Industrial Ecology applied in the urban environment By 2012Architecten, 2009.
RECYCLICITY by 2012Architecten
This document presents an extensive research that was carried out by 2012Architects in 2009. Its main aim is to investigate the possibilities for a new designapproach for districts, cities and regions to redevelop into a more balanced, metabolistic environment; an urban ecosystem that we call Recyclicity. The approach focuses on the analysis of flows, their potential to be shortcircuited and the spatial implications of their re‐integration. The result is a series of datasources, strategies and tools that can help dealing with flows and to positively integrate them in future plans. We realise that the results presented are yet speculative and in an early stage of development, nevertheless we think they inspire and can help planners, designers and policymakers to take our urban environment to a higher level of sustainability. 2009, the Recyclicity‐team; Jan Jongert, Jeroen Bergsma, Césare Peeren, Marco Zaccara, Frank Feder, Jos de Krieger, Fabienne Goosens, Floris Schiferli, Goran Bojcin, with assistance of Laura van Santen, Laurens IJsselmuiden, Karola van Rooijen, Loes Glandorff & Pascal Hentschel. Waterflow consultant: Paul de Graaf Thanks to our advisoryboard: Frans de Jong, Frans de Haas & Machiel van Dorst (recyclicity foundation) Gerrit Jan Hoogland, Olof van de Wal, Kees Machielse, Sebastiaan Veldhuisen & Hilde Remoy Thanks to fonds BKVB and Atelier Rijksbouwmeester for financial support Introduction by the author This report was written within the framework of ‘Recyclicity’, a concept to connect the loops of different types of streams on a local level and promote various forms of recycling in order to build a sustainable city. Two case studies were done for this purpose; one was about the business park the Goudse Poort in Gouda and one of the living areas Meezenbroek, Schaesbergerveld, and Palemig (MSP) in Heerlen. For those interested in the design methodology of the case studies, it is advised to read Chapter 2, especially Section 2.3.2, and the first case study of the Goudse Poort (Chapter 3). For those more interested in the outcomes of the case studies, it is advised to go to Chapter 4 and 5, which give a short overview of the results of the second case study of MSP Heerlen and show the major issues with the results, respectively. I would like to thank both supervisors for their support during the internship; Ruud van Ommen for the time he found in his busy schedule to give clear and useful feedback and Jan Jongert for the open‐minded discussions we had on the subject and all the practical problems we encountered. Finally, I would like to thank everybody at 2012Architects for the wonderful lunches, interesting meetings and discussions, and their motivation for bringing about a sustainable world that sparkled in me a zest for working hard. Fabienne Goosens 2009
Summary In the last years there is a growing awareness of the importance of sustainability and that our society needs to be transformed to get rid of current unsustainable practices like transporting large amounts of goods and using up all the earth’s resources. Many different movements exist that try to bring about this transformation, for example transition towns (adapting to dwindling fossil fuel reserves and climate change), permaculture and urban farming (with a focus on self‐sufficiency and local food production), industrial ecology (closing material and energy loops), and cradle to cradle and superuse (designing with waste and for infinite recycling). The ‘Recyclicity’ research that is presented in this report brings all these fields together and tries to solve all the current problems with unsustainability in an integral way and come up with truly sustainable urban areas. The main challenge that was addressed in the research was to find a strategy for more integral planning of the available space in urban areas where the different functions of nature and society – natural habitats, agriculture, housing, and industry – reinforce each other instead of fighting each other. In this strategy the goal is to connect local material and energy loops with each other and to adapt the system to local circumstances; the technical feasibility of at least one new material or energy loop should be proven. The research method used in the research was to take lessons from ecosystems and to apply design strategies that come forth from the field of industrial ecology. The existing literature of industrial ecology was studied, and based on this literature a design sequence was formulated; (1) defining the system boundaries, (2) analysing the system and its streams (mainly calculating the metabolism of the system), (3) find cyclifiers that can help in connecting the streams, (4) do this not only for the physical layer but also on the higher information and strategic layers, (5) integrate the design to come up with a consistent whole. The final result includes among others a metabolic scheme with the relations between the different elements in the system. This design sequence was applied to two case studies, namely business park “De Goudse Poort” in Gouda, with mainly office buildings, and MSP Heerlen, a neighbourhood consisting of Meezenbroek, Schaesbergerveld en Palemig, which is an old mining area in the province of Limburg. Comparing the results of the two case studies, it is clear that some common cyclifiers were used in both. These include local food production and local water purification with the use of a natural helophyte filter. The local energy systems that were designed consisted of an energy source, energy production, and energy storage. As an energy source, it was proposed to produce biogas from organic waste sources like sewage sludge, animal manure, and organic food waste. This biodigester seems to be the perfect cyclifier; it turns waste into three valuable products, namely biogas that can be burned, a residue that can be used as fertiliser, and at the same time the water from the sewer is purified for a large part. The energy system was completed with the co‐generation of heat and power (CHP), and an underground seasonal thermal storage that allows storage of warm and cold water underground for half a year or more. Finally, the potential of local and regional materials was recognised; for example using construction materials like bricks and window fences from buildings that will be demolished. From the metabolic calculations of the streams in the current system versus the future situation with the cyclifiers, it turns out that the cyclifiers have a large potential to reduce resource use from outside the areas like fossil fuels, drinking water, and artificial fertilisers. The loops are not closed completely, but at least significant reductions can be realised on a local and regional level. Furthermore all kinds of emissions are avoided, like
carbon dioxide emissions from food transportation by truck (because of the locally or regionally produced food). The designs do not only look good on paper, it is possible to build such systems; on purpose, already existing and commercially used technologies were chosen for the cyclifiers. A part of the technologies is low‐tech and can be implemented easily, and the investments pay back in a relatively short time (around 5 years). The main obstacle in realising the designs lies in the higher layers (information and strategic layer); a will to change current culture and the will to initiate the process of change should be present. There are however still some remaining issues regarding the design sequence: making assumptions and performing calculations for determining the metabolism of the old and new systems took a lot of time. Furthermore, it was hard to find (the right) data, while the correctness of the data and the kind of assumptions that were made for missing data influenced the results and the design strategy significantly. Furthermore, although in the first phase of the research it was decided to base the design on what is available in the systems (source‐based strategy), problems formed as soon as cyclifiers were introduced. It was desired to optimise the system but then performance targets would need to be formulated (target‐based strategy). Finally, the amount of detailing of design was an issue: it was not clear whether the amount of detail added would influence the outcome of the research significantly. Concluding, for a first time applying the design sequence the results of the two case studies are satisfying, i.e. showing reasonable correct metabolic calculations and consistent integrated designs, but there are still some aspects in which the design sequence can be improved: • It currently costs too much time to focus on all aspects of the different layers and to perform all the calculations • Several aspects influence the outcome of the research significantly: o The calculations and assumptions made and whether they are correct o The starting point of the research: source‐based strategy or target‐based strategy o The amount of detail of the research, especially in the calculations The recommendations for solving these remaining issues are the following: • To save time in future research at least two things should be done: o The focus should be on the physical layer in order to maintain high quality of the designs due to the already existing expertise of superuse at 2012Architects and only gradually expanding the research and expertise to the other layers o Develop ‘kortsluiter’ software that can perform the metabolic calculations and help in systematically making assumptions • To improve the outcomes of the research and to influence the outcomes in a positive way the following decisions should be made beforehand: o The amount of detail desired for the calculations. Use a model that is sufficient to represent reality and has a limited amount of detail o The starting point of the research should be the source‐based strategy. If desired, in a later stage the designed system can be optimised while using the target‐based strategy, i.e. formulating performance targets of specific streams
Table of contents Preface ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ i Summary‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ ii 1. Introduction ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 1 1.1 Background of the research‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 1 1.2 Goal and research method ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 1 1.3 Structure of the report ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 2 2 Industrial ecology: principles and design rules‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 3 2.1 Basic principles of industrial ecology ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 3 2.1.1 Biosphere technosphere analogy ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ 4 2.1.2 Systems perspective and analysis‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐10 2.2 Examples of eco‐industrial parks ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐13 2.2.1 Kalundborg – Denmark ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐13 2.2.2 Other eco‐industrial parks ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐15 2.3 Industrial Ecology analysis tools and design rules ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐16 2.3.1 Analysis tools ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐16 2.3.2 Design rules ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐17 3 Case‐study de Goudse Poort in Gouda‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐21 3.1 Background information ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐21 3.2 System boundaries and system analysis ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐23 3.2.1 System boundaries and system diagram‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐23 3.2.2 System analysis: locality‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐24 3.2.3 System analysis: metabolism ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐26 3.3 Cyclifiers and loop‐closing‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐27 3.3.1 The physical layer: food ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐27 3.3.2 The physical layer: energy ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐29 3.3.3 The physical layer: water ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐35 3.3.4 The physical layer: the built environment ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐35 3.3.5 The information layer: money, policy, culture and knowledge‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐36 3.3.6 The strategic layer: users ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐38 3.4 Integration and the complete design ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐38 3.4.1 Metabolic calculations‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐39 3.4.2 Locality of the streams ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐40 3.4.3 Spatial implications‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐40 3.4.4 Timeline ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐41 4 Case‐study MSP Heerlen ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐43 4.1 Background information ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐43 4.2 System boundaries and system analysis ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐45 4.2.1 System boundaries and system diagram‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐45 4.2.2 System analysis: locality‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐46 4.2.3 System analysis: metabolism ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐47 4.3 Cyclifiers and loop‐closing‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐47 4.3.1 The physical layer: food, energy, and water ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐48 4.3.2 The physical layer: the built environment ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐50 4.3.3 The information layer and the strategic layer ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐51 4.4 Integration and the complete design ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐51 4.4.1 Metabolic calculations‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐51 4.4.2 Locality ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐53 4.4.3 Spatial implications‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐53 4.4.4 Timeline ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐54
5 Discussion of the results‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐55 5.1 Common cyclifiers‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐55 5.2 Technical feasibility and proof of concept‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐56 5.3 Remaining issues and problems ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐57 5.3.1 Metabolic calculations: data collection and assumptions ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐57 5.3.2 Target or source‐based design ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐58 5.3.3 Amount of detail in the design ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐58 6 Conclusions and Recommendations‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐59 6.1 Conclusions ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐59 6.2 Recommendations ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐59 7 Literature‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐61 Appendix A1. Eco‐industrial Park in Kalundborg, Denmark ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐65 Appendix A2. Eco‐industrial park in Styria, Austria ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐67 Appendix B. Companies at the Goudse Poort ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐68 Appendix C1. Data and assumptions: Goudse Poort‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐73 Appendix C2. Metabolic calculations: Goudse Poort ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐79 Appendix D. Metabolic scheme Goudse Poort 2030‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐82 Appendix E. Companies in MSP Heerlen ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐83 Appendix F1. Data and assumptions: MSP Heerlen ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐90 Appendix F2. Metabolic calculations: MSP Heerlen‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐96 Appendix G. Metabolic scheme MSP Heerlen 2040‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐97 Appendix H. Morphological chart cyclifiers ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐98
1. Introduction 1.1 Background of the research Nowadays it is nearly impossible to read a text about the future of our society without coming across the word sustainability1 within 21 words. Sure enough, there is a growing awareness of the current unsustainable practices of our society, and many movements can be discerned that aspire to do something about this. These movements include transition towns (towns that reduce their carbon footprint in response to dwindling oil reserves and climate change)  permaculture (designing self‐sufficient human settlements combining agriculture and other aspects of living) , urban farming (growing crops in urban areas) , industrial ecology (closing material and energy loops in an area, see Chapter 2), cradle to cradle (designing products for infinite recycling)  and superuse (giving waste products and material a new function in new designs, which is the core business of 2012Architects) . All these fields come together in the case studies presented in this report, as a part of the ‘Recyclicity’ research at 2012Architects, a concept to connect the loops of different types of streams on a local level in order to build a sustainable city. This research was started because of some major challenges that are currently important for our society on the urban level . First of all, the above mentioned unsustainability is a large challenge that includes the problems we face with shrinking reserves of important resources in the earth’s crust like oil, metals, and even plain sand. Furthermore, problems related to globalisation include huge amounts of transport of goods and humans that are plugging the transport infrastructure. An urban problem, especially in the Netherlands is the available land, because most of the available land is already used for human purposes . Although there is limited space, it is not used efficiently in a lot of cases; many office plots have considerable amounts of offices that are unoccupied, while there is a shortage of housing in some areas . There is currently not much experience with combining the different fields in order to solve the diversity of unsustainability problems in an integral way, and current urban planning and design does not involve all these sustainability considerations. It is however important to take the first steps in this integral approach in order to gain experience with sustainable design that is becoming more and more important.
1.2 Goal and research method The main question that comes forth from the above is how to transform urban areas to cyclical, compact, efficient and liveable areas. In other words: is there a strategy for a more integral planning of the available space where the different functions (nature, agriculture, housing, and industry) reinforce each other instead of fighting each other? . The goal of the Recyclicity research that is presented in this report is thus to come up with a strategy for transforming the currently linear and separate functioning systems of society to a cyclical and integrated functioning urban environment, where locality and closing of among others the material and energy loops on a local level are considered important. The main goal of the case studies presented in the report was to prove the technical feasibility of at least one new material or energy loop. The research method that was used in the research is to take lessons from ecosystems in nature and apply analysis and design methods that come forth from industrial ecology. First, 1
The basic definition of sustainability that will be used in this report is the most well known Brundtland definition of sustainability: “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations”. This definition will be extended and specified for the application to the case studies in this report.
the existing industrial ecology literature was studied to become familiar with the current state of the field, and based on this literature a design sequence to be applied to urban areas was formulated (see Chapter 2). The design sequence consists of defining the system boundaries and analysing this system with one or more Industrial Ecology analysis tools. Then the different loops (e.g. material and energy) are locally and/or regionally closed with connectors (so‐ called “cyclifiers”)2. The final result should contain a metabolic scheme with the different relations between the companies, houses, etcetera. The design sequence was applied to two case studies in order to learn about the opportunities and obstacles that pertain to the industrial ecology design strategy, and what steps should be taken in the future to constantly improve. Inspiration was also drawn from superuse and sustainable strategies for food production. The two case studies were business park “De Goudse Poort” in Gouda, with mainly office buildings, and MSP Heerlen, a neighbourhood consisting of Meezenbroek, Schaesbergerveld en Palemig, which is an old mining area. One of the delimitations of the research and design is that only cyclifiers that fit in the system regarding scale, safety, and availability of waste streams are used. So it is not the purpose of the research to design a completely new system from scratch; the emphasis is on adding new elements to the system that enable looping of the existing streams. Another delimitation is that the research is mainly focused on closing loops of food, other material, and energy, while other aspects like an economic evaluation will only be mentioned shortly.
1.3 Structure of the report The report starts with a description of the background information about Industrial Ecology in Chapter 2, in which the principles, goals, and tools that are used in industrial ecology will be elaborated as well as the design sequence and some design rules that can be extracted from these principles and tools. In Chapter 3 and 4 the two case studies of the Goudse Poort in Gouda and MSP in Heerlen will be presented. The design sequence that was presented in Chapter 2 will be applied to the case studies in order to come up with an integrated design. Chapter 4 is a reconciliation of the case studies that contains the general design options for Eco‐industrial urban areas and a technical justification of the choices that were made. Finally, in Chapter 6, conclusions will be drawn and recommendations for future research will be given.
A cyclifier can be compared to a catalyst: the cyclifier helps connecting loops to each other, increases the rate in which a system is transformed towards a more sustainable one, and making it more efficient. In chemistry a catalyst is added to increases the rate or efficiency of a chemical reaction for the transformation of substrates into products.
2 Industrial ecology: principles and design rules The scientific field of industrial ecology (IE) is an emerging field that is still in development . This chapter serves as a background reference on the current state of the field. The principles, goals, and tools used in industrial ecology will be explained. In the first section a short history of industrial ecology and some of the remaining controversies and problems to be resolved in the field will be followed by a description of the main principles of the field. In Section 2.2 some examples of eco‐industrial parks will be given in order to illustrate how the principles that were explained before work in real‐life situations. In the third section the opportunities and approach to design eco‐industrial parks with the use of IE principles and tools will be elaborated. Also, some design rules will be extracted from the IE principles that can be applied to a geographical industrial area like the case studies of the Goudse Poort and Heerlen.
2.1 Basic principles of industrial ecology Although some of the ideas of Industrial Ecology were already expressed earlier, Frosch and Gallopoulos were the first ones to coin the term in their influential 1989 article about strategies for manufacturing . This article is generally seen as the starting point of the field and a coalescence of the different ideas that pertain to the field. Since that time, the field has vastly expanded. Currently, the debate is still going on as to what is included in the field and what is not – i.e. the definitions, boundaries, goals, and tools of the field, as well as its practicality  – but there are some general features that will be presented here. The term Industrial Ecology itself already partly explains what the field is about. It is industrial in the sense that it focuses mainly on manufacturing processes and also on product design . Companies are seen as agents for reducing environmental harm, as they possess the technological expertise to improve their processes and products ,. The ecological part of Industrial Ecology entails that non‐human natural ecosystems are regarded as models for industrial activity ,,,; in an ecosystem nutrient recycling and energy cascading occur very efficiently and there are networks of exchange in which many mutual beneficial relationships are found between different species (symbiosis). Similar principles may be used in industrial parks, where the different species are the different companies, exchanging residues that they cannot use themselves with the other agents in the system. The result is that much less energy and material resources are needed from outside the boundaries of the industrial system than nowadays, and that emissions and waste are reduced ,. Furthermore, human technological activity is regarded in a wider context; namely as part of the surrounding systems and especially the ecosystem that supports it and provides both a source and sink of materials and waste ,. This wider context provides a holistic view of environmental problems . The advantage thereof is that the connections between industrial practices and environmental processes become more evident, i.e. the influences of economic, political, regulatory, and social factors on the flow, use, and transformation of resources to products and waste ,. Thus, there are two basic principles or ideas in industrial ecology; the analogy with biological systems and a systems perspective. These main ideas can be subdivided into different parts, which are listed in Table 1 and will subsequently be explained below.
Table 1 Main principles of industrial ecology and examples of every category ,,,,,. Principle Example Biosphere technosphere analogy Closing material and energy loops Dematerialisation and eco‐efficiency Symbiosis Metabolism of industrial areas Locality and integration in a wider context Diversity Gradual change (‘evolution’) The use of system perspectives and system analysis Complexity theory Multi‐ and interdisciplinary approach Levels and layers in the system
2.1.1 Biosphere technosphere analogy The biological analogy that is used for technical systems as explained above is often called the biosphere technosphere analogy, and is central to Industrial Ecology. The biosphere contains all the ecosystems with its animals and plants, while the technosphere contains all the human‐made technologies, industries and the economic system . This metaphor is based on the similarity of natural functions and certain industrial activities ,. An industrial system in which this analogy is applied is often called eco‐industrial park or industrial ecosystem . The analogy between organisms and firms as explained before is quite clear because both organisms and firms consume resources, process them and produce products and excrete wastes. Moreover, firms also compete for resources, just like organisms . The analogy can also be applied to industrial regions, where the flows of material and energy can be compared with the metabolism of an organism . When biological principles are used to solve (sustainability) problems and come up with product designs based, this is called biomimicry and it is a specific application of the biosphere technosphere analogy. However, there are also some important differences between the biosphere and the technosphere . These differences have the result that the functioning of the technosphere is in some aspects different from the natural systems and needs a tailored design for solving problems . The biosphere technosphere analogy can only be used as ‘eye‐opener’ or leading principle . In the following text the differences and similarities will both be discussed.
Closing material and energy loops: roundput One of the strongest biosphere‐technosphere analogies that can be readily applied to industrial and economic systems is the principle of roundput, i.e. cascading of energy and recycling of materials . The current industrial and economic systems are unsustainable in the sense that they do not work optimally and harm the environment, because the technosphere works with a linear throughput model (see the upper part of Figure 2.1, type I ecosystem). The environment is used as both a source of large amounts of materials and energy and sink of different types of wastes (including waste heat) without considering the carrying capacity of our earth. If we apply the ecological principle of roundput to the technosphere, a change from the linear (open) processes towards cyclical (closed) processes should be made, i.e. the material and energy loops are closed ,,. This means that the waste of one process or industry is used as the raw material input or ‘food’ for another process just as nutrients in nature are recycled between different trophic levels in a foodweb ,,,,. The ideal is to bring the industrial systems as close as possible to complete recycling of all materials, i.e. circulating amounts of materials are only
transformed from one state to another without using resources or producing waste ,, as is shown in the lower part of Figure 2.1 (Type III ecosystem). Furthermore, energy should be cascaded just like in food chains , which means that energy sources with a high quality (exergy content) are used by one company and transformed to energy with a lower quality, for example rest heat. If the energy cascade is efficient, it could include many different processes and companies. A real life example is the co‐production of heat and electricity (combined heat and power, CHP), where waste heat from electricity production is used for district heating ,. Moreover, ecosystems only use solar energy and ideally industrial systems should also rely solely on solar energy and not use fossil fuels or other forms of energy ,,,. This would really close the energy loops to a time scale of ecosystems instead of the geological time scale – i.e. billions of years – in which the fossil fuels were formed.
Figure 2.1 Different types of (industrial) ecosystems: linear, semi‐cyclic, and completely cyclic. Adapted from .
There are two discrepancies in the analogy of roundput that should be mentioned here: firstly there is no primary producer in the technosphere that is analogous to the function of
plants, algae, and bacteria that use photosynthesis for the production of nutrients (mainly sugars). Instead the inputs to the technosphere are natural resources, capital, and labour, in our economy called ‘production factors’ ,. Furthermore we have an economic model that emphasises growth while the ecological model is based on efficiency in recycling and cascading of energy .
Dematerialisation and eco‐efficiency The concept of dematerialisation was already shortly mentioned above and is closely related to roundput of material and energy. Dematerialisation or eco‐efficiency is decoupling resource use and environmental impact from economic growth ,. Dematerialisation focused on a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is called decarbonisation . The consumption of scarce materials and (fossil) energy resources and the generation of unrecyclable wastes (including waste heat) should be minimised to reach this goal ,. As soon as material and energy loops are closed, the use of virgin resources is reduced while the same amounts of products and services are produced and all necessary tasks at all levels of society are reached ,. Because there are estimations that the current energy system is only 3% efficient from resource extraction to the user along the product chain , and it can be assumed that material use in the technosphere is also very inefficient, there are many opportunities for reducing resource use. Care should however be taken that the focus is not solely on reduction; the cradle‐to‐cradle concept, which draws from the ideas of industrial ecology but is a more modern interpretation takes redundancy instead of reduction as a starting point . In nature, systems also tend to work because of redundancy; resource use is not minimised, but optimised within the ecosystem. An example is a tree in blossom; only a few of the flowers will eventually become a new tree, but the rest of the flowers and fruit are useful for the animals in the food web. In industrial systems we also need to strive for eco‐ effectiveness instead of eco‐efficiency ; we need to design industrial ecosystems that work because of the redundancy of energy and material flows that can be used in other processes, instead of minimising energy and material use. Redundancy will help strengthen and maintain the proper functioning of the system . The fact remains, however, that the extraction of virgin materials and the release of (toxic) waste to the environment should be minimised in order to reach sustainability.
Symbiosis In nature the relations between the different organisms in the ecosystem are very important; there are predator‐prey relations, there is competition between species, parasitism and symbiosis (mutualism) . These relations lead to complex ecosystems with trophic levels or ‘food webs’ of many different species . The richness in species enables the ecosystem to be resilient, i.e. react to changing circumstances . The functioning of the ecosystem does not depend on specific species, but on representatives of certain functions that occupy a certain ‘niche’ in the ecosystem . One can say that our current industrial systems and the economy rely too much on the principles of parasitism, regarding both the surrounding ecosystems and relations between actors in the system as a resource for our needs. It is time to restore the ‘natural’ balance and to integrate industrial activities by adding more mutual beneficial relationships that are similar to symbiosis in nature in order to improve the functioning of the system. Symbiosis can best be illustrated with a prime example from nature, namely lichen (see Figure 2.2), which is the symbiosis of a fungus species and a species of either a green alga or cyanobacterium (blue‐green alga) . The algae provide for photosynthesis and generate sugar derivatives from sunlight, thus providing an energy source for the fungus. The
cyanobacteria are also able to bind nitrogen from the air, which is a nitrogen source for the fungus . The algae also benefit from the fungus in several ways; the fungus is able to retain water and protects the algae from dry‐out. Furthermore, the fungus produces acids that help the algae take‐up important minerals. Finally, the algae live inside the fungus and are therefore protected against intense sunlight for which they are sensitive. Sometimes they are also protected against predators because of the toxins that some fungi produce . The mutual benefit between the two species is so large that lichen can live in very extreme environments like deserts and arctic tundra . Moreover, also in rain forests and temperate woodland lichen are very useful for the ecosystem. The photosynthesis and nitrogen binding abilities are a nutrient source for the other species in the ecosystem and especially the nitrogen attributes to soil fertility . When symbiosis is applied to industrial parks, traditionally separate industries are organised as coherent groups of processes , i.e. a series of ‘interlocking artificial ecosystems’ that together form a functioning whole . The companies cooperate and exchange energy and material and thereby increase each other’s viability ,. This can be done at the level of facilities, districts, and even regions. The result is a high degree of interconnectedness and integration Figure 2.2 The lichen species Xanthoria between the different facilities and Parietina with its characteristic yellow‐orange companies at a dynamic equilibrium that appearance . also exists in nature . In such a system material and energy use are collectively optimised, reaching a far higher efficiency than the individual processes . The system metabolism, however, needs to be consciously optimised (see industrial metabolism). The most important aspects of industrial symbiosis are the synergistic possibilities for integration of processes and both collaboration and organisational interaction between the actors ,. Also in this case one should not go too far in applying the symbiosis analogy to industrial systems. Firstly, symbiotic entities like lichen can take up pollution and in that way clean the air but they are also vulnerable to pollution and habitat changes and thus in some cases not resilient or flexible enough . Furthermore, sometimes the symbiotic relationship is so intimate that the separate species cannot survive without each other . This is of course a disadvantage; if an important symbiotic relationship in an eco‐industrial park is ended, then system collapse may be the result.
