,” he said. On the modernisation of the submarine arm, the admiral said the delivery of the third Scorpene (P75) class boat, Karanj, was expected by the end of the month. In aviation, contracts for procurement of six P8Is, six Kamov 31 helicopters and upgrade of six Heron RPAs are under process and are likely to be concluded in 2021, he said.

Elaborating on the Indian Navy’s major operational activities over the past year, including the fight against Covid-19 pandemic, Admiral Singh said ‘prompt implementation of preventive measures across the Navy aided in minimising the disruptive impact of the pandemic on our operational readiness’. “Our focus on maintaining combat and mission readiness aided the Navy in deterring any misadventure in the maritime domain, while contributing to the national fight against the pandemic,” he added.

Elbit wins IDF Innovation Award


he Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) announced the Brigade and Battlegroup Mission Training Center (B2MTC) that was developed and delivered by Elbit Systems as a winner of the Commander-in-Chief 2020 Innovation Award.

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IDF considered originality, feasibility, scalability and extraordinary contribution for the over-all effectiveness for the award. Since entering service with the IDF, the Ground Forces of the IDF diverted all of its field training to the B2MTC which

has accumulated to-date many hundreds of operational training hours with thousands of trainees both in service and from the reserves. B2MTC is training center that immerses commanders, headquarters staff and two subordinate command levels in

high-fidelity combat situations in actual battle zone territory. It reduces the costs and logistics spent on field training while enabling a hyperrealistic training experience using the same operational Battle Management Systems that are in use by the IDF.

Navy Chief reviews operational readiness at sea


dmiral Karambir Singh, the Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS), reviewed the operational preparedness and combat-readiness of the Indian Navy’s principal combatants during the last week of October. CNS along with Flag Officer Commanding-in-Chief Western Naval Command, Vice Admiral Ajit Kumar, interacted with personnel and emphasised key issues of repairs, maintenance, spares support and oplogistics for afloat units to sharpen their war-fighting capabilities at Karwar Naval Base. He also reiterated aspects of cyber-security, force protection against terrorist attacks, asymmetric warfare and exhorted all personnel to maintain highest-level of alertness. Admiral Karambir Singh thereafter departed by helicopter to embark the Carrier Battle Group, comprising Vikramaditya, destroyers, frigates,

corvettes, fleet support ships and integral swing-role fighters and helicopters. On embarking indigenous guided-missile destroyer Chennai, he was given an operational readiness briefing by the Fleet Commander, after which weapon firings, air-to-air combat operations, anti-submarine drills and fleet manoeuvres were demonstrated under realistic conditions. CNS thereafter embarked Fleet Support Ship Deepak to interact with the ship's crew, followed by embarkation on aircraft carrier Vikramaditya, where he witnessed the Carrier Battle Group’s capabilities for integral fleet air defence and strike. Addressing the combatants of the Carrier Battle Group over broadcast from Vikramaditya, CNS complimented them for continuously maintaining peak combat-readiness and high tempo of operations over the past months, in spite of COVID-19 related challenges. The Indian Navy has remained missiondeployed and combat-ready across the IOR, even through rough seas during the monsoon period, towards maintaining the maritime security of the nation. He highlighted the nation’s appreciation for the Navy’s contributions in ‘Op Samudra Setu’ towards for repatriation of our distressed citizens from IOR countries and towards providing medical and logistics assistance to our friendly neighbours in the IOR, as part of ‘Mission SAGAR’. He expressed satisfaction at the high levels of motivation and reiterated that the Indian Navy has the best human

capital manning our platforms. Giving an overview of the prevailing security situation, he stated that the Navy would continue maintaining a high-tempo of operations in coming months. He also complimented the Carrier Battle Group and its combatants for accurate and effective weapon firings, which left no doubt about the Navy’s readiness to meet any emergent contingencies. CNS highlighted that tri-service synergy and coordination has peaked with establishment of the Department of Military Affairs as was visibly demonstrated in the joint response of the three Services to recent events. Concurrent with CNS’s review of combat readiness on the Western seaboard, the Indian Navy’s Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) capability was further augmented by commissioning of ASW Corvette Kavaratti by General Manoj Mukund Naravane, Chief of the Army Staff, at Visakhapatnam, on the Eastern seaboard. Designed by the Indian Navy and built at Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Ltd, Kolkata, the ship is a fine example of Atmanirbhar Bharat. Indian Navy continues to maintain a high tempo of operations and combat-readiness despite the COVID-19 pandemic by adhering to stringent protocols onboard warships, submarines and aircraft squadrons and bases, and is fully prepared to tackle challenges in the maritime domain, in coordination with Sister Services.

