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“I bought a drone – now what?”

Jay Shears Founder; 2TAKE FLIGHT 4U November 19th, 2020 2TAKEFLIGHT4U.COM

Durango, Colorado


Agenda

November 19th, 2020 Durango, Colorado

“I BOUGHT A DRONE…. NOW WHAT?”

• Introductions • I bought a drone, now what? • Type of Flying, Pilot and Drones • Airspace and Regulations • Other Considerations • Q&A • Drawing for two door prizes 2TAKEFLIGHT4U.COM

NICE TO KNOW 57%

NEED TO KNOW 14%

HAVE TO KNOW 29%

2 Image licensed from Shutterstock


Now What? Common Baseline to start from: • You must • Register your drone unless it is under .55 lbs and you are flying it for recreation. • Fly at or under under 400’ (AGL) • Comply with airspace restrictions • See your drone i.e. Visual Line of Site (VLOS) • Comply with night flying restrictions • Comply with flight over people restrictions • Comply with emergency, fire, etc., restrictions • Never fly under the influence of Drugs or Alcohol • Minimum visibility is 3 miles and stay 500’ below and 2000’ horizontal from clouds

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Three Choices To Share Airspace 1. Recreational Pilot 2. Certificated Remote Pilot 3. Public Safety / Government

Every flight is subject to some set of airspace rules Know what the rules are and which rules you are flying under!

Photography by Jay Shears

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“Game of Drones”

New Rules May 17, 2019, the FAA started • On implementing Section 349 (proposed rules for

rec flyers) and 350 (sUA used for educational purposes) of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018 (good for 5 years).

On May 31, 2019, the FAA published Advisory Circular AC91-57B which canceled AC91-57A and brought everything up to date

need to throw out what you knew about • You drone laws in the USA and start over again!

• •

1981 AC91-57 was published regarding “model aircraft” 2007 – Published policy statement that 91-57 applies only to modelers. Commercial Ops are prohibited

2012 – FAA Modernization and Reform Act was published and Section 336 was created prohibiting the FAA from creating any new regulation governing model aircraft regulated under Section 336

2014 – FAA published the interpretation of Section 336 i.e. “the aircraft would need to be operated purely for recreational or hobby purposes”

2015 – FAA updated AC91-57A creating more restrictions. Later that year the FAA created Part 48

2017 – Congress leveraged the National Defense Authorization Act to overturn a courts ruling that Part 48 was not legal

2019 – The FAA published an official withdrawal of all their model aircraft interpretations and implemented Section 349 and 350 of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018 and AC91-57B to bring everything up to date

Photography by Jay Shears

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Part 107?

Are there exceptions? All sUA must fly under Part 107 except: • Recreation – Fly for FUN • (Limited exception to Part 107 Rules called “Section 44809” which provides conditions that must be satisfied to use this exception for sUA that are flown for recreation and under 55 lbs.)* *”Operators of small unmanned aircraft (also referred to as sUA) for recreational purposes must follow the rules in 14 CFR part 107 for FAA certification and operating authority unless they follow the conditions of the Exception for Limited Recreational Operations of Unmanned Aircraft” (Docket No. FAA-2019-0364)

– – – – – – – – – – – –

Agriculture Inspections Action Sports Marketing & Ads Real Estate Volumetric Measuring Search & Rescue Mapping Radiometric Thermography Construction Monitoring Film 5

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Agencies

What Rules? TYPE OF FLIGHT

RULES

AGENCY

FLY FOR FUN

Section 44809

EX: AMA

FLY FOR HIRE

Part 107

FAA

“Fly for Fun” Changes are coming – Drone Operators may be required to pass an aeronautical knowledge and safety test and carry proof of test passage (Section 44809 of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018) – The FAA may issue guidance for how it will recognize community based organizations (i.e. AMA, etc.)