Industrial metabolism In order to be able to identify and optimise the industrial metabolism of an (eco‐)industrial park, there are several tools in IE that help identifying the present metabolic pathways, as will be explained in Section 2.3. With these tools, materials and energy uses and flows through various systems are examined . Depending on the application local, regional and global flows are analysed in products, processes, industrial sectors and economies . The transformations of the mass and energy and dissipations of energy are also followed . It is also important to identify the economic linkages to the material and energy flows as well as the coupling of human activities to the system . Once the metabolism is identified, it has to be understood and modified in order to dematerialise the system .
Optimisation of an industrial ecosystem includes the following aspects: • Optimising resource use  • Optimising material flow and energy cascading pathways from virgin material to finished material but also in a geographical area  • Designing an efficient exchange system in which exchanges of material and energy occur  • Optimising capital flows at the same time  (see Section 2.1.2) An example is introducing an effective infrastructure for waste collection and separation, which improves the efficiency of an eco‐industrial park significantly . If this system is economically viable at the same time, a truly sustainable system is developed.
Locality and integration in the wider context In order to develop truly symbiotic eco‐industrial parks – i.e. going a step further than optimising its metabolism and closing loops – there are a few basic rules in the functioning of the industrial parks that should be adapted to the ‘rules’ that are found in ecosystems. The two most important aspects here are locality and the integration in the wider context. Locality means that the system is adapted to the local circumstances and that local limiting factors are respected . In an ecosystem the different organisms have to fit in and use the locally available resources, because they have no other choice . In our economic system and industrial systems these local circumstances are disregarded and the limiting factors are disrespected. Instead, resources are imported from across the globe and waste disposal is often also located outside the industrial park where the waste is produced . Using locality in eco‐industrial parks implies using local or regional resources and available materials for both energy and material. This is ideally completely covered by using roundput, but in reality some virgin materials are always needed. This implies that both electricity and heat should be locally produced with the locally available energy sources. Furthermore, materials can be harvested from locally available sites, e.g. water from the nearby river, wood from nearby trees, and so on. As will be explained in Section 2.1.2 this principle goes hand in hand with developing regional environmental management systems with the municipality as a driving force or support system . Another important aspect is the integration in the wider context, which means that the scale of the industrial activity is controlled and adapted to the carrying capacity of the surrounding ecosystems ,,. This implies respecting the natural regeneration times of the resources used, e.g. forest renewal times and soil regeneration times. Applying locality and adaptation to the surroundings has the result that no eco‐industrial park is the same, because every industrial park adapts like a chameleon to its surroundings. However, the underlying principles on which they are based are still very similar.
Diversity Diversity is partly related to symbiosis: in nature there is biodiversity, i.e. many different species live together in an ecosystem . The different species occupy a different niche, which can be seen as representatives of functions. Furthermore, there is diversity between the different organisms of one species, diversity in interdependency and cooperation . Together this can be seen as the basic condition for ecosystem survival, because diversity makes the system flexible and resilient to (sudden) changes ,. The diversity metaphor applied to industrial systems requires a view on the current situation and what would be desirable to change. Currently, the human economic systems are also diverse in the sense that there are many different products and company profiles. However industrial parks are often clustered according to function; offices are often separated from producing companies . Chemical industry is often also clustered together, but the
problem is smaller here, because both the resources and the (by‐)products are very diverse. This creates opportunities for exchange of materials and utilities (see Section 2.2) . To extend the possibilities for symbiosis in industrial areas, the diversity can be increased in the following ways; introduce diversity in the actors involved, their interdependency and cooperation . Furthermore the trend that product quality is becoming more important than quantity of supply will help increasing the product diversity . Finally, mixing of functions could increase the local diversity and possibilities for closing energy and material loops. For example the combination of functions like housing, (urban) farming, industrial production, and offices creates many opportunities for nutrients recycling and energy cascading. However, diversity is not primarily an asset but might also be a barrier for the development of eco‐industrial parks. Foremost, diversity implies increasing the complexity of the system and relations between the actors. Diversity in actors means a diversity of interests, which forms a barrier for defining a common goal for the development of the eco‐industrial park . Furthermore, the amount of products found in the biosphere can be considered far less diverse – i.e. all products are organic – than the products in our technosphere . For example there are 40,000‐100,000 different man‐made chemicals of which the largest part cannot be digested or is even toxic to life when they are spread in the environment . Moreover, products are often ‘monstrous hybrids’ of different types of materials that cannot be easily separated and recycled in either the technosphere or ecosphere .
Gradual change One particular aspect of natural ecosystems that is often overlooked when trying to develop an industrial ecosystem is gradual change. A typical ecosystem takes a long time to develop fully; it is gradually building up and growing. When it is ‘full‐grown’ it changes only gradually over time. Other natural processes are also characterised by relatively slow time rates . The evolution of species takes place over an even longer time period . Species develop by variation and natural selection, whereby favourable characteristics spread through the population . This gradual change enables species to adapt to a changing environment . The gradual change or evolution analogy applied to the technosphere amounts to considering companies as species or organisms that want to multiply themselves, their way of production, or their products . In biological systems reproductive capacity in biological systems is crucial, and in the technosphere this is competitive advantage . The environment in which selection takes place is the economic market, but selection is also influenced by law restrictions, environmental policy, and a change in consumer demands . This artificial selection environment, however, sometimes has very fast time rates. Especially consumer demands may change rapidly and may thereby have a large influence on the system; if a certain product is for example in high demand, raw materials needed to manufacture the product can become increasingly scarce 1. This amplifies the ‘parasitism’ of the technosphere on the biosphere, thus care should be taken that the natural limitations are respected, as was said before. Because of the natural dynamics with slow time rates present in the technosphere and because of the natural limitations of the surrounding ecosystems, eco‐industrial parks cannot be rapidly developed from scratch . The system elements that have to be developed, i.e. system diversity, include economic, social, cultural and ecological dimensions . The ideal ecosystem with optimal energy and materials use and recycling, minimum waste production, with an ‘economically viable role’ for every product will therefore not be 1
The same thing may even happen in a more ‘sustainable’ society where recycling is considered as important; a rapid increase in the recycling of a material may pose problems of efficient collection of that material if no collection system exists yet .
reached soon . This is proven by currently existing eco‐industrial parks like the one in Kalundborg in Denmark (see Section 2.2), which have developed over a long time scale using micro steps in developing cooperation between neighbouring industries ,. From a systems perspective it is very hard to plan an industrial ecosystem; the problem is too complex to tackle with current technology and information systems, and knowledge that is needed for the problem definition is often absent, for example information on the availability of by‐products and waste streams ,. There is a strain between the engineering tools that are often used in the technosphere and the gradual – mainly cultural – change that is needed to transform our industrial systems into organically grown industrial ecosystems . One important approach to tackle this problem is to build gradually on existing strengths in the system like existing environmental management practices and support systems or actors that play a large role in the system dynamics . The reliance on renewable energy sources and roundput should also be gradually developed . At the same time one should carefully consider the system diversity and interdependency of the different actors . An interesting idea related to gradual change that can be used in architecture is that of shearing layers . The idea is that the different elements in a system change at different time‐scales; a building consists among others of the structure, exterior skin (façade and insulation), internal services (sanitary equipment, electrical wiring), and furniture, arranged from slow up to fast moving layers. The fast moving layers exchange only little mass, energy, or information with the slow moving layers . The layers that are close to each other can however not be viewed in isolation, because they influence each other, and collectively act on the system. They need to be designed so that they do not unnecessarily constrain the other layers, or in other words ‘slippage of layers’ must be allowed . If for example the internal services are too deeply embedded into the building it will be demolished early if these are outdated, even if the structure is still good . This idea of shearing layers can be combined with the notion of different system levels and different types of streams in the system (see Section 2.1.2).
2.1.2 Systems perspective and analysis When all the previous elements are put together one must draw the conclusion that Industrial Ecology is a holistic rather than reductionist field of science: it regards the functioning whole of the system instead of some of the parts, and the pattern of relationships between various industrial activities, their products, and the environment and other systems on the globe . The goal of a systems perspective and systemic analysis is to avoid narrow, partial analysis that can lead to bad designs with undesirable consequences . For example, a process that produces a relatively large amount of waste but nonetheless fits very well into the system may be preferable to a process that produces only a small amount of waste that cannot be used anywhere in the system . There are different elements in using a system perspective; first of all it is recognised that both the technosphere and the ecosphere are complex systems, which has some important consequences. For example, the different interlocking subsystems create side effects like path‐dependency and technology lock‐in. Furthermore, regarding the whole system also means using different disciplines and integrating insights from these different disciplines. The different parts of the system that work with different disciplines create different layers in the system, which interact in certain ways with each other. These aspects will be elaborated below.
Complexity theory: path dependency and technology lock‐in An important observation of the technosphere and biosphere as well as their sub‐systems is that they do not behave linearly. The presence of actors that learn and can adapt to a changing environment, buffers and feedback loops make that the system works as a complex non‐linear entity . The underlying internal feedback loops are often hidden for the (reductionist) observer that is trying to understand the system behaviour. The way in which the inputs and outputs of individual processes are linked within the overall system are crucial for building a closed industrial ecosystem, but the linkage can also reveal some of the factors that drive the behaviour of the system ,. The different sub‐systems are often so intertwined that there is a certain determinism or path dependency present ; the choices that were made in the past influence what kind of choices are left for the future. When different systems of a technology become so closely intertwined to a point where it is almost impossible to introduce a (radically) different technology, this is called a technology lock‐in . An example is our current car system; cars drive on petroleum and diesel derived from oil refining and at the tank stations only these fuels can be tanked. If we want to switch to for example hydrogen fuelled cars, we have to change all the supporting systems to be tailored to hydrogen; hydrogen production, distribution, and tank stations. Only if these systems are put into place, cars will be able to drive on hydrogen. It however takes a large effort, both physically – i.e. a lot of materials and energy need to be used – as from an institutional viewpoint – e.g. changes in the law, social practices and customs, financial structure, etcetera. It is best to leave some diversity in choices in order to be able to further optimise the systems and switch to new technologies when they are available in the future.
Multi‐ and interdisciplinary approach Because Industrial Ecology operates from the viewpoint of the system, multiple disciplines are involved in analysing and designing industrial (eco)systems as well as solving problems . When the insights of different disciplines are combined a truly interdisciplinary approach is reached, where there is synergy between the different disciplines and sustainable industrial ecosystems can be built. It is however really difficult to integrate the viewpoints of different disciplines and there are still some obstacles that have to be cleared out of the way . Below, an overview is given of what is needed from the different disciplines and what kinds of obstacles exist. An important aspect of developing eco‐industrial parks or industrial ecosystems is management of the relations between the involved actors . The management of an industrial system involves both coordination of activities and cooperation between the different actors on a variety of levels . The bottom line is that the integration of the different existing processes and adaptation towards each other does not involve merely autonomous processes, but can only be reached with intentional action . An exchange of resources and utilities between companies can thus only take place when businesses work together across the company borders in determining what waste and by‐ product streams exist, and what the possible applications of these streams are ,. Moreover, there is a need of coordination of the activities of the organisations that are responsible for the processes of integration and growth of an eco‐industrial park. Coordination entails more than cooperation alone; it includes a healthy mix of competition and cooperation between the economic actors, and a platform or steering body for the eco‐ industrial park . One of the major lessons that can be learned from existing eco‐industrial parks is that the technical difficulties are of minor importance and that most can be overcome with simple
solutions . The social process, however, is where the majority of obstacles can be found; for example in the company culture and public attitudes, trust and confidentiality issues, and different forms of management used among different actors ,. Other obstacles can be found in inflexibility of (environmental) legislation and regulation, and liability risks and contractual implications ,. Furthermore, there is often no existing dependency between actors in industrial districts, and therefore there is not a ‘network’ on which an industrial ecosystem can be built . The need for community building and social infrastructure can be fulfilled with institutions as steering body, often named ‘support system’, ‘symbiosis institute’, or ‘anchor tenant’ in IE terminology ,. In geographical areas with industrial parks there are often already authoritative coordination institutions available, for example regional and local governments and/or industrial organisations . These institutions can stimulate cooperation between the corporations in several ways ,. The symbiosis institute may for example provide a platform where data regarding the material and energy flows of the actors in the region is gathered, analysed, and exchanged ,. Furthermore, the symbiosis institute may develop an environmental policy in cooperation with the companies where also economic and social policy objectives and goals are included ,. Finally, educational services are desired, because the diversity in the stakeholders also requires a new form of learning, namely ‘network learning’ or ‘multi‐loop learning processes’ that emphasises the importance of community learning and knowledge sharing ,,. This multi‐loop learning will also help in developing trust, transparency and confidence among the stakeholders . The conclusion from the above is that it ‘takes a system to change a system’ , and the trick is to develop one that is adequate enough for building a well‐functioning eco‐industrial park. The application of industrial ecology not only has managerial and legal implications, but also economic implications. Because the transition to an eco‐industrial park needs intentional action, economic incentives – for example gradually increasing taxation on fossil fuels – are probably needed to support the transformation . Furthermore, the concept of roundput has also implications for the value chain of a product, which should be approached form a circular viewpoint . This has economic benefits like the profitable conversion of by‐ products and wastes to valuable resources, and reducing operating costs because of shared utilities .
Levels and layers in the system In order to keep a structured, systemic overview of the system and define areas of potential action in an easier way, industrial ecology is often thought of as operating at different levels, or a hierarchy of layers ,. There are three main layers in a general technosphere system ; 1. The physical layer 2. The information layer 3. The strategic layer The physical level contains all material and energy streams, as well as traffic of cars and trucks, and the buildings present in an industrial park or geographical area. The information layer includes the different types of information that are used in short‐term economic decisions, and drives exchange of feedstock, products, utilities and services . The strategic layer includes all private and public stakeholders that decide on and influence the structure of the network .
In this report the three main layers were divided into a number of sub‐layers (see Table 2 below) to be considered as was explained in the introductory chapter. Only those sub‐layers in the physical layer that were elaborated in detail in the two case studies are shown in the table, but of course many different materials exist that are part of the physical layer. The physical layer is quite straightforward and contains a large part of the physical world as we know it; however two sub‐layers require some explanation. Money is considered here as part of the information layer instead of the physical layer; although the fact that money has its physical representatives in the form of bank notes and coins, its role in the technosphere is often one of information or an exchange medium based on trust. The price of a product or service gives us information on how valuable it is regarded in society. Furthermore, the finances of a company give a lot of information about the internal strength (e.g. profitability) but also about the surrounding market (e.g. financial crises, economic climate). Finally, nature is considered as part of the strategic layer. In general, flora and fauna are not very consciously acting on their environment and planning ahead, but they are actors in the system and their actions can have influences on the system. Table 2 Sub‐levels of the three main types of layers in industrial (eco)systems.
Physical layer Material (e.g. paper, CO2) Food Water Energy Traffic Built environment
Information layer Policy
Strategic layer Nature
Money (Company) culture Knowledge
As was said before, the notion of shearing layers can be combined with the sub‐levels that are mentioned in Table 2. It is then recognised that the sub‐layer of the built environment itself consists of a lower level hierarchy of shifting layers, thus sub‐sub‐layers. Together all the small‐scale elements in the sub‐sub‐layers are nested within each other, i.e. they influence each other like cogs in a gear, and form the sub‐layers. The sub‐layers are also nested into the layers, and the same counts for the layers as a part of the total system. Hence a complex system that operates at different hierarchies is formed.
2.2 Examples of eco‐industrial parks In this section several examples of eco‐industrial parks (EIPs) will be described. In these EIPs different roundput schemes exist, but the elements included are often utility sharing and reuse of waste and other effluents . As we will see below, only few operational EIPs exist and planning and implementing an EIP is harder in practice than in theory; the EIPs have evolved over the past decades of cooperation between the actors .
2.2.1 Kalundborg – Denmark The eco‐industrial park EIP in Kalundborg, Denmark (see Figure 2.3 below) is the most well‐ known and celebrated example of an EIP that applies exchange of waste and by‐products. The figure below shows a scheme of the most important players in the system, while Appendix A1 contains an overview of the development of Kalundborg over time. As can be seen from the figure, the coal‐fired powerplant, the Asnæs power station, which was already commissioned in 1959, is one of the central players in the eco‐industrial park. The other central actors in the scheme are the Statoil refinery, the pharmaceutical factory of Novo Nordisk, and the wallboard factory of Gyproc . The symbiosis has developed
gradually since the 1970s as the result of the oil crisis of 1973 and stricter environmental regulations, and is in ongoing development (see Table 3 below).
Figure 2.3 Scheme of the roundput of energy and material in Kalundborg, Denmark .
Table 3 Timeline of the establishment of the symbiotic links in Kalundborg ,,.
Year 1972 1976 1979 1981 1982 1987 1989 1990 1992 1993
Event Gas that used to be flared goes from the Statoil refinery to Gyproc as energy source Novo Nordisk starts delivery of nitrogen rich process sludge as fertiliser to farmers The Asnæs power station supplies fly ash to cement producers in the region The power station starts providing district heating for municipality of Kalundborg The power station starts to deliver process steam to Statoil and Novo Nordisk after construction of pipelines The Statoil refinery provides cooling water for the boilers of the power station The power station also provides waste heat to fish farms that produce 250 tonnes of fish every year The refinery starts the delivery of hot, liquid sulphur to a sulphuric acid plant in Jutland, a by‐product of the desulphurisation of oil required by new regulations The refinery starts providing flue gas to the power station The power station starts delivery of gypsum (calcium sulphate) to Gyproc after installing a scrubber that reacts sulphur with calcium hydroxide
The symbiosis links have had a major impact on the material and energy use of the region. The sludge from Novo Nordisk is a major by‐product of the fermentation processes for enzyme and insulin production. Currently over 1000 regional farmers use the sludge produced every day, around 3000 cubic meters. The delivery of district heating that was started in 1981 increases the efficiency of the coal fired power plant from around 40% to over 90% and provides for all the heat demand in the Kalundborg municipality. Furthermore, the process steam from the power station provides for at least 40% of the steam requirements of statoil for heating pipes and tanks (140,000 tons per year), and all the steam requirements of Novo Nordisk (215,000 tons per year), which uses it for both a heat and pressure source and carrier for the sludge. This reduces the amount of warm water that
is discharged in a nearby fjord. The cooling water from the refinery to the power station is more than 700,000 cubic meters per year, which reduces the fresh water intake from lake Tissø, a very scarce water source, by almost 75%. Finally, the power plant delivers 200,000 tons of gypsum annually, which is two thirds of the yearly need of Gyproc ,. The symbiosis is still ongoing and currently includes a water basin and water treatment plant that allows water to be used several times by both the municipality and the companies before it is discarded . It uses excess heat from the power plant to sterilise the water . Sludge from the fish farms is also sold as fertiliser  and by‐products of the insulin production at Novo Nordisk are also sold as pig food for 800,000 pigs ,. Furthermore, a bio‐ethanol plant was built in 2008 next to the power plant that operates on straw from the surrounding farmland and also uses some of the excess heat of the power plant . There is only one large disadvantage of Kalundborg; its heavy reliance on fossil fuels from outside the system. This is because a coal‐fired power plant is one of the central players . Although a coal‐fired power plant has many useful by‐products like flue gas and gypsum, the fuel and carbon dioxide exhaust are unsustainable .
2.2.2 Other eco‐industrial parks Another fine example of an EIP is located in the province of Styria in Austria . It is also a self‐evolved industrial recycling network like Kalundborg. Its area is much bigger than Kalundborg, and the exchange network is somewhat more complex, as can be seen from Appendix A2. The actors involved are also more diverse; industries that are included are agriculture, food processing, plastics, fabrics, paper, energy, metal processing, woodworking, building materials, and a variety of waste processors and dealers ,. The flows among the actors constitute of paper, gypsum, iron scrap, used oil, tires, etcetera. In some cases the by‐products are less expensive or of higher quality than primary materials, and this can be considered the main economic driver that helped developing the system . In Finland in the Uimaharju area there is another interesting eco‐industrial park that already developed from the late 1960s . It is an industrial area that is mainly based on wood processing industries, like a sawmill and pulp mill and it also includes a combined heat and power (CHP) plant, a gas plant, and in recent years some waste treatment plants were added. The roundput of flows in the currently operative system are waste heat, steam, power (electricity), wood chips, bark, ahs, and pulping chemicals. The previous examples of EIPs developed over a long period of time – usually over 30 years – but there is now a trend to more planned EIPs of which the INES project (which was renamed the R3 project in 2003) in the Rotterdam harbour area is a good example ,. The Europoort/Botlek interests in industry association implemented it, and it includes a partnership with 80 industrial members of which more than thirty chemical manufacturing companies and four refineries. The Rotterdam Municipal Port Management (RMPM) is also a big player involved, because it manages half of the area. There is a decision‐making platform that includes representatives of the different actors in order to evaluate and plan the next steps in the process. The INES project was started in 1994 and since then several projects were developed ; it started with utility sharing of a joint compressed air system and waste heat, and subsequently joint treatment of wastewater and bio sludge was installed. In 2004 an agreement for district heating was made which supplied heat to 3000 households. Furthermore, heat and CO2 from one of the refineries is sent to 400 greenhouses through existing pipelines ,. In Finland, in Rantasalmi, also some efforts are done to design an eco‐industrial park, and some more initiatives around the globe exist, but these parks don’t function as an EIP yet .
In general, one can conclude that successful EIPs developed a symbiosis scheme in decades on a voluntary basis, in places where both mental and physical distances were short and real opportunities for exchange of by‐products and waste were available . Furthermore, the individual agreements between the industries are based on commercially sound principles . Another striking feature of the operational EIPs is that the initial symbiotic links that are made tend to involve only the sale of waste and by‐products without any significant pre‐ treatment . After a certain period, when confidence exists that in the longer term more business opportunities come up, the existing links are updated or new links are installed that involve extra process units, which use pollution control technologies. These links alter the processes and disposal practices, as well as the quality (purity) of the streams that are exchanged . In the following section, these extra process units will be called ‘cyclifiers’, and their intermediary role is often necessary to improve the functioning of the EIP.
2.3 Industrial Ecology analysis tools and design rules Industrial Ecology has a strong basis in analysis tools, but also consists of design strategies and implementation ,. The goal of this section is to provide a design tool for eco‐ industrial areas in the built environment. Design is defined as a “conscious explicit activity to establish new forms of technologies, organisational (institutional) structures, human competence (education), or rules (laws) such that social activities become more effective in achieving the desired state that the current structures fail to produce” . But before a design can be made, the problem has to be analysed and there are a few special analysis tools in Industrial Ecology that will be explained first.
2.3.1 Analysis tools There are many analysis tools in IE, but only a few will be explained in detail because they are useful for industrial ecology in the (urban) built environment and geographical areas. The most important aspect of the analysis tools, that stands out from analysis tools in different fields is the emphasis on a life‐cycle perspective and systems analysis ,. There are two types of analysis tools in IE; firstly, tools that are focused on the product, its life cycle and the product chain, and secondly, tools that are focused on analysing the system metabolism and flows in the system. Mainly the second type of analysis tool is interesting for the development of eco‐industrial parks in the built environment. The product life cycle focused analysis tools are LCA (life cycle analysis) and product chain analysis ,. These tools are slightly different; in product chain analysis the environmental impact along the value chain of a product is analysed, while LCA also includes the discarding of the product after its use. For every step, from extraction of the resources to the discarding method, the different options are analysed and scored according to the burden to the environment. The development of these product analysis tools led to new design strategies, namely DfE (design for the environment) and LCD (life cycle design), which incorporate environmental considerations into the product based on the outcome of a life cycle analysis; i.e. one tries to reduce the environmental impact of a product, especially at those places in the life cycle where the largest impact on the environment was found. Also, optimal strategies for extraction, production and use that are the least harmful for the environment are found ,,. Another solution is extended producer responsibility or ‘product stewardship’ , in which the producer takes responsibility for a larger part of the product life cycle, for example by taking back the product after use for recycling. The second type of analysis tools is related to systems modelling, which is able to illustrate how the different factors that influence of the behaviour of the system being studied interact with each other . The two most widely used tools are MFA (material flow analysis) and SFA (substance flow analysis) ,. MFA is concerned with the analysis of
materials metabolism in a certain system , i.e. the in and outflow of different types of materials, as well as their conversion and accumulation inside the system. The system itself is often considered as a black box and then bulk‐MFA is used, which shows the total material flow into and out of the defined system, but no detailed streams inside the system . SFA is similar to MFA, but only the metabolism of one compound (e.g. lead) or a group of products (e.g. plastic packaging) in a system is followed . A complete MFA study will generate a complete picture of inflows, outflows, and possible accumulations of materials in the system. It can also uncover potential problems with logistics of flows, and hidden flows that do not ‘enter’ our economy but are nonetheless associated with resource extraction and use – for example erosion or mining waste . There are several steps in an MFA study. The first step involves defining the problem along the space, time and scope dimension. In the space dimension the system boundary is defined, and in the scope dimension the materials, process flows and actors to be studied are defined . Although defining the system may seem trivial, in IE the effect of changing the system boundaries will have a profound effect on the outcome of the system analysis. The next step is modelling the system, which is simple bookkeeping of the flows . It is however still a challenge to find appropriate statistical data sources and to modify the data from data source to final use with conversions from raw material to product in between . In order to track the internal flows from the different elements of the system, the use of input‐output modelling would be useful, but as was said before, most of the time bulk‐ MFA is used .
