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a&muf&SdcJh&onf? e,fajrcsif;qufpyfaeaom tdrfeD;csif;wdkif;jynfrsm;.ordkif;ESifhvnf; ygwfoufESD;EG,f vmcJh&onf? yxrurBmppf/ 'kwd,urBmppfrsm;tjyD; ,if;wdk‹tay: urBmEdkifiHacgif;aqmifrsm;. jyefvnfokH;oyf r_t& urBmhjidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh wdk;wufzGH‹òzd;a&;twGuf urBmhukvor*~ ay:aygufvmcJhonf? udkvdkeDwdkif;jynf rsm;onfvnf; vGwfvyfaomEkdifiHrsm;tjzpfodk‹ ajymif;vJa&muf&Sd=uygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; csif;trsKd;om; rsm;tzkd‹&mrlum; e,ffcsJhpepf. qdk;0g;aomtusKd;qufonf csif;trsKd;om;e,fajrudk jrefrm/ tdENd,/ b*Fvm; a'h&Sf okH;EkdifiH cGJa0ydkifqdkifonfhtjzpfodk‹ a&muf&SdapjyD; csif;trsKd;om;wdk‹tm; ordkif;. cg;oD;aom tawG‹t óuHrsm;udk ,ae‹wdkif &ifqkdifcHpm;apcJhonf? txufaz:jyyg trsKd;om;a&;ordkif; jzwfoef;vmcJh&aom jzpfpOfY csif;trsKd;om;ae‹onf ordkif;. rSwfwdkifwpf&yftjzpf ay:aygufvmcJhonf? csif;trsKd;om;ae‹onf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹ jzpfonf? rnfonfhwdkif;jynf/ EkdifiH/ rnfonfha'owGifrqdk aexdkif=uukefaom csif;trsKd;om;rSefor#wdk‹. trsKd;om;ae‹ ae‹xl;ae‹jrwf jzpfayonf? jrefrmEkdifiHwGif csif;trsKd;om;ae‹udk csif;0daoowddkif;ae‹/ csif;jynfe,fae‹[k vGJrSm;pGm ac:a0:wwf =uonf? 1947ckESpf pufwifbmv (24)&ufae‹ csrSwfjyXmef;onfh jrefrmEkdifiHawmf zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccH Oya't& csif;0daoowdkif; ay:aygufI csif;0daoowdkif;ae‹onf pufwifbmv (24) &uf jzpfonf? 1974 ckESpf ZEM0g&Dv(3)&ufae‹ twnfðyaom zGJ‹pnf;ykHtajccHOya't& csif;jynfe,f jzpfvmI csif;jynfe,fae‹ onf ZEM0g&Dv(3)&uf jzpfonf? 0daoowdkif;ae‹/ jynfe,fae‹onf ,if;owfrSwfxm;aom e,fajrtydkif; tjcm;twGif; aexdkifolrsm; ESifhom oufqdkifonf? pifppf csif;trsKd;om;ae‹onf ta=umif;rJhay:aygufvmonf r[kwfyg? azaz:&D (20) &ufae‹udk csif;trsKd;om;ae‹ jzpf&rnf[k ta=umif;rJhowfrSwfcJhonf r[kwfyg? csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&; vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyJGpOf umvwav#mufY xl;jcm;r_ t}udrf}udrf&SdcJhaom orkdif;ay;onfh ae‹wpfae‹ jzpfayonf? om"u tcsKdhrSm - 1918ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wGif csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. yxrOD;qkH;aom vlr_a&; tzGJ‹tpnf;jzpfonfh “csif;trsKd;om;rsm; ynma&;jr‡ifhwifa&; tzGJ‹” udk zGJ‹pnf;onf? - 1928ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wGif csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. yxrOD;qkH;aom EkdifiHa&;tzGJ‹ tpnf; jzpfonfh “ csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzJG‹” udk zGJ‹pnf; onf? - 1938 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (20) &ufae‹wGif uefyufvufòrd‹Y t*Fvdyftpdk;& udk,fpm;vS,f rsm;tm; csif;trsKd;om;xku xdyfwdkuf&ifqdkif oydwfarSmufarmif;xkwfonf? - 1948 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (20) &ufae‹wGif zvrf;òrd‹Y vGwfvyfaom nDvmcH usif;yI 'Drdkua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&; tkwfjrpfcscJhonf? twdwforkdif;a=umif;udk jyefajymif;òcHikHo;kH oyf&rnfqdkv#if csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. ordkif;onf vnf;aumif;/ csif;trsKd;om;ae‹ ay:aygufvmykHordkif;onfvnf;aumif;/ t*Fvdyfe,fcsJh vufatmuf uGsefb0 usa&mufjcif;rS tpðya=umif; awG‹&Sd&rnfjzpfonf? uGsefawmfonf csif;trsdK;om;wpfOD;jzpf&jcif;twGufvnf;aumif;/ csif;trsdK;om;tm;vHk;. trsdK; om;ae‹wnf&Sdjcif;twGufvnf;aumif;/ Tordkif;rSwfwrf;tm; jyD;jynfhpHkr_r&Sdaomfjim;vnf; vufvSrf;rSDor# ðypkjzpfonfhtwGufvnf;aumif;/ TrSwfwrf;jzifh twdwf/ ypPKy`ef/ tem*gwf. rsdK;cspfyk*~dKvftaygif;tm; 4


*g&0ðy&onfhtwGufvnf;aumif;/ rsm;pGm*k%f,l0rf;ajrmufygonf? xdk‹xufydkI csif;trsdK;om;ae‹onf csif;trsdK;om;rsm;. 'Drdkua&pDae‹jzpfjcif;twGuf rsm;pGmydkI *k%f,l0rf;ajrmufygonf? -csif;trsKd;om;ae‹ ay:aygufvm&jcif;aemufcHorkdif; (tusOf;) yxrydkif; - csif;trsKd;om;rsm;ordkif;ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHorkdif;qufEG,fjcif; - e,fcsJhpwifusL;ausmfr_ESifh ckcHawmfvSefr_ jzpfpOftusOf; - vli,frsm;OD;aqmifr_jzifh awmfvSefa&;yDjyifvmjcif;/

csif;trsKd;om;rsm;ordkif;ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHordkif;qufEG,fjcif; csif;trsKd;om;rsm;e,fajrESifh e,fajrcsif;qufpyfaeaom ArmjynfwGif tkyfpdk;ol ya'o&mZfrsm;. nHhzsif;csufa=umifh ajcukwf&aeaom e,fcsJh.t&Sdefonf awmrD;yrmjyef‹ESH‹jyD; ,ckjrefrmEkdifiH[kac:wGifrnfh a'otm;vkH;udk 0g;òrdv$rf;rdk;oGm;onfhtcsdefrSpI csif;trsKd;om;rsm;.ordkif;onf jrefrmEkdifiH.ordkif;ESifh vnf; qufEG,fvmcJh&ayonf? e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&;ordkif;pOfY csif;trsKd;om;rsm;onfvnf;aumif;/ jrefrmEkdifiH. jynfaxmifpk wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd;taygif;wkd‹onfvnf;aumif;/ e,fcsJhvufatmuf uGsefb0usa&mufaomfvnf; te,fe,ft&yf&yfrS rsKd;cspfyk*~Kdvftaygif;onf &&mvufeuf vltiftm;jzifh ae&ma'otESH‹ rdrdwdk‹a'o toD;oD;Y e,fcsJhudkawmfvSefcJh=uonf? odk‹aomf pkpnf;r_r&Sd/? tiftm;rr#/ t&mrxifcJhay? e,fcsJhvufatmufusa&mufaom uGsefouf&Snf=umvmonfESifhtr# wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;aygif;pkH pnf;vkH;nDnGwfpGm pkaygif;awmfvSerf Som atmifjrifrnfjzpfa=umif; acwfynmwwf vli,facgif;aqmifrsm; u od&Sdoabmaygufvm=uonf? ,if;ynmwwf wuUodkvfausmif;om; vli,frsm;wGif jrefrmEkdifiH. vGwf vyfa&;Adokumtjzpf ordkif;wGifrnfh udkatmifqef;vnf; tygt0ifjzpfonf? ,if; ynmwwfvli,frsm;. OD;aqmifr_jzifh wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;tm;vkH; pnf;vkH;nDnGwfpGm óud;yrf;tm;xkwfjcif;.tusKd;aus;Zl;onf vGwfvyfa&;rk'fOD;odk‹ jrefrmEkdifiHtm; ta&mufydk‹aqmifcJhayonf? e,fcsJhpwifusL;ausmfr_ESifh ckcHawmfvSefr_rsm;jzpfpOftusOf; csif;trsKkd;om;e,fajrudk 1824-26 t*Fvdyfjrefrmyxrppfuwnf;u e,fcsJht*FvdyfrS pwifusL; ausmfa=umif;/ ,if;t*Fvdyf-jrefrm yxrppftjyD;wGif &ckdifurf;&kd;wef;a'oudk jAdwdo#wdk‹tm; ay;vdkuf &pOfu yvuf0e,fESifh vla&Sawmifwef;ay:&Sd csif;trsKd;om;rsm; pwifwdkufyJG0if=ua=umif;/ xdkumvwGif &cdkifajrmufjcrf; yvuf0a'o/ vla&Sawmifwef;qDodk‹ e,fcsJhppfa=umif;wpfa=umif; xkd;azguf0ifa&muf cJha=umif;/ 1827 wGif tmoHjynfrSwqifh r%dyl&jrpfa=umif;twdkif; pkefqif;vmaom e,fcsJhwyfpkwpfpk zvrf;a'otm; usL;ausmf&efp wdkufcdkufr_&SdcJhbl;a=umif;/ 1829 ckESpf {jyDvwGif e,fcsJh a=u;pm;wyf AdkvfyguifzD;ESifh bdkvwGefwdkh OD;pD;aomppfa=umif;udk vla&Scsif;rsKd;cspfrsm; 0dkif;0ef;wdkufcdkuf&m e,fcsJhAkdvf ESpfOD;pvkH;ESifhwyfom;trsm;tjym; usqkH;a=umif;/ 1850 ckESpf ZEM0g&DvwGif tqdkyga'oodk‹ e,fcsJhwyfrSL; AdkvfrSL;}uD;vpPbmESifh t&m&Sd(&)OD;/ a=upm;ppfom; (229)OD; xyfrHa&muf&Sd&m wdkufyGJjyefvnf jzpfyGm;jyD; a=u;pm;wyfrsm; tustqkH;rsm;jym;a=umif;/ 1870 ckESpf azaz:0g&DvwGif Adkvfba&mif;edef;OD;pD; aom e,fcsJha=u;pm;wyfpcef;wpfcktm; vla&Scsif;rsKd;cspfrsm; 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkuf&m e,fcsJhwyfom;rsm; xdcdkuf 5


'%f&mtrsm;tjym;ESifh pcef;pGef‹cGmxGufajy;=u&a=umif;/ vla&Sawmifwef;csif;rsdK;om;rsm;. awmfvSefa&; wdkufyGJudk awG‹&Sd&onf? t*Fvdyf-jrefrm wwd,ppfudk 1885ckESpf 'DZifbmv(3)&ufae‹wGif oDaygbk&iftm;zrf;qD; ac: aqmifEkdifjcif;jzihftqkH;owfcJhjyD; tdENd,bk&ifcH avm'f'yfz&ifu 0dwdk&d,bk&ifrodk‹ 1886 ckESpf ZEM0g&Dv (2) &ufae‹wGif Armjynfudk ay;tyfqufocJhonf? ArmjynfrSwqifh csif;wGif;ESifh {&m0wD. taemufzufa'o jzpfaom csif;awmifwpfckvkH; odrf;ydkufa&;tpDtpOfwGif uav;a'o umbdkcsKdifh0Srf;rS wD;wdefe,fodk‹ ppfa=umif;wpfa=umif;/ ajrmufa,ma'o xD;vif;/ *ef‹a*ge,frS [m;cg;odk‹ ppfa=umif;wpfa=umif;/ awmifa,ma'o yckuULrS rif;wyfodk‹ ppfa=umif;wpfa=umif;/ xdk;ppfqifcJha=umif;/ ,if;xdk;ppftwGuf tiftm; (2600) xyfrH jznfhwif;&I tajrmufvufeufrsm; tokH;ðy&a=umif;/ ppfqifa&;uGyfuJr_udk 'kwd, AdkvfcsKyf}uD; wpfOD;tm; wm0efay;cJh&a=umif;/ jAdwdo#rSwfwrf;rsm;Y az:jyxm;onf? ajrmufydkif;csif;awmif csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&;ordkif;pOfY 1887 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif uav;òrd‹ jyifomqdyfpcef;tm; wD;wdefrsKd;cspfrsm;u 0ifa&mufwdkufckduf&m e,fcsJhwyfom; (5) OD; usqkH;I csif;rsKd;cspf (4) OD; usqkH;&a=umif;/ 1887 'DZifbmv(7)&ufwGif ta&;ydkif rpPwm&dyf. tpDtpOfjzifh csD wufvmaom ppfa=umif;wpfa=umif;udk uav;òrd‹rS (9)rdkiftuGm cdkifurf;ta&muf csif;rsdK;cspfrsm;u csKHckdwdkufcdkuf&m a&Shajy;wyfcGJ Akdvfyg;vfrm;ESifhtwl ppfom; (4)OD;usqkH;a=umif;/ 1889 ckESpf ZEM0g&Dv (27) &ufae‹wGif trSwf (42) a*:&cg;wyf&if;/ wyf&if;rSL; AdkvfrSL;}uD;puif;OD;pD;aomppfa=umif; csDwufvmpOf ajreDawmifcHwyfrS csif;rsKd;cspfrsm;u wdkufckdufa=umif;/ 1889ckESpf arv(4)&ufae‹wGif trSwf(2)aemfazmh a=u;pm;wyf tiftm;(65)a,muf/ trSwf(42)a*:&cg;wyf&if; tiftm;(65)a,mufygppfa=umif;tm; &S,fvkHcHwyfrS csif;rsKd;cspfrsm;u wdkufcdkufa=umif;/ ,if;wdkufyJGwGif Adkvf}uD;rdef;ESifh t=uyf/ wyfom; (23) OD; usqkH;a=umif;/ 'kAdkvfrdkufu,fESifh q&m0efvDcGit f jyif wyfom;(13)OD; jyif;xefpGm'%f&m&a=umif;/ csif;rsKd;cspfrsm;zufY &Jabmf&Jar(27)OD;usqkH;I (2)OD;omtouf&SifvGwfajrmufa=umif;/ 1890 ckESpf ZEM0g&Dv (2) &ufae‹wGif qwfom;&GmcHwyfrS e,fcsJha=u;pm;trSwf(24)a*:&cg;wyf&if; tiftm;(135)OD;wdk‹ twif; 0ifa&muf wdkufcdkufr_udk [m;cg;csif;rsKd;cspfwdk‹u ckcHwdkufcdkuf&m wyfpkrSL; Adkvf*sdrf;ESifh wyfom; (3)OD; usqkH;a=umif;/ 1892 ckESpf rwfv(20)&ufae‹wGif [mcg;e,f ql&fcGm;&Gm OD;refukef;tdrfY &kd;&myGJusif;ypOf jAdwdo#a=u;pm;wyf EkdifiHa&;t&m&dS rpPwmwyfESifh Adkvfygpdef[efOD;pD;aom trSwf(2)Armhaoewfudkif wyf&if;rS tiftm;(80)cef‹u 0dkif;Iwdkufcdkufa=umif;/ csif;rsKd;cspf(35) OD;usqkH;I (20)ausmf'%f&m&a=umif;/ OD;refukef;. aetdrfrD;avmifa=umif; OD;refukef;tm; yckuULtxd zrf;qD;ac:aqmifI aoewf(55)vufjzifh jyefa&G;apcJha=umif;/ 1892ckESpf rwfv(29)&ufae‹wGif xefwvefudkjzwfI oDtkd,dkbuf csDwufvmaom tiftm;(100)ausmf&Sdonfh trSwf(39)*g0gvDwyf&if;ppfa=umif;tm; [m;cg;csif;rsKd;cspfrsm;u vmtdkAm acsmif;wGif 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkuf&m e,fcsJhwyfom;(2)OD;usqkH;I Akdvfazghtygt0if (13)OD;'%f&m&a=umif;/ wlyDacsif;wGif xyfrHwdkufcdkuf&m e,fcsJhwyfom;(3)OD;xyfrHusqkH;a=umif;/ &Gmom;rsm;xGufajy;ykef;atmif; ae=u&ojzifh tcktcHr&Sdaom xefwvef&Gmtm; e,fcsJhwdk‹u rD;&_d‹zsufqD;a=umif;/ zdk‹wf0_dufrS pwifcsDwuf vmaomppfa=umif;ESifh [m;cg;rScsDwufvmaomppfa=umif;wdk‹ 1890ckESpf rwfvwGifqHkjyD; zvrf;udk 0dkif;wdkuf&m 1890ckESpf rwfv(14)&ufae‹wGif zvrf;udkodrf;ydkufa=umif;/ e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&;ordkif;pOfY awG‹&Sd&ayonf? csif;awmif;wef; a,ma'o. e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&;jzpfpOfwGif 1886ESpfOD;rSpwifI yk*Hta&;ydkif uy`wdef*sDtufpfat&mu a,ma'o odrf;ydkufa&;óud;yrf;a=umif;/ 1886ckESpf ZEM0g&DvwGif a,ma'o t}uD;tuJrsm;xHodk‹ jAdwdo#tkyfcsKyfa&;udk tomw=unfvufcH=ua&; aqG;aEG;nd‡Ed_if;&efESifh ,if;wdk‹qENrsm; 6


