Porto Rico: History and Conditions Social, Economic, and Political (1926)

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DepartthelocatednowarewhichinarsenalSpanisholdtherightAt-WharftheJuanSan ments of Health and other Insular offices . whichnearCatanobaytheAcrossCaparra,thecapitalofJuanPonce,waslocated.
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Barros River, Barros.
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GEOLOGY, TOPOGRAPHY, CLIMATE 19 headquarters from which to maintain law and order in these waters, the logic of events makes it the natural, the inevitable outpost of American influence in the West Indies.
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Arecibo Utuado Road. An example of road building under the American régime. Cocoanut Farm near Mayagüez.
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.Manatiat",Monserrate"thenamed-millsugarMoscovado"ofType Mavilla Bridge, Corozal Road. An example of the excellent engineeringof recent Insular administrations.
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OrangeGrovenearMayagüez. RicoPortoTierradePuerta,DispensaryMunicipal,Clinic'Babies. Puerta de Tierra. The Peddlar's Family.


value of lands, previously mentioned, two distinctly marked classes have been created, the employer class, which is very small, including from 10 per cent. to 15percent. of the population and thewage-earning class forming the great bulk. Themiddle class has entirely disappeared and it is the loss of thismiddle class, that is,the small farmer class, the main strength of other nations, which constitutes the fundamental difficulty.

Every effort possible must be made to re-create some such class of independent small owners either of farms or other productive industries to more nearly equalize the burdens and humanize the life of the population.

Reduced wages have given rise to many labor dis turbances, both in country and in towns, practically all of which have been the result of strikes organized to better working conditions or to obtain higher wages. These strikes have generally been justified by condi tions; that they have resulted in violence and occa sionally in bloodshed may be laid to the ignorance of a people easily excited though not aroused as a rule to extreme measures. These disturbances, therefore, are an outcome of poverty and in turn create this abnormal condition.

The average wages per family which have ruled for several years are from fifty cents to sixty cents per day, when employed. As a result of hookworm and malaria workers are but half efficient when working. With an income on so low a plane, there can be no thought of accumulation but even when a windfall, such as the sale of his land, has come to him, there is no incentive to save from climate or social condi

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tions. There being no need to provide against a period of cold, the habit, strengthened by the custom of the centuries, is to live for the moment. The incentive must be provided through education which will be effective only when the physical condition of the people shall have been raised by the continued effort toward a higher standard of living. In the meantime, a measure of relief wisely applied is needed for the weakest members. Organized charity in the modern sense has, until recently, been unknown in the Island and the regular passing out of small doles to beggars on certain days of the week by business houses and individuals has been an immemorial custom.

That the idea of accumulation has begun to take hold is shown by the fact that by 1915 savings in the banks had reached $1,909,969, and the report for 1924 indicates a further substantial increase to $11, 165,308. This is an indication of better economic conditions in the cities but in all probability reflects no improvement among farm laborers. The intro duction of the Postal Savings Banks and the school banks have been of great value.

Health and Sanitation

Porto Rico is more free from serious epidemics and from general sickness than most tropical countries because of the natural salubrity of her climate andthe unusual efforts which have been made in her behalf by the medical profession.

In years past small pox and yellow fever appeared as recurring epidemics of a devastating character. These epidemics have been entirely eliminated, no



yellow fever having appeared since 1896. Occasional cases of bubonic plague have developed in San Juan as late even as 1921, presumably brought from other ports. The sanitary service has, in every case, taken prompt action in the detection and destruction of infected rats and in rat-proofing buildings suspected , with the result that the area and number of cases have been limited.

The U. S. Public Service is effectively administered, examines all ships entering the harbors of the islands, fumigates against rats or mosquitoes if they hail from suspected ports and effectively guards the Island's health against contagion from outside.

The Island harbors forty-four cases of leprosy which have been isolated on the Island of Cabras in San Juan bay. Treatments are being continued. A new Insular Leper Hospital, well situated in a location much more favorable for the well beingof the patients, with forty acres of grounds about it, the installation of which is in every way modern, will shortly be opened.

The average mortality rates for different periods since the American occupation are as follows: Per thousand 1899-1900

Tuberculosis and infant mortality are the immediate causes responsible for the most serious inroads on the life of the people.

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1908 . 1913-1914 1918-19211914-1918 1924 . 42 . 20.9 18.44 25.92 21.74 18.70


Following the suggestion made by the Porto Rico Chapter of the American Red Cross, the Governor in 1922 requested of the Surgeon General of the U. S. Public Health Service that a tuberculosis survey be made of the Island.

Pursuant to this request, Surgeon J. G. Townsend was sent to San Juan in October of that year and remained until the following April

The survey which was made with the full coöpera tion of the Insular Health Department was expected to accomplish three objects:

1. To determine approximatelythe number of active cases on the Island, their distribution and localization.

2. To investigate the factors responsible for the propagation and spread of TB in Porto Rico, and

3. To ascertain the most practical means of com bating tuberculosis in that Island. 1

The results of this survey have unquestionably been of great service to the Insular Government, not only in combating the particular disease in question, but also in throwing further light on general health con ditions.

Several clinics and dispensaries have been opened since the beginning of 1924 and the effort to reduce the ravages of this disease is being prosecuted on a scale never before possible. The mortality, however, so far has remained about the same, for example: 1922-1923......2,697 1923-1924. .....2,834

1 "Public Health Bulletin No. 138, December, 1923, TuberculosisSurvey of the Island of Porto Rico, by Surgeon J. G. Townsend."



The difference of 137 shows the percentage keeping pace with the population. The difficulties in the way of reducing this loss are found in the congested popula tion, general poverty, use of poor food, ignorance of hygiene and prevalence of venereal diseases, but pri marily in the widespread under-nourishment of the people. Once sick there are but few hospitals to take care of them and those poorly maintained.

The Governor's report indicates that the work of prevention is being prosecuted by the Government to the limit of its resources. The sanitarium at Rio Piedras has been enlarged and a preventorium for 150 children added. There is also a sanitarium at Ponce.

Infant Mortality

In 1914-15 deaths of children under two years were 6,644 or 28.8 per cent of total mortality. In other words, approximately fourteen out of every one hundred born died in infancy at that period. The determined effort of the Insular Government sup ported by the work of various philanthropic agencies has, in the last four years, produced results which show marked improvement, as indicated by the fol lowing figures:

Infant Mortality 1924

Under 1 year of age...... (25.6 per cent of total) 6,642

I to 2 years . 2 to 5 years.... Under 5 years.... (45.3 per cent of general mortality) 2,788 2,290 11,720

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PORTO RICO in Rate Per thousand 1921-1922 1922-1923 1923-1924 152 143 128

The Governor in his report says:

"When it is understood that most of these deaths of children are the result of preventable causes, we may realize the full measure of our responsibility for such lamentable conditions. The encouraging phase of the situation lies in the fact that we know that well directed efforts to remove these preventable causes are bringing actual ascertainable improvement as humanitarian work is increasing in the Island."


Much loss of time and labor results from the ray ages of malaria, which occupies third place in the mortality table . In 1921 it was responsible for and1,273 in 1922 for 1,108 deaths . It is particularly preva lent in certain well marked localities:

a. Between Arecibo and Manati on the north shore

b. South shore between Cabo Rojo and Maricao

c. West between Aguadilla and Cabo Rojo

The Sanitation Service maintains a department en gaged in studying and combating this disease. Not able research work has been undertaken also by the Rockefeller Foundation in various parts of the Island to the end of isolating and eliminating the carrier mosquito.



The most notable achievement, however, in the field of health is that of Dr. Bailey K. Ashford, Colonel in the Medical Corps of the U. S. Army, in his discovery of hookworm as responsible for a large part of the Island's physical troubles and the estab lishment through his effort of an effective treatment for this disease.

The presence of this parasite has been found to be almost universal in the Island, so much so that every recruit accepted for the national army during the World War was treated against it without regard to rank. At least 90 percent. of the population have been affected in greater or less degree.

The reduction in the rate of general mortality is undoubtedly due in large degree to the measures taken for the treatment and against the spread of this dis ease, not generally fatal in itself but of so debilitating a nature that the victim is prone to other and more acute diseases. Those working on the coffee planta tions are most subject to it ; insufficiently clothed and fed and weakened by the damp and chilling winds, they have little strength to combat it. Shoes have been looked upon as an impossible luxury. The Department of Sanitation has considered at various times the purchase of shoes in the United States in quanti ties, to be resold to the peons at a nominal figure. Various projects have been advanced also to manu facture shoes on the Island which might be effective in preventing this infection. No definite results, how ever, have been recorded to date.

SOCIAL PROBLEMS (Continued) 191


Up to 1910 more than 300,000 cases of hookworm had been treated and a great deal of work had been done by the Sanitation Service in the way of instruc tion to farmers as to sanitary rules for the avoiding of infection and for the building of proper latrines for each family group.

An anemia commission was also established by the Insular Legislature composed of Drs. Ashford, Pedro Gutierrez and W. King for the further investigation of causes. An intensive campaign against this pest has been undertaken by the present administration, its most important achievement being the creation of a Bureau of Uncinariasis. By an arrangement with the International Health Board of the Rockefeller Foun dation, its director for Porto Rico has been made the first chief of the Bureau, thus correlating the work of thegovernment with that ofthemostimportant private agencyAbout one-fifth of the area of the Island has now been covered and the work will be continued until the entire area has been completed. In 1923 the mor tality was 1,022 but in 1924 this was reduced to 737.

Since 1921, 364,029 treatments have been given to 115,486 persons, that is, to more than one-tenth of the rural population . The Legislature has increased its appropriation from $ 30,000 to $60,000, and the Rockefeller Foundation has agreed to double its work. Further favorable results may therefore be expected.

The Island laborer has been classed as " unambitious and lazy' but this condition disappears quickly when his system is freed from disease. The remarkable results achieved in the army during the war and since ,



has proved that when the Porto Rican youth is well fed, housed and clothed and subjected to the proper sanitary rules and discipline, he is as well able to do a full day's work as the native of any other country. Anemia and malaria are the products of the bad economic conditions to which he is subject. Improve ment in his physical status will respond quickly to favorable changes in the economic situation.

I Crime

The work of the Insular police is more important than that of similar bodies in the United States on account of the great prevalence of petty crime andthe tendency to disturbance of the peace on slight provocation. The duties of these officers, therefore, lie largely along the lines of enforcing municipalordinances, protecting property and keeping the peace and not in any large degree in pursuing professional criminals.

In 1915-16 there were 53,006 persons arrested, 47,000 of whom were men and the balance women. This represents one arrest for every twenty-two of the population but of the total only 438 were con victed of felony. Other convictions in this year were as follows:

Gambling 9,000

Petit larceny 2,000


Breaking sanitary laws... 5,000

Breaking road laws.. 2,000

In other words a very large number were arrested for unimportant crimes. Of the felonies, few involvedloss of life. Crimes of violence are very infrequent.

PROBLEMS (Continued ) 193


In 1913-14 only one-quarter of the crimes were against the life or well being of another person. Thirty-four per cent. were against property. (This was a year of financial crisis.) Twenty-three per cent. were against police regulations.

In 1914-15 there were 17,000 laborers on strike. Of the crimes in that year, 17 per cent. ,were against property and 45 per cent. were against police regula tions. The average lawbreaker is easily influenced by economic and social conditions . This is true also of election years but at such times there is an increase in convictions for contempt of court, bribery and perjury.

The large proportion of crime in San Juan as com pared with other districts is due to social conditions. As the capital and metropolis , it is the resort of undesirable native characters and, as the principal port, harbors along its waterfront a cosmopolitan popula tion, uneducated and irresponsible.

Prevalence of crime is found also, as might be ex pected, to follow a lack of effort on the part of em ployers to give the men comfortable quarters.

Cabo Rojo, which shows the smallest proportion of arrests of the Island, is the center of a district which depends on the hat industry. This is a strong argu ment for the establishment of home industries in the country districts.

An increase in crime has also followed or accom panied strikes or the importation of labor from one section to another.

The great majority of arrests, however, are for city crimes. The average countryman has a great respect


for law and premeditated crime is rare outside the cities.

Carelessness in complying with local laws and municipal ordinances is almost universal. Arrests for such infractions have run as high as one for each 7.17 of the inhabitants. Petty thieving is also very preva lent in San Juan and extremely annoying to automobile owners. Cars parked in front of places of amusement in the evenings are likely to lose everything that is removable. Bulbs, tools, extra tires, mats, robes are sure to go. One case is recorded of over eighty grease cups being removed from various parts of the engine during an evening's entertainment. The coil boxes of Ford machines must be securely locked if one does not wish to walk home. This is, of course, the work of hoodlums, but it is so deftly done that it is extremely difficult for the police to catch the offenders.

The general improvement in social conditions, better wages and a reasonable enforcement of the prohibi tion law are all, in some degree, doubtless responsible for the reduction in crime as indicated by the police returns .

The arrests in 1924 were 50,560, a reduction of 2,446 since 1915, in spite of an increase of approxi mately 15 per cent. in the population during that period .

Juvenile Delinquency

By the law of March 11, 1915, the Juvenile Court system, modeled on the best state systems, was intro duced into Porto Rico. Up to this time children had been classed as, and placedwith, other criminals, while under the new plan, children's cases are brought be

SOCIAL PROBLEMS (Continued ) 195


fore courts of equity and their trials are informal. The child has, however, the right to trial by jury and counsel if he desires it.

As is the case in our best juvenile courts, the judge is coming to represent, not the prosecution, but a plan for the best interests of the child criminal. Therefore in the solution of the problem the judge is the most important functionary andthe probation officer is the second in importance.

Unfortunately for the success of the plan , insular finances did not permit the establishment of a com plete judicial system and as a substitute, until finances permit, the judges ofeach ofthe seven judicial districts act as judges of the juvenile courts and the prosecutors, municipal court judges and sometimes the justices of the peace act as probation officers.

These courts have original jurisdiction in juvenile offenses and cases may be appealed directly to the Supreme Court. These courts also exercise jurisdic tion over adults who have abandoned children or have in any way contributed to their delinquency.

To use court officers for the important work of probation is not likely to produce satisfactory results since these officers from their training, are accustomed to look to the necessity of punishment as a deterrent.

In the six months following the adoption of the law the cases adjudicated were as follows:

Total 164 Boys 159


1. Lack of parental authority

2. Bad environment

3. Ignorance

4. Poverty

Girls 5



Old tenements in Puerta de Tierra. Street known as "La Vista Alegre." New tenements in Puerta de Tierra .


Of the total, thirteen hadno home or parents, eight lived with friends, only fifty had attended school, only fifteen had passed the third grade. Eighty-five (50 per cent.) were illegitimate, fifteen did not know whether parents were married or not.

It is estimated that San Juan has, on an average, at least 500homeless children from which the juvenile criminals are mostly recruited. Most of them are not in school. Many sell newspapers or live by stealing or begging. This constitutes with the balance of 10,000 scattered through the Island, distinctly a charge upon the government, though not yet recognized as such. The facilities at the disposal of the courts, even when these children are convicted as criminals, are pitiful in the extreme.

The court has but three means for the disposal of its cases. The reform school at Mayagüez if boys (no school exists for girls), or one of two charity schools. Mayagüez accommodates only one hundred boys with many applications ahead, and the charity schools are also overcrowded.

The only other alternative is to place a child on probation with a friend and under the supervision of a court officer. To attain any of these solutions re quires much time and attention . Pending its accom plishment special wards are allotted in the peniten tiaries where the child offenders are detained.

Of eleven cases, all boys, which the writer examined in the San Juan Penitentiary all were held for verypetty crimes , three at least merely for vagrancy. They were entirely without occupation, although a per functory effort was being made to give them some

(Continued) 197


slight schooling. They had already been held several weeks.

This is a problem most distinctly and directly in the province of the Insular Government and one that demands immediate attention. No country which claims the appellation of civilized, can afford to neglect its child problems as this problem has been neglected throughout the Island.

Intemperance and Prohibition

Porto Ricans are not intemperate as a nation and drunkenness has been uncommon although the use of wine waspractically universal previous to the adoption of the Prohibition Law.

The advent of American rule with its greatly in creased commercial activity brought with it an in creased use of stimulants. Crimes caused by drunk enness increased. All grocery stores carried liquors, beers and wines which they sold either by the bottle or over the counter by the glass. The habit of indulg ing for the effect was growing apace. The increase in consumption is verified by the excise statistics . In 1915-16 the total excise revenue coveringliquorsmanu factured in the Island, whether consumed locally or exported, was $1,111,834 or about $1.00 per capita. This shows a production of three liters for every in habitant. Even if one-half were exported the con sumption indicated is large. There are but few users of drugs in the Island but there has been a vast con sumption of patent medicines containing alcohol or narcotics.

In a word, Porto Rico, though not from climate or

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temperament of the people an alcoholic country, was rapidly becoming so ; when the opportunity to correct the evil was offered by the Jones Act.

Although it had been stated that previous to 1917 there had been no sentiment back of temperance or prohibition, the effect of the law was to call attention to the evil and to arouse a very general interest in the movement. A Prohibition League was established and its program elucidated by an official organ named "El Combate." The movement was supported by the Socialist Party, the majority of Masonic and Theo sophic lodges, the Federation of Spiritualists, the Protestant churches, the Teachers' Association, the Women's League and many other organizations, all of whom participated in the very active campaign which preceded the election day set for July 16, 1917

The Anti-prohibitionists adopted the bottle as their symbol while the Prohibitionists chose the cocoanut. Cart-loads of milk cocoanuts were offered to voters at the polls. Meetings were addressed by women at Cayey, Caguas and elsewhere, the result of the enthusi asm aroused being shown in the size of the vote cast as well as the ample majority in favor of the amendment.

The final poll showed more than 100,000 for the change to 60,000 against it. The reverberations of the campaign reached even as far as Mexico where sufficient interest was excited to suggest the possi bility of a similar movement in that country.

The report of the Attorney General for 1919 shows a notable decrease of crime in general and particularly in crimes due to alcoholism. In the words of a pro



tagonist, In Porto Rico liquor has ceased to be an instrument of friendship or social courtesy.'

Concurrent jurisdiction of Insular and Federal Courts has been had to try Prohibition cases since November, 1922. In the eight months following this decision there were 1,283 violations, while in 1924, 4,170 cases were recorded and 670 illicit stills were captured and destroyed. The Governor comments as follows on this record:

It is evident that the coöperation of the Insular officers with the Federal authorities in the enforce ment of the act is real and effective."

Philanthropic Agencies

Until the mass of the people shall become more enlightened, their governmentmust continue to assume toward them the beneficent attitude of a father. This policy has been accepted by the Insular government as applied to certain of its responsibilities, but until re cently its activities in this direction have been limited to that of the general health of the people and to education. The welfare work therefore, necessary to raise the standard of living of the people even to an approximation of that existing in the United States, which might fairly be considered a governmental func tion, has had to be supplemented by private agencies.

Welfare activities, so far as attempted by the gov ernment, fall under three heads, i.e., Health, Housing and Education.

The Sanitation Service concerns itself, as has already been described, with both the prevention and cure of disease and for the work accomplished in the



fields chosen, it deserves the highest commendation. The efforts of the Insular Department have been largely aimed at reducingthe ravages of anemia, tuber culosis and malaria while the combating of the high infant mortality has been left, until recently, to private agencies. The problem of illegitimacy and that of abandonment and defective children is practically untouched.

Bureau of Social Welfare

A new day, however, is dawning for Porto Rico. That the present administration not only recognizes its responsibilities toward the people, but is able to obtainintelligent coöperation from the Legislature is a result large in hopefulness for the future. An import ant recent enactment is the establishment of a Bureau of Social Welfare whose purpose as stated in the 'statute is: " For the prevention of infant mortality, maternal mortality, the establishment of pre -natal clinics, clinics for children, a school of dental clinics, medical inspection of the schools, employment of visit ingnursesandothernecessarypersonnel . . . help for indigent persons outside of government institutions.

Under this act, three centers have already been located in San Juan and seven in other municipalities. It is intended that the operation of the act shall be extended to every municipality of the Island. Regu larly employed visiting nurses have been increased from nineteen to twenty-seven. School nurses are shortly to be appointed, seventy applications for such positions havingbeen filedupto the end of theyear.

The Social Service of this Bureau has been placed in charge of an experienced head from the United States

Continued) 201


who has five assistants. A school for social workers has also been established.


The problem of housing the constantly mounting population has been one which has constantly agitatedthe cities of the Island since the lack of proper facili ties has resulted in the aggregation of the poor and unemployed in barrios on the outskirts of the cities under conditions so sordid and unsanitary that their existence has constituted a continual menace to the cities themselves.

Such conditions, added to the dredging of the har bor, which forced many of the squatters in Puerta de Tierra to move, induced the Insular government to appropriate funds bywhich a "Barrio de Obreros" was constructed on government land near San Juan. More than five hundred model houses were erected, some of concrete and others of frame which were sold to worthy applicants at very moderate prices, divided into easy payments.

The houses are well planned and constructed and establish a living standard far in advance of that exist ing among the laboring class. One could have wished that a less substantial type of building had been adopted, so that with the money available more could have been constructed. These houses also are avail able only forthosewho have a little moneyor a regular employment. They make no provision for those with out resources and generally without a job who con stitute the really serious element of the problem. In spite of this , this effort toward improving living condi


tions is in the right direction and should be applied to other cities.