Admiral Karambir Singh, the Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS) with senior officers of Navy. sailors & warriors


QRSAM System: Second Successful Flight Test in a week

Army awards 1325 Cr. order to OshoCorp for APU for T-72 & T-90 Tanks


n yet another flight test, the Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile (QRSAM) System tracked the target accurately and successfully neutralised the airborne target. The flight test, second in the series was conducted from the Integrated Test Range, Chandipur, off the coast of Odisha on 17th November. The test was carried out once again, against the high-performance Jet Unmanned Aerial Target called Banshee, which simulates an aircraft. The Radars acquired the target from a long range and tracked it till the mission computer automatically launched the missile. Continuous guidance was provided through Radar data link. Missile entered the terminal active homing guidance and reached the target close enough for proximity operation of warhead activation. The flight test was conducted in the deployment configuration of the weapon system comprising of Launcher, fully Automated Command and Control System, Surveillance System and Multi-Function Radars. The QRSAM weapon system, which can operate on the move, consists of all indigenously developed subsystems. All objectives of the test were fully met. The launch was carried out in the presence of the users from Indian Army. A number of range instruments like Radar, Telemetry and Electro Optical Sensors were deployed which captured the complete flight data and verified the performance of the missile. Teams from ARDE and R&DE(E) from Pune, LRDE Bengaluru, and IRDE Dehradun in addition to the Missile Complex Laboratories from Hyderabad and Balasore participated in the test. The first in the series test of QRSAM took place on 13th Nov 2020 achieving the milestone of a direct hit. Second test proved the performance parameters of warhead. Defence Minister Rajnath Singh and Secretary DDR&D & Chairman DRDO Dr G Satheesh Reddy congratulated the teams who worked on the QRSAM project, on the second continuous successful flight test.

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shoCorp Global has been selected by the Indian Army for the development & supply of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) of T-72 and T-90 Tanks under Make II guidelines of Ministry of Defence. The sanction order has been issued,after four years of selection process. Ashutosh Khate, CEO of OshoCorp Global said that T-72 and T-90 Tanks are the mainstay of the Mechanised Forces. The Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is an alternate source of power for the Fire Control System of the Tank and ancillaries, to cater for power requirements, while deployed in surveillance mode during a lull in battle, and during training, with a view to conserve the life of main engine of the Tank. Initially the company was asked to develop Four APU’s (2 each for T-90 and T-72 Tanks) for trial & approval and subsequently produce Quantity 3257 Nos APU’s. The project will help India towards self-reliance in APU manufacturing technology for Tanks and fulfil the vision of Atma Nirbhar Bharat of the Prime Minister. Col PK Juneja, Head, Special Projects at OshoCorp explained that , the present project cost is more than rupees 1325 Crore (USD 190 Million) and it has huge potential to generate future domestic & export business which can be many times more than the current procurement of APU’s as it is a continuous requirement keeping in mind the present inventory of T-72, T-90, Arjun Tank and BMPs held by Indian Army and new tank supplies in coming years. In the export market, the countries using Russian T-72, T-90 Tanks can be benefited by procuring India’s newly developed Auxiliary Power Unit for tanks. OshoCorp Global Pvt Ltd is a DIPP certified Defence & Aerospace Start-up with ISO 9001:2015 certification, having NCAGE No. 1691Y (NATO). OshoCorp is in receipt of multiple Defence Industrial License’s (DIL) from Goverment of India for manufacturing Restricted & Sensitive Defence Systems, Weapon platforms & Ammunitions including Auxiliary Power Units (APU) & Environmental control units (ECU) for Tanks. OshoCorp as a reliable partner, supports their client base with pioneering conceptual Defence Solutions to improve sustainability and self-reliance of the Armed Forces.

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Electrical Parameters Frequency (MHz)


Gain (dBi)


VSWR (Max)

1.7 : 1

Army Chief reviews security H Plane situation BW (°) E Plane BW (°) in North East region Polarization