pkHprf;&ef vufzwifeifatyDavmfwifESifhtzGJ‹udk apv$wfa=umif;/ a,m/ aqm/ avmif;&Snf/ awmifa,mwdk‹u vufcHI xD;vif;/ *ef‹a*g/ ajrmufa,mwdk‹u vufrcHa=umif;/ atyDavmfwifESifhtzGJ‹onf wdwfwqdwf rif;wyftxd a&muf&SdcJh=ua=umif;/ a,ma'owdkufcdkufodrf;ydkufa&;ppfa=umif; 1886ckESpf 'DZifbmvqef; wGif yk*Hwzufurf;/ jrpfajcrSpwifcsDwufvma=umif;/ a,mòrd‹ol}uD; OD;&muGwfu vrf;rSqD;I ckcHaomfvnf; ta&;edrfha=umif;/ 1886ckESpf 'DZifbmv (8) &ufae‹wGif aygufòrd‹udk e,fcsJhwdk‹odrf;ydkufa=umif;/ aygufòrd‹wGif a,ma'ot}uD;tuJrsm;ESifh uy`wdefat&mwdk‹awG‹qkHa=umif;/ aygufrSwqifh ajrmufa,ma'oodrf;ydkuf a&;twGuf qufvufcsDwufa=umif;/ v,fOD;ol}uD; aq*g (iq*g) qD;IckcHaomfvnf; ta&;edrfha=umif;/ 1886ckESpf 'DZifbmv(19)&ufae‹wGif ausm&Gm/ 1887ckESpf ZEM0g&Dv(9)&ufae‹wGif xD;vif;/ 1887ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(12)&ufae‹wGif rif;&Gm/ 1887ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(14)&ufae‹wGif *ef‹a*gwdk‹tm; e,fcsJhrSodrf;ydkuf EkdifcJha=umif; awG‹&Sd&ayonf? awmifydkif;csif;awmif rif;wyf/ uefyufvufa'o. e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&; ordkif;pOfwGif 1886ckESpf azaz:0g&Ddv(21)&ufae‹wGif vufzwifeifatyDavmfwifESifh *sr'grmruftvDwdk‹ acgif;aqmifonfh a&S‹ajy; olv#dKwyf(75)OD; ,ckrif;wyfòrd‹wnf&Sdrnfhae&modk‹ yxrOD;qkH;a&muf&Sda=umif;/ wpfnwnf;aeI jyefxGuf oGm;=ua=umif; 1887wGif ykHawmifykHnmcHwyfrS qD;IckcHa=umif;/ 1888wGif a,myqkyf ajymif;IckcH&m ar*smtJ,m;tygt0if e,fcsJhwyfom;(300)ausmf usqkH;a=umif;/ ,if;rS vkwfwufpcef;odk‹ ajymif;vJckcH&m qifxm;onfh ausmufarmif;rdI uy`wdef&,feDtygt0if (30)usqkH;a=umif;/ ,if;1888wGif ,ckrif;wyfòrd‹ wnf&Sdrnfhae&modk‹ t*Fvdyfrsm; wyfpGJoGm;jzpfa=umif;/ 1890wGif rif;wyfteD;tem;&Gmrsm; vlpkI awmfvSefwdkufyGJqif=ua=umif;/ 1891-92rsm;wGif csDacsmif;e,f/ armif;acsif;e,f csif;rsKd;cspfrsm; pkaygif;I awmfvSefwdkufyGJqifEGJ=ua=umif;/ 1895wGif rkef;acsmif;e,f qm'l;/ rcsKH/ &kd;azmife,frsm;uyg vma&muf wdkufcdkuf=ua=umif;/ 1896wGif rcsKH&Gmtm; t*FvdyfppfwyfrS 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufrD;&_d‹a=umif;/ 1897 wGif rif;wyfe,f 'D;wGDpcef;rS [Davmif;&Gm/ ,if;rSwqifh ,ckuefyufvufòrd‹a[mif;ae&modk‹ t*Fvdyfppfwyfrsm; ajymif;a&$‹a=umif;/ 1901 ckESpfwGif uefyufvufòrd‹udk pwifwnfaxmifa=umif;/ 1908 rS 1911 txd opfawmrsm;udk óud;0dkif;a=umif;/ csDacsmif;zsm;/ a,macsmif;zsm;a'orsm;. awmfvSefr_wdkufyGJrsm;onf 1918-19 ESpfrsm;wdkif tqufrjywfa=umif;/ pkpnf;r_r&Sd acwfrSDvufeufrr#I atmifjrifr_r&a=umif; awG‹&Sd&ayonf? e,fcsJhwdk‹onf csif;awmiftm; jAdwdo#tifyg,m. tpdwftydkif;tjzpf odrf;ydkufjyD;jzpfa=umif;/ 1895ckESpf pufwifbmv(6)&ufae‹wGif a=ujimaomfvnf; trSefpifppf csif;awmifa'otm;vHk;udk odrf;ydkuf Edkifjcif;r&Sdyg? vli,frsm;acgif;aqmifr_jzifh awmfvSefa&; yDjyifvmjcif;/ csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. e,fcsJhawmfvSefa&;ordkif;pOfudk jyefvnfokH;oyfyguvnf; acwfynmtajccH &Sdaomvli,frsm; OD;aqmifvmonfhaemufydkif;wGif ta&;ygt&ma&mufaom awmfvSefa&;tjzpf yDjyifvm a=umif; awG‹&Sd&ayonf? ,if;vli,frsm;wGif csif;trsKd;om;acgif;aqmif}uD; OD;0rRol;armif; tygt0ifjzpf onf? e,fcsJhtkyfcsKyfr_twef=umvmonfESifhtr# acwfynmtawmftoifh&Sdaom vli,ftcsKd‹onfvnf; jAdwdo#tpdk;&tr_xrf; jzpfvm=uonf? t*Fvdyfppfwyfonf te,fe,ft&yf&yfrS csif;trsKd;om; nDtpfudk

7


rsm;. qkHqnf;&yfozG,f jzpfvmonf? acwfynmwwfa&;onf t"du vdktyfcsufjzpfa=umif; od&Sdvm =uonf? r=umc% nSdEd_if;r_rsm;&SdvmcJhonf? odk‹jzihf csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. yxrOD;qkH;aom vlr_a&;tzGJ‹tpnf;jzpfonfh “csif;trsKd;om;rsm; ynma&; jr‡ifhwifa&;tzGJ‹”udk aròrd‹/ rEWav;t*FvdyfppfwyfwGif tr_xrf;=uaom csif;trsKd;om;rsm;u 1918 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wGif zGJ‹pnf;cJh=uonf? OuUX-Adkvf}uD;tGrfydkif;/ 'kOuUX- 0rRol;armif;/ twGif;a&;rSL;- &ufavmif;vdef;ESifh tzGJ‹0ifvla&S/ t&d_/ awmifydkif; ajrmufydkif; csif;trsKd;om;rsm; yg0ifonf? ,if;.tusKd;qufrSm csif;awmifwGif 1918Y ynma&;awmfvSefr_jzpfay:jyD; 1927wGif bmoma&; awmfvSr_ ay:aygufcJhonf? EkdifiHa&;awmfvSefr_rsm;udkrl 1935wGifpwifI tqufrjywf qifE$J=ua=umif; awG‹&Sd&ayonf? csif;trsKd;om;ae‹ay:aygufvm&jcif; aemufcHordkif; (tusOf;) 'kwd,ydkif; -EkdifiHa&; tzGJ‹tpnf; ay:aygufvmjcif; -csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ -csif;trsKd;om;rsm;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ -t*Fvdyfodk‹ &mZoH (9)csuf

EdkifiHa&;tzGJ‹tpnf; ay:aygufvmjcif; 1924ckESpfwGif OD;0rRol;armif;onf t*FvdyfppfwyfrS E_wfxGufjyD; rdrdZmwd 0rRol;&GmY pmoif ausmif;zGifhvSpf udk,fwdkifausmif;q&mvkyfum vli,fynmwwfrsm;arG;xkwf&ef pwifóud;yrf;cJhonf? 1927 bmoma&;awmfvSefr_tjyD; EkdifiHa&;awmfvSefr_rsm;udk xda&mufpGmqifE$JEdkif&ef EkdifiHa&;tzGJ‹tpnf; wpf&yf wduscdkifrmpGm zGJ‹pnf;xlaxmifI wpnf;wvkH;wnf; nDnGwfpGmawmfvSefa&;qifE$JrSom atmifjrifrnf jzpfa=umif; acwfynmtajccH&Sdaom csif;trsKd;om; vli,frsm;tm; OD;0rRol;armif; pnf;&kH;cJhonf? csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ tqdkygvli,fxk. tajr‡mftjrifESifhpkpnf;r_a=umifh csif;trsKd;om;rsm;. yxrOD;qkH;aom EkdifiHa&; tzGJ‹tpnf;jzpfonfh“ csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹” udk 1928ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (20) &ufae‹wGif rif;wyfe,f vSd&kH;aus;&GmY y%mr zGJ‹pnf;xlaxmifcJh=uonf? ,if;tzGJ‹. OD;pD;acgif;aqmifrsm;rSm OuUX-vSd&kH;ol}uD; [mxef;tGrf/ 'kOuUX-0rRol;armif;/ twGif;a&;rSL;-0&Javm[m/ b¾ma&;rSL;-uD;azvdef; (aemifocif atmifrif;)/ jyef=um;a&;rSL;-rokHEl;uD;rmefwdk‹tygt0if tzGJ‹0if(12)OD; yg0ifcJhonf? ,if;zGJ‹pnf;aom ae‹&ufY acgif;aqmifrsm; omreftqifhtwef;jzifh tvGwfoabm vsdK‹0SufqkHawG‹ zGJ‹pnf;cJh=uonf r[kwfyg? ol}uD;[mxef;tGrfrS "avhxkH;pHESifhtnD EGm;aemuf(10)aumifjynfhjzifh vkH,l;(Armtac: acgifyGJ) usif;yI ,if;acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; zdwf=um;OD;aqmifjyD; opPm&nfaomuf zGJ‹pnf;cJh=ujcif; jzpfonf? ,if;tcsdefonf 4if;zGifhvSpfaom 0rRol;ausmif; pmoifausmif;aqmifudk om;em;useatmif aqmufvkyf&ef OD;0rRol;armif; vkH;yrf;aeaom tcsdefvnf; jzpfonf? aqmufvkyfaom ausmif;aqmifzGihfyGJ tjzpf csif;"avhxkH;pHESifhtnD 1929ckESpf arv(31)&ufae‹Y vkH,l;yGJusif;yjyD; tqdkygvSd&kH;ol}uD;[mxef;tGrf tygt0if tzGJ‹acgif;aqmiftm;vkH;tjyif acgif;aqmifopfrsm;udkyg zdwf=um;jyD; awmfvSefa&;tpDtpOfrsm;udk tao;pdwf n‡dEd_if;cJh=uonf? 8


tqdkygn‡dE_dif;r_rS csrSwfonfh a&S‹vkyfief;pOft& csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹. vlxknDvmcHudk 1932 ckESpf pufwifbmv(29)&ufae‹wGif 0&J&GmY usif;yjyD; csif;trsKd;om;vlxktwGif; ynm/ usef;rm tp&Sdonfh vlr_a&;tygt0if pD;yGg;a&;u¾tm;vkH; yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&ef/ jynfrESifhtjcm;wdkif;&if;om;nDtudk aoG;&if; om;&if;rsm;ESifh qufoG,f&ef/ e,fcsJhtpdk;&udk taES;ESifhtjref awmfvSefwdkufcdkuf&ef qkH;jzwfcsufrsm; csrSwfcJh=uonf? (xdkpOfu jynfra'oESifh awmifwef;a'o ul;vl;qufqHcGifhudk t*Fvdyftpdk;&u ydwfyif xm;onf? ) ,if;qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;t& jynfr&SdEkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;ESifhqufoG,f&ef OD;0rRol;armif;/ OD;uD;azvdef; (c) ocifatmifrif;/ xm;avmif;tGrfedef;(c) ocifatmifnGef‹/ roHkEl;uD;rmefwdk‹udk &efukefodk‹apv$wfcJh=uonf? csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹. óud;yrf;tm;xkwf qufoG,fr_onf jynfr&Sd “'kd‹Arm tpnf;t&kH;” tp&Sdaom EkdifiHa&;tzGJ‹tpnf;rsm;udk rsm;pGmwuf=uGEdk;=um;apcJhonf? csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ESifh 'dk‹Armtpnf; t&kH;wdk‹. yl;aygif;r_onf vGwv f yfa&;wdkufyGJtm; t&Sdeft[kef rsm;pGm jr‡ifhwifEkdifcJhonf? csif;trsKd;om;rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹. vlxknDvmcHudk 1933ckESpf rwfv(24-25)&ufae‹rsm;wGif rif;wyfe,f roHkEl;aus;&GmY xyfrHusif;yI tzGJ‹.trnfudk jyefvnfoHk;oyfjyifqifr_ESifh tzGJ‹tpnf;udkvnf; us,fjyef‹cdkifrmpGm wdk;csJhjyifqifr_òyvkyfcJhonf? tzGJ‹. trnfudk jyefvnfoHk;oyf&mY rdrdwdk‹u csif;awmif[k &nfn$ef;onfrSm csif;trsKd;om;xkwpf&yfvkH;udk udk,fpm;òyxm;aomfvnf; t*Fvdyftpdk;&rS vla&Sawmif wef;/ em*awmifwef;/ csif;awmifwef; pojzifh cJGjcm;ac:a0:r_rsm; &SdaejyDjzpf&m csif;awmiftpm; csif;trsKd; om;[k ac:wGif&ef/ csif;trsKd;om;e,fajrtm;vkH;yg0ifaom pkpnf;r_jzpfa&; OD;wnfóud;yrf;&ef aqG;aEG;nd‡Ed_if; jyD; atmufyg qkH;jzwfcsufrsm; csrSwfcJh=uonf? qHk;jzwftwnfðycsufrsm; tzGJ‹.trnf - “csif;trsKd;om;rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ ( crnz )” [kac:wGif&ef/ xm;&Sd&rnfh0g' - 'Drdkua&pD0g'/ &nf&G,fcsuf - (1) rdrdwdk‹=urRmudk rdrw d dk‹omv#if zefwD;EkdifcGifh &Sdap&ef/ (2) vufawG‹aqmif&Guf&mwGif e,fcsJhvufatmufcH wdkif;jynfEkdifiH/ vlrsKd;tm;vkH;wdk‹ESifh vufwGJvsuf yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&ef/ zGJ‹pnf;ykH (1) A[dkOD;pD;tzGJ‹ (odk‹) A[dktvkyftr_aqmiftzGJ‹/ (2) wdkufe,frsm; (odk‹) òrd‹e,ftr_aqmif/ (3) aus;&Gm tr_aqmiftzGJ‹/ (4) pnf;&kH;a&;wm0efcHrsm;/ (5) trsKd;oRD;rsm;tzGJ‹/ A[dktvkyftr_aqmiftzGJ‹ (1) OuUX (2) 'kOuUX (3) twGif;a&;rSL; (4) 'ktwGif;a&;rSL; (5) wGJbuftwGif;a&;rSL;

- OD; 0rRol;armif; - OD; 0&Javm[m - OD; uD;azvdef; - OD; tGrfedef; - OD; bluD;[kef;

0rRol;&Gm 0&J&Gm awmifukef;&Gm xm;avmif;&Gm pyfaumuf&Gm 9


(6) tr_aqmif (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)

? ? ? ? ? ?

wdkufe,ftr_aqmifrsm; (1) aESmfacsmif;wdkuf (2) awmif;ukef;wdkuf(3) a,macsmif;wdkuf (4) armif;acsmif;wdkuf (5) csDacsmif;wdkuf (6) ta&S‹&if'l;wdkuf (7) usifa'G;wdkuf (8) taemuf&if'l;wdkuf (9) qm'l;wdkuf (10) vSdrRqefwdkuf (11) cifazmifwdkuf (12) csefjyef;wdkuf (13) rcsKH&kdwdkuf (14) a&mif0gwdkuf -

- OD; xef;abG - OD; xef;&Sdef; - OD; vdef;a* - OD; a,mvdef; - OD; xef;[m - OD; 0rRol;idkif; - OD; tGrf[m

cGD&def&Gm ydkif;wDG&Gm ydkif;wDG&Gm yef;avmif;&Gm abmif&Gm 0rRol;&Gm wDG&def&Gm

OD; avm[mvdef;/ OD; avmtGrf[m/ OD; edefbluD;? OD; tGrfedef? OD; [kef;edef;vdef;/ OD; idkif;edefcDG&Sdef;/ OD; a*vdef;? OD; avmuD;[m/ OD; a'guf'GJxef;Edkif;/ OD; rif;Ekdif;xef;avm? OD; rmefvdef;/ OD; =umefedef? OD; Ekdif;vdef;om/ OD; xef;xGef;? OD; vkH;/ OD; =u,f}uD;? OD; xef;Edkif;/ OD; rfem;Edkif;? OD; rfem;uD;/ OD; [ma*/ OD; [midkif;? OD; [kef;rem;/ OD; r'grem;xef;/ OD; uD;ydkif;? OD; udrfvdef/ OD; [mEl? OD; bef;r/ OD;oef;at/ OD; rfvkHvSL;? OD; tGrfavG/ OD; &kdvduD;/ OD; wDG'defidkif;avGxef;? OD; vGJuD;vif/ OD;&Spf0gEl;edefuD;avm/ OD;&mwdef;/ OD; uef&m;?

aus;&Gmtr_aqmiftzGJ‹ aus;&Gmtvdkuf rdrdwdk‹tpDtpOfjzifh udk,fpDzGJ‹pnf;&ef/ pnf;&kH;a&;wm0efcHrsm; (1) OD;vdef;avmuD; cufavmif;&Gm/ (2) OD;edef;xef; xm;0g&Gm/ (3) OD;idkif;[m oDGyef;&Gm/ (4) OD;uD;idkif; wDG&def&Gm/ (5) OD;uD;a* wDG&def&Gm/ (6) OD;vDa*&Sdef; cufavmif;&Gm/ (7) OD;avmuD;vdef; pGefawmif&Gm/ (8) OD;cDG&defidkif; cDG&def&Gm/ (9) OD;atmifvdef; xm;avmif;&Gm/ (10) OD;tGrfwrf xm;avmif;&Gm/ (11) OD;idkif;Ekdif; abmif&Gm/ (12) OD;vdef;El wDG'def&Gm/ (13) OD;idkif;avGxef; rcsKH&Gm/