*Recreational flyers should know that if they intentionally violate any of the safety requirements, and/or operate in a careless or reckless manner, they could be liable for criminal and/or civil penalties

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Baseline Rules + •

• • •

Limited Recreation

The Recreational Pilot must pass a test and keep proof of passing the test to show to FAA or law enforcement. The test will cover the Limited Recreational drone laws. FAA is currently working on creating a test ATC will no longer accept requests to operate recreational drones in controlled airspace* the FAA is granting temporary airspace authorizations to fly in certain approved “fixed sites” in controlled airspace. Recreational aircraft have to be registered and marked to receive this authorization You have to show registration to FAA or Law Enforcement if asked Limited Recreational Pilots can now fly in Class G airspace without an airspace authorization You must complies with all airspace restrictions and prohibitions

*UPDATE - The Low Altitude Authorization and Notification Capability (LAANC) is now available to limited recreational flyers in most LAANC capable airports. The LAANC must be used to obtain daylight airspace authorization when available, unless you are flying in a fixed FAA approved flying site Recreational flyers can now fly

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P107 Certificated Other Baseline Rules + • • • • •

• • • •

i.e. Remote Pilot Certificate

Flying for any type of Compensation or Hire Must be at least 16 years old Able to read, speak, and understand English Be in a physical and mental condition to safely fly a sUAS Obtain a FAA Tracking Number (FTN) through the Integrated Airman Certification and Rating Application (IACRA) Register and pass a knowledge test; complete form 8710-13 (RPIC) Operation in Class G airspace permitted without consent Operation in Class B, C, D, and E airspace (controlled) are allowed with ATC controlling authority permission Eligible for Part 107 Waivers; Examples: – – – – – –

Operation from a moving vehicle (Part 107.25) Daylight Operations (Part 107.29) Visual Line of Sight aircraft operation (Part 107.31) Operation of multiple small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Part 107.35) Yielding the right of way (Part 107.37) Operation over people (Part 107.41)

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sUAS A Few Definitions

“small Unmanned Aircraft Systems”

• Control Station – Interface used by the remote pilot to control the path of the aircraft • Corrective Lenses – Spectacles or contact lenses • Small Unmanned Aircraft (sUA) – Unmanned aircraft that weigh less than 55 lbs on takeoff, including everything that is on-board or otherwise attached to the aircraft and is operated without the possibility of direct Human intervention from within or on the aircraft • Small Unmanned Aircraft System (sUAS) – Small Aircraft and its associated elements that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the small unmanned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS) Photography by Jay Shears

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RPIC A Few Definitions

“REMOTE PILOT IN COMMAND”

• Visual Observer (VO) – A person who is designated by the RPIC and the person manipulating the flight controls of the sUAS to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground.

• Person Manipulating the Controls (PMC) – A person other than the Remote Pilot in Command who is controlling the flight of an sUAS under the supervision of the RPIC. • Remote Pilot in Command (RPIC) – A person who holds a remote pilot certificate with an sUAS rating and has the final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of the sUAS operation conducted under Part 107. 2TAKEFLIGHT4U.COM Photography by Jay Shears

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Before you fly • Prior to the flight; the RPIC must: • Assess the operating environment, considering the risks to person and property in the immediate vicinity both on the surface and in the air. Includes: • Weather • Airspace and flight restrictions • Location of persons and property on the surface • Other ground hazards • Ensure that all persons directly participating in the sUA flight are informed about conditions, emergency procedures, contingency procedures, roles and responsibilities and potential hazards • Ensure that all control links between ground control station and the sUA are working correctly. • Ensure that there is enough power available for the sUA to operate for the intended operational time • Ensure that any object attached or carried by the sUA is secure and will not adversely affect the flight characteristics or controllability of the aircraft 2TAKEFLIGHT4U.COM

Photography by Jay Shears

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Aircraft Registration

sUAS TAG

• All sUA’s under Part 107 must be registered regardless of weight.

• Under the exception for recreational flyers; your sUA (weighing more than .55 lbs. and no more than 55 lbs.) that is flying under the rules for Limited Recreational Operation must also be registered. • Otherwise you must be registered, as provided for in 14 CFR Part 47 or Part 48 prior to operating under Part 107. Part 48 is the regulation that establishes the streamlined online registration. • www.FAAdronezone.faa.gov • You must be at least 13 years old to register and this is only within the territorial limits of the United States

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Photography by Jay Shears

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Resources

Handy Tools

References =

Image from FAA

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DO NOT EXCEED!