This and many other projects, sorely needed by the Island, are held in abeyance by the large proportion of Island funds expended annually on education. Thepurposes for which these funds are expended will be described in a separateReligiouschapter.Missions

The activities of the Catholic Church have materi ally changed since the American occupation. Many American priests have been sent to the Island with the result that the church's welfare work, particularly on the side of education, has been largely expanded. A large school and church have been constructed in Puerta de Tierra and similar developments have taken place elsewhere as evidence of the tendency to modernization which has followed the change of sov ereignty.

The only modern hospital on the Island, including the only school for nurses, until the establishment of a government school within the past year, is that at Santurce, built and maintained by the Presbyterian Mission. This institution has led in the direction of enlightened methods of care and treatment.

The Methodist Church maintains an orphanage for fifty girls also in Santurce, excellently run, while the Lutherans support a free kindergarten attached totheir church in Puerta de Tierra. Both churches sup ply visitors who visit and aid needy families in their homes.

The most notable private undertaking in the direc

SOCIAL PROBLEMS (Continued) 203


tion of education is the San German Polytechnic In stitute, located at the western end of the Island in the little town of that name. This is a boarding school for several hundred of both sexes, supported in part by the Board of Presbyterian Missions, whose founder and inspiration is the Rev. Wm. H. Harris. The school offers an all-round development not reached by any other school in the Island. Its aim is to train the youth under its charge, physically, mentally and morally and it measurably succeeds in this undertaking. Practically all of its now many buildings have been built by the labor of the students themselves. This training has had a most beneficial effect on the public mind, as well as on the students themselves in dignify ing labor and in overcoming the prejudice against it common to the upper class. No more conscientious effort has been made, nor none more likely to be of permanent value to the future life of the Island than that embodied in the San German School.

The Y. M. C. A. has been represented in Porto Rico since 1900. In 1910 it raised by popular sub scription $51,000 for a building which was built on a site given for that purpose by the Legislature in San Juan and dedicated June 1, 1913, at a final cost of $107,000. It has between 500 and 600 members and expends an annual budget of from $ 20,000 to $ 25,000 in carrying out its excellent program of education, moral , mental and physical , of great value in com bating the demoralizing tendencies of the sea port .

The American Red Cross

The Program of Peace inaugurated by the Porto



Rico Chapter in 1921 aimed to make of the organiza tion a clearing house for Island charities of all kinds as well as to carry on the peculiar activities bequeathed to it by the war. With this policy in view, it early established a welfare bureau whose field was confined to the Barrio of Puerta de Tierra for the purpose of making a demonstration in a confined area, of social service on the American model as applied to Porto Rican family problems . It established an annualcamp in the mountains for anemic children of San Juan and attempted to interest various organizations in establishing a home for boys, as previously men tioned.

Its major activity, that of Public Health Nursing, inaugurated the system ofvisiting nurses in connection with-dispensaries in which instruction, pre-natal and post-natal, to mothers in the care of their babies was given . This service started in San Juan but spread to other cities and towns and was finally taken over by the Department of Sanitation. In connection with this work, the great need of a school for nurses (since the Presbyterian Hospital has been graduating an average of only six per year) was brought to the attention of the Department of Sanitation. Through the efforts of the department and the coöperation of the Red Cross headquarters in Washington whose services were offered in furnishing a director and in structors, a bill was prepared and passed the Legisla ture appropriating $ 50,000 to build and equip a train ing school for nurses in connection with the Municipal Hospital at San Juan. Island revenues presumably have not yet been sufficient to cover this appropriation

(Continued) 205


since funds have not been made available for the construction of the building.

Emergency relief to those suffering from the results of disasters beyond their power to prevent or to con trol is recognized as a special function of the Red Cross in all parts of the world. Porto Rico has had its share of such disasters and the organization of relief to meet such disasters as the fire in Puerta de Tierra which rendered five thousand persons home less in 1921 was the particular work of the Chapter. A Disaster Relief Committee has recently been or ganized by the Chapter whose function as authorized by A. R. C. Headquarters is not only to meet condi tions in the Island, but to organize relief when neces sary for any point in the West Indies.

In expanding its program for community welfare, the Chapter has not neglected the special duty be queathed to the Red Cross by the war, that is, the care of the disabled soldier , which includes aid in filing his papers with the Veterans' Bureau and assistance for himself and his family when necessary. This con tinues to be an important part of the work on the Island as elsewhere.

The Junior Red Cross

As a branch of the Chapter, the school organization of Red Cross work, the Junior Red Cross, has per formed no less important a function than that of the other departments. It is entirely devotedto the health and welfare of school children and its efforts on their behalf have assumed a variety of forms such as free dental service, medical school inspection and children's


clinics, prizes for school gardens and scholarships for advanced students.

It aids in maintaining homes for children. It has donated a children's building for the Tuberculosis Sani tarium at Rio Piedras and a dormitory for girls to the School for the Blind. It has established school lunch rooms and furnished clothes and shoes for needy students.

In the first year of its establishment 68,000 chil dren become members and subscribed something over $21,000 for its work. In 1924, the enrollment re corded had risen to 140,228 members who contributed a total of $29,523 for work among their own fellow students.

This branch of the Chapter work has been self supporting from its establishment. The other depart ments have obtained approximately half their support from local membership and the balance from Red Cross Headquarters.

SOCIAL PROBLEMS (Continued) 207



His background and history- His present condition - Distribu tion of population His food, his housing, his illiteracy, his excellent qualities and the possibility of his development as an efficient worker- Recognition of the problem as a re sponsibility of the employer and of government.

The product of all the Island's history, the jibaro, born on the soil , has clung tenaciously to it through all the vicissitudes of its progress. He wrested his patrimony from its primitive native possessor and in idleness let it revert to the original jungle. He par ticipated in its slow regeneration until it once more blossomed and supported him . Always improvident, he worked the soil without refreshment for a century and awoke to find himself again struggling for a bare existence. Now, at the last, that the land, under proper care, is again producing in abundance, he finds himself, the sickly product of the soil itself, a wanderer, an out cast, with often literally no place to lay his head.

His revenge, however, is sure. His passive weapon is his almost unlimited power of propagation. Aban doned and disinherited, the army of him grows and by very force of numbers, he compels attention and threatens to engulf the Island itself unless he be recog nized and assimilated.



The typical " Jibaro' of the mountain districts.

fePlantation Yabuco


After four centuries he still retains the marks of his Andalusian and Indian origin. From the beginning he has acknowledged the suzerainty of some overlord. In the early ninteenth century when the growing pros perity of the Island followed the emigration of loyal ists from the mainland, the landed proprietor came into control . Through his ownership of slaves he could successfully cultivate a large area while the jibaro was confined to the few acres which he and his family could plant and harvest. These were then the three classes,/.the planter,his slaves the laborers, and the jibaros the small farmerproprietors.

At that period the planter was as improvident as the jibaro. He was accustomed to mortgage his plan tation and even his crop in advance and with the pro ceeds, spend some months until the money was gone in amusing himself in Paris or Madrid. And neither the planter nor the jibaro made provision of any kind for the future productivity of the land. The land was fertile and supported the population of that period comparative comfort. As the population increased, however, and the available land was brought under cultivation, its productivity diminished, and the diffi culty of maintaining himself increased for the jibaro . This compelled him to sell or mortgage his farm to the nearby planter, the cacique of the district , and before long he found himself without land of his own, the hired laborer of the plantation owner. Until the ad vent of the Americans, however, he retained his posi tion in the district in which he was born, under the con trol and protection of the planter.

After the freeing of the slaves, the blacks gradu in



ally drifted to the cities where they mixed freely with the urban population, intermarried and became part of such industrial life as existed. Due to their gregari ousness , they prospered economically and the result of the mixture, the mulatto, took advantage of the oppor tunities offered in the way of education and advanced his status from a common laborer to that of a skilled laborer or perhaps an owner of a small business.

In this development the jibaro was left behind and not only did the increased prosperity and the spread of education which was helping his fellows fail to reach him, but as his numbers increased, his efficiency dimin ished through undernourishment and its consequences -hookworm and malaria.

These conditions have been aggravated rather than diminished by the commercial development under American rule as described in the previous chapter. Two classes now exist in the country districts, the gentleman planter and the wage earner. Heretofore the planter has, in exchange for the loyalty of the peon, assumed a certain measure of responsibility for his welfare, but as the numbers have increased, he finds it increasingly difficult to supply regular labor for more than a small percentage of those applying for it. As a consequence there is a constantly increasing number of those families which are employed at rush seasons but who, as soon as the rush is past, are discharged and are forced to move elsewhere to seek other work on the land or drift to the cities to pick up such odd jobs as may there be available.

The employer in many cases is not able to provide for his employees as he had been accustomed to do.


He himself has suffered from the misfortunes which have fallen upon the coffee growers and many of the tobacco planters and his productivity is also limited by the inefficiency of the laborers themselves. So from the mountains, the jibaro and his family drift to the cane fields on the coast and from there to the out. skirts of the cities.

In spite of the vicious circle of his inefficiency and the diminishing returns of his labor, his numbers con tinue to increase and to maintain themselves in some fashion. The town is the last resort for him. The occasional cyclones drive him in but he recognizes a higher civilization than his own and avoids them when ever possible. He is shy and retiring, is apt to fall into a sullen silence when faced with an idea new to him; suspicious of outsiders, he is like a wild bird, free only in the mountains. He has from time immemorial been made to stay strictly in his class. By the planters he is treated as a child and is perfectly satisfied to be guided by them. One of the primal necessities, there fore, for his regeneration is that he shall become dist contented with his lot. This is beginning slowly to take place, there is an awakening going on in the country districts as the result of education, which will eventually work out the development of the farm laborer. Whether it shall be for good or ill depends in large measure on the guidance which is given him by the planters to whom he naturally turns for counsel and help.

His Present Condition

The census of the Island for 1920 places the rural population at 1,015,875 persons . Of this number ap



proximately 75 per cent. are white, 3 per cent. black and 22 per cent. mulatto an increase in 9 per cent. of whites,and a decrease of 3 per cent. blacks and 6 per cent. mulatto as compared with 1910, indicating a further movement to the cities of the black population during the ten years.

An illuminating picture of the conditions under which this class of farm laborers, forming more than 78 per cent. of the entire population of the Island, live, is furnished by the Bureau of Labor in its report to the Legislature for 1921.

Nine hundred and eighteen families were visited in various parts of the Island, a sufficient number of each group , sufficiently distributed, being chosen to make them typical of their particular industry and of the jibaros as a class.

The following table indicates the number of de pendents in each group: Families Districts Children Relatives 205 Coffee 738 52 Tobacco 139 52 543 Sugar 1,622 713 118 Working on 325 151 plantations but living in cities 220

Total 918 1,036

This shows an average family of 674 persons, in cluding the parents. 2,824

Percentage of Legitimacy 656 families had from I to 4 legitimate sons 222 families had from 5 to 7 legitimate sons 40 families had from 8 to 12 legitimate sons


While it is not so stated, it is probable that all or nearly all these families are consensually married .

Their Houses

402 families in housesowned by themselves on land of employer 432 families in houses owned by employer as part of wages 84 families in rented houses (these from the city)


" The houses owned as well as those occupied as part of wages are shacks built of straw, leaf sheets of the royal palm or palm leaves with only two rooms and a separate place used as kitchen (outside the house). Ninety per cent. have no latrine.


The average diets of the different districts are described as follows:

Coffee Zone: Coffee without milk in the morning, bananas and codfish boiled with salt at noon; in the afternoon, boiled vegetables and coffee without milk. Some days, boiled corn flour, other days, rice and beans. Occasionally a bit of meat, preferably pork.

Tobacco Zone : Essentially the same , but these families get meat once a week when work is steady and once a month when work decreases.

Sugar Zone: Coffee, occasionally with milk, rice and beans or chick peas, corn flour, codfish or herring, boiled vegetables and bread; meat once or twice a week .

In the coffee zone some employers grant one " cuerda" of land to the workers which they are al



lowed to plant with sweet potatoes, yautias and other minor crops which they partly consume and partly sell in the neighboring towns. With the proceeds of their sales, they buy codfish, rice and some clothing. Others are able to buy bananas from the employer at ten cents per hundred and vegetables at low prices.


The average wages for the coffee zone range from forty cents to seventy-five cents per day, occasionally a family earned one dollar per day. The cost of living is advancing in proportion to the mounting population, these wages are, therefore, less and less sufficient to cover their needs. The cases of several families are described in detail, two of which have been chosen as typical. The descriptions are quoted verbatim from the report as follows:

Typical Families"

No. 1. We visited a common laborer in Patillas who has eight children and works at a daily wage of $1.00. His employer provides him with a house but not landwhere to plant minor fruits (or vegetables?). His clothes consist of two suits only. As a rule they take but one meal a day. The house they live in is roofed and walled with palm leaf sheaths. They are permitted to breed pigs and hens, provided they keep them tied or in some place where they will cause no harm . Everybody in the family goes barefoot. His family has never visited a city."

No point in the Island is more than thirty miles from a city . This family, therefore , has never tray



elled as far as can easily be covered by an automobile in an hour. This is typical of a large number. The next is a case of a family seemingly more pros perous :

" No. 2. In a barrio of Naranjito we visited a married laborer who has twelve children, the eldest boy being fourteen years old. He lives in a house built on a ten acre piece of ground of his own, acquired by inheritance. The house is of timber and is thatch roofed. He has some minor fruits planted and earns fifty cents a day when he does some ploughing for some land owner. The produce of his planting partly affords him means of support. His food as a rule consists of codfish, bananas, rice, beans, coffee without milk and sometimes bread. He and his relations always go barefooted. Sometimes he works with his neighbors on sugar cane plantations in order to earn more money to buy clothing."

In commenting on these family conditions, the re port quotes from the Bureau report of the previous year as pertinent to the investigation, as follows: But there is one standing fact; when they are ad dressed on the advantages of living, forming small communities, such as villages or hamlets, owners of their home and soil, hopeful smiles of a redeeming vision dawn on their misery-stricken faces, to be fol lowed by an attitude of religious attention to the speaker, and the consequent offer of their heartiest and most decided coöperation toward the realization of the idea. Our farm laborers are not an unindustri ous lot ; they are only a set of wretchedly forsaken crea tures; the product of an equally poor and unhealthy



breeding. And we herein declare that they can be more useful to their families, their country, to the world and even to their own employer by owning a house and living better.

Private endeavor, even the efforts of organized labor have attempted nothing toward this aim; be cause the propagators of doctrines and ideas do not climb the mountain to quench the thirst of this mor ally, mentally and materially starving people with the water of a sane, enlightening and dignifying doctrine except during the political campaigns."

In his conclusion the writer of the report asks the Legislature for a grant of larger powers to enable the Bureau to be of greater usefulness to the working population and adds:

Laborers in general are defenseless beings in the daily struggle for life. They need arms. Those arms should be no other than education and new industries. Both should be, and can be, provided.

The writer came in contact with many of the jibaros through their applications for compensation under the law providing for disability contracted during war service. One experience stands out as throwing a light on their peculiar emotional make-up. A shock-haired, barefooted, typical farm laborer had been telling the story of his physical troubles and those of his family, pathetic enough surely , but in the telling, no particular mental anguish was manifested, when suddenly, with out any warning, he burst into a paroxysm of sobs. For five minutes he rocked back and forth on his chair emitting roar upon roar of agony, defying all efforts to calm him, and then as suddenly left off and became



as stolid as before. The writer, startled by this un expected manifestation , looked to the Porto Ricans in the office for an explanation. They appeared quite unmoved by the spectacle and explained later that such emotional outbursts are not uncommon in this class.

His Food

The diet shown in the cases cited is typical, practi cally universal, with the working class both in city and country. It is varied only in quantity as the financial situation of the family may permit, that is, coffee with out milk for breakfast; for the midday meal, codfish boiled with oil with bananas, plantains, batatas or yau tias . In the afternoon a dipper of coffee and at night a stew of vegetables and rice and codfish. At rare in tervals a little pork. In his rare visits to the city, he has bread made of American flour.

With the wages earned he can get no better diet, in fact, this is only possible when he is prosperous. A few cents difference in wages eliminates the codfish.

The capacities of peoples in different parts of the world to maintain themselves on small quantities of food and on food of a quality and consistency impos sible for others to assimilate, vary greatly. We know, for example, that in certain parts of China, such a diet as that described would be luxurious in comparison to what they actually get and thrive on. But this fare is not satisfactory for Porto Ricans as shown by its results. The doctors say that it is too poor in fats and that the proteids of vegetable origin are too difficult of assimilation. A change is most certainly needed.

The first and fundamental reform, that they should



have enough, should be followed by education which shall lead to a more reasonably balanced diet.

1 Housing Overcrowding

The house, already described, raised on a frame work of poles, walls of the bark of the royal palm, roof of the same material and grass, the floor of palm boards raised from the ground is, when first built, an excellent and sanitary dwelling, except that it is invari ably too small . It is almost always raised above the ground to avoid the insects. To be content with a dirt Aoor marks the lowest depths of degradation.

After a few weeks the roof becomes infected with a dozen different kinds of animals, the walls open and the floor sags. There is but one room for the family, the only light being through the doors and the cracks in the wall and this family is seldom less than five in number. The cooking is done on a pile of stones under a shed at the side of the house.

During a hurricane the family must crowd into the one room and do their cooking there, a necessity not conducive to health or comfort.

This typical hut is of the same construction as those built by the Borinquen and there has been but little variation either in the dwelling or its furniture during these four centuries. The furniture consists of ham mocks of home construction, boxes for chairs, a rough table and few dishes made from gourds. The single substantial article is often the iron pot for cooking, although the oil can is frequently substituted for it, particularly in the city barrios.

There is no inducement to make these houses more



roomy or substantial since the family must often mi grate during the season to find other employment. The mountain sides are covered with these huts. In fact, it is said: One cannot shout anywhere in the Island and not be heard in one of them ."

Plantation Houses

A different type of dwelling has, to some extent, been adopted for the lowlands. This is the plantation tenement for a number of families in one. These dwellings are constructed of imported lumber with corrugated iron roofs, and while they are of more sub stantial construction, they are generally very hot and are chronically overcrowded since they are built to hold the maximum of families at the least expense. The tenements for single men are the worst.

His Illiteracy

If the census figures are to be believed, the jibaro has improved his educational state in as large a pro portion as his city cousin during the past ten years. The following table shows the changes during this period: Illiteracy

1920 1910

Total 10 years and over 55 per cent. 66.5 per cent. Rural 10 years and over 61.6 per cent. 74.2 per cent. Urban 10 years and over 34 per cent. 39.7 per cent.

The improvement from three-quarters to a little less than two-thirds is still, however, not as marked as the difference between city and country, illiteracy in the



cities now being reduced to but little over a third of the population.

The difficulties in reaching the jibaro with educa tion are shown in the enrollment in rural schools. In 1924, 55 per cent. of the total school enrollment was in these rural schools, amounting approximately to 125,000 pupils, while the number of children of school age in the country districts approximated 343,000. In other words, only a little over one-third of the chil dren who should be in school, are in school in the country.

The chief obstacle to education in the mountains is the economic one, the labor of the children is needed to balance the family budget. The Department of Education is attempting to meet this, as alreadymen tioned by making the long vacation coincide with the coffee picking season.

A second obstacle of importance in Government finance is found in the difficulty of raising funds to sup port schools by local taxes. The land in the interior is not of great value and does not produce in taxes enough to warrant the building of roads; and no school has a chance of success which is not on a road. A movement is on foot and has been embodied in a legislative bill that school construction and mainte nance shall be based on population and not on tax re turns. This would have the effect of charging the cost of schools in the poorer country districts largely to the whole community which would seem to be a more reasonable and more hopeful plan than the one at present in operation.

Even when the rural school is established, it has



been found very difficult to obtain the services of the right kind of teacher at the salary which is offered.

With these difficulties, economic and practical , added to the inherent backwardness of the jibaro himself, the advance in enlightenment must be slow. That educa tion is reaching the mountains, however, is an un doubted fact and its influence is already noticeable in an increased curiosity as to the world outside and in creased dissatisfaction with conditions as they are.

His Excellent Qualities

Dr. Ashford speaks of the jibaro's astuteness. He says that when he sees results he is ready to support the program producing those results . He is satisfied with the campaign against hookworm, for example, has accepted it, and is giving it his full coöperation.

He is fearful of the law, never defiant of his superi ors, generous and devoted to his family and friends. He shares his troubles with them and they share theirs with him. They shield each other when in difficulties. The pursuit of criminals is, for this reason, very diffi cult in the mountains, as the fugitive is shielded by everyone.

It has already been said that the jibaro is kind to his relatives no matter how remote they may be. An orphaned child or a widowed mother never fails to find a home although there may be no family in the com munity not already over-burdened.

He considers himself the ward of his employer, gives him his full loyalty and looks to him for guidance on all occasions and will not accept responsibility for himself. As long as this attitude remains, the em



ployer can do more to advance him than anyone else . He must appreciate that the source of his success is the farm laborer and dignify his labor as such.

While farm labor is cheap in Porto Rico measured at the rate of wages paid per day, it is expensive in that it accomplishes but a fraction of what it can do when the laborer is mentally and physically developed.

