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Contents Foreword

9

Preface

11

Acknowledgements

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A Brief History of Glassmaking in England

14

Tools of the Glassblower

46

Drinking in England

48

Seventeenth Century English Objects of Lead Glass

58

Cat. 1 Cat. 2 Cats. 3–4 Cat. 5 Cat. 6 Cats. 7–9 Cats. 10–11

A small helmet-shaped jug with opaque white spiral twists A pair of ribbed vases with silver-gilt mounts A basin and small jug A serving jug A lead glass wineglass A goblet, wineglass and small jug A flute glass and a wineglass

Gadrooning Cat. 12 Cat. 13 Cat. 14 Cat. 15 Cat. 16 Cat. 17 Cat. 18

82 A small cup or beaker with portraits of King William III and Queen Mary II A giant gadrooned goblet A large gadrooned lamp A punch bowl with pincered gadrooning Six gadrooned wineglasses A gadrooned covered sugar or preserves jar Mug with pincered gadrooning

Drinking Glasses with Heavy-Baluster Stems Cats. 19–21 Cats. 22–23 Cats. 24–26 Cats. 27–29 Cats. 30–32 Cat. 33 Cats. 34–37

Three goblets or wineglasses on heavy-baluster stems Two giant goblets on heavy-baluster stems Three goblets with coins in the stems Three wineglasses on heavy-baluster stems Three wineglasses on heavy-baluster stems A goblet on a mushroom-knopped heavy-baluster stem Four drinking glasses on acorn-knopped heavy-baluster stems

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Diamond-Point Engraving Cat. 38 Cat. 39

A pair of diamond-engraved covered goblets A wineglass with diamond-engraved portrait of Queen Anne and the façade of St. Paul’s Cathedral

Wheel-Engraved English Glass Cats. 40–41 Cats. 42–43 Cat. 44

Cats. 46–47 Cats. 48–49 Cats. 50–52

Cat. 58 Cats. 59–60

162 The “Ogilvy of Inshewan” Amen wineglass The “Gregson of Tilliefour” Jacobite goblet Two drinking glasses with wheel-engraved Jacobite emblems A wineglass with a wheel-engraved depiction of King Charles II hiding in the Boscobel Oak A goblet with diamond-engraved decoration A sweetmeat glass and a wineglass (?)

Glasses with Internal Spirals in Their Stems Cats. 61–62 Cat. 63 Cat. 64

184

A tall wine (champagne?) glass and a pair of wineglasses on air-twist stems A set of six wineglasses on air-twist stems A small wineglass with wheel-engraved toast to the King of Prussia

Gilding on Glass Cats. 65–66 Cat. 67 Cat. 68 Cats. 69–71 Cat. 72

146

A goblet commemorating the coronation of King George I, diamondengraved with the Fall of Adam and Eve Two wineglasses with panel-moulded stems made to commemorate the coronation of King George I A goblet and wineglass on panel-moulded stems Two sweetmeat glasses on panel-moulded stems and a jug with panel moulding

Jacobite Glass Cat. 53 Cat. 54 Cats. 55–56 Cat. 57

136

Two wheel-engraved drinking glasses with heavy-baluster stems Two glass hand bells, one with a wineglass bowl A large bowl on a heavy-baluster, annulated-knop stem

Panel-Moulded Stems Cat. 45

122

194 A wineglass and tumbler with gilt decoration A wheel-engraved covered “grog” tumbler A cut glass epergne or “sweetmeat pole” A paperweight or grinder, covered bowl and salt dish A green glass chamber pot or urinal


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Contents

Glass Candlesticks, “Branches” and Chandeliers Cats. 73–75 Cat. 76 Cat. 77 Cat. 78 Cats. 79–81 Cat. 82 Cats. 83–84 Cats. 85–86 Cat. 87 Cat. 88

