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CONTENTS Foreword Acknowledgements Note to the Reader Note on Transliteration Note on Iconographic References List of Abbreviations Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Conversation between Nina and Nikita Lobanov-Rostovsky and John E. Bowlt, London, 25 September, 2010

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 38

RUSSIAN STAGE DESIGN 1880-1930

I.

II.

Preamble

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Between East and West

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Imperial Predilections Eclecticism and the Russian Stage The Tradition of Russian Folk Culture The "Style Russe"

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The Silver Age The World of Art: towards Artistic Synthesism The Designers of the Ballets Russes Alexandre Benois and Léon Bakst Natalia Goncharova and Mikhail Larionov: “What imagination!” Streamlining the Ballets Russes Intimate Theater in St. Petersburg and Moscow The Cabaret Theater The Bat (Chauve-Souris) The Blue Bird (Der Blaue Vogel) The Stray Dog The Café Pittoresque The Blue Blouse

III.

The Avant-Garde A Brazen Can-Can in the Temple of Art Exhibitionism: from the Jack of Diamonds to the Pink Lantern Victory over the Sun The Dynamic Use of Immobile Form: the Art of Alexandra Exter Centrifuge: the Avant-Garde in the Ukraine, Georgia, and Armenia

IV.

Theater of Revolution Deprivation and Dispersal Mass Action: from Surface to Space The Constructivists: "Urbanistic, Formalistic, Jazzbandistic" Socialist Realism and Beyond

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102 102 112 112 122 134 138 154 158 162 164 166 168 172 172 178 180 188 196 206 206 212 220 240


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Glossary of Terms and Acronyms 0.10: Short title of the "Last Futurist Exhibition of Paintings, 0.10" held in Petrograd in 1915-16 with contributions by Kliun, Popova, Pougny, Rozanova, Tatlin et al. This was also the first public showing of Malevich's Suprematism. 5 x 5 = 25: Exhibition in Moscow in 1921 at which Exter, Popova, Rodchenko, Stepanova, and A. Vesnin contributed five works each. Generally regarded as a major development in the history of Constructivism. Academy of Arts: See Imperial Academy of Arts AKhRR: Assotsiatsiia khudozhnikov revoliutsionnoi Rossii (Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia). Founded in 1922 by A. Grigoriev, Katsman and other artists who supported the style of Heroic Realism. Functioned primarily as an exhibition society based in Moscow. In 1928 changed its name to AKhR (Assotsiatsiia khudozhnikov revoliutsii -- Association of Artists of the Revolution). Disbanded in 1932. Apollo: Title of an art and literary journal (Apollon) published by S. Makovsky in St. Petersburg 1909-17 (last issues appeared in 1918). Apollo published articles and exhibition reviews dealing with the new art and also organized exhibitions in its editorial offices. Askranov: Assotsiatsiia krainikh novatorov (Association of Extreme Innovators). Founded in Moscow in 1919 by Drevin, Gan, Rodchenko, and Stepanova. Blue Rose (Golubaia roza): Group of Moscow and Saratov Symbolist artists consisting of P. Kuznetsov, Sapunov, Sudeikin et al. Held one exhibition in Moscow in 1907. CafĂŠ Pittoresque: A bohemian cafĂŠ and cabaret founded in Moscow in 1917. Functioned for only a few months. Interior design by Yakulov, assisted by Rodchenko, Udaltsova et al. Central Stroganov Industrial Art Institute: (also known as the Central Stroganov Institute of Technical Drawing), Moscow. After 1917 it merged with the Moscow Institute of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture to form Svomas (q.v.). Comintern: Communist International. Unification of Communist Parties worldwide through debate and convocation. Tatlin designed his Tower for the III International in Moscow in 1919. Contemporary Trends (Sovremennye techeniia): Exhibition organized by Kulbin in St. Petersburg in 1908. D. Burliuk, Lentulov et al. took part. Donkey's Tail (Oslinyi khvost): Group organized by Larionov in 1911. Held one exhibition in Moscow in 1912 with contributions by Goncharova, Larionov, Malevich, Shevchenko et al. 22


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11. LĂŠon Bakst: Costume Design for a Male Dancer Holding a Tambourine in the "Danse Juive," ClĂŠopatre, 1910 (No. 77)

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create again newly conceived objects... We are reminded of the covenants of our forefathers... The degrees of higher and lower become more pliable.28