10


trsKdoRD;rsm;tzGJ‹ (1) OuUX - a':c,favmxHk vSd&kH;&Gm/ (2) twGif;a&;rSL; - a':tGrf&def awmifukef;&Gm/ (3) wGJbuftwGif;a&;rSL; - a':xefrH awmifukef;&Gm/ (4) tr_aqmif - a':vdef;&S,fa&mif 0rRol;&Gm/ (5) ? - a':a*wD; 0rRol;&Gm/ (6) ? - a':[ma&mif 0rRol;&Gm/ (7) ? - a':xef;&$D xm;avmif;&Gm/ (8) ? - a':uD;vdkif; cDG&def&Gm/ (9) ? - a':rmefxef;ydkif 0&J&Gm/ (10) ? - a':aAGydkif vSda,m&Gm? ¡csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹udk OD;aqmifzGJ‹pnf;cJhaom OD;[mxef;tGrf uG,fvGefoGm;I csif;trsKd;om; rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹Y ryg0ifawmhay?¢ t*Fvdyftpdk;&odk‹ &mZoH (9) csuf csif;trsKd;om;rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹. 'kwd,t}udrf nDvmcHudk rif;wyfe,f 0&J&GmY 1934 ckESpf pufwifbmv (29) &ufae‹wGif usif;ycJhonf? ,if;nDvmcHrS e,fcsJht*Fvdyftpdk;&odk‹ atmufygtcsuf (9) csufudk &J&ifhjywfom;pGm awmif;qkdcJhonf? (1) csif;awmifwef;a'o tkyfcsKyfa&;udk jynfrESifh wef;wltcGifhta&;ay;&ef/ (2) csif;awmif tkyfcsKyfa&;wGif csif;trsKd;om; udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifa&;qGJaom Oya'om usifhoHk;&ef/ (3) ynma&;/ usef;rma&;paom vlr_a&;ESifh pD;yGg;a&; wkd;wufzGifhòzd;a&;twGuf ðyjyifaqmif&Gufay;&ef/ (4) csif;awmifynma&;pepfudk tjrefqHk;ðyjyifaqmif&Gufay;&ef(t*Fvdyfpmtjyif jrefrmpmudkyg oif=um;cGifhðy&ef)/ (5) bmoma&; vGwfvyfcGifhay;&ef/ (6) csif;awmif vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&; aumif;rGefatmif tjrefqkH; azgufvkyfay;&ef/ (7) jynfrESifh csif;awmifwef;a'o vGwfvyfpGm ul;vl;qufqHcGifhðy&ef/ (8) csif;vlrsKd;wdk‹tm; rnfonfhvlrsKd;ESifhrqdk wef;wl&nfwl qufqHcGifhðy&ef/ (9) jrefrmEkdifiHudk vGwfvyfa&;ay;aomtcg csif;awmifudkyg wygwnf; vGwfvyfa&; ay;&ef? txufyg awmif;qdkcsuf (9) &yfESifh ywfoufI t*Fvdyftpdk;&u 1937 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (17) &uf ae‹pGJygpmjzifh 1938ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wGif uefyufvufòrd‹Y awG‹qkHaqG;aEG;&ef csif;trsKd;om;rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹odk‹ ta=umif; =um;cJhonf? csif;trsKd;om;ae‹ ay:aygufvmykH aemufcHorkdif; (tusOf;) wwd,ydkif; · uefyufvuf awmfvSefa&; oydwf/ · awmifwef;om;rsm; pnf;vkH;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹/ · csif;awmfvSefa&; acgif;aqmifrsm; tzrf;cH&jcif;/ · awmfvSefa&;tp csif;awmifu/ · wpfAdkvfus wpfAdkvfwuf/ 'l;raxmuf vufrajr‡muf/ · *syefr[mrdwfppfESifh csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;/ · AdkvfcsKyfESifh OD;0rRol;armif;/ · csif;awmfvSefa&; wyfzGJ‹ESifh zufqpf*syef awmfvSefa&;/

11


uefyufvuf awmfvSefa&;oydwf ,if; 1938ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹ uefyufvufòrd‹/ t*Fvdyftpdk;&ESifh csif;trsKd;om;rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ awG‹qkHaqG;aEG;yGJY t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tjzpf rauG;wdkif; 0ef&Sifawmfrif;}uD; MR. MECRAKEN zvrf;c&kdif0ef MR. NILA uefyufvuf e,fydkif0efaxmuf J. PHOONYO wdk‹OD;aqmifaom ykvdyfESifh tr_xrf; (300)ausmf wufa&muf=uonf? ,if;tpnf;ta0;Y wdkif;rif;}uD;rS awmif;qkdcsuf (9)&yfpvkH;udk t*Fvdyftpdk;&u wpfckr# rvdkufavsmEkdifa=umif; a=ujimonfhtjyif csif;acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; EkdifiHa&;rvkyf/ twdkuftcHrvkyfbJ tpdk;&ay;aom&mxl;rsm;udk vufcH=u&ef/ tpdk;&udkqef‹usifygu zrf;qD;axmifcsjcif; cH&rnf[kcsdrf;ajcmuf&m oHk;axmifausmf&Sdaom csif;vlxky&dwfowfrsm; rcHr&yfEdkif jzpfvm=ujyD; “e,fcsJh tpdk;& tvdkr&Sd/ xGufoGm;”[k vufoD;vufarmif;wef;um csufjcif;a=uG;a=umf oydwfarSmuf qENjy=u onf? t*Fvdyftpdk;&cef‹xm;aom wdkufol}uD;(36)OD;wdk‹uvnf; ,if;wdk‹cef‹pmrsm; jyefvnfay;tyfI &mxl;rS E_wfxGuf qENjy=uonf? ,if;t*Fvdyftpdk;& udk,fpm;vS,frsm; nwGif;csif; aqmòrd‹odk‹ jyefvnf xGufajy;=uonf? awG‹qHkyGJtwGuf &ufcsdef;pmxGufuwnf;u csif;vlxktm;vkH; pdwf0ifpm;jyD; te,fe,f t&yf&yfrS rdrdtpDtpOfjzifh 4if;&uftrSD a&muf&Sdae=uojzifh y&dwfowf tiftm;rsm;jym;aejcif;udkvnf; t*Fvdyftpdk;& udk,fpm;vS,frsm; rsm;pGmtHhtm;oifhcJh=uonf[k qdkonf? awmifwef;om;rsm; pnf;vkH;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ ,if;uefyufvuf awG‹qkHyGJtjyD; 1938ckESpf rwfv(18) &ufae‹ &Srf;jynf anmifa&$òrdY usif;yaom &Srf;/ csif;/ ucsif/ u&if/ u,m; awmifwef;om;rsm; tpnf;ta0;odk‹ csif;trsKd;om;rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ESifh csif;trsKd;om;tm;vkH;udk,fpm; OD;0rRol;armif; wufa&mufcJhonf? ,if;tpnf;ta0;rS “awmifwef;om;rsm; pnf;vkH;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹”udk zGJ‹pnf;cJhonf? awmifwef;a'oESifh jynfra'o yl;aygif;I vGwfvyfa&;udk t&,l&ef/ vGwfvyfa&;&&Sdu jynfaxmifpktjzpf yl;aygif;&ef aqG;aEG;qkH;jzwfcJh=uonf? csif;awmfvSefa&; acgif;aqmifrsm; tzrf;cH&jcif; uefyufvuf ta&;tcif;ESifhywfoufI t*Fvdyftpdk;&onf wpfESpfwmeD;yg; tcsdef,lI tpDtpOf rsm;ðyvkyfjyD; 1939ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wGifzvrf;c&kdif0efrS csif;trsKd;om;rsm;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹udk rw&m;toif;a=ujimI csif;acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; emrnfysufa=ujimaomtrdef‹xkwfjyefum vdkufvH zrf;qD;cJhonf? yxrtokwf zrf;qD;cH&aom acgif;aqmifrsm;rSm - OD;0rRol;armif;/ OD;0&Javm[m/ OD;uD;azvdef; (c) ocifatmifrif;/ OD;tGrfedef; (c) ocifatmifnGef‹/ OD;atmifvdef; (c) ocifatmifZH/ OD;tGrfwrf (c) ocifbwif/ OD;0rRol;idkif;/ OD;uD;rmef/ OD;vdef;a* pkpkaygif; (9) OD; jzpfonf? (,if;ae‹wGif vSd,Hk;&GmrS a':c,favmxHk/ awmifukef;&GmrS a':idkif;tGrf&def/ a':[m xef;rH/ a':idkif;a*vSL; trsdK;orD; (4)OD;udkvnf; t*Fvdyftpdk;&u zrf;qD;ppfaq;cJhonf? bkef;=uD;OD;wdou EdkifiHa&;ESifh rygwfoufa=umif; ajz=um;=u&ef ñudwifoifay;xm;ojzifh tajzaumif;I jyefvGwf=uonf[k qdkonf)? 'kwd,tokwf 1939 ckESpf ZGefv (15) &ufae‹ tzrf;cH&olrsm;rSm - OD;avmvdef; (yef;avmif;)/ OD;uD;a*&Sdef; (vGJyef;)/ OD;idkif;cGsrf (vGJyef;)/ OD;vdef;c,f (0&J)/ OD;tGrfydkif; (cGJvkH)/ OD;cGD&defidkif; (cGD&def)/ OD;xef;abG 12


(cGD&def)/ OD;uD;a* (wDG&def)/ OD;uD;idkif; (wGD&def)/ OD;tGrf[m (wDG&def)/ OD;vdef;avmuD; (cufavmif;)/ OD;xef;avm (abmif)/ OD;xef;[m (abmif)/ OD;bluD;[kef; (pyfaumuf)/ OD;vDa*&Sdef; (cufavmif;) pkpkaygif; (15) OD; jzpfonf? wwd,tokwf zrf;qD;cH&olrsm;rSm - OD;avm[m (abmif)/ OD;xef;abG (abmif)/ OD;vdef;xef; (abmif)/ OD;xef;avm (abmif)/ OD;xef;a*idkif; (abmif)/ OD;a,mvifidkif; (vSdrRqef)/ OD;avm[mxef; (vSdrRqef)/ OD;vdef;avG (odef;)/ OD;tGrfvdef;a&$ (odef;)/ OD;uD;tGrfom (odef;)/ OD;idkif;avG (qm'l;)/ OD;uD;Ed_uf (qm'l;)/ OD;xifavSmfvdef; (qm'l;)/ OD;vdef;xef; (&Suf)/ OD;,Grf;wrfvdef; (cswf)/ OD;uD;&Sdef;a* (wkHvdkif)/ OD;rfem;vdef; (vJom)/ OD;&kdavG (vJom) pkpkaygif; (18)OD; jzpfonf? pwkwˆtokwf zrf;qD;cH&olrsm;rSm - OD;[mxef; (abmif)/ OD;uD;a,m (òyH;)/ OD;atmifedef; (awmifukef;)/ OD;avmarmif; (awmifukef;)/ OD;idkif;edef; (rol;)/ OD;avm[mtGrf (wGDyvef;)/ OD;cGsrfuD;tGrf (yef;yg)/ OD;idkif;uD; (oDGyef;)/ OD;idkif;[m (oDGyef;)/ OD;[kef;edef;xef; (xm;0g)/ OD;a*vdef; (cGD&def;) pkpkaygif; (11)OD;jzpfonf? 1940 ckESpf arv (21) &ufae‹ zrf;qD;aom yOPrESifh aemufqkH;tokwf zrf;qD;cH&olrsm;rSm- OD; avmuD;a*armif; (awmifukef;)/ OD;ikdif;a* (awmifukef;)/ OD;a,mvdef;xef; (yef;avmif;)/ OD;a,mvdef;wyf (yef;avmif;)/ OD;xef;&Sdef;armif; (vGJyef;)/ OD;vGJ[kef; (&kd)/ OD;csKdiftGrf (&kd)/OD;avmEkdif;ar(&kd)/ OD;[mvdef;Ekdif; (&kd)/ OD;abGxef;vdef; (&kd)/ OD;vdef;[m (&kd)/ OD;vdkufEkdif;xef; (&kd)/ OD;uD;avG (&dk)/ OD; uD;wrfxkef (&kd)/ OD;rfem;Ekdif;armif; (&kd)/ OD;a,muD;tGrf (&dk)/ OD;vdef;Ekdif;xkef (&kd))/ OD;vGJuD;vif; (&dk)/ OD;arvdef;(&dk)/ OD;Ekdif;idkif;[kef;(&dk)/ OD;vdef;tGrfrem;(&dk)/ OD;xef;Ekdif;(&kd)/ OD;a*idkif;uD;(&dk)/ OD;xef;abG(&dk)/ OD;&kdEdkif;a,m(&dk)/ pkpkaygif; (16)OD;&Sdonf? txufyg yxrrSyOProkwftxd zrf;qD;xm;aom(79)OD;udk zvrf;/ [m;cg;/ wD;wdef/ yckuUL/ jrif;jcH/ rEWav;/ uomaxmifrsm;odk‹ cGJa0I4if;/ axmifrsm;wckjyD;wpfck ajymif;ajymif;I4if; csKyfaESmifcJhonf? ,if;(79)OD;tjyif uefyufvuftcsKyfY wpfESpfcsKyfaESmifjyD; ulvDtjzpf qufvufcdkif;apcH&aomolrsm;rSmOD;uD;tGrfidkif;/ OD;Ekdif;atmifxef;/ OD;uD;tGrf;/ OD;tGrfavG/ OD;xef;vdef;ikdif;/ OD;arvifuD;/ OD;xef;&$Dvdef;/ OD;Ekdif;a,m/ OD;abGuD;tGrf/ OD;xkefxef;tGrf/ OD;vD&S,fuD;/ OD;EkdiftGrf/ OD;Ekdif;xGef;/ OD;uD;cGDtGrf/ OD;vdef;tGrf/ OD;abGa*/ OD;xef;cGDtGrf/ OD;uD;atmifxef;/ OD;uD;omxef;/ OD;xkefxefxGef;/ OD;a*armif;vdef;/ OD;tGrf[mwyf/ OD;idkif;uD;Ekdif;/ OD;armif;idkif;uD;/ OD;xefvdef;/ OD;uD;tGrfarmif;/ OD;Ekdif;armif;Edkif;/ OD;vdef;omxef;/ OD;Ekdif;tGrfarmif;/ OD;Ekdif;xef;/ OD;[kef;idkif;/ OD;uD;tGrf/ OD;tGrf/ OD;idkif;cGDtGrf/ OD;rdefxkefuD;/ OD;wdarmif;/ OD;uD;xef;cGDtGrf/ OD;vdef;abG/ OD;Ekdif;vdef;ar/ OD;uD;xef;vif/ OD;Ekdif;a*/ OD;tGrfuD;/ OD;[mvdef;abG/ OD;cDGatmifxef/ OD;a*armif;/ OD;vdef;bG,f/ OD;uD;tGrfxGef;/ OD;rdefxkefEdkif;/ OD;abGxef; pkpkaygif; (49)OD; &Sdonf? OD;0rRol;armif; tygt0if yxrtokwf tzrf;cH&aomacgif;aqmif(9)OD; uomaxmifY tcsKyf aESmifcH&pOf 1942ckESpf *syefrsm;AkH;}uJI axmifaygufojzifh toufrao jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvm=uaomf vnf; axmif'%f/ AkH;'%fa=umifh OD;0&Javm[mrSm xm0& &l;oGyfoGm;cJhonf? awmfvSefa&;tp csif;awmifu csif;awmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmifrsm; tokwfvkduf tokwfvdkuf tzrf;qD;cH axmifwGif;a&mufae=upOf 'kd‹Armtpnf;t&kH; [oFmwnDvmcHusif;yI tjyef ZvGefa'gif=uD;tpnf;t&kH;. zdwfac:csuft& - 1940 ckESpf ZGefv(2)&ufae‹ ta&;ay:tpnf;ta0;Y ocifatmifqef;rS vlenf;pkjzpfaom csif;acgif;aqmif 13


rsm;yifv#if Tr#axmifuswdkufydwfcHI udk,fusKd;pGef‹tepfemcHjyD; vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;ae=ujyDjzpfa=umif;/ vlrsm;pkjzpfaomArmrsm; awGa0rdef;armrae=u&efESifh ,if;odk‹ axmifwGif;a&mufaeaom csif;acgif;aqmif rsm;tm;vnf; wwfEkdifor# tultnDrsm;ay;=u&efa[majymojzifh y&dwfowfrsm; rsm;pGmwuf=uGEkd;=um; cJhonf? ,if;tpnf;ta0;wGif csif;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh csif;awmfvSefa&;ta=umif; a[majym&efarhaecJh aomfvnf;/ ,if;ta=umif;ra[majym&ef e,fajrykvdyft&m&Sd rpPwmaZAD;,m;. Edk‹wpf&ojzifh 0rf;om tm;& a[majymcJh&a=umif; ocifatmifqef;rS qdkygonf? ,if;ESifhywfoufI rpPwmaZAD;,m;rS ocifatmifqef;tm; ig;usyfwef 0&rf;xkwfum zrf;qD; apcJhonf? ocifatmifqef;rS tzrf;qD;cHaxmifuscHv#if csif;acgif;aqmifrsm;enf;wl ta&;}uD;aom tcsdef rsm; tv[\ tcsnf;tESD; jzpfvdrfhrnf[k a&Smifwdrf;&ef &kwfw&uf pDpOfcJh&onf? odk‹jzifh 1940 jynfh ZGefv(5)&ufwGif jynfyodk‹ xGufcgG oGm;cJhonf? qkdAD,uf&k&Sm;odk‹ OD;wnfaomfvnf; &kwfw&uf tpDtpOfvnf;jzpf/ wifóudqufoG,fr_vnf;r&Sdojzifh w&kwfjynf uGefjrLepfygwD. yl;aygif;r_ESifh tultnD &vdk&jim; w&kwfjynftrGdKifòrd‹wGif aomifwifcJh&onf? ,if;odk‹ w&kwfjynfuGefjrLepfygwDESifhvnf; tquf toG,fr& aomifwifaepOf *syefrsm;ESifh qufoG,fr_&jyD; *syefjynfodk‹a&muf&SdoGm;cJhonf? *syefjynfY *syefrsm;. tultnDjzifh ppfynmESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;twwfynmrsm;oif,l&ef pDpOfcJhjyD; ocifatmifqef;udk,fwdkif Armjynfodk‹ wpfacgufjyefvnf0ifa&mufum ocifvli,ftcsKdhudk *syefjynfodk‹ ac:aqmifoGm;cJhonf? ,if;odk‹ ocifatmifqef;tygt0if ac:aqmifoGm;aomocifvli,frsm;tzGJ‹/ &Jabmf oHk;usdyfwdk‹ *syefjynfYppfynmoif=um;=ujyD; ,if;&JabmfoHk;usdyf Armjynfodk‹jyeft0ifwGif Armhwyfrawmf. tcef;u¾ pwifvmcJhonf? EdkifiHa&;/ ppfa&;awmfvSefr_rsm; t&Sdeft[kefydkI jrifhrm;vmjyD; vGwfvyfa&; óud;yrf;r_ ydkrdkyDjyifvmcJhonf? awmfvSefa&;tp csif;awmifu[k tqdk&SdcJhonf? (csif;awmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh csif;awmifawmfvSefa&;rS wyfrawmftm; arG;zGm;ay;cJhjcif;jzpfonf[kqdkEdkifygonf)