Three candlesticks and a taperstick A set of four large candlesticks with acorn knops A candle “branch” with four arms and separate base A pair of candlesticks with panel-moulded stems Five panel-moulded candlesticks A candlestick with red-and-white twist stem Two candlesticks and a taperstick with opaque-white twist stems Four facet-cut candlesticks and a taperstick A chandelier with six solid arms and mould-blown elements A cut glass chandelier with six arms and faceted elements

Window Glass, Plate Glass and Mirrors Cats. 89–90 Cat. 91 Cat. 92 Cat. 93 Cat. 94 Cat. 95 Cat. 96 Cats. 97–99

Appendix

250

Two diamond-engraved window-glass panels A mirrored panel diamond-point engraved with a rhyming version of The Lord’s Prayer A looking glass with reverse-painted green and gold Chinoiserie decoration An overmantel looking glass with silvered glass frame A looking glass with carved, polished and silvered glass frame and removable glass candle arms A looking glass with carved mirror plate and removable glass candle arm A pocket bottle with diamond-engraved inscription Three decanters

English Black-Glass Bottles Cats. 100–104 Cats. 105–108 Cats. 109–113 Cat. 114 Cats. 115–116 Cats. 117–120 Cats. 121–122 Cats. 123–127

212

286

Five bottles, c.1650–1675 Four sealed bottles, c.1684–1705 Five bottles, c.1710–1725 A bottle with scratch-engraved decoration, dated 1739 Two sealed “bladder” bottles, c.1720–1730 Four sealed bottles, c.1731–1769 Two bluish-opalescent bottles, c.1715–1770 Five sealed bottles, c.1770–1809 Chemical Analyses of the Glasses by Robert H. Brill

316

Notes

323

Bibliography

343

Index

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A Brief History of Glassmaking in England

G

lass was first made in England by Roman craftsmen. After the fall of the empire in the early fifth century AD, some craftsmen may have continued to work in the English forests, especially in Anglo-Saxon Kent, producing glass vessels designed for coarse tribal lives. They include conical drinking glasses with no feet (Figure 1)

or, at most, vestigial and unstable feet.1 The equivalent of drinking horns,2 these glasses were used in the consumption of vast quantities of beer and mead and had no need of feet because the contents would be entirely consumed before the vessels were set aside (upside down) on their rims. Glass for windows Christianity reached England in the seventh century and the church became the primary client for glassmakers. Although glass was probably still being made in Kent, the Venerable Bede recorded that the Abbot of Monkwearmouth brought glassmakers from Gaul in AD 676 to:

Figure 1. Cone beaker. Anglo-Saxon England, Kent, 7th century; found in the King’s Field in Faversham, Kent, the site of an important AngloSaxon cemetery. Height 6151⁄ 6in. (17.6cm). The Corning Museum of Glass (85.1.4)

… lattice [glaze] the windows of the church and of the galleries and upper rooms … nor did they only complete the required work, but familiarised the English too with this type of work henceforth, and taught them a craft by no means ill-suited to [the making of ] lamps … or vessels for a great variety of purposes.3 Glassmaking may have continued in England during the eighth to eleventh centuries, but little is known about production and almost no glass survives. There is, however, evidence of glassmaking in Belgium and France in the eleventh century and workers and glass were almost certainly imported into England. Between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries glass production increased in the Surrey/Sussex Weald and other areas to serve the needs of the church and the gentry.4 Glass windows became more common in