The experience in training Porto Rican recruits dur ing the war offers convincing proof that all that is needed to make the jibaro an efficient member of so ciety is to give him sufficient nourishing food and proper clothing, to train him in simple fundamental rules of hygiene and to instill in him education sufficient to show him something of the world about him , so that he may unload the burden of superstition and fear which now form so large a part of his thought.

In the past he has not been ill-treated, but he has been neglected. Born to his position he must remain in it. This is a doctrine suited to the middle ages and one not likely long to survive the onrush of twentieth century civilization. As a matter offact, it is already losing its hold, although the older generation of plant ers and the absentee landlords might perpetuate it if they could. For almost the first time in his history there appears to be a very general recognition of his needs. This recognition is being expressed in Govern ment activities which more than ever before are di rected toward these problems, with a more helpful and intelligent program than any heretofore adopted.

The activities of the government in welfare work, education of children, prevention and treatment of diseases and sanitary measures very widely extended ,



are chiefly beneficial to working men and among work ing men, chiefly to the jibaro and his family.

The Governor, in his report for 1924, finds a marked improvement in the condition of labor during the year, an increase in wages, improvement in living conditions and a decrease in unemployment. He finds, also, " a more generous and sympathetic attitude on the part of employers.

A general employment agency has been created by law, whose purpose is to obtain information and to compile, classify and publish all offers of employment,to obtain information as to possibilities of work abroad and to develop relations with other agencies.

A minimum wage for laborers in government work, recently adopted, has been helpful to the general wage scale.

Seven Centrales, during the year, adopted wage scales based on the market price of sugar which meant an advance, and in some instances a substantial lunch has been furnished employees in addition. The Gov ernor reports that there had been talk of a strike by the sugarworkers but that wages hadbeen so generally increased and living conditions so improved that it was not declared.

In connection with strikes, the Mediation and Con ciliation Commission has been effective.

The Workmen's Relief Commission, whose purpose is to obtain payments due workmen in cases of death or disability due to accidents, have obtained compensa tion during the year in the sum of $267,135, while the number insured is now 15,568.

When it comes to unemployment, the Governor con


PORTO our un

fesses that it is a condition hard to determine, but be lieves that there is relatively less now than ever be fore. Never before were so many employed on public works. Building has increased one hundred per cent. The Sugar Centrales have increased employment as well as many other lines. In considering the constant increase in the population , however, as affecting this problem, he adds:

In Porto Rico we have reached the limit beyond which we cannot go without an increasing proportion of population continuing permanently employed."Themost hopeful feature of the present situation is that the problem of the jibaro has at length been recognized and accepted as a distinct responsibility of government, which means of the small ruling class, and that intelligent and sympathetic effort is now di rected toward means for its solution. This effort, directed particularly through education , will eventu ally equip the jibaro with the physical and the mental power to solve his own problem.

The jibaros, therefore, can no longer fairly be characterized, as in the Bureau of Labor report above quoted, as " a set of wretchedly forsaken creatures." A reasonable hope is now held out that the next gen eration, if not this, will no longer be the product of an equally poor and unhealthy breeding ."






Development during American period - Problem of teaching English and the present bi-lingual system - Rural schools and the country teacher - Demonstration schools- Home economies and industrial schools The College of Agricul ture The University of Porto Rico Present conditions as to literacy and the knowledge of English.

Porto Rico's present system of education is entirely the product of American thought, experience and training. Its foundation was laid by the well-known educator and statesman, Dr. Martin E. Brumbaugh, of Pennsylvania, later governor of that state, in 1900, at the date of the transfer of government from the military authorities to civil officers under the Foraker Law.

The need of a plan which would bring to the illiter ate masses some measure of enlightenment in the shortest time possible, had already been recognized by the military government; General Eaton was placed in charge of the schools, to be succeeded shortly by Dr. Victor S. Clark, as president of the first Board of Education.

Dr. Clark was responsible for the first textbook compiled for Porto Rican schools. The "Manual del Maestro," prepared under his direction, recommended to teachers a method for teaching elementary subjects



and was used by the staff of the Department under this first period of American rule.

No change of moment, however, occurred until the advent of civil government at which time the organ ization was established which has expanded into the present Department.

From the first, all those who studied the situation, whether Porto Rican or American, agreed that the prime necessity for the Porto Rican population was education. Education, be it said, in a form and in such doses as might be assimilable by that population. This is the one fundamental question on which there has been but little difference of opinion between native and American. While educators have differed as to method, they have been in entire agreement as to the desired end. The Insular Government itself, in its various phases of development, has invariably been united in generously appropriating the Island's rev enues for this purpose.

In this Department more than in any other of the social and economic growth of the Island under American rule, has the work of Porto Rican and American alike been devoted to a high ideal of serv ice. For this result, much credit is due to the ability and high character of its first Commissioner, but to his successors also and their superintendents and super visors is due their share of commendation for the loy alty with which they have endeavored to meet the phases of the problem as they have developed. The changes in method and sometimes in emphasis , from time to time, have obviously arisen from the desire to find by experiment, a new road by which the end might


be reachedmore quickly ormore effectively, but the end itself has never been lost sight of. Mistakes , when recognized as such, have been replaced by bettermeth ods, and each year has seen a greater dissemination of knowledge, more wisely distributed, to a larger number of those needing it.

In the beginning the problem was a serious one. To bring the light of understanding to a population dwell ing in a cloud of ignorance more dense than that of any other West Indian island or any South American country, was in itself no light task. To accomplish it through the development of Island revenues to sup port the program was, it seemed, an impossible under taking for a single generation. The early writers on this subject predicted that it would be many years be fore the Island revenues could support an adequate educational budget considering the pressing needs in other directions.

In twenty -five years the problem has not been met, but a much greater measure of progress has been made toward meeting it than even the most enthusiastic be lievers inAmerican ideals would have thought possible. This is a credit to both Americans and Porto Ricans and to the admirable coöperation between the two.

Dr. Brumbaugh established the aim of Porto Rican education to be the gift of enlightenment to the popu lation in such form that its inheritance, the Spanish language and culture, should be preserved, and that at the same time it should acquire a working knowl edge of English, to the end that the people should eventually have a practical mastery of both languages. For this purpose his plan provided that the medium


of instruction should be Spanish, but that special attention should be given to English as a preferred subject.Theimmediate and pressing problem was, of course, that of teachers, and hundreds of Porto Rican young men and women were given a brief but intensive course of training which entitled them to a license as teacher.'

The elementary school was organized as a graded school and the children applying were graded accord ing to their intellectual development.

To satisfy the demand for the teaching of English, teachers were brought from the United States. Many of these were unfamiliar with Spanish and to the diffi culty of explaining in English so that the children whose ear was attuned to the Spanish construction would understand, was added the difficulties for the Porto Rican child and teacher of using textbooks writ ten for and adapted to the United States. Some of these textbooks were used in English and some were imperfectly translated into Spanish. In neither case were they adapted to the Spanish mentality. The Porto Rican teachers themselves were not sufficiently developed to teach with these textbooks. The Spanish method had been the old oral plan of question and answer, and from this system of dialogue the school was too rapidly translated to the objective method. The result in the beginning, was what might have been expected, that is, each Porto Rican teacher taught in his own way, some using the old method, some the new and many a mixture of both.

1 " Article on education in El Libro de Puerto Rico by José Gon zalez Ginorio, Commissioner of Education for city of San Juan."



The urban schools were started with two three hour sessions; the rural school with one five-hour ses sion. In urban schools each grade was given a sep arate teacher, but in the rural school one teacher had to suffice for all the grades.

The general organization of the elementary and high schools remained as Dr. Brumbaugh established it until 1916. Dr. Brumbaugh's successor was Dr. Samuel M. Lindsay, also from Pennsylvania, who re mained in the Island until 1904. His chief interest, as an educator, was in secondary education, and his chief contribution to the work in Porto Rico was the estab lishment of the University of Porto Rico.

Dr. Lindsay was succeeded by Dr. Roland M. Falk ner, who made two radical changes in the curriculum. Dr. Falkner wasmet first by the growingdemand from parents for enlarged school facilities to admit a larger number of children into the schools. The immediate difficulty in satisfying this demand came from the lack of teachers, and to meet it Dr. Falkner devised a plan for which he received the support of the Legislature, by which the training of teachers was considerably shortened and the supply increased. The new teacher was called a " preparatory teacher and qualified by having successfully passed the sixth grade in the ele mentary schools. These teachers were permitted to teach the first grade only and, in the cities, under close supervision, did not work badly but were obviously un fitted to be placed in charge of remote rural schools, as they were in many cases, where they were com pelled to assume a large measure of responsibility.

The second problem which confronted Dr. Falkner


arose from the obvious inadequacy of the teaching of English as carried on up to that time. Both teachers and textbooks were blamed. A new type of teacher was brought from the United States and new text books were adopted; the new, however, as well as the old, were written for and adapted to the children of the United States and not those of Porto Rico.

As the children were not learning English through the teaching of English as a separate subject, it was determined that English should be used as the teach ing medium for all subjects except Spanish. To ac complish this itwasnecessary to use a numberof Porto Rican teachers, not any too well prepared, to teach the primary grades in English . During this period all the energies of teacher and pupil were directed to the ac quiring of English at the expense of all other subjects.

The program was continued for five years, at the end of which time, Dr. E. G. Dexter, who followed Dr. Falkner, abandoned the plan of preparatory teachers and reinstated the qualifications previously required. The first grade was recognized as the foun dation of the whole system and it was realized that the best of talent and training were required for this grade to secure proper development in the higher grades.

At this time also was initiated the plan of teaching all subjects in English beginning with the first grade. The hope was that the pupil would learn to read and write English in the first grade and that it would then be easy for him to learn Spanish in the second grade. Experience, however, demonstrated that one year was not sufficient to accomplish what was desired


and many children had to go over the course a second time.

The continuation of the effort to develop English as a language of common use in the Island at the ex pense of the general education of the children was not, in the opinion of Porto Rican educators, at this time justified by results.

The next administration, that of Dr. Edward G. Bainter, gave its special attention to the teaching of agriculture, manual training, domestic science, music and drawing, that is, to those studies that are called vocational. This was and is, for Porto Rico a most important and desirable development. The trouble with its application, as with so many of our American ideas, was that immediate results were sought and the plan was given universal application instead of being first adapted to those municipalities whose finances and type of students made it possible of realization, and more gradually extending it to the more backward communities. The expense of its inauguration was large and other needs were sacrificed to provide for it. Many municipalities had finally to abandon the courses for lack of funds and enrollment. The lack of teach ers trained to this work was an additional handicap, which was overcome later on by the installation of training courses for teachers of these subjects.

When Dr. Paul G. Miller undertook the problem of the Island's education in 1915-16, he had not only the benefit of the experimenting which had preceded him, but the additional advantage of having had previ ous experience in the organization itself as English teacher, District Superintendent, General Superintend


ent and Principal of the Normal Department of the University. He very wisely consulted his district su perintendents before deciding on the changes which seemed warranted by the experience of fifteen years.

For ten years the experiment of using English as the teaching medium had been tried without, in the opinion of the majority, sufficient success to justify its continu

ance .

The system, therefore, was fundamentally modified by a return, very largely, to the plan laid down by Dr. Brumbaugh. The actual changes were as follows:

In the graded school, the first four grades were taught in Spanish , English was taught orally in the first two grades, while the teaching of English reading and writing was begun in the third grade and con tinued to include the eighth grade . The fifth grade was one of transition; in this grade the pupil began with English as a means of instruction, in arithmetic and geography and, in general, expressed in English what he had learned in Spanish in the fourth grade. The sixth and seventh and eighth grades were all taught in English except for the teaching of Spanish itself.

Other changes of vital importance were also in augurated in this administration. More satisfactory textbooks were secured by adopting those prepared by Porto Ricans of long experience. New life was in fused into the rural school which was developed as a community center for the first time.

The double enrollment plan had been adopted in rural schools to meet the demand for more places but had defeated its own end since so little attention could



be given an individual pupil that none of those so en rolled, benefited in any large degree, from the attenu ated knowledge meted out to them. This condition was remedied so far as it was possible.

In 1921, Dr. Miller retired and Mr. Juan B. Huyke was appointed by the President, Commissioner of Edu cation, the first Porto Rican to be appointed to this important office. His administration is still too young to admit of judicial scrutiny. He appears, however, to be making a sincere effort to keep the schools out of politics and for the determination necessary to main tain this policy, is deserving of the highest praise.

The following is a list of Commissioners of Educa tion from the establishment of civil government, to date :

Aug. 8, 1900 - Nov. 18, 1901

Feb. 12, 1902 Oct. 20, 1904

Oct. 2, 1904 - Aug. 8, 1907

Aug. 9, 1907 June 30, 1912 June 30, 1912 May 15, 1915 May 15, 1915 Sept. 29, 1921 Sept. 30, 1921

Martin G. Brumbaugh

Samuel M. Lindsay

Roland M. Falkner

Edwin G. Dexter

Edward M. Bainter

Paul G. Miller Juan B. Huyke

The Difficulty of Teaching English to the People of Porto Rico

Dr. Miller, in an introduction to a department bulletin dealing with this subject by José Padin, points out that to teach a new language to all the pupils of a country is a serious problem, particularlywhen nearly all the teachers who attempt it do not speak the lan guage as their native tongue. He indicates that this is the first effort at scientific investigation of educational problems since the American occupation.



The purpose of the investigation was to discover the quality of English actually produced in studentsof the eighth grade by the bi-lingual system.

The justification for the teaching of English is set forth in the following words:

" From the earliest days of the American occupation the purpose of the Department of Education has been to establish and develop a bi-lingual system of educa tion which would insure the conservation of Spanish and the acquisition of English. Both to be mastered sufficiently for practical use.

There is no escape from this transforming influ ence (the U.S.). Our insular life is not self-sufficient. The stimulus and inspiration for continuous growth must come from without, from the United States. Because North American ideals are destined to exercise such a powerful influence on our lives, it is desirable that we make the closest acquaintance with those ideals." To accomplish this the only means is the lan guage, and this being the aim the problem is to find a plan that will obtain the results desired, the question being one of pedagogy not of politics nor of interna tional statesmanship.

That the United States has had no interest in de nationalizing the Island , and has from the beginning pursued a policy wholly benevolent in its aims, is indi cated by the small number of American teachers em ployed by the department. In 1900 the American teachers numbered but 8 per cent of the teaching force,in 1910, but one-tenth. In 1916, out of 2,467 teachers, but 172 were American or less than 7 per cent.

Through various experiments and many changes


since 1900 the present bi-lingual system has been evolved. The proportion in which each language is used as a teaching medium is shown in the following table :

Grade English Spanish Either 37.5% 28.1% 34.4 % 43.1% 30.8% 26.1% 36.95% 36.95% 26.1% 24.7% 18.5% 27.7% 18.5% 26.1 % 55.4% 18.5% 26.1%

I -2 26.1%49.2 % 53.8% 55.4%

Average 47.34% 25.35 27.31

It will be noted that beginning with the fifth grade, English steadily increases as the teaching medium .

The high schools are taught entirely in English so as to prepare students to be transferred directly to American institutions if desired.

Samples of English composition produced by eighth grade students under this plan are shown in answers to various questions. One question and four answers are quoted as typical of the whole. The question: " To possess liberty means that we can do as we please."

The following two answers are samples of the best offered:

A. If we possess liberty we must obey our laws and not do as we please.

B. To possess liberty means that we can do any thing that is right but not anything wrong because then we abuse liberty."

This type of answer represents less than i per cent. of eighth grade pupils.



The following answers are samples of the worst submitted :

A. This question is not true because we have the privilege to be liberty we should be moderate and to possess liberty means that if a young man thinks that he is honest and a good man he will not dowas he please on account that he has liberty."

B. Not to possess liberty did not means, that we can do all as we please because we can has liberty and made what our families said."

Eighty per cent. of students of the eighth grade write no better English than that indicated by these last answers.

The investigator summarizes results as follows:

"We are constrained to confess that while it is true that our eighth grade pupils are able to understand simple oral and written English there is overwhelming evidence to show that they are totally deficient in EnglishUnquestionablycomposition.",poor teachers and poor teaching are responsible, the native teachers have not sufficient command of English themselves to teach it.

At this point the question arises , is the bi- lingual system wrong in itself?

In reply, the example of Quebec and the Transvaal, in both of which two languages are used in teaching, is quoted as support for the contention that it is not the system, but the method and the content of the plan that are wrong. He comments further: Our fault is that we try to teach the Porto Rican child to read in English before he knows any English. The undue emphasis we place on the training of the



eye through reading as a means to give our pupils a practical mastery of English is the original sin of our method of teaching English.

As a substitute for the existing reading method, the plan of teaching English rather than to read in Eng lish is suggested. That grammar should be taught through the medium of Spanish, in English only what is peculiarly English and to devote more time to English speaking than to English reading and further to permit the use of Spanish in explaining English.

The foregoing will give some idea of the serious difficulties in the way of educating a population to master , even in a limited degree , the two languages.

There seems no doubt of the sincerity and devotion which have been expended in the effort to arrive at such results as have been achieved.

Rural Schools and the Country Teacher

The rural school is at once the crux of the educa tional problem and its most perplexing phase. It will become in the future, undoubtedly, the most effective means of regenerating the jibaro, but for the moment its difficulties are easier to see than its accomplish ments.

As has already been stated, the number of schools at present existing provide for not more than one-third of the children of school age. To increase the number in any large degree, seems to depend on the willingness of the voters, as represented in the Legislature, to as sume the extra expenditure for school and country roads as part of the general budget, since taxable


values are not sufficient in many country districts to make it possible to raise the funds locally.

Another bar to progress is found in the irregular attendance of the children enrolled, due to sickness, bad roads and the demands of the harvest.

Lastly and perhaps the most important (referred to in Chapter XII ) is the difficulty in finding teachers sufficiently devoted to appreciate the truly high mission on which they are embarked and appreciating it, to consecrate themselves to the task, not for one year but for a period


have used rural positions as stepping-stones to something higher and have spent as little time and put as little thought on the remote com munity with which they were placed as was necessary to entitle them to drawtheir monthly pay check. Here also a sense of injustice crept in, since salaries have been extremely low, and no provision was made for living quarters, such as might have compensated in some degree for the low salary and might also have enabled the teacher to demonstrate a higher standard of living for the benefit of the community. The Nor mal Department of the University, is doing much to improve the standard of the rural teacher and many other developments of a hopeful nature are taking form, which are the result of the recognition of the problem as the responsibility of the entire community.

Demonstration Schools

Certain principles are now being established in the mindsof the teachers, such as, To educate and to ele vate ideals, to arouse ambitions, without raising the



level of living and offering a broader field for talents may do as much harm as good. The community must learn how to educate, to organize and to develop it self. 1

The rural teacher is being trained to become the leader of the local community in developing itself. An important means to this end is the establishing of Dem onstration Schools in many country districts . The purpose of these schools is to illustrate methods, not only to rural teachers in the vicinity, but also to the parents of the children. The courses outlined are de signed to cover every day in the year, one course taking place in the school room, one in the home and the third on the farm. To carry out these courses, the father and the mother are made assistant supervisors for home and farm work. They include many meetings which have the effect of training the parents as well as the children. Through these courses the rural school is now becoming the center of development for the community. The establishment of Parents' Associa tions is an important part of the movement, the far reaching scope of which is reflected in the statistics for 1921, which are as follows:

Parents' associations 1,529 Parents' meetings 3,946

Number of visits by teachers to homes.... 106,009 Reading centers established in rural districts 194 Rural libraries ... Country night schools.. 117 III

Consolidated Schools

For the purpose of improving the living conditions Social Problems in Porto Rico, by Fred K. Fleagle.


of the rural population, it has been the aim of the government to concentrate such populations, so far as possible, in small villages. A concomitant of this movement is the establishment of consolidated schools to take the place of the rural school. This substitutes for the single room school, which offers education only to the fourth grade, a two or three room school fur nishing training up to the seventh and sometimes the eighth grade. By 1921 fifty municipalities had consoli dated schools in operation to the number of 149 with 342 teachers.

Home Economics

The department ofHome Economics has been given great impetus in the last few years as part of the gen eral program of improving living conditions. This growth which is beneficial to the entire school popula tion is particularly helpful to the rural communities where its activities are most needed. It is considered so important a part of the school curriculum that now, no eighth grade diplomas are granted except to stu dents who have taken this course and that of manual training, the one being for girls and the other for boys.

The subjects covered in the Home Economics course are :

Lace making, including pillow lace and drawn work.


Cooking and table service.



simple and inexpensive home-made oven. Home hygiene and care of the sick. Sanitation.

In 1924 this department employed 84 instructors in needlework, drawn work and embroidery. The num ber of pupils enrolled was 6,060. These courses are aimed at developing an occupation by which students will be able to support themselves. The two-year course has been planned after conferences with manu facturers and dealers so as to make it as practical as possible. In connection with these courses, Home Economics Clubs are organized in many districts. These clubs are fundamentally designed to teach themaintenance of health through proper feeding and exercise and to instill the principle of service. Under this latter head the clubs aid the Comedor Escolar," orschool lunches; the Zapato Escolar" or association to furnish shoes to school children; as well as all Junior Red Cross activities. Aid is also given to poor children individually.Industrial and Charity Schools

Some manual training was begun in Commissioner Brumbaugh's time and industrial school work was well started in 1903-4 under Commissioner Lindsay, at which time appropriation of approximately $100,000 was made available. This training was fur ther expanded in 1913 and made available to every city in the Island through the efforts of CommissionerE. M. Bainter. Pursuant to the plan then adopted, technical schools have been quite generally established .