wpfAdkvfus wpfAdkvfwuf/ 'l;raxmuf/ vufrajr‡muf txufuqdkcJhonfhtwdkif; e,fcsJht*Fvdyftpdk;&rS csif;awmif. awmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; tokwfvdkuftokwfvdkuf vdkufvHzrf;qD; axmifcsaeaomfvnf; awmfvSefa&;udkr_ wAdkvfus wpfAdkvfwuf tqufrjywf qifE$JcJh=uonf? OD;rmefuif (c) OD;atmifcifonf ausmif;q&mtvkyfrSxGufI csif;trsKd; om;rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ESifh csif;awmfvSefa&;wyfzGJ‹rsm;udk uGyfuJacgif;aqmifcJhonf? 1941ckESpf 'DZifbmv(8)&ufae‹wGif *syefrSppfa=ujimojzifh *syefESifhr[mrdwfwdk‹ ppfjzpf=uonf? 1942 *syeft0ifjAdwdo#wdk‹qkwfcGgcsdefY OD;rmefuifonf csif;awmif,m,D tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ‹udk zGJ‹pnf;cJhonf? ,if;tzGJ‹wGif OD;rmefuif-OuUX/ OD;vdef;tGrf/ OD;atmifom[kef;/ OD;uD;avm/ OD;xef;armif; (c) OD;bcspf/ OD;tdrfaumom&S,f/ OD;xef;cGD&Sdef;/ OD;atmifacga*/ OD;xef;&Sdef;/ OD;vdef;avGwdk‹ tzGJ‹0if jzpf=uonf? 1942ckESpf {jyDv(2)&ufae‹wGif uefyufvufe,fudk jAdwdo#t*FvdyfvufrS tjyD;tydkif jyefvnf odrf;ydkufa=umif; a=ujimjyD; 0rRol;udk XmecsKyfr¾dKifxm;I aysmufusm;toGifrS w&m;0ifawmfvSefa&;wyf tjzpfajymif;vJ zGJ‹pnf;cJhonf? wyfzGJ‹rsm;acgif;aqmif OD;rmefuifESifh vufaxmufacgif;aqmifrsm;rSm OD;vdef;tGrf/ OD;xef;cDG&Sdef;/ OD;uD;avm/ OD;tdrfaumom&S,f wdk‹jzpfonf? wyfzGJ‹tiftm; wpfaxmif

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ausmf&Sdonf? ,if;wyfzGJ‹rsm;udk 1942ckESpf {jyDv(9)&ufae‹wGif rif;wyfòrd‹odk‹4if;/ 1942ckESpf {jyDv (16) &ufae‹wGif uefyufvufòrd‹odk‹4if; cJGa0 wm0efcsxm;cJhonf? *syefr[mrdwfppfyGJESifh csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&; OD;0rRol;armif;ESifhtzGJ‹ axmifrSvGwfI 1942ckESpf arv(8)&ufae‹wGif jyefvnfa&muf&Sdvm =uonf? OD;0rRol;armif;tm; acgif;aqmifjyefvnfwifajr‡mufI OD;rmefuiftm; 'kwd,acgif;aqmif jyefvnfwifajr‡muf=uonf? OD;0rRol;armif;rS csif;trsKd;om;rsm; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹. awmfvSefa&;wyfzGJ‹udk atmufygtwdkif; Xme (3)cktjzpf cef‹cJGI wm0efcJGa0cJhonf? tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ‹wGif OD;vdef;tGrf/ OD;tGrfedef (c) ocifatmifn$ef‹/ OD;uD;azvdef; (c) ocif atmifrif;wdk‹ OD;aqmifaom A[dkaumfrdwD0if (15)OD;ESifh wdkufe,ftkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ‹toD;oD; zGJ‹pnf; wm0ef ay;tyfcJhonf? jidrf;csrf;a&;tzGJ‹udk &JtoGifzGJ‹pnf;vsuf OD;xef;cDG&Sdef;/ OD;[efbkHxef;/ OD;atmifacga* wdk‹tm; OD;pD;apcJhonf? wyfzGJ‹tiftm;(1000) zGJpnf;ay;cJhonf? ,if; jidrf;csrf;a&;tzGJ‹rS &JtkyfcsKyfa&; tawG‹tóuH &ap&ef OD;rmefuiftm;acgif;aqmifapI OD;[ef;bkHxef;/ OD;xef;cDG&Sdef;wdk‹tm; jynfrodk‹ avhvma&; apv$wf cJhonf? awmfvSefa&;tzGJ‹udk wyfrawmftoGifzGJ‹pnf;cJhonf? wyfzGJ‹zGJ‹pnf;yHkrSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfonf? (1) XmecsKyf 0rRol; wm0efcH Adkvf&S,fuD; 'k wm0efcH - armifi,f (c) vdef;idkif; &duQgrSL; &S,fa&mif/ [ma&mif/ vdef;ydkif;/ vdef;wD; wyfom; 500 (2) awmifukef;wyfcGJ wm0efcH Adkvfuifarmif; 'k wm0efcH - rfem;a,mxef; &Jabmf 500 wyfxdef; tGrfedef;/ a*xef;/ xef;abG/ azvdef; (3) vkHcg;&JabmfXme wm0efcH Adkvf&Sdef;xef; 'kwm0efcH rfem;a,mxef; wyfom; 500 &duQgrSL; xef;tdrem;/ avGvdef;&Sdwf wyfom;opf - 1500 &Jarrsm; (1) 0rRol;&JarXme wm0efcH rodef;&if (c) vSdef;yGef &duQgrSL; xef;ayG/ [a&mif &Jartiftm; - 500 15


(2)

(1)

awmifukef;&JarXme wm0efcH rodef;vS (c) edef& tiftm; 500 1947 - wGifxyfrHzGJ‹pnf; usifa'G;wyf wyfzGJ‹acgif;aqmif armifydkif 'kwyfzGJ‹acgif;aqmif armifxGef; &Jabmf – 500

tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@ XmecsKyfuGyfuJr_atmufY jyef=um;a&;ESifhynma&;wm0efcHtjzpf ausmif;q&m OD;uD;avmtm;4if;/ aiGpm&if;ESifhb%ma&;XmecsKyf &kH;tzGJ‹rSL;tjzpf OD;tGrfom[kef;tm;4if;/ aq;0g;ESifh usef;rma&;vkyfief;udk umodkvdyfomoemòyrsm;tm;4if;/ toD;oD; wm0efcJGa0csxm; ay;cJhonf? jynfr awmfvSefa&;wyfodk‹ tiftm;(370)udk yckuUL/ jrif;jcHrSwqifh jrpfomodk‹ apv$wfjznfhwif;ay;cJhonf? jAdwdo#wdk‹qkwfcGgjyD; *syefwyfrsm; 1942ckESpf Ekd0ifbmv(2)&ufae‹wGif csif;awmifodk‹ a&muf&Sd=u aomfvnf;/ 1942ckESpf {jyDv(2)&ufae‹a=ujimcsufudk vGwfvyfa&;a=ujimcsufESifhrjcm; todtrSwfðyI csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;wGif *syefrsm; 0ifa&mufpGufzufr_r&SdcJhay? odk‹jzpfI csif;trsKd;om;rsm;nDnGwfa&; tzGJ‹onf 1942 {jyDv rS 1945 azaz:0g&Dvtxd csif;awmifudk w&m;0if tkyfcsKyfcJhonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh OD;0rRol;armif; 1943ckESpf =o*kwfv(1)&ufae‹wGif *syefrS vGwfvyfa&;a=ujimcJhonf? ,if;ESpfwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmif qef;onf jrpfom;odk‹ wyftiftm;(370) apv$$wfjznfhwif;cJhaomtzGJ‹rS AdkvfausmfOD;(c) atmifavm[mESifh &JabmfESpfOD;udk apv$wfIwpf}udrf/ Adkvfvif;(c)edefvdef;/ &Jabmf[ke;f avmtGrf/ &Jabmf avm[kef;wdk‹udk apv$$wfIwpf}udrf OD;0rRol;armif;tm; awG‹qkHvkda=umif; zdwfac:cJhonf? awmfvSefa&;twGuf tvkyf rsm;jym;vGef;aeojzifh oGm;a&mufrawG‹qkHjzpfcJh? 'kwd,t}udrf apv$wfaomtzGJ‹tm; wwd,t}udrfajrmuf jyefvnfapv$wf zdwfac:aomt}udrfwGifom ocifatmifnGef‹/ 0rRol;[kef;cGD&Sdef;/ &JabmfwpfOD; ac:aqmifI jyvdk‹wdkif; (7)XmecsKyfwGif oGm;a&mufawG‹qkHjzpfcJhonf? 1944 ESpfukefydkif;wGifjzpfonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;rS csif;awmifawmfvSefa&; tjyD;wdkif a&mufra&muf ar;&m OD;0rRol;armif;rS vGwfvyfa&;r&ao;or# tjyD;wdkifra&mufao;a=umif; ajz=um;cJhonf? AdkvfcsKyfrS tjrifcsif;/ &nf&G,fcsuf csif; tm;vkH;wlnDa=umif;/ 0rf;omtm;&a=umif; ajymqdkcJhonf? awmfvSefa&; óud;yrf;r_ESifhwuG awmfvSefa&; jyD;qkH;atmifjrifonfh tajctaewpfcktwGuf jynfr.oabmxm;udk OD;0rRol;armif;u ar;jref;&mvkyfief;pOf/ &nf&G,fcsufcsif; wlr#aeaom awmfveS fa&;orm; (0g) tzGJ‹tpnf;[lor# wef;wltcGifhta&; csnf;omjzpfygrnf/ a&S‹vmvwWH‹aom vkyfief;rsm;twGuf yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;onf ydkrdkc&D;a&mufrnf jzpfa=umif;-AdkvfcsKyfrS ajz=um;&mwGif ESpfOD;ESpfzuf pnf;rsOf;a&;qGJa&;rludk oabmwl=u onf? awmfvSefa&; vufawG‹aqmif&Gufaeolrsm; epfemcsufESifh ygwfoufI awmifwef;om; tm;vkH;teuf csif;awmifrSmom &Sda=umif; odjyD;jzpfojzifh aemiftxl;pOf;pm;rnf[k AdkvfcsKyfuqkdygonf?

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csif;awmfvSefa&;wyfESifh zufqpf*syef awmfvSefa&; OD;0rRol;armif; Xmaejyefra&mufrSD 1945 ckEpS f azaz:0g&Dv (5) &ufae‹wGif t*Fvdyfppfwyf ar*smtdkZif;ESifhtzGJ‹ awmifukef;&Gmodk‹ jyefvnfa&muf&Sd=uonf? csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mudk jyefvnf odrf;,lonf[k qdkonf? ,if;tcsdefY zufqpf*syefrsm;onf jynfra'oYom v$rf;rdk;r_&Sdaeojzifh OD;0rRol; armif;ESifh csif;awmfvSefa&;wyfzGJ‹rsm;onf wdkif; 5/ 6/ 7/ rsm;ESifh wGJbufI zufqpfawmfvSefa&;udk jynfrYomqifE$J=uonf? OD;0rRol;armif;rSm jyvdk‹wdkif;(7) urRe,fppfOD;pD;XmecsKyfwGif wm0efxrf;aqmif onf? 1945 ckESpf=o*kwfv (19) &ufae‹wGif zufqpfawmfvSefa&;atmifyGJudk aeol&def Zwf&kHwGif usif;ycJhonf? zufqpfawmfvSefa&;tjyD; &efukef avmif;0pPvrf; jynfol‹&JabmfXmecsKyfwGif OD;0rRol;armif; wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOf t*Fvdyfu 4if;. 0rRol;aetdrfudk rD;&_d‹zsufqD;cJhonf? AdkvfcsKyfESifh OD;0rRol;armif;wdk‹ nd‡E_dif;csufrSm t*Fvdyfudk EkdifiHa&;enf;vrf;jzifh aphpyfnd‡Ed_if;Ir&ygu ppfa&;enf;vufeufjzifhawmfvSef&ef/ 1947 ESpfopfrul;rSD AdkvfcsKyfrS t*Fvefodk‹ vGwfvyfa&;ta&;qdk&ef/ ,if;ratmifjrifygu 1947 ZEM0g&Dv (7) &ufae‹wGif csif;awmfvSefa&;wyfzGJ‹rsm;udk tajcðyI vufeufjzifh pwifawmfvSef&ef vsdK‹0Sufcsdef;qdkcJh=uonf? odk‹jzpfI tqdkygzGJ‹pnf;cJhaom csif;awmfvSefa&;wyftiftm;udk 1945/ 1946/ 1947 ESpfrsm;wav#muf toifhjyif qifxm;cJhonf? csif;trsKd;om;ae‹ ay:aygufvmykH aemufcHorkdif; (tusOf;) pwkwˆydkif; · qif;rvm;puULjzLpDrHudef;/ · awmifwef;om;rsm; AdkvfcsKyfESifh yxryifvHk/ · awmifwef;om;rsm;ESifhzqyv/ · 'kwd,yifvHkESifh yifvHkpmcsKyf/ · csif;/ jrefrm cspf=unfa&; nDvmcH/ · awmifwef;om;rsm; 'kwd,t=udrf nDvmcH/ · awmifwef;a'o pHkprf;a&; aumfr&Sif/ · vGwfvyfa&;ESifh 47 Oya'/ · csif;awmif tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf csrSwfa&;/ · csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ owfrSwfjcif;/

qif;rvm;puULjzLpDrHudef; 'kwd,urBmppf=uD;tjyD; 1946ESpfOD;wGif t*Fvdfyftpdk;& jyefvnf0ifa&mufjyD; jrefrmEdkifiHtkyfcsKyfa&; twGuf toifha&;qGJjyD; pDrHudef;wpfck ygvmcJh=uonf? ,if;pDrHudef;rSmawmifwef;e,frsm;rygonfh Armjynfudk tcsKyftjcmrydkifonfh vGwfvyfa&;/ 'dkrDeD,H DOMINION tqifhay;&ef/ ,if;xufydkI ay;ygu vnf; tjrifhqHk; jAdwdo#"eo[m,toif;0if COMMON WEALTH tqihfYom xm;&Sd&efjzpfonf? ,if;wdk‹. tqdkrSm jcGif;csef{&d,mac: awmifwef;a'orsm;udkrl ,if;e,fajrcH wdkif;&if;om;vlxkudk,fwdkif oD;oD; oef‹oef‹ vGwfvyfa&;rawmif;qdkor# bk&ifcHvufatmuf txl;pDrHcef‹cGJ tkyfcsKyf&efjzpfonf? jAdwdo#wdk‹. tqdkrSm Armrsm;ESifh "avhp&dkufrwlnDaom usefwdkif;&if;om;rsm;. e,fajrudk ArmjynfESifh roufqdkifapyJ oD;jcm;vGwfvyfa&;ay;&ef &nf&G,fonf[k qdkygonf? csif;awmif/ ucsifawmif qdkv#if zGH‹ðzd;a&;bmwpfckr# vkyfray;&ao;/ Armrsm;ESifh vGwfvyfa&;twl,l=uv#if rif;wdk‹tay: Adkvfus pdk;rdk;=uvdrfhrnf[k qdk=uonf? 17


awmifwef;om;rsm; AdkvfcsKyfESifh yxryifvHk ,if;ESihfygwfoufI awmifwef;a'orsm;rygonfh vGwfvyfa&;onf ta&;ygt&ma&mufaom vGwfvyfa&;rsdK;rjzpfEdkif[k AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;rS twdtvif;0efcHonf? 1946ck ZEM0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹ a&$wd*Hk tv,fypP,HwGifusif;yaom zqyv yxrt=udrfnDvmcHwGif OD;bab. vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;tqdkudk awmifwef;e,f tm;vHk;udk,fpm; OD;0rRol;armif;rS awmifwef;jynfrtm;vHk; vHk;0vGwfvyfa&; wpfcsdefwnf; ay;&ef axmufcHaqG;aEG;onf? 1946ckESpf rwfvwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh csif;/ ucsif/ &Srf;acgif;aqmifrsm; yifvHkwGif yxrOD;qHk;t=udrfawG‹qHknSdEd_if;cJh=uonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;OD;aqmifonfh zqyvtzGJ‹csKyfESifh wdkif;&if;om; acgif;aqmiftaygif;wdk‹onf jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;tm;vHk; wpfpnf;w&Hk;wnf; pnf;vHk;ap&ef rem;rae jyif;jyif;xefxef vufwGJóud;yrf;=uonf? awmifwef;om;rsm;ESifhzqyv zqyvtzGJ‹csKyfrS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk vlpkcGJI a'ocHudk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESihfvufwGJjyD; awmifwef; a'o toD;oD;odk‹ apv$wfcJhonf? ucsifArm cspf=unfa&;acgif;aqmif Adkvfcifarmifuav;/ &Srf;Arm cspf=unfa&;acgif;aqmif AdkvfrSL;atmif/ u&ifArmcspf=unfa&;acgif;aqmif ref;bcdkif/ bdwfxm;0,f cspf=unfa&;acgif;aqmif OD;baqGwdk‹jzpfum csif;Armcspf=unfa&;twGuf OD;0rRol;armif;/ OD;bqdkif/ OD;armifuav;/ &JabmfpHxGef;/ OD;atmifrif;/ &S,fuD;(c) OD;armif=uD;wdk‹ csif;awmifwef;wcGif tzGJ‹ESpfzGJ‹cGJI 1947 ZEM0g&DvwGif pnf;&Hk;a&;a[majymcJhonf? rlv t*Fvdyfjyef0ifuwnf;uygvmaom BLACK LIST pm&if;wGif t&Sifwpfaxmif/ tao ig;&m [k 0&rf;yg&Sdaom OD;0rRol;armif;tm; csif;jrefrmcspf=unfa&; pnf;&Hk;a[majyma&; c&D;pOfwGif acgif;aqmif&ef t*Fvdyftpdk;&rS uef‹uGufcJhonf? AdkvfcsKyfrS cifAsm;wdk‹tóudufv$wfzdk‹ r[kwfbl;/ usKyfwdk‹tóudufv$wfr,f[k twdkuftcHvkyfcJh&onf[k qdkonf? t*Fvdyftpdk;&. zdwfac:csuft& AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESihftzGJ‹ bdvyfodk‹ vGwfvyfa&;twGuf oGm;a&mufta&;qdk&m 1947ckESpf ZEM0g&Dv (27)&ufae‹wGif atmifqef;tufwvDpmcsKyfudk csKyfqdkonf? bdvyfrS tjyef AdkvfcsKyfrS owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJwpf&yfusif;ycJhonf? jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;twGuf jAdwdo#tpdk;&ESihf EdkifiHawmfacgif;aqmif=uD; AdkvfcsKyf atmifqef; aqG;aEG;oabmwlnDcsuf/ (1947ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(3)&uf nae(3)em&D zqyvtzGJ‹csKyfcef;r aqmifwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk,fwdkif owif;pmq&mrsm;tm; &Sif;vif;ajymjycsuf) – bdvyfjrefrmaqG;aEG;yGJoabmwlnDcsuft& puULjzLpepfrsm; vHk;vHk;ysufygw,f? odk‹aomf vGwfvyf a&;wdkufyGJrSm rjyD;qHk;ao;/ ckoabmwlwJhtwdkif; tppt&m&m a&Sma&Sm&_&_ jyD;ajrmufygu at;csrf;aom enf;jzifh ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;&bdk‹&Sdygw,f? &cJhaomtm%mrsm; -