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the homes of the wealthy, but it was the great cathedrals being built throughout Europe (including England) that required the largest expanses of glazing. Constructed of small pieces of colourless and brightly coloured flat glass and held together in a framework of lead strips (cames), many of the church windows were decorated with scenes from the Old and New Testaments of the Bible using black enamel and yellow and amber-coloured metallic stains (which has resulted in the descriptive term “stained-glass windows”). Factories producing household window glass also made some vessels including bottles using greenish glass.5

the island of Murano, where glassmaking was moved in 1292 to protect the city from fire) became the single most important centre for the production of luxury glass tableware in Europe. A variety of new glass formulas was perfected, many having transparent jewel-like colours, and the production of colourless cristallo increased. Venetian glasses were elaborate in form, and many of them were decorated with gilding and colourful enamels (Figure 2). Venice dominated the world market for luxury glass for nearly three centuries – until the late seventeenth century. Venetian glass was imported into England before 1399,7 and the English nobility were among those who acquired Venetian glass at great expense during the 1500s. King Henry VIII owned more than 600 pieces of Venetian glass by 1547 when they were enumerated in an inventory; they included “standinge Cuppes of blewe glasse wth covers to theym paynted and guilte” and “Twoo greate glasses like boles standing upon feete of blewe and white partelye guilte”, all of

Venetian glass To understand what occurred in English glassmaking during the fifteenth century, it is necessary first to understand what was happening in Venice. In the thirteenth century Venetian glassmakers mastered the production of a nearly colourless glass called cristallo (crystal) and exported it to the wealthy throughout Europe.6 By the fifteenth century, Venice (or more accurately,

15

Figure 2a-c. Cristallo and coloured glass goblets with enamelled and gilt decoration. Venice, late 15th century. Height (right) 7131⁄ 6in. (19.9cm). The Corning Museum of Glass (79.3.193, 79.3.185, 79.3.170, bequest of Jerome Strauss)


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Figure 40. Indentation on the top of the handle of the jug illustrated in Cat. 5. The indentation was made for a pin at the top of the strap attachment for a hinged metal cover; the pin prevented the strap and cover from rotating.

Figure 40.

Figure 43.

spirally ribbed. Plain or hollow handles may also have projecting thumb rests. The differences in handles perhaps indicate the work of different glassblowers, since there is no functional difference between them. Most of the handles that do not have projecting thumb rests have indentations for metal mounts on the tops of the handles (Figure 40); three examples have hinged metal covers, one of which bears hallmarks of a silversmith working in about 1681 in The Hague, while another has late seventeenth century German hallmarks. None of the handles with projecting thumb rests has indentations for metal cover attachments.

orientation or diagonal (Figure 41), while others have parallel ridges (Figure 42). The feet are also pincered with two different tools; one has no incised pattern (Figure 43), but others have narrow ridges created by incising the edge of the tool crosswise (Figures 44 and 45). It seems likely that these variations are the result of using different tools, rather than different glassblowers or different glasshouses. There has not, however, been a systematic study of surviving decanter-jugs to correlate these differences with other details of form, material and construction. Type 2 decanter-jugs have moulded vertical ribbing on the body, which may extend from bottom to top or be limited to the lower part of the body and impressed on a second gather of glass (Figure 45). Handles may be plain and hollow or solid and

Other variations in Type 1 decanter-jugs are more subtle. These include the impressed designs on the pincered fins, which may be an all-over waffle pattern that is either vertical/horizontal in its

Figure 42.

Figure 41.

Figure 44.

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spirally ribbed; most appear to have indentations on the tops for metal mounts. One example also has trailed vertical bands on the sides that have been pincered into fins. The feet may be pincered with a ridged or plain tool. One of these jugs has wheel-engraving on the upper body (Figure 45).

quality. Three retain hinged metal covers, one with hallmarks of a silversmith in The Hague datable to 1681. The fourth type of decanter-jug is illustrated in Figure 46. Type 4 decanter-jugs differ from the other types mainly in having a trailed foot ring that is not pincered. The bodies of some of these jugs have no moulded decoration, while others have moulded ribbing or pincered diamonds on the lower parts of the bodies. Several also have trailed threads around the shoulder or pincered chain-work bands (Figure 46). None of the handles is spirally ribbed and all but two of the known examples have handles with thumb rests. Those without do not have indentations on the handles for metal mounts. Four of the ten known examples have loose blown-glass stoppers (Figure 46).