2.3.2 Design rules Throughout the previous sections several design rules or guidelines that can be considered part of a design sequence were interwoven in the text. These design rules and guidelines will now be integrated into one design sequence and shaped to fit the assignment of applying industrial ecology in the urban environment. However, first it must be mentioned that some sources in literature stress that it is difficult to create some universal ‘design principles’ for ‘regional industrial ecosystem management’, because gradual change and ‘self‐organisation’ is very important in the system and it should grow instead of being designed . Furthermore, every industrial area is different, thus universal design principles may be non‐existent . There is however a framework needed for “guiding the designer’s hand” and there is need of a process with which the new design becomes embedded in the system . There is also a reason why some industrial systems became successful eco‐industrial parks while others where only able to integrate a few of the activities sustainably; there are some success factors or prerequisites and the trick is to find a design sequence that uncovers the potential of the system studied and provides tools to start up the things that are needed and currently lacking. And even though every system is different, there are common characteristics like the kind of streams found in the system and it might be that there are common strategies for loop closing of similar streams. Therefore the following design sequence is proposed, based on the previous text and common sense: 1. Define the system boundaries 2. Analyse the system (use one or more IE analysis tools if possible) 3. Find cyclifiers that connect streams of different sub‐layers of the physical layer 4. Close the loops at all sub‐layers of the physical layer 5. Move on to the next level and repeat step 2 to 4 (iterative process) 6. Integrate the complete design
So the first step in the design sequence is to define the system and its boundaries. The best way to start is making diagrams of the system with boxes and arrows in a consistent way and to decide what is in the system and what is out . It is good at this point to think about what the main processes and most important flows in the system are and what kind of subsystems exist in the system . The second step is to analyse the system that has just been drawn. Regarding the assignment and its purpose, it would be ideal to combine bulk‐MFA and simple input‐output models of the subsystems in order to get a complete picture of the metabolism of the system and also inside the system. The complete metabolism may reveal which functions in the system are currently lacking, e.g. high food imports points to a lacking food producer. Furthermore locality should be regarded with analysis of the local circumstances, like the availability and presence of certain materials or energy, policy constraints, and expected (global) trends for the future. The scope is also somewhat broadened to include regional possibilities for sinks and sources of streams, besides the local streams. So in the analysis step information about the physical layer of the system is gathered, i.e. streams of food, water, energy, and other materials as well as traffic and the state of the built environment. The next step is to find cyclifiers that connect streams of different sub‐layers at the local or regional level. Cyclifiers are catalytic entities that enable loop closing and may be compared to representatives for certain functions in an (industrial) ecosystem. A cyclifier may be as simple as a heat storage unit that stores surplus of (waste) heat at one moment in time that can be used at another moment, or as complicated as a complete chemical factory that uses plastic waste for the production of new plastic products. The cyclifier may also operate at one sub‐layer, like the example of the heat storage unit, but often it connects streams at different sub‐layers because the output (“waste”) of the cyclifier may also be used in the system. For example, a plastics recycling company produces not only new plastic products but also waste heat from the process and probably also some other by‐products. When cyclifiers are sought it is good to keep in mind the “Ladder of Lansink”, which indicates the most optimal use of waste material to the least desirable disposal method : • Re‐use of the product (glass milk bottles) • Re‐use of components of a product (car parts) • Recycling of the material (paper, glass, plastic) • Incineration with energy recovery (combustible waste) • Landfill (non‐combustible waste) The locality of the system may however overrule the Ladder of Lansink; if incineration with energy recovery fits better in the system than recycling of the material and fulfils a local need it should be done to improve the efficiency of the complete system. Landfill should still be avoided at all time because it is accompanied with loss of material and energy. The fourth step is to close the loops at all sub‐layers of the physical layer with the different cyclifiers. The most important goals of the cyclifiers are optimising resource use and optimise the metabolic pathways (flows) of the different flows. Because there are several ways in which the loops can be closed, this step involves finding the different possibilities for the loop closing and the implications for the effectiveness of the system. For example, energy may be cascaded in different ways; waste heat may first be stored in a buffer system and from there be distributed among the different elements in the system, or it may be distributed first and after passing all elements in the system the waste heat that is left can be stored in a smaller heat buffer. The preferred sequence depends on the demands and needs of the system and the energy losses at each step. Because IE does not only involve the physical layer, steps 2 to 4 should be repeated for the information layer and if possible also for the strategic layer (step 5 in the design sequence).
After analysis of these layers, cyclifiers that connect the sub‐layers should be found. One important cyclifier for the information layer is the previously mentioned anchor tenant that bundles streams of information and provides a platform for the development of new policies and cooperation between the different actors. Furthermore, the economic part is very important and a driving force for the development of the eco‐industrial park . This implies for example that cyclifiers on the physical level should focus on transforming current waste streams that have a negative value, i.e. people have to pay to get rid of them, into something that has a positive value. An example is using the nutrients in the sewage wastewater for growing crops. Hence, the best physical cyclifiers are cyclifiers that also affect the higher information and strategic levels in a positive way. Therefore the design sequence is also an iterative process where steps 2 to 5 are walked through several times in order to optimise the system at the different levels and also to learn more about the behaviour of the system (of interlocking and nested cycles) if some elements are changed. The final step is to integrate the complete design; it includes the complete picture for the system with all the cyclifiers, but more importantly a timeline of how the system changes over time. Questions that should be answered at this point are: When to introduce which cyclifiers? Is there a lag effect for introducing a cyclifier (e.g. how long does it cost to build a heat storage system)? Is it desirable to change the connectivity of the loops over time? What reasons are there to change the connectivity? What happens if cyclifiers or certain actors disappear? How robust is the system? The integrated design is not an exact blueprint that should be followed up but it is more a source of inspiration of the future, or a scenario of a desired future vision. The cyclifiers that were found are a guiding principle and point to places where one can intervene in the system as well as start with looping of the different flows. Besides the design sequence, there are also some common goals or directions for improvement that may be used as guiding principles (the Ladder of Lansink was already mentioned before) ,,,: • Use solar energy instead of fossil energy • Find the right loops for material cycles o Use of CO2 as a resource for processes when fossil energy is used o Looking for the right material sinks • Use biotechnology (micro‐organisms in chemical processes) o Use of bio‐based energy o Use of biological processes for industrial degradation processes (e.g. sewage treatment processes) o Use of biobased and biodegradable materials for construction, clothing • Facilitate effective communication between participants to reduce the mental distances and increase mutual management understanding and co‐operative commitment • Build gradually on existing strengths
3 Case‐study de Goudse Poort in Gouda The first case‐study to which the industrial ecology design sequence will be applied is “de Goudse Poort” in Gouda, a business park that has many of the common problems of the older business parks in the Netherlands; a revitalisation is desired because of the high percentage of empty office buildings. Therefore the regional architecture centre of Gouda (GRAP, Gouds Regionaal ArchitectuurPlatform) organised a competition where ideas for the revitalisation could be generated. In Section 3.1 some background information on de Goudse Poort and this competition will be presented. The rest of the chapter will follow the IE design sequence that was presented in the previous chapter; i.e., defining the system boundaries and analysing the system (Section 3.2), finding cyclifiers at the different levels and closing the loops (Section 3.3), and finally coming up with an integrated design (Section 3.4).
3.1 Background information In the past years many new business parks have been built in the Netherlands; the growth of land use for these parks has even grown much faster than the land use for housing . Between 1996 and 2000 the total area occupied with business parks increased with 20% (9000 ha) , while it doubled in the pas 20 years from 45000 to 97000 ha . On the other hand, in many older business parks a part of the office buildings is empty, sometimes up to 35% of the buildings . This is partly due to the changing demands in company housing regarding space, spatial arrangement and image of the buildings. Many companies move from old areas to newer areas and leave a building behind that is old and poorly usable by other companies . Another problem is that the use of space in business parks is often inefficient, e.g. many office buildings are only two or three stories high . Awareness is developing that this is not the way to go and that there is still enough potential on existing business parks; with some investments the old buildings can keep their function and economic value for a longer time ,. The Goudse Poort (see Figure 3.1) has the same problems with unoccupied buildings as many of the Dutch business parks ; furthermore, there is no common parking, difficult accessibility to the park (via a gas tank station) and no consistency in the public space, i.e. there is no apparent design behind it and companies do not work together to improve the quality of it.
Figure 3.1 Plan of the Goudse Poort. At the left a picture showing the buildings that should be maintained (in grey) and the ones that should be transformed (green). At the right a google maps picture that also shows the boundaries of the business park (black line) ,.
The Goudse Poort was developed in the 1970s , when it was qualitatively one of the best business parks in the Netherlands, also because of its strategic location between the A12 highway, which is one of the most important highways in the Netherlands and the Gouwe River. The accessibility by railway was also optimal . In 1999, however, it was acknowledged that a revitalisation plan was necessary in order to be able to catch up with the other business parks in the Netherlands. The municipality of Gouda developed a vision with the desired development of the Goudse Poort that ranges until 2010. In 2001 the umbrella organisation of the Goudse Poort (Belangenvereniging Goudse Poort) was started, which represents the interests of the companies present. Together with the municipality they formed ‘Stuurgroep Goudse Poort’ in 2002, which takes decisions for the revitalisation project . In 2003 an urban design vision was developed, and a vision for the extensive green at the business park. This led to setting up park management for the Goudse Poort that takes care of maintenance, traffic management, safety and the extensive green at the Goudse Poort in 2007. This management also offers collective services and products. Until 2008, a shuttle bus service ‘de Goudse Poort Expresse’ between Gouda central station and the Goudse Poort was operational (it is not clear if this is continued), and a few roads have been redeveloped and rearranged in 2007 . An atmosphere impression of what the Goudse Poort currently looks like is included below (see Figure 3.2).
Figure 3.2 Atmosphere impression of the Goudse Poort at street level (below) and view on the roofs. At the right side of the picture the Goudse Poort gebouw can be seen, which is the green T‐shaped building in the left plan of the previous figure.
Despite all these measures to make the Goudse Poort more attractive, still on average 30% of the offices is currently empty . Therefore the goal of the GRAP competition was to come up with ideas to transform the Goudse Poort to an urban area with high‐quality modern office buildings possibly in combination with housing, shopping, and other leisure facilities . The result should be an integral approach and future vision for 2030, with an increased quality of the public space and economic value of the business park, which facilitates a transformation in the future . The design should tackle all current problems with the empty and old office buildings, parking problems, accessibility, public space and diverse ownership of the buildings. The design should include sustainability (mainly focused on a minimum energy need for buildings), multifunctionality, and a new arrangement of the public space . The current road structure should however be maintained.
3.2 System boundaries and system analysis 3.2.1 System boundaries and system diagram The first step in the IE design sequence is to define the system boundaries and draw a diagram of the system. The system boundaries were chosen to be the physical boundaries of the business park as shown with the black line at the right side of Figure 3.1. The system boundaries include 270 different companies with a total of around 7000 people that currently work there ,. A list of a large part of the companies is shown in Appendix B. Furthermore, the system boundaries include the ditches and extensive green that are part of the business park, but excludes the Gouwe River and the highway with surrounding green. First a schematic drawing of the system and the most important elements was drawn (see Figure 3.3). Figure 3.3 Schematic drawing of the current system and the most important sub‐systems. The black dotted lines indicate the system boundaries. The green flows are organic flows of food and organic waste. The red lines indicate energy flows, the blue lines water, and the black lines resources or sewage sludge.
The main elements in the system are of course the office buildings and other buildings for the companies (e.g. storage facilities, garage, a hotel, etc.). During the case‐study the focus was on the potential of using organic waste on‐site and there was no time left to research the potential of the other (inorganic) waste. Therefore the most important other sub‐ systems were considered to be the sewage system, which contains a lot of nutrients that are currently not utilised but just sent to the wastewater treatment plant in the region. Another important source of organic waste is the presence of a waste storage centre of the waste company Cyclus on the area. The centre is just for temporarily storing all types of waste (glass, organic waste, metals, mixed rest waste) from the Gouda region and then sending it towards a waste incineration plant or recycling plant . Thus large amounts of among others organic waste are temporarily brought into the system and nothing is done with it locally. The schematic drawing might be hard to read because of the high abstraction of the elements in the system, and therefore a more iconographic representation will be used in this chapter, which is shown in Figure 3.4. The sub‐systems (the offices, sewage system, and Cyclus waste station) are replaced with icons, as well as the labels of the streams. Furthermore, the boundary of the system is drawn more clearly, i.e. in the shape of the Goudse Poort area, which is in total approximately 63 ha .
Figure 3.4 Iconographic scheme of the system, with the system boundaries in the shape of the area. The food stream is split into meat products and other products because of the differences in productivity and land use per hectare (pasture versus farmland).
3.2.2 System analysis: locality Before the system metabolism could be properly analysed, insight in the local circumstances on both the physical level and information/strategic level is required. The list of the different companies was analysed and some of these companies were interviewed in order to find out how much and which types of waste they produce and which kind of resources they use. The following types of companies are represented in the Goudse Poort: offices (34% of the area, representing 76% of the companies), industry (45% of the area), public utility (14% of the area), retail (4% of the area), and horeca (3% of the area) . Mainly industry and retail companies were interviewed (see the marked companies in Appendix B). They were chosen for interviews because of the potential large waste streams or interesting functions they could provide inside the system. For example, a company specialised in cleansing buildings was interviewed, as well a company with expertise in gas mixing, and large retail companies like Gamma and CarpetRight. However, not much usable information was found in this way: it turned out that many companies produced large amounts of common wastes like cardboard and plastic packaging. Furthermore, the garages that were interviewed also produced oil and cooling fluid as waste, but only in small amounts. Therefore it was decided to focus more on the common types of wastes that every company produces or streams that are brought into the system in large amounts. The focus was mainly on food and food waste, water, and energy. There was unfortunately not enough time left to also include the large amounts of plastic waste found in the system. Focusing on food, water, and energy, some companies were identified that might have potential as cyclifier (host) or waste/energy collector or producer. These companies are shown in Table 4, where also the type of layer or cycle they could contribute is mentioned. The waste collection company Cyclus was already mentioned before and it was in the design phase considered as one of the most important sources of organic waste, because the company collects waste of 400,000 households in the region around Gouda (from 13 different municipalities) . This waste is either brought to the collection station in the Goudse Poort or to the second collection station somewhere else. The other general streams that are locally available are also shown in Figure 3.4. When the scope is broadened to the surrounding region of the Goudse Poort, some other possibilities for sinks and sources of streams turn up; to the north of the Goudse Poort,
across the A12 highway, agriculture is present (see Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.5). The agriculture includes a farm with a large pile of manure, grassland, and greenhouses. The grassland and greenhouses could be a source of food, and because the greenhouses heat up during the day and need a lot of heat, a link with an energy system could also be possible. Finally, the atmosphere in the greenhouses is often artificially enriched with carbon dioxide (CO2) for increased plant growth, which comes from burning gas . Thus the greenhouses might also be a destination for CO2 that is produced in the Goudse Poort. Table 4 Different companies with potential as cyclifier or provider of useful waste.
Company name Cyclus
Sector Waste collection
Technogas Gas station
Retail – Measurement installations for gas, mixing gases Retail – Gasoline, LPG
Campanile Hotel McDonalds
Horeca – Hotel Horeca – Fastfood restaurant
Time Out Snackcar Horeca – Snackbar Multivastgoed Administration – Project development
Potential Provides organic waste (food and/or energy cycle) Know‐how on gas systems (energy cycle) Know‐how on gas storage (energy cycle) Food preparation (food cycle) Provides fat waste (food and/or energy cycle) Food preparation (food cycle) Know‐how on project development (information layer and strategic layer)
Beyond the physical layer, in the information and strategic layer, the local availability of project development company Multivastgoed is promising, because it has know‐how on project development. Because the transformation of the Goudse Poort may involve many small scale and larger scale projects, such know‐how is needed. There are also two companies with know‐how on gas systems and gas storage, which might help in setting up a local energy cascading system. Furthermore, the Belangenvereniging Goudse Poort, Stuurgroep Goudse Poort, and the Park Management could also play a role in the revitalisation of the Goudse Poort, especially for the development of new policies that help the symbiosis links form and develop. An important aspect in the strategic layer is the future vision for the Goudse Poort that ranges until 2010. Sustainable energy is central to this vision and one of the most important aspects in this vision is a collective energy source . A master plan for underground heat storage is developed with the municipality of Gouda and the province of Zuid‐Holland for the Goudse Poort . Reduction in the energy use of the office buildings is also stimulated. Finally, advice and subsidies from the municipality are also Figure 3.5 Farm with pasture and greenhouses available if companies want to make use to the north of the Goudse Poort (across A12 of underground heat storage or take highway). other measures to reduce their primary energy use .
3.2.3 System analysis: metabolism For the analysis of the metabolism of the Goudse Poort, data from different sources was needed as the interviews with the individual companies only shed light on some types of waste, and not on the size of the streams. The complete data set that was used for the mass and energy balance calculations, the assumptions that were made and the basic calculations that were needed can be found in Appendix C1 and C2. In the text below, a summary of the outcomes of these calculations will be presented. The calculations were made with simple input‐output models of the elements in the system, which in this case are mainly office buildings. The average energy consumption for both gas and electricity was based on data from the internet for different types of buildings and assumptions were made for matching the data with the company types ,, (see Table 5 below). The same counts for the water consumption of the different types of businesses. Furthermore, the total food consumption was based on the daily average consumption of meat, fruit, vegetables, etcetera. Also, an assumption was made of the percentage of food consumed in the office, namely 60% of the daily food intake. The production of sewage sludge was based on the daily average production of faeces, again multiplied with the percentage of food consumed in the office (60%) in order to match it with the food intake. The production of green waste, mainly food waste (‘GFT’ in Dutch), was based on data of how large a percentage of the food is thrown away before it is consumed, as well as an estimation of which percentage of the food is inedible (see Appendix C1 for data and assumptions). Also, an estimation of the usable waste heat from the buildings was made. Table 5 Types of companies found in the Goudse Poort and assumptions for using data found on the internet about energy consumption and water consumption.
Company types Percentage of net in Goudse Poort area (47 ha) covered with company type Industry 45%
Amount companies Goudse Poort
Construction sector Retail
of Energy and water in consumption based on building type Same energy consumption as garage Same energy consumption as garage Half the energy consumption of ‘handelsbedrijf’ Same energy consumption as office Office
Office 34% 168 Finally, the amount of green waste brought in via Cyclus was based on an estimate of the amount of trucks (40) that would visit the site every day and the weight of the waste contained per truck (500 kg). Thus in total 20,000 kg of food waste would be brought to the Cyclus waste station in the Goudse Poort every day. This was later checked with the amount of households that have their waste collected by Cyclus; 400,000 households of which at least 50% is brought to the waste station at the Goudse Poort. One household consists on average of 2 persons, and they produce at least 100 g (low estimate) of organic waste per person per day, thus in total 40,000 kg waste for 200,000 households per day. Therefore the estimate based on the number of trucks seems to be realistic, and this figure was used in the
calculations to come up with a conservative estimate of the amount of green and food waste. All the data was combined in the model to come up with metabolism figures for the complete area of the Goudse Poort. The results of the calculations are shown in Table 6 below. The results were calculated for a work force of 5000, although estimations of 7000 were made by several sources ,. Table 6 Results of the input‐output model for the current situation of 2009 in the Goudse Poort. The figures mentioned are per year.
Company buildings Natural Gas for heating Electricity Drinking water Food ‐ Total Cyclus waste Organic waste
IN 89.5*103 MWh/year (10.7*106 m3/year) 30.1*103 MWh/year 4.7*107 L/year
Company buildings Waste heat
OUT 35.8*103 MWh/year Wastewater 4.7*107 L/year Solids in sewage 2.7*105 kg/year sludge 1.9*106 kg/year (of Food waste 2.1*105 kg/year which 10% meat) IN Cyclus waste OUT 6 7.3*10 kg/year Organic waste 7.3*106 kg/year
3.3 Cyclifiers and loop‐closing An analysis of the data from Table 6 shows that none of the streams are currently looped, and that the use of resources like energy, food, and water is very large (while the consumption of paper and other office supplies was not calculated). The amount of waste produced is also very large. The trick is now to come up with ideas to close the loops with the use of cyclifiers. It is at least clear that several important functions in the system are lacking: there is no local food production, no local energy production, and no local wastewater treatment plant. This results in large imports of these resources from outside the Goudse Poort. Furthermore, there is no energy storage unit that can for example temporarily store waste heat. In the following sections (see Section 3.3.1 until 3.3.4) the cyclifiers at the physical layer will be presented. The focus is not on the information layer and strategic layer in this report, but in Section 3.3.5 and 3.3.6 some rudimentary ideas for cyclifiers in these layers will be presented. In Section 3.4 the complete integrated design will be presented and loop‐closing calculations will be explained, which determine how large percentage of the loops can be locally or regionally closed. These calculations are based on the assumption that in the future situation of 2030 in the Goudse Poort the amount of employees will remain the same as in 2009 (5000) and that housing will be added for 1000 inhabitants, i.e. 500 households.
3.3.1 The physical layer: food Food production is an important function that is currently lacking in the Goudse Poort. Usually, imported food travels more than 2000 km from producer to consumer, and the accompanied carbon dioxide exhaust with food transport can be up to 15,000 tonne per kg product (for beef that travels almost 6000 km) ,. So the introduction of local food production will have a large impact on the carbon footprint. As was mentioned in the introductory chapter, several local food production strategies can be used, e.g. permaculture and urban farming. The local circumstances (available land and land type) and the land use (productivity) of agriculture for a large part determine the possibilities for local food production at the Goudse Poort.
To begin with, the available land for agriculture was indexed. The area of pastureland and greenhouses that is already present to the north of the Goudse Poort was calculated, and as a first estimation it was assumed that 5% of the area of the Goudse Poort could be transformed into productive green or greenhouses. The productive green could be mainly realised as a hybrid with other functions, for example car parking transferia with greenhouses on the roof. The 5% is 3 ha in total and it was assumed that 1 ha would become greenhouses and 2 ha urban farm. The total farmland available in the direct neighbourhood and inside the Goudse Poort is almost 74 ha. Table 7 Available land inside and outside the Goudse Poort. Based on either calculation or estimation.
Type of food production Greenhouses Urban farms Greenhouses Farmland Pastures
Inside Goudse Poort Inside Goudse Poort Outside Goudse Poort (to the north) or Outside Goudse Poort (to the north)
1 2 10.8
Estimation Estimation Area calculation 
Area calculation 
The next step was to see how much food the local and regional farmland could produce. An average productivity of the farmland of 25,000 kg per hectare per year was assumed, based on available data of the yield of various types of vegetables. Meat production was however not included; although it comprises only 10% of our menu, it contributes to a large part of the land use for food production, because it takes 3 to 8 kg of fodder to produce 1 kg of meat (see Appendix F1) . Thus, also a lot of farmland is needed for fodder production. Furthermore, if we would want to produce the meat in an ecological and animal friendly manner, only 2 cows are allowed per hectare, 27 pigs and 2500 chicken ,. This would mean that the pastureland outside the Goudse Poort should be transformed into arable farmland in 2030 to represent the assumptions that were made in the study. Still the average figure of 25,000 kg/ha will not be completely representative for the food production, and a more detailed calculation of the average productivity was used in the second case study based on the menu of an average person (see Chapter 3.4). This is because a large part of our menu consists of potatoes or wheat products like bread, which have considerable lower crop productivity than 25,000 kg/ha. For simplicity, this was however disregarded in the calculations of the situation of the Goudse Poort in 2030 (Section 3.4).
Figure 3.6 The Goudse Poort with urban farms and greenhouses. A new waste stream of crop residue is created inside the system.
A schematic picture of the Goudse Poort with food production included is shown in Figure 3.6 above. The picture shows that a new waste stream, namely green waste of crop leftovers is produced. Although local food production will decrease the environmental impact and carbon dioxide emissions related to worldwide transport of food, no existing loops are really closed inside the system. In such a system, the cropland will be exhausted and lean of important nutrients as the food is removed from the land as well as the crop residue. It stands out that large amounts of organic waste are available on‐site and that this is an opportunity for nutrient recycling. On the other hand, however, this available organic waste is also an opportunity for renewable and local energy production. A hybrid solution that captures both energy production and fertiliser production from green waste and sewage sludge is explained in the following text.
3.3.2 The physical layer: energy For the energy sub‐layer, different aspects are important. First of all, one should recognise that local energy for the Goudse Poort can only come about if an energy system is built that consists of an energy source, energy production, and energy storage. Cyclifiers for these three aspects will be elaborated below. In the ideal case the local energy source(s) should be renewable as was stated in the design rules in Chapter 2. The energy production itself from the energy source should be efficient and suited to the types of energy that are needed. Often a combination of electricity and heat is needed, so electricity production combined with heat production is a viable option. However, combined heat and power (CHP) technologies sometimes produce a too low heat to power ratio; a ratio of 3 to 1 for household is normal, while fuel cells for example produce the reverse ratio (1/3) . An additional heat source is needed if one chooses for fuel cells. Finally, the energy storage is an important part of the energy system, because energy is sometimes produced when it is not needed. For example, the wind does not blow all the time and the sun rises and sets every day. In the Goudse Poort only from 9 to 5 (during the regular office hours) much electricity and heat are needed. Furthermore, the energy
production and use are very local, which means that the production and use are often not matched because they will both fluctuate very much . This is a different situation than with the national electricity grid; all power stations in the Netherlands are together continuously trying to match the electricity demand, and if an imbalance occurs, we are still connected to the European power grid, so we can import electricity. An aspect that will not be elaborated here, but which is still important is considering energy use; not only the supply side of the energy system should be optimised, but also the demand side. This could mean introducing housing to the Goudse Poort area to spread the energy demand over the whole day (see Section 3.3.4), or reduction in the energy use (see Section 3.3.5 and 3.3.6).