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bdvyfodk‹oGm;pOfu zqyvu n$ef=um;vdkufonfhtwdkif;/ wkdif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmf wdkuf&dkuf a&G;aumufyGJðyvkyf&efESifh =um;jzwftpdk;&tm%mrsm;vJ &&SdcJhw,f? =um;jzwftpdk;&tm%mtwGuf Oya'udkjyifqifaev#if =umaernfudkp;dk I Oya't& wefcdk;tm%mr&aomfvnf; CONVENTION ac: xHk;wrf;pOfvmtm;jzifh qdkygrl 'dkrDeD,Htpdk;&rsm; &&Sdaom tcGifhtm%mrsm;udk&ygw,f? oHwrmefv$wfa&;udpP EdkifiHjcm;a&;udpPtwGufqdkv#ifvnf; jynfaxmifjcif; oHwrmeftvJtvS,fvkyfbdk‹ olwdk‹ (jAdwdo# tpdk;&) vkyfay;ygr,fvdk‹ajymygw,f? urBmhukvor*~wGifyg0ifEdkifbdk‹vJ axmufcHr,fvdk‹ajymygw,f? oHwrmefudpPudk &k&Sm;oHtrwfESifhvJ awG‹qHkajymcJhygao;w,f? jrefrmjynfavwyf jrefrmjynfavwyfumuG,fa&;twGuf avwyfxm;&efudpPudk jAdwdo#ava=umif;AdkvfcsKyfESifh awG‹qHkjyD; ajymcJhygw,f? r=umrSDav,OfysHarmif;wwfjyD;aomolrsm;ESifh pwifzGJ‹pnf;bdk‹ pDpOfygr,f? ppfwyf&kwfodrf;a&; Armjynf&Sd EdkifiHjcm;ppfwyfrsm;&kwfodrf;&efqdkonfhtcsufESifh ygwfoufI wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfu &kwfodrf;ay;ygvdk‹ qHk;jzwfcJhv#if olwdk‹&kwfodrf;ay;ygr,fvdk‹ajymygw,f? awmifwef;e,fudpP awmifwef;e,fudpPESifhygwfoufvdk‹awmh olwdk‹oabmwlw,fqdk&if vGwfvyfa&;ay;&r,fvdk‹ awmif;wmyJ/ 'gayr,fholwdk‹udk,fpm;vS,fr[kwfawmh udk,fpm;vS,fvdk‹vJ rajym&J/ 'Dvdkqdkv#ifjzifh olwdk‹ oabmwlygvdrfhr,fvdk‹ajym&wmyJ? t*Fvdyftapmifhta&SmufESifh awmifwef;a'orsm;udk jAdwdo#tpdk;&u tapmifhta&Smuf TRUSTEE SHIP ,lbdk‹ tcGifhta&;r&Sd/ u|efawmfwdk‹uvJr,l/ olwdk‹jynfwGif;tkyfcsKyfa&;udkvnf; =um;jzwftpdk;&vnf; 0ifrpGufzdk‹ ajymcJhwJhtcg bdvyftpdk;&u aumif;jyD olwdk‹udkar;=unhfr,f/ olwdk‹oabmwlv#ifvkyfrSmyJ vdk‹ajymygw,f? tm%mydkiftcGifhta&; wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfESifhygwfoufI tm%mydkiftcGifhta&;twGufawmh odyfjyD;twdkuftcHrajym yg/ toifhtwifhavmufawmhajymygw,f/ onfjy\emudkzdjyD; rajym&efvnf; zqyvtvkyftr_aqmif tzGJ‹u n$ef=um;vdkufygw,f? onftwdkif;qdkv#if wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJudk {jyDvtwGif;rSm usif;yEdkifygr,f/ arv(odk‹r[kwf) ZGefvavmufrSm wdkifðyjynfðyv$wfawmfu Armjynf jAdwdo#jynfaxmifpk twGif; aeraeqHk;jzwfbdk‹ygyJ? a&S‹vkyf&rnfhtvkyfrsm; jAdwdo#jynfaxmifpktwGif;aernfqdkv#if tkyfcsKyfa&;pnf;rsOf;rsm;udk bdvyfygvDrmefu twnf ðybdk‹ wifjy&ygr,f/ odk‹r[kwf jyifyrSmaecsifw,fqdkv#if tm%mv$Jajymif;a&;pmcsKyfðyvkyf&vdrfhrnf? tJ'DhtcgrSm tcsdefaESmifhaES;atmif vkyfcsifvkyf=uvdrfhrnf? odk‹aomf wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfu Armjynf vGwfvyfa&;a=unm&eftwGuf tcsdefuef‹owf&rSmyJ/ tJonfhta&;[m vlxkqHk;jzwfcsuftay: rlwnfyg w,f?

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vGwfvyfa&;trSef&r,f – trSefuawmh vGwfvyfa&;[m &rSmyJ/ tcsdefuef‹owfvdk‹ b,favmufjrefjref&Edkifw,fqdkwm tm%mv$Jajymif;&eftwGuf pmcsKyfcsKyfwJhtcgrSm ta&;=uD;ygw,f? ArmjynfESifh jAdwdo#tpdk;&wdk‹ pmcsKyf tay;t,loifhjrwfbdk‹vdkovdk/ &bdk‹rSm aemufuaxmufcHtm;ay;wJh vlxktiftm;&SdrS u|efawmfwdk‹ vGwfvyfa&;udk&rSm/ wdkufyGJrjyD;ao;bl;/ 'ga=umifhrdk‹ vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJ[mrjyD;ao;bl;/ odk‹aomf wkdufyGJ tajctae wpfrsdK;ajymif;oGm;w,f/ onftwdkif;tajctae wdk;wufaumif;rGefoGm;r,fqdk&if {csrf;om,m wJhenf;eJ‹ ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&; &EdkifbG,fenf;&Sdw,f? tm;vHk;toifhjyifxm;=uyg owif;pmq&mrsm;u tu,fIom tm%mv$Jajymif;a&;twGuf pmcsKyfcsKyfqdk&mwGif jAdwdo# tpdk;&u wrsdK;wrnfðyvkyfvdkygu rnfodk‹vkyf&ygrnfenf;[k ar;jref;&m AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;u 'ga=umifhrdk‹ vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJ[m rjyD;ao;bl;vdk‹ u|efawmfajymwmaygh/ u|Ekfyfwdk‹tm;vHk; toifhjyifxm; =u&r,f? tJonfhtcgusawmholwdk‹ jyifbdk‹ tawmfcufygvdrfhrnf? tdENd,xufomr,f =um;jzwftpdk;&&Sdrnfhtm%mrSm tdENd,tpdk;&xufomv#ifomr,f/ ravsmhbl;qdkwmudk tdENd, jynfudka&mufvmwJhtwGuf &J&J0Hh0Hh ajymEdkifw,f? puUjzLpepfysufjyD ,QKoabmwlnDcsuft& puULjzLpepfysufygonf? puULjzLpepft&rSm bmrS r&cJha=umif;/ Armjynf ppfwyfqdkif&mwGif wdkif;&if;om;ppfwyf/ Armjynfa&wyfponfwdk‹rSm Armjynf=um;jzwftpdk;&vufatmuf a&mufrnfhtjyif/ ppfwyftopfrsm;udk xlaxmifEdkif&eftcGifhta&;rsm;vnf; &&Sdrnfjzpfa=umif;/ (txufyg owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJaz:jycsufrsm;udk OD;0rRol;armif;. udk,fwdkifa&;rSwfwrf; pmom;rsm;twdkif; az:jyjcif;jzpfygonf? ,if;owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJrSwfwrf;rsm;. atmufY OD;0rRol;armif;rS- TwGif ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&; twGuf awmifwef;a'orsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;I ta&;=uD;onfh tcsuftvufrsm; yg0ifEdkifI rdwWLtrSeful;xm;jcif;jzpfonf [krSwfcsufaz:jyxm;ygonf?)

zqyvowif;pOftxl;xkwfYvnf; 1947ckESpf ZEM0g&Dv - awmifwef;e,frsm;twGuf Armjynf vlxkudk,fpm; zqyva=unmcsufudk atmufygtwdkif;xkwfjyefxm;onf? vGwfvyfbdk‹omtvdk&Sdonf - u|Efkyfwdk‹onf awmifwef;e,frsm;udk u|Efkyfwdk‹ESifh twif;yl;aygif;jcif; udk tvdkr&Sd/ awmifwef;e,frsm;u rdrdwdk‹tvdktavsmufyl;aygif;csifrS yl;aygif;jcif;udkomtvdk&Sdonf? awmifwef;e,frsm;udk ArmjynfESihfyl;aygif;onfjzpfap/ ryl;aygif;onfjzpfap/ u|Efkyfwdk‹. t=uD;qHk;aom vdkvm;csufonf xdkawmifwef;e,frsm;. vHk;0vGwfvyfcGifhudk t*Fvdyfwdk‹u csufjcif;todtrSwfðy&ef yifjzpfonf? tD*spf/ tdENd,/ tif'dkcsdKif;em;tp&Sdaom vufatmufcHEdkifiHrsm; vGwfvyf=ubdouJhodk‹/ u|Efkyfwdk‹. aoG;csif;om;csif;jzpf=uaom csif;/ *sdef;azg/ u&ifeDwdkif;&if;om;rsm;onfvnf; tv#iftjref vGwfvyf=u&ef u|Efkyfwdk‹jyif;jypGm tvdk&Sdonf? e,fcsJ‹pepfaysmufawmhrnf - aoG;pnf;=uavmh/ urBm=uD;onf ,cktxd txl;ajymif;vJv#uf &Sdav.? tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;udk oGm;a&muftkyfcsKyfaeaom e,fcsJ‹pepf=uD;onf ðydysufv#uf&SdayjyD/ vufatmuf cH EdkifiHolEdkifiHom;wdk‹ pnf;vHk;nDnGwfrdonfESifhwðydifeuf xdke,fcsJ‹pepf=uD;onf TurBm=uD;rS wcgwnf; 20


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21


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aoma=umifh T 'kwd,urBmppf=uD;onf wdkif;jynfwdkif;/vlrsdK;wdkif;wdk‹u rdrdwdk‹tou tou/ vGwfvyfa&; twGufwdkufaom wdkufyGJjzpfap&rnf[laom a=unmcsufudkrSD;I a[majymyHk&onf[k ,lqbG,fjzpfonf [k OD;0rRol;armif;rS 4if;udk,fwdkifa&;rSwfwrf;wGif rSwfcsufðyxm;onf? 1947ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(12)&ufae‹ csKyfqdkaom yifvHkpmcsKyf. az:jycsufrSm atmufygtwdkif; jzpfonf? jrefrmbk&ifcH. tr_aqmifaumifpDrS tzGJ‹0iftcsdK‹ESifh p0fzrsm;tm;vHk;wdk‹tjyif &Srf;jynfe,f/ ucsifESifh csif;awmifwef;a'owdk‹rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;wufa&mufaom/ yifvHkðrd‹wGifusif;yonfh tpnf; ta0;=uD;w&yfwGif =um;jzwftpdk;&ESihf csufjcif;yl;aygif;jcif;tm;jzifh &Srf;jynf/ ucsifESifhcsif;wdk‹onf vGwfvyfa&;udk ydkrdkv#ifjrefpGm&&Sdvdrfhrnf[k tpnf;ta0;wufa&mufoltzGJ‹0ifwdk‹u ,Hk=unf=uonfh twdkif; tpnf;ta0;wufa&mufoltzGJ‹0ifwdk‹onf uef‹uGufolr&SdyJ atmufygtwdkif;oabmwl=uonf? 1? awmifwef;om;rsm;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ (wpnz)óud;udkiftzGJ‹udk,fpm;vS,frsm;. axmufcHcsuft&/ awmifwef;om;rsm;. udk,fpm;vS,fwpfOD;udk bk&iffcHua&G;cs,fI awmifwef;a'oudpPrsm; aqmif&Guf&ef twGuf bk&ifcH. twdkifyifcyH k*~dKvftjzpfcef‹xm;&rnf? 2? TtwdkifyifcHyk*~dKvfudk bk&ifcH. tr_aqmifaumifpDwGif Xmevufudkifr&Sd aumifpD0ifwpfOD;tjzpf cef‹xm;I awmifwef;a'oumuG,fa&;/ jynfyqufqHa&;udpP&yfrsm;udk/ bk&ifcHtpdk;&wGifxm;&rnf? twdkifyifcHyk*~dKvftm; tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mudkay;&rnf? 3? awmifwef;a'otwdkifyifcHyk*~dKvfudk 4if;ESifhvlrsdK;csif;rwlaom 'kwd,twdkifyifcHyk*~dKvfESpfOD;u ulnD ap&rnf? 'kwd,twdkifyifcHyk*~dKvfESpfOD;onf 4if;wdk‹toD;oD;oufqdkifonfhe,frsm;. udpP&yfrsm;udk aqmif &Guf&efjzpfI twkdifyifcHyk*~dKvfonf e,fpyfa'otm;vHk;.udpP&yfrsm;udk aqmif&Guf&efjzpfonf? odk‹aomf oHk;OD;om;onf yl;wGJwm0ef,l&rnf? 4? tpdk;&tzGJ‹wGif aumifpDvl=uD;wpfOD;wnf;om awmifwef;a'oudk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf yg0ifaomfvnf; awmifwef;a'ota&;udk aqG;aEG;onfhtpnf;ta0;wGif 'kwd,aumifpDvl=uD;ESpfOD;tm; wufa&mufcGifh &Sdap&rnf? 5? ,if;odk‹oabmwl=uaomfvnf; a'oqdkif&me,fy,f&Sifwdk‹. udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mudk rnfonfh enf;ESihfrqdk wpHkw&mvufvGwfap&ef tqdkygaumifpDu ðyvkyfjcif;r&Sdap&/ awmifwef;a'orsm; tkyfcsKyfa&; wGif udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;&mE_ef;tjynfh&Sd&rnf[laom rludkoabmwl=uonf? 6? oD;oef‹ucsifjynfe,fxlaxmifa&;rSm wdkif;jynfðyv$wfawmfuom qHk;jzwfcGifh&Sdaom jy\emjzpfaomf vnf; ,if;odk‹aom jynfe,fwpfck&Sdoifhonf[k tnDtnGwfoabmwl=uonf? 7? 'Drkdua&pDenf;pepft& cHpm;xdkufaomtqifhtwef;/ tcGifhta&;rsm;ESihf tusdK;pD;yGm;rsm;udk awmifwef; om;wdk‹tm;cHpm;cGifh&Sdap&rnf? 8? jrefrmEdkifiHawmfvHk;0vGwfvyfa&;&&Sda&;twGuf ArmjynfrESifh awmifwef;a'otm;vHk; yl;aygif; aqmif&Guf&efESifhtcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifvGwfvyfaomEdkifiHawmfrjzpfrjcif; óud;pm;aqmif&Guf=u&rnf? 9? jrefrmEdkifiHawmfonf tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif vHk;0vGwfvyfaom EkdifiHawmftjzpfodk‹ a&muf&Sdvm aomtcg jrefrmEdkifiHawmfom; tm;vHk;wdk‹onf w&m;r#wjcif;/ vGwfvyfjcif;/ nDr#jcif; wnf;[laom avmuygvw&m;rsm;udk tajcðyaom tcGifhta&;[lor#wdk‹udk nDwlnDr#cHpm;/ pHpm; =u&rnf? 10? jynfe,fom;rsm;onf rdrdwdk‹. jynfe,fa'orsm;udk udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;rsm;&&Sdap&rnf? jynfe,f tcsif;csif;wdk‹onf a'oqdkif&m/ wjynfe,fESifhwjynfe,f zufpGufyg0ifjcif;r&Sdap&/ odk‹&mwGif jynfe,f toD;oD;pkaygif;I jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmftjzpf zGJ‹pnf;wnfaxmif=u&rnf? 11? jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmf zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHenf;Oya' a&;qGJ&mwGif EdkifiHawmfom;tvm;vHk; yg0ifvmonfESifhtnD EdkifiHawmfom;[lor#wdk‹onf rnfonfhtcGihfta&;wGifrqdk nDwlnDr#&Sdap&rnf? 24