Maximum’s

• 400 Feet permissible radius around a structure

• 400 Feet Highest Altitude Above Ground Level (AGL) • 87 Knots or 100 MPH

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Image Licensed from Shutterstock

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Maximum’s

DO NOT EXCEED!

• Cloud Clearance Requirements • NO LESS THAN • 500 feet below the cloud • 2000 feet horizontally from the cloud

Photography by Jay Shears

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Accident Reporting

Requirements

Report accident to the FAA within 10 days IF: • There is a serious injury to any person or loss of consciousness • A serious injury is when a person requires hospitalization

• Damage to property other than the sUA, if the cost is greater than $500 to repair or replace the property, including cost of labor • Can be done by phone, written or online at: • http//www.faa.gov/uas/

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Image licensed from Shutterstock

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Requirements

FAA “Ramp Check” • Remote Pilot Certificate • Any other document, record or report required to be kept under the regulations that you are operating under • Must upon request, allow the administrator to make any test or inspection of the sUAS, the RPIC, the person manipulating the controls of the sUA and the VO to determine compliance. Photography by Jay Shears

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sUA Condition

Requirements

• Before each flight the RPIC must inspect the sUAS to ensure that it is in the condition for safe operation; such as inspecting the equipment for equipment damage or malfunction. • Even if the sUA manufacturer has a written preflight inspection procedure, it is recommended that the RPIC ensure that the following inspections items are incorporated into the preflight inspection procedure required by Part 107 to help the RPIC determine that the sUAS is in a condition for safe operation.

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Pilot Condition

Bad Decisions

• Medical Condition can interfere with the safe operation of the sUAS • Being able to safely operate sUAS relies on, among other things, the physical and mental capacities of the RPIC, person manipulating the controls, VO and any other person participating in the mission and/or the flight.

• Though any of the participants in the mission and/or flight are not required to obtain a medical certificate; they may not participate in the operation if they know of any condition where they are physically unfit

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Image licensed from Shutterstock

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Responsible Person

• Just like manned aircraft the RPIC of a sUAS is directly responsible for, and is the final authority as to the operation of the sUAS

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Image Licensed from Shutterstock

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Inflight Emergency • An in-flight emergency is an unexpected and unforeseen serious occurrence or situation that requires urgent, prompt attention

• In the case of an inflight emergency the RPIC is permitted to deviate from any rule of Part 107 to the extent necessary to respond to an emergency

What if?

• An RPIC who exercises this emergency power to deviate from the rules of Part 107 is required, upon FAA request, to send a written report to the FAA explaining the deviation. Emergency action should be taken in such a way as to minimize injury or damage to the property

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Photography by Jay Shears

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Hazardous Operations

Careless?

• No person may operate a sUAS in a careless or reckless manner as to endanger the life or property of another or allow an object to be dropped from an sUA in a manner that creates an undue hazard to persons or property. • Note: you may never carry objects on the aircraft for compensation or hire. Part 107 does not allow the carriage of hazardous materials because the carriage of hazardous materials poses a higher level of risk • No person may operate a sUAS from a moving aircraft or from a moving land or water borne vehicle unless the sUA is flown over a sparsely populated area and is not transporting another persons property for compensation or hire.

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Photography by Jay Shears

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Operation at night

• Part 107 prohibits operation of an sUAS at night • Operation during Civil twilight is allowed; but the sUA must be equipped with anti-collison lights that are capable of being visible for 3 statue miles (SM). • You can also get a waiver of Part 107.29

Photography by Jay Shears

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Photography by Jay Shears

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VLOS

Visual Line of Site • The RPIC and person manipulating the controls must be able to see the sUA at all times during the flight

• For operational necessity, the remote PIC or person manipulating the controls may intentionally maneuver the UA so that he or she loses sight of it for brief periods of time. • VLOS must be accomplished and maintained by unaided vision that can be corrected by eyeglasses (spectacles) or contact lenses. • Vision aids such as binoculars, may be used only momentarily to enhance situational awareness. Photography by Jay Shears