The third type of decanter-jug (not illustrated) is the same as Type 2, except it does not have any rib-moulded or pincered decoration (apart from a trailed rigaree collar at the base of the neck and a pincered foot). Type 3 decanter-jugs may have a solid, spirally ribbed handle or a plain hollow one, and many have indentations for metal mounts. The feet may be pincered with a ridged tool or plain. Four of the seven recorded examples have wheel-engraved decoration, in one case of considerable

Figure 41. Close-up detail of pincering on a decanterjug (detail of Cat. 5). Figure 42. Close-up detail of pincering on a similar decanter-jug. The Corning Museum of Glass (60.2.34) Figure 43. Close-up of plain pincering on the foot ring (detail of Cat. 5). Figure 44. Close-up of ribbed pincering on the foot ring of a Type 2 decanter-jug. England, c.1675. The Corning Museum of Glass (83.2.39) Figure 45. Type 2 decanter-jug with engraved hunting scene, probably by a Dutch or German engraver. England, probably glasshouse of George Ravenscroft, c.1675–1680. Height 914⁄ in. (23.5cm). © V&A Images/Victoria and Albert Museum, London (C.89–1969) Figure 46. Type 4 decanter-jug. England, c.1680–1685. Height 711⁄ 6in. (18cm). Museum of London (34.139/6) Figure 45.

Figure 46.

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Glass Candlesticks, Branches and Chandeliers

79‒81 Five panel-moulded candlesticks England, c.1720–1740

79a, b Pair of panel-moulded colourless glass candlesticks with separate save-alls (a) Overall height 978⁄ in. (25.1cm) Diameter of the foot 4131⁄ 6in. (12.2cm) Diameter of the drip pan rim 271⁄ 6in. (6.2cm)

(b) Height 434⁄ in. (12.1cm) Diameter of the foot 2111⁄ 6in. (6.8cm) Nozzle with in-folded rim; domed, eight-sided, panel-moulded foot with pyramidal diamonds at the tops of the ribs; plain (unfolded) foot rim; rough pontil mark underneath the foot. Blown and moulded colourless lead glass.

(b) Overall height 931⁄ 6in. (23.3cm) Diameter of the foot 4131⁄ 6in. (12.2cm) Diameter of the drip pan rim 212⁄ in. (6.4cm)

PROVENANCE

(Candlesticks) Nozzle with eight slightly slanted ribs; inverted baluster knop containing two circuits of small bubbles, one above the other (ten bubbles in each circuit); small inverted baluster segment containing two circuits of bubbles, one above the other (nine bubbles in each circuit);1 domed, panel-moulded foot (eight panels) with pyramidal diamonds on the shoulder; plain (unfolded) foot rim; rough pontil mark underneath the foot. Blown and moulded colourless lead glass.

Anonymous collection, Sotheby’s (London), 22 Oct. 1973, lot 78 Private collection, NYC Mallett & Son Ltd., London John H. Bryan, Chicago, IL PUBLISH ED

Sheppard and Smith 1990, p.43, no.55 EXHIBITED

Glass from the Restoration to the Regency, Mallett & Son Ltd., London, 1990, no.55

(Save-alls) Vertically ribbed (eight ribs); flat bottom with rough pontil mark underneath. Blown and moulded colourless lead glass.

PA R A L L E L

A transparent dark amethyst taperstick with inverted panelmoulded stem (Figure 124): Fox collection, Bonhams (London), 8 Dec. 2004, lot 139; Newell 2005, p.15; Crabtree collection, Bonhams (London), 16 Dec. 2009, lot 812