The surviving photographs of the exterior and interior of the buildings at Talashkino indicate that Tenisheva, Roerich, and their colleagues such as Maliutin, Shchekatikhina-Pototskaia, and Vrubel, tried to realize this stylistic synthesis by designing the furniture, wall decorations, and utensils according to a common denominator. The workshops for embroidery and woodcarving that Tenisheva subsidized seemed also to operate according to the same uniform principle, i.e. they reproduced folk art that was interpreted and “modernized”29 by a professional artist, whether Roerich, Maliutin or Tenisheva herself. Folk tradition, stylistic totality, ornament, and artistic integration were important components of the Abramtsevo and Talashkino theaters. True, Tenisheva did not have a private opera and her theater was of modest dimensions (seating only 200), but she ensured that the dramatic repertoire consisted of Russian titles based on legends and fables and that they were acted by peasants — one example being the opera The Tale of the Dead Tsarevna and the Seven Bogatyrs. Tenisheva also founded a balalaika orchestra, inviting Vrubel and other artists to decorate the sounding boards of the instruments. Not surprisingly, both Tenisheva and Mamontov introduced personal concepts of peasant culture into their enterprises, linking these with the conventions of professional, high theater, and thereby creating the kind of amalgam that was later developed by Diaghilev in productions such as the Polovtsian Dances (Ill. 177; No. 880), Le Sacre du Printemps (No. 882), Le Coq d’Or (Ill. 87; Nos. 534-40), Soleil de Nuit (Ills. 122-23; Nos. 703-04), and Contes Russes (Ill. 127; Nos. 711-13). The panels, costumes, and sets that they commissioned may have incorporated siren birds and ears of wheat, but they were painted by studio artists conversant with the ideas of Art Nouveau (e.g., No. 1156); the themes they selected may have involved village maidens, monsters, and witches, but the key prop was no longer the imagination of the sympathetic crowd of villagers or humble townsfolk, but a mechanical complex that changed scenes, dropped curtains, and modified lighting. Above all, the audiences of Mamontov’s opera and Tenisheva’s theater included literati, students, critics, and professional artists who, through this conspiracy of methods, were encouraged to view the presentation not as a rowdy entertainment, but rather as an esthetic experience. Abramtsevo and Talashkino “beautified” peasant culture, making it palatable to the urbane consumer. To some extent, they also anesthetized it — just as did Nikolai Drizen and Nikolai Evreinov and their artists such as Evgenii Lanceray with Medieval dramaturgy at their Antique Theater in St. Petersburg in 1907-12 (Nos. 693, 694), or as did Diaghilev with his Ballets Russes.

28 N. Roerich: Realm of Light, New York: Roerich Museum Press, 1931, pp. 299-301. On Talashkino see M. Tenisheva: Vpechatleniia moei zhizni, Paris: Russkoe Istorikogenealogicheskoe obshchestvo vo Frantsii, 1933; L. Zhuravleva: Kniaginia Mariia Tenisheva, Smolensk: Poligramma, 1994; A. Shkurko et al.: Kniagina Mariia Tenisheva v zerkale Serebrianogo veka. Catalog of exhibition at the State Historical Museum, Moscow, 2008; and K273. For general discussion of the folk art revival in Russia see B202. 29. C. de Danilowicz: “Art Décoratif Russe Ancien. Collection de la Princesse Marie Tenicheff” in L'Art Décoratif, Paris, 1907, December, p. 145.

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56. Mstislav Dobujinsky: Costume Designs for Two Cossacks Flirting with Two Girls, Platov's Cossacks in Paris, 1926 (No. 430)