One of the earliest and best was that at Ponce built in 1903 and named the Roosevelt School. The corner stone was laid by Miss Alice Roosevelt, daughter of the President . The largest is the Roman Baldorioty de Castro graded and technical school in San Juan. This school is built on the site of the first convent in Porto Rico . The original building was erected in 1636 for the Franciscan sisters and occupied by them until 1838. From this time until 1898, it served as a barracks for a regiment of Spanish artillery. From 1898 to 1916, when it was torn down, it was used as a school.

The new building is modern in design and equip ment. The two upper floors are used as class rooms, while the ground floor is occupied with shops. In struction is given to boys of the seventh, eighth and ninth grades in academic work, according to the curric ulum, and in mechanical drawing, woodwork (cabinet making), plumbing, machine shop practice, printing and electric wiring.

The school does not aim to completely train a boy in any one trade but rather to furnish him sufficient experience to enable him to choose the trade which he is best fitted for.

In the night school are taught mechanical and archi tectural drawing, machine shop practice, arithmetic, linotype operation, electric wiring and English. New buildings are to be added to include auto-mechanics, sheet metal work, forging, book-binding, lithograph ing, photo-engraving, industrial chemistry and physics.

These courses are all free to students who have ac quired the necessary standing. The school is sup


ported entirely by the municipality of San Juan with an annual budget of about $25,000.

Boys' and Girls' Charity Schools

The two charity schools or orphan asylums of the Island, previously referred to, are both located in San turce, San Juan.

The original House of Beneficence," established by Governor Santiago Vego in 1841, was located at Campo del Moro, and is now used as an insane asylum . Until 1899 the insane and the orphans wereunder the same roof thoughin separate quarters. In that year the two hundred girls and boys were trans ferred to the buildings in which they are now housed.

These buildings were formerly the Instituto de Seg unda Enseñanza of the Padres Escolapios and the Colegio de las Madras.

The boys' school has a capacity of 400 with an an nual budget of $ 110,000; the girls' school a capacity of 300 with a budget of $75,000. Both schools are included in the Insular budget and are open to children from any part of the Island. Children are admitted (many are committed by the Juvenile Court) from five to twelve years of age and remain until they are eighteen.Theinstruction

given includes the academic, indus trial and physical branches . Boys of the eighth grade are taught carpentry, use of cement, plumbing, tailor ing and shoe making. Physical training is giventhrough a military organization with a battalion of six companies and officers.

The girls of the eighth grade are given a two -year



commerical course, includingbook-binding, typewriting, shorthand and a complete course in domestic science.

These schools are managed on modern lines, the children are well cared for and when graduated are capable of assuming an active part in the life of the community. They are to be criticized, not for what they are, but for what they might be, since from their limited capacity they fall so far short of meeting the need of the population for such institutions.

College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts

This institution was transferred to its present loca tion in Mayagüez from Rio Piedras in 1911. It is really the scientific department of the University of Porto Rico, though operated as a separate institution. It offers subjects of collegiate grade only, High School graduation being required for entrance. Its depart ments are: Agriculture, Architecture, Civil Engineer ing, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and general science, with a four years' course leading to a degree except in archi tecture, for which the course is three years.

The school has a liberal equipment which includes barns for cattle and horses, dairy laboratory, farm shop, green house, plant house, hydraulic laboratory and many smaller buildings.

The Legislature in 1923 appropriated an additional $300,000 for land and Universitybuildings.ofPorto


The University was established by Dr. Lindsay who was its first Chancellor in 1903 and was expanded and


further developed under Dr. Falkner's administration and subsequently thereto.

The plant of the University proper is located at Rio Piedras and now consists of the following depart ments: The Normal School, to which is attached a school of practice, the College of Liberal Arts, the Law School and the School of Pharmacy. A Uni versity High School is also located on the same grounds and is a part of the University organiza tion.

The usual degrees are given except in pharmacy in which a two years' course leads to Graduate Pharma cist and a three years' course to Pharmaceutical Chem ist. In generalthe plan ofthe institution is thesame as for colleges in the United States and its graduates are admitted to many such institutions . The Normal School now has two, three and four year courses, lead ing to teachinglicenses ofcorresponding grades. This school is indispensable to the Department in furnish ing a corps of professionally trained teachers. The attendance at both branches of the University in 1921 was as follows:

At Rio Piedras, total number of students. .. .. 1,939

Of college rank 252

At Mayagüez, total number of students... 540

Entire University total 2,461 Of college rank..

Much ink has been spilled over the question of the University . The traditional idea of a University appeals to the imagination of the cultured element of the community. High hopes have been expressed that it might become an institution of learning of so high a 371 .



character as to attract students from both North and South America. Up to the present time it has failed, however , to interest even Porto Ricans in any vital degree.

There is no doubt but that the University has been too much in politics. Many faculty changes have been dictated, not by the academic needs of the University itself , but rather by the political exigencies of the mo ment . It is evident, however, that there are other reasons in some degree responsible for the present standing of the University.

In his report for 1921 the Commissioner of Edu cation says:

" It should be the aim to pay salaries adequate to attract strong men and to hold them for a period of years, The University is now compelled to experiment frequently with teachers who remain for a year or two and then return to the United States or enter other more remunerative em ployment."Therehas also been serious difficulty in finding any kind of living quarters for members of the faculty. To meet this condition the Commissioner recommends the erection of cottages. A more fundamental diffi culty is the lack of an independent head of the Uni versity to correlate the activities of both branches and to bring the whole into its proper relation to the Com munity. Neitherthe Commissioner of Education, who is ex officio Chancellorofthe University, nor the Dean at Rio Piedras have the time to give from their other duties to devote themselves to the organizing of the



University as a whole . The employment of an edu cator of high standing as President, has been for some years therefore an absolute essential for the further development of the University. This end has at last been attained; through the efforts of the present Governor a new Board of Trustees has been created, consisting of the President of the Senate, the Com missioner of Education and the Speaker of the House of Representatives ex officio and six others appointed by the Governor with the consent and approval of the Insular Senate. One of the first acts of the Board was to authorize the appointment of a President of the University. Their efforts have been rewarded in find ing a satisfactory executive in the person of Dr. Thomas Eliot Benner. This reorganization estab lishes the proper foundation for future growth and the Island may now look forward with confidence to the normal expansion of higher education.

Present Condition as to Literacy and the Knowledge of English

A serious problem still confronts Porto Rico in the mass of its illiterates which must be more nearly solvedbefore its citizens can claim the rights and privi leges of full citizenship. It is a situation which calls for heroic treatment. Fortunately it is now beginning to be so realized.

Thirty -seven per cent . of the Island's budget is now spent for education and this large expenditure is fully justified by conditions. The figures as to literacy furnished by the census are as follows:




Ten years and over..... Male Female 1920 Per cent. 55 50.7 59.1 1910 Per cent. 66.5 70.762.3

These statistics indicate a gradual improvement. But, as previously stated, there are still thousands of children for whom education is desired and needed who can find no place in the schools.

In 1910but thirty percent of the children of school age were attending school. In 1920 the percentage had risen to 39.7 per cent.

In 1924

Children of school age.. Children of compulsory school age..

Pupils enrolled in public schools. Pupils enrolled in private schools.. 438,743 209,220 227,267 6,158

Total enrolled 233,425

This shows the percentage of enrollment as 53 per cent., surely a most satisfactory increase. The im provement, however, is much greater in the cities than in the country

Ninety-six school houses have been constructed dur ing the year, fifty urban, forty-six rural. The teaching force now numbers 4,725, of whom 1,405 are men and 3,320 women. Four new High Schools have been built, bringing the total to sixteen, with 223 teachers and 5,523 pupils.

Agriculture is taught in 1,889 schools and instruc tion is carried to 25,302 gardens . Forty - five special



teachers of agriculture and one superintendent are also employed.

Ability to speak English, as determined by the census, advances still more slowly than literacy. The percentages are as Inabilityfollows:toSpeak English


1920 Per cent. 90. I 89.5 90.8 92. I 1910 Per cent. 96.4 96.1 95.1 97.1

After the long and intensive effort expended by the department in the teaching of English the results seem pitifully small. This is not the first time, however, that the habit of the mother tongue has resisted all efforts to substitute another. In a recent report the Commissioner of Education mentions some of the difficulties as follows:

" Critics are apt to forget that Porto Ricans do not live in an English speaking environment. The lan guage of the home and of the street is Spanish. The only place where the children are able to learn Eng lish is in the public schools. It is fair to state that the schools have not made the progress in English that had been expected and that should be made, especially in the matter of correctly spoken English. Neverthe less the quality and quantity of English possessed by the elementary school graduate perhaps exceeds by far the ability of the average American High School graduate to express himself either orally or in writing



in any one of the modern languages taken up in the High School course."

The Commissionerin a previousyear's report recom mended an increase in the number of teachers of Eng lish to 500 (from 150) and an increase in salary to $1,800 per year. This recommendation, however, has not been acted upon. He adds:

Whatever future policymay be adopted with refer ence to the furthering of a knowledge of correct Eng lish, it is very evident that there must be a liberal in crease in the number of teachers who speak this lan guage as their native tongue."

New Bridge Cidra Road. A small mountain farm.
Joridge NewbidraRoad P.R.


The government as at present constituted - Citizenship Present political status Political parties, Republican, Fed eral-Union, Socialist General conclusions.

The Government as at Present Constituted Bill of Rights. The organic law under which Porto Rico is now governed (the Jones Law) prefaces its main provisions by a bill of rights similar to those which have been incorporated in the constitutions of most of the states of the Union.

These rights make provision against slavery, and for the freedom of speech and the press and for re ligious liberty. They provide against polygamous marriages and for uniform taxation.

The eight-hour day is obligatory for labor employed in public works, while children under fourteen years may not be employed in any occupation injurious to health or morals.

Powers of the Legislature. The following powers are specifically conferred upon the Legislature by the organic law:

1. Taxation and loans.

2. Administration and disposal of the property of the United States ceded by Spain.

* For digest of organic laws, the Autonomy Chart, Foraker Act,Jones Law, see Appendix.



3. The creation , consolidation , reorganization and abolition of municipalities and their officers.

4. The consolidation and abolition, subject to the approval of the President of the United States, of the Insular Executive Departments.

5. The regulation of rates and tariffs of public carriers.

6. The organization, modification and rearrange ment of all courts except the District Court of the U. S. for Porto Rico.

7. To fix the salaries of all officers not appointed by the President.

Its Limitations. The power of the Legislature is limited by the Constitution of the United States, by the right to annul its acts reserved to Congress, by the veto of the Governor and the President, and by the provisions of the organic law itself in regard to legis lative procedure, which are similar to those adopted by Congress and in use by most of the states.

Also in regard to appropriations: If at the end of the fiscal year, appropriations necessary to carry on the government have not been provided by the Legisla ture, the several sums appropriated in the last appro priation bill are deemed to be re-appropriated , item by item.

Revenues. No appropriation can be made in excess of total revenues without levying a sufficient tax to balance. In case revenues are not sufficient in any year to meet the total amount voted, they shall be used to pay appropriations in the following order:

1. The expenses of government.

2. Penal and industrial institutions.


3. Education.

4. Other officers, bureaus and boards.

5. All other purposes.

The Governor has the power to veto any item of an appropriation bill.

A Resident Commissioner in the U. S. Porto Rico is represented in Congress under the present organic law by a single commissioner. This representative has a seat in the House of Representa tives and is granted the privilege of discussing bills which have relation to Insular affairs but has no vote. He is elected every four years by vote of the people in November and takes office the 4th of March following.


The Governor is appointed by the President with the advice and approval of the Senate of the United States for a four year term . He has the power of veto over acts of the Insular Legislature, is in com mand of the militia, and is given the appointment of various Insular officers, hereinafter mentioned, sub ject to the approval of the Insular Senate. He also has power to grant pardons and to remit fines for offenses against the Government.

The Executive Council is composed of the six heads of departments. It acts as a canvassing board in elections, approves municipal loans and the sale of Insular bonds. It is an advisory council for the Governor and seldom meets.



The Public Service Commission is composed of the sixdepartment heads, the auditor and two others elected by the people. Its function is to grant franchises, rights and privileges of a public nature subject to the approval of the Governor and the subsequent ratification or annulment by Congress.

Department of Justice

The Attorney-General, head of this department, is appointed by the President for four years, subject to the approval of the U. S. Senate. He represents the people of Porto Rico in all suits to which the govern ment is a party. He supervises the administration of Insular courts. He prepares and presents to the Supreme Court, when necessary, articles of impeach ment against anyjudge or official and files information before district courts when required by the misconduct of any officer or employee of the Insular Government. He finally interprets the construction and execution of the laws for the benefit of the Governor and the Legislature.

Department of Finance

The treasurer has charge of the assessment of all property in the Island for the purpose of taxation; collects taxes, supervises banking institutions and issues licenses to foreign corporations.

Department of the Interior

The Commissioner supervises all work of a public


nature, including the building of roads and bridges as authorized by the Legislature, as well as the construc tion of school houses and other public buildings. He also has the power to rent or sell certain lands belong ing to the Government.

Department of Education

The Commissionerexamines candidates for certifi cates, issues licenses to teach and appoints teachers of English, special teachers, district supervisors and su perintendents and approves the appointment of all teachers. He may also suspend teachers and annul their contracts. He is ex-officio Chancellor of the University of Porto Rico and President of its Board of Trustees.

Department of Agriculture and Labor

The Commissioner is concerned both with the de velopment of agriculture and with the economic and social conditions of labor and its relations with capital. He is also in charge of the Insular Experiment Station at Rio Piedras, established for the study and promo tion of cane cultivation.

Department of Health

The Commissioner has charge of various depart ments engaged in promoting the health of the Island through the study of disease and the enforcement of sanitary regulations. He also inspects and reports the result of his inspections of private institutions and those of cities and villages.



In addition, he supervises, controls and administers the following government institutions:

The leper colony.

San Juan

The insane asylum. The blind asylum , Ponce. The girls' and boys? charity schools, Santurce.

Of the foregoing department heads, four, i.e., the Treasurer, Commissioners of Interior, Health and Agriculture and Labor are appointed by the Governor with the advice and the approval of the Insular Sen ate; two, that is, the Commissioner of Education and the Attorney-General, are appointed by the President with the advice and approval of the Senate of the United States.

The Auditor

This officer checks all expenditures and audits all funds received by the Government including trust funds. His jurisdiction over accounts, funds or prop erty is exclusive. Appeals may be taken from his de cisions to the Governor. The action of the Governor on these appeals is, however, final.

The Auditor has power to issue subpoenas and en force the attendance of witnesses.

He is appointed by the President with the advice and approval of the Senate of the United States.

The Executive Secretary is appointed by the Governor for an indefinite term,subject to the approval of the Insular Sen te. His duties include the recording and preserving of all acts of the Legislature, of the Public Service Commission


and of the Governor, and the filing of reports on domestic and foreign corporations. Two bureaus are included under his administration, the Bureau of Weights and Measures and that of Supplies, Printing and Transportation . All supplies for Government areuse bought through the latter , unless otherwise speci fied by law.

Judicial Power is vested in :

A Supreme Court. District Courts. Municipal Courts. Justice of the Peace Courts. and a Federal Court.

The Supreme Court is composed of a Chief Justice and fourJustices, all of whom are appointed for indefi nite terms by the President of the United States sub ject to the approval of the U. S. Senate.

The court also includes a prosecuting attorney, a marshal and a secretary with other minor officers, all of whom are appointed by the Governor with the approval of the Insular Senate.

The Supreme Court is a Court ofAppeal for all civil and criminal cases from the District Courts. It also moves in cases of malfeasance in office of district judges or prosecuting attorneys. It is also empow ered to issue writs of habeas corpus.

Of the District Courts two are located in San Juan and of the others, one each in Humaçao, Guayama, Ponce, Mayagüez, Aguadilla and Arecibo. Each of these courts is equipped with a justice, a prosecuting attorney and a marshal, all of whom are appointed by



the Governor for a term of four years, subject to the approval of the Insular Senate . The salaries of these officers are fixed by the Legislature.

The District Courts exercise jurisdiction over crim inal cases involving felonies and in civil suits in which the amount involved exceeds $500. They also act as appellate courts for decisions of the Municipal andJustice Courts . They may grant writs of habeas corpus and mandamus.

The Municipal Courts of which each municipality has one, are composed ofjustice, secretary and marshal all of whom are appointed by the Governor for four year terms subject to the approval of the Insular Sen

ate .

Their salaries are fixed by the Legislature. Theirjurisdiction covers minor crimes andmisdemean ors and violations of municipal ordinances in cities which have no Justice of the Peace. In civil cases, theyhear cases involvingless than $500.

The Justice of the Peace Courts are found in the larger towns only and consist of a justice, a secretary and a bailiff, all appointed by the Governor with the approval of the Insular Senate. Their salaries are paid from municipal funds. In jurisdiction they are limited to criminal cases involving fines of not over $15, or imprisonment for not more than thirty days and violations of municipal ordinances. They may act in the absence of the municipal judge as examining and committing magistrates.

U.S. District Court

The constitution of this court is similar to that of



Federal District Courts in the United States and pro vides for a judge , district attorney and marshal appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate.

Its jurisdiction in criminal cases covers cases in which the accused is not a citizen of Porto Rico or of the United States and in civil cases in which one or more of the parties to the action are not domiciled in Porto Rico and when the suit involves at least $3,000. This court also tries all offenses against the United States and its laws.

U. S. Departments in Porto Rico

Many of the countrywide activities of the Federal Executive Departments now reach the Island.

The War Department is represented by a regiment of regular infantry quartered at San Juan and Cayey and one regiment of the National Guard scattered throughout the Island. Both regiments are recruited locally. Its Bureau of Insular Affairs has actual super vision of all the major activities of the InsularGovern ment.

The Department of the Navy has charge of the Naval establishment and is principally concerned with the wireless stations at San Juan and Cayey.

The Post OfficeDepartment administers all the offices of the Island.

The Treasury Department has established the Fed eral Land Bank and maintains the Custom Houses and the Coast Guard Service.

The Department of Agriculture has the weather



bureau at San Juan, a seismographic station on the Island of Vieques and agricultural stations at various points.

The Department of the Interior through its Na tional Park Service has charge of the Luquillo Forest.

The Department of Commerce has charge of the lighthouses and steamboat inspection and carries on various activities in connection with commercial navi. gation, fisheries, coast and geodetic surveys. It con ducts the census at each ten year period.

The Insular Police

The government of Porto Rico is unique in that no provision is made in the organization of municipalities for local police. The whole duty, therefore, formain taining order and of enforcing municipal ordinances and the observance of law in general, falls upon the Insular Police. This body with the entire Island in its care, is commanded by a chief, who has under him an adjutant, 68 district chiefs, 14 sergeants, 34 corporals and 650 guardsmen. Added to this is a small force of twenty-four detectives with a chief, making a total force of 794.

The management of this force is in the hands of an Insular Police Commission of three appointed by the Governor. Appointments of commissioned officers are by the Governor, but sergeants, corporals and guardsmen are selected from candidates presenting the best competitive examination under the rules of the Police Commission.

The force has an excellent record of loyalty and devotion to the service. The extremely small number


required to maintain order (approximately one to every 2,000 inhabitants ) speaks well for the generally peaceful character of the people as well as for the effi ciency of the force itself. The cost of policing the Island for 1924 was $827,767, or seventy-four cents per capita.


The treaty with Spaintransferred all right, title and interest in the Island of Porto Rico from that country to the United States and specifically stated that the future status of the inhabitants of the Island would be determined by Congress in due course.

Pursuant to the authority so conveyed, the Foraker bill created a body politicknown as the " People of Porto Rico." The people so constituted became the source of political power in the Island, a territory of the United States, subject to the control left with the Executive and with Congress by the Act, but acquired no rights in the United States as a whole.

By this act the Porto Rican became literally a man without a country, an inhabitant of an organized terri tory of the United States but not a citizen of the United States . The anomaly of the status with the suggestion of inferiority which it implied, became the source of dissatisfaction to the leaders of all parties, after the first two or three years ' experience under the law, and seriously impeded the progress and develop ment of the Island. In spite of many hearings at which the desire of the Island for recognition as equals was expressed and in spite of the fact that Mr. Roosevelt, in four successive messages, asked that the petition be



granted, Congress failed to enact the desired legisla tion until it was finally embodied in a new organic act, the Jones Law, in 1917. (See Chapter VI, History.)

In the meantime, bills had been presented in Con gress providing (a) that citizenship might be acquired by individual Porto Ricans through naturalization and (b ) that Porto Rico should be constituted as a free and independent associated state under the protector ate of the United States. These bills failed of passage, meeting neither the ambitions of the Islanders nor the safeguards for the people demanded by Congress .

The Present Political Status

The Jones bill constituted the people of the Island collectively, citizens of the United States. This or ganic act creates the Porto Rican the equal of any other citizen when in continental United States. He has the right, that is, to enter the United States with out interference from the emigration authorities and once in, he enjoys all the privileges of citizenship, in cluding the right to vote for President of the United States. The Supreme Court, however, has decided that the Island is an organized but not an incorpo rated territory of the United States. Before becoming a state it must be an incorporated territory. Congress may so declare it but it has not done so. The Porto Rican citizen, therefore, cannot vote for President in Porto Rico.