antenna, 46510±0.5 Freq: 510MHz, Gain: 6dBi/11dBi, 10±0.5 &H QuadLinear VStacked Dual Polarized50 YAGI antenna, Max. Power Input (Watts) hief Gain: 17dBi, VHF/ UHF 50 Impedance (Ω) of Army Staff General band, >20 Quadrifilar Helix Front to Back Ratio (dB) >26 Cross Poln. (dB) Mukund Manoj Omni Antenna, Freq:400N(F) or Connector Termination Naravane visited 512MHz,Customized Manpack DC Grounded Lightning Protection Nagaland for a three antenna, Freq: 136-174MHz., GP antenna, Freq: 310-375MHz, Image shown is only for reference not the actual Mechanical Parameters day trip to review the 6in1 Integrated Antennas, GPS/4G/ WiFi Antennas, S band Multi security situation in couplerØ6port/ 8ports, S band / C band/ X band Horn Antennas 900 Dimension (mm) Aluminium Alloy AntennaEast Material North Region. On Telimart’s standard Antenna & RF products comprises of 8±0.5 of products for the Telecom & wireless domain in Gross Weight arrival at(Kg) Dimapur, wide range 38 x 38 x 10 Packing Dimension (inch) the Army Chief was HF,VHF,UHF, SCADA, TETRA, WiFi, WiMax, GSM, CDMA,3G, 4G/ MS Galvanized & Powder Coated Mounting Hardware briefed by Lieutenant LTE freq range includes the following : Tower and Pole Mounting Style General Anil Chauhan, Microwave Antennas 7 - 40 GHz, 30, 60, 90, 120 cms, 2.3Mounting Pole Diameter 2 General Officer 2.9 HGHz, (inch) Plane 4.9-6.1 ± 180° GHz and 3.3-3.7 GHz Backhaul Point to Point Mounting Adjustment Commanding in Chief, Antennas: Dish and Grid Antenna model for Single & V Plane ±Parabolic 15° Eastern Command and Dual Poln (2 X 2 MIMO) types, Point to MultiPoint Antennas: Lieutenant General Sector antenna, Panel Antenna, Omni directional antenna in R P Kalita GOC Spear both single and Dual Poln (2 X 2 MIMO, 3 X 3 MIMO & 4 X 4 General Manoj Mukund Naravane Corps on operational MIMO) types., IBAS/DAS for GSM 900/1800, 2100 and 2300 MHz PVSM, AVSM, SM, VSM, ADC HORN Antenna C- BAND preparedness along the band and also whole band 700 - 2700 MHz bands, Triplexer Chief of Indian Army Northern borders as (806-960MHz, 1710-1880MHz & 1920-2170MHz), Diplexer (806well as operations in hinterland of Assam, Nagaland, Manipur 96MHz & 1710-1880MHz / 806-960MHz & 1920- 2170MHz / Electrical Parameters TM51L-SPHORN-15 and Arunachal Pradesh. The COAS was also briefed on the 1710-1880MHz & 1920-2170MHz), Couplers (5dB, 10dB, 15dB 3500-6700 Frequency (MHz) progress of the ongoing Naga Peace talks. &30dB), Combiners (2:1 & 2:2), Splitters 2, 3, 4 way, Indoor 15 Gain (dBi) COAS visited various and Assam Rifles 1.2 Headquarters Antennas ceiling mount omni and panels, Outdoor Antennas :1 VSWR Army (Max) Environmental Parameters 29 H Plane BW to (°) make a firsthand assessment in Nagaland and Manipur of Yagi, panel etc , Single band ( - ) 40 to ( + ) 70 Temperature Range (°C) 30 E Plane BW (°) the ground situation. The COAS interacted extensively with and multi band/ band selective 200 Wind Speed (km/hr) Linear Polarization the troops deployed in the remote areas repeaters with transmit power 95% No Condensation Humidityand100appreciated Max. Power Input (Watts) their state of operational preparedness, morale 50and conduct up to 40 dBm. , Duplexer Impedance (Ω) of people friendly operations. General NaravaneN(F) called on the 1800MHz (Tx: 1710-1785MHz & Connector Termination DC Ground Lightning Governor of Nagaland, RNProtection Ravi and Chief Minister, Neiphiu Rio Rx: 1805-1880MHz) Parameters to discuss prevailingMechanical security situation in the State and assured X 95 X 126Rifles in Dimension (mm) the wholehearted support of the Army and321Assam Aluminium Alloy Antenna Material maintaining peace and tranquility in the state and ensuring Telimart India Pvt. Ltd. 0.85 Gross Weight (kg) www.telimart.com , Email: info@telimart.com security along the Indo-Myanmar border. MS Galvanized & Powder Coated Mounting Hardware


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Successful Test Firing of BrahMos by Indian Navy

rahMos Supersonic Cruise Missile in Anti-Ship mode was successfully test fired against a decommissioned Ship. The test firing was carried out by Indian Navy. The missile performed highlycomplex manoeuvres and hit Environmental Parameters Bull’s eye of the target. ( - ) 40 to ( + ) 70 Temperature Range (°C) 200 Speed (km/hr) elimart is a Wind leading BrahMos is the supersonic cruise missile jointly developed 95% No Condensation Humidity manufacturer and by DRDO and NPOM of Russia as a Brahmos Aerospace joint nd Plane Antenna supplier of Wireless venture, which became Brahmos Aerospace Private Limited. MHz Communication Antennas, RF components and accessories for The missile has established itself as a major force multiplier LESS COMMUNICATIONS different verticals including defense & telecom. It is a supplier in modern-day complex battlefields with its impeccable antiof antennas for all leading wireless System Integrator, Network ship and land-attack capabilities with multi-role and multiameters TM340V-GPANT-3 310 - 375 Wireless equipment manufacturers, Telco's and Operators, platform abilities and has been deployed in all the three 65MHz service 3dBi providers with OEM/ODM partners. The company’s wings of the Indian Armed Forces. 1.5 : 1 manufacturing facility and corporate office is in Bangalore. The first launch of Brahmos took place in 2001 and till date 360 Telimart’s Antenna & RF products for the Defense domain numerous launches have taken place from various ships, 60 LINEAR , VERTICAL S band Patch Antennas for Satellite tracking, L band Dish Mobile Autonomous Launchers and Su-30 MKI aircraft, t (Watts) 50 Antenna50 , UHF/L band Omni Antennas with spring base for making it a versatile weapon. Secretary DDR&D & Chairman Omni Directional Vehicular mount application, 2.4Ghz/ 5Ghz Omni antennas DRDO Dr G Satheesh Reddy congratulated Indian Navy for ation N(F) Telimart India Pvt. Ltd. for wireless application, Band IV Grid & Sector antenna, YAGI the successful test. www.telimart.com , Email: info@telimart.com arameters



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French firms all set to dominate Aero India 2021