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developed by the Constructivists — than Larionov’s histrionic, but still pictorial, decorations. Malevich and Tatlin were very different artists and their early involvement in the theater, i.e. The Emperor Maximilian and His Disobedient Son Adolf of 1911-12 with designs by Tatlin and Victory over the Sun of 1913 with designs by Malevich demonstrated their distinctive approaches. Essentially, the simple narrative of The Emperor, edited by the Cubo-Futurist poet Kamensky (cf. Ill. 23738; Nos. 1144-47), and the partly zaum libretto written by Alexei Kruchenykh (see No. 684) for Victory over the Sun, had little in common; however, both pieces advanced or at least pointed towards the notion of Bühnenarchitektur, of a threedimensional, kinetic, interactive totality. Tatlin designed his costumes for The Emperor (No. 1014) before his momentous discovery of Picasso’s reliefs in Paris in 1914,130 but even so, he already expressed a spatial, volumetrical sensation in this spectacle, while relying substantially on the attributes of the balagan. By the time he came to work on his second major commission, A Life for the Tsar (Ivan Susanin) (Ill. 203; Nos. 1015-16) in the winter of 1913, Tatlin’s definition of stage design was a more dynamic, more architectural one. His emphasis on a spiralic structure, as in the costumes for the peasant girl, provides his composition with an emphatic vertical impulse and continuum — something less apparent in a Benois or Dobujinsky of the same period. Tatlin’s attempt to “put the eye under the control of touch”131 was especially evident in his sets for both The Emperor and A Life for the Tsar. The “Gothic” architecture for the former and the pyramidal construction of the forest for the latter pointed towards certain Constructivist designs of the 1920s, e.g. towards Tatlin’s own resolution of Velimir Khlebnikov’s Zangezi in 1923 and Isaak Rabinovich’s sets foregrounding Exter’s costumes for Aelita in 1924 (Ills. 66-68; Nos. 465-69). Moreover, as the critic Auslender noted, there seemed to be a sincere effort to integrate actor and audience in The Emperor : footlights were absent and actors passed freely from stage to audience, a procedure reminiscent of the cabaret routine.132 The productions of The Emperor in St. Petersburg and Moscow alluded to design possibilities without fully exploring them. A greater force was needed to bring about a “complete fracture of concepts and words... antiquated décor, and... musical harmony”;133 and just such a force was provided by the opera Victory over the Sun staged in St. Petersburg in December, 1913, one of the two “First Futurist Spectacles in the World” as we see from Rozanova’s poster (No. 891). This Cubo-Futurist balagan with prologue by Khlebnikov and libretto by Kruchenykh, music by Mikhail Matiushin, and designs by Malevich narrated how a band of Futurist strongmen set out to conquer the sun. The text drew substantially on zaum (although the end result was fairly comprehensible), the music was chromatic and dissonant, and the designs were caricatural, exaggerating the salient characteristics of this or that character (e.g. Ill. 153; No. 779). Malevich’s costume designs are drawn mostly in profile and they seem to derive more from children’s cut-out and stick figures than from sophisticated

130 See A. Strigalev: “Vladimir Tatlin” in Arkhitektura SSSR, M, 1985, November-December, No. 6, pp. 86-93. 131 This was Tatlin’s slogan in 1913. In 1920 he replaced it by “Via the exposure of material towards the new object.” Both slogans appear on the last page (unnumbered) of N. Punin: Tatlin (Protiv kubizma), P: IZO NKP, 1921. 132 S. Auslender: “Vecher Soiuza molodezhi” in Russkaia khudozhestvennaia letopis, SP, 1911, No. 4, p. 10. 133 M. Matiushin in Futuristy. Pervyi zhurnal russkikh futuristov, M, 1914, No. 1-2, p. 157.

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113. Konstantin Korovin: Stage Design for a Square in Novgorod, Sadko, 1912 (No. 642)