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Photography by Jay Shears

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SEE & AVOID

Right of Way Rules • Each sUA must yield the right of way to all aircraft (even those n the ground) airborne vehicles and launch and reentry vehicles • An RPIC has a responsibility to operate the sUA so it remains clear of and yields to all other aircraft. “See & Avoid”

• No Person may operate a sUA so close to another aircraft to create a collision hazard • It is recommended that you monitor scan the local VHF frequencies…

Image Licensed from Shutterstock

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SEE & AVOID

Operation over Humans

• No person may operate a sUAS over human being unless that human being is: • Directly participating in the operation of the unmanned aircraft or located under a covered structure or inside a stationary vehicle that can provide reasonable protection from a falling sUA Note: This activity is Waiver eligible

Image Licensed from Shutterstock

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i.e. Durango

Operation around Airports • No person may operate a sUA in B, C, D, E unless that person has permission from the managing or controlling agency. – B = Big or Boeing and is colored Blue – C = Congested and is colored Red – D = Doghouse (I’ll explain) or Dash

Always has = a control tower

– E = Everybody and starts at 700’ or 1200’ AGL and is magenta dotted line means that it extends up from the surface

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Photography by Jay Shears

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or Restricted Area

Operation Prohibited Area

• No Person may operate a sUA in Prohibited or Restricted areas unless that person has permission from the managing or controlling agency

Photography by Jay Shears

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TFR’s

Operation

Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs) Mostly uncharted VIP travel Wildfires Other special events / areas e.g., UN events, Disney World

• • • •

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Photography by Jay Shears

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NOTAMS

Operation Airport

NOTAMs (Notices to Airmen)

Obst.

TFR

• FAA B4UFLY app

• FAA NOTAM Search • Flight Service Briefing www.1800wxbrief.com • TFRs often charted online, or on apps

Photography by Jay Shears

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Operation

Permission

Part 107 Drone pilots who want to fly in controlled airspace, have to obtain airspace authorization/waiver.

• FAA Drone Zone Online Portal • Review the form instructions on the website your online application as soon as possible • Submit prior to the planned flight (at least 90 days prior) (Low Altitude Authorization & Notification • LAANC Capability) 2TAKEFLIGHT4U.COM

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Getting Permission

LAANC

LAANC (Low Altitude Authorization & Notification Capability)

✓Collaboration between FAA & Private Industry ✓Application allows near real time airspace notifications & approvals ✓FAA Approved UAS Service Suppliers are listed on the FAA website

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Photo by FAA

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DC AREA EXAMPLE

No Drone Zone

• Inner and outer areas in inner area without • Prohibited authorization • Outer area, same as elsewhere

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Photo by Jay Shears

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More about Airspace Minimum visibility = 3 miles | Avoid controlled airspace unless you have permission | Stay below 400’ AGL

Cloud Clearance 500’ below | 2000’ Horizontal

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More about Airspace

KDRO Class E

Think “Everybody” • Around some airports, Class E airspace begins at the surface, rather than the normal 700 or 1200 feet AGL • Outlined in a dashed magenta line on the sectional chart when beginning at the surface and magenta shading when starting at 700 feet

• Part 107, sUAS flights not allowed, without FAA authorization/waiver in Class E surface areas

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2TAKEFLIGHT4U.COM Photography by Jay Shears


More About Airspace

Class E

Class – E Surface Variations • Density of manned aircraft • Rough altitude of aircraft • Controlled vs Uncontrolled

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Photo by AOPA

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More about Airspace Think “DOGHOUSE”

Class D DOGHOUSE

• Smaller towered airports/airspace • Typically 4 nm radius • Generally from the surface to 2,500 feet AGL • Usually reverts to Class E, when tower is closed • Outlined in a dashed blue on the sectional chart

• Part 107, sUAS flights not allowed, without FAA authorization/waiver

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Photography by Jay Shears

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Class C

Regulations Think “Congested” • Medium-sized airports/airspace • Typically 10 nm radius

• Generally two segments: • 5 nm radius core

• 10 nm radius outer ring • Outlined in solid magenta on sectional chart • Part 107, sUAS flights not allowed, without FAA authorization/waiver Photography by Jay Shears

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Regulations

Class B

Think Busy, Boeing, Blue • B is for “Busy”!