The bill specifically provided that a vote might be taken by the electorate within five years as to the adop tion of the Prohibition amendment. The vote was actually taken within a year and the amendment


adopted. On the other hand, the amendment provid ing for woman suffrage does not apply but may be made applicable by enactment of the Insular Govern ment .

The organic law enacts no limitation in the shape of educational or property qualification for male suffrage.

A bill has recently been introduced in the U. S. House of Representatives providing for the election of Governor by the electorate of the Island and ex tending the application of certain Federal statutes to the Island. (See Chapter VI, History.) The pas sage of this bill would constitute Porto Rico in all essentials , a state , except for representatives in Con gress and a special constitution would probably be necessary. If this should take place or if the Island should be constituted in all respects a state of the Union , it is presumed that it would no longer benefit from custom duties and other Federal revenues whichare now returned to the Insular treasury. This possi þility has been used as an argument by the Union party in opposing statehood. (See Chapter VI, History.)

Political Parties. Republican

The constitution of the Republican party was first published in March, 1898, and declared as its funda mental principle "the definite and sincere annexation of Porto Rico to the United States and the recogni tion of Porto Rico as an organized territory as a pre. liminary step to its admission as a state. This posi tion it has consistently maintained to the present time. This, the oldest of the three parties, was founded in



1898 , by Dr. José Celso Barbosa , a negro physician and editor of broad education and high character. It has still the support of the negro element. Its early leaders, Dr. Barbosa, Manuel Rossy, its first president, and others, recognized that in the treaty with Spain, the United States clearly indicated its intention of creating in Cuba an independent nation and of retain ing Porto Rico as national territory and based their party program on this assumption.

It was the only party to elect delegates to the first House in 1900, and in the elections of 1902 it had a large majority.

In 1910, 1913 and 1914 the party asked for a terri torial government, including:

1. Separation of functions between executive and legislative powers , the upper house to be an elective senate.

2. Recognition of the Home Rule principle by which native Porto Ricans and Americans resident in Porto Rico only, shall be eligible to hold office.

3. That the Governor shall appoint all depart mental heads, judges and court officers, subject to the approval of the Insular Senate.

4. That a general budget be initiated in the lower house.

5. That the Island be divided into districts for the election of senators and representatives, and that a certain number of each house shall be elected at large.

The Jones law enacted the greater part of this pro gram . The party , therefore , in its platform of 1917 asks (a) that the Island be made an incorporated ter ritory preparatory to being admitted as a state ; ( b ) i 1


that the Governor's veto be made suspensive, i.e., sub ject to revision by a vote of two-thirds of the legis lature; (c) that the Governor should appoint the Attorney General, the Commissioner of Education and the Auditor in place of the President; (d) that appeal might be taken from the Auditor's decisions to the courts; (e) that the Public Service Commission be elected; (f) that the Governor appoint the judges of the Supreme Court.

These amendments obtained, the organization of the state would be completed by the election of its own governor and of its senators and representatives in Congress.

The Republican party has, at all times, contem plated the future amalgamation of the Porto Rican population as a definite part of the American body politic.

At the present time its president and active leader is Mr. José Tous Soto; since 1909 it has been in the minority, the opposition party.

The Federal-Union Party

At the election for delegates tothe first House under theForaker law, the Federal party was in the minority securing tenout of thirty-five delegates and seventeen out of forty-seven mayors. Its platform at this time, asked that Porto Rico be constituted a terri tory with all the privileges of a state except as to rep resentatives in Congress.

Both parties were, at this time, working against the American policy which was much more conservative than they would have it.



The party "Union de Puerto Rico" succeeded the Federal party in 1904. Its platform requested of Congress a government for Porto Rico of any one of the three following types:

a. Autonomy or self-government.

b. Statehood.

c. An independent republic under the protection of the United States.

By 1909 the party had every seat in the House of Delegates and were asking for an autonomous form of government similar to that of Canada . In 1912 the party stood for the raising of the standard of living of the laboring man, the eight-hour day, com pensation for accidents, the construction of dwellings for working men to be sold at cost and on easy pay ments, the regulation and protection of women and children in Regardingindustry.education it favored teaching English as extensively as possible but was opposed to the use of any language other than that of the country, i.e. Span ish, for the transmission of knowledge.

At the Miramar (San Juan) Convention of October 24, 1915, over which Muñoz Rivera presided, the party, at his request, dropped the independence plank. In spite of this, separatist propaganda was continued.

At its convention, held November 22, 1922, the plank asking for statehood was eliminated for the reason as given by the party leaders that public opin ion in the Island and in the United States opposed the incorporation of the Island as a state and favored a special form of government; and in February of the same year, its platform stated, among other things,


" the Assembly declares that the creation of the Free, Associated State of Porto Rico is, from this day on, the program of the party 'Union de Puerto Rico'.

In 1923, the party is on record as favoring " Full self government under the American flag," while at the banquet given to Governor Towner at his inaugu ration, Mr. Barceló, speakingforthe party, said: The Island is ready to enter the Union as a State at once and will be happy in doing so. (Chapter VI, History.)Theenterprisingand

resourceful leader of the party is now SenatorAntonio R. Barceló. It controls a large majority in both houses as well as in the municipalities and represents the element which has always constituted the ruling class, that is, the plantation owners, Spanish banking and business houses and prominent lawyers and journalists, in a word, the capitalists.

The Socialist Party

The principles of Socialism were first published in Porto Rico in 1896, while the following year saw the publication of the work Ensayo Obrero" by Santiago Iglesias. The first party Assembly was held in the Municipal Theater on March 25, 1898. This was dissolved by the authorities, but in October, after the American occupation, El Porvenir Social, the ofi cial organ of the party, made its first appearance . The government threatened to suppress this sheet, but the military governor, General Brooke, when appealed to, upheld its right to exist.

In May, 1899, the workers issued a petition, the result of which was, shortly after, the adoption of the



eight-hour day for public work by the military governor.

The party was definitely formed in October of the same year, but inasmuch as General Davis had re stricted the franchise to tax payers and those engaged in the professions, the Socialists, as a protest, refused to attend the election. From this time the party made steady though slow progress toward representation in the popular house.

In March, 1900, a great meeting of Socialists wel comed the delegates from the Island at Cooper Union and in May of the same year the first Congress was held in San Juan.

In 1906 the Socialists voted under the party name Federacion Libre" and polled 1345 votes. Its further growth is illustrated by votes recorded in the succeeding years:

1910 San Juan, 64; Arecibo, 802.

1912 Arecibo, 2,359.

1914 The Island, 4,398 votes.

1917 The Island, 24,468, elected one senator.

1920 The Island, 59,140, elected one senator and four representatives. and were victorious in many municipalities.

In 1912 the party appeared at Washington as advo cating the establishment of a bureau of Agriculture and Labor for the Island by Congress rather than by the Legislature, believing that Congress had the real interests of the working man at heart, while in the Legislature the old Spanish idea of master and servant persisted

As to the sincerity of the pledges of the dominant



party toward labor, the party organ, the Union Obrera," expressed itself in reference to the same mat ter as follows: "The labor office in the consolidated department will be an office manipulated by the poli tics ofthe country, the objects ofwhichwill be to favor no other than its own interests.

The party complains of exploitation of Island labor by absentee capitalist owners and says, Employ the wealth created in Porto Rico for Porto Rico and Porto Ricans." It believes that the constitution of the United States should be extended to all Insular Amer ican citizens since it feels that this is the most stable guarantee for the development of the public interests and for the protection of its absentees by the American nation.

Its program is as follows:

" 1. Democracy in the Government of Porto Rico.

2. Fraternity in Society, i.e. the equality of rights and privileges in the enjoyment of natural wealth through the efforts of labor and the diffusion of uni versal education.

3. Social democracy."

The party is affiliated with the Porto Rico trade unions, with the American Federation of Labor and with the Socialist party of America. Its progressive leader is Senator Santiago Iglesias.

The Trend in Political Affairs

It was evident to our first administrators that prior to the advent of the Americans, Porto Rico had had no training in self government. Whatever the forms hadbeen, the power ofthe Governor-General hadbeen



supreme . In considering what has happened since , it is well to remember the words of General Davis in his report of 1899 : The functions of government have been used to discourage, repress or prevent initi ative and the people have no knowledge of any duty or obligation but to obey the orders of the governing classes." (Chapter VI, History.)

Into this easy-going, peace-loving people accus tomed for three hundred years to the arbitrary rule of a monarchial government has been injected the virus of American liberty. In less than a single generation we have tried to implant in this alien soil the concep tion of responsible citizenship which we ourselves have but imperfectly learned under three centuries of free institutions.

The result is the same as that which has arrived in many American communities without the same hope of ultimate release. For the absolute rule of govern ment is substituted the equally effective control of the political party. This control has been strengthened and concentrated by the rapid extension of autonomy, each additional office opened to the people has become another plum to be passed out by the majority party. By a natural evolution the party of the opposition to the sovereign power has become the dominant party By its opposition it has obtained offices to distribute and through its patronage it has drawn to its ranks the landed aristocracy and the employers with the great mass of those who are dependent on them.

During the eight years of Governor Yager's ad ministration the party (the Union) had full control and under Governor Towner has again returned to


power. It has coöperated during the period of its rule in remedial and progressive legislation which has been of undoubted benefit to the Island. For the mandate to govern, it has returned a certain measure of good government, but the control has been retained strictly within the inner circle of the party leaders.

While the Union party has held to the conception of a peculiar people to be set apart under a particular form of government, the Republican party has con sistently stood for a close amalgamation of the Island people with the United States, and its incorporation in the body politic as a state.

Whether statehood shall be the ultimate form of government for the Island or not, the Republican attitude of adaptability is one much more likely to result in a satisfactory relationship with the continent than the accentuation of the differences between the peoples which is characteristic of the Unionistas."

The one group, however, which has voiced the ap peal of the submerged majority consistently, in season and out, is found in the Socialist party. That this party has grown from practically nothing in ten years to a poll of 60,000 votes out of a possible total of 350,000 S citlist,weoffers the largest measure of hope to the working man .

Until he can be lifted further out of the slough of ignorance in which he is held, he deserves the protec tion given him through the appointing power which is still reserved to the President.

This is of particular importance in respect to the judiciary. In a government of law the high character of the courts is the ultimate safeguard of theworker against the encroachments of the rich and politically



powerful . The Supreme Court of Porto Rico has rep resented, during the period of American sovereignty, in its acts and in its influence on the community, the highest conception of American citizenship . To im pair its integrity by making the appointment of its justices in any way subject to political manipulations would be a serious blow to the development of the people.


Bananas for market .



A summary of previous chapters- Contrast between the con dition of the Island in 1900 and that of 1925 Progress achieved made possible by the participation of the U. S. Government, American philanthropic agencies and American capital And the co-operation, loyalty and adaptabilityof Porto Ricans- Problem not solved since the regeneration of the farm laborer is just begun The admirable record of the Department of Justice - A quarter century's progress in statistics.

The amazing progress of our Island during the twenty-five years that it has been a part of the United States has been frequently emphasized in the fore going chapters. It remains, therefore, for this chap ter to summarize the evidence, most of which has already been submitted, and to record in due order the statistics of this progress . The latter will be found in tables at the end of the chapter.

When the invading forces of the United States landed in Porto Rico our officers found a people suffer ing from the results of the oppression of centuries. Ninety per cent. of the population were unable to read or write in any language and were more densely igno rant than those of any South American country. The people had had no experience whatever in self govern ment. Initiative had been proscribed; they had

ralde 1


learned simply to do as they were ordered by their superiors and to accept whatever was given them in return. They suffered from social conditions which were the result of ignorance and the neglect of their government. The originally fertile lands of the Island were impoverished by a century of cultivation without refreshment and commerce languished, epi demics were common with this people, underfed and overcrowded, chronically the victims of hookworm, malaria and tuberculosis.

In the twenty-five years of American rule the popu lation has increased fifty per cent. The birth rate hasadvanced and the death rate has been reduced so that the net increase of population per year is now approxi mately 22,000. Epidemics have been abolished and measurable progress has been made in the fight against hookworm, malaria and tuberculosis.

Under the old régime practically no public school system existed. Nine-tenths of the people were rural and there were no rural schools. There are now more than 2,000 rural schools while above 200,000 pupils are enrolled in graded, high schools and technical schools throughout the Island. For education theInsular Government is expending annually $ 4,000,000, more than a third of its budget.

Illiteracy hasbeen reduced in the average to fifty-five per cent. of the population but in the cities it has been reduced to thirty-seven per cent. The rural school is becoming a real factor for progress in the country.The growing system of farm and technical schools for boys and the teaching of domestic science for girls are training the present generation to take care of it



self and are both raising the standard of living and pointing the way to attain it.

A complete University with six departments and an enrollment of more than 2,000 students has been es tablished and maintained.

During the American period ten million dollars have been spent on roads. An investment which has increased the value of the lands opened to com merce many times the sum expended. To make these lands of the interior available to commerce this con struction of roads has been a prime necessity for the Island's development. Every one of the seventy-four towns and cities is now reached by a state highway of which there are 1,447 kilometers under maintenance.

With the proceeds of a loan, recently authorized, the government will shortly increase the mileage to 2,000 kilometers. In addition to this there are approxi mately 7,000 kilometers of municipal roads which are being constantly improved and will eventually become standard roads.

A large expenditure, also constructive in character, has been made for irrigation, which has increased the productivity of the lands affected at least fifty per cent .

By these and other investments in public works , the general conditions of the country have so improved that public revenues have risen from less than $ 3,000,000 to $12,600,000 per year, more than a mil lion of these receipts coming from customs duties on foreign goods annually returned to the Island treasury by Congress.

Correspondingly, the annual budget has risen from



$ 2,000,000 in 1901-2 to $11,700,000 in 1924-25. This and the present bonded indebtedness of $16,733, 000 ($4,079,000 incurred during the current year for roads, bridges, insane asylum, capitol building, etc.) are justified by the advance in the valuation of prop erty, which is as follows:

Assessed valuation of entire Island, 1901-02 $ 96,426,322

Assessed valuation of entire Island, 1924... 312,384,305

The manifold expenditures for the public good have been accomplished without undue taxation, in fact the resulting taxes are very much less than those of the United States. The Insular income tax is but a frac tion of the Federal income tax. Excise taxes are but a part of similar taxes on the continent, while the gen eral property tax is less than one-half those imposed in the States. In a word, the total taxes in the United States in 1923 aggregated $68.33 per capita while in Porto Rico, if all had been paid, the total would have reached but $9.02 per capita.

Under the organic act the bonded indebtedness is limited to ten per cent. of the total assessed valuation of property. The present indebtedness is therefore but little more than half the amount authorized. The credit of the Insular Government is excellent and loans are negotiated freely at low rates of interest.

The external commerce of the Island has not fallen behind its internal development. The total of the Island's external trade was, in 1900, $ 16,600,000, while in 1924 it reached $177,650,000, an increase of more than eleven times in the twenty-four years. The participation of the United States in this trade has


increased much more rapidly than that of any other nation and in a greater degree than the Island's busi ness with its own people. This is additional evidence in favor of the theorem that the relationship between the countries has been of benefit to both. Purchases from the United States rose from $7,000,000 to $ 80,000,000, and shipments from $3,350,000 to $80,700,000, while purchases from foreign countries advanced from $ 3,000,000 to $8,800,000 and ship ments from $3,000,000 to $ 7,500,000 during the same period.

Even in the coffee trade which has advanced the least of the basic industries, because of its lack of pro tection under the U. S. tariff, the production is again as large as during the Spanish régime and the price is approaching the pre-Spanish war figure. It is at least bringing as high a price in the American market as the best South American coffees. Coffee production can be almost indefinitely extended in Porto Rico and the difficulties which have surrounded its recovery and present development have the sympathetic attention of the Governor and the Insular Government whose coöperation may be counted on to make it a success ful business and one that will furnish employment to an increasing number of farm laborers.

The production of sugar hasnotonly made extraor dinary advances in volume but has achieved a high standard in method, which places Porto Rico in the front rank of producing countries. The harmonious coöperation between government officials and the Cen trale managers in the work of improvement may be credited with the present satisfactory situation.



The tobacco trade has witnessed an enormous im provement in organization and quality of product and this has brought a corresponding increase in price. The large increase in export is in leaf tobacco which last year reached more than 23,000,000 lbs. This is not an entirely satisfactory phase of growth for the Island, since if this large volume of leaf had been manufactured into cigars in the Island, employment would have been furnished a larger number of tobacco workers. It is possible that this outcome is the result of strikes which have been frequent and prolonged.

Fruit is entirely an American industry in inception and development . Its importance as an economic fac tor grows yearly and the industry seems, at present, to be on a thoroughly satisfactory basis , particularly as to the production of grape fruit and pineapples.

It would be surprising if this universal improvement of business conditions should not bring with it some measure of betterment for the worker whose labor makes such results possible. His advance in wages and rise in living standards would doubtless follow in die rect ratio if it were not for the fact that his labor is constantly in surplus, his supply always greater than the demand.

That his condition is improving, however, is shown by the Governor's report for 1924 in which he says that a marked improvement in the conditions of labor has been shown during the year. Wages have in creased, living conditions have improved, unemploy ment has decreased. The activities of government in welfare work, education of the children, prevention


and treatment of disease and sanitary measures of all kinds have been greatly extended and the chief bene ficiaries of all these are the workmen.

The attitude of the present administration is that the condition of the working man is the responsibility of the Government and that every effort possible, within the field of government operations, must be made to raise the standard of his living to an approxi mation of that on the mainland. This point of view, if adhered to , will inevitably result in a marked im provement within a few years. A table showing the present range of wages and a list of acts passed by the Legislature for the benefit of labor, since the es tablishment of civil government, will be found in the appendix.Thechief advances in wages are found in the skilled employments of the cities and towns, such as those of carpenters, masons, painters and mechanics. It must be remembered in considering them that these trades represent but a fraction of the working group in the Island, the large majority falling under the category of farm laborers. Marked improvement, however, does exist among the latter though coming more slowly than in the skilled trades in which competition is less keen.

The labor legislation enacted during the American régime manifests a sincere desire to overcome so far as government can, the handicaps of labor due to ig norance and past neglect. These laws aided by the spread of education are beginning to make themselves felt in a higher standard of living and morals.


The Underlying Reasons

In summing up the results of American control for a quarter of a century in his inaugural address, the pres. ent Governor touched on the underlying explanation of this unexampled progress. He said: I doubt if any. where, any isolated section, a part of any other nation, can show a like record. It proves, does it not, that our relations are mutually beneficial?

We have, on the part of the general government, granted the greatest possible measure of liberty. You have privileges in some regards of greater worth than those enjoyed by any other part of the Union. You have a constantly increasing measure of local self gov ernment and you have given to the world a splendid example of what may be done in less than a single gen eration by a liberty - loving, capable and intelligent people under republican institutions." (Chapter VI, History.)Thereasons

for this progress, though largely na tive to our fundamental reactions as a nation, are worth analyzing, since wherever they may be applied with the same sincerity of purpose, similar results may confidently be expected.

The results were made possible then by the active participation in Island affairs of the United States government, first exemplified under the military gov ernment by the establishment of the fundamentals of liberty, the freedom of speech and the press and educa tion, the protection of property, the abolishment of extreme punishment for crimes and the reformation of the judiciary.



The early grant of civil government provided a school for citizenship of the most effective sort. This was supplemented by frequent hearings before the Insular Affairs Committees of the House and Senate to whose members, Porto Ricans, representing all parties, have had an opportunity to express their criti cisms and their desires. To the insistent demand for citizenship from Porto Rico, Congress finally yielded and granted not only that badge of equality but a measure of almost complete autonomy in the Jones law.

Financial aid has been given the Island through the entire history of our relations with its people, begin ning with the grant made to the sufferers of the Ciri aco hurricane and continuing, through the return to the Insular treasury yearly of all customs receipts col lected at Island ports. More substantial still has been the opening of the United States market to Porto Rican producers through the establishment of free trade with the Island.

With a very few exceptions the United States has sent men of the best type to represent the nation in its coöperation with the Island representatives. The Island leaders have at times complained that they were made subject to men who knew nothing of their language nor history and were not in sympathy with their traditions. There has, however, been but one short period in recent years when that criticism could be justly applied. With this exception the largest measure of sympathy with the Island needs and coöp eration in its advancement have been manifested by those who have been sent from the United States.



The general government has displayed a willingness at all times to listen to Island appeals, to furnish the service of Federal departments for surveys and studies when requested and has extended the operation of many Federal acts such as the Federal Land Bank, the Smith-Lever act and others to the Island, all in dicative of the assumption of responsibility for the welfare and progress of the Island people. By the act granting full citizenship, the manifold educational and cultural facilities of the United States have been made available to Porto Ricans. In fact, some thirty five thousand are actual residents of New York at the present time.

Protection and stability have been given the Island through the Public Health Service and military con trol and as a consequence of this a high financial credit has been established which enables the Island treasury to borrow at low rates of interest. This high credit enables the Government to complete public work of great productive value to the country at a low cost and at the same time makes it possible to employ thou sands of laborers at remunerative wages.