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4. Rayism (also known as Rayonism, 1912-14) Allegedly, one of the first variants of non-figurative art (out of perhaps three or four). Rayism is based on an attempt to identify artistic form with the movement of light rays emanating from objects and to express the linear dynamism of the pictorial plane. The object is not presented in its apparent visual form, but is composed of parallel, convergent, and interpenetrating rays. These in turn derive from the radiations of the objects as seen by the painter. According to Larionov, a Rayism painting is also intended to convey the sensation of the fourth dimension. Theoretician: M. Larionov: Luchizm (M, 1913). Principal representatives: Goncharova, Larionov, Le-Dantiu, Romanovich, Shevchenko. Examples: Larionov, Nos. 705, 713. 5. Cubo-Futurism (1912-16) The combination of Cubism with the basic Futurist principle, i.e. the visual representation of motion in time. (In their essential forms, French Cubism and Italian Futurism were not practised widely in Russian art.) In other words, this principle advocates the combination in one picture of several stages of movement or of sequential views of objects. Both provide the pictorial composition with a dynamic form. Theoreticians: D. Burliuk, Rozanova: various articles. See the miscellanies Poshchechina obshchestvennomu vkusu (M, 1912); Sadok sudei No. 2 (M, 1913). Principal representatives: Burliuks, Malevich, Popova, Pougny, Rozanova, Tatlin, Udaltsova. Examples: Bogomazov, No. 389; Meller, No. 795; Pougny, Ill. 173, (No. 850); Yakulov, Ill. 239, No. 1158. 6. Suprematism (1915-early 1920s) One of the primary categories of non-figurative painting. The painter uses simple geometric forms, covering the pictorial surface with minimal geometric units — the square, the circle, the cross, the triangle — painted in contrasting colors. These elements are presented, as it were, “in infinity,” and in free interrelationships, independent of the laws of gravity. Theoretician: K. Malevich: Ot kubizma i futurizma k suprematizmu (P, 1915). Principal representatives: Chashnik, Chervinka, Kliun, Kudriashev, Lissitzky, Malevich, Pougny, Rozanova, Suetin. Examples: Chervinka, Nos. 405-06; Kudriashev, No. 683; Lissitzky, Ill. 144, (No. 762). 7. Constructivism (1921 onwards) The development of studio painting into an artistic and mechanical approach in which function determines form. There is a tendency to show the structural elements of form and the composition of materials. Consequently, Constructivism finds its most concrete expression in architecture and industrial design. In the field of stage design its manifestation is evident in multifaceted constructions occupying the entire stage. These are often enhanced by the application of mechanically moved components. Theoretician: A. Gan: Konstruktivizm (Tver, 1922). Principal representatives: Gabo, Klutsis, Lissitzky, Medunetsky, Popova, Rodchenko, G. and V. Stenberg, Stepanova, Tatlin, Telingater, A. Vesnin, Yakulov. Examples: Exter, Ills. 72, 73, Nos. 474, 476, 478; Rodchenko, No. 875; Vialov, Ills. 236-238, (Nos. 1143, 1145, 1147).

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159. Vera Mukhina: Costume Design for Bertrand, the Knight of Misfortune, The Rose and the Cross, ca. 1916 (No. 800)

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165. Liubov Popova: A Second Costume Design for the Dunderhead Servant without Hat, The Tale of the Country Priest and His Dunderhead Servant, ca. 1920 (No. 841)

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166. Liubov Popova: Costume Design for the Priest’s Daughter, The Tale of the Country Priest and His Dunderhead Servant, ca. 1920 (No. 842)