Energy source: Biogas plant (biodigester) As an energy source, a biogas plant (also called biodigester) seemed the most logical decision; firstly, there are different sources of organic waste present at the Goudse Poort that can be the feedstock for the biogas plant, namely the sewage sludge, crop residue and organic waste from Cyclus and the office buildings. Furthermore, at the same time the digestion process of the organic waste produces a solid residue high in Nitrogen and other nutrients that can be used as a fertiliser for the urban farms and greenhouses. The basic principle of a biogas plant is that different types of micro‐organisms (bacteria) digest organic material in the absence of oxygen, i.e. anaerobic digestion ,,. Biogas consists mainly of methane (CH4, 60 Vol%) and carbon dioxide (CO2, 40 Vol%), which is formed in four main steps,,,. The different reaction steps can be seen from Figure 3.7 below.
Figure 3.7 The four major reaction steps in biogas production .
Hydrolysis is the first step, where large organic polymers of the organic waste like carbohydrates, cellulose, proteins, and fats are broken down to smaller molecules like sugars and fatty acids. The next step is acidogenesis, where the molecules are broken down further to form organic acids and carbon dioxide, hydrogen (H2), and ammonia (NH3). The gases that are formed may consist of 80% CO2 and 20% H2 . Subsequently, the acids formed are all converted into acetic acid in the acetogenesis step. The final step is methanogenesis where the acetic acid and a part of the produced CO2 and H2 are converted into methane . Around 70% of the methane is formed from fatty acids, while the remainder is produced from hydrogen and carbon dioxide . The final composition of the biogas including trace compounds can be seen from Table 8. Although the hydrogen sulphide is present in low concentrations, it should be removed to prevent corrosion or release into the environment. The most common method is a reaction with iron salts, but a more sophisticated technique is to bubble some air through the top layer of the digester slurry that promotes the growth of aerobic bacteria that can convert the hydrogen sulphide to elemental sulphur ,,.
Table 8 Composition of the biogas produced in a digester .
Compound Methane Carbon dioxide Hydrogen Nitrogen Carbon monoxide Oxygen Hydrogen sulphide
Formula CH4 CO2 H2 N2 CO O2 H2S
Vol% of biogas 40‐70 30‐60 1 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.1
The biogas yield, i.e. amount of biogas produced, and the composition of the biogas can vary significantly and depends on the type and humidity of feedstock and on the reaction conditions ,,. In Appendix C1 the average biogas yield of different types of feedstock can be found. For the calculations of the biogas production in the Goudse Poort, some assumptions were made for the different types of waste found in the Goudse Poort, as is shown in Table 9 below. Because the organic waste that Cyclus collects at the Goudse Poort is a mix of food waste from households and cuttings of the extensive green in the Gouda region , it was assumed that organic waste from Cyclus produces the average amount of biogas from these two sources. Furthermore, the cuttings of the extensive green at the Goudse Poort can also be digested; as we will see below, a helophyte filter is added to the system, which contains plants that have to be cut once in a while. Table 9 Biogas yield per tonne substrate for different types of bio waste types .
Biowaste type in Goudse Poort
Assumption for calculations
Organic waste from offices (GFT)
Same biogas production as food waste Green waste Green waste
Crop residue farms Extensive green cuttings on‐site (helophyte) Sewage sludge Organic waste from Cyclus
Cattle manure Average of food waste and green waste
m3 biogas/ tonne substrate 220 110 110 25 165
A few important variables influence the yield and composition of the biogas, as well as the quality of the solid residue and the water effluent. The most important parameters in the biodigestion process are the temperature and pH (acidity). The optimal temperature of digestion depends on the type of bacteria used; mesophilic bacteria can digest organic waste at temperatures of 10‐45°C, while thermophilic bacteria can live at temperature between 50 and 70°C ,,. Because the feed needs to be heated to the reaction temperature and the temperature should be maintained, the use of mesophilic bacteria will reduce the energy use . Often 10% of the energy content of the biogas produced is needed to maintain the reactor temperature . The temperature for mesophilic digestion is usually 30‐35°C ,. Because the methanogenic bacteria are very sensitive to temperature variations, it should vary no more than 3°C. The methanogenic bacteria are also very sensitive to the pH . The optimal pH for methanogenesis lies between 6.5 and 7.5 ,. The pH depends on the concentration of acid compounds, e.g. fatty acids and carbon dioxide . These acids are produced in the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phase, and because the reaction rate of these steps is typically higher than the methanogenic phase, acids can accumulate ,. Either the pH
should be closely monitored and adjusted if necessary, or staged digestion can be applied where the methanogenesis stage is taking place in a separate digestion tank ,. The residence time of the organic waste is another design parameter; the optimal residence time is usually between 10‐15 days, because at longer residence times the methane production levels off ,,. Finally, the slurry in the digester should be continuously stirred to maintain a high rate of reaction, prevent local build‐up of acids, and temperature gradients ,,. The process can be further optimised with the use of a proper mix of different types of feedstocks ,. The optimal feedstock has a high fat, protein, and cellulose content that are required by the microbes during fermentation. Blending of feedstocks can increase the amount of key nutrients and shift it to the desired ratio ,,,. Finally, manure from cattle and sheep already contains the methanogenic bacteria that are needed in the process ,. The degradation of the organic matter to biogas varies between 25% and 60% that remains in the digestate slurry, which consists of water and a solid residue ,. The solid residue is dewatered by mechanical pressing and dried to increase the dry matter content ,. The digestate is considered a better fertiliser than composted green waste, because of the higher percentage of immediate available nitrogen for crops, and the favourable nitrogen‐ phosphorus ratio (N/P ratio) . However, the C/N ratio (carbon‐nitrogen ratio) is also important; the nitrogen should not be too concentrated and longer‐term nitrogen release ensures that less nitrogen ends up in the water run‐off of the farms . The digestion process also decreases the amount of pathogenic bacteria that are mainly present in manure and sewage sludge ,. The pathogenic bacteria are decimated from 1024 to 108 per 100 mL . This has a positive effect on both the solid fertiliser residue and the water effluent. Water from the sewer is usually called “black water” because of the large amount of pathogens and other contaminants. The effluent of the biodigester is much cleaner and is therefore called “grey water” . The water still contains some nutrients (e.g. ammonia) that can cause eutrophication, so it cannot be dumped into the river. However, if it is treated it offers potential for reuse on‐site, because it is relatively easy to clean . A problem, however with digested sludge, especially from industry, is the presence of heavy metals like cadmium and lead and other pollutants ,,. They can adversely affect the digestion process inside the digester, as well as plant growth and soil properties when the solid residue is applied as fertiliser . The pollutants can accumulate in the environment, and especially in a looped system one should take care that persistent pollutants are not present in the wastewater. Combining all the available information on biogas production, the overall process consists of a buffer store of green waste, a thermally insulated biodigester, a biogas storage tank (see Figure 3.8), hydrogen sulphide removal and drying of the solid digestate for fertiliser production. A continuous reactor with constant in‐ and outflow was chosen as base case because of the constant stream of organic waste. It was assumed that the biogas storage was enough for 10 days . The total area needed for the biogas plant with all its elements was calculated. This included a safety distance for flammable gas storage, which is usually up to 15 m . In the integrated design step, these needed areas were compared with the available space in the Goudse Poort to see if it could be fit somewhere on the area.
Figure 3.8 A biogas plant with two digesters and storage tank (left) .
Energy production: Combined heat and power (CHP) The biogas is an energy source that can be used in different ways; for example, it can be burned for heating or electricity generation or after upgrading (removal of CO2 and trace gases) it can be distributed on the natural‐gas grid. The natural gas upgrading takes another 10% of the energy content in the biogas, and was therefore not considered in the Goudse Poort. The option that is the most energy efficient is probably by burning the biogas inside a generator and producing both energy and heat from it, i.e. combined heat and power (CHP) ,. Because generation of electricity with gas has a maximum of 40% efficiency, and the rest is waste heat, this seems a logical option; using CHP can improve the total (electrical and heat) efficiency to 80% or more ,. In the calculations an electrical efficiency of 30% and heat efficiency of 50%, thus a total of 80% was assumed. CHP units are readily available and are compact container units . The CHP unit does not only produce heat and electricity; the exhaust gas contains carbon dioxide and water. The carbon dioxide can be used in greenhouses to increase plant growth so the assumption was made that the greenhouses just outside the Goudse Poort serve as carbon sink.
Energy storage: Seasonal thermal storage Currently a lot of energy is thrown away because it is not stored; for example, when we heat up water for space heating, the water eventually leaving the building still contains much heat. Ideally, both electricity and heat should be stored, but it is quite difficult to store electricity other than in (polluting) batteries . Therefore, only storage of heat was considered of both the heat produced with the CHP unit and waste heat from the office buildings. Furthermore, the greenhouses to the north of the Goudse Poort can also take part in the heat exchange and underground thermal storage system . Currently, greenhouses are heated up during summer and when the inside temperature is too hot, windows will be opened to release the excess heat, while in winter extra heating is required to increase the temperature. Because the same counts for office buildings in summer and in winter, seasonal thermal storage is a good solution; in summer excess heat is stored that can be used in the winter. Seasonal thermal storage is most often done underground because both heat and cold can be stored conveniently. There are several possible systems for underground storage of warm and cold water; a main distinction can be made between open and closed systems . In open systems warm and cold water is stored in an aquifer, which is a water bearing sand layer in between two water‐ impermeable layers, for example clay ,. In order to store the warm and cold water in the aquifer, wells of 20m up to 200m have to be drilled to transport the water to the aquifer . Closed systems use tube systems that are usually filled with glycol and water and that
do not come in contact with the aquifer water . The closed heat and cold storage systems are of limited power (between tens to some hundreds kW), while the open aquifer systems deliver heat and cold with an equivalent power of some hundreds to thousands kW . However, most of the open systems are low temperature systems in which the water may only be heated to 25°C because of environmental considerations of the heat balance in the underground . Because space heating does not need water to be heated up to 80°C, often temperatures between 15°C and 17°C suffice ,. There are two types of open well installations, namely single and double wells. In a single well the warm well is placed above the cold well, separated by a layer to avoid mixing. A double well uses two different wells that are separated from each other . A single well system will be used when the heat and cold need is below 350 kW, while a double well system will be used when the heat and cold need is between 350‐2000 kW . The basic principle of any of these types of seasonal thermal storage is that in the summer water of around 9°C will be pumped up from the cold well and heated up to 17°C and this will be pumped into the warm well . In the winter the situation is the other way around; the water that was stored in summer will be around 15°C and it will be used to heat the building with the use of a heat exchanger . The possible savings as compared to conventional systems are between 40% and 80%, which means that conventional heating and cooling systems are still needed, but only for a part of the year and as a back‐up system ,. Because the amount of offices in the Goudse Poort is high, a prudent assumption was made that only 40% of the primary heat use (i.e. the energy content of the natural gas that is used for space heating) could be stored in the underground. Additional heat from burning the biogas can be stored underground, and it was assumed that the 50% of energy content of the biogas that is converted to heat (warm water) would first be stored underground before it would be sent to the offices. Finally it was assumed that because of the large investment of also building pipelines to greenhouses for heat exchange this option would be not exploited, and that pipelines send only CO2 rich exhaust to the greenhouses. A scheme of the system that includes the proposed energy sub‐system is shown below.
Figure 3.9 The Goudse Poort with energy system added. The water loop is not yet closed.
3.3.3 The physical layer: water In the previous section it was already explained that the biogas plant essentially purifies black water to grey water. This grey water is however not yet of drinking water quality and some sort of subsequent purifying step is necessary. A natural water purifying facility that combines spatial qualities (the presence of plants and water) with functional water treatment is a helophyte filter . The filter consists of a water body with sand at the bottom, on which different types of water plants grow; e.g. reed ,. At the bottom anaerobic processes with anaerobic bacteria take place that convert nutrients and clean the water. Aerobic processes for further degradation of organic material take place at a depth up to 70 cm, because the plant roots provide the water with oxygen ,. The effluent water is clean enough for swimming . For black water treatment approximately 4 m2 helophyte filter per person is needed . If black water is treated also an anaerobic pre‐digestion step in a septic tank is needed ,. In the septic tank the same process takes place as in the biodigester with the difference that the methane produced is released in the atmosphere. However, because the pre‐treatment of the water effectively already takes place in the biodigester, no septic tank is needed. Because the water effluent of the biogas plant is grey water, only 1 m2 helophyte filter per person is necessary . There is probably already enough water present in the Goudse Poort (see Section 3.4) to clean all the effluent wastewater; the ditches are however not connected with each other yet. There is only one remaining problem, as was said before; wastewater may contain heavy metals. As long as they are in the wastewater, they need to be removed in some way. Technologies like ion‐exchange can remove heavy metals from the helophyte filter or biogas plant effluent to ensure that the water is potable . The final looped system of the Goudse Poort is shown in the figure below.
Figure 3.10 Final looped system of the Goudse Poort.
3.3.4 The physical layer: the built environment Regarding the built environment it was decided to introduce a new building typology, namely housing. One advantage is that it creates some diversity, especially in energy use;
the peak of energy use for offices is during office hours, while households mainly use energy outside of office hours. Because the local CHP facility is only small it would be most efficient to let the facility run continuously. With adding housing to the Goudse Poort, the energy production will be matched more to the actual use. Another advantage is that the thermal mass of the underground seasonal thermal storage is increased; more heat and cold stored in the underground means that the temperature change of the hot and cold water is smaller because of decreased leakage of cold or heat to the soil. It was assumed that there will be 1000 inhabitants in 2030 in the Goudse Poort and these were also included in the calculations of which the results are presented in Section 3.4.
3.3.5 The information layer: money, policy, culture and knowledge Regarding the information layer, money, policy, culture and knowledge will only be mentioned shortly. It must however be kept in mind that the information and strategic layer are just as important as the physical layer. If no or not enough action is taken on these levels, the eco‐industrial park can never come about.
Money There are different aspects of the local economy. The first aspect is the transaction costs within the Goudse Poort. The transaction costs of exchanging waste and energy might be reduced with the use of information systems (see below) . Furthermore, there might be some economies of scale for the cyclifiers added to the system . A good example is the biogas plant; if there is enough space, over‐dimensioning of the biogas plant might be profitable because then all the organic waste collected by Cyclus of over 400,000 households can then be digested in the biogas plant. The reason is that a larger biogas reactor will only marginally increase the investment costs and operating costs . The successful projects that can be started up directly are the ones with clear economic benefits and low economic risks . For the biogas plant, a disadvantage is that building it costs a considerable capital investment but the advantage is that the payback time will be only around 4‐5 years . Another advantage is that a potential of €0.35/m3 of clean water and nutrients (fertiliser) can be recovered from the sewage water (excluding the biogas value) . The underground seasonal thermal storage also requires a large investment, but it also has a short payback time of around 7 years ,. Finally, the local economy and the investments that are necessary for the projects can be given a boost by using a local exchange trading system (LETS) creating a service exchange network. In this LETS system a local currency ‘Gouds Goud’ can be used for transactions and investments in the local economy. The first step of realising this local economy is to set up the participation organisation ‘Goudse Cyclus’. In this participation organisation the different companies of the Goudse Poort and other stakeholders like the municipality of Gouda take part. The investment cycle starts with investments of this organisation for building a biogas plant to convert organic waste to energy (see Figure 3.11, step 1). Also an infrastructure is needed for transport of the energy to the office buildings (step 2 and 3). The infrastructure is funded with the income from the biogas plant and other commerce. These sustainable investments will attract new investors that can invest their money in transformation of some of the offices to houses and building parking transferia with greenhouses.
Figure 3.11 Proposed investment cycle of the Goudse Poort with the local currency ‘Gouds Goud’. At the lower left corner the new investors are depicted, while at the top the local investors of the participation organisation are depicted.
Culture There are many aspects to the culture in the system, but an important one for companies in an eco‐industrial park is to find some common ground or goal for change and to reduce mental distances. A strategy is for example to create a mechanism that aims at training and educating managers and workers in new strategies, tools and technologies to improve the system collectively .
Knowledge An important aspect that is important for exchange of materials and energy is information – this was found out when detailed information about the waste of different companies was hard to find. In the ideal case an information system would be built that facilitates the flow of energy and materials in closed loops . The information system can be anonymous to ensure confidentiality as long as the information on the type of stream is clear. The information technology in an eco‐industrial park should include three components, namely the data itself, a data storage and retrieval system, and a data analysis system . The first two components facilitate information exchange and loop closing, while the third component provides an additional feature; data analysis systems employed with information from environmental monitoring technologies provide so‐called ‘biofeedback’ of the state of the system, just like neurological systems in organisms . The system becomes ‘self‐aware’ and ‘intelligent’, which has a very high value as it maintains relationships between the members in the system and supports further progress.
Policy In order to facilitate the looping of energy and materials, the regulations should permit some flexibility . For example, regulations that are very strict about waste disposal and wastewater treatment are not flexible enough to accommodate exchange of waste between different parties; in current regulations it might not even be allowed. Another aspect of policy is legal and political support. The best way to encourage companies to start actively trying to close loops is by offering them support and information about the possibilities and how they can start with these activities; for example, if environmental or construction permits are needed, the companies can be supported by the municipality to go through the procedures faster .
3.3.6 The strategic layer: users In the strategic layer the users (or companies) present in the Goudse Poort are the most important. It was tried to connect parties to the different cyclifiers, or to each other, because stakeholder involvement is the motor of change . The different companies with this potential that were already identified in Section 3.2, are shown again in Table 10, but now the proposed function (in the system of Figure 3.10) is also included. Furthermore companies inside the system can also be strategically linked with suppliers and customers in the wider community, i.e. the region . This was already proposed with the supply of carbon dioxide rich exhaust to the greenhouses outside the Goudse Poort. The participation organisation of the Goudse Poort could be the platform on which these cyclifier activities take place and are developed over time. Finally, the marketing or strategic positioning of the Goudse Poort could be such that its marketing will attract companies that fill niches (vacancies for cyclifiers) and complement other niches . Table 10 Proposed functions for different companies that were identified as potential hosts of important cyclifier activities.
Company name Cyclus
Sector Waste collection
Retail – Measurement installations for gas, mixing gases Retail – Gasoline, LPG
Proposed function Collects organic waste for the biogas plant Development and running of the biogas plant
Facilitates storage of the biogas either at the biogas plant or at the gas station Campanile Hotel Horeca – Hotel Food catering service for locally produced food McDonalds Horeca – Fastfood Provides fat waste for biogas restaurant production to increase the yield Time Out Snackcar Horeca – Snackbar Food grown in local greenhouses will be sold by SnackFarm Time Out Multivastgoed Administration – Project Developing a new program to development convert office buildings to houses.
3.4 Integration and the complete design In the previous sections the different elements of the design of a closed‐loop Goudse Poort were elaborated. Figure 3.10 shows the complete system at the physical level, while also the system design at the information and strategic level were explained. However, there are still some aspects to be addressed before the design can be called ‘complete’. The first aspect is calculating the streams in the new system and to see how effective the cyclifiers are, i.e. how large a percentage of the needs for e.g. energy and food can be provided locally. The second issue is related to the space that is locally available at the Goudse Poort, and how much space the new elements in the system will take. The third issue is calculating the percentages of local, regional, national, and global streams in the new system to compare this with the old system. A final important point is the time dimension; an eco‐industrial park takes years to develop, and a decision should be made on which cyclifiers should be introduced first. This decision depends on two contradicting things; on the one hand, the cyclifier(s) with the largest positive influence on the system should be introduced first. On the other hand, the gradual change of the system should be taken into account, which
means that the cyclifier that leaves enough future possibilities open should be introduced first.
3.4.1 Metabolic calculations Similar to the calculations for the Goudse Poort in 2009, metabolic calculations were performed for the system in 2030. As was explained in the previous section the calculations for the Goudse Poort in 2030 are based on the assumptions that there will be 5000 employees and 1000 inhabitants. The calculations were done with the assumption that the energy use per employee or per household in 2030 will be similar to the energy use in 2009; i.e. no measures are taken for energy saving in the 2030 system. An overview of the percentage of the stream (food, heat, electricity, and water) that is locally produced or recycled is given in Table 11 below (A comparison between 2009 and 2030 is given in the next section, where the percentages local/regional and national/international for the different streams are given). The cyclifiers that were added to the system will take care that a large part of the streams will become locally looped. Although it seems from Figure 3.10 that the streams are completely looped, this will in fact not be the case as the table shows. A more realistic technical metabolic scheme of the final looped system can be found in Appendix D. However, the data in the table below are not complete; in the calculations the fat waste from McDonalds was not included in the biogas production, because it was hard to make an estimate of the amount of fat waste that they produce, in contrast to the organic waste from Cyclus. Thus if this fat waste was included, the biogas yield could be much higher, which means that a larger part of the electricity and heat need could be satisfied with the CHP unit that burns the biogas. Table 11 Percentages of local production within the Goudse Poort boundaries for the different streams. Calculations can be found in Appendix C2.
Stream type Food Heat Electricity Water CO2
Specification stream Local urban farms and greenhouses (3ha) Underground seasonal thermal storage of waste heat from the buildings CHP – heat from burning biogas CHP – electricity from burning biogas Water filtered with helophyte filter Percentage of local CO2 need greenhouses satisfied with CO2 from CHP
% of total in 2030 4 40 3.4 6.2 100 100
A next step (i.e. after including all the data of the cyclifiers) could be to do an optimisation of the system; for example, the biogas plant could be optimised for maximum biogas output because the energy output of the plant is not enough for the Goudse Poort, while the output of fertiliser is high enough for the local farms and greenhouses inside and just outside the Goudse Poort. Caution should be maintained here; it is not clear whether the biogas yields found in the different sources are correct, and a rather conservative estimate was made. It even seems that some existing biogas projects have a much higher biogas yield and can therefore provide many more households with energy than with the Goudse Poort case study ,. Furthermore, there is a trade‐off between fertiliser quality and biogas yield: the higher the biogas yield, the higher the degradation of organic material. A higher degradation of the organic material could compromise the quality of the fertiliser; especially the C/N ratio will be below the optimum value. A too low C/N ratio will increase the release of nitrogen from
the fertiliser and this will increase the risk of run‐off of the nutrients to the groundwater, because the crops cannot take up the nutrients so fast .
3.4.2 Locality of the streams After the metabolic calculations of the Goudse Poort in 2030 were finished, some additional calculations were made to be able to compare the locality of the streams in 2009 to 2030; for example it was calculated how large a percentage of the food comes from across the globe, from national sources, regional sources (Gouda area), and local sources (Goudse Poort) in 2030 as compared to 2009. The results are shown in Table 12 below. The percentages in the table are mainly based on guesses (mainly for national and global streams), and were only refined with the second case study of MSP in Heerlen, where for example data on import of energy was used. The table however gives a nice indication of how the percentages will shift when local production of food, energy, and water is introduced. Table 12 Locality of the streams in 2009 as compared to 2030. Calculations can be found in Appendix C2. The out stream of heat is waste heat production. Local (%) Regional (%) National (%) Global (%) 2009 2030 2009 2030 2009 2030 2009 2030
Food Heat Electricity Drinking water
0 0 0 0
4 43 6 100
‐ 57 ‐ 100
2 0 0 100
‐ 0 ‐ 100
68 0 6 0
‐ 0 ‐ 0
50 100 80 0
‐ 0 ‐ 0
14 57 74 0
‐ 0 ‐ 0
48 0 20 0
‐ 0 ‐ 0
14 0 20 0
‐ 0 ‐ 0
‐ 100 ‐ 0
3.4.3 Spatial implications Another important aspect of the design of the Goudse Poort system in 2030 is whether there is enough space available at the Goudse Poort to place the cyclifiers somewhere. Therefore some calculations were made to find out how much space the different cyclifiers take. The results are shown in Table 13 below. Furthermore, decisions were made on where to put the different cyclifiers, as can be seen from Figure 3.12 below, where the cyclifiers are shown with different numbers. As can be seen from the figure, there is enough space in the Goudse Poort to accommodate for the cyclifiers; the total area of the dark green shaded roofs is used for urban farming and is 2 ha. The amount of water for the helophyte filter should be extended, and this was done by removing one building and let the water flow in between the buildings, as is shown in the middle of the figure. Because the water gives a good quality to the surroundings, it is proposed to build the houses around this water body. Table 13 Space needed for the different cyclifiers. Assumptions and calculations can be found in Appendix C1 and C2.
Space needed (m2)
Urban farms Greenhouses
Area: 2 ha, on rooftops 20,000 Area: 1 ha, on top of 10,000 parking transferia Biogas plant ‐ 10 days solids/liquid 2,536 production volume
Location map 1 2 3
1/10 day gas volume, height of 30 m, one tank Biogas plant ‐ 10 days gas volume at 14 storage bar, above ground, next to biogas plant, height of tank 10 m, safety distance of 10 m  CHP unit 600 kW unit  Helophyte filter Grey water as inflow, 1 m2 per person needed  Underground No assumptions made heat storage
Figure 3.12 Location of the different cyclifiers. The urban farms (1) are located on all the dark green shaded rooftops.
The spatial arrangement in the figure was chosen with common sense and during group discussions. However, the natural flow of water with gravity was not taken into account; ideally, gravity is used for water flow. Only a small difference in height is necessary to enable flow. For example, water in the helophyte filter could flow from high (dirty) to low (clean) and then be pumped back to the different buildings. In the second case study of MSP in Heerlen, the natural watercourse was taken into account, which resulted in a much more detailed design; also rainwater capture and buffering was included.