In general the Government has been sustained by the loyalty and coöperation of the Porto Ricans. This friendly and coöperative spirit was particularly marked in the early years of civil government when the best of local talent was devoted to the joint effort of build ing up the country . There came a period , however, when the dominant party in the lower House felt that its views were not given sufficient consideration by the American-appointed representatives on the council. They believed themselves strong enough to force legis

W erectedRecentlysinglefamilyplantationhouses,coffeesectionnearLares.

lation which was not of a kind calculated to benefit the country. Their attitude was in the nature of a revolution and drew from President Taft (1909) the deserved rebuke :

This spirit, which has been growing in Porto Rico from year to year, shows that too great power has been vested in the House of Delegates and that its members are not sufficiently alive to their oath-taken responsibility for the maintenance of the Government, to justify Congress in further resposing in them abso lute power to withhold the appropriations necessary for the Government's life." (Chapter VI History.)

The revolution was settled without bloodshed by the enactment of legislation limiting the power of the lower House. Eight years after this event, the new organic law granted the people greater powers than they had demanded in 1909. The lesson, however, had been learned and no such impasse has arisen since.

The Separatist propaganda of the Unionist party has not made for coöperation. Although the party has gained and retained a majority of the seats in both houses of the Legislature, it is not believed that its attitude toward the American appointees is representa tive of the best thought of the Island or of the actual majority. Its success is, rather, the result of a shrewd understanding of the class which has been dominant, Spanish in sympathy and culture, aided by the support of the strongest newspapers. It flourishes, also, through the lack of coöperation of its opponents.

The Republican and Socialist parties , acting to gether , could undoubtedly hold political control even with such limited newspaper support as they might



muster. Both these parties have shown unmistakable evidence of loyalty to the United States and gratitude for the benefits which have come to the Island through its association with the mainland.

The keen desire manifested by the people for edu cation and their grateful acceptance and coöperation with the various plans for their betterment , when they have understood them, have been important factors in the Island's progress.

This interest and coöperation on the part of the people at large have stimulated the activities of the many American philanthropic agencies which have to so great an extent aided in the progress of the people.

Of all such agencies those are likely to be of the greatest permanent benefit which, in the largest de gree, furnish the beneficiary the means and the method of taking care of himself.

The practical advantage of a stable and orderly government is seen also in the attraction it has offered to the investment of American capital, without which the unparalleled commercial growth of the past twenty-five years would have been impossible. This investment has brought profit to the investors, as it should, and at the same time has been of inestimable value to Porto Rico. It has brought complications with it, difficult of solution as indicated in the fore going pages, but it has established with the world at large the Island's standard of production, which ap pears to be the onlymethod through which it can work out of its economic difficulties.

In spite of the extraordinary progress made in the past twenty-five years, the underlying problem of the



Island is not yet solved, since the regeneration of the farm laborer has but just begun. That a start has been made is a great step in advance . Particularly is it a hopeful sign that all political parties have ac cepted this problem as their responsibility and that one party, whose power is expanding rapidly, that is, the Socialist, hasmade the welfare of the workingman its sole objective. In short, the outlook of the rural farm laborer has never in his history been as bright as it is today. He has a long way to go before he can reach the standard of his brothers on the continent but he is on the way. He is at least a citizen of the UnitedStates andthis, in the opinion of Mr. Travieso,' the first native secretaryofthe Island and the mayorof San Juan, is the greatest achievement of the Porto Rican during the past twenty-five years. His imme diate response to the grant of citizenship in 1917 was his registration for the national army to the number of 121,000 men. His loyalty at that moment of the nation's need was beyond question and many times the actual number enlisted would gladly have volunteered for service overseas if places could have been found for them .

The Department of Justice

In no department of government has the coöpera tion of American and Porto Rican brought more satis factory results than in that of the Department of Jus tice. The high standard attained was established and has been upheld by the Supreme Court, whose four

* El Libro de Puerto Rico, " Twenty-five Years Under AmericanInfluence," by Martin Travieso.



justices and Chief Justice have been chosen from lawyers of large capacity, both American and Porto Rican. The present Chief Justice and his predecessor are Porto Rican, while the Attorney General, the ad ministrative head of the department , is and has been , American . The judges , fiscales and court officers of all the lower courts are, without exception, Porto Rican, appointed by the Governor with the approval of the Insular Senate.

The excellent record of the department for the past two years is sufficiently marked to warrant a special word of commendation from the Governor in his an nual report. The administration of justice has been a department of government in which Latin America has not been particularly proficient. No phase of govern ment is a better test of efficiency and capacity than is offered by this department and none that is so closely associated with the rights and duties of citizenship . Particularly is it the protection of the poor man if its decisions are beyond dispute and the litigation pre sented to it be dispatched without unreasonable delays.

Tested by these standards the Island may safely in vite comparison with our sister nations of the South and with the States as well, since both in its adminis tration and in the just balance of its decisions it ranks with the best on the continent.

Unquestionably the high character of the judiciary has been of great value to the development of the Island during the quarter of a century past. Not measurable in statistics, it has endowed the coming generation with a sense of right and justice of inestimable value to their future progress.


A Quarter Century's Progress in Statistics Population

1899 Census 953,243 1,118,012 Census 1,299,809 Registered qualified electors.. 359,048 increase of population . 21,836 per 1,000


1899 Death rate, all causes. 1924 Death rate, all causes. 1899 Birth rate 1924 Birth rate 1920-21 Death rate, children under 1 year... 1923-24 Death rate, children under 1 year... 18.7 26 37 162 128


One school building erected for that purpose. More than 2,000 public schools, 16 high schools, a com plete university with normal and high school and school of practice included. in public schools. ..... 26,212 in public schools. 227,267 in university.... 2,461 for education.... $ 288,098.00 education.... per cent

1910 Census
1924 Net
1899 1924 1899 1924 1924 1899 1921 1899 1920
Expenditure for
4,008,770.00 Illiteracy 90
Illiteracy 55 1899 1924 Roads Under maintenance Under maintenance 275 kilometers 1,447 66 1898 1898 Telephone and Telegraph Public lines under maintenance. Offices 1,240 kilometers 41


Private lines 53 kilometers

Public lines 2,500

Private lines ... 1,000


1898 1924 1924 1924 60

Cables from Ponce, San Juan, Mayagüez to St. Thomas, Santo Domingo, Cuba, Jamaica and the United States.


Federal Government radio stations at San Juan and Cayey.


1901-02 Assessed valuation of property...... $ 96,426,322.00

1924 Assessed valuation of property.. 312,384,305.00

1924-25 Land devoted to cultivation of cane, tobacco, coffee, fruit and cocoanuts, valued at 80,000,000.00

1901-02 Insular budget 2,001,302.21

1924-25 Insular budget 11,735,139.00

1924 Porto Rico treasury received from customs duties 1,155,000.00

1915 Savings accounts 1,909,969.00

1924 Savings accounts 11,165,308.00

1924 Banks, 18 with 27 branches, and total capital surplus and undivided profits of 8,064,978.00

1924 Total bonded indebtedness of the Insular Government (a little over half the amount authorized by the organic law ) 16,773,000.00


United States, income tax.....

Porto Rico, income tax. United States, total tax.. Porto Rico, total tax.

External Trade

$16.72percapita 9.02

1924 Aggregate receipts of government.... 12,618,038.39 1923

1900 Total $ 16,602,004.00

19231923 1923

1924 177,650,164.00

Total ...

(An increase over 1923 of $ 23,412,609)

1900 1924 6,952,114.00 80,590,021.00

1900 1924

Purchases from United States..

Purchases from United States..

(An increase over 1923 of $ 15,846,559)

Shipped to the United States.. Shipped to the United States.....

(An increase over 1923 of $3,747,718)

Imported from foreign countries...

1900 1924 3,037,391.00 8,779,603.00.

Imported from foreign countries....

(An increase over 1923 of $ 1,578,560)

1900 1924 3,261,922.00 7,525,565.00


Shipped to foreign countries. ... Shipped to foreign countries........ 3,350,577.00 80,754,975.00

Sugar Exports

Short tons, 68,909; average price per ton, $68.43; value.. Short tons,372,041 ; average price per ton, $128.53; value... $ 4,715,611.00

1924 47,838,687.00

Tobacco Exports

1907 1907 1907

Cigars, total output... Cigarettes, total output.. Leaf, total output, pounds... Value .

Cigars, total output.. Cigarettes, total output... Leaf, total ouput, pounds... 207,368,253 358,182,0004,344,659 $ 251,217,6811,232,058.00408,868,000 23,348,048 $13,142,136.00 1924 1914' 1924 Value ....

1901 1924

Coffee Exports 12,157,240 lbs.; average price, $0.137 $ 1,678,765.00 21,859,215 lbs.; average price, 0.210 4,595,811.00

Fruit Exports

1901 1924

Total shipments

Total shipments $ 109,801.00 4,440,229.00



Principal Imports from the United States (1924)

Animals and meat products, including fish, dairy products and leather...

$ 12,531,715.00

Bread stuffs, including rice.. 8,317,691.00

Including wheat flour. 2,350,015.00

Including other bread stuffs. 1,493,633.00

Cotton goods 13,659,422.00

Wood and wood manufactures.. 4,208,461.00

Iron and steel..... 6,362,314.00

Principal Exports to the United States (1924)

Sugar and molasses


Tobacco and manufactures of... 18,666,756.00

Coffee 71,158.00

Fruit 3,230,484.00

Fruit, canned 470,727.00


Principal Exports to Foreign countries (1924) $ 4,524,653.00

| C 1 1 AN |
| 1 ( 1| .1 1 1 1


Transportation - Hotels Roads Clubs Cost of living. Steamship Lines for Passengers and Freight

Two lines, at present, offer regular schedules for passengers between New York City and San Juan, Porto Rico. These are the New York and Porto Rico Steamship Company and the Red D Line.

The Atlantic Fruit Company, which in 1921 oper ated a line for both freight and passengers between New York and San Juan, has now abandoned that service and returned its vessels to the Cuban trade.

NEW YORK AND Porto Rico S. S. Co. Office, 25 Broadway, NewYork.

operates four passenger, freight and mail steamers on a regular semi-weekly service between New York and San Juan. The two large ships of this line, the San Lorenzo and the Porto Rico , carry first cabin passen gers exclusively andmake the trip between these ports in four and five days respectively. The steamships, San Juan and Ponce, carrying cabin passengers only, require five days in transit. The San Lorenzo and the Porto Rico leave New York on alternate Thurs days while the San Juan and Ponce sail on alternate Saturdays.Sailings

are at twelve noon from Pier 35, Atlantic Basin, Brooklyn.

Rates, sailing schedules, etc., are as quoted for the summer of 1925.1


The S. S. Corozal (freight only) makes an average of two trips per month, requiring six days for passage eachway.

Rates of Passage

S. S. San Lorenzo, from $70 to $290, in accordance with state room and number of passengers in room .

S. S. Porto Rico, from $65 to $ 280.

S. S. San Juan and Ponce, from $45 to $60.

U. S. tax to be added as follows:

Tickets costing over $10 and not exceeding $3o.... $ 1.00

Tickets costing over $30 and not exceeding $60.. 3.00

Tickets costing over $60, add.... 5.00

Eleven and Twelve Day Cruises

The steamships San Lorenzo and Porto Rico accept passengers for round-trip cruises, including an auto mobile trip across the Island, sight-seeing tour of San Juan and a dinner and dance at the Condado-Vander bilt Hotel at flat rates, including all expenses while on the Island. These excurisions, if by the San Lor enzo, allow three days on the Island and if by the S. S. Porto Rico, two days. The rates are as follows:

S. S. San Lorenzo, from $150 to $600; Tour No. I S. S. San Lorenzo, from $ 180 to $660; Tour No. 2

In Tour No. 1, the passenger uses the steamer as his hotel during his stay on the Island while in Tour No. 2 he is accommodated at the Condado-Vanderbilt Hotel during that period.

S. S. Porto Rico, from $150 to $570; Tour No. 1 S. S. Porto Rico, from $170 to $595; Tour No. 2

The steamships San Juan and Ponce call at other Island ports, two to three times per month.




Office, 82 Wall St., New York.

Sailings from Pier 11, Brooklyn, near foot of Montague St. This line operates a fleet ofsix steamers, four carry ing passengers and freight and two carrying freight only, between NewYork and Porto Rico, Curaçao and Venezuela.

The rates for the steamers operating between New York and San Juan are as follows:

S. S. Carabobo (twin screw ), New York to San Juan. First class rates from $70 to $250, in accordance with state room and number of passengers in room. Second class, from $45 to $50.

S. S. Maracaibo (twin screw ). First class, $65. Second class, $ 40.

S. S. Caracas. First class, from $50 to $ 70. No second class.

The S. S. Merida connects with these steamships at Curaçao for Maracaibo and return. Round-trip tickets good for twelve months are issued at a reduction of 10 per cent.

U. S. tax is to be added to the foregoing rates as shown under the schedule of the N. Y. and P. R. S. S. Co.

Sailings from New York average one per week. The time required for transit between New York and San Juan is five days.


Office, 40 Wall St., New York.

This line carries freight only from New York to San Juan but maintains a regular passenger service between Porto Rico, Santo Domingo and the Virgin Islands.



The S. S. Catharine (passenger and freight) leaves San Juan every Monday for Santo Domingo and every Friday for St. Thomas and St. Croix , Virgin Islands.

A regular weekly freight service is maintained from Pier 27, Brooklyn, leaving Saturday noon for San Juan. A sailing is also scheduled each Saturday from San Juan to Brooklyn and each Thursday from Aguadilla to Brooklyn.

The Porto Rico AMERICAN S. S. LINE Pier No. 5, San Juan.

maintains a weekly freight service between San Juan and Baltimore. It schedules also two sailings per month for Philadelphia.


M. Berrios & Co., Agents Terraplen, San Juan, P. R.

This line operates steamers between Houston, Texas, and San Juan, carrying largely rice and yellow pine lumber from Texas with mixed cargoes for the return trip.


The S. S. Marina, which formerly ran to Santo Domingo is now maintaining a regular freight and passenger service between San Juan and the Virgin Islands.


The station of the Porto Rican railroad is located on the Marina adjacent to the docks at which pas sengers and freight from the N. Y. and P. R. S. S. Co Red D Line and Bull Insular Line are landed.


Construction of this narrow gauge road was begun in 1887 by a French company acting under a royal decree which authorized a road to encircle the Island alongthe coast, touching at Arecibo, Aguadilla, Maya güez, San German, Ponce, Guayama, Humaçao, Far jardo, Rio Piedras, and San Juan. A branch also was to be constructed from Caguas to Naguabo by way of Juncos.

By 1898 some 230 miles were in operation, not in a continuous line, but in sections. A continuous line is now in operation between San Juan on the north and Guayama on the southeast, a total of 338 kilo meters, covering approximately three-quarters of the circumference of the Island. There are also branch lines in operation between San German and Sabaña Grande and between San Juan and Carolina.

AMERICAN R. R. of Porto Rico

This is a line seven miles long between Bayamon and Cataño.


This company operates a rail line between San Juan and Caguas via Rio Piedras. Electricity is used as motive power from San Juan to Rio Piedras and steam for the remainder of the distance.

Urban Electric Systems

Electric lines are in operation in San Juan, Ponce and Mayagüez.

Cane Roads

Approximately 1,000 miles of steam cane roads are



in operation along the coastal plain in connection with the sugar centrales.Automobiles

and "Guaguas"

The excellent roads of the Island offer every in ducement to the traveller to buy or rent an automobile as the most satisfactory means of transport.

On the Plaza Alfonso XII in San Juan, cars are always to be had for hire with whose chauffeurs a bargain can always be struck to take one by the hour or trip to any part of the Island. These chauf feurs are reckless in their driving and must be con trolled by the passenger if he desires to travel in com fort in the dense traffic of the towns or around the frequent sharp curves of the mountain roads of the interior.

Most of the standard American cars can be pur chased through their Porto Rican representatives. Gasoline 'and oil are to be had in all parts of the Island, and the large towns are supplied with reason ably good auto mechanics as well as tires and other automobile accessories.

Service Over the Military Road

The Blue Line of auto-busses maintains a daily service over the Military Road between San Juan and Ponce and return, stopping at Aibonito, Cayey, Coamo Springs and all important points . These autobusses are modern, comfortable, not very expensive and well driven.

The "Guaguas"

Innumerable jitney busses ply between San Juan,



Santurce and Rio Piedras and between other towns along the coast. These are picturesque but not very comfortable vehicles, known as " guaguas," generally crowded with men, women and children and even chickens and pigs. They are largely of ancient vintage and subject to frequent punctures and much engine trouble. As to the driving, the chauffeur is as a rule, much more interested in cracking jokes with his pas sengers, with whom he carries on a continuous and hilarious conversation, than he is in keeping his vehicle on the road or out of the way of passing cars.

He drives always at top speed. The guaguas are conspicuously labelled in Spanish or English and some times the names given them are surprisingly apt. One, for example, which plies between San Juan and San turce carries the title In God We Trust. One trip at least in a guagua is an experience that no visitor should miss.

Trails and Horses

AtAibonito, Barranquitas, Utuado, Lares and other mountain towns, the shaggy little mountain ponies can be rented at moderate prices for a climb over the trails through the coffee plantations. These ani mals are very sure-footed and reliable, important in wet weather when the soil of the trails is slippery.The automobile roads now penetrate every town in the mountains so that it is rarely necessary to employ a horse to arrive at one's destination . In Barran quitas, where many residents of San Juan own sum mer cottages, the ponies are often used for recreation in climbing the surrounding mountains.



There are two hotels in San Juan under American management and one boarding house, as shown in the list following. The Ponce hotels and the Coamo Spring Hotel are all good. The native hotels at Mayagüez andArecibo are passable.

List of Hotels and Boarding Houses

San Juan

Hotel Condado-Vanderbilt (American). $ 10.00 and $ 12.00 per day for single room and bath; $ 18.00 and $ 20.00 per day for double room and bath. American plan.

Hotel Palace (American ).- $2.00 per day and up for single room and bath; $ 5.00 per day for double room and bath. European plan.

$ 4.00 per day and up for single room and bath; $8.00 per day for double room and bath. American plan.

Young Men's Christian Association (American).- Rates from $ 15.00 to $ 18.00 per month. Transients are charged $ 1.00per day or $ 5.00 per week. There are no meals served.

Hotel Centrale (Porto Rican ).- $ 1.00 to $2.50, European plan. $2.50 to $3.50, American plan.

The Olimpo Apartment (American ).- (Formerly the Axt mayer.) 4 Olimpo Ave., Stop 10, Santurce, P. R. Rates, $ 75.00 per month, $ 25.00 per week. American plan.


Hotel Amelia (American). Cristina St. Rooms with bath, $ 2.00 per day; with bath and private telephone, $2.50 to $ 3.00 per day. European plan.

French Hotel (Porto Rican).- Marina St. Rooms with bath, $ 5.00 to $6.00 per day. American plan.

Coamo Springs

Coamo Spring Hotel (Porto Rican ). $6.00 per day for guests and $ 2.75 for servants and chauffeurs. American plan,



including hot sulphur baths. Motor cars meet all pas sengers at Coamo from San Juan or Ponce upon advice from passengers in advance, or if they telephone the hotelupon arrival at Coamo. The charge for transportationfrom Coamo to the Springs is $1.00 per person.


Hotel Palmer (Porto Rican ).- Room without bath, $3.50 per day; room with bath, $4.00 per day. American plan.

Hotel Colon (Porto Rican ).- Room without bath, $2.50 and $ 3.00 per day; room with bath, $4.00 per day. American plan.

Hotel Palma (Porto Rico).- Room without bath, $3.00 per day; room with bath, $ 4.00 and $5.00 per day. American plan.


Hotel Baleares (Porto Rican ).- Rates approximately the same as the Mayagüez hotels.

Clubs and Casinos

There are two golf clubs in San Juan, one of which uses the available greensward of Morro Castle and the other maintains links in the suburbs.

A country club with a swimming pool on the shore of the Condado District and tennis courts is now the favorite resort of both Americans and Porto Ricans in San Juan.

The Union Club in Miramar serves meals. It has also a ball room, card rooms, etc.

The Casino of San Juan on the Plaza Colon, is a large , airy and handsome building used frequently for balls and important functions.

The Atheneum, the most important scientific and literary society of the Island has been located in the



Plaza Alfonso XII but is now building a club house for its own use.

The Spanish Club, back of the Atheneum on San Justo St., is a social center for the Spanish element.

Rotary has clubs both in San Juan and Ponce.

The Elks have an important organization in San Juan and Masonry is strong throughout the Island.

Ponce has a very fine country club and a handsome Casino with 350 members.

Cost of Living

Living in the native fashion is cheap in Porto Rico, but living as Americans like to live is not cheap. Com fortable small houses have been very scarce in San Juan and rents, considering the accommodation, high. More building is now in progress and houses available for Americans will probably be more plentiful before long.

Food is not expensive. American meats, butter and canned vegetables maybe had at reasonable prices and the native fruits and aguacates can be purchased at a fraction of their cost in New York. The best house servants are the Virgin Island negroes whose wages are low in comparison with the United States.

Balancing the low cost of food and service with the high rents and higher prices for gasoline and motor repairs brings the average cost of living for Americans somewhere near that of the smaller cities of the United States but considerably less than that of New York, Boston or Philadelphia.