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73. I. Annenkov: La révolution derrière la porte, Paris: Lieu Commun, 1987. 74. A. Deich: Po stupeniam vremeni, K: Mistetstvo, 1988. 75. M. Tenisheva: Vpechatleniia moei zhizni, L: Iskusstvo, 1991 (reprint of the Paris edition of 1929). 76. G. Kostaki: Moi avangard, M: Modus graffiti, 1993. 77. Yu. Bakhrushin: Vospominaniia, M: Khudozhestvennaia literatura, 1994. 78. N. Zubkova, ed.: D.D. Burliuk. Fragmenty iz vospominanii futurista, SP: Pushkinskii fond, 1994. 79. S. Gollerbakh: Moi dom, Paris: Albatros, 1994. 80. V. Kurdov: Pamiatnye dni i gody, SP: Arsis, 1994. 81. I. Danilova, ed.: M. Alpatov: Vospominaniia, M: Iskusstvo, 1994. 82. I. Kozhevnikova, comp.: Uroki postizheniia. Khudozhnik Varvara Bubnova. Vospominaniia, stati, pisma, M: Istina i zhizn, 1994. 83. G. Kozintsev: “Chernoe, likhoe vremia.....”, M: Artist. Rezhisser. Teatr, 1994. 84. O. Tsinger: Gde v gostiakh, a gde doma, Paris: Albratros and Moscow: Moskovskaia palitra, 1994. 85. J. Bowlt, ed.: The Salon Album of Vera Sudeikin-Stravinsky, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995. 86. N. Tamrazov: Galereia, M: Kh.G.S., 1995. 87. A. Beniaminov: Artist bez grima. Vospominaniia, Tenafly, New Jersey: Hermitage, 1995. 88. V. Nikitina: Dom oknami na zakat, Vospominaniia, M: Semeinyi arkhiv, 1996. 89. J. Rubenstein, trans.: Tangled Loyalties. The Life and Times of Ilya Ehrenburg. New York: Basic Books, 1996. 90. V. Marquardt, ed.: Survivor from a Dead Age. The Memoirs of Louis Lozowick, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian, 1997. 91. E. Chukovskaia, ed.: Chukokkala, M: Premiera, 1999. 92. G. fon Mekk: Kak ya ikh pomniu, M: Sytin, 1999. 93. A. Shchegolev: Vospominaniia. Dokumenty, Omsk: Omskii dom pechati, 1999. 94. L. Utesov: Spasibo, serdtse!, M: Vagrius, 1999. 95. E. Kovtun, intro.: Pavel Filonov. Dnevniki, SP: Azbuka, 2000. 96. P. Gnedich: Kniga zhizni. Vospominaniia 1855-1918, M: Agraf, 2000. 97. G. Chugunov, ed.: M.V. Dobuzhinsky. Pisma, SP: Bulanin, 2001. 98. T. Khvostenko: Vechera na Maslovke bliz Dinamo. Zabytye imena, M: Olimpiia Press, 2003. 99. T. Khvostenko: Vechera na Maslovke bliz Dinamo. Za fasadom proletarskogo iskusstva, M: Olimpiia Press, 2003. 100. N. Lobanov-Rostovsky: “Vospominaniia (Zapiski kollektsionera)” in Pamiatniki kultury. Novye otkrytiia, M: Nauka, 2003, pp. 64-280. 101. I. Vydrin and V. Tretiakov, comps.: Stepan Petrovich Yaremich, SP: San iskusstv, 2005 (two volumes). 102. A. Chegodaev: Moia zhizn i liudi, kotorykh ya znal: Vospominaniia, M: Zakharov, 2006. 103. D. Likhachev: Vospominaniia, M: Logos, 2006. 104. A. Kats, ed.: Serafima Rudneva: Vospominaniia schastlivogo cheloveka, M, 2007. 105. V. Vanslov: Pod seniu muz. Vospominaniia i etiudy, M: Pamiatniki istoricheskoi mysli, 2007. 106. R. Polchaninov: Molodezh russkogo zarubezhia: Vospominaniia, 1941-1951, Munich: Posev, 2009. 107. N. Lobanov-Rostovsky: Epokha-Sudba-Kollektsiia, M: Russkii put, 2010 (290 color and 330 b/w ills.). 108. A. Panina and T. Pereslegina, eds.: M.V. Sabashnikov: Zapiski. Pisma, M: Sabashnikov, 2011.

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G. Modern Russian Costume and Set Design 1. F. Komissarzhevsky: “Kostium” in Entsiklopediia stsenicheskogo samoobrazovaniia, SP: Teatr i iskusstvo, 1911 (Vol. 4). 2. L. Zheverzheev (intro.): Opis vystavlennykh v polzu lazareta shkoly narodnogo iskusstva ee Velichestva Gosudaryni Imperatritsy Aleksandry Fedorovny pamiatnikov Russkogo teatra iz sobraniia L.I. Zheverzheeva, P: Schmidt, 1915. 3. Collection des plus beaux numéros de Comoedia Illustré et des Programmes consacrés aux Ballets et Galas Russes depuis le début à Paris 1909-1921, Paris: Brunoff, 1922. 4. O. Fischel: Das Moderne Buhnenbilt, Berlin: Wasmuth, 1923. 5. J. Harker: Studio and Stage, London: Nisbet, 1924. 6. A. Boll: Du Décor de théâtre. Ses tendances modernes, Paris: Chiron, 1926. 7. A. Yanov: Teatralnaia dekoratsiia, L: Blago, 1926. 8. E. Gollerbakh, ed.: Teatralno-dekoratsionnoe iskusstvo v SSSR 19171927. L: Komitet vystavki teatralno-dekoratsionnogo iskusstva, 1927. 9. J. Laver and G. Sheringham: Design in the Theatre, London: Studio, 1927. 10. W. Fuerst and S. Hume: Twentieth-Century Stage Decoration, New York: Knopf, 1929 (two volumes). Reprinted by Dover, New York, 1967. 11. J. Rouché: L ‘Art théâtral moderne, Paris: Blond et Gay, 1929. 12. R. Cogniat: Décors du théâtre, Paris: Chroniques du jour, 1930. 13. M. Georges-Michel, W. George and N. Gontcharova: Les Ballets Russes de Serge de Diaghilew. Décors et costumes, Paris: Vorms, 1930. 14. L. Moussinac: Tendances nouvelles du théâtre. Paris: Lévy, 1931. English translation: The New Movement in the Theater, New York: Blom, 1967. 15. F. Komissarzhevskii and L. Simonson: Settings and Costumes of the Modern Stage, New York: Studio, 1933. 16. S. Margolin: Khudozhniki teatra za 15 let, M: Ogiz, 1933. 17. A. Efros: Kamernyi teatr i ego khudozhniki 1914-1934, M: VTO, 1934. 18. N. Izvekov: Stsena. Arkhitektura stseny, M: Khudozhestvennaia literatura, 1935. 19. C. Beaumont: Design for the Ballet, New York: Studio, 1937. 20. C. Beaumont: Five Centuries of Ballet Design, London: Studio, 1939. 21. G. Amberg: Art in Modern Ballet, New York: Pantheon, 1946. 22. C. Beaumont: Ballet Design: Past and Present, New York: Studio, 1946. 23. R. Buckle: Modern Ballet Design, London: Black, 1955. 24. N. Gontcharova, M. Larionov, and P. Vorms: Les Ballets russes. Serge de Diaghilew et la décoration théâtrale, Paris: Vorms, 1955. 25. F. Syrkina: Russkoe teatralno-dekoratsionnoe iskusstvo vtoroi poloviny XIX veka, M: Iskusstvo, 1956. 26. D. Kliuchnikov and L. Snezhnitsky: Teatralnye drapirovki, M: VTO, 1957. 27. D. Bablet: La Mise en scène contemporaine. Vol. 1 (18871914), Brussels: La Renaissance du livre, 1968. 28. H. Rischbieter: Art and the Stage in the 20th Century, New York: New York Graphic, 1968. 29. N. Sokolova, ed.: Khudozhniki teatra, M: Sovetskii khudozhnik, 1969. 30. L. Haskell: “Russian Paintings and Drawings in the Ashmolean Museum Oxford,” Oxford Slavonic Papers, Oxford (new series), 1969, Vol. 2, pp. 1-38. Published in book form by the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, in 1970; second and revised edition in 1989.