Boaz Levy appointed as CEO of IAI

In the previous edition of Aero India also, the most number of foreign exhibitors were from France and Rafale fighter jet was the biggest attraction


reparations are in full swing for the next edition of Aero India to be held at Air Force Station, Yelahanka in Bengaluru from February 3 to 7, 2021. Hundreds of exhibitors, based in India as well as abroad, have already registered for Aero India 2021, which is the biggest air show in Asia. Interestingly, nearly half of the foreign registrations have been done by French companies. France is followed by the USA, UK and Israel. French firms which would be participating in Aero India 2021 include Airbus SAS, Dassault Aviation, Rafale International, Safran and Thales. During Aero India 2019 also, the most number of foreign exhibitors were from France and Rafales, FALCON 2000S and helicopters from Airbus were among the highlights. In the previous edition of the air show, the main attraction was the Rafale fighter jet as it was in the news at that time with India and France signing an agreement for the manufacture of 36 aircraft for the Indian Air Force (IAF). While in Aero India 2019, Rafales

belonging to the French Air Force were on show, during the upcoming event the IAF’s own Rafales inducted recently are expected to take part. Organisers of Aero India 2021 said that almost the entire space has been booked for the airshow, which will be conducted adhering to all COVID-19 protocols. The foreign participants should follow the Karnataka government's guidelines for international returnees to the state, they said. As per the rules, short-term visitors arriving from abroad with a negative RT-PCR test report would be exempted from testing on arrival. However, the RT-PCR test should have been done within 96 hours before the journey. Meanwhile, several international aerospace companies would be bringing their aircraft for flight display as the IAF is planning to procure 110 multirole fighter aircraft. The firms that have responded to the IAF’s Request for Information (RFI) for the fighter jet include Boeing, SAAB Aviation, Eurofighter, Lockheed Martin and MiG.

SCORPION: GRIFFON command post is qualified


he Command Post version of the Griffon multi-role armored vehicle developed by Arquus, Nexter and Thales has been qualified and handed over to the French Army. The French Delegation for Armaments (DGA) qualified the command post vehicle (EPC) variant of the GRIFFON vehicle on 13 November 2020. At the same time, the first examples are being submitted for acceptance by the DGA's quality department at the Roanne site. Therefore,

the three first GRIFFON EPC have been delivered to the Army technical section (STAT) which will continue the operational evaluation of this equipment with its rapid deployment within the regiments in sight. The GME (temporary grouping of companies) EBMR (Engins Blindés MultiRôles) comprised of Nexter, Arquus and Thales is fully mobilized on the production of the first 20 series GRIFFON EPCs to be presented to verification operations by the end of 2020. Ultimately, the SCORPION program calls for the acquisition of 333 units of this variant, half of which will be delivered by 2025. As a reminder, the SCORPION program aims to modernize the Army's combat capabilities and in particular to improve command through new information resources.


srael Aerospace Industries Ltd. (IAI) Board of Directors, chaired by Harel Locker, approved the search committee's recommendation to nominate Boaz Levy as IAI's Chief Executive Officer (CEO). Levy succeeds Maj. General (ret.) Nimrod Sheffer, who stepped down as CEO on October 31, 2020. Boaz Levy’s career at IAI spans over 30 years. In 1990 he joined the company as an engineer for the Arrow Project and in 1999 became the project's chief engineer. From 2003 to 2006, Mr. Levy headed the induction of the Arrow-2 into operational service after going through numerous successful test flights. From 2006 to 2010 he headed the Barak-8 program, which evolved into one of the world's most advanced air defense systems and became one of IAI’s most significant growth engines. In 2010, Boaz Levy was appointed as general manager of IAI's air defense division and in 2013 he became Vice President of the Systems Missiles and Space Group, leading the group to become IAI's most profitable and successful business unit. Over the years, Levy has pursued groundbreaking technological developments that are cornerstones of Israel's defense. Several of those programs have won the Israel Defense Prize presented annually by the President of Israel to people and organizations who made significant contributions to the defense of the State of Israel. Levy is also responsible for some of the largest defense export sales in Israel's history, including the sale of the Barak Weapon System worth over $6B US.

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SAMDeS, a key think tank creating strategic discourse Society for Aerospace, Maritime & Defence Studies (SAMDeS) promotes multi-disciplinary research and analysis on aerospace, defence, military and maritime industry-related matters

Admiral RK Dhowan PVSM, AVSM, YSM (Retd) Chairperson, SAMDeS

Cmde. Sujeet Samaddar NM (Retd.) Secretary, SAMDeS


hink tanks play a crucial role in formulating national policies, especially related to defence. The New Delhibased Society for Aerospace, Maritime & Defence Studies (SAMDeS) is India’s key non-profit think tank, which aims to promote multi-disciplinary research and analysis to inspire and inform the public and private policy discourse on national aerospace, defence, military and maritime industry-related matters. Major activities The vision of SAMDeS is to undertake or use research and analysis as the main element of the arguments