Summary of organic laws The autonomy chart, 1897 Mili tary government The Foraker Act The Jones Law Citizenship - Federal amendments Salaries of officers of the Insular Government.

In the latter days of 1897 Spain granted to her loyal colony of Porto Rico a measure of autonomy slightly more liberal in form at least than that em bodied in the first civil government established underAmerican rule. While it was never actually in opera tion and while the plan contains provisions under which a strong executive might be made to nullify its more liberal provisions, it was a distinct victory for liberalism and has often been referred to by Island leaders as marking the progress already attained be fore the advent of American control. The law was known as

The Autonomy Chart

It was approved November 25th , 1897 , and the first election had been held under its provisions, when war with the United States was declared.

Under the plan , legislative functions are performed by wo bodies of equal powers: A Council of Ad ministration and a Chamber of Representatives.

Council of Administration

Composed of fifteen members, eight elected and seven appointed by the Governor General Elected members held office for five years, those appointed, for life. Qualifications for members: That they be 301


Spanish citizens , thirty - five years old , natives of Porto Rico or residents of four years standing and possessing an income of at least 4,000 pesos.

Chamber of Representatives

One member, elected for five years, for each 25,000 inhabitants; subject to reëlection. Qualifications: Spanish citizenship , native of Porto Rico or four years' resident, twenty-one years of age, no property limita tion.

Meetings: Every year. The Governor General had the right to dissolve, convene, suspend or adjourn parliament, but was required to reconvene it within three months.

Both chambers elected their own officers, adopted their own rules of procedure and judged the qualifica tions of their members and the legality of their elec tion. Immunity was provided for speeches and votes and against arrest, except in the case of the admitted authorship of seditious printed matter.

Either chamber or the Governor General, through his secretaries might initiate legislation except such as applied to revenue, the initiation of financial legis lation being restricted to the Chamber of Representa tives.

Parliament was given power in all matters not specifically reserved to the Cortes. This covered all questions of local concern including the question of public health on land and sea, a customs tariff and duties of whatever nature. It is in these features that the law is somewhat more liberal than the Foraker Act.


Bills to become law were required to pass both Chambers and to receive the signature of the Gov ernor General. If rejected by the Governor they might be referred to the Council of Ministers in Spain who might hold them for sixty days. If no opinion was expressed during that time the measure became law ipso facto; if the objection was sustained, the bill was returned to Parliament.

Executive: The Governor General was supreme, appointed by the King on nomination of the Council of Ministers and held office until replaced. He was the vice-royal patron of the church, commander of the military; he appointed and removed without re striction the secretaries of his cabinet; had power to convene , dissolve, suspend or adjourn parliament and under certain circumstances could suspend national laws and constitutional guarantees.

Cabinet : Composed of five secretaries appointed by the Governor.

1. Grace, Justice and Interior.

2. Finance.

3. Public Education.

4. Public Works, Posts and Telegraph.

5. Agriculture, Industry and Commerce.

The secretaries were responsible to Parliament and could be members of either body.

Judicial : A Territorial Court , composed of a President and five judges, appointed by the Governor.

Twelve courts of first instance.

Three criminal " audiencias."

One court for each municipality.



Appeals could be taken from the Territorial Court to the Supreme Court of Spain and to the King.

Municipal Government: The boards which were elective, were given power to enact local laws, includ ing those to provide revenue, if not incompatible with the Insular system of taxation. No colonial statute could abridge this power.

The Governor General, as indicated in this outline, was given very large powers of appointment without restriction and direct control over parliament through the right to dissolve or convene that body and to initiate legislation. In addition to this, the influence born of the vice-royal dignity given the office, has always been powerful with Porto Ricans. The office has not been given enough dignity under American rule and the marked lack of dignity in the assumption of it by some of our representatives has seriously interfered with their usefulness in the Island.

Military Government

For a little less than two years from the date on which American troops first landed on Porto Rican soil, the Island remained under military rule. This government from the nature of the case, was an autocracy, but an autocracy limited by American ideals of liberty and democracy and purely benevolent in character as shown by its achievements. No depart ment of government was neglected and no effort was spared during the probationary period to prepare the people for the responsibilities which they were shortlyto assume under the act providing civil government. Spanish laws and customs were maintained except in


cases in which they appeared to interfere with the moral and physical regeneration of the people . The development of the Island was proceeding so satis factorily under this plan that a joint resolution was presented to Congress in 1900 providing that mili tary control should be continued for a period of five years from that date. What the result would have been to the future development of the Island had this probationary period been extended for five years or longer under the Executive of the United States, will never be known, since the resolution failed of support and in its place was enacted an organic law providing civil government to take effect immediately.

The Foraker Act

This bill was approved April 12th, 1900; the first Governor was appointed by the President, June 28th, 1900, and on the same date the Executive Council met and organized. The first general election under the law was held November 6th, 1900, and the mem bers of the House of Delegates elected, met with the Executive Council in the first session of the Legisla ture, December 3rd, 1900. The existence of civil government in Porto Rico was proclaimed by the President, July 25th, 1901, and free trade to and from the United States was established beginning with this date.

Provisions of the Law

Legislative functions under the Foraker Act were delegated to two bodies, the Executive Council and the House of Delegates.



The Executive Council : This body was composed of eleven members , all appointed by the President of the United States, subject to the approval of the Senate, for four-year terms. It was required, how ever, that five should be natives of Porto Rico.

House of Delegates: This chamber was com posed of thirty-five members. Each of the seven dis tricts of the Island elected five. The term was two years . They were required to be twenty -five years of age, citizens of Porto Rico or the United States, able to read and write Spanish or English and to possess taxable property located in Porto Rico . Meetings were held once a year of sixty days' duration. The Governor could call special sessions as might be re quired without limitation as to their duration.

Legislative Powers: Bills could be initiated in either house with the exception of revenue bills which must originate in the House of Delegates. The Gov ernor was restricted to recommendations and had no power of initiative in legislation. The powers of the two chambers were restricted to the general matters covered by the organic law. These included, however, all questions of local concern except such functions as that of public health by sea, a monetary system and customs tariff which are, by the constitution, restricted to the Federal Government.

To become law it was necessary that a bill should pass both houses and be signed by the Governor, who could if he desired, hold the bill for ten days and return it to the house which originated it with objec tions. The bill could, in turn, be passed over the Governor's veto by a two- thirds vote . Congress , how


ever, reserved the right to annul any acts of the Legislative Assembly.

Executive Functions

Executive powers were given to the Governor, who was appointed for a four-year term by the President, subject to the approval of the Senate. He was alsoin command of the militia and had the power to call out the military and naval forces of the United Statesin Porto Rico in case of an emergency.

vested also with the appointment of certain insularofficers and with the power to grant pardons and toremit fines for offenses against the government. He was required to reside in the Island and to report annually to the President. He was

The Departments

Six members of the Executive Council performed executive functions as heads of departments as follows :

1. The Secretary of Porto Rico. 2. Attorney General. 3. Treasurer. 4. Auditor.

5. Department of the Interior. 6. Department of Education.

These executive officers were responsible to the President.


Judicial powers were vested in a Supreme Court composed of a chief justice and four assistant justices, appointed by the President subject to the approval of



the Senate, and in seven district courts whose presid ing justice was appointed by the Governor, subject to the approval of the Executive Council.

Each municipality also had its court whose judge was appointed by the Governor.

Appeals could be taken from the Supreme Court to the Boston Circuit Court and to the Supreme Court of the United States.

Municipal Governments

The Legislature was granted power to create, con solidate and reorganize the municipalities.

The Jones Act ( Approved March 2 , 1917 )

Legislature: This department is composed of two branches, the Senate and House of Representatives.

Senate: Composed of nineteen members all elected, two from each of seven districts , and five at large. Four-year term ; elected by qualified voters.

Qualifications: Candidates must be citizens of the United States, thirty years of age, able to read and write Spanish or English, must have resided for two years consecutively in Porto Rico and in the district one year.

House of Representatives : Composed of thirty nine members, all elected by the qualified voters. Thirty-five from districts (one each) and four at large. Four-yearQualificationsterm.:

Citizens of the United States, twenty - five years of age , able to read and write Spanish or English, one year's resident in the district.

Meetings: Ofthe Legislature, once everytwoyears


in a session of unlimited duration beginning the second Monday of February.

The Governor can call special sessions but for not more than ten days at a time. He must call a special session of the Senate during the year in which no session of the Legislature is provided.

Revenue Bills: Financial legislation must originate in the House of Representatives. The Governor sub mits a budget as a basis for the bi-annual appropria tions. If the Legislature fails to pass the appro priations necessary for the government, the appro priations authorized by the preceeding legislature will be automatically renewed for the following two years.

General Legislative Powers : These are the same as under the Foraker Act.

Veto Power: If bills are passed over the Gov ernor's veto by a two-thirds vote, he can refer them to the President who can sign them and make them laws, return them with objections or retain for ninety days, in which case they automatically become laws. Congress retains the power to annul all acts of the Insular Legislature.

Executive: The powers of the Governor are the same as under the Foraker Act. He appoints with the advice and consent of the Insular Senate the fol lowing department heads:

Commissioner of Interior.

Commissioner of Agriculture.

Commissioner of Health. The Treasurer. The Executive Secretary.


Also judges, fiscales, marshals and secretaries of all courts except those appointed by the President. The President of the United States appoints:

The Chief Justice and four Justices of the Supreme Court. The Attorney General.

The Commissioner of Education. The Auditor.

Other departments of government are as follows:

The Civil Service Commission. The University of Porto Rico. The Carnegie Library.

The Libraryis administeredbya BoardofTrustees,seven in number, including the Commissioner of Edu cation, the Commissioner of the Interior, the Chief Justice, ex officio, and four others appointed by theGovernor for a term of three years.

The Institute of Tropical Medicine (Uncinariasis). Board of Medical Examiners. Board of Pharmacy. Board of Dentistry, for licenses, etc.


Bythisorganicact allcitizensof Porto Ricobecome,ipso facto, citizens of the United States unless within six months they have declared their intention before acourt to remain citizens of Porto Rico.

Amendments to the Constitution of the United States

The organic act specifically delegated to the people of Porto Rico the decision as to whether they wished the 18th (Prohibition) Amendment to apply or not. At an election following the approval of the act, a


vote was taken which resulted in favor of applying the amendment.

The Supreme Court of the United States has de cided that Porto Rico is an organized but not an incorporated territory of the United States.

Until Congress declares the territory incorporated, it is not eligible for statehood, nor does the amend ment to the Constitution providing for woman suffrage apply. The Insular Government, however, may, by statute, so authorize, but has not done so.

Salaries of Officers of the Insular Government Governor $ 10,000

with the free use of the Fortaleza as an official residence and other perquisites.

Resident Commissioner in Washington: The same salary as members of Congress with an allowance of $ 500 per year for the expenses of travel and the franking privilege.

Department heads $ 5,000 Auditor 5,000

Elective members, Public Service Com mission, $ 8.00 per day duringsessions; total in any year not to exceed...... 400 Executive Secretary 4,000

Supreme Court, Chief Justice... 6,500 Justices 5,500

Salaries of the following are fixed by legislature :

District Court Justices

District Court, Marshals and Secretaries

Municipal Courts Justices

Municipal Courts Marshals and Secretaries

Justices of the Peace Bailiff and Secretary



U. S. District Court District Attorney Marshal

$ 5,000 3,5004,000



A catalogue of legislation favorable to labor since the establish lishment of civil government in 1900 Wages in 1924."

Labor Legislation Since Establishment of Civil Gov ernment, 1900

1. Regulating hours in public works.

2. Providing for sale of public lands to laborers.

3. Determiningthe procedure in cases ofclaims for wages by farm laborers against their employers.

4. Determining duties of employers in case of strikes.

5. Establishing a workmen's settlement in San Juan.

6. Providing for dispensary and minor surgeon in shops and factories.

7. Providing for construction of scaffolds.

8. Regulating weight to be carried by laborers.

9. Providing for the settlement of strikes and lockouts.

10. Establishing minimum wages for women and laborers in public works.

II. Regulating the work of women and children and protecting them against dangerous occupations.

12. Creating a homestead commission.

13. Reorganizing the Bureau of Labor.

Report of the Governor, 1924.

1 313


14. Regulating the employment of minors and pro viding for the compulsory attendance of children in school.

15. Protecting laborers in their right to be mem bers of labor organizations.

16. Regulating emigrations from Porto Rico.

17. Compelling employers to protect laborers in their homes.

18. Regulating the operation of cinematograph machines.

19. A workman's accident compensation act.

20. Relative to labor contracts.

21. Creation of a general employment agency.

22. A law creating a minimum wage for labor on public works.

23. Workmen's relief

San JuanandLarge Cities

Mechanics in government shops, 40c. to 50c. per hour. Mechanics, auxiliary, 300. to 35c. per hour.

Head carpenters, $7.00 per day.

Common carpenters, 45c. per hour.

Common carpenters' assistants, 35c. per hour.

Poorest carpenters, $2.50 per day.

First class masons, $6.00 to$8.00 per day.

Second class masons, $ 4.00 per day.

Poorest masons, $2.50 per day.

Painters, 50c. to 6oc. per hour.

Electricians, $ 4.00 to $ 5.00 per day.

Common laborers, $ 1.60 per day.

Foreman, $ 2.00 per day.

Truck drivers, $2.50 to $ 5.00 per day. Chauffeurs, $2.50 to 5.00 per day.


Longshoremen, $ 1.00 per day.

Domestic labor in San Juan, with room and board, $6.00 to $20.00 per month.

In the Island

Carpenters, $ 3.00 to $ 5.00 per day.

Masons, $ 4.00 to $ 5.00 per day. Poorest masons, $2.50 per day.

Painters, $ 2.50 per day.

Electricians, $ 4.00 to $ 5.00 per day. Electricians' assistants, $2.50 per day.

Plumbers, $ 3.00 to $4.00 per day. Laborers, $1.25 per day.

Ordinary laborers, $ 1.00 per day. Domestic labor with room and board, $3.00 to $6.00 per month.


Cane fields range from: Piece workers, $4.00 per day, to common laborers, $ 1.00 per day.

Locomotive and road drivers, $3.00 to $5.00 per day.

Coffee (house, land and bananas free): Dull season, 50c. per day; harvest, $ 1.00 per day; women , piece work, 5oc. per day.

Tobacco : Men, $ 1.00 per day; women, this year, 75c. per day; boys, 5oc. perday; cigar makers, $ 2.00 to$6.00 per day.




The ten largest cities: 71,443 41,912 19,124 12,149 10,411 10,039 7,053 6,571 48,716 35,005 16,563 10,354 5,272

The ten richest cities: valuation

Census San Juan Ponce Mayagüez Caguas . Bayamon Arecibo Guayama Aguadilla Yauco Fajardo 1920
9,6128,3216,135 6,0866,589
San Juan AreciboPonce Mayagüez. . Caguas RioSalinasPiedras GuayamaBayamon Guanica Assessed
(1923) $62,302,79124,718,87411,778,818 10,174,712 8,684,0657,289,849 7,157,875 6,255,0206,512,0006,434,246 316


A List ofBooks on Porto Rico. 1901. A. P. C. Griffin, Gov.Printing Office. Ensayo de Bibliographia Cubana de los Siglos XVII y XVIII (including also bibliography of Santo Domingo and Porto Rico). Carlos Manuel Trelles y Govin.


El Libro de Puerto Rico. (Printed in both Spanish and English on opposite pages, profusely illustrated, 1188 pp.)

Published in 1923. E. Fernandez Garcia, Editor; Francis W. Hoadley and Eugenio Astol, Co-Editors.

Note: This is the latest published expression of the Porto Rican point of view, both native and American resident. While it containsmuch which is of interest solely to residents, it includes also infor mation valuable to the general reader and many special articles ofpermanent value. The authors are residents of the island locally prominent in the field covered. Those articles which have been found most valuable for this work fall under the following heads: Agriculture, scientific and commercial Education Health Government and Politics General Conditions

Puerto Rico: Its Conditions and Possibilities. 1899. Wm. Dinwiddie. Puerto Rico and Its Resources. 1899. Fredk. Albion Ober. The Storied West Indies. 1900. F. A. Ober.

Note: Excellent chapter on Porto Rico. Cuba and Porto Rico. 1898. Robert W. Hill. OurIslands and Their People as Seen with Cameraand Pencil. 317


1899. (Porto Rico, Hawaii, Philippines.) Introduction by Maj. Gen. Jos. Wheeler. Descriptive matter by J. de Olivares.

Our New Possessions, Cuba, Porto Rico, Hawaii and the Philippines. 1899. Amer. Book Co.

Porto Rico of Today. 1899. Albert Gardiner Robinson. Our New Possessions. 1898. Trumbull White. Philippines and Our New Possessions (including Porto Rico). Wm. Jordan Seawright.

Our Island Empire. Handbook of Cuba, Porto Rico, Hawaii and the Philippines. 1899. Chas. Morris.

Porto Rico, the Land of the Rich Port. 1903. Jos. Bartlett

ImpressionsSeabury. of Porto Rico. 1904. N. Y. & Porto Rico S.S. Co.

America's Insular Possessions. 1906. Forbes-Lindsay. Territories and Dependencies of the U.S. Their Government and Administration. 1905. W. F. Willoughby.

Down in Porto Rico. 1906. Rev. Ed. 1910. Geo. Milton Fowles.

Present Conditions: Island of Porto Rico. 1906. Geo. Mil ton Fowles.

Hawaiian Islands and Porto Rico. 1913. Wm. D. Boyce. Porto Rico, Past and Present. Alpheus Hyatt Verrill. Porto Rico. Mentor Magazine, 1921. Dwight Elmendorf. Porto Rico. New International Encyclopedia. Porto Rico. Encyclopedia Britannica.


Cuba and Porto Rico, Topography, Climate, etc. 1898. Robert T. Hill. U. S. Geographical Survey. Century, 1898. Robert T. Hill. Economic Geography of Porto Rico. Robert T. Hill. Geologic Reconnaissance of Porto Rico. Chas. A. Berkey. Physical Condition of the Ocean. Address of Capt. W. J. L. Wharton, Pres. of Geologic Section, British Association, Geographical Journal, Aug. 9, 1894.


Island of Porto Rico, Geography and Geology. 1925. Claudio Capo.

Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. N. Y. Academy of Science, in 3 volumes. American Museum of Natural History, 1924.

Note: This is the latest and most authoritative survey of the islands.


Prehistoric Porto Rico, Articles and Addresses. 1902. Jesse Walter Fewkes.

Note: The archeological researches of Mr. Fewkes furnish the most valuable material available to the English reader.

Prehistoria de Puerto Rico and Segundo Viaje de Cristobal Colon. Dr. Cayetano Coll y Toste.

Note : The author of these two works is well known in the island politically as well as intellectually.

Isla de San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico. 1737. New edition with notes and new data by José Julian de Acosta y Calbo. Printed in P. R. in 1866. Fray Iñego Abbad y Lasierra.

Note: This is the standard authority for the early history of theIsland, but has not been translated.

Present State, Island of Porto Rico. 1838. Geo. Dawson Flinter.

Note: An interesting description of the Island in the early years of the 19th century with something of its previous history. It isconsidered an authority by later historians.

La Colonizacion de Puerto Rico: From the Discovery to the Time the Reversion to the Spanish Crown of the Rights Given Columbus, in 1534. Salvador Brau y Asensi.

Note: A careful study of the early documents. Not translated. Historia de Puerto Rico. 1904 . Salvador Brau (a school

Bibliotecahistory).Historica de Puerto Rico. 1854. With documents of the 15th, 16th, 17th and 18th centuries (in Spanish). Alejandro Tapia y Rivera. History of Porto Rico: From the Discovery to the American



Occupation. 1898. Van Middledyk. Published in 1903.

Note: This is the only history available in English. Como se Gobierna in Puerto Rico. 1886. Antonio Sendras y HistoriaBurin. de la Insurrecion de Lares. Perez Moris and I. Cueto y Gonzalez Quijano. America Las Antillas. 1898. Luis Florens Torres. De scripcion de la Isla de Puerto Rico. Cuban and Porto Rican Campaigns. 1898. Richard Harding Davis.

Lessons of the War with Spain. Capt. A. T. Mahan.

Account ofSomePast Military and Naval Operations Directed against Cuba and Porto Rico. 1900 . Chas. Herbert Stockton .

History of the Spanish War. Henry Cabot Lodge. La Guerra Hispano-Americana. 1922. Juan Bautista Perez y Soto.

La Guerra Hispano-Americana. 1902. Severo G. Nuñez. La Defensa Militar de Puerto Rico. 1898. Julio Cervera Baviera.

La Isla de Puerto Rico, Estudio Historico y Geographico. 1889. E. Sanchez.

A los Diez Años de Americanizacion. 1910. Vicente A. Balbas Capo. The Future of Porto Rico. 1914. Emilio del Toro.

Note: The author is the present chief Justice of the Island. Historia de Puerto Rico. 1925. In Spanish. Paul G. Miller, Note: Mr. Miller was for eight years Commissioner of Educa tion preceding the present administration.


U. S. Government Publications: Messages of the President and speeches in the Senate. Hearings before the Committees on Insular Affairs of the House and the Senate. Military Information Division. Military Notes on Porto Rico.