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211. Serge Tchehonine: Costume Design for Ruslan, Ruslan and Liudmila, ca. 1929 (No. 1054)

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291. Bespredmetnost kak novyi realizm / Nonfigurativeness as New Realism, SP: RM; and Samara: Victoria Gallery, 2011. 292. Avanguardia russa. Esperienze di un mondo nuovo, Vicenza: Palazzo Leoni Montanari, 2011-12. 293. Kollektsiia Mikhaila i Sergeia Botkinykh, SP: RM, 2011-12.

L . Auction Catalogs Relating to Modern Russian Art Note: This section does not list the sales devoted only to Russian objets d’art, icons, silver and gold or contemporary and non-conformist art held regularly at the main auction houses in the USA and Europe. 1. Twentieth Century Russian Paintings, Drawings and Watercolors 1900-1925, London: Sotheby’s, 1 July, 1970. 2. Twentieth Century Russian Paintings, Drawings and Watercolors 1900-1930, London: Sotheby’s, 12 April, 1972. 3. Twentieth Century Russian Paintings, Drawings and Watercolors 1900-1930, London: Sotheby’s, 29 March, 1973. 4. Twentieth Century Russian and East European Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture 1900-1930, London: Sotheby’s, 4 July, 1974. 5. Russian and European Avant-Garde Art, 1905-1930, New York: Sotheby, Parke Bernet, 3 November, 1978. 6. Russian and European Avant-Garde Art and Literature, 19051930, New York: Sotheby, Parke Bernet, 6-7 November, 1979. 7. Russian Paintings, Drawings, Watercolours and Sculpture, London: Sotheby’s, 14 May, 1980. 8. Russian Paintings, Drawings, Watercolours and Sculpture, London: Sotheby’s, 5 March, 1981. 9. Russian Paintings, Drawings, and Watercolors, London: Sotheby’s, 3 March, 1982. 10. Art Russe, Paris: Nouveau Drouot, 15 and 16 February, 1982. 11. Art Russe, Paris: Nouveau Drouot, 17 and 18 May, 1982. 12. Nineteenth and Twentieth Century European Paintings, Drawings, Watercolours and Sculpture and Russian Paintings, Drawings and Watercolors, London: Sotheby’s, 28 February, 1983. 13. Russian Pictures, Icons and Russian Works of Art, London: Sotheby’s, 15 February, 1984. 14. Icons, Russian Pictures, Works of Art and Fabergé, London: Sotheby’s, 20 February, 1985. 15. Art Russe, Paris: Nouveau Drouot, 12 and 13 March, 1985. 16. Art Russe, Paris: Hôtel des Ventes de l’Isle-Adam, 17 March, 1985. 17. Art Russe, Paris: Nouveau Drouot, 24 May, 1985. 18. Art Russe, Paris: Hôtel des Ventes de l’Isle-Adam, 20 October, 1985. 19. Russian Pictures, Works of Art and Fabergé, London: Sotheby’s, 13 February, 1986. 20. Icons, Russian Pictures and Works of Art, London: Christie’s, 6 March, 1986. 21. Livres et Tableaux Russes des Années 1910-1930, Paris: Binoche et Godeau, 20 April, 1986. 22. Important Modern and Contemporary Prints, London: Christie’s, 25 June, 1986. 23. Art Russe, Paris: Nouveau Drouot, 15 December, 1986. 24. Russian Twentieth Century and Avant-Garde Art London: Sotheby’s, 2 April, 1987.