12? rnfonfhtcsdeftcgrsdK;wGifrqdk jrefrmEdkifiHawmf. wkdif;&if;ol wkdif;&if;om;tm;vHk;wdk‹. cspf=unfa&;ESifh pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;rsm;udk tpGrf;ukefOD;pm;ay;I aqmif&Guf=u&rnf? 13? TpmcsKyfygtcsufrsm;udk azgufzsufolwdk‹tm; opPmwnf&Sd=uaom vlrsdK;/jynfe,frsm;rS aumif;rGef ajyvnfatmif 0dkif;0ef;ajz&Sif;=u&rnf? 14? rdrdvlrsdK;/ jynfe,ftzGJ‹tpnf;ESifhom jynfaxmifpktwGif;odk‹ 0ifa&mufyg0ifI jynfaxmifpk=uD;tm; xdrf;odrf;umuG,f=u&rnf[laom pmcsKyfrsm;udk 1947ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(12)&ufeHeuf(10)em&DtcsdefwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;OD;pD;acgif;aqmifI jynfrESifhawmifwef;e,fudk,fpm;vS,f yk*~dKvf(23)OD;wdk‹onf jrefrm jynfwckvHk;/ vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;&&Sd=ua&;twGuf ArmjynfESifhawmifwef;e,f yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;/ yifvHk pmcsKyf=uD;udk atmufaz:jyyg vlxkudk,fpm;vS,rf sm;rS toD;oD; pdwfygudk,fyg oabmwlvufrSwf a&;xdk;=uygonf? 1? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; - jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,f 2? p0fcGefyef;qdkif - vlxkudk,fpm;vS,f/ awmifydkif;apmfyGm;/ &Srf; 3? p0fa&$odkuf - anmifa&$apmfyGm; 4? p0f[kefz - odEMDapmfyGm; 5? p0feef; - vJjcm;apmfyGm; 6? p0fxGef;at; - omrcrf;apmfyGm; 7? OD;cGefyef; - vlxkudk,fpm;vS,f 8? OD;wifat; - vlxkudk,fpm;vS,f/awmif=uD; 9? OD;xGef;jrifh - jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f/ armufr,f 10? OD;=umyk - jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f/ oDayg 11? p0f,Zfz - jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f/ oDayg 12? qrm;'l;0g;qif0gaemif - ucsifudk,fpm;vS,f/ jrpf=uD;em; 13? OD;wdef&wef - ucsifudk,fpm;vS,f/ Aef;armf 14? OD;aZmfv - ucsifudk,fpm;vS,f/ Aef;armf 15? 'l;0g;aZmf&pf - ucsifudk,fpm;vS,f/ jrpf=uD;em; 16? 'l;0g;aZmfvGef; - ucsifudk,fpm;vS,f/ Aef;armf 17? OD;vAef*a&mif; - ucsifudk,fpm;vS,f/ Aef;armf 18? OD;v$mrkef; - csif;udk,fpm;vS,f/ zvrf; 19? OD;axmifZckyf - csif;udk,fpm;vS,f/ wD;wdef 20? OD;uD;,dkref; - csif;udk,fpm;vS,f/ [m;cg; 21? OD;cGefxD; - jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f/ yifvHk 22? OD;cGefapm - jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f/ yif;’, 23? OD;jzL - usdKif;wHkapmfyGm;/ jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f 24? p0fpHxGef; - rdk;yGefapmfyGm;/ jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,f csif;jrefrmcspf=unfa&; nDvmcH tqdkygyifvHkuGefz&ifhwGif OD;0rRol;armif; ryg0ifyg? csif;jrefrm cspf=unfa&;nDvmcHusif;ya&;twGuf vHk;yef;ae&aom tcsdefjzpfygonf? BLACK LIST a=umifh t*Fvdyf. uef‹uGufcsufonfvnf; pnf;&Hk;

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a[majyma&;c&D;pwifrnfhtcsdefwGifyif taESmuft,SufjzpfcJhao;onf? odk‹jzpfaomfvnf; csif;jrefrm cspf=unfa&;vkyfief;udk jyD;pD;atmifjrifatmif aqmif&GufcJhonf? 1947ckESpf rwfv 4/ 5/ 6 &ufae‹rsm;wGif csif;jrefrmcspf=unfa&;nDvmcHudk OD;0rRol;armif;ESifh 'D'kwfOD;bcsdKwdk‹ OD;pD;I xD;vif;ðrdŒY usif;ycJh=uonf? csif;jrefrmcspf=unfa&; nDvmcHY pmcsKyfcsKyfqdkjcif; r&Sdaomfvnf; 'D;'kwfOD;bcsdKrS atmufygtcsufrsm;yg0ifaom rdef‹cGef;udk jrGuf=um;cJhonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ zqyvtzGJ‹csKyfESifh Armrsm;udk,fpm; nDvmcHodk‹wufa&mufa=umif;/ vlxky&domwfaxmifausmfI/ Tr#rsm;jym;aomvlxkwufa&mufojzifh aoG;cGJpepf tajcysufaejyD jzpf a=umif;udk awG‹&Sd&a=umif;/ ArmjynfESifhtwl vGwfvyfa&;&apvdka=umif;/ OD;0rRol;armif;. acgif;aqmifr_/ óud;yrf;r_jzifh r=umrSD&=urnf[k ,Hk=unfa=umif;/ vGwfvyfvmonfESihftr#/ csif;vGwfvyfa&;udk Armu rnfodk‹r# xdcdkufrnfr[kwfa=umif;/ b¾ma&;rStp vdktyfonfhtultnDrSefor# jynfrrS vdkavao;r&Sd/ ulnDrnfjzpfa=umif;/ (AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifhOD;0rRol;armif;wdk‹ &efukefrStwlxGufvm=ujyD; AdkvfcsKyfu yifvHkodk‹wufoGm;I yifvkHnDvmcHudk atmifjrifatmifusif;ycJhjyD; OD;0rRol;armif;u csif;awmifodk‹jyefwufoGm;jyD; csif;jrefrmcspf=unfa&;nDvmcHudk atmifjrif atmif usif;ycJhonf)

awmifwef;om;rsm; 'kwd,t=udrfnDvmcH 1947 ckESpf rwfv 18/ 19/ 20 &ufrsm;wGifawmifwef;om;rsm;omyg0ifonfh nDvmcHwpf&yfudk awmifwef;om;rsm;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹ óud;udkifaumfrDwD SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE UNITED HILLS PEOPLE (SCOUHP)rS =uD;rSL;I anmifa&$ðrd‹/ anmifa&$apmfyGm; p0fa&$odkuf. a[mfeef;crf;rtwGif; 'kwd,t=udrf jyefvnfusif;ycJhonf? ,if;nDvmcHodk‹ OD;0rRol;armif;ESifhajrmufydkif;csif;awmifudk,fpm;vS,frsm; wufa&mufcJh=uonf? ,if;nDvmcHY yifvHkoabmwlpmcsKyftwdkif; jrefrmEdkifiHawmfonf tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif vHk;0vGwfvyf aom EdkifiHawmftjzpf a&muf&Sdvmonfhtcg jynfaxmifpktjzpfyl;aygif;&ef atmufygtcsufrsm;yg&Sdaom jynfaxmifpkrludk csrSwfcJh=uonf? ,if;wdk‹rSm 1? wef;wla&; 2? udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh&a&; 3? cGJxGufvdku cGJxGufEdkifa&; ponfwdk‹jzpfonf? (txufygrloHk;&yfwGif wef;wla&;ESifh udk,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh&a&;wdk‹onf jynfaxmifpktjzpfyl;aygif;ygu zuf' &,fjynfe,fwGif tcsKyftjcmtm%moHk;&yfydkifqdkifrnfjzpfojzifh/ tvdktavsmuf&&SdjyD;jzpfrnf jzpfaomf vnf;/ xm0pOf wnfwHhcdkifjrJa&;twGuf cGJxGufvdku cGJxGufEdkifa&;udkvnf; tem*gwfjrefrmEdkifiH. zGJ‹pnf; tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'wGif xnfhoGif;a&;qGJ&efvdka=umif;/ vlrsdK;wpfrsdK;/ jynfe,fwpfjynfe,f. cGJxGufa&;/ rcGJxGufa&;rSm usefvlrsdK;/ jynfe,frsm;. aumif;jcif;/ raumif;jcif;tay: rlwnfa=umif;/ tar#mftjrif =uD;rm;pGm xnfhoGif;csrSwfcJh=uonf?) awmifwef;a'o pHkprf;a&;aumfr&Sif 26


1947ckESpf {jyDvwGif t*FvdyfjrefrmoabmwlncD suft& awmifwef;om;rsm;/ Armrsm;ESifhtwl vGwfvyfa&;trSef&,lvdkjcif;[kwfr[kwf awmifwef;a'opHkprf;a&;aumfr&SifzGJ‹jyD;/ arðrdŒwGif wdkif;&if;om; udk,fpm;vS,ftoD;oD;tm; ppfaq;I vlxkqENudk xkwfaz:apcJhonf? &D;pf0DvsHaumfr&Sif[kac:onf? ppfaq;r_rsm; {jyDvqef;rSpI (27)&ufae‹wGifjyD;qHk;onf? wdkif;&if;om; vlrsdK;udk,fpm;vS,ftm;vHk;u ArmESifhtwl vGwfvyfa&;t&,ljyD; jynfaxmifpktjzpf yl;aygif;rnfjzpfa=umif; wnDwnGwfwnf; xGufqdk =uonf? vGwfvyfa&;ESihf 47 Oya' jrefrmEdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;&&Sd&efaojcmaejyDjzpf&m 1947ckESpf {jyDv(7)&ufae‹wGif wdkif;ðyjynfðy vGwfawmftrwfrsm;udk 1935ckESpf jrefrmEdkifiHpD&iftkyfcsKyfa&; tufOya't& a&G;aumufcJhonf? ,if;wdkif;ðy jynfðyvGwfawmfodk‹ awmifwef;e,fudk,fpm;vS,f (45)OD;apv$wfcGifh&I ,if;wGif csif;udk,fpm;vS,f (6)OD; yg&SdcJhonf? 1947ckESpf arv(23)&ufae‹wGif *sLAvDcef;rY zqyv yrm%jyifqifr_ nDvmcHusif;yI atmufyg tcsuf(14)csufygtqdkwifoGif;qHk;jzwffr_ðyvkyfjyD; zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHkrl=urf;a&;qGJ&ef pwif &kyfvHk;az:cJh=uonf? 1? jrefrmEdkifiHawmfudk vGwfvyfaomtcsKyftjcmtm%mydkiforRwEdkifiHtjzpfjzifha=ujim&ef Ty%mr jyifqifr_nDvmcHobifu av;eufcdkifrmpGmjyXmef;vdkufonf? 2? wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfua&;qGJtyfaom EdkifiHawmfzGJpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'wGif tqdkyg vGwfvyf aomtcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif-oRrwEdkifiHawmfonf (u) ,cktxdjAdwdo#jrefrmjynftwGif;wGifyg0ifaeaom 1? jrefrmjynf0ef=uD;tzGJ‹utkyfcsKyfaeaom jrefrmjynfr 2? [krRvif;c&dkifcGJ 3? qifuvdkifcrf;wD; 4? aomif'Gwf 5? aqmr&e,fy,f 6? em*awmifwef;rsm; &? oHvGifc&dkif 8? uefyufvufc&dkifcGJ 9? &cdkifawmifwef;e,fy,frsm;[lI ac:a0:aoma'orsm; (c) udk;crf;ESifharmif;ydkifwdk‹tygt0ifjzpfaom &Srf;jynfaxmifpk (*) u&ifeDjynfe,frsm; (C) ucsifawmifwef;rsm; (i) uefyufvufc&dkifcGJrygaom csif;awmifwef;c&dkifodk‹yg0ifaom jynfaxmifpkEdkifiHawmf jzpf&rnf? 3? (1) atmufyg*k%ft*Fgtm;vHk;ESifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ tcsdK‹ESifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ jynfhpHkI (c) (*) (C) (i)wdk‹Yazmfjyxm;aoma'orsm;onf Twdkif;jynfðyv$wfawmfujyXmef;I aemiftcg zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'ESifh ‘jynfaxmifpkjynfe,f’tqifhtwef;udkjzpfap/ ‘udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf&jynfe,f’ tqifhtwef; udkjzpfap/ ‘vlrsdK;pkjynfe,f’ tqifhtwef;udkjzpfap &&Sd&rnf? xdka'orsm;onf rdrdwdk‹tm;tyfESif;I aomfvnf;aumif;/ v$Jajymif;Iaomfvnf;aumif;/ &&Sdaomtm%mESifh wm0efrsm;udk oHk;pGJaqmif&Guf&rnf? *k%ft*Fgrsm;um; 27


1? yx0Dtaetxm;t& e,fedrdwftxift&Sm;&Sdjcif; 2? jrefrmpum;Esifhrwlaom bmompum;wrsdK;wnf;&Sdjcif; 3? ,Ofaus;r_wrsdK;wnf;&Sdjcif; 4? &mZ0iftpOftvmwrsdK;wnf;&Sdaom vlpk&Sdjcif; 5? pD;yGg;a&;qdkif&mtusdK;aus;Zl;ESifh pD;yGg;a&;vHkavmufr_wdk‹&Sdaom vlpk&Sdjcif; 6? vlOD;a&tawmftwef&Sdjcif; 7? jynfaxmifpktzGJ‹0ifoD;jcm;a'owcktjzpfjzifh rdrd.udk,fydkifxif&Sm;csuftwdkif; aexdkifaomqEN &Sdjcif;wdk‹ jzpfavonf? 3? (2) xdktm%mrsm;ESifhwm0efrsm;onf y%mrjyifqifr_nDvmcHobifu cef‹aomaumfrdwDtzGJ‹ . aphpyfcsufjzifh ESpfOD;EspfbufoabmwlnDcsufudk&jyD;rS pOf;pm;qHk;jzwf&rnfh tm%mESifhwm0efrsm; jzpfonf? qdkcJhjyD;aomaumfrdwDtzGJ‹. aphpyfcsufjzifh&&Sdaom wlnDcsufonf zqyvtr_aqmiftzGJ‹. twnfðycsuf udk&&Sd&rnf? 4? (Tae&mrSpIvmrnfhtydk'frsm;wGif ‘jynfaxmifpOk ya'ðytzGJ‹’[kac:qdktyfaom) A[dkOya'ðytzGJ‹. tm%mydkifeufonf jynfaxmifpkEdkifiHw0Srf;vHk;jzpf&rnf?‘jynfaxmifpkjynfe,f’odk‹r[kwf ‘udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf &jynfe,f’ odk‹r[kwf ‘vlrsdK;pkjynfe,f’wdk‹.Oya'ðytzGJ‹rsm;odk‹ oD;jcm;v$Jajymif;ay;onfh udpPtrsdK;tpm; xJwGifryg0ifaomudpPcyfodrf;wdk‹ESifhpyfvsOf;I EdkifiHzGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'Y rnfodk‹yifqdkxm;onf jzpfap jynfaxmifpkOya'ðytzGJ‹onf atmufYpDpOfazmfjyxm;aom udpPtrsdK;tpm;wGifyg0ifonfh udpP tm;vHk;wdk‹tay:Y Oya'ðytm%m&Sd&rnf? 1? jynfaxmifpktpdk&Xmersm; 2? jynfe,fcsif;csif;udpPrsm; 3? (xdkvkyfief;-2-rsdK;rSty) usefudpPrsm; 4? jynfaxmifpkwckvHk;Esifhoufqdkifaom pD;yGg;a&;wdk;wufr_udpPrsm; 5? ‘jynfaxmifpkjynfe,f’ ‘udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf&jynfe,f’ ‘vlrsdK;pkjynfe,f’wdk‹rSvGJI usefa'orsm; ESifhpyfvsOf;aomudpPrsm; rSwfcsuf? ? (txufygtydk'f=uD;-4? Tydk'fcGJ(5)wGifqdkxm;aom usefa'orsm;twGuf Oya'ðytzGJ‹rsm; oyfoyfxm;&Sdrnfr[kwfacs)? 5? TvGwfvyfaomtcsKyftjcmtm%mydkiforRwjrefrmEdkifiHonf4if;/ xdkEdkifiHtzGJ‹0ifjynfe,fa'o rsm;onf 4if;/ xdkEdkifiH.tpdk;&Xmersm;onf4if;/ toD;oD;wdk‹onf rdrdwdk‹.wefcdk;awZmESifh tm%mtm;vHk;wdk‹udk wdkif;oljynfom;wdk‹xHrS xkwf,loHk;pGJ&rnf? 6? vlr_qufqHa&;w&m;r#wr_/ pD;ygG;a&;w&m;r#wr_/ EdkifiHa&;w&m;r#wr_/ tqifhtwef;wlnDr_/ tcGifhtvrf; wlnDr_/ w&m;Oya't&wlnDr_wdk‹tjyif w&m;Oya'ESifhvnf;aumif;/ avmu0wW&m; wdk‹ESifhvnf;aumif;/ oifhjrwfavsmfuefap&rnfjzpfaom vGwfvyfpGmawG;=uHEdkifr_/ vGwfvyfpGmzGifh[ a&;om;azmfjyEdkifr_/ vGwfvyf pGm,Hk=unfEdkifr_/ vGwfvyfpGmudk;uG,fEdkifr_/ vGwfvyfpGm bk&m;ausmif;uef oGm;cGifh ðyEdkifr_/ vGwfvyfpGm y&da,oe&SmrSD;Edkifr_/ vGwfvyfpGmpnf;&Hk;Edkifr_/ vGwfvyfpGmaqmif&GufEdkifr_wdk‹udk jynfoljynfom;tm;vHk;wdk‹ &&SdcHpm;Edkifatmif 0efcHcsuf&Sd&rnf? 7? (1) ‘wdkif;&if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;’.tcGifhta&;rsm;jzpfaom 1? vlwdk‹.tcGifhta&; 2? vlrsdK;ESifh,Ofaus;r_tcGifhta&; 3? ,Ofaus;r_wGif rdrdwdk‹p&dkuft& jyXmef;EdkifcGifhESifhwuG vGwfvyfpGmaygif;oif;qufqHEdkif aom tcGifhta&; 4? Oya'ðytzGJ‹wGif xdkufoifhaomudk,fpm;vS,fOD;a& yg0ifEdkifa&; 28