• Large airports • Controlled airspace • Begins at surface with multiple segments with different altitudes • Outlined in solid blue on sectional chart • Part 107, sUAS flights not allowed unless FAA has authorized the flight (i.e. airspace authorization/waiver)

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Photography by Jay Shears

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Density Altitude

Other Considerations

Standard Pressure and Temperature

29.92” Hg and +15 Degrees Celsius at sea level

How will high density altitude affect sUAS?

• •

Propeller efficiency?

Overall decreased performance? Photo by Jay Shears

Photography by Jay Shears

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Other Considerations

Weight & Balance

With camera?

Not a major issue

Larger rig w/ heavy payload?

• •

Weight / CG changes (e.g., larger camera) In-flight CG (e.g., moving camera)

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Photography by Jay Shears

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Other Considerations

Load Factor

How is performance impacted?

Controllability and stalls? Sources of information

• •

Manufacturer Operating Handbook Owners Manual

Responsibility for safe flight

Remote Pilot In Command

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Photography by Jay Shears

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Other Considerations

Experience

Manned aircraft

Need checkout for new type

Same should go for drones

• •

Practice in safe, forgiving location Not when results matter

Photography by Jay Shears

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Other Considerations

Attitudes

Know your Mindset FAA calls these hazardous attitudes

• • • • •

Anti-authority: “Don’t tell me what to do!” Impulsivity: “Do it right now...quickly.” Invulnerability: “It won’t happen to me.” Machoism: “I can do it. I will show them.” Resignation: “What’s the use?”

Photo by Shutterstock

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Other Considerations

Weather Check

Visibility:

• • •

At least 3 miles at control station

Drone must remain in sight at all times Stay clear of clouds

• 500 ft. below •2000 ft. horizontally

Day of Flight

• • • •

Use aviation products Many out there www.1800wxbrief.com Aviationweather.gov

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Photography by Jay Shears

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Other Considerations

APPS

Check B4UFLY app Input location Airspace conflicts

• •

Photo by AOPA

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Obstructions

Ready to Fly?

Obstructions near your location How tall are they? Towers ? Transmission lines?

• • •

Photography by Jay Shears

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Other Considerations

•

Traffic Patterns

Chart showing typical arrival / departure / pattern paths for small GA airports

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Photography by Jay Shears

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Zulu Time

Other Considerations

Z or “Zulu” time = UTC = GMT

• Current time in Greenwich, England • In 24-hour format • Avoids confusion Photography by Jay Shears

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Other Considerations

Checklist?

Use manufacturer checklist, then add your localized anomalies:

• • • • • •

Payload secured correctly? Check/Adjust props Batteries sufficiently charged? Aircraft and station both Firmware & software updated?

Control surfaces responding? Photo by DJI

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Four “Ws”

Other Considerations

1. Who you’re calling 2. Who you are 3. Where you are 4. What you want

Photography by Jay Shears

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Other Considerations

Testing Centers

1. Locate a Knowledge Testing Center 2. Check ID requirements 3. Cost approx. $150

4. 60 questions / 70% to pass 5. Failed? Wait 2 weeks

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Photo by Shutterstock

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The Process

Application

Once test is passed: 1. Go online and apply: Integrated Airman Certification & Rating Application (IACRA) 2. Or mail FAA Form 8710-13

3. IACRA is better 4. Temp. certificate w/in 10 days

Photo by FAA

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Questions? THANK YOU! jay.shears@2takeflight4u.com

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Profile for 2takeflight4u

I bought a drone - now what?  

National Drone Safety Awareness Week Primer - by 2TAKE FLIGHT 4U in Durango, Colorado

I bought a drone - now what?  

National Drone Safety Awareness Week Primer - by 2TAKE FLIGHT 4U in Durango, Colorado

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