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25. Icons, Russian Pictures and Works of Art, London: Sotheby’s, 1 May, 1987. 26. Icons, Russian Pictures and Works of Art, London: Christie’s, 21 October, 1987. 27. Alexandre Sementchenkoff Collection, London: Christie’s, 22 October, 1987. 28. Icons, Russian Pictures and Works of Art. London: Christie’s, 21 April, 1988. 29. Art Russe, Paris: Verrières-le-Buisson, 15 May, 1988. 30. Impressionist and Modern Art, Twentieth Century Russian and Avant-Garde Art, London: Sotheby’s, 18 May, 1988. 31. Russian Avant-Garde and Contemporary Art, M: Sotheby’s, 7 July, 1988. 32. Artwork of the Soviet Union, New York: Guernsey’s, 22 and 23 October, 1988. 33. Icons, Russian Pictures and Works of Art, London: Sotheby’s 14 November, 1988. 34. Collection of Russian and German Works of Art, Phelps, New York: Davis Auction House, 26 February, 1989. 35. Russian Twentieth Century and Avant-Garde Art, London: Sotheby’s, 6 April, 1989. 36. Art Russe Impérial et Post-Révolutionnaire, Paris: Drouot Montaigne, 23 April, 1989. 37. Icons, Russian Pictures and Works of Art, London: Sotheby’s, 7 April, 1989. 38. Imperial and Post-Revolutionary Russian Art, London: Christie’s, 5 October, 1989. 39. Avant-Garde du XXe Siècle, Paris: Hôtel Drouot, 20 October, 1989. 40. Collection Léon Aronson dit Dominique (1893-1984), Paris: Drouot, 15 November, 1989. 41. Russian 20th Century and Avant-Garde Art, London: Phillips, 27 November, 1989. 42. Russian Pictures, Works of Art, and Icons, London: Sotheby’s, 6 December, 1989. 43. Russian Art, London: Phillips, 2 April, 1990. 44. Russian Avant-Garde. Pictures from the Collection formed by George Costakis, London: Sotheby’s, 4 April, 1990. 45. A Selection of Russian Avant-Garde Works Formerly the Property of Kurt Benedikt, London: Christie’s, 5 April, 1990. 46. Important Russian Works of Art, New York: Christie’s, 19 April, 1990. 47. Icons, Russian Pictures and Works of Art, London: Christie’s, 27 April, 1990. 48. Tableaux Russes, Paris: Drouot, 14 May, 1990. 49. Art Russe, Paris: Drouot, 16 May, 1990. 50. Russian Twentieth Century and Avant-Garde Art, London: Sotheby’s, 23 May, 1990. 51. Moderne Literatur und Kunst, Cologne: Venator und Hanstein, 20 September, 1990. 52. Imperial and Post-Revolutionary Russian Art, London: Christie’s, 10 October, 1990. 53. Russian Works of Art, New York: Christie’s, 31 October, 1990. 54. Russian Art, London: Phillips, 26 November, 1990. 55. Icons, Russian Pictures and Works of Art, London: Christie’s, 27 November, 1990. 56. Icons, Russian Pictures and Works of Art, London: Sotheby’s, 30 November, 1990. 57. Art russe XXe siècle, Paris: Drouot-Richelieu, 10 February, 1991.


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223. Pavel Tchelitchew: Costume Design for a Spanish Dancer, Danse Espagnole, 1921 (No. 1084)

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Masterpieces of Russian Stage Design