Census (as applied to Porto Rico), 1899, 1910, 1920. Report of the Island of Porto Rico (1900 ). Henry K. Carroll.

Labor Conditions in Porto Rico. U. S. Dept. of Labor. Insular Government Publications: Reports of Governors since 1900. Reports of Porto Rico Bureau of Information. Porto Rico Civics. 1922. Francisco Vizcarrondo.

Note: The author is the present secretary of the Department of Education .

El Libro de Puerto Rico: Articles on the Republican, Union of Porto Rico and Socialist Parties.

Suffrage and Self Government in Porto Rico. 1903. Percy Lewis Kaye.

Conditions in Porto Rico. Address delivered before the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 1905. Tulio Larriniaga.

The Problem of Porto Rico. An address delivered before the Lake Mohonk Conference in 1913. Jose de Diego. Combatiendo. 1922. Juan B. Huyke.

Note: The author is the present Commissioner of Education. Our Relations to the People of Cuba and Porto Rico. 1901. Orville Hitchcock Piatt.

Oradores Parlementarios de la Asambles Legislativa de Puerto Rico. Tomas Carrion. The United States and Porto Rico. 1904. L. S. Rowe.


U. S. Department of Agriculture Publications on Porto Rico. Insular Government Reports of the Bureau of Agriculture and Labor.

El Libro de Puerto Rico. Articles on Agriculture.

Note: A list of technical works in Spanish on Agriculture and allied subjects may be had from the Carnegie Library, San Juan,P. R.; Mr. O'Neill, Librarian.



Insular Government: Annual Reports of the Commissioner of Education.

Teachers' Manual for the Public Schools of Porto Rico ( Spanish and English ). Department of Education Bulletins: Home Economics. Elsie Mae Willsey. Problem of Teaching English to the People of Porto Rico. José Padin. Inauguration of the American School System in Porto Rico. 1905 and 1907. Sam'l McCune Lindsay. Published as Chap. XV of U. S. Com . of Educ. report for 1905. Re printed 1907. Wash. Gov't Printing Office. El Libro de Puerto Rico. Articles on Education. Education in Porto Rico. By Paul G. Miller, Commissioner, in the Biennial Survey of Education. 1916-1918. Vol. I. Also printed in Bulletin, 1919, No. 12.


Social Problems in Porto Rico. 1917. Fred K. Fleagle. Note: The author was dean of the University of Porto Rico at the time this work was published. Uncinariasis. Bailey K. Ashford, M.D. Public Health Bulletin. No. 138 1923. Tuberculosis Sur vey of the Island of Porto Rico. Surgeon J. G. Townsend.


Porto Rico: Dun's International Review . 1917 . H. F. OpportunitiesKupfer. in Porto Rico. 1904 . Insular Government Publication. Riviera of the West. Compiled by the Bureau of Information, Insular Government.



ABERCROMBIE, 44; failed to Ateneo Puertoriqueño, scientifictake San Juan in 1797. and literary society of SanAenemia Commission, 192. Juan, 27. Agriculture and Labor Depart- Atlantic Fruit Company steamers, ment, 255 . 291 .Insular Dept. of, 8o. Auditor, 256. U. S. Dept. of, 158. Automobiles, use of, 296.of Porto Rico , 112 , 120 . Autonomy, 99.Experiment Stations, 70, 71, 157. Chart, granted by Spain inAguada, town of, 14, 29, 30, 36. 1897, 56, 301.Aguadilla, city of, 22, 30.Aguas Buenas, Cave of, 7, 27. BAINTER, Dr. Edward G., ComAguebana, Cacique, 25, 30. missioner of Education, 231. Aguirre, sugar centrale, 124. Balance of Trade, 160. Aibonito, town of, 61, 62. Bananas, industry, 154.

Allen, Charles W., Governor, 69. Barbosa, José Celso, Pres. Repub Amendments to Constitution of lican Party, 60, 264. U. S. , 310. Barrio de Obreros, workmen's vil American Tobacco Company, 138. lage near San Juan, 114, 202. Amezqueta, Capt., 44 ; hero of at- Barrios, squatter, 113. tack by Dutch under Bowdoin Barcelo, Antonio R., Pres. Union Hendric. Party, 91, 103, 267.

Añasco, town of, 14, 34. Bayamon, city of, 31. Anegada Channel, 14. Benner, Dr. Thomas Eliot, Pres. Antillian Mountain chain, 3, 18. University of Porto Rico, 247. Appointments, Executive, 256. Berkey, Chas. P., Geological Sur Control of, 252.

Arawak tribe of South America, Bill of Rights, Jones Act, 251. 24. Boca Abana, supposed landing of Arecibo, city of, 15, 61. Juan Ponce, near Dorado, 31. Areitos, dances of the Borinquen, Bohio, typical hut, 26. 27 . Bomba, negro dance, 109. Armistice, 61. Borii, sorcerers of the Borinquen, Arroyo, port of, 16. 25 . Ashford, Dr. Bailey K. (Aenemia Borinquen, 23, 24, 28, 31, 32, 34,Commission ), 191.

Assessed Valuations, 1923, 316. National Anthem, 27. Association of Coffee Producers, Brooke, GeneralJohn R., Military 149. Governor, 1898, 61, 63, 64. vey, 8. 35 , 38 .


Brownson Deep, south of PortoRico, 2.

Brumbaugh, Dr. Martin E., istCommissioner of Education, 72 , 223 . Buccaneers,42.Budget,Insular, 275. Bull Insular Line, 293 . Bureau of Labor, 212. Burials, 109.

CABO ROJO, town of, center ofhat industry, 13, 26, 194.

Cacique, title of Borinquen chief, 22 , 26 , 107 .

Caguas, city of, center of tobacco industry, 7.

Campos, Gen. Martinez, SpanishGeneral in Cuba , 58 .

Cane, varieties of, 130. Canal, Panama, 17. Cannibals, accusation that Borin quen were , 21 . Caparra, capital established by Juan Ponce, 31, 35, 36.

Caribs, prehistoric tribe of Windward Islands, 21, 24-26, 28, 34, 35 , 38 , 43 .

Carnival, annual celebration of,

I1O .

Casinos, 299. Caves, 7. Centrales, sugar, 123.Centrifugal mill, sugar, 122, 132.Ceron, Juan, second Governor of colony, 33, 34. Cerros, Knobs" or rounded hills, 6 .

Cervera, Admiral, in command of Spanish Aeet, 1898, 60. Chanca, Dr., Columbus' secretary, 21 . Channels between the islands of the Caribbean, 4.Charity as practised in the Island, 186 .

Children, homeless, 179, 197. Ciales, caves at, 27.Citizenship, 74, 261, 310.

Civil Government, 68. Clark, Dr. Victor S., Director ofEducation under MilitaryGovernment, 225.

Class, dominant, 107.Climate, 11. Clubs, Coamo299.,Hot Springs, 8. Coayuco, battle of, 33. Cock-fighting, 116.Coffee districts, 146. Coffee industry, 82, 115, 143, 276, 277 .College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, 244 . Coll y Cuchi, Dr. Cayetano, Com missioner to U. S., 88 . Colored, reduction in population of, 181 . Colton, Gov. George R., 80, 154.Columbus, Christopher, 20, 23, 25, 27 , 30, 32 .Columbus, Diego, 32, 37. Commerce, external, 276. Commerce, growth of, 52, 54 , 82 .

Commissioner, resident in U. S., 253 . Conquistadores, 45.Conrundum ore, II . Convention, Miramar, of UnionParty, 88.Coral Polyp, 4. Corozal, town of, 1o. Cortez, Fernando, Conqueror of Peru, 37 Courts, 257. Court, U. S. District, 258. Court, Supreme, 271.Crime, Crisman193.,Brig. Gen. Edw., Com mander Camp Las Casas,World War, 92. Cuba , 57. Cuchillos, ridges, 6. Cuisine, Porto Rican, ui, 116. Culebra, Island of, 16, 38.Cumberland, Lord George, whocaptured San Juan, 40.


DAVILA, Felix Cordova, Commissioner resident in U. S., 101 .

Davis, Gen. George W., Military Governor of Porto Rico, 66.Davis, Richard Harding, Spanish war correspondent, 62.De la Torre, Don Miguel, Commissioner to Spain, 54.

Delinquency, juvenile, 195.Denby, Edw. G., Secretary of Navy, 102.

Depew, Senator C. M., 79. Dewey, Admiral George, capturedManila, P. I., 60. Dexter, Dr. E. G., Commissioner of Education, 230.

Diputacion Provincial, 1871, 55.

Discovery of Porto Rico, 20.Diseases of cane, 131.

Dixie, U. S. S., Spanish war, 61 .

Domenica, Island of, 20. Domenech, Manuel V., Commis sioner of Interior, 85 .

Drake captures San Juan, 40.Drawn-work industry, 175.

Dress , Porto Rican , 116 .

EARTHQUAKES, 14.Economics, Home, teaching of, 240 .

Education, 72, 83, 220, 225, 255, 287.list of Commissioners of, 233. Emigration, Employment174.,Government agencyof, Encomiendas223., system of distributing natives to the Spanish conquerors, 32 . English, teaching of, 230.knowledge of, 249. composition, 236. Enseñada, port of, 16.Españiola or Hispaniola, island of, 20, 22, 29, 30, 33, 44.Esquivel, Juan, Conqueror of Jamaica, 30.

Esteves, Commissioner of Interior, 96 , 98 .Executive Council, 253. Expediente de sangre, statement as to color, 46. Exports to U. S., 290. to foreign countries, 290.

FAJARDO, city and port of, 16. sugar Centrale, 125. Falkner , Dr. Roland M. , Commis sioner of Education, 229. Family life, 177, 214. Farms, model, 158. ownership of, 170.

Federal Party , 72 , 73 . -Union Party, 265 . Farm- loan Act, 141 .

Intermediate Credit Act, 141. Departments, 259. Ferdinand, King, 32, 34, 36, 47.Fertilizers, 129. Fewkes, J. Walter, anthropolo gist, 23. Finance , 288 .

Department of, 254.Flinter, Col. George Dawson, his torian, 1838; Introduction, 49, 55 .

Food of natives , 213 , 217 . Foraker Act , 68 , 304 . Amendment , 78 . Forestry, 159. Forteleza of San Juan, 39, 44. Free Trade with U. S., 69. Fruit industry, 82, 151, 278. Fruits, native, 111.

GAMA, Antonio de la, Judge Commissioner from Spain to Colony, 37. Garcia de Salazar, Martin, Lieu tenant of Juan Ponce, 29.Garcia, General of Cuban Insur rectos, 58 .Geography, physical and politi cal, Gloucester14., U. S. S. S., Spanish war, 60,


Gold, mining of, 10, 34, 39. Gomez, Maximo, Gen. of CubanInsurrectos, 58.

Government as at present, 251 . Governor elective, 99.

Powers of, 253.

Election of, 263. Guadalupe, island of, 21, 22.Guaguas, jitney busses, 296. Guarim , Borinquen decoration, 25. Guayama, port of, 13, 16.Guanahani, Island of, 20.Guanica, city of and bay of, 33, 61 .

Centrale, 30, 124. Guaraca de Guayaney, BorinquenChief, 31. Gulf Stream, 5. Gutierrez, Dr. Pedro, AenemiaCommission, 192.Guzman, Pedro de, Spanish con queror, 40 .

HAITI, 17, 27, 48, 53. Hammock, native, 116. Harding, President, 95. Hat industry, 160, 175 . Hawkins, Capt. John, Drake's Lieutenant, 40. Health, 83, 287.


178, 212.

Illiteracy, 219, 227, 247. Imports from U. S., 290. Indebtedness, Insular, 276. Industries, more diversified, 174. Inquisitor General of the Indies, Alonzo Manzo, 1518 , 37. Insular Affairs, Com. on, of Con gress, 86.

Bureau of, War Dept., 80. Insurrectos, Cuban , 58 , 59 . Interior, Insular Department of, 254. International Health Board in Porto Rico, 190, 192. Irrigation, 13, 83, 130, 275.

JAYUYA, highest peak in Porto Rico, 15. Jibaro, typical farm laborer, 23, 45 , 47, 208 . Jobos, port of, near Guayama, 16 . Jones, Wm . A., Chairman Com mittee Insular Affairs,

Department of, 255. and Sanitation, 186. Henry, Gen. Guy V., Military Governor, Dec., 1898, 61, 64. Hill, Robt. T., Geological Survey, on 2 .

Homestead legislation, 173. Honda, port of, 16. Horses for mountain trails, 297. Hotels, rates of, etc., 298. Houses, plantation, 219. Housing, 202, 213, 218. Hunt, Gov. Wm. H., 69. Hurricanes, 37, 43, 65. San Ciriaco, 1898, 144. Hut, typical, 115.

IGLESIAS, Santiago, President Socialist Party, 80, 104, 267.

House of Representatives, 89. Jones Act, organic law of Porto Rico, 76, 85, 86, 89, 308. Justice, Insular Department of, 254 , 285 .

KING, Dr. W. , of the Aenemia Commission, 192.

LABOR, 81, 83, 84, 121, 123, 137, 173 , 313 . Legislation, 279. Lakes, names of, 15. Land, distribution of, 170.Language, policy of bi-lingual de velopment, 98.

Las Casa, Father, Jesuit Commis sioner to Colony of San Juan Bautista, 22, 31, 36, 47.

Camp for National Army, World War, 92.

La Souffriere, volcano, Island of Guadalupe, 20.Legislature, Powers of, 251.


Lee, Fitzburg, U. S. ConsultoCuba, Spanish war, 58. Leper Colony, Culebra Island, 187. Lindsay, Dr. Samuel McCune,Commissioner of Education, 72 , 229 .

Lippitt, Dr. W. F., Commissioner of Health, 96.Literacy, 52. Live-stock, industry, 156. Living, cost of, 295. Louisiana, emigration from, 51.Loyalty of Porto Ricans to fam ily, 108.

Luquillo range, 10. town of, 12.Lykes Line of steamships, 294.

MACEO, General of Cuban In surrectos, 1898 , 58 . Maine, U. S. S. S., blown up inHavana Harbor, 1898, 58. Malaria, 190.Mameye, mining at, 10. Manganese ore, mining of, 11.Manila, capitulation of, 60. Manzo, Bishop Alonzo, Commis sioner from Spain to colony, 36 .

Marie Galante, Island of, 20. Marriage, customs as to, 177. Marque, letters of, 42.Mayor Soto, Lieutenant of Juan Ponce, 33 . Mayagüez, city of, 14, 15. McKinley, President, 58, 69, 70.Mediation and Conciliation, Com mission of, 223 . Mediterranean, American, 1, 18. Miles , Gen. Nelson A. , Com mander expeditionary force which invaded Porto Rico 1898 , 60, 62 .

Miller, Dr. Paul G., Commis sioner of Education , 231 . Military Government, 64, 304. Road , 115 , 117. Road auto busses, 296.

Militia under Spain, 1823 to 1870, 55 . Minerals, 1o. Mining at Barrio Negros andPalos Blancos, 10.Minor crops, 155 . Missions, Catholic, Lutheran, Methodist, Presbyterian, 203.Mona Channel, 14. Monroe Doctrine, 18. Montesinos, Father, Jesuit, Commissioner from Spain to col ony San Juan Bautista, 36.Mortality, 187 infant, 189. Moscovado sugar mills (Spanish type), 122, 133. Muertos , cave of, 8 . Municipal hospital, 205.

NATIONAL GUARD, establish ment of in Porto Rico, 1916, 94 Navy, U. S., study of sea bottom, I.

New York and Porto Rico S. S. Co. schedules and rates, 291 . Noises, prevalence of, 109. Nurses, visiting, etc., 201. Nursing, Public Health, 205.

OLMSTED Bill, introduced in Congress to supply a means for becoming citizens of U. S. to Porto Ricans, 86. Ortiz, Dr., Insular Commissioner of Health, 1923, 98. Orinico River, supposed cradle of the Borinquen, 23. Ownership of land, law limiting, 161 .

Ovando, Governor of Españiola, 30, 33 Overseas office, Spanish, 53.

PASSAGES to Caribbean, 17. Peru, discovery of, 39. Pictography, of Borinquen, 27.Pineapples, growing of, 153.


Pinzon, Vicente Yañez, appointedfirst Governor of San Juan Bautista, 29, 156.

Playa, Port of Ponce, 16. Plaza San José, San Juan, where statue of Juan Ponce stands, 38 .

Political status, present, 262. Police, Insular, 75, 193, 260.Ponce de Leon, Juan, first Gov ernor of San Juan Bautista, 30 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 156 . Ponce, city of, 6, 16, 61. Population, 50, 51, 52, 212, 287, 316 .

Porto Rico-American S. S. Line, 294 . Post, Governor Regis H., 73. Poverty, 184. Power, Don Ramon , Porto Rico representative to Spain, made President of Cortes, 50. Prohibition, agitation for andadoption of amendment to Constitution, 112, 165, 198, 262 .

Puerta de Tierra , suburb of San Juan , 113 , 171 . Public Service Commission, 254. Puertoriqueños, origin of, 45.Pujitas, cave of, 7.

RACE and color distribution, 168. Railroads in Porto Rico , 294 . Rainfall, 12. Ramirez, Treasurer of the Island, 1810, 51.

Red Cross, American, 93, 204. Junior, 180, 206. Red D. Line of steamships, sched ules and rates, 293 . Regiment,PortoRican provisional, 75 , 92 .

Reily, Governor E. Mont, 95. Republican Party, 72, 74, 76, 79, 86 , 90 , 96 , 101 , 263 .

Revenues, Insular, 252, 275.Ripartimientos, distribution of


natives among Spanish Conquerors, 29, 32. Rivera, Muñoz de, President Union Party, 86, 88, 266.Rivers, 13, 15. Roads, 275 , 287 . feeder, 148 . Roosevelt, President, 73, 74, 261.Rossy, Manuel, President Republican Party, 264.

SALARIES of Government Offi cers , 311 .

Sampson , Admiral with United States fleet, bombarded San Juan, 1898, 60.

San Cristobal, Fort of, at SanJuan, 40.

San German Polytechnic School, 204 . town of, 36, 39, 44.

San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico, 22 . San Juan, city and port of, 15, 30, 31 , 37, 40 , 54 , 63 .

Santa Maria de Monserrate,Island of, 21. Santo Domingo, Island of, 17, 48. Savings accounts, increase of, 186.Sanz, Governor, 1868, 53.

Schedule of Grace, 1815 . Act granting freedom of com merce to Colony, 47, 51.

Schools: Charity, 243.Consolidated, 239. Demonstration, 238 . Industrial, 241. Lunches in, 241 . Rural , 232, 237 . University Normal, 245.Sierra, de Luquillo, de Cayey, 6. Sigsbee, Captain of U. S. S. S. Maine, 1898, 59.

Slavery, Negro, 47, 48 . Socialist Party, 80, 101, 267.

Social Welfare, Bureau of, 201. Soils, 128.


Soto, José Tous, President Repub- VALLADOLID , ordinancesof,unlican Party, 265. der King Ferdinand, 35.Spanish war, 57. Valuations, assessed, 276.Spanish as teaching medium, 227. Velasquez, Sancho, Secretary ofStatistics, comparative, 287. Colony, 1515, 35, 37.

Status, political, Supreme Court Vieques, Island of, 38. decisions, 90, 101. Virgin Islands, 14, 16, 43. Storms, 13 . S. S. Line, 294. Suffrage, 65, 72, 87, 89. Viscaya, Spanish battleship, 1898,Sugar industry, 82, 114, 122, 127, 59 . 277 . Vocational training, 231.Producers' Association, 135. Volcanic origin of Antilles, 2.

TAFT, President, 77. Tanner Deep, north of Porto Rico, 3 . Tariff, United States, as applied to Porto Rico, 126. Taxation, 276, 288. Telephones and telegraphs, 287. Temperatures, 12.Thermal Springs, 9. Tobacco, industry, 82, 135, 278. Growers' Association, 140.Towner, Governor Horace M., 91 , 97 , 102 , 105 . Townshend, Lt. Col. O. P. Com mandant Las Casas Camp, 1917 , 92 .Trade winds, 4. Trade, external, 288.Travieso, Martin, Insular Secre tary and Mayor of San Juan, 85 , 285 . Tuberculosis, survey of island, 188 . Trails, 297.

UNCINARIASIS (hookworm), Bureau of, 192 . treatment of, 191. Unemployment, 172, 210, 224. Unionist Party, 86, 266.University ofPorto Rico, 244.Board of Trustees, 247.

WAGES, 185, 214, 278, 314. Wage, minimum, 223. Wealth, per capita, 185. Weeks, John W., Secretary of War, 68 , 102 . Weyler, General Valeriano, Spanish General in Cuba, 1898, 58.

Wilson, President, 85. Wilson, General, invasion of Porto Rico, 1898, 61, 62. Wilson, Major John A., InsularCommissioner of Interior, 93, 96 . Windward Islands, 43.Winthrop, Governor Beekman, 73 .

Woman suffrage, amendment, 263.Women, minimum wage for, 183.Workman's Relief Commission, 223 .

World War, Porto Rico's participation, 92.

YABUCOA, town of, 31. Yager, Governor Arthur, 85. Y. M. C. A. in San Juan, 204. Yunque, El, second highest peak in Porto Rico, 5, 15, 26.

ZEMI, Borinquen idols of wood or stone, 25 .

1 1 1 1


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