PROVENANCE

Delomosne and Son Ltd., London John H. Bryan, Chicago, IL

81

PA R A L L E L S

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Museum of London, Garton collection (34.139.429) Hughes 1930, p.235, fig.7 Hughes 1956, fig.247c Victoria and Albert 1962, pp.44, 45, pls.8A.2 and 3, 10A Anonymous collection, Sotheby’s (London), 4 Dec. 1967, lot 283 Anonymous collection, Sotheby’s (London), 16 Oct. 1972, lot 37 Anonymous collection, Christie’s (London), 7 June 1988, lots 55, 57 Winterthur Museum (86.129): Palmer 1993, p.299

Panel-moulded green glass candlestick Height 8151⁄ 6in. (22.7cm) Diameter of the drip pan 234⁄ in. (7cm) Diameter of the foot 4151⁄ 6in. (12.5cm) Vertically ribbed nozzle (eight ribs); hollow inverted balusters at the top and base of the stem; domed, panel-moulded (eight panels) foot with pyramidal diamonds at the shoulder; plain (unfolded) foot rim; rough pontil mark underneath the foot. Blown and moulded transparent emerald-green lead glass.

80a, b

PROVENANCE

Pair of panel-moulded colourless glass tapersticks

Probably Michael Parkington collection Exhibited at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London Mallett & Son Ltd., London John H. Bryan, Chicago, IL

England, c.1720–1730 (a) Height 4111⁄ 6in. (11.9cm) Diameter of the foot 291⁄ 6in. (6.5cm)

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85‒86 Four facet-cut candlesticks with loose save-alls and a taperstick England, c.1760–1770 top to bottom, but so are the removable save-alls. The elaborately cut feet on the faceted candlesticks are similar to metal candlesticks in the rococo style with petal and shell feet dating from the same period (Figure 125).

The candlesticks illustrated in Cat. 85 are very stately in scale and, when they were used, candlelight would have been reflected and refracted in countless shafts of light and rainbows across a luxurious table top. Not only are the candlesticks faceted from

85

86

Four candlesticks

Taperstick

Overall height 978⁄ to 10in. (25.1 to 25.4cm) Diameter of the foot 931⁄ 6 to 914⁄ in. (23.3 to 23.5cm) Diameter of the drip pan rim 311⁄ 6 to 318⁄ in. (7.8 to 7.9cm) Height of the save-all 271⁄ 6 to 234⁄ in. (6.2 to 7cm)

Height 511⁄ 6in. (12.9cm) Diameter of the drip pan rim 178⁄ in. (4.8cm) Diameter of the foot 314⁄ in. (8.3cm) Integral drip pan, domed foot; plain (unfolded) foot rim; rough pontil mark underneath the foot. Blown and cut colourless lead glass. Small foot rim chips and minute chips on the rim of the drip pan.

(Candlesticks) Domed foot; plain (unfolded) foot rim; rough pontil underneath the foot; each nozzle is inscribed with the numbers 1, 2, 3 or 4 in diamond-point engraving inside. Blown and cut colourless lead glass. Minor foot rim chips.

PROVENANCE

Delomosne and Son Ltd., London John H. Bryan, Chicago, IL

(Save-alls) Cylindrical tube with cup-shaped drip pan, open and polished at the lower end. Two blown and cut colourless lead glass (original); two blown and cut non-lead glass (replaced).

PA R A L L E L S

1. 2. 3.

PROVENANCE

Maureen Thompson, London John H. Bryan, Chicago, IL 4. 5. 6. 7.

PA R A L L E L

Hughes 1930, p.237, fig.17 (bottom row, second from right)

Thorpe 1929b, pl.144.2 (lower photograph) Hughes 1956, pp.330, 332, fig.263 Elville 1961, p.179, fig.259 (which is so close in size, form and cutting that it may originally have been the mate to the taperstick in Cat. 86) Wills 1968, p.5, fig.4 Lanmon 1978, p.72, no.69 Sheppard and Smith 1990, p.84, no.116 Anonymous collection, Sotheby’s (London), 18 May 1999, lot 293

Figure 125. Pair of rococo brass candlesticks with shell bases. England, c.1745–1770. Height 1012⁄ in. (26.7cm). John H. Bryan collection

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97‒99 Three decanters England, c.1720–1740

97

shank; the tip cracked off, with rough-ground edge; the ball finial with two circuits of small bubbles (eight in each circuit), encircling a single central bubble. The stopper is of the same period as the jug but is not original to it. Blown in a dip mould, colourless lead glass.