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to inspire and inform public and private policies, provide policy guidance, global best practices and offer solutions to government and industry towards building and operationalizing a world-class defence industrial base in India. SAMDeS focuses on some important areas. The think tank promotes development of a world-class defence industrial ecosystem integrating government, industry and academia resources to achieve selfreliance and engages in an assessment of the evolving international and national regulatory framework on arms trade and impact on the national industrial base. It also examines the role of state for advancement of technology and innovation with mission-oriented investments in R&D and public-private collaboration. Development of process protocols to bridge the gap between frontline research to new product prototype and serial production is yet another focus area. Exploration of innovative investment options for defence sector like Technology Development Funds, viability gap funding, angel investors and PE funds too is carried out. Development of requisite skill sets for the workforce required for the defence manufacturing ecosystem,

serving as Knowledge Partners to provide research reports on regulatory, compliance and policy issues and examining potential export areas for indigenously-developed products are the other activities of SAMDeS. Important objectives The think tank has set certain strategic objectives, like providing focus, and predicting and planning future developments of the indigenous defence industrial ecosystem, which will have an impact on the policy discourse and the related implementation strategies with particular reference to a robust and responsive acquisition procedure. Another goal is to examine investment options for the defence sector through financial viability and Innovative Business Finance models,including Technology Development Funds, viability gap funding arrangements, angel investors and PE funds. SAMDeS also revisits and examines a more contemporary and digitised decision-making model for capital acquisitions across the entire value chain from concept to contract conclusion. Similarly, assessment of the international and national regulatory framework relating to Arms Trade and its

implications on the national industrial base is also made. Apart from holding conferences and maintaining an interactive website, the founder members of SAMDeS promote knowledge partners through Centres of Excellence as a collaborative venture between academic institutions and industry to work towards innovation in emerging areas of advanced technology like robotics, equipment for high speed communications, new materials, nanotechnology, artificial intelligence etc. Joint exchange programmes with similar regional and international institutions are also promoted. Thematic focus areas As part of policy advocacy, SAMDeS carries out interlink of national defence strategy and the doctrinal paradigm, operational imperatives, economics and technological dimensions in the development of the national defence industrial base. It also studies the impact of globalization on the indigenous industrialisation efforts and need to benchmark technological and commercial competitiveness with futuristic development in the sector. Outlining the steps needed for the development of indigenous R&D and bridging of gap areas in different technology domains to bolster creativity

Leasing: A Win-Win for Industry, Armed Forces


he vital role the Indian industry could play in fulfilling the requirements of the Armed Forces of India was stressed at the eSymposium on ‘Leveraging Leasing For Force Level Maintenance & Modernisation’ held last month. The symposium inspired by the latest introduction of leasing as a new category in the Defence Acquisition Procedure 2020 and organised jointly by FICCI (Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry) and the Society for Aerospace, Maritime and Defence Studies (SAMDeS) also threw light on the existing constraints in modernization and capability development, advantages of lease model, requirements of armed forces and the expectations from the industry. Asserting that the Indian Armed Forces are focused on modernization, and

are receptive to new ideas and proposals, Vice Chief of the Naval Staff Vice Admiral G Ashok Kumar, who inaugurated the event, said that there are several platforms, systems and equipment that qualify lease criteria. “For the navy, we will look towards leasing our assets and auxiliaries to enhance our capabilities and get avoid huge investments in manning and maintaining,” he said. The ongoing modernization process, he said, aims to create capabilities or accomplish a range of missions across the entire spectrum of threats and challenges. “A wide variety of such capabilities can be covered through provisions of leasing, and Indian industry can play a vital role in fulfilling the requirements of armed forces,” he added. Admiral Ashok Kumar also urged the industry to have and maintain a long term

outlook on the opportunity. “If the requirements of three services can be met through leasing provisions, it could be a win-win situation for both the Indian industry and the armed forces,” he pointed out. Admiral RK Dhowan, the former Chief of Naval Staff and currently the chairperson of SAMDeS, while welcoming the delegates said the introduction of lease as a category for defence acquisition in the DAP 2020 was a path-breaking procedural change, ‘which will facilitate the transition from one capability to another’. “It will be a seamless transition through the interim mechanism of leasing. It’s a visionary initiative by the Ministry of Defence. The aim is to have the capacity building and capability enhancement of our armed forces, to increase the operational efficiency as well as to meet

the urgent operational requirements of the armed forces through this important vehicle of leasing which is being proposed,” he said. Commodore Sujeet Samaddar N M, former senior consultant, NITI Aayog and the honorary secretary of SAMDeS who moderated the session on ‘Leasing of Maritime Platforms’ said the services had now the opportunity to make sure that they are able to conduct their duties responsibly by using the best available means through leasing. Among others who spoke at the symposium were FICCI Defence and Aerospace Committee chairman S P Shukla, Airborne Surveillance & Remote Sensing (Norwegian Special Mission) director Jostein Trones, former secretary Defence Finance Gargi Kaul and FICCI Defence & Aerospace Committee co-chairman and CEO Sudhakar Gande.

and innovation is another focus area. Issues on standardization, quality, IPR, political control on technology, export restrictions and FDI in defence are also considered by the think tank. It presents a periodical sector wise (land systems, aerospace, maritime systems) status report on achievement of indigenous content by the Indian industry as per the levels defined by government and highlights best practices. Spin-off benefits of key sectors like aerospace, shipbuilding, IT and electronics hardware,

telecommunication equipment, surveillance systems, cyber security, and so on with dual use technology connotations are an area of study. SAMDeS carries out macro-level mapping of manufacturing capability to facilitate sector-wise hubs for aerospace, shipbuilding, electronics, combat vehicles, missiles and armaments. Similarly, towards achieving cost-competitiveness and financial modeling, SAMDeS formulates models and methodologies for cost audit and financial implications of the indigenisation efforts.