3.4.4 Timeline Finally, an important aspect of the design for 2030 of the Goudse Poort is how to get there. In other words, what is the timeline towards the system that was presented above? A first answer could be found by looking at the importance and impact of the different cyclifiers. When the 2030 system is regarded in this way, it immediately becomes clear that the biogas plant is an important element in the system, because it ties together many different streams (food waste, energy, and water). Furthermore, a large part of the input for the biogas plant is already available, namely organic waste from cyclus and the sewage sludge. It is therefore desirable to start with the development of the biogas plant and biogas storage. The CHP unit can be put in place at the same time; it is usually only a container that can be bought off the shelf . Because the effluent of the biogas plant needs to be treated on‐site it would save costs to have the helophyte filter finished by the time the biogas plant is ready. After the helophyte filter the seasonal thermal storage can be built; gradually more and more offices and households can be connected to the seasonal thermal storage. A right time for buildings to connect to such a system is if the warm water system needs to be replaced anyway or the building transformed, because of lower investment costs . It can also depend on the amount of money that is available and whether people or companies can get a subsidy. Local food production can be developed in a later stage; it only provides a small percentage of the food need, and the fertiliser that is produced in the biogas plant can be sold to
greenhouses and farmland1 to the north of the Goudse Poort and in a later stage the fertiliser can also be used at the urban farms and parking transferia with greenhouses inside the Goudse Poort. The same counts for the carbon dioxide produced in the CHP unit. It is however very difficult to decide on the exact order of putting the elements in the system, because of the many unknowns like new technology, financial development of the Goudse Poort, etcetera. Moreover, as was said before, the integrated design is not a blueprint that should be followed up but it is more a future scenario. As we know, Kalundborg was not designed but evolved gradually over time because the conditions turned out to be favourable for such a development. Since then, different try‐outs for planned eco‐ industrial parks have been executed, but none has been realised at this time. Furthermore, the proposed cyclifiers are only a few of the many cyclifiers possible. Therefore it might not even be appropriate to make an exact timeline, because that would give the impression that the result of the design strategy is a blueprint, while it is not.
Assuming that the pastureland to the north of the Goudse Poort will be transformed into farmland to provide for the food need of the Goudse Poort.
4 Case‐study MSP Heerlen In this chapter the second case study will be presented. The case study is an urban district in Heerlen, in the province of Limburg. MSP stands for Meezenbroek, Schaesbergerveld, and Palemig; two neighbourhoods of Heerlen and a small village that is very close to it. The neighbourhoods consist of old mining colonies and since the mines were closed in the 1970s the neighbourhoods have been in decline; many socio‐economic problems exist and the population is expected to decline in the future . There is money available to transform the district, but before the transformation can be started it was realised that future visions of a desired outcome of the transformation are necessary. Therefore ‘Atelier Rijksbouwmeester’ asked five architectural bureaus to come up with future visions of ‘the sustainable city in 2040’ while studying five different areas in the Netherlands; 2012Architects was asked to look at MSP in Heerlen. Atelier Rijksbouwmeester is the advisory body of the ministry of VROM (traffic, spatial planning, and the environment) that gives advice about the housing policy of the government . This chapter has the same structure as the previous chapter with the case study of the Goudse Poort, and will follow the IE design sequence (Chapter 2); In the first section some background information about MSP will be given. In Section 4.2 the system is analysed, while in Section 4.3 cyclifiers are found and the loops are closed. Finally in Section 4.4 an integrated design is presented. Many of the same cyclifiers will be used as in the Goudse Poort case‐study, and because the design sequence and its way of application is also shown before, this chapter will be much more to the point than the previous chapter. The main purpose of this chapter is to show that the design sequence can easily be applied to any type of neighbourhood. It also serves as reference to compare the outcomes of two case studies. This comparison will be made in Chapter 5. Finally, the metabolic calculations were refined in the case study of MSP to make the outcome of the calculations more accurate.
4.1 Background information MSP is a district to the northeast of the old city centre of Heerlen. The railway separates MSP from the centre of Heerlen . Figure 4.1 shows a map of MSP; the village to the north, Palemig, is a historical village that already existed before 1800. Until the 1920s the historical core of Schaesbergerveld developed, which is the lower left corner of the S‐ triangle in the figure. The lower right corner of Schaesbergerveld contains a cluster of monumental buildings built in 1905‐1907 built by the mines of Oranje Nassau, colony Leenhof, to accommodate for dwellings of the many mineworkers in that period . Between 1920 and 1930 the next mining colony Meezenbroek was built, which was located around the ‘M’ in the figure. The rest of the Meezenbroek and Schaesbergerveld neighbourhoods were mostly built as living quarters between 1940 and 1960. Between 1960 and 1980 only Palemig was extended with new houses, and after 1980 only a few more houses and apartment complexes were built in MSP . Current plans are to build a ring road from the southeast corner of MSP along the castle and around Palemig to the northwest corner of MSP . An impression of what MSP currently looks like is shown in Figure 4.2. The problems in the neighbourhoods are various ,; the average income in MSP is much lower than the average in Holland, and in Meezenbroek and Schaesbergerveld even much lower than in Heerlen. Furthermore, the amount of people without a job and living on the state is also much higher than the average in Heerlen and the rest of the Netherlands.
Finally, the average education of the inhabitants is also low. In the neighbourhoods problems like drugs dealing and other crimes like burglary are also present. The quality of the public space is low, and cultural, recreational, and educational facilities are not optimal. An additional problem is that MSP is one of the first districts in Holland to have a declining population; between 2003 and 2007 it declined with 6.5% and in the coming years a decline of around 20% is expected ,,.
Figure 4.1 Plan of MSP Heerlen. At the left a drawing is shown with the different neighbourhoods Meezenbroek, Schaesbergerveld, and Palemig indicated with an M, S, and P, respectively. At the right a Google maps picture with the system boundaries is shown (black line) .
In 2007 MSP was denoted as an area that needs special attention of the government (often called Vogelaar‐wijk after the minister that chose them). From then on a lot of action plans were made and partly executed . These plans focus on the revitalisation of the neighbourhoods in a variety of ways, for example boosting the local economy, demolishing and replacing old buildings, and building a centre for education (“brede maatschappelijke voorziening”). This centre for education will be built at the southern border of Schaesbergerveld and a few old schools will be demolished. The plans for the buildings are demolishing 759 houses between 2007 and 2020, construction of 414 new houses and renovating 470 houses (see Section 4.3.2) . A total of 180 million Euros is available in the period of 2008‐2020, of which most comes from the public housing companies .
Figure 4.2 Atmosphere impression of a part of MSP, Schaesbergerveld, showing apartment buildings and row houses with large backyards.
The assignment of the rijksbouwmeester was to develop visions for a sustainable city in 2040 providing many possible solution directions that can be implemented in the existing policies . The scale of the assignment was on the urban level, not on the individual
building level. The starting point of the research was a scenario with a moderate decline in the amount of inhabitants, because it was considered undesirable to let a steep decline in inhabitants take place.
4.2 System boundaries and system analysis 4.2.1 System boundaries and system diagram In the first step of the IE design sequence the boundaries were chosen as is shown in Figure 4.1, containing a total area of 356 hectares. These boundaries include MSP, but were expanded somewhat in order to also include a silversand mine of Sigrano to the north of Heerlen, the biggest source of silversand for computer chip production in the world . The system boundaries include currently 6900 inhabitants , the silversand mine, 105 ha farmland and pastures, elementary and secondary schools, a biological school and a number of small companies like hairdressers, supermarkets, etcetera. A list of these companies is shown in Appendix E. The system also includes nature (forest), much extensive green and other nature at the edges, and the ruins of a castle (south‐east corner of the system). To the upper northwest border, an old stone rubble hill can be found, containing old rocks that were removed from the surrounding mines in the area. A schematic drawing of the system can be seen from Figure 4.3 below, and an iconographic scheme is shown in Figure 4.4
Figure 4.3 Schematic drawing of the current MSP system and the most important sub‐systems. The black dotted lines indicate the system boundaries. The green flows are organic flows of food and organic waste. The red lines indicate energy flows, the blue lines water, and the black lines other resources.
Figure 4.4 Iconographic scheme of the MSP system, with the system boundaries in the shape of the area. The food stream is split into meat products and other products because of the differences in productivity and land use per hectare (pasture versus farmland).
4.2.2 System analysis: locality The local and regional circumstances of the MSP Heerlen area were analysed, to be able to identify the possibilities for connecting different streams. Besides the houses and its inhabitants that comprise the largest part of the buildings, other elements and actors with a potential as cyclifier were analysed, see Table 4 (a list of the local companies is located in Appendix E). The main possibilities for cyclifiers are in the area of food production; a large amount of farmland is already available in the system and there is a biological school. One of the current qualities of the area is the large amount of green (both nature and extensive green); this quality should be maintained, even when food is locally produced. Another potential is the old dried up creeks that can be used as irrigation canals or for water purification. Furthermore, the sand from the sand pit can be used for the production of solar cells, which can be applied in MSP. There is a regional solar cell producer available in Heerlen, Solland Solar, thus local production of these solar cells is possible. There are also old mining shafts in the region and in the MSP area itself, which can provide underground seasonal thermal storage. Finally, there are a few sources of construction material available, which is handy when new buildings are constructed. Analysing beyond the physical layer, there is money available for the transformation of MSP, and it also gets a lot of attention from the media, which could increase the transformation speed and give MSP a kind of pilot project function of which the experience could be applied to other areas in the Netherlands . Table 14 Different actors and elements with potential as cyclifier in and around MSP.
Actor or element inside MSP Farmland and pasture land Old dried up creeks
Potential Local food production, both groceries and meat, adapted to the local need Irrigation canals, water purification
Biological school Empty buildings Material from demolished buildings Hill with mining rubble Sigrano silversand mine
Hosting food production, education of people to become farmer Can be used for a variety of functions, e.g. food production Source of construction material
Source of construction material Delivers very high quality sand; highest quality is used for chip fabrication. Lower quality could be used for the production of solar cells, while lowest quality could be used as construction material or for a helophyte filter , Education centre (to be Local knowledge centre, e.g. information on new projects, state built) of current projects Actor or element Potential outside MSP Additional farmland Regional food production Solland solar cells b.v. Producing solar cells for MSP  Heerlen Old mining shafts Underground seasonal thermal storage
4.2.3 System analysis: metabolism The metabolism calculations for MSP were much more refined and complicated as compared to the Goudse Poort. Again simple input‐output models were used for a population of 6900 people, and an estimated 400 people in offices and 3000 people going to schools daily. The details of the assumptions and calculations can be found in Appendix F1 and F2. The results of the calculations are shown in Table 6 below. Table 15 Results of the input‐output model for the current situation in MSP. The figures mentioned are per year.
Households, schools and offices Natural Gas for heating Electricity Drinking water
Food ‐ Total
4.6*104 MWh/year (4.1*106 m3/year) 2.1*104 MWh/year 3.5*108 L/year
Households, schools OUT and offices Waste heat 1.8*104 MWh/year Wastewater 3.5*108 L/year Solids in sewage 5.5*105 kg/year sludge Food waste 1.5*106 kg/year
4.3 Cyclifiers and loop‐closing In the current MSP system it is clear that none of the streams are looped; a striking example is the farmland that is available in the neighbourhood. None of the food produced there is processed in the MSP neighbourhood. Instead it is transported to somewhere else, and comes back to the supermarkets, among those of MSP, via another route. Similar to the Goudse Poort case study, the elements that are lacking are local food production, local energy production, and local wastewater and organic waste treatment. In MSP there are some additional or different opportunities as was explained above. In the following sections first the cyclifiers at the physical layer will be elaborated; the information layer and strategic layer will only be mentioned shortly. The metabolic calculations of the system in 2040 will be presented in Section 4.4, based on 6000 inhabitants (instead of 6900).
4.3.1 The physical layer: food, energy, and water In the following text mainly the additional (or different) cyclifiers as compared to the Goudse will be elaborated. For example, in the water system rainwater capture was added, in the food system local production of fish, and in the energy system local production of solar cells.
Local food production is an important element in the MSP system, similar to the Goudse Poort. However, in the MSP case study it was decided to take a more realistic starting point for food production. This means that local meat and egg production was included in the calculations, in order to match the food production more accurately with the actual diet of the average person. Furthermore, it was also assumed that a vegetable and fruit mix would be grown that was also closer to the average diet. The result was that the metabolic calculations (also the ones that were presented before for the current system) were not based on an average assumed production of 25,000 kg vegetables per hectare, but on the actual production per type of vegetable (see Appendix F1 and F2 for details). With the meat and egg production a slightly different approach was taken; especially the beef production is very inefficient in terms of meat production to fodder ratio and amount of land needed per kg animal . Because of the limited amount of farmland and pastureland available in MSP, a more optimal mix of animal types was sought, despite the fact that a significant part of the meat on our menu consists of beef. Besides the production of meat, the same cyclifiers were added as in the Goudse Poort; additional urban farms and farmland in 2040 will be introduced in addition to the existing farmland. Furthermore greenhouses were added to the system, which can be conveniently placed between the house blocks that currently have a large backyard. Thus the individual backyards will become public space where food is produced. These house‐greenhouse combinations have an additional benefit in terms of energy as will be explained below. The greenhouses can be built from old window frames from the buildings that are broken down in the coming decade, as will be explained in Section 4.3.2. Two extra cyclifiers were added for food production in the MSP system, which are mushroom apartment buildings and fishponds. A part of the apartment buildings will be broken down in the next decades; however, before the buildings are torn down there is often a period where the buildings are standing empty and unused. During this period the buildings can be used for mushroom production; they grow fast, don’t need light, and have a very high yield per hectare because they grow all‐year round ,,. Another cyclifier is introducing fishponds for additional meat production. Fishponds can either be combined with greenhouses, providing nutrient rich water for the crops , or with the existing water body of the exhausted part of the silversand pit. If a helophyte filter is introduced the fish could also swim there. Depending on the choices made the fish could be cultivated on a more commercial scale with a higher yield or mainly for sport fishermen. An additional advantage of introducing fish into the system is that the water quality can be monitored with the type of fish that swim in the water . Assumptions about the amount and type of animals and hectares of farmland and fishponds are presented in Section 4.4, and in Appendix F1 while Figure 4.7 shows the completely looped system of MSP including local food production.
For MSP, again the three main aspects of an energy system were regarded, namely an energy source, energy production, and energy storage. The cyclifiers that were found for
these aspects are largely the same as in the previous case study; there are however some interesting additional possibilities due to the local circumstances. As energy source again a biogas plant was chosen, because of local availability of sewage sludge and organic waste from the households, and local and regional crops residue and animal manure from the farms. Moreover, besides biogas production, the production of fertiliser and grey water at the same time was seen as a major advantage of this cyclifier. A CHP unit will also be added to the system to produce heat and electricity from the biogas coming from the digester. Besides energy, the CHP unit provides CO2 that can be fed to the greenhouses. In MSP an additional energy source was considered; the sun. With the use of photovoltaic solar cells, sunlight can be directly transformed into electricity. Because of the local availability of silversand and the regional presence of a PV solar cell manufacturer, this was seen as a showcase of how the local and regional economy could be given an impulse by manufacturing PV solar cells for MSP in Heerlen. At the same time a large part of the electricity need of MSP could be provided with these solar cells. Regarding energy storage, again underground seasonal thermal storage was considered as one of the best options. The local circumstances in MSP are ideal for underground thermal storage; the whole area is an old mining area with old mine shafts still present. Although some of the mines were filled with mining rubble after closure, the shafts already exist and no drilling would be required for the underground heat storage. The mines are often already filled with water that becomes warmer at higher depths . This is already demonstrated in a minewater project to the northwest of Heerlen, in Heerlerheide, where the previous coalmine Oranje‐Nassau (ON) III and I are used; warm water of 28°C from a depth of 700 m is pumped up from ON III, and water of 17°C from a depth of 250 m comes from ON I ,. MSP could also be connected to these mineshafts, but it is more convenient to use ON II and ON IV that are within the borders of MSP, on the Sigrano property to the north . The minewater has already the desired temperature and can be used immediately, but in the future the thermal balance could be maintained with heat storage in the summer and removing cold water, and the other way around in winter. The greenhouses attached to the houses provide an extra energy benefit in this way; they catch sunlight that heats up the greenhouses. In the summer the excess heat can be stored in the minewater, while in the winter the greenhouses provide an extra energy buffer, lowering the energy use of the houses attached to the greenhouses.
In the water system of MSP, grey wastewater from the biodigester will be treated in a helophyte filter. Also some other water cyclifiers where added and elaborated in more detail. First of all, for such a large system as MSP with local food production, a lot of water is needed, which cannot be provided by the wastewater from households alone. Therefore a local water system for the agriculture was designed that included rainwater capture and buffering. It was assumed that the buffering would take place partly in the old creeks, but for the largest part as an additional 30 cm of water on the silversand lake (see Appendix F1). The spatial arrangement of the combined system of the helophyte filter and the water buffering was based on the natural flow of the water if the creeks would be filled, as can be seen from Figure 4.5 and will become clear in the final spatial design in Section 4.4. Both the rainwater and grey water will flow naturally from high to low. This means that the biodigester should be placed on a high point. For the rainwater an underground tunnel should be dug underneath the ridge on which Palemig stands towards the silversand lake. If
the buffered rainwater from the lake is needed, it can be pumped back by mechanical means. Some issues should be discussed here; firstly, nutrient rich flows should be separated from other flows in the ideal case . The nutrient rich grey water from the biodigester can thus be used for irrigation of the farmland, and flow to the helophyte filter after use. To slow down the speed of the water, irrigation terraces will be used that are made from construction materials found in the system. Furthermore, the rainwater usually goes through the sewage system, which dilutes the sewage sludge. It was assumed that gradually less rainwater would go to the sewer, and more of this water was buffered for the use in households. Another issue is that in the current sewage system black water from the toilets and the other grey water is mixed, which makes a dewatering step in the biodigester necessary. If these two types of streams are separated beforehand, this would save a lot of trouble and the grey water could be used for irrigation immediately. In the final design it was tried to form an integrated water system, that has additional spatial qualities; the water will Figure 4.5 Water bodies present in and become a new central axis with a natural around MSP. The dashed blue line is an view, room for flora and fauna, and underground part of the natural creeks. The recreational value. creeks are currently mostly dried up.
4.3.2 The physical layer: the built environment Regarding the built environment, three main strategies where chosen that could support the cyclifiers; the first one, the mushroom apartment buildings, was already explained before. Thus empty buildings can be temporarily or permanently used for food production, extending its lifetime and preventing decay of the neighbourhood because of the presence of empty buildings. The second strategy is to reuse the building materials of the buildings that will be demolished in the coming years for the new system (see Figure 4.6 below); window frames will be used for building greenhouses, bricks and old pavement will be used for the irrigation terraces, and bricks and old mining rubble from the hill to the north can be used for construction of new buildings or restoration of the castle. Low quality sand from the sand pit and the hill can also be used for the helophyte filters. The third strategy is to reduce the amount of roads and pavement; a part of the roads will be removed, because it was assumed that the space is needed for food production and water buffering. The cars can park in more central parking lots, e.g. in empty buildings.
Type Bricks Balconies Glass façade Complex façade Garage Gallery Roofing
Amount of material (m2) 48833 12139 3119 504 2640 7920 24279
Figure 4.6 Map of the buildings that are currently nominated for demolition. Red: will be demolished within a year. Orange: within 1‐4 year. Green: within 5‐10 year. An estimation of the type and amount of material that can be harvested from these buildings is shown in the table at the right.
4.3.3 The information layer and the strategic layer Because of the nature of the assignment of the rijksbouwmeester, the focus was mostly on the physical layer and less on the information layer and strategic layer. There are however some things that could be said about these layers. For example, there is a lot of money available that could be used for initiating the transformation of MSP to a sustainable district. This money might not even be needed, because the cyclifiers can pay back the investments that were made; either they save money, generate money, or both. For example new jobs become available to the local residents, who generate income from this. The municipality will then save a lot of social support money because there are less unemployed. To realise this, the local culture would have to change to an attitude of “prosumer”, where the locals are producer and consumer of food, energy, etcetera at the same time. On the basis of this scenario, a local money cycle scenario from 2010 to 2040 was included in the final poster presentation that shows how more and more money is generated within the local economy. The local culture could also be strengthened by the local fishponds; fishing is a social and recreational activity. The mine water project is another source of pride that could provide the neighbourhoods with a local identity.
4.4 Integration and the complete design In the following text the complete design will be presented that combines the elements described in the previous sections. The metabolism of the 2040 MSP system will be presented, the spatial implications of introducing the cyclifiers, the percentages of local, regional, national, and global streams, and finally a discussion will be held about a timeline.
4.4.1 Metabolic calculations Below in Figure 4.7 the final looped system of MSP is given. Not all the streams are completely looped as the results below show, as well as the more realistic technical metabolic scheme that can be found in Appendix G.
The assumptions and calculations for MSP in 2040 are presented in Appendix F1 and F2. The results – an overview of the percentage of each stream that is locally produced or recycled – are given in Table 11 below.
Figure 4.7 Final looped system of MSP Heerlen.
Table 16 Percentages of local production within MSP boundaries for the different streams. Calculations can be found in Appendix F2.
Stream type Food Heat Electricity Water CO2
% of total in 2040 (Urban) farms and greenhouses, mushroom 24 apartments Underground seasonal thermal storage in mines 40 CHP – heat from burning biogas 5.2 CHP – electricity from burning biogas 6.6 Solar cells electricity 79 Water filtered with helophyte filter and reused 99 Rainwater buffering Percentage of total local CO2 need satisfied with 35 CO2 from CHP
This time some more problems popped up during the calculations. This is partly due to the fact that MSP is a larger system than the Goudse Poort and is more complex. Other problems were related to the more detailed calculations and the basis or starting point of the assumptions. For the final presentation of the assignment assumptions were made
about energy reduction, use of electric cars, etcetera; and they were detailed for every ten years between 2010 and 2040. These assumptions were nice for the final presentation, but were not included in the calculations presented in this report; the first reason is that in such a case it is harder to compare with the current situation and see how large a percentage of a stream is closed locally, but the main reason is that these assumptions were not considered from the start and it would take a lot of time to build the assumptions in the model afterwards. It should be noted that it was already hard to compare the MSP system of 2010 with 2040, because the extra elements in the system make new streams available while using others. For example, agriculture uses large amounts of water, while rainwater buffering has a large potential for providing water. A related problem was again the optimisation in the system; it would be even harder than before because of the many cyclifiers in the system. Every time a cyclifier is added, ‘old’ streams are used and transformed into new ones.
4.4.2 Locality The results of the locality of streams are shown in Table 12 below; the percentages are based on the assumption that the energy use in 2040 is similar to 2009 (so no electric cars, energy use reduction, etcetera). Table 17 Locality of the streams in 2009 as compared to 2040. The heat stream out is waste heat. The local food stream out is food that is exported from MSP to a regional food distribution centre (not going to the neighbourhood)
Global (%) 2009 2040
National (%) 2009 2040
Regional (%) 2009 2040
Food Heat Electricity Water
Local (%) 2009 2040
1 0 0 0
24 45 86 99
0 ? ‐ 40
30 0 10 100
0 0 ‐ 100
38 0 1 1
0 0 ‐ 28
50 77 71 0
0 0 ‐ 0
22 42 10 0
0 0 ‐ 0
19 23 19 0
0 0 ‐ 0
16 13 3 0
0 0 ‐ 0
15 80 ‐ 0
4.4.3 Spatial implications The spatial implications of the total design are shown in the table and figure below. Keep in mind that especially the local food need is only partially satisfied even with the extra (urban) farms, because of the large amount of farmland needed for meat production for the whole population. Table 18 Space needed for the different cyclifiers. Assumptions and calculations can be found in Appendix F1 and F2.
Space taken (m2) Not determined Not determined/Existing building Mushroom apartments Not determined Urban farms, Farmland, 1,760,000 Pastureland Greenhouses 230,000 Fish ponds 240,000 Cyclifier Parking in old churces Educational centre
Location on map 1 2 3 9, light green areas 4 8
Biogas plant ‐ production Biogas plant ‐ storage CHP unit Solar cells Helophyte filter Water buffering Underground heat storage in mines
4,380 1,220 36 100,000 9000 680,000 Unknown/Not determined
7 7 7 5, all over the area 6 10, blue areas Unknown/Not determined
Figure 4.8 Location of the different cyclifiers. The right picture shows a zoomed in part with helophyte filters, and greenhouses with PV solar cells.
4.4.4 Timeline Regarding the timeline, it was again difficult to determine one, especially when the design is intended to be only a scenario and not an exact blueprint. To be able to come up with some outcomes of calculations, some assumptions were made. The assumptions include for example the increasing use of electric cars. However, these details were not explicitly mentioned in the final poster presentation that was made for the Rijksbouwmeester: in that presentation the main goal was to present a future vision of which at least should be clear that the system is build up gradually towards a sustainable system in 2040.