A panel-moulded cruciform pint decanter or serving bottle England, c.1730–1740

PROVENANCE

Delomosne and Son Ltd., London John H. Bryan, Chicago, IL

Height 9131⁄ 6in. (24.9cm) Overall width 312⁄ in. (8.9cm) Capacity 0.4 UK fluid quarts, 16.7 UK fluid ounces (0.47 litres)

PA R A L L E L S

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Panel-moulded body with cruciform cross-section (the mould is in the form of a horizontally stretched “X”) and rounded vertical indentations at the interstices; rough pontil mark on the underside. Small chip on the coiled neck ring. Blown and moulded in a dip mould, colourless (greyish) lead glass. PROVENANCE

Delomosne and Son Ltd., London John H. Bryan, Chicago, IL PA R A L L E L S

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Lloyd 1969, p.42 (bottom centre) Noël Hume 1969b, pp.199, 200, fig.66 Lazarus 1971, p 68, fig.2 D. Davis 1972, p.36, no.16 Anonymous collection, Christie’s (London), 12 Oct. 1977, lot 39 Anonymous collection, Christie’s (London), 22 Nov. 1988, lot 55 Anonymous collection, Christie’s (London), 23 May 1989, lots 22 and 23 Anonymous collection, Christie’s (London), 13 Feb. 1990, lot 48 Winterthur Museum (70.265): Palmer 1993, p.126, no.82 Beresford 1999, p.48, fig.13 Bossche 2001, p.355, pl.294 Harvey’s Wine Museum, Bonhams (London), 1 Oct. 2003, lot 3 McConnell 2004, pp.68, 69, pls.93, 95

Victoria and Albert Museum, London; Hughes 1956, p.278, fig.210 Lazarus 1971, p.67, fig.1 (centre) Mortimer 1975, p.18, fig.3 Fitzwilliam 1978, p.91, no.220b. Anonymous collection, Christie’s (London), 7 Oct. 1980, lot 38 Mortimer 1984, p.55, fig.1 Anonymous collection, Sotheby’s (London), 1 July 1985, lot 442 Glass Circle 1987, p.13, no.33 Glass Circle 1997, p.31, fig.4 (left) Newman 1997, p.91 Lloyd 2000, p.32, pl.21 (right) McConnell 2004, p.67, pl.89 (left)

99 An onion-shaped decanter with fitted (ground) stopper England, c.1730–1740 Overall height 1118⁄ in. (28.3cm) (Decanter) Height 912⁄ in. (24.1cm) Diameter 691⁄ 6in. (16.7cm) Capacity 1.5 UK fluid quarts, 50.0 UK fluid ounces (1.42 litres)

98

(Stopper) Height 2111⁄ 6in. (5.2cm) Diameter 1111⁄ 6in. (4.3cm)

A panel-moulded mallet-shaped serving bottle with handle and stopper

Faintly incised ring just below the rim; the inside of the neck ground and polished to fit the stopper; slight concavity on the bottom with rough pontil mark; the glass is very striated (“cordy”); the stopper containing two rows of small bubbles (six bubbles in each circuit); tapered shank with rough, crackedoff end and rough-ground edge; the sides of the shank are ground and polished to fit the decanter, giving it a very tight fit (i.e., it is original to the bottle). Blown colourless lead glass; ground and polished stopper shank.