Founders, key people SAMDeS is led and guided by some distinguished luminaries. Former Chief of the Naval Staff Admiral R K Dhowan is the chairperson of SAMDeS. He was also the Chairman of the National Maritime Foundation (NMF), India. Shobhana Joshi, IDAS, Co-Chairperson & Treasurer of SAMDeS, was the Secretary (Defence Finance). Similarly, Cmde. Sujeet Samaddar NM (Retd.), who is the Hony. Secretary of SAMDeS, was earlier Principal Director, Naval Plans & Senior Consultant NITI AAYOG, Government of India.

The founder members of SAMDeS are Air Marshal Ajit Bhavnani, former Vice Chief of the Indian Air Force; Dr. Vijayalakshmy Gupta, IDAS, who was earlier Defence Finance Secretary; Lt. General (Dr.) A S Lamba, who earlier held the post of Vice Chief of the Army Staff and is presently President, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS), New Delhi and Dr. R K Tyagi, former Chairman, HAL and Pawan Hans Helicopters and President of Aeronautical Society of India and Hony President, Center for India Progressing.

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IAF Chief Reviews LCH Programme, Takes a Sortie


ir Chief Marshal RKS Bhadauria, Chief of the Air Staff undertook his maiden flight in HAL designed and developed Light Advanced Helicopter (LCH) at Bangalore. The aircraft took to the skies at 11.45 hours and remained airborne for an hour. The CAS was accompanied by HAL’s Deputy Chief Test Pilot, Wg Cdr (Retd) S P John. While thanking all stake holders of LCH project, the Air Chief said “It was a very good sortie. I was able to look at the

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important flying characteristics and status of sensors already installed. The LCH is a potent platform due to excellent D&D efforts and well supported flight test team. The IAF is keenly looking forward to the induction of this aircraft and I am sure HAL will give required focus on productionisation at a fast pace”. R Madhavan, CMD, HAL, thanked the Air Chief and said that HAL is geared up for productionisation of LCH to meet all the requirements of the Air Force.

GRSE Lays Keel of 2nd Survey Vessel Large (Yard 3026)


arden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Ltd., (GRSE), Kolkata, in an impressive ceremony, laid the keel of the 2nd Survey Vessel (Large) (Yard 3026) at Kattupalli, Chennai. The Virtual Keel Laying ceremony was performed in the presence of Vice Admiral Vinay Badhwar AVSM, NM, Chief Hydrographer to the Govt. of India. The ceremony was also attended by Rear Admiral VK Saxena, IN (Retd), Chairman & Managing Director, GRSE, other Directors and other senior officials from Indian Navy and the Shipyard. The ship is part of the Survey Vessels (Large) project won by GRSE in a competitive bidding process in Oct 18 for an order value of Rs. 2435.15 crore. The 1st ship is to be constructed within 36 months from contract signing date with a project completion time of 54 months. Part construction of this ship is being carried out at L&T Shipyard, Kattupalli. After launching, the ship will be shifted to GRSE, Kolkata for outfitting, trials, and delivery. The vessel is 110m long with a deep displacement of 3300 Tons and can accommodate 231 personnel. The vessel is designed for a cruising speed of 16 knots with an in-house GRSE’s Hull Form Design which imparts a superior level of operational efficiency. The Hull form of these new generations Survey Vessel also meets the stringent seakeeping and manoeuvring requirements including Helicopter Operations at high sea states. The design

of the ship by GRSE’s inhouse Design Unit accorded “Centre of Excellence” Unit status by Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), Ministry of Science & Technology is a significant step in “Make in India” initiative of the Govt. of India. With their Stateof-the-Art “Survey Payload” comprising of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Remote Operated Vehicles (ROVs), Multi Beam Echo Sounders etc, these Survey Ships would prove to be a game changer in the Indian Navy’s Capabilities for Coastal and Deepwater Hydrographic Surveys aiding Maritime Operations. In their auxiliary role, they will be capable of performing limited search and rescue, limited ocean research and operate as hospital ship/ casualty holding ships. GRSE continues to be the epitome of indigenous design and construction of warships. Recently, following the call for “Atmanirbharta”, a state-of-the-art Modern Hull Block Complex and Indigenous Underwater CNC Plasma Cutting Facility were virtually inaugurated by the Hon’ble Raksha Mantri Shri.

Rajnath Singh at the RBD Unit of GRSE, to augment the existing infrastructure at the Main Unit of the Shipyard. GRSE’s strategies revolve around shifting to smart manufacturing or Industry 4.0 with innovations in Automation, Robotics and the Industrial Internet of Things. GRSE presently has a strong order book of over Rs 26,000 crores and is currently executing three major shipbuilding projects, namely the P17A Project for 3 Advanced Stealth Frigates, 4 Survey Vessels (Large) and 8 Anti-Submarine Warfare

Shallow Watercraft. The 1st P17A Ship is expected to be launched in Dec this year, well ahead of schedule. GRSE delivered the Fast Patrol Vessel (FPV) ICGS Kanaklata Barua, the 105th Warship delivered by the Shipyard, to the Indian Coast Guard in June 2020, despite challenges in operations in a manpower-intensive industry during pandemic times thus reaffirming our motto “Infinite Passion meets Unwavering Commitment”. The Shipyard also plans to deliver two more warships in the coming months.

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Dominating the Triad of Underwater, Surface and Air India has already emerged as a significant player in the global maritime theatre, with a substantive blue-water navy now operating in various long range deep water settings.