5 Discussion of the results In this chapter the results of the two case studies will be discussed and where necessary the outcomes will be compared. In Section 5.1, a reconciliation of the various design options will be given, where the common cyclifiers for both case studies and their qualities will be discussed. In Section 5.2 a justification of the choices made, as well as a proof of the concepts will be given. Finally some remaining issues with the design sequence and the results that need further research will be presented (Section 5.3)
5.1 Common cyclifiers Comparing the two case studies, it is clear that some common cyclifiers with common functions were used in both. These include local food production, i.e. some form of urban farming with greenhouses or vertical farming in desolate apartment buildings. This is one of the most important common cyclifiers of the system in the sense of reducing global environmental impact; local food production is very important for reducing food kilometres. Reducing food kilometres reduces energy use of the transportation means, carbon dioxide exhausts, and the emission of other gases like nitrogen oxides (NOx). An extra advantage is that fewer roads are needed in cities, and the space that is made available by removing roads can be used for helophyte filters or extra farmland as we saw in the MSP Heerlen case study. Also some sort of water purification on‐site will be used in every sustainable city with locally connected streams of water. In both case studies a helophyte filter was chosen. There are several reasons for this; first of all it fits nicely with the biogas system, because in the biogas digester the water is pre‐treated and comes out at ‘grey water’ quality. The result of this pre‐treatment is that less area is needed for the helophyte filter: one square meter per person instead of four . The helophyte filter is one of the simplest forms of wastewater treatment; no extra energy is needed, the plants just do it all by themselves. Another advantage is that the water with the plants of the helophyte filter adds a significant quality to the surroundings. The effect of the helophyte filter may be that residents feel that they live in natural surroundings. Regarding the energy system, exactly those types of technologies were chosen that are recommended as being applicable to many eco‐industrial parks : • Co‐generation and integrated energy systems • Energy recovery technologies • Process changes that allow the economical use of non‐traditional energy sources (renewable energy sources) In both case studies it was proposed to use cogeneration for local energy production, namely a combined heat and power generator, producing warm water and electricity. Many more options of cogeneration are available, but in urban areas the combination of warm water and electricity seems to match the demand best. The energy recovery technologies that were used in both case studies are buffering of waste heat (underground seasonal thermal storage) and production of biogas from organic waste. The biogas plant is also the prime example of using a renewable energy source. It seems that the biodigester is the perfect cyclifier; it turns waste into three valuable products. It produces biogas from local and regional organic waste, the residue can be used as fertiliser, and at the same time the black water from the sewer is partly purified. So a combination of different functions in a cyclifier seems optimal. Finally, the potential of local and regional materials was recognised; not only the availability of organic waste, but also using materials from buildings that will be demolished was considered.
In future studies more cyclifiers can be found and introduced into the system that is being studied. To ensure a systematic and analytic generation of ideas about the many possibilities, a morphological chart could be used . In a morphological chart the purpose of the design is split in different functions of the design. In the case of designing an eco‐ industrial park or neighbourhood, the different functions are e.g. energy storage, water purification, etcetera. In the morphological chart for every function different possible solutions are listed, which can be combined into an overall solution, in this case an overall system with connected streams. An example of a morphological chart is given in Appendix H. This is a way in which step 3 of the design sequence, ‘Find cyclifiers’, can be executed. It was originally not used in the design sequence, because the initial ideas for introducing a biodigester were already there; it is however a method to come up with new solutions and combining the different elements into an integrated design. For example, a cyclifier with a lot of potential is the biorefinery; a cyclifier that uses the same principles as an oil refinery, i.e. making a large range of products from one source, but then based on biomass as a source. A problem with such a cyclifier is that the amount of options is very high, and a systematic way of analysing them is required, hence the usefulness of a morphological chart.
5.2 Technical feasibility and proof of concept The previous section shows that the introduced cyclifiers have many positive sides, but still a more helicopter‐like view is desired. The following issues still need to be discussed to assess whether the design sequence and its outcomes are a success: • The environmental progress that is made with introducing the cyclifiers • The technical feasibility of the overall designs • Remaining issues with the design sequence The last point will be elaborated in the next section, but the first two points will be discussed here. The first issue is mainly related to the environmental appropriateness of a particular cyclifier and the system as a whole ; the complete design should decrease resource use, in particular those that are (locally) scarce. Furthermore, environmental emissions should be reduced to relieve media that are already overburdened. And finally, the solution should improve the interaction between the technosphere and the natural ecosystem. It seems that in both case studies the designs satisfy these three points at least partially; the use of the following resources was reduced: artificial fertiliser, drinking water from the regional fresh water system, fossil fuel based energy sources, and construction materials. It was not clear whether all these sources were locally scarce, but as a global scarcity of fossil fuels, fresh water, calcium carbonate rock for concrete, and phosphate rock for artificial fertiliser is predicted in the coming decades , the benefits are still obvious. The environmental emissions are also reduced in several ways; less CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and even using greenhouses as CO2 sink, purification of sewage sludge, and less emissions due to nutrient run‐off from farmland. The combination of helophyte filters and urban farms within the urban environment is a good example in which the interaction between the technosphere and the natural ecosystem positive and reinforces both systems. Whether the savings in resource use and reduction in emissions are large enough remains open for discussion; the metabolic calculations show that the loops cannot be ‘closed’ completely as was stated optimistically in the beginning, but at least streams can be tied together locally and significant savings can be realised. Another point is that the metabolic calculations are rather conservative and a reduction in energy use in the future was not even included, as well as the reduction in food kilometres and avoided CO2 emissions.
The second point is related to the question whether it is possible to create such systems as proposed in reality, and if they would really be so effective and efficient. The main point here is that already existing and commercially used technologies were chosen. This was done on purpose, to show the people involved that there is no need of fancy new technologies, but merely a change in the way of thinking about these systems. The technologies used are rather low‐tech; for example the CHP unit is a simple container that is ready‐made and can be used immediately, and the helophyte filter costs no extra energy input or other efforts and only needs to be cut now and then. Of course some of the technologies need a considerable investment; the payback time of the technologies is however relatively short. Furthermore, the economic viability of the solutions and local boosts to the economy were also considered. The only obstacle (as was already explained a few times before) is in the higher layers of the system; information exchange, cultural change, and strategic behaviour of the stakeholders is very important and it will be the fundament and starting point of the transition to a sustainable system. Although potential hosts of cyclifiers were identified to involve these stakeholders in the process, the will to initiate the process should be present. This is the main challenge for the future.
5.3 Remaining issues and problems Even though it seems from the discussion in the previous sections that the design sequence works well and that the outcomes of the case studies are satisfying, many different problems were encountered. The most important ones will be discussed below. In the next chapter some recommendations for solving these problems will be presented.
5.3.1 Metabolic calculations: data collection and assumptions The major problem was encountered in the second step of the design sequence, which was analysing the system. For this analysis MFA was used in combination with simple input‐ output models. However, as the case studies progressed it turned out that the metabolic models weren’t simple at all and increased in complexity as more details and assumptions were added. The problems were various: One important aspect is finding the right data to be able to make the right calculations: • Finding the right data takes a lot of time and still some important things were left out, like for example the amount of heavy metals and medication found in sewage sludge. Also the biogas yield could not be determined with certainty. • Mistakes in the calculations were easily made because of the sheer size of the excel‐ sheet and different sources of data that contradicted each other. The mistakes especially had consequences for the amount of space taken by the cyclifers, e.g. amount of farmland needed for food production. • It was hard to determine which level of details in the calculations was needed: diversifying for the yield of different crops and meat per hectare was justifiable because of the wide range in yields. It still took a lot of time to implement the changes. In other cases the advantage of adding more detail was not so clear. Making useful (‘right’) assumptions is also important: • The assumptions made influenced the structure and outcome of the calculations to a large extent. For example, should the amount of nitrogen in organic waste be assumed as a fixed amount for the mix, or as a fixed amount for the individual types of organic waste in the mix?
It was hard to adapt the calculations to include new assumptions like less energy use in the future or replacing assumptions with real data because the structure of the calculations would change.
In addition to these points some doubts were formed when the percentages of the current situation were compared with the future situation; it is not clear how you can compare these percentages in a fair way when the amount of people in the system changes, as well as possibly the energy use and amount of energy saved.
5.3.2 Target or source‐based design An additional problem that aggravated the problems with the metabolic calculations was the approach in the design methodology; the starting point of the design could either be target or source‐based . This means that the design could be based solely on what is available on‐site and close the loops as far as possible, or that first a target (e.g. 50% local food production) is set and that the design is made to meet the target. The second strategy provides more freedom of the introduction of cyclifiers and has a clear goal to achieve, but possibly ignores an important notion of industrial ecology; use the potential of local existing streams and build the system on what is available. The designs in the case studies were mainly based on the source‐based design strategy: all the available streams and potential hosts for cyclifier were identified. As soon as cyclifiers were introduced, new streams or products became available that could be used for other functions in the system (e.g. the fertiliser coming from the biodigester). There was however a desire to optimise the system performance; for example, the biogas plant can be optimised for either fertiliser production or biogas (energy) production ,. To be able to decide for which stream to optimise, targets for local energy production and self‐ sufficiency should be formulated.
5.3.3 Amount of detail in the design A final problem that was encountered during the design phase of the two case studies was the amount of detail that the design needed. During the calculations, more and more detail was added, but it was not clear what the added value of this extra detail was. It took a lot of time to change the excel‐sheet with the calculations, while only some extra accuracy with the calculations was gained. In the rest of the design, mainly developing a timeline and the possible ways in which the cyclifiers could be connected provided the most problems. On the one hand, the design should be detailed enough to give a proof that the design will work. However, as was already stated in the description of the design sequence in Chapter 2 the purpose of the case study was to come up with a future scenario, not a blueprint. In other words, the purpose of the designs was to create the conditions to start up the process of locally closing streams, without imposing limiting rules. The specific cyclifiers were chosen based on optimal functioning in the system and adaptation to evolving local circumstances, but many different cyclifiers are possible that can replace the chosen cyclifiers. Thus, the natural dynamics of the system and the evolutionary pathway of the development should be respected. Just letting the system develop gradually and evolve in an organic way over time is one of the conditions that will ensure that the system will be able to adapt to a change in local circumstances.
6 Conclusions and Recommendations 6.1 Conclusions In this research case studies of the business area the Goudse Poort in Gouda and the district MSP in Heerlen were performed in which a sustainable design was made for these areas with the use of principles of Industrial Ecology. A design sequence was used in which the system boundaries were defined (step 1), the system was analysed (step 2), cyclifiers were added to the system (step 3 and 4) and a complete design was made (step 5). There are several conclusions that can be drawn from the outcomes of the two case studies and applying this design sequence. First of all, the results of the two case studies are satisfying; especially for a first time of applying the design sequence things went relatively smooth. The outcomes of the metabolic calculations are reasonably correct, at least to the point where they can be used to illustrate the difference between the current system and one in the future where the different streams are shortcut locally. Furthermore the designs show future visions that form one consistent whole and could also be applied in reality or otherwise serve as an inspiring example of how the principles of industrial ecology can be applied to living areas and business districts. The answer to the main question “is there a strategy for a more integral planning of the available space in an area where the different functions (nature, agriculture, housing and industry) reinforce each other instead of fight each other?” can therefore be positive. The proposed design sequence is a first successful attempt for a design strategy that helps in integral planning. The results of the case studies are a good starting point for future research, but the design sequence needs to be adapted if its potential is to be used fully, and a lot can still be learned. A major issue is the time that is needed for the research; it costs much time to focus on all layers (the physical layer, the information layer, and the strategic layer) and sub‐layers (water, energy, food, etcetera). If a lot of time is spent on one layer, there is less attention and time left for the other layers, while a good design is marked by an integrated approach of including all layers. The biggest hurdle in the two case studies was the data collection and doing calculations for the metabolism of the systems. A lot of time was spent on finding the right data, and still many assumptions needed to be made. Furthermore many mistakes were made in the calculations, which especially influenced the results of how much space was needed for a cyclifier. Finally, it was not clear what the optimal amount of detail in the calculations was, in the sense that realistic results are found in the least time as possible. The starting point of the design is also important; target or source‐based. The design sequence is mainly focused on the source‐based starting point in which the available streams are identified and locally connected with other streams by introducing cyclifiers. But as soon as cyclifiers are introduced that make new streams and products available, the situation becomes more complicated, because assumptions about performance targets need to be formulated in order to be able to finish the calculations.
6.2 Recommendations There are several recommendations that can be made for solving the remaining issues. Firstly, when acting in a tight timeframe, the focus with case studies needs to be on the
physical layer; In order to act within the information and strategic layer it is necessary to develop tools that help a quick design at the level of the physical layer (see below for one tool) and assist to make more integrated designs. The main use of adding the information and strategic layer is to point out potential to policy makers, for example the different stakeholders that can be a host for cyclifiers and how the different layers interact and can be integrated in a design. A second recommendation is to develop ‘kortsluiter’ software that can perform the metabolic calculations and ideally come up with graphical schemes in which the percentage of the streams locally looped becomes clear immediately. This software will not only save calculation time, but it will also help in making assumptions in a more systematic way if a user interface is added where assumptions can be checked and unchecked with boxes. For example, assumptions about future energy savings and the use of an electric car can be added with a few clicks, and if desired exact percentages can be added. A remaining issue here is that beforehand still decisions should be made on the amount of detail that is desired for the calculations; the model should be sufficient to represent the reality while adding more detail is of no use. Finally, when applying the design sequence and adding cyclifiers, one should start with the source based approach and then optimise (define some targets for performance that can be integrated in the ‘kortsluiter’ software). This means that the types of cyclifiers chosen for the system that is being studied should be based on the streams that are available on‐site, like the sewage sludge and organic waste. When calculations are finished for these cyclifiers, the results can be checked and targets formulated. These targets could be satisfied by introducing new cyclifiers; then new calculations can be made. This cycle can be iterated a few times, in order to constantly improve the system.
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Appendix A1. Eco‐industrial Park in Kalundborg, Denmark The pictures below show the development of the eco‐industrial park in Kalundborg, Denmark and which symbiotic connections between the different industries and utilities were made at different times. The first picture shows the status of the park in 1975, the second in 1985, and the third in 20011.
Source: Saikku, L., ‘Eco‐industrial parks. A background report for the eco‐industrial park project at Rantasalmi’, Research institute for social sciences, University of Tampere, Finland, 2006
Appendix A2. Eco‐industrial park in Styria, Austria Below the symbiotic connections of the different industries and other actors in the eco‐ industrial park in Styria are shown2. The figure is an illustration of the large complexity of a complete district and the numerous symbiotic connections that are possible in an area.
Source: Saikku, L., ‘Eco‐industrial parks. A background report for the eco‐industrial park project at Rantasalmi’, Research institute for social sciences, University of Tampere, Finland, 2006
Appendix B. Companies at the Goudse Poort In the following table all the companies that currently have offices or production facilities at the Goudse Poort are listed. Legend for the table: Symbol
I C R H A
Industry Consruction Retail Horeca Administration
Number of companies 8 7 37 2 168
Kraanbedrijf Nederhoff B.V. Sticht. Aandelen Nederhoff Interholding B.V. Pers.ver. van Kraanbedrijf Nederhoff B.V. Steenland Chocolate B.V. Decoratie Atelier "Gouda" Zevenmeer B.V. Broers Occasions B.V. Technogas B.V. Centric It Solutions B.V. Stg. Adm.kant. Kramers Ruys Logister. Inv. Stichting Prioriteit Multihouse Stichting Continuiteit Multihouse Intrahof Gouda B.V.
Verh. bouw‐/sloopmachines met bed. pers.
Admin.kantoren voor aandelen/obligaties
Yes Yes Yes Yes
Verwerking van cacao GH suiker, chocolade en suikerwerk Financial holdings Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's GH appendages/technische toebehoren e.d. Ov. dienstv. act. ohgv inform.tech. neg
I R A R R A
Financial holdings Admin.kantoren voor aandelen/obligaties Handel in eigen onroerend goed
A A A
Petrogas Gas‐Systems B.V.
Union Liftadvies B.V. Stichting Multihouse Clientenbelangen Gouwe Consult Stichting Administratiekantoor Wilgenpark
Techn. ontw./adv. voor de procestechniek
Lease niet‐financiële immateriële activa
Bedrijfsopleiding en ‐training
Admin.kantoren voor aandelen/obligaties
GH computers, randapparatuur en software
LabFactor B.V. Pamak B.V. Pera Zakelijke Dienstverlening Pronium B.V. Verhuurnet.(nl).B.V. Crimimail B.V.
GH computers, randapparatuur en software Bemidd. bij handel/huur/verhuur onr.goed Organisatie‐adviesbureaus Reclame‐ontwerp‐ en ‐adviesbureaus Ov. dienstv. act. ohgv inform.tech. neg Particuliere beveiliging
R A A A A A
Groothandel in meet‐ en regelapparaten
Landis+Gyr Group B.V. Saia‐Burgess Benelux B.V. Indigo Recruitment O3Spaces B.V.
GH elektronische/telecommunicatieapp. GH elektronische/telecommunicatieapp. Arbeidsbemiddeling Ontwikkelen/produceren maatwerksoftware
R R A A
Wis Services B.V.
Egengroup Holding B.V. Gamma Gouda Personeelsvereniging De Kromme Spijkers
Financiële holdings Bouwmarkten/winkels bouwmat. alg.ass.
Telematic Systems & Services B.V. Telematic Systems & Services ASP B.V. FreshConnections B.V. Stichting Databeheer Redfruit B.V. Telematic Systems & Services Holding B.V. Stg. Werknemersparticip. TSS Cross Media Gr. Multi Veste 252 B.V. TSS Cross Media Group B.V. Stichting Code Geneesmiddelen Reclame Stg. Certif. Distr. Gewasbeschermingsmiddelen Stichting Vetindex Foundation Stichting Optall Stg. Reg. & Opl. Distr. in Gewasbesch.midd. Games Factory Online.nl B.V. Van Norden B.V. Stg. Beh. Derdengeld. Advoc. Transp. en Log. (Lbiv) Landelijk Bureau Incasso VVE‐ Bijdragen Hbsoftware B.V. Hbservices B.V. Stichting Personeelsbelang HBS Multi Vastgoed B.V. Multi‐Veste 97 B.V. Vleuterweide Centrumplan C.V. Multi Veste 253 B.V. Multi Veste 111 B.V. Multi Veste 141 B.V. Multi Veste 161 B.V. Multi Veste 181 B.V. Multi Veste 248 B.V. 6/22/09 Multi Veste 251 B.V. Multi Veste 292 B.V. Multi Veste 320 B.V. Multi‐Veste 79 B.V. Multi‐Veste 100 B.V. Multi Veste 101 B.V. Multi Veste 245 B.V. "Entre Deux" Maastricht B.V.
Software consultancy Software consultancy Gegevensverw./webhosting/aanverw. activ.
A A A
Admin.kantoren voor aandelen/obligaties
Beheer van onroerend goed Holdings (geen financiële)
Steunfondsen (niet ohgv welzijnszorg) Ov. dienstv. act. ohgv inform.tech. neg
Bedrijfs‐ en werkgeversorganisaties
Ontwikkelen/produceren maatwerksoftware Drukkerijen van reclame
Kredietinformatie‐ en incassobureaus
Ontwikkelen/produceren maatwerksoftware Financial holdings Overkoepelende organen e.d. (welzijnsw.) Project Development Project Development Project Development Project Development Project Development Project Development Project Development Project Development Project Development Project Development Project Development Project Development Project Development Project Development Project Development Project Development Project Development Financial holdings
A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A
Multi RT Holding B.V.
MRT Investment Holding 1 B.V. Marten Meesweg 51 C.V. Brouwershof Amersfoort Beheer B.V. Stichting Green Participatie
Financial holdings Beleggingsinstell. in financiële activa Beleggingsinstellingen in vaste activa Admin.kantoren voor aandelen/obligaties
A A A A
Multi Investment B.V.
Handel in eigen onroerend goed
Multi Retail Turkey Coöperatieve UA
Handel in eigen onroerend goed
Handel in eigen onroerend goed
Multi Veste 272 B.V.
Beheer van onroerend goed
V.O.F. Multi SNSPF
Beheer van onroerend goed
Beheer van onroerend goed
Beheer van onroerend goed
Beheer van onroerend goed
Holdings (geen financiële) Public relationsbureaus Architecten Techn. ontw.‐/adv.bureaus burg/util.bw. Techn. ontw.‐/adv.bureaus burg/util.bw.
A A A A A
Steunfondsen (niet ohgv welzijnszorg)
Overk. organen (niet ohgv welzijn/sport)
Ontw./prod./uitgeven standaardsoftware Ontw./prod./uitgeven standaardsoftware Ontwikkelen/produceren maatwerksoftware
A A A
Admin.kantoren voor aandelen/obligaties
Beheer van computerfaciliteiten Financiële holdings GH appendages/technische toebehoren e.d. Bedrijfsopleiding en ‐training Winkels in vloerbedekking
A A R A R
Groothandel in gereedschapswerktuigen
Yes Yes Yes Yes
GH suiker, chocolade en suikerwerk GH voedings‐/genotmiddelen algemeea ass. Loodg.‐ en fitterswerk; inst. sanitair Winkels gespec. in ov. doe‐het‐zelf‐art. GH/HB auto‐ond./‐access. (geen banden) Beleggingsinst. met beperkte toetreding Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Groothandel in verf en verfwaren Winkels in sportart. (geen watersport) Religieuze organisaties Verh. onroerend goed (niet v woonruimte) Techn. ontw.‐/adv.bureaus burg/util.bw. Gespecialiseerde reiniging van gebouwen GH kantoor‐ en schoolbenodigdheden Groothandel in parfums en cosmetica Winkels in meubels Hotel‐restaurants Warenhuizen GH computers, randapparatuur en software GH woningtextiel en vloerbedekking Techn. ontw.‐/adv.bureaus burg/util.bw. Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Volkskredietbanken/commerciële financ.
R R C R R A R R R R A A A A R R R H R R R A C A
Coöp. Ondernem. Busin. Resort Amstelw. UA Stichting WKO Vleuterweide Stichting WKO Stadskwartier Nieuwegein Multi Veste 249 B.V. The Business Relations Company B.V. Beekink en Molenaar Gouda B.V. T & T Design B.V. Multi Finance B.V. Stg. Gez. Onderhoud Bus. Res. Amstelwijck Stichting International Retailers Forum India Offshore Software Laboratories B.V. iSense Amsterdam B.V. Isense Rotterdam B.V. iSense Consulting B.V. Stichting Administratiekantoor iSense Group C2ict B.V. Stichting Administratiekantoor C2ict Breur IJzerhandel Gouda Siom Carpetright Multi‐ImmoEast Centr. Eur. Ret. Prop. Fund CV Bron‐Gouda, Industr.‐ en Handelsond. B.V. Van Schothorst Food B.V. W en S Geschenken B.V. i.o. Instalcenter Van Wijk B.V. Baderie Van Wijk B.V. Budget Parts B.V. Budget Holding Gouda B.V. Autoservice D & D MW Cars B.V. Sikkens Center Gouda Kampeerhal de Vrijbuiter Gouda B.V. Stichting Friedensstimme‐Nederland Gouwe Center De Vries Konstruktieburo B.V. Kok Schoonmaak B.V. Office Centre Great Lengths Beter Bed Campanile Hotel Gouda Kwantum Vosko Networking B.V. Holland‐Haag B.V. Peters & Van Leeuwen B.V. TalentGroep Montaigne B.V. Talentgroep Montaigne Holding B.V.
Imtech N.V. Liveathome B.V. Imtech SSC B.V. Imtech Netherlands B.V. Marktlink Fusies & Overnames B.V. Dynamiek B.V. Start People Stg. dr. F. Gerritzen‐Prijs voor Diab. Ond. Sanofi‐aventis Netherlands B.V. TotalKlima B.V. Time Out Qualified People Gouda B.V. Qualified People Holding B.V. Blom's Automobielbedrijf Stichting Beunschepen Stg. Opl.‐ en Ontwikkelingsfonds Waterbouw Kleinschalig Baggeren Ver. Waterbouwers Bagger‐, Kust‐ /Oeverwerken Stichting La MER Ver. Vrijwaring Ketenaanspr. Natte Waterb. ThyssenKrupp Liften Regio West a&o systems + services Benelux B.V. Edibro B.V. Mitopics B.V. Wimar Natus B.V. FRAGRO Holding B.V. Ingenieursbureau SmitWesterman Aardewerkfabriek De Drietand B.V. HappyCustomers West NL B.V. Cevance Holding B.V. Berk N.V. Support Plus Groep B.V. Account. en Belastingadv. Berk & Veltman B.V. Hendriks 't Hooft & Co. Utrecht B.V. Baker Tilly Berk B.V. Administratiepoort B.V. Support Plus Payroll B.V. Stichting Financiering Berk Valkenbosch Consultancy B.V. ViaFeria B.V. AWS Artworkservice B.V. Stichting Berk Valkenbosch Detachering B.V. Heijnen Management Recruitment B.V. Trices B.V. Stg. Zorgbelang Z‐Holl., patienten platform Liri‐Nederland B.V. VDS Kunststoffen B.V. Sas Gouda B.V. SAS Holding B.V.
Holdings (geen financiële) Techn. ontw.‐/adv.bureaus burg/util.bw. TO/adv. elek.‐/inst.techniek/telematica Financiële holdings Advisering ohgv management/bedrijfsv. Arbeidsbemiddeling Uitzendbureaus
A A A A A A A
Overk. organen (niet ohgv welzijn/sport)
Groothandel in farmaceutische producten Inst. verwarmings‐/luchtbehandelingsapp. Cafetaria's, lunchrooms, snackbars e.d. Organisatie‐adviesbureaus Techn.ontw./adv. werkuig‐/mach‐/app.bouw Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Overkoepelende organen e.d. (welzijnsw.)
R C H A A R A
Overkoepelende organen e.d. (welzijnsw.)
Bedrijfs‐ en werkgeversorganisaties
Bedrijfs‐ en werkgeversorganisaties
Overige ideële organisaties n.e.g.
Verv. hijs‐, hef‐ en transportwerktuigen GH computers, randapparatuur en software GH elektronische/telecommunicatieapp. Hardware consultancy Belastingconsulenten Holdings (geen financiële) Techn. ontw.‐/adv.bureaus burg/util.bw. Verv. huishoudelijk en sieraardewerk Software consultancy Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings
I R R A A A A I A A A A
Accountants‐administratieconsulenten Accountants‐administratieconsulenten Boekhoudkantoren Overige administratiekantoren Holdings (geen financiële) Organisatie‐adviesbureaus Advisering ohgv management/bedrijfsv. Reclame‐ontwerp‐ en ‐adviesbureaus Overige special. zakelijke dienstverl. Arbeidsbemiddeling
A A A A A A A A A A
Overkoepelende organen e.d. (welzijnsw.)