xdktcGifhta&;wdk‹udk vlrsm;pkESifh vlrsdK;tm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ bmompum;tm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ ,Ofaus;r_ tm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ &mZ0ifpOfvmtm;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ uGJjym;aomolrsm;vnf;jzpfI oufqdkif&m tzGJ‹0ifa'owGif vlOD;a& (10)yHk(1)yHkxufrenf;&Sdonfholrsm;vnf;jzpfaom jynfolwpkonf cHpm;Edkif ygonf[k cH0efcsuf&Sd&rnf? 7? (2) u&iftrsdK;om;wdk‹ESifhoufqdkifaomudpPrsm;wGif jynfaxmifpltpdk;&tm;ulnDt=uHay;&ef ‘u&if a&;&mtzGJ‹’wpkudkzGJ‹pnf;&rnf? 8? ‘jynfaxmifpkjynfe,f’ ‘udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf&jynfe,f’ ‘vlrsdK;pkjynfe,f’wk‹dtm; ydkif;jcm;owfrSwf tyfESif; v$Jajymif;xm;aom tm%mrsm;rSwyg; vGwfvyaomtcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif orRwjrefrm EdkifiHawmf. Oya'ðytm%m/ tkyfcsKyfr_tm%m/ w&m;pD&ifr_tm%mwdk‹onf jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHY&SdI xdktm%m wdk‹udk EdkifiHzGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'uwnfaxmifxm;aom jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmftpdk;& Xmersm;uaomf 4if;/ xdkXmersm;.trdef‹t&aomfvnf;aumif;/ oHk;pGJEdkif&rnf? 9? jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmftwGif;&Sd jynfoltm;vHk;wdk‹.txGwftjrwfjzpfxdkufaom EdkifiHawmf. t=uD;trSL;jzpfonfh orRwESifhwuG jynfol‹v$wfawmf vlrsdK;pkv$wfawmfESpf&yfyg0ifaom jynfaxmifpk r[mv$wfawmfwdk‹wGif jynfaxmifpkOya'ðytm%mudk tyfESif;xm;&Sdap&rnf? orRwtm; jynfaxmifpk r[mv$wfaawmfu a&G;aumufwifajrSmuf&rnf? jynfol‹v$wfawmftrwfrsm;udk v#dK‹0SufaomrJqEN ay;pepft& t&G,fa&mufolwdkif;u a&G;aumufwifajrSmuf&rnf? vlrsdK;pkv$wfawmfwGif ‘jynfaxmifpk jynfe,f’rSvnf;aumif;/ ‘udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf&jynfe,f’rSvnf;aumif;/ ‘vlrsdK;pkjynfe,f’rS vnf;aumif;/ ‘wdkif;&if;om;vlenf;pk’rSvnf;aumif;/ tzGJ‹a'owcktjzpfjzifh pk&Hk;zGJ‹pnf;tyfaom usefa'orsm;rSvnf; aumif; udk,fpm;vS,ftrwfrsm;yg0ifap&rnf? 10? w&m;Oya'ESifh TedkifiHzGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'wdk‹ujyXmef;rnfh pnf;urf;csufrsm;udkaxmufI jynfolwdk‹ wGif rdrdwdk‹a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufvdkufaom udk,fpm;vS,ftrwfudk E_wfy,fac:,lEdkifaom tcGifhta&; &Sdap&rnf? 11? jynfaxmifpktpdk;&[kac:qdktyfonfh jynfaxmifpkEdkifiHawmf. tcsKyftjcmtkyfcsKyfr_tm%m wnf&Sd&m jzpfaom tpdk;&tzGJ‹onf jynfol‹v$wfawmftm;wm0efcH&rnf? 12? EdkifiHzGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'uaomfvnf;aumif;/ w&m;Oya'uaomfvnf;aumif;/ wnfaxmif xm;aomw&m;&Hk;awmfrsm;onf w&m;pD&ifjcif;udkðy&rnf? xdkw&m;&Hk;rsm;u r[mw&m;&Hk;awmfESifh wuG xdkw&m;&Hk;awmf. vufatmufcHw&m;&Hk;rsm;jzpfonf? w&m;ol=uD;rsm;onf EdkifiHzGJ‹pnf;yHk tajccHOya'ESifh w&m;Oya'wdk‹udkomaxmufI vGwfvyfpGmw&m;pD&if&rnf? r[mw&m;&kH;awmf. w&m;0ef=uD;rsm;udk ‘jynfaxmifpkr[mv$wfawmf’u a&G;aumufwifajrSmuf&rnf? 13? vGGwfvyfaomtcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif orRwjrefrmEdkifiH. E,fajrwdk‹waygif;wpnf;wnf; wnf&Sdae onf[laom *k%foduQmonfvnf;aumif;/ EdkifiHawmf.=unf;/ a&/ avwdk‹udk tcsKyftjcm pdk;rdk; tkyfcsKyfEdkif aomtcGifhta&;rsm;onfvnf;aumif;/ xdk%foduQmrsm;onfw&m;r#wr_ESifhvnf;aumif;/ wdkif;=uD;jynf=uD; wdk‹.Oya'ESifhvnf;aumif;/ avsmfnDpGmwnfwHhcdkifjrJae&rnf? 14? uGsEkyfwdk‹cspfjrwfEdk;aomEdkifiHawmfonf urBmay:wGif w&m;ojzifh&oifh&xdkufonfvnf;jzpfI *k%f usufoa&ESifhvnf;jynfhpHkaomtqifhtwef;udk&&SdI vlowW0gcyfodrf;wdk‹.tuskdK;pD;ygG;udk wdk;wufap&ef rdrdYwm0ef&Sdonfhtavsmuf tpGrf;ukeftm;xkwfaqmif&GufjyD;v#if jynfaxmifpktcsif;csif;/ w&m;r#wr_ESifh avmu0wW&m;wdk‹udkaxmufcH/ tEdkifEdkifiHwdk‹Esifhcspf=unf&if;ESD;pGm yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufrnf[k cdkifjrJaom t"dXmefudk ðyxm;avonf? (txufazmfjyygzqyvy%mrjyifqifr_nDvmcHobifYwifoGif;&ef tqdk(14)csufonf zqyvy%mrjyifqifr_ nDvmcHobifYwifoGif;Edkif&efjyifqifxm;aomtqdkr#omjzpfonf[k cGefrmudkbef;u 4if;.‘yifvHkpdwf"gwf &Sifoef

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azmfaqmifa&;rS ppfrSefaom'Drdkua&pDzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkEdkifiHawmfopfwnfaqmufa&;odk‹’pmtkyfwGif a&;om; xm;onf)?

jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHwkdif;jynfðyv$wfawmf. yxrnDvmcHudk 1947ckESpf ZGefv(4)&ufae‹wGif pwifusif;ycJhonf? nDvmcHudk,fpm;vS,frsm;wGif csif;trsdK;om;udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ‹acgif;aqmiftjzpf OD;vD[mavm(c) ocifbatmifyg0ifcJhonf? ,if;nDvmcHrS zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'a&;rl=urf; a&;qGJ a&; aumfrDwDwckcef‹xm;cJhonf? 1947ckESpf Zlvdkifv (19)&ufae‹wGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESihfwuG acgif; aqmif=uD;rsm; vkyf=uHcHcJh&onf? 1947ckESpf Zlvdkifv (29)&ufae‹wGif wdkif;jynfðyv$wfawmf 'kwd,t=udrf nDvmcH jyefvnfusif;yjyD; 1947ckESpf Zlvdkifv(31)&ufae‹wGif zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya' a&;qGJa&; tacsmudkifaumfrDwDudk cef‹tyfI tjyD;tydkif wm0efv$JtyfcJh=uonf? ,if;aumfrDwDrS a&;qGJaom Oya'udk 1947ckESpf pufwifbmv(15)&ufae‹wGif pwifusif;yaom wkdif;jynfðyv$wfawmf wwd,t=udrf nDvmcHrS 1947ckESpfpufwifbmv(24)&ufae‹wGif twnfðycJhonf? ,if;Oya't& Oya'tydkif; (5) csif;0daoowdkif; tc%f;/ yk'fr(196/ 197/ 198)wdk‹t& csif;0daoowdkif; csif;a&;&maumifpD/ csif;a&;&mXme/ csif;a&;&m0ef=uD; ponfwdk‹ay:aygufcJhonf? txufyg 1947ckESpf zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'ESifhygwfoufI AkdvfcsKyfESihfwuG acgif;aqmif=uD; rsm; vkyf=uHcH&jyD; a&;qGJaomOya'onf awmifwef;om; wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK; acgif;aqmifrsm; ESifh Arm acgif;aqmifrsm; rlvoabmwlxm;aom jynfaxmifpkrludk tajcrcHyJ jynfaxmifpkpk twkta,mif wjynfaxmifzGJ‹pnf;yHkpepfjzifh a&;qGJxm;aom Oya'jzpfaeojzifh wkdif;&if;om;acgif;aqmifrsm; rsm;pGm uoduatmufjzpfcJh&onf? yl;aygi;f aqmif&Guf/ yl;aygif;cHpm;&ef MUTUAL CO.OPERATION AND MUTUAL BENEFIT rdom;pkuJhodk‹ FRATERNAL BOND aygif;pnf;xm;onf[k vdrfnmI wef;wl&nfwl tcGifhta&; PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY r&Sdonfh vlrsdK;=uD;tajccH0g' NATIONAL CHAUVINISM jzifha&;qGJxm;aom wpfjynfaxmif UNITARY Oya'jzpfonf? ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm awmifhwvmcJhaom vGwfvyfa&;udk zGJ‹pnf;yHkta&;ESifh twdkuftcHjzpfaecJhv#if qifajymif=uD;tjrD;usrSwpfaernfudkvnf;aumif;/ vGwfvyfa&;ESihf zGJ‹pnf;yHkta&;wdk‹rSm “pm;&rSmvnf; oJESifhw&Syf&Syf/ ypf&rSmvnf; tqDESifhw0if;0if;” jzpfaecJh&onf? vGwfvyfa&;udk rnfolr# vufv$wfcHrnf r[kwf[k tcGifhaumif;,lI Oya'a&;qGJa&;aumfrDwDrS a&;qGJaom ,if;1947ckESpf Oya't& csif;/ ucsif/ &Srf;/ u&if/ u,m;/ rGef/ &cdkifwkdif;&if;om;rsm;onf t*FvdyfvufatmufcHb0rS ArmudkvdkeDb0odk‹ tvdktavsmuf oufqif;cJh&jyefonf? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd ;acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; jynfaxmifpktjzpf yl;aygif; ygrnf[k tmrcHxm;aom AdkvfcsKyfESifhwuG acgif;aqmif=uD;rsm; vkyf=uHcH&tjyD; 4if;wdk‹tvdkus Oya'jyXmef; um wkdif;&if;om; vlrsdK;(7)rsdK;wdk‹tm; ArmvlrsdK;wpfpku u|efðytkyfcsKyfEkdifcJh=uonf? rnfodk‹yifjzpfap vGwfvyfa&;onfyxr/ vGwv f yfa&;onf'kwd,/ vGwfvyfa&;onf wwd, [k vGwfvyfa&;&&Sd&ef toufaoG; ac|;ajrmufrsm;pGmudk tpaw;cHI vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;cJhaom u|Efkyfwdk‹. rsdK;cspfacgif;aqmiftaygif; tjynfht0wm0efausyGef=uygonf? jynfaxmifpkta&;/ zGJ‹pnf;yHkta&;onf ouf&Sdxif&Sm;&Sdaom aemifvmaemifom;rsm;. wm0efjzpfayonf?

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Todk‹jzifh jynfaxmifpktrnfcH jrefrmEdkifiHonf 1948ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv(4)&ufae‹wGif vGwfvyfa&; udk ausnmI ArmtcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif ozef;oD;EdkifiHtjzpf urBmtv,fwGif ay:xGef;vmcJhonf? csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfcsrSwfa&; jrefrmEdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;&onftxd rqkwfrepfaom ZGJvHk‹vjzifh wpnf;wvHk;wnf; ñud;yrf;tm; xkwfcJh=uaom csif;trsdK;om;xkudk OD;pD;em,uðyvmcJhonfh/ csif;trsdK;om;acgif;aqmif=uD; OD;0rRol;armif; onf yxrOD;qHk; csif;a&;&m0ef=uD;jzpfvmcJhonf? tajrSmftjrif=uD;rm;cJhaom OD;0rRol;armif; onf jAdwdo#wdk‹zefwD;cJhonfh jAL&dkua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&; ,EW&m;udk tpm;xdk;&ef/ jAdwdo#bk&ifcHrif;=uD;rSpI wkdufol=uD;rsm;txd tqifhqifh tm%mqif;oufvmaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk ajymif;jyefvSefI vlxkrS jrefrmEdkifiHtpdk;&wdkifatmif/ tm%mtqifhqifhwufvmonfh 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfudk xnfhoGif;tpm; xdk;&eftwGuf/ vlxkqEN,l&ef/ csif;a&;&mXme. yxrOD;qHk; vkyfief;tjzpfcsrSwfv#uf tjyif;txef óud;pm; aqmif&GufcJhonf? 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfESifhygwfoufI csif;trsdK;om;xk. qENudk pHkprf;az:xkwf&ef/ csif;awmif pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;aumfr&Sifwpf&yfudk zGJ‹pnf;ay;ygrnfhta=umif; 1948ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wGif csif;a&;&mXmerS jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH 0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹odk‹ wifoGif;cJhonf? 1948ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv (28)&ufae‹ owWrt=udrfajrmuf usif;yonfh 0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹ tpnf;ta0;rS tpDtpOf(5) wGif xnfhoGif;aqG;aEG;jyD; “csif;awmifpHkprf;a&;aumfr&SiftzGJ‹” zGJ‹pnf;&ef oabmwlqHk;jzwfcJh=uonf? wzef csif;a&;&mXmerS csif;awmifpHkprf;a&;aumfr&SiftzGJ‹ zGJ‹pnf;&ef jyXmef;csufudk 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(5)&uf ae‹pGJjzifh xkwfjyefausnmcJhonf? ,if;tzGJ‹wGif -obmywd OD;0rRol;armif;/ twGif;a&;rSL;- wdkif;rif;=uD; pnfol OD;odrf;armif(atwDtrf)/ tzGJ‹0iftrsdK;om; ynm0efa[mif; OD;pdk;0if;wdk‹ yg0ifonf? aumfr&SifrS e,ftoD;oD;&Sd vlxkudk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ wdkuftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ ol=uD;rsm;wdk‹. qENudk ppfaq;Edkif&efESifh csif;trsdK;om;tm;vHk; r[kwfapumrl,ckcsif;0daoowdkif;tjzpf ydkif;jcm;ay;xm; e,fajr twGif;&Sd csif;trsdK;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tm;vHk; vGwv f Gwfvyfvyf wufa&mufawG‹qHkEdkifrnfh csif;0daoo wkdif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcHobifudk usif;y&efwdk‹udk OD;0rRol;armif;rS wðydifeufxJ pDpOfcJhonf? aumfr&SifrS e,ftoD;oD;. vlxu k dk,fpm;vS,f/ wkduftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ol=uD;wdk‹. vlxkqENudk 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(12)rS (26)&ufxd ppfaq;cJhjyD; csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcHobifudkvnf; 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(19)&ufrS (22)&ufae‹txd zvrf;ðrdŒwGif usif;ycJhonf? ,if;nDvmcHobifodk‹ EdkifiHawmf orw=uD; p0fa&$odkuf udk,fwdkifwufa&mufcJhonf? nDvmcHodk‹ te,fe,ft&yf&yfrS vlxk udk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ wdkuftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ ol=uD;rsm;ESihf vlxky&domwf (5000)ausmf wufa&mufcJh=uonf? ,if;tcsdef csif;awmifY jzpfay:aeaom jy\emrSm tcsdK‹wdkufol=uD;ESifh &Gmol=uD;rsm;. 1? tm%mESihf tcGifhta&;udk tvGJoHk;pm;ðyI jynfolvlxktay:Y nOf;yrf;ESdyfpufr_rsm; ðyvkyf=ujcif;/ 2? vufatmufcH jynfolvlxk. tusdK;udko,fydk;aqmif&Guf&ef pdwfqENenf;yg;jyD; qufqHa&; rajyjypf =ujcif;/ 3? wdk;wufaom acwfY &ifabmifwef;vdkufEdkifaom vlr_qufqHa&; t=um;tjrifA[kokwr&Sd=ujcif;/ 4? 0efaxmufrsm;uay;xm;aom tm%mudk t&rf;rJh oHk;pGJ=ujcif;/