Dr Vijayalakshmy K Gupta IDAS (Retd)


joined the office of CDA Navy in 1976 after my training as an Indian Defence Accounts Service (IDAS) officer. That year for the first time, the Indian Navy was allotted a major share of the defence capital budget. The total outlay was Rs. 258 crores and the Navy’s share of Rs. 92.76 crores was the highest amongst that of the services. Further, two-thirds of this was earmarked for fleet modernisation.     In the aftermath of the Bangladesh war, the Indian Navy – ‘the Silent Service’ - slowly emerged on its own out of the shadows of the Army and the Air Force. The Indian Navy was ranked as ninth largest in the world. However, it was only in the late 1990s that the Government of India acknowledged the geopolitical necessity of developing the Indian Navy for strategic, defence, economic and commercial reasons. A strong maritime build up by the Indian Navy ensued over the following years.  And, thus in the year 2011, when I superannuated as Secretary Defence Finance, the Navy’s capital budget was Rs. 13,149.02 crores. The modernisation budget estimate of Indian Navy in the financial year 2020-21 was Rs. 25,620 crores, registering an increase of 15.9% over the previous year.  Now, the Indian Navy is ranked fifth

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among the Navies of the world in terms of displacement (after the US, Chinese, Russian and British Navies). But, on the basis of the power in the waters, India gets placed 7th in the powerful navies’ list. The United States, Russia, China, Japan, United Kingdom and France are placed ahead of India generally in this list. The ranking is based on the naval power and weapons including aircraft carriers, vessels, destroyers, and corvettes. The Indian Navy is a true threedimensional force, and its assets comprise all the three naval triad components of power - on surface, under the water, and in the air. Increasingly, the Navy has also invested on space-based cyber and networks assets. A focussed and multi-pronged plan has been pursued to harness national capabilities and enhance not just the fleet, platforms, missiles and weapons, but also build supporting infrastructure, logistics, training facilities, dockyards and additional bases of operation. This was achieved by identifying and building upon the core national strengths in the maritime domain, with a view to focus investment in niche areas and best practices for a long-term development.  The infrastructure and indigenous shipbuilding industry has also added to the Navy’s fast pace progress as a virtuous cycle of demand and supply, driving operational might and industrial capabilities. The Navy today justifiably prides itself as a ‘Builder’ with almost all ships and submarines being designed and built in Indian shipyards and equipped with indigenous steel, weapons, sensors, communication and machinery. 

Navy has always been forward looking and developing indigenous facilities, besides encouraging manufacturing of spares and re-engineering systems. India has already emerged as a significant player in the global maritime theatre, with a substantive blue-water navy now operating in various long range deep water settings. The Indian Navy has parallelly forged operational arrangements with the littoral Indian Ocean region countries and this has given it operational turn around facilities in more than two dozen ports in the region, thereby increasing its reach and sustenance manifold. Former Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral Sunil Lanba had unveiled the blueprint for a relentless naval build-up intended to achieve India’s position as the leading naval power in the Indian Ocean region. He said, “If I crystal gaze ahead to 2050, we will be a 200 ship, 500 aircraft world class Navy.” I am sure the nation stands as one to realise the vision of the Indian Navy – to be truly a powerful force for ensuring maritime security, safety and stability in the region for all and exercising sovereignty over sea spaces of India. So, Indian Navy will continue to exercise the national will in India’s maritime area of interest and exert power in its area of influence.  And, also enhance its domination in the sea waters which is vital for our national security in its comprehensive sense in the coming decades. --The author retired as Secretary Defence Finance and served as member TRAI. Presently she is the founder member of Society for Aerospace, Maritime and Defence Studies (SAMDeS).

Indian Navy completes the refit of Maldivian Ship


aval Dockyard, Visakhapatnam completed the refit of Maldivian Coast Guard Ship MNDF CGS Huravee. Rear Admiral Sreekumar Nair, Admiral Superintendent handed over the ship to the Commanding Officer Major Hussain Rasheed at Visakhapatnam. Colonel Ahmed Thohir, Defence Advisor of Maldives to India, attended the ceremony wherein he conveyed the satisfaction of the Maldives Government and also read a message from the Minister of Defence, Govt. of Maldives on the excellent conduct of refit amidst the pandemic and thanked the Govt. of India, Indian Navy and HQENC for

smooth and safe completion of the refit. The ship arrived in Visakhapatnam for its refit on 22 Feb 20. Notwithstanding the limitations imposed due to COVID19 pandemic since March 20, dedicated efforts and careful planning & execution of works by Naval Dockyard with adequate safety enabled major refurbishment/replacement of main propulsion and auxiliary equipment. Renewal of ship’s power generation equipment has provided a major fillip to the ship’s endurance and capability. Further, several systems and equipment were overhauled successfully to ensure better performance and sustainability

of the ship for service with the Maldives Coast Guard during the upcoming operational cycle. The ship was put through extensive harbour and sea trials, to achieve full operational readiness. MNDF CGS Huravee (originally INS Tillanchang) is an indigenously built Trinkat class patrol vessel constructed at Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers, Kolkata in 2001. Subsequently, it was gifted to Maldives by the Government of India in 2006 to strengthen the partnership between the two nations and to cooperate further for the maritime safety of the Indian Ocean Region.