Yes Yes Yes
Groothandel in hout en plaatmateriaal Groothandel gespec. in overige bouwmat. Verv. ov.machines/app./werkt. specifiek Financiële holdings
R R I A
Gouwezone B.V. Starrenburg V.O.F. Stg. BGZ Wegvervoer, kennis‐ /adv.cntr. arbeid Stg. Part. Eigenar. Overleg Landgoed Hageveld Ericis B.V. Exploitatiemij. Prins Bernhardlaan B.V. Balard Batailley B.V. Atex Media Command B.V. Edi‐Alliance B.V. Clientsoft B.V. Coin Infrastructure B.V. i.o. IFC Nordic Opportunities C.V. Balard Milon IFC Option Investments C.V. Temmurgal Coöperatief UA Van Kleef Holding & Management B.V. IFC Global Arbitrage C.V. Balard B.V. Exbula Financial Trading B.V. P.D.M. Consultants Residence Communications B.V. Vereniging Coin Coöperatie Bedrijvenpark Ruyven UA Raad v. Hdl., Ind. en Dienstverlening Gouda Belangenvereniging Goudse Poort Vereniging van Eigenaren "Gouwe Park" Cadac Group Gouda Silverside B.V. eBenefits B.V. Meva Every Angle Software Solutions B.V. Every Angle Software International B.V. Stichting Administratiekantoor EASS Eur. Assoc. for Ment. Health in Ment. Retard. Stg. Coörd.punt Nietaangeboren Hersenletsel Garage Kempenaar Gouda B.V. Mul Beheer B.V. Mul B.V. Bokhoven Bouw B.V. Eclipse Combustion B.V. Micro Weert B.V. Iscar Nederland B.V. IMC International Metalworking Companies B.V.
Financiële holdings Projectontwikkeling
Arbobegeleiding en reïntegratie
Projectontwikkeling GH computers, randapparatuur en software Ontw./prod./uitgeven standaardsoftware Ontwikkelen/produceren maatwerksoftware Software consultancy Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings
A R A A A A A A A
Beleggingsinstell. in financiële activa Beleggingsinst. met beperkte toetreding Commissionairs/makelaars in effecten ed Verh. onroerend goed (niet v woonruimte) TO/adv. elek.‐/inst.techniek/telematica TO/adv. elek.‐/inst.techniek/telematica Overige special. zakelijke dienstverl.
A A A A A A A
Bedrijfs‐ en werkgeversorganisaties
Overige belangenbehartiging n.e.g.
Overige belangenbehartiging n.e.g.
Verv. computers en randapparatuur Ontw./prod./uitgeven standaardsoftware Ontw./prod./uitgeven standaardsoftware Groothandel in hout en plaatmateriaal Ontw./prod./uitgeven standaardsoftware
I A A R A
Commissionairs/makelaars in effecten ed
Organiseren van congressen en beurzen
Ov. gez.zorgondersteunende diensten neg
Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Financiële holdings TO/adv. elek.‐/inst.techniek/telematica Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Verv. industriële ovens en branders Verv. scharen, messen en bestek Groothandel in gereedschapswerktuigen
R A A C I I R
Appendix C1. Data and assumptions: Goudse Poort In this appendix the data and assumptions used for the calculations of the current metabolism and the metabolism in 2030 will be presented. The data and assumptions are organised per cyclifier or block element in the system and split up per stream types (sometimes two streams are bundled for easy representation).
Goudse Poort in 2009 The block scheme below shows the streams going into and out of the offices and companies inside the Goudse Poort. The size of all these streams was calculated, except for two black streams, namely ‘resources’ and ‘inorganic waste, chemical waste’.
For energy and water use of the companies and households the data in Table A below was used. In Table B the different types of companies that can be found in the Goudse Poort and assumptions about amount of employees and energy use are shown.
Table A Material and energy use of different types of companies3. Gaseq stands for natural gas equivalents.
Type of use
Electricity use per m2 office Electricity use per employee Electricity use per person in household Heating & fuels per m3 office
kWh/(m2*year) kWh/(fte*year) kWh /(person*year) m3 gaseq /(m3*year) Heating & fuels per m3 gaseq employee /(fte*year) Heating & fuels per person in m3 gaseq household /(person*year) Water use per employee m3/(fte*year) Water use per person in m3 household /(person*year) Area per employee m2/fte
Retail company 45.1
Sources http://www.milieubarometer.nl/,http://www.verswater.nl/WaterFacts/Waterverbruik.htm, http://www.gaslicht.com/div/document.asp?taal=nl&land=nl&id=87
Table B Types of companies found in the Goudse Poort and assumptions of amount of employees per 4 sector and for using data of the previous table .
Company Percentage of Amount of types in net area (47 companies in Goudse Poort ha) covered Goudse Poort with company type Industry 45% 8
Assumption Energy and water of amount of consumption based employees in on building type 2009
Same energy consumption as garage Same energy consumption as garage Half the energy consumption of retail company Same energy consumption as office Office
For some types of companies where the energy use was only given per square meter or cubic meter, it was assumed that the buildings were 6 m high, based on the visit to the Goudse Poort. Furthermore, it was assumed that all wastewater goes through the sewage. The following basic facts about food consumption were used in the calculations. Table C Facts and assumptions of the food consumption5.
Type of food consumption Amount Total average food 2.6 consumption per person Average solid food 1 consumption per person Average liquid food 1.6 consumption per person
Unit Assumptions kg/(person*day) Employees: 40% of daily intake on‐site Residents: 70% of daily intake on‐site kg/(person*day) kg/(person*day)
The data and assumptions about the organic waste production at the Goudse Poort can be found below (biogas plant, data of Goudse Poort in 2030), to be able to present the information in a bundled and consistent way.
Source: http://www.architectuurcentrumgrap.nl Source: http://www.zuivelengezondheid.nl/tno/Index/Deel‐1/Start_Tekst.htm#3
Goudse Poort in 2030 For the Goudse Poort in 2030 it was assumed that the amount of employees would be the same as in 2009 (5000) but that in addition 1000 residents would live there.
The biogas plant has several types of organic waste as input. The data and assumptions that were made about the amount of the waste input are shown in Table D below. Table D Facts and assumptions for the production of organic waste.
Type of organic waste production Average daily excretion of human being6 (sewage sludge) Food thrown away in canteens (still fresh) 7 (organic waste) Organic waste from Cyclus8 Crop residue8
Amount Unit 0.250
kg solids Employees: 0.150 kg/day on‐site /(person*day) Residents: 0.200 kg/day on‐site
Helophyte filter ‐ cuttings (Plant residue)
Food waste (that cannot be eaten): another 5 wt%. Thus in total 11 wt% of the food becomes organic waste 40 trucks per day with 500 kg organic waste each 10wt% of total food produced is crop residue from farms No estimates made; only small as compared to rest of organic waste
For the calculation of the biogas production, the data and assumptions in the following tables were made.
Table E Composition of the biogas produced in a digester9
Compound Methane Carbon dioxide Hydrogen
Formula CH4 CO2 H2
Vol% of biogas 40‐70 30‐60 1
Assumptions – Vol% of biogas 60 40
Sources: http://www.newtonhouse.info/sewage.htm, http://www.ilo.org/safework_bookshelf/english?content&nd=857171225 7 Source: ‘Voedselverliezen, verspilde moeite?’, LNV consumentenplatform, june 2006 8 Based on assumptions 9 ‘Anaerobic digestion and biogas’, factsheet, Farming and Countryside Education, 2007, accessed via http://www.face‐online.org.uk/, October 2009
Nitrogen Carbon monoxide Oxygen Hydrogen sulphide
N2 CO O2 H2S
0.5 0.1 0.1 0.1
Table F Biogas yield per tonne substrate for different types of bio waste types and assumptions for calculations of the biogas production.
Bio waste type Residual fats Rapeseed cake Flotated fats
Biogas production (m3/ tonne substrate) 600 550 400
Food waste Corn silage Grass silage (first cutting) Corn silage (pasty) Brewers' grain Bio waste bio‐bin
220 202 195 170 129 120
Green waste Grass (first cutting) Sugar beet silage Vinasse (sugar industry leftover) Beets Fooder Beets Whey Poultry manure Swine manure
110 102 90 80 75 70 55 50 36
Assumptions Organic waste from households and offices is similar to food waste. Cyclus waste is 50/50 mix of food waste and green waste Crop residue farms and helophyte filter cuttings are similar to green waste Sewage sludge is similar to cattle manure
Cattle manure 25 It was assumed that all wastewater produced by the households and companies would go to the biogas plant via the sewer.
For the fertiliser production, it was assumed that the organic waste contains on average 0.45wt% Nitrogen (N)11, and ten times less phosphorus (P), i.e. 0.045wt%. Assumptions and data for the spatial implications of the biogas plant can be found below. 10
Source: ‘Why mix feedstocks?’, accessed via www.michigan.gov/documents/mda/AD_WhyMixFeedstocks_221951_7.pdf 11 Source: Based on nitrogen content in biomass from Bastiaans, R.J.M., ‘Energy from biomass’, Reader for the course SET 3041 Energy from Biomass at the TU Delft, Eindhoven, 2005
Food production: urban farms and greenhouses
The food production of the greenhouses and urban farms depends on two variables, namely the amount of land available for food production, and the yield of this production per ha of land. The amount of land available is shown below. The crop yield was assumed to be 25,000 kg/(ha*year)12 Table G Data and assumptions of the available land inside and outside the Goudse Poort13.
Type of food Location production Greenhouses Inside Goudse Poort Urban farms Greenhouses Farmland Pastures
Greenhouses on top of parking transferia Farms on top of flat roofs
Inside Goudse Poort 2 Outside Goudse Poort 10.8 (to the north) or Outside Goudse Poort 60 (to the north)
To be able to estimate the water consumption in agriculture, a water productivity of 1 kg per m3 water was assumed, based on data for wheat14. This means that 25,000 m3/(ha*year) is needed. To be able to estimate the amount of fertiliser that is needed per ha the total fertiliser use (N and P) in the Netherlands per year was divided with the total farmland area in the Netherlands. The data is shown in the table below. Table H Data and assumptions for the fertiliser use in agriculture15.
Fertiliser type Animal manure Artificial fertiliser Other organic fertilisers Total farmland area in the Netherlands
Amount N 326 277 11
Amount P 61 21 4
Unit Million kg/ total ha farmland area Million kg/ total ha farmland area Million kg/ total ha farmland area
Source: based on a quick scan of yields of different vegetables, http://www.cbs.nl Source: estimations of area made with the help of Google maps, http://maps.google.com/ 14 Source: Raes, D. and S. Geerts, ‘ Meer voedsel met minder water’, Karakter. Tijdschrift van wetenschap, number 10, 2005 15 Source: http://www.cbs.nl 13
For the amount of carbon dioxide that would be needed in the greenhouses, the uptake of CO2 per day for an average was estimated. It was assumed that the uptake would be 0.06 kg/(m2*day), 10 times as much as in slow growing woody biomass16.
Combined heat and power (CHP)
For the CHP unit, it was assumed that all carbon dioxide produced by burning the biogas would be available for greenhouses. Furthermore, it was assumed that CHP has an electrical efficiency of 30% and heat efficiency of 50%17.
Underground seasonal thermal storage The flows in and out of the underground thermal storage are warm and cold water. No exact numbers for losses of this storage medium were assumed, only that 40% of the primary heat use for space heating could be satisfied with heat from this source, based on the literature18.
Spatial implications To be able to calculate the size of the biogas digester and biogas storage, the assumptions that are shown in the table below were made. Table I Assumptions for the space needed for the biogas digester and biogas storage.
Variable Solids content Geometry of tank Volume Pressure Geometry of tank Storage volume Safety distance
Assumption 12 wt%19 Cylinder, radius and height are equal 10 days solids volume + 0.1 day biogas volume 14 bar20 Cylinder, radius and height are equal, (aboveground) 10 days biogas production (buffer for smooth CHP running) 10 m20
Source: Samudro, G., and S. Magkoedihardjo, ‘Water equivalent method for city phytostructure of Indonesia’, International Journal of Enviornmental Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 3, Summer 2006, pp. 261‐267 17 Source: Verstraete, W., et al., ‘Maximum use of resources present in domestic “used water”’. Bioresource Technology, article in press; doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2009.05.047, 2009 18 Source: Van Doorn, R., and P. Zwart, ‘Onderzoek interimbeleid warmte‐ en koudeopslag Zuidas Amsterdam’, Ingenieursbureau Amsterdam, 2004 19 Source: based on data of the solids content of cattle slurry, http://www.sei.ie/Renewables/Bioenergy/Anaerobic_Digestion/ 20 Based on data from Marangon, A., et al., ‘Safety distances: definition and values’, International journal of hydrogen energy, Vol 32, pp. 2192‐2197, 2007
Appendix C2. Metabolic calculations: Goudse Poort In the following text the basic calculations that were done for the Goudse Poort of 2009 and 2030 are presented. The results of the calculations are shown in the case study chapter. Energy consumption offices and households:
Eel (MWh) = ∑ Ai ⋅ eel,i + ∑ ftei ⋅ ε el,i
i i Where Eel(MWh) is the total energy consumption of the offices and households. The first sum is for the data of company type electricity consumption in MWh/m2, with Ai the area of company type i, which was based on the area that the different company types occupy in the Goudse Poort. The second sum is for the data of office and household consumption in MWh/fte, with ftei the amount of people working in offices or the number of residents Water consumption offices and households:
H 2O(m 3 /year) = ∑ ftei ⋅ i
m3 fte ⋅ year
The total water consumption in the goudse poort is the sum of the products of the number of people per company sector and total residents (ftei) and the water consumption (m3/(fte*year)) Food consumption offices and households:
kg food days ⋅ ⋅ f ⋅ fte day year c
Where FT is the total food consumption, fc the fraction of consumption taking place at the office or at home and fte is the amount of people (employees of the companies, or residents)
Biogas plant Digestable waste per year:
OW = FT ⋅ f ow + FP ⋅ f cr +
# trucks kg days ⋅ ⋅ day truck year
Where OW is the total organic waste produced per year, fow is fraction organic waste from food (11%), fcr fraction crop residue (10%). Energy from biogas:
E(MWh) = OW ⋅
E(MWh)CH m 3 biogas 4 ⋅ fCH ⋅ ⋅ ηi 3 4 1000 kg substrate m CH 4
Where fCH4 is the fraction methane in the biogas, E(MWh)CH4/m3 CH4 is the energy content of the methane in the biogas, and ηi is either the electric efficiency or thermal efficiency of CHP. The energy content of the methane in the biogas is21: 30 MJ/m3, which is 8.33 kWh/m3. Fertiliser production:
FF = f N ⋅ OW
Where FF is the fertiliser production, and fN is the fraction nitrogen per kg of substrate 21
Source: Wikipaedia online encyclopaedia, http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aardgas
CO 2 (CHP) = n(biogas/year) ⋅ M (CO2 ) pV 1⋅105 ⋅ (m 3 biogas/year) n(biogas/year) = = RT 8.314 ⋅ 293
Where CO2(CHP) is the number of kg CO2 produced by the CHP unit per year, n(biogas/year) is the number of moles of CO2 produced, and M(CO2) is the molar mass. The moles of CO2 can be calculated with the ideal gas law, at a pressure of 105 Pa (1 bar) and temperature of 293 K (20°C).
Food production: urban farms and greenhouses Food production:
FP = YF ⋅ AF
Where FP is the total food production, YF is the crop yield per hectare and AF is the area of farmland in hectares. Crop residue production:
CR = FP ⋅ f cr
Where CR is the production of crop residue, and fcr is the fraction crop residue. Used water:
H 2O(farms) = # ha ⋅
m3 ha ⋅ year
Where H2O(farms) is the water use of the farms, #ha the area of farmland and greenhouses in the Goudse Poort, and m3/(ha*year) the water use per hectare farmland per year Needed CO2:
CO 2 (farms)= # ha ⋅
kg CO 2 days ⋅ m 2 ⋅ day year
Where CO2(farms) is the needed carbon dioxide for the greenhouses, and #ha the area of greenhouses in the Goudse Poort. Needed fertiliser:
m N,total #ha total ⋅ year m P,total #ha total ⋅ year
⋅ # ha ⋅ # ha
Where N(farms) is the needed amount of nitrogen, P(farms) the needed amount of phosphorus (thus the C accompanied with the fertiliser is excluded, because the C/N ratio is unknown), mtotal/(#hatotal*year) is the total amount of N and P used in the Netherlands per year divided by the total area of farmland in the Netherlands, and #ha is the area of farmland and greenhouses in the Goudse Poort
Spatial implications Total energy production (for determining size CHP unit):
kWh days E(kW) = E ⋅ day hour
Where E(kW) is the total energy production (heat plus electricity) by the CHP unit in kW, and E(kWh/day) the total energy production by the CHP in kWh. The total energy production by the CHP unit is 600 kW, which implies that a container unit with the dimensions of 6*2.5*2.6 m (L*W*H) is needed. Size of the biogas digester:
Vdigester = 10 ⋅
OW ⋅ ρOW + VH O + 0.1⋅ (m 3 biogas/day) 2 day
OW 88 VH O = 10 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ρ 2 day 12 H2 O
Where Vdigester is the digester volume, OW/day the organic waste that is fed to the digester per day, ρOW the density of the organic waste (assumed to be 3 kg/m3), VH2O the water volume in the biogas digester, and m3 biogas/day the daily volume of biogas production. The water volume in the digester was assumed to be 88wt%, and with the density ρH2O and known amount of organic waste it can be calculated. The area occupied by the tank can be found with:
Vdigester = π ⋅ r 2 ⋅ h = π ⋅ x 3
Where r is the radius and h the height, assuming a cylindrical tank and equal radius and height. Size of the biogas storage tank:
P1 V P14 1
Where Vstorage is the volume of the storage tank with a pressure of 14 bar, P1 is a pressure of 1 bar, P14 is a pressure of 14 bar, and V1 the volume of the biogas at 1 bar, again assuming the ideal gas law and equal temperatures (T=293 K) The area can again be found with:
Vstorage = π ⋅ r 2 ⋅ h = π ⋅ x 3
Appendix D. Metabolic scheme Goudse Poort 2030 Below the metabolic scheme of the future vision of the Goudse Poort in 2030 is presented. The dark blue boxes are existing actors, while the light blue boxes are cyclifiers to be added to the system. The dashed arrows are streams that are optional, i.e. possible connections that could be made between the different boxes.
Appendix E. Companies in MSP Heerlen The following table is a selection of the different companies that can be found at MSP Heerlen. Company name Dierenpension Palemig‐annex Kennel Hondenkapsalon Wubble Mayfair Katja Amazing Nails Pedicure/manicure Esther Passion 4 Beauty Pedicure "LA LUNA" Coiffure Jos H.G.J. Weyts Kapsalon Sedat Kapsalon Pakbiers Yeno V.O.F. La belle image Kim's Hairline Creations Heren Coiffeur Ömer Bobby's Hairstyle M.Y. PC CorioDesign Stichting Renovatie Kerkgebouw Laanderstraat Vereniging Schildersplein Stichting Islamitisch Centrum Heerlen Oudervereniging Herlecollege Stichting Promotion Schaesbergerveld Stg. Bel.groepering Leefgem. Schaesbergerweg IVN, Ver. Milieueduc., Afd. De Oude Landgraaf Stichting Flevo Green Tactics WiSE Tuning Team Stichting Leerlingenvervoer Zuid‐Limburg Stichting Islamitisch Godsdienstonderwijs Stichting Berea Heerlen en omstreken Spaarvereniging D'r Zeute Inval Spaarclub de Fontein Politiehondver. de Trouwe Vriend Nieuwenhagen Sjoelclub "De Doordouwers" Vereniging van Computergebruikers Landgraaf Personeelsvereniging UWV Heerlen C.V.De Lichtvegers Vrienden Groep de Zoete Inval C.V. d'r Parkstad zeute Rotary Club Landgraaf Personeelsver. Biologische School Heerlen Sociëteit Ouderen Schaesbergerveld Prinsengarde Coriovallum Personeelsvereniging T. C.H. Personeelsvereniging "De Hop" Winkeliersver. "Het Pleintje en omgeving" Winkeliersvereniging Brunssum Noord
Activity Overige dienstverlening n.e.g. Overige dienstverlening n.e.g. Overige dienstverlening n.e.g. Sauna's, solaria, baden e.d. Schoonheidsverzorging/pedi‐/manicures Schoonheidsverzorging/pedi‐/manicures Schoonheidsverzorging/pedi‐/manicures Schoonheidsverzorging/pedi‐/manicures Haarverzorging Haarverzorging Haarverzorging Haarverzorging Haarverzorging Haarverzorging Haarverzorging Haarverzorging Haarverzorging Reparatie van computers/randapparatuur Reparatie van computers/randapparatuur Overige belangenbehartiging n.e.g. Overige belangenbehartiging n.e.g. Overige belangenbehartiging n.e.g. Overige belangenbehartiging n.e.g. Overige belangenbehartiging n.e.g. Overige belangenbehartiging n.e.g. Overige ideële organisaties n.e.g. Overk. organen (niet ohgv welzijn/sport) Vriendenkringen ohgv cultuur / fanclubs Steunfondsen (niet ohgv welzijnszorg) Steunfondsen (niet ohgv welzijnszorg) Steunfondsen (niet ohgv welzijnszorg) Hobbyclubs Hobbyclubs Hobbyclubs Hobbyclubs Hobbyclubs Gezelligheidsverenigingen Gezelligheidsverenigingen Gezelligheidsverenigingen Gezelligheidsverenigingen Gezelligheidsverenigingen Gezelligheidsverenigingen Gezelligheidsverenigingen Gezelligheidsverenigingen Gezelligheidsverenigingen Gezelligheidsverenigingen Bedrijfs‐ en werkgeversorganisaties Bedrijfs‐ en werkgeversorganisaties
The Fire Within Tarici W.M. A. H.S.V. Heksenberg Ghost Darts Dart Vereniging Darts DC de Fontein Schietsportvereniging De Vaste Hand Sportvereniging J.C. "Kodokan" Budo Sport Heerlerbaan Volleybal‐Club Zet‐op Zaalvoetbal Vereniging Groen Wit Futsalclub Sittard‐Geleen Badminton Club Palemig Wandelsportvereniging Voorwaarts Scherpschuttersvereniging "Goed Geraakt" Stichting "Arcus Racing" S.V. MSP'03 ZVV Bererode Teken‐ en Schilderatelier Sills Beeldtaal Glasatelier Heerlen Fotografie Henry Witpeerd AB Laserworks Stg. Limburgse Cultuur Org. "De Troubadour" Stg. Bev. der Dram. Kunst in de Prov. Limburg Parkstad Events Dans‐ en Showgroep Extremity Zangkoor Kadans Limb. Org.‐ & Keyb.cl. "Samen Musiceren" Stichting Toneelvereniging Mens Mise en Scene Federatie Gemeenschapshuizen Heerlen Stichting Gemeenschapshuis Schaesbergerveld Stg. Vr.kr. van de Heil. Geestpar. te Heerl. Stg. Hartrevalidatie Zuid‐Oostelijk Limburg Stichting Scouting Baden‐Powell Stichting Ararat‐Masis Stichting Jongeren Centrum Limburg Bew. Belangenvereniging Sint Barbara Palemig Scouting St. Jan Baptist Speeltuin‐Vereniging Meezenbroek Wijkraad Palemig Stichting De Spelewei Stichting Smsp Stichting Regio Scouting Parkstad Limburg Stichting De Witte Neushoorn Tanja Vervoort Personal Coaching Jerôme Slaats Life coach Kinderopvang Rozerood Kidscare Kinderopvang Reflexe Opleidingen De Wijkpraktijk B.V. Mondhygiënepraktijk G.G.W. Frings Effleur Massage Praktijk voor Natuurgeneeskunde Dina Spierts
Ov. recreatie n.e.g.(geen jachthavens) Kermisattracties Hengelsport Overige binnensport en omnisport Overige binnensport en omnisport Overige binnensport en omnisport Overige binnensport en omnisport Kracht‐ en vechtsport Kracht‐ en vechtsport Zaalsport in teamverband Zaalsport in teamverband Zaalsport in teamverband Individuele zaalsport Overige buitensport Overige buitensport Auto‐ en motorsport Veldvoetbal Veldvoetbal Scheppende kunst/documentaire schrijvers Scheppende kunst/documentaire schrijvers Scheppende kunst/documentaire schrijvers Journalistiek Dienstverlening voor uitvoerende kunst Dienstverlening voor uitvoerende kunst Dienstverlening voor uitvoerende kunst Circus en variété Beoefening van podiumkunst Beoefening van podiumkunst Beoefening van podiumkunst Beoefening van podiumkunst Exploitatie van gemeenschapshuizen Exploitatie van gemeenschapshuizen Exploitatie van gemeenschapshuizen Zelfhulpgroepen /onderlinge begeleiding Sociaal‐cultureel werk Sociaal‐cultureel werk Sociaal‐cultureel werk Sociaal‐cultureel werk Sociaal‐cultureel werk Sociaal‐cultureel werk Sociaal‐cultureel werk Sociaal‐cultureel werk Sociaal‐cultureel werk Sociaal‐cultureel werk Sociaal‐cultureel werk Algemeen maatschappelijk werk Algemeen maatschappelijk werk Kinderopvang Kinderopvang Arbobegeleiding en reïntegratie Gezondheidscentra Overige paramedische praktijken Overige paramedische praktijken Overige paramedische praktijken
Praktijk voor Natuurgeneeskunde Cicaro Prakt. voor natuurgeneeskunde Antonia Mennink Angelic Embrace PERSPEKTIEF, begeleiding rondom levensvragen Lionarons GGZ B.V. Runningtherapie Limburg Fysiother. Maatsch. Lahaye, Schmetz, Ten Kate Stichting Wederik Poeth Anesthesie OLB Heerlen Centrum voor Transformationele Coaching B.V. Stichting Kweekvijver Mediatalent Meex PCT Autorijschool M. Janssen Rijschool Ozzi Algemene Bomendienst Limburg B.V. Robeerts Aanleg en Onderhoud T.G. van Nes Absoluut PN Clean Gebouwenservice Dassen White Fang Selective Personeelsdiensten G. Willemsen AAB Altijd Auto Beschikbaar Stichting Dierenambulance Parkstad Limburg Alfons Houben Fotografie RAM Fotografie Janbroers C.A.M. Interieur Architect deWebanalist Jos Mertens Etalages J2 Den Bol Advertising Instituut voor Taalleerproblemen Paaschen Mediatechniek BuCoSe (Business Continuity Services) Advies‐ en Handelsburo Krijnen G.H. Design Schaal, bureau voor stedenbouw Weerts Engineering MDS Ondersteuning W. Vondenhoff Bouwkundig Adviesburo A. Bloemen Eijkenboom Bouwadvies Communication Builders 2‐Approach B.V. F.J. Franssen Projectmanagement B.V. Laumen Project Support Redo Management Advies‐ en Servicebureau P. van Zundert Fed‐International Kempener Management B.V. Balt Beheer B.V. PEBE B.V.