England, c.1720–1740 Overall height 812⁄ in. (22.1cm) (Decanter) Height 738⁄ in. (18.7cm) Overall width, from corner to corner 414⁄ in. (10.8cm) Overall width of the octagonal body, from panel to panel 331⁄ 6 to 314⁄ in. (8.1 to 8.3cm) Capacity 0.3 UK fluid quarts, 12.5 UK fluid ounces (0.36 litres)

PROVENANCE

Maureen Thompson, London John H. Bryan, Chicago, IL

(Stopper) Height 131⁄ 6in. (2.7cm) Maximum diameter 214⁄ in. (6cm)

PA R A L L E L S (both objects are probably the same decanter. The stopper fits loosely in the bottle; it is not ground to fit): 1. Anonymous collection, Sotheby’s (London), 30 June 1980, lot 8 2. Anonymous collection, Sotheby’s (London), 18 July 1983, lot 44

Blown in an octagonal mould (the sides of uneven widths); the bottom with slight concavity and rough pontil mark; the stopper with tapered, un-ground

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114 A quart bottle with scratch-engraved decoration, bearing the name Lt. John Tittler (?) and possibly decorated by him England, c.1725, the engraving dated 1739

The extraordinary bottle illustrated in Cat. 114 is unique and heretofore unpublished. The naïve but charming decoration crowded on to the surface of the bottle was produced by scratching, but the width and depth of the lines suggest it was not done using a diamond. Anything harder than glass will scratch it, so the tool used to produce the decoration may have been a sharpened steel point or even a piece of flint or quartz.

resembling needlework samplers.) The presence of both a thistle and a heraldic rose on the bottle may reflect the Union of the Scottish and English kingdoms in 1707. The presence of the thistle might also suggest a relationship to the Jacobite movement which was active during the first half of the eighteenth century, but the date 1739 is not significant in the history of the movement (see pages 162‒167).

The name inscribed on this bottle is difficult to decipher because of the presence of two small “T”s inserted after the capital “L”, one being placed horizontally above the other. The name could be Littler, but it is also possible that the name is Lt. Tittler. No biographical information has been discovered about either name.

This bottle should not be confused with the crudely stippled bottles produced between about 1820 and 1890, a century later than the bottle in Cat. 114. They were the product of an unknown worker or workers living near the Alloa Glass Works in Scotland.1 Those bottles have crude pecked decoration produced by tapping a sharp-pointed tool, perhaps a hammer or nail, against the surface of the bottles.

The engraved flowers bear a familial resemblance to needlework produced in the same period by young girls in schools. The depictions on the bottle, however, are more lifelike and realistic than those typically appearing on samplers. (See also Cat. 90 for a diamond- engraved panel with depictions of carnations

Although the shape of the bottle is related to typical Dutch bottles of the 1730s,2 the form of the string rim and the deep, rounded kick are consistent with bottles of British origin of about 1725.

Height 718⁄ in. (18.1cm) Diameter 618⁄ in. (15.6cm) Capacity not measured

The rim cracked off and lightly fire-polished; very deep, rounded kick on the base, with a large rough glass pontil mark on the underside; unidentified paper collection label on the bottom, inscribed “327”. The rim chipped. Blown transparent heavy dark olive-green non-lead glass; scratch-engraved.

• • •

Figures 178a–d. Details of Cat. 114.

The densely scratch-engraved decoration on this bottle includes the date and name “1739 [heart] Iohn: Lt. Tittler:” (?) (Figures 178a, b, d); the remainder of the surface filled with numerous flowers and other motifs, including:

a woman with both arms raised, holding a bouquet in one hand and a steaming cup (?) in the other (Figure 178a) a man smoking a pipe, a jug in one hand, resting it on a fabric-covered table, a dog underneath and a bird behind (Figure 178b) a child riding a dog (?) at the lower left side of an urn (Figure 178c) a carnation, rose and tulip emerging from an elaborate urn (Figure 178c) a large thistle and a flowering tulip plant growing from the ground (Figure 178d)

PROVENANCE

Lt. John Tittler (?) Jonathan Horne, London John H. Bryan, Chicago, IL

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