HAL Delivers Biggest Ever Cryogenic Propellant Tank to ISRO


AL has delivered the biggest cryogenic propellant tank (C32 LH2) ever fabricated by the company to ISRO much ahead of the contractual schedule at a program held here recently. The C32-LH2 tank is a developmental cryogenic propellant tank of aluminium alloy designed for improving the payload capability of GSLV MK-III launching vehicle. The propellant tank was handed over by M S Velpari, Director (Operations), HAL to Dr V Narayanan, Director (LPSC), ISRO in the presence of S Somanath, Director (VSSC) andr senior scientists from ISRO and senior officers from HAL, participating in virtual mode. Somanath, Director, VSSC, ISRO acknowledged HAL’s contributions to India’s space program as one of the valuable partners of ISRO in its long journey. While appreciating HAL’s capability in absorbing any technological advancements and developments in productionizing any types of space hardware and structures for the space launch vehicle, he highlighted HAL’s role in developing eco-system by sharing the knowledge among private players towards strengthening the supply chain. Dr. V Narayanan, Director (LPSC), while receiving the hardware, thanked the entire workforce of HAL for successful production of the developmental project.

M S Velpari reiterated HAL’s commitment to bring this mutual cooperation and support to the utmost level. He also explained HAL’s preparedness to venture into complete realization of PSLV & GSLV launch vehicles progressively from raw material stage to launch stage including managing the entire supply chain of ISRO. The four meter diametric tank is of eight meter length to load 5755 Kg propellant in the 89 cubic meter volume. Total length of weld carried out in the tank was 115 meter at different stages to the quality requirement of 100% tests on radiography, Die penetrant check and Leak proof. HAL has mastered the skills and technologies required for fabricating welded propellant tank of Aluminium ally to such stringent quality requirement. HAL as a strategic reliable partner, has been associating with ISRO for the

prestigious space programs since last five decades. HAL has supplied critical structures, tankages, satellite structures for the PSLV, GSLV-MkII and GSLV-MkIII launch vehicle. Various new projects like PS2/GS2 integration, Semi-Cryo structure fabrication and manufacture of cryo & semi cryo engines are being taken up at HAL, for which setting up of necessary infrastructure & facilities is nearing completion. HAL has also supported ISRO right from the developmental phase of Crew Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment, PAD Abort test for Crew Escape for Human Space Mission and is currently building hardware for full-fledged launch vehicle GSLV Mk-III for Gaganyaan program.

sailors & warriors


Basin trials of IAC successful The dream project enters final phase. Sea trials planned for first half of 2021


he basin trials of indigenous aircraft carrier (IAC) were successfully conducted at Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL) on November 30. The trials were carried out in the presence of Vice Admiral AK Chawla, the Flag Officer Commandingin-Chief Southern Naval Command and Madhu S Nair, the Chairman and Managing Director of CSL. With the successful completion of the basin trials, IAC has entered the final phase of the project. The sea trials are planned for the first half of 2021 and it is only a matter of time that IAC would be sailing the high seas bearing the national tricolour. Despite the restrictions imposed by the lockdown due to Covid-19 pandemic, CSL and Indian Navy worked as a cohesive team to ensure timely completion of all essential tasks leading up to basin trials of aircraft carrier. Thanks to astute planning and implementation of necessary safety measure on ground by the Navy and Shipyard, the work on-board aircraft carrier could progress unhindered even during the peak of the pandemic. Basin trials are primarily

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aimed at proving the main propulsion plant of the ship in harbour and are a precursor to the ensuing sea trials. On-board the IAC, extensive trials of all four LM2500 gas turbines, main gear boxes, shafting and controllable pitch propellers, along with their integrated control systems, were carried out during these trials. In addition, major auxiliary equipment and systems such as steering gear, air conditioning plants, compressors, centrifuges, all 60 critical pumps, fire main system, power generation and distribution system, major machinery firefighting and de-flooding systems, all deck machinery as well as entire internal communication equipment were also proved during the harbour trials phase. Also present on the occasion were N V Suresh

Babu, Director Operations, CSL, Commodore Ishan Tandon, Director Carrier Acceptance Trial Team (CATT), Commodore Sameer Aggarwal, Chief Staff Officer (Technical) of Southern Naval Command, Commodore Cyril Thomas, Warship Production Superintendent (WPS) and Commodore Vivek Dahiya, Commanding Officer (Designated). The IAC project is also an example of ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’ with close to 75% of the material and equipment on-board the IAC being indigenous. These include raw

plants, steering gear, RO plants, main switchboards, energy distribution centres, more than 150 pumps and motors, AK 630 guns, chaff launchers, internal and external communication equipment, all network systems including ship data network, integrated platform management system and combat management system. Further, over 50 Indian manufacturers have been directly involved in this project which has provided significant employment opportunities for citizens. Close to 2000 Indians received

material such as 23000 tonnes of steel, 2500 Kilometers of electrical cables, 150 kilometers of pipes and 2000 valves as well as finished products such as anchor capstans, rigid hull boats and LCVPs, galley equipment, air conditioning and refrigeration

direct employment onboard IAC on a daily basis and over 40,000 received indirect employment. In addition, about 80-85% of the project cost of approximately Rs.20,000 crores has been ploughed back into the Indian economy.

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SAILORS & WARRIORS Magazine NAVY Day issue 2020