Overige paramedische praktijken Overige paramedische praktijken Overige paramedische praktijken Overige paramedische praktijken Praktijken van psychotherapeuten/‐logen Praktijken van psychotherapeuten/‐logen Praktijken van fysiotherapeuten Dagbehandelcentra geestelijke gez.zorg Praktijken van medisch specialisten Bedrijfsopleiding en ‐training Bedrijfsopleiding en ‐training Bedrijfsopleiding en ‐training Bedrijfsopleiding en ‐training Auto‐ en motorrijscholen Auto‐ en motorrijscholen Landschapsverzorging Landschapsverzorging Gespecialiseerde reiniging van gebouwen Gespecialiseerde reiniging van gebouwen Gespecialiseerde reiniging van gebouwen Gespecialiseerde reiniging van gebouwen Particuliere beveiliging Arbeidsbemiddeling Verh./lease overige machines e.d. Verh. personen‐/lichte bedrijfsauto's Veterinaire dienstverlening Fotografie (geen persfotografie) Fotografie (geen persfotografie) Industrieel ontwerp en vormgeving Markt‐ en opinieonderzoekbureaus Overige reclamediensten Reclame‐ontwerp‐ en ‐adviesbureaus Reclame‐ontwerp‐ en ‐adviesbureaus Speur‐/ontw.werk ogv maats./geesteswet. Techn.ontw./adv. niet gespecialiseerd TO/adv. elek.‐/inst.techniek/telematica TO/adv. elek.‐/inst.techniek/telematica Techn.ontw./advies stedenbouw/ruimt.ord. Techn.ontw./advies stedenbouw/ruimt.ord. Techn. ontw.‐/adv.bureaus burg/util.bw. Techn. ontw.‐/adv.bureaus burg/util.bw. Techn. ontw.‐/adv.bureaus burg/util.bw. Techn. ontw.‐/adv.bureaus burg/util.bw. Techn. ontw.‐/adv.bureaus burg/util.bw. Organisatie‐adviesbureaus Organisatie‐adviesbureaus Organisatie‐adviesbureaus Organisatie‐adviesbureaus Organisatie‐adviesbureaus Organisatie‐adviesbureaus Organisatie‐adviesbureaus Organisatie‐adviesbureaus Holdings (geen financiële) Holdings (geen financiële)
Dursun Holding International B.V. M.A.M.G. Vrouenraets B.V. Van Dinther Advies B.V. Flizzy Holding Maatschap Tilger Benelux Administratie Administratiekantoor J.F.M. Vroemen C.A. Pennings V.O.F. Grevo Administraties Brauer Advocaten Hurda Real Estate B.V. Horbach Taxaties en Makelaardij o.z. B. Verboom Verhuur KVB Tracom Nederland B.V. Assurantiekantoor Limburg B.V. Assurantiekantoor Kragting & Vallinga Hurda B.V. Stichting Administratiekantoor Keybek Stichting Administratiekantoor H.A.T. Holding Keybek Holding B.V. Jac. Eyck Stichting TMJ Hork Holding B.V. Coriovallum Stareb B.V. Masabe B.V. VOS Paulussen Degen Beheer B.V. ANCO B.V. Verboom Vastgoed B.V. Verboom Vastgoed II B.V. Stg. mr. Brauer, mr. De Wit en mr. Ferwerda M. de W. Holding B.V. F.J. Franssen Beheer B.V. Mercato Holding B.V. H.H.C. Gastens B.V. H.A.T. Holding B.V. Denk 2 Management B.V. Liquid Stones B.V. Ressel Trading B.V. TreeCare Holding B.V. Direct Energy Save Holding Muyzers Holding B.V. E.M.J. de Ras Holding B & R (Brands & De Ras) Holding Maastricht Net4more.com Mhbk Automatisering Weenink Software Corio Care Parkstad.com K0‐Ware Siteonline Wizard Design Hahn Internet Producties Parkstadmedia Morgen32 AudioGarden
Holdings (geen financiële) Holdings (geen financiële) Holdings (geen financiële) Concerndiensten binnen eigen concern Boekhoudkantoren Boekhoudkantoren Boekhoudkantoren Boekhoudkantoren Advocatenkantoren Bemidd. bij handel/huur/verhuur onr.goed Bemidd. bij handel/huur/verhuur onr.goed Verh. onroerend goed (niet v woonruimte) Verhuur van overige woonruimte Handel in eigen onroerend goed Assurantietussenpersonen Assurantietussenpersonen Hypotheek‐/kredietbem./bankagentschappen Admin.kantoren voor aandelen/obligaties Admin.kantoren voor aandelen/obligaties Commissionairs/makelaars in effecten ed Ondernemingspensioen‐/spaarfondsen Beleggingsinst. met beperkte toetreding Beleggingsinst. met beperkte toetreding Beleggingsinst. met beperkte toetreding Beleggingsinstellingen in vaste activa Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Financiële holdings Ov. dienstv. act. ohgv inform.tech. neg Software consultancy Ontwikkelen/produceren maatwerksoftware Ontwikkelen/produceren maatwerksoftware Ontwikkelen/produceren maatwerksoftware Ontwikkelen/produceren maatwerksoftware Ontwikkelen/produceren maatwerksoftware Ontwikkelen/produceren maatwerksoftware Ontwikkelen/produceren maatwerksoftware Ontwikkelen/produceren maatwerksoftware Productie van radioprogramma's
Totaalbeeld Audiovisuele Communicatie H.L.J.C. Hermans Harmoniezaal Schaesbergerveld Café "Boereslot" Café Zalencentrum 't Leiehoes D'r Zeute Inval De Fontein M.S.P. Aktiviteitenvereniging Café zaal Coriovallum America J.W.K. (Jeffrey's wafelkraam) Friture Ilona RC Food Product Friture 't Heuveltje Friture Limburgia V.O.F. Broodjes express Pani Grillroom Pizzeria Sphinx Marmi J & J Distributie Pakket Service Arte Services Ayto Trans V.O.F. Transportbedrijf Luc Leers A. Clark Transport 't ijstijgertje mtbgigant Something Old Something New Luca Galerie & Webdesign Elrajeh Jomar Trading Company P. Snel Van Delfts Bloemenhandel Cor en Karel A.P. Peeters Kids & Zo Stamps and Coins Hapotel Coöp. Aan‐/Verkoopvereniging Ubach over Worms Bloemenboetiek Helga Etos Meezenbroek Theriak Apotheek Meezenbroek Video Thuis JP Stingray Guitars DV Computers Ali Baba Mini‐Super Heerlen Sigarenmagazijn Spiertz Slijterij van Wersch Rita's Little Gift's V.O.F. Bakkerij Voncken‐Caubo V.O.F. Kwaliteitsslagerij Hermans W.P.J. Gubbels Jola PLUS van der Zwaag RF Business Solutions Aquagrizon Parkstad e.o. Security
Prod. films (geen televisiefilms) Cafés Cafés Cafés Cafés Cafés Cafés Cafés Cafés Kantines en contractcatering Cafetaria's, lunchrooms, snackbars e.d. Cafetaria's, lunchrooms, snackbars e.d. Cafetaria's, lunchrooms, snackbars e.d. Cafetaria's, lunchrooms, snackbars e.d. Cafetaria's, lunchrooms, snackbars e.d. Cafetaria's, lunchrooms, snackbars e.d. Restaurants Hotels (geen hotel‐rest.)/pens./conf.o. Koeriers Expediteurs/cargadoors/bevrachters e.d. Goederenvervoer over weg (geen verhuiz.) Goederenvervoer over weg (geen verhuiz.) Goederenvervoer over weg (geen verhuiz.) Straathandel Detailhandel via postorder en internet Detailhandel via postorder en internet Detailhandel via postorder en internet Markthandel in overige goederen Markthandel in overige goederen Markthandel bloemen/planten/zaden/tuinb. Markthandel bloemen/planten/zaden/tuinb. Markthandel overige voedings‐ en genotm. Winkels in tweedehands kleding Winkels gespec. in overige art. n.e.g. Winkels gespec. in overige art. n.e.g. Winkels bloemen/planten/zaden/tuinbenod. Winkels bloemen/planten/zaden/tuinbenod. Winkels in drogisterij‐artikelen Apotheken Winkels in audio‐ en video‐opnamen Winkels in muziekinstrumenten Winkels in computers/randapp./software Winkels in buitenlandse voedingsmiddelen Winkels in tabaksproducten Winkels in dranken Winkels in chocolade en suikerwerk Winkels in brood en banket Winkels in vlees en vleeswaren Winkels in aardappelen/groenten/fruit Supermarkten e.d. winkels alg.ass.v‐gm Supermarkten e.d. winkels alg.ass.v‐gm Niet‐gespec. GH in consumentenartikelen GH sanitaire art./sanitair install.mat. GH gespec.in ov.benodigd.ind./handel neg
SoCap Nederland B.V. Osmose Water Techniek Direct Energy Save A.I.C. Europe Toys & Promotions F & S Essed International Fair Trade Firma G. Visser & Zoon Oostwegel en Kowollik B.V. NL Scooters Lemmens Im‐ en Export WiSE Tuning Fa. Pignar J.G. Meulenberg B.V. Automobielbedrijf Balt B.V. Autohandel Marxer Doe‐Het‐Zelf‐Garage Van de Ven Garage Aretz & Zn.V.O.F. Schadeautohandel C. Verboom jr. Snijders Autoschadeherstel Verboom Autorecycling Heerlen V.O.F. PRM Cars ARB Auto´s Evers Auto´s H. Borghans Bouwbedrijf Bremen Voegbedrijf Carlitz Bosina Metselwerken H. en L. Rolluiken en Zonwering B.V. Siebremo Spuitwerken Living Floor ERAN Floor Smits Tegelwerken Reiner Jansen Timmerwerk. Désirée Houttechniek Edis Bouw Romobo Stucadoorsbedrijf Jungblut Getano Vonderbank Montage S.I. Montage V.O.F. H. Wante Installatiebedrijf Klusbedrijf M. Wolters ParkstadBouwserive Ambro S Fierstra bestrating Bouwservice Mija Huntjens Bouw B.V. Hanssen Bouwbiologisch Aann.bedr. V.O.F. M. de W. Woningonderhoud B.V. Timmerfabriek Crapels Bindels Bouwservice Klussenbedrijf Marwa Klussenbedrijf De Jong
Groothandel in vakbenodigdheden n.e.g. GH ov. mach./app. voor ind./handel neg. GH elektronische/telecommunicatieapp. GH computers, randapparatuur en software Groothandel in speelgoed Groothandel in huismeubilair GH med./tandheelk.instr./verpl.art. e.d. Groothandel in bloemen en planten Niet‐gespecialiseerde handelsbemiddeling DH en reparatie motorfiets(onderdel)en GH en HB in motorfiets(onderdel)en DH in auto‐onderdelen en ‐accessoires Carrosserieherstel Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Handel/rep. personen‐/lichte bedr.auto's Metselen en voegen Metselen en voegen Metselen en voegen Overige afwerking van gebouwen Overige afwerking van gebouwen Afwerking van vloeren en wanden Afwerking van vloeren en wanden Afwerking van vloeren en wanden Bouwtimmeren Bouwtimmeren Bouwtimmeren Bouwtimmeren Stukadoren Stukadoren Isolatiewerkzaamheden Inst. verwarmings‐/luchtbehandelingsapp. Loodg.‐ en fitterswerk; inst. sanitair Loodg.‐ en fitterswerk; inst. sanitair Inst. verlichting/telecom/alarm in geb. Stratenmaken Stratenmaken Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw
Bluez Brotherz Renovatie en advies J. Danihel Klussen‐ & Schoonmaakbedrijf Willy Ouwerkerk Sebil Dust Clean Klussenbedrijf Pluijmen Bouwservice van Tilborg Cauboom Euregio B.V. Smederij Erkens T.P.P. Heerlen B.V. Linnartz Houten Botenbouw Performance Engineering Stichting Wijkblad MSP M.K. Bakkerij en Patisserie Langendoen Erkens Agro B.V.
Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Algemene burgerlijke en utiliteitsbouw Projectontwikkeling Rep./onderh.mach./werkt. land‐/bosbouw Tandtechnische bedrijven Bouw van sport‐ en recreatievaartuigen Algemene metaalbewerking Drukkerijen van dagbladen Verv. brood en vers banketbakkerswerk Bosbouw Teelt granen/peulvruchten/olieh. zaden
Appendix F1. Data and assumptions: MSP Heerlen In this appendix the data and assumptions used for the calculations of the metabolism in 2010 and 2040 will be presented. Some of the data and assumptions are similar to the ones of the Goudse Poort, and therefore only different or additional data and assumptions will be presented below.
MSP in 2010 The data and assumptions for MSP in 2010 were refined and values were double‐checked. In the table below the types of buildings and companies and assumptions about number of people are given. Table J Types of companies and buildings found in MSP and assumptions about number of employees or people.
Company or Amount of Energy and water consumption based on building type building type people Office 405 Office Garage 12 Garage, omitted in the calculations Retail 15 Retail company, omitted in the calculations company School 3193 Same consumption as office 22 Housing 6900 Household (average household size of 2) For the food consumption, more detailed data was used in the calculations, as is shown in the table below.
Table K Facts and assumptions about the average food consumption and menu23.
Product type Potatoes Bread Miscellaneous Alcoholic drinks Non‐alcoholic drinks Fruit Pastry products and cake Wheat products and binders Vegetables Non‐sweet sandwich topping Cheese Milk and dairy products Nuts, seeds, and snacks Legumes, pods Vitamin pills and others Dishes (ready‐made) Soups Soy products
kg/day 0.114 0.135 0.003 0.159 1.194 0.105 0.041 0.044 0.123 0.003 0.027 0.383 0.029 0.005 0.003 0.028 0.067 0.002
Assumptions for calculation yield farms 100% wheat Not taken into account 100% wheat 100% water 100% wheat 100% wheat Added to meat consumption Added to Legumes Not taken into account 100% wheat Not taken into account
Source: gemeentelijke basisadministratie Heerlen, http://www.gba.nl/ Source: http://www.zuivelengezondheid.nl/tno/Index/Deel‐1/Start_Tekst.htm#3
Sweets, candy, sugar, sweet sandwich topping, sweet sauces Fats, oils, fatty sauces Eggs Fish Meat, and poultry Total fluids Total Consumption indoors
100% sugar beet 0.041 0.048 0.014 0.01 0.109 1.6 2.7 26% of total
24 Table L Different food types with fraction of consumption per food type.
Type of food Vegetables Greens (Leaf vegetables excluding cabbage) Fruit vegetables (Tomato, Aubergine etcetera) Tuberous plants (Knolgroenten) Cabbage Mushrooms Pea, maize, broad bean Onions, garlic Stem vegetables and sprouts Mixed salads/vegetables Legumes (Peulvruchten) Milk products Milk Milk drinks Yoghurt Quark, fresh cheese Cheese Pudding based on milk/cream/mousse Cream Coffee creamers Meat and meat products (excluding fish) Pig Beef Chicken Other Fruit Strawberries Pears Apples Other fruit
Fraction 1 0.145631068 0.27184466 0.067961165 0.223300971 0.019417476 0.029126214 0.097087379 0.029126214 0.087378641 0.029126214 1 0.503836317 0.081841432 0.21483376 0.012787724 0.081841432 0.084398977 0.00511509 0.015345269 1 0.461038961 0.301136364 0.153409091 0.084415584 1 0.002 0.058 0.37 0.57
Source: Hulshof, K., et al.,‘Resultaten van de voedselconsumptiepeiling 2003’, RIVM rapport 350030002/2004.
Table M Yield of different crop types cultivated in the Netherlands
Crop type Total leaf and stem vegetables Total tuberous and carrot vegetables Total cabbage Sprouts Total legumes Peas French beans (Sperziebonen) Broad bean Total fruit vegetables Total wheat Total potatoes Maize Sugar beets Onions Mushrooms (Champignons) Total strawberries Total apples Total pears
Yield kg/(ha*year) 22466 49808 30994 22985 7538 5827 9143 6897 412437 8729 46045 11400 72248 47359 3311688 26065 40314 23007
MSP Heerlen in 2040 For 2040 it was assumed the instead of 6900 only 6000 people would live there, while the amount of people going to school was assumed to decline from 3193 to 2777 in similar proportions with the decline in residents.
Water system For the water system, the new elements taken up into the calculations were the water use per crop type and per animal type, which are listed in the two tables below. Furthermore, assumptions and data on rainwater and its capture and storage are presented. Table N Water use per crop type.26
Average water use (L/kg produce) 97.7 21.7 63.4 3.3 3.3 1.3 55 0.3 1.1
Crop type Leaf vegetables Fruit vegetables Cabbage – Cauliflower Legumes Other vegetables Potatoes, maize, wheat Strawberry Apple Pear 25
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Statline, accessed via http://www.cbs.nl, data of 2008 Source: based on D’Hooghe, J., et al.,‘Inschatting van het watergebruik in de landbouw op basis van nieuwe en geactualiseerde kengetallen per landbouwactiviteit’, instituut voor landbouw‐ en visserijonderzoek, 2007 26
Table O Water use per type of animal
Type of animal Broiler chicken Meat chicken (Less than a year old) Meat chicken Pigs from 7 to 20 kg Pigs from 20 to 110 kg Pigs of more than 110 kg Dairy cows Meat cows Meat calfs Horses Goats Sheep
Water use m3/(animal*year) 0.09 0.07 0.12 0.55 1.6 4.55 22.29 11.66 5.51 14.09 1.91 1.23
Table P Data and assumptions about rain and rainwater storage in MSP27.
Year 2010 2020 2030 2040
Rain (mm/ year) 850 860 870 880
Evaporation Infiltration 18.8% 30.9% 31.7% 47.0%
5.0% 9.9% 13.4% 10.8%
water via creeks 25.0% 45.7% 54.9% 42.2%
rain via sewage 51.3% 13.6% 0.0% 0.0%
% of rainwater buffered 0 12 15 21
Area of fishponds 1.2 6.2 8.3 12.4
The evaporation and flow of the rain and surface water through the creeks are the main sources of water loss. The evaporation increases because of the larger area of productive green that is introduced in MSP. The infiltration also increases because of a lower percentage covering of pavement and roads. Furthermore, it was assumed that all the storage of rainwater would be realised by an additional 30 cm on top of surface water.
Biogas plant For the MSP system in 2040 the data below on manure production of the animals and nitrogen content was used. For the sewage sludge the same assumptions as before were used. For the production of organic waste from the helophyte filter cuttings it was assumed that a yearly 10,000 kg/ha would be produced. Table Q Manure production and characteristics for different types of animals28.
Dairy cow Beef Swine
manure production per 1000 kg live animal mass per day (kg/(1000kg*day)) 86 58 84
Total kjeldahl nitrogen per 1000 kg live animal mass per day (kg/(1000kg*day)) 0.45 0.34 0.52
Total phosphorus per 1000 kg live animal mass per day (kg/(1000kg*day)) 0.094 0.092 0.18
Source: based on estimations made by Paul de Graaff. The increase in rainfall is based on estimations of effects of climate change in the Netherlands. 28 Source: based on ‘Manure production and characteristics’, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, ASAE standard
Meat chicken Broiler chicken
Food production: urban farms and greenhouses For the food production, data on the yield of different types of food was added to the calculations. Above (2010 system) already the crop yield per hectare was shown, while below data on the production of meat and milk is shown, as well as assumptions about import of food. 29
Table R Ratio of kg food consumed per kg meat or milk products produced . For the calculations of the total food consumption of the cattle it was assumed that they eat a mix of corn and grass (50/50). The feed ratios mentioned for the cattle are excluding pasture grazing; instead this is mentioned separately.
Type of meat or milk product Pig ‐ meat Cattle ‐ meat Chicken ‐ meat Eggs Grass for meat production Grass for milk production Butter Cheese Other milk products
Feed ratio (kg food consumed per kg product produced) 8.4 6.2 3.4 3.8 0.4 3.7 7.9 7.9 6 (estimate)
Table S Data on the production of milk, eggs, and meat.
Type of product Milk Pig Grown‐up cattle Meat chicken Eggs
Production per cow (L per year) 780030 Average weight at slaughter (kg)25 Fraction meat31 90 0.57 308 0.6 (estimate) 1.6 0.6 (estimate) Fraction edible 0.932
Average weight (kg) 0.06532
Number of eggs per chicken per year 25033
Table T Assumptions about import across national boundaries for different types of foods.
Import across national boundaries in 2010 (%) 15
Assumptions for 2040 regarding import and consumption Food import of all types of foods declines 15% Vegetable consumption increases 15% (closer to
Source: Toronto vegetarian association, http://veg.ca/content/view/133/111/ Source: Wikipedia online encyclopaedia, http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koe_%28rund%29 31 Source: http://www.agd.nl/1082378/Nieuws/Artikel/Slachtgewicht‐vleesvarkens‐neemt‐toe.htm 32 Source: http://www.xquis.com/xquis/warenkennis/133/eieren.html 33 Source: http://www.milieucentraal.nl/pagina.aspx?onderwerp=Eieren 30
Fruit Meat Fish Dairy products
57 30 30 15
advised values) Fruit consumption increases 15% Meat consumption declines 15%
Solar cells For the solar cells it was assumed that they are 15% efficient, which means that 15% of the energy of the solar radiation is converted into electricity. The average yearly solar radiation in Zuid‐Limburg per day is 9.79 MJ/(m2*day), which is equivalent to 2.72 kWh/(m2*day).34
Source: Velds, C.A., et al., ‘Zonnestraling in Nederland’, Dutch meteorological institute KNMI, 1992
Appendix F2. Metabolic calculations: MSP Heerlen The calculations in the MSP system were similar to the ones used in the Goudse Poort, with the difference that some additional data was used and some calculations were more detailed. For example, for the yield of the food production it was assumed that the type of crops grown represents the average menu, and an average yield of production was calculated. It is assumed that the principle of this type of calculation is clear, and therefore only a few formulas will be shown that represent this type of calculations.
Biogas plant Fertiliser production:
FF = ∑ ( f N ,i ⋅ OWi )
Where FF is the fertiliser production, fN,i is the fraction nitrogen per kg of organic waste of type i, and OWi is the amount of organic waste of type i produced per year (i being food waste, sewage sludge, chicken manure, swine manure, etcetera). i
Food production: urban farms and greenhouses Food production:
FP = AF ⋅ ∑ ( fC ,i ⋅ Yi )
i Where FP is the total food production, AF is the area of farmland in hectares, fc,i the fraction of consumption of product type i (e.g. stem vegetables) and Yi is the crop yield per hectare of product i. The yield for animal products (meat, milk, eggs) was calculated in a similar way with the above formula, but this time the amount of animals per hectare was included.
Appendix G. Metabolic scheme MSP Heerlen 2040 Below the metabolic scheme of the future vision of MSP Heerlen in 2040 is presented. The dark blue boxes are existing actors, while the light blue boxes are cyclifiers to be added to the system.
Appendix H. Morphological chart cyclifiers The table below shows an example of a morphological chart. In the first column, the different functions that are needed in the system are listed. In the corresponding row of these functions, several options for the realisation of the function are listed. To help the intuitive part of the brain, every option should come with a picture or drawing. It is important to keep every option as basic and generic as possible: for example, a renewable energy source can be the wind. Do not put a picture of a wind turbine as option, because this limits the design too much. Instead, show a true picture of the wind, and only when deciding what kind of cyclifier would be best, start thinking about a wind turbine, or other machine. In this way a systematic way of listing all the different options for cyclifiers or a part of them is shown. The options can be combined in a million different ways, adapted to the local circumstances of the system under study. It can also be used as a tool for coming up with new cyclifiers. For example, the functions can be combined within one row, but also across rows, combining different functions in one cyclifier. In the Goudse Poort and MSP Heerlen case studies, the biodigester combined biogas as energy source, anaerobic digestion as water purification, and fertiliser production. A new cyclifier could be a combination of car fuel (biodiesel) with fertilisation of the land. This could be done with the use of algae that produce oil. This oil is transformed into biodiesel with esterification. Because the oil is in the algae, they have to be destroyed in some way to get the oil out. The residue after extraction of the oil contains much nutrients that can be used as fertiliser. The table below is only partly filled in, but the idea is clear. Table U Morphological chart for
Type of function Energy source ‐ conventional Energy source ‐ renewable
Solar PV (or solar heat)
Energy production PV/ solar heat
In green‐ houses Water level Aerobic digestion On top of lake
Thermal mass buildings Sand filter
Batteries Water purification Anaerobic digestion Water storage Ditches Fertilisation of the land
Local food Greenhouse supply/production
Sludge/ digested Grey water sludge Pastureland Stable with with animals animals
Biodiesel (from oils)
CHP Generator (gas or diesel) In water In air UV light
Ion ex‐ change Compost
Organic waste Farmland
Published on Mar 31, 2010