31


5? tpdk;&csrSwfaom rl0g'ESifh rnDnGwf rqDavsmf=ujcif;paom e,fcsJ‹wdk‹zefwD;cJhaom tkyfcsKyfolESifh tkyfcsKyfcH vlwef;pm;wdk‹ jy\emyifjzpfonf? aumfr&Sifonf 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(12)&ufae‹wGif wD;wdefðrdŒY urfawm/ pkwWwJ/ pD,if e,fajrrS vlxkudk,fpm;vS,f/ wdkuftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ ol=uD;rsm;ESifhawG‹qHkaqG;aEG;jyD; 4if;wdk‹qENudk pHkprf;cJhonf? 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(16)&ufae‹wGif zvrf;ðrdŒY [m;cg;e,fvlxkudk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESifh awG‹qHkaqG;aEG;jyD; 4if;wdk‹. qENudk pHkprf;ppfaq;cJhonf? 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(17)&ufae‹wGif zvrf;ðrdŒY &mawmuf/ abmfvuGm/ vGefbef/ ig;rGwf/ uefyufvuf/ [m;cg;e,frsm;rS vlxkudk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ wkduftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ol=uD;rsm;udk awG‹qHkaqG;aEG;jyD; 4if;wdk‹. qENrsm;udk ppfaq;cJhonf? 1948ckESpfazaz:0g&Dv(18)&ufae‹wGif zvrf;ðrdŒY xkwfvd_ifESihf uGmZyfe,frsm;rS vlxkudk,fpm;vS,frsm;/ wkduftkyf/acsmif;tkyfol=uD;rsm;ESihfawG‹qHkaqG;aEG;jyD; 4if;wdk‹. qENrsm;udk pHkprf;ppfaq;cJhonf? 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(19)&ufae‹rS (22)&ufae‹txd zvrf;ðrdŒY csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcH usif;ycJhonf? ,if;nDvmcH. tqdkESifh qHk;jzwfcsufajrmufrsm;pGmteuf 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹ wGif wifoGif;aom tqdktrSwf(4)udkwifoGif;qHk;jzwf=ujcif;onf csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ ay:ayguf&aom t"du yifrr¾dKifta=umif;&if; jzpfvmcJhonf? tqdkwifoGif;olrSm axmifZudkif;(wD;wdef)jzpfjyD;/ axmufcHolrsm;rSm pGefref;(zvrf;)/ xef;armif; (uefyufvuf)wdk‹jzpfonf? ,if;tqdkrSm “vlxkqENt& 'Drkdua&pDpepfESifh tkyfcsKyfonfh pepfzGJ‹pnf;&ef” [laom tqdkjzpfonf? az:jycsufrSm- e,fcsJ‹t*Fvdyftvdkus cef‹xm;aom wdkufol=uD;rsm;tm; ðzwfcs&ef vdka=umif;/ ,if;wdkufol=uD;rsm;onf aumufyJoD;ESH/ vlcGef/ trJcGefponfh ajrmufrsm;vSpGmaomtcGefrsm;udk rdrdwdk‹ tvdkqENjzifh r#wr_r&SdpGm tm%moHk;I rw&m;aumufcHae=u a=umif;/ ,if;wdk‹udkðzwfcsI vlxkqENjzifh a&G;aumufwifajrSmufaom vlxkudk,fpm;vS,frsm;yg0ifonfh aumifpDjzifh tkyfcsKyfoifha=umif;/ tm%m&Sif pepfzsufodrf;jyD; 'Drkdua&pDpepfxlaxmif&ef wifoGif;onfh tqdkjzpfygonf? ,if;tqdkudk obmywd OD;0rRol;armif;rS rJcGJqHk;jzwfap&m axmufcHolig;axmifausmf&SdjyD;/ uef‹uGufrJ(17)rJ&SdonfhtwGuf twnfðycJhonf? nDvmcHjyD;qHk;onfhae‹ 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(22)&ufae‹wGif zvrf;ðrdŒY yvuf0e,frS vlxkudk,fpm; vS,fwdk‹ESifh awG‹qHkaqG;aEG;jyD; 4if;wdk‹. qENudk pHkprf;ppfaq;cJhonf? 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(23)&ufae‹wGif zvrf;ðrdŒY wD;wdefrS v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f r[moa&pnfol uy`wdef refwHk;EHk;tm; awG‹qHkaqG;aEG;I 4if;. qENudk pHkprf;ppfaq;cJhonf? 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(26)&ufae‹wGif zvrf;ðrdŒY awG‹qHkaqG;aEG;jyD; 4if;wdk‹. qENudkpHkprf;ppfaq;cJhonf?

csif;0daoowdkif;twGif;&Sd

e,ft&m&Sdrsm;ESifh

1948ckESpf rwfv(10)&ufae‹wGif &efukefðrdŒwGif aumfr&Sif tzGJ‹0ifrsm; tpnf;ta0;ðyvkyfI wkdufol=uD; rsm;tm; ðzwfjyD; 4if;wdk‹tm; tvkyfoufwef;tr_xrf;&&SdcJhaom tcGeftcponfwdk‹udk wGufcsufI tcsdK;vdkufa0yHkusaiGtm;jzifh avsmfa=u;ay;&ef rl=urf;aqG;aEG;=uonf? 32


1948ckESpf pufwifbmv(18)&ufae‹wGif &efukefðrdŒY aumfr&SiftzGJ‹0ifrsm; tpnf;ta0;xyfrHðyvkyf=uI wdkufol=uD;rsm;tm; ay;&efjzpfaom avsmfa=u;aiGudpPudk jyifqifwGufcsufjyD; pHkprf;a&;aumfr&Sif twGif;a&; rSL;u wifoGif;onfh tpD&ifcHpmudk tao;pdwfaqG;aEG;=uonf? 1948ckESpf pufwifbmv(22)&ufae‹wGif &efukefðrdŒY aumfr&SiftzGJ‹0ifrsm;. aemufqHk;tpnf;t a0; usif;yonf/ ,if;tpnf;ta0;Y tpD&ifcHpmudk tjyD;owfaqG;aEG;I tacsmudkifjyD; jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiH awmftpdk;& 0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹tpnf;ta0;odk‹ aqG;aEG;qHk;jzwf&ef wifoGif;cJh onf? ppfaq;a&;aumfr&Sif.pHkprf;ppfaq;csufrsm;rS xGuf&Sdonfh tESpfcsKyftajzrSm1? wdkufol=uD;rsm;tm; ðzwfcs&efqEN&Sda=umif;/ wnDwnGwfwnf; xGufqdk=uonf? 2? wdkufol=uD;rsm;u tkyfcsKyfcJhonfh pepfa[mif;tpm;/ vlxkqENt&a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufaom vlxk udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&; pepfopf wDxGiftpm;xdk;tkyfcsKyf&ef wnDwnGwfwnf; xGufqdk =uonf? odk‹jzpfI csif;a&;&mXmeonf wdkufol=uD;rsm;tm;ðzwfcs&efjzpfaomfvnf;/ 'Drkdua&pD0g't& 4if;wdk‹ repfemap&eff xdkufoifhonfhtm;avsmfpGm yifpifaxmufyHha=u;aiGudk wcsdK;vdkufa0yHkusay;&efESifh acwf a[mif;jAL&dkua&pD tkyfcsKyfa&;,EW&m;udk acwfrS'Drkdua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&; ,EW&m;tpm;xdk; wyfqifEdkifrnfh tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfopfa&;qGJ zefwD;cGifhðy&ef jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmf 0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹odk‹ aqG;aEG;qHk;jzwf&ef 1948ckESpf pufwifbmv(30)&ufae‹wGif tpD&ifcHpm wifoGif;cJhonf? ,if;wGif 'Drkdua&pD0g't& wnfaqmufaom tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfopfudkwnfxGif&ef udpPwGif 0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹rS rvdkufavsmEdkifojzifh tcuftcJrsm;ESifh&ifqdkifcJh&onf? odk‹aomfvnf; oHCmtm; bk&m;aomfrS rvGefqefEdkifqdkaomyrm uHaumif;axmufrI atmifjrifcJhygonf[k OD;0rRol;armif;rS 4if;. rSwfwrf;wGif az:jyxm;ygonf? txufaz:jyygtcuftcJrsm;t=um; csif;0daoowdkif;twGif; vlxkqENt& 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&; pepfopfjzifh tkyfcsKyf&eftwGuf csif;a&;&maumifpDonf 1948ckESpf wpfESpfygwfvHk; vdkvdk tkyfcsKyfa&; pnf;rsOf;rsm;udk rem;raea&;qGJcJhojzifh t*Fvdyfvufxuf 1896 CHIN HILLS REGULATION ACT csif;awmif tufOya'ysufys,fjyD;/ 1948ckESpf csif;0daoowdkif; tufOya'ESifh 1948ckESpf csif;0daoowdkif; (Oya'rsm; oufqdkifapjcif;) tufOya'udk 1948ckESpf atmufwdkbmv(12)&ufae‹wGif usif;yaom wdkif;jynfðy v$wfawmf(ygvDref) qXrnDvmcHrS uef‹uGufolr&Sd twnfðyI tufOya'tjzpf jyXmef;EdkifcJhonf? ,if;Oya't& csif;0daoowdkif;wGif aus;&Gm/ wdkufe,faumifpDrsm;zGJ‹pnf;a&;/ vlxkqENt& udk,fpm;vS,frsm;a&G;aumufwifajrSmufa&;/ aumifpDvmrsm;vdkufem&ef taxGaxGenf;Oya'rsm;udk wquf wnf; jyXmef;owfrSwfcJhonf? ,if;Oya't&/ vlxkqENjzifha&G;cs,fwifajrSmufaom udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u/ a'oEW& tkyfcsKyfa&;udk 'Drkdua&pDpepft& tkyfcsKyfvsuf&Sd=ujyD; csif;a&;&mXme. rl0g'udkvnf; 1? 'Drkdua&pDxGef;um;a&; 2? wdk;wufzGH‹ðzd;a&; 3? wnfwHhcdkifjrJjidrf;csrf;a&; [lI csrSwfcJh=uonf? 33


u|Efkyfwdk‹csif;trsdK;om;rsm;onf xdkpOftcsdefu jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmf. wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK; tm;vHk;xJwGif vlr_a&;/ pD;yGm;a&;u¾rsm;Y tppt&m&m atmuftusqHk;jzpfaomfvnf;/ EdkifiHa&;u¾ wGif 'Drdkua&pDpepfjzifh a'oEW&tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf pwifzGJ‹pnf;&mY a&S;OD;tusqHk;jzpfcJhonf? csif;trsdK;om;ae‹owfrSwfjcif; T'Drdkua&pDpepft& vlxkrS a&G;cs,faom udk,fpm;vS,frsm;yg0ifonfh csif;a&;&m aumifpDonf/ 1950jynfhESpf atmufwdkbmv(9)&ufae‹wGif “csif;trsdK;om;ae‹”owfrSwfa&; tpnf;ta0;udk &efukefðrd‹Y usif;ycJhonf? ,if;tpnf;ta0;rS e,fcsJ‹awmfvSefa&;ordkif;pOfwavsmuf xl;jcm;wdkufqdkifr_ t=udrf=udrf&SdcJhaom azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹udk a&G;cs,f&efESifh yxrOD;qHk; t=udrfcsif;trsdK;om;nDtpfudkrsm; vGwfvGwfvyfvyf awG‹qHk&onfhnDvmcHudkusif;yjyD; 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;tkwfjrpf jyefvnfcsrSwfEdkifcJhaom tqdktrSwf(4) wifoGif;qHk;jzwf=uonfhae‹ 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20) &ufae‹udk “csif;trsdK;om;ae‹” owfrSwf&ef wnD wnGwfwnf; qHk;jzwf=uonf? ,if;qHk;jzwfcsuftwdkif;/ owfrSwfI csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ atmifyGJ obiftcrf;tem;udk 1951 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (20)&ufae‹wGif awmifydkif;csif;awmifc&dkif/ rif;wyfðrdŒwGif yxrOD;qHk;t=udrfusif;ycJhonf? ,if;tcrf;tem;odk‹ EdkifiHawmf0ef=uD;csKyf OD;Ekwufa&mufcJhonf? Tae‹onf t*Fvdyfe,fcsJ‹awmfvSefa&;/ vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyGJtm; tjyD;owfatmifjrifonfhae‹/ e,fcsJ‹jAL&dkua&pD tm%m&Sifpepfzsufodrf;jyD; rlv&S&d if;pGJ 'Drdkua&pDpepf jyefvnfcsrSwfEkdifonfhae‹/ vGwfvyfa&;ESifh 'Drkdua&pDjyefvnf&&SdonfhatmifyGJae‹ wae‹tjzpf owfrSwf=uygonf? pifppf- csif;trsdK;om;ae‹onf csif;trsdK;om;rsm;. 'Drdkua&pDae‹yifjzpfayonfwum;?

?

ed*Hk; csif;trsdK;om;ae‹onf rawmfwqay:aygufvmjcif; r[kwfa=umif;/ ta=umif;rJhowfrSwfjcif; r[kwfa=umif;/ ,cka&;om;azmfjycsufrsm;onfyifv#if csif;trsdK;omae‹ ay:aygufvmykHordkif; tusOf;r#om jzpfa=umif;/ csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ ay:aygufvm&jcif;ta=umif;&if;ESifh ywfoufqufEG,fonfh ta=umif;&yf rsm;pGmwdk‹teuf vufvSrf;rSD&m tenf;tusOf;r#udkom pkpnf;aomrSwfwrf; jzpfa=umif; azmfjytyfygonf? ol‹u|efb0wGif Tr#&Snfvsm;vSonfh ESpfy&dap>'twGif; rdrdwdk‹vdkvm;awmifhw/ ESpfouftyfaom yef;wdkifodk‹ tcuftcJ/ taESmuft,Suf/ twm;tqD;rsdK;pkHudk ausmfvGefEdkifatmif rqkwfrepf/ ZGJvHk‹vjzifh rem;raevkH;yef;=ujyD;/ pnf;vkH;nD!GwfpGm yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufaoma=umifh aumif;pGmatmifjrifjcif;. om"utjzpf/ aemifurBmwnfoa&G‹ csif;trsdK;om;xkwpf&yfvkH; wpnf;wvkH;wnf; pnf;vkH;nD!GwfpGm wnf&Sd apjcif;iSm csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ay:aygufvmcJhonf?

34


csif;trsdK;om;ae‹. av;eufaomt"dy`g,f&Sdr/_ jynfh0aomtESpfom&/ us,f 0ef;euf&d_if;aom ordkif;aemufcH/ cdkifvkHaomordkif;armfuGef;taxmuftxm;/ aemiftpOfxm0&O'gef;wGif&pfrnfh csif;trsdK; om;ae‹/ ae‹xl;ae‹jrwfudk jrwfEdk;xdef;odrf;rnfh csif;trsdK;om;rsm;. pnf;vkH;nD!Gwfr_tpOftvmudk r&_pdrfh vdkolrsm;. zsufqD;aESmuf,Suf wdkufcdkufr_trsdK;rsdK;udk csif;trsdK;om;wdkif; tpOfxm0& owdcsyfaeoifhonf? csif;trsdK;om;ae‹xdef;odrf;a&;ESifhywfoufItrsdK;om;acgif;aqmif}uD; OD;0rRol;armif;rS 1952 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wD;wdefòrd‹Yusif;yaom 'kwd,t}udrfajrmuf csif;trsdK;om;ae‹tcrf;tem;rdef‹cGef;Y atmufazmfjyygtwdkif;xnfhoGif; rdef‹rSmcJhonf? “csif;0daoowdkif;&J‹tkyfcsKyfa&;pepf[mtm;vkH;od&Sd=ujyD;wJhtwdkif; 'Drdkua&pDpepf(0g) vlxkqENt& aumifpDrsm;zJG‹jyD; vlxkudk,fpm;vS,frsm;u tpdk;&ESifhyl;aygif;umtkyfcsKyfv#uf&Sdygw,f? ,ckvkd tkyfcsKyfa&; pepf ajymif;vJatmif 1948 ckESpfazaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹u zvrf;òrd‹rSmusif;ywJh csif;0daoowdkif;vkH;qdkif&m vlxknDvmcH}uD;u wcJeufqkH;jzwfcsufcsjyD; twnfðyvdkufwJhtwGuf tJ'Dv tJ'Dae‹udk csif;trsdK;om; ae‹tjzpf owfrSwf&ef 1950jynfhESpfatmufwdkbmv(9)&ufae‹u usif;ywJh csif;a&;&maumifpD tpnf;t a0;wGif trsm;oabmwlqkH;jzwf=uygw,f? 'ga=umifhcsif;trsdK;om;}uD;i,frSefor# Tr#ta&;}uD;jyD; armfuGef;wifavmufwJh azaz:0g&D(20)&uf csif;trsdK;om;ae‹udk om;pOfajr;qufwdkifatmif rarh=ubdk‹tjyif/ &jyD;jzpfwJhtcGifhta&;awGudk rqkH;&H_;& atmif toufay;I xdef;odrf;oGm;=u&ef av;eufpGmowday;IEd_;aqmfygonf”? 1956-57-58 ckESpfrsm;wGifygvDrefrS csif;trsdK;om;ae‹usif;ya&;udk ydwfyifwm;jrpfI y,fzsuf&ef }udK;yrf;cJhbl;onf? 1966 ckESpfrif;wyfòrd‹wGifusif;yonfh (18)ESpfajrmuf csif;trsdK;om;ae‹udk csif;0daoo wdkif;ae‹tjzpfusif;y&ef wdkif;cJG(3)OuUX AdkvfrSL;jrifhodef;rS pDpOfcJhonf? 1976 ckESpf zvrf;òrd‹wGifusif;yaom (28)Espfajrmuf csif;trsdK;om;ae‹tcrf;tem;rStpðyI 1980 ckESpftxd csif;jynfe,fae‹ESifh wpfxyfwnf; usif;y&efA[dkOD;pD; pepft& jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwD A[dkaumfrdwD.!$ef=um;csufjzifh a'oygwD aumfrdwDrS pDpOfcJhonf? 1981 ckESpfwGifpwifI rqvygwD zsufodrf;onfh1988txd csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ [laom pmwrf;yif vkH;0uG,faysmufI jyuQ'def/ ydk‹pu'fESifh tcrf;tem;ezl;pnf;pmwrf;rsm;wGif csif;jynfe,f ae‹[lI xGufay:vmcJhonf? urBmhvlrsdK;tm;vkH;wGif rdrdwdk‹trsdK;om;ae‹(odk‹) trsdK;om;ae‹ESifhxyfwlðytyfaom trsdK;om;a&;ESifh qufpyfoufqdkifonfh ae‹xl;ae‹jrwftoD;oD; &Sd=uygonf? rnfonfhvlrsdK;rqdk rdrdwdk‹.trsdK;om;ae‹udk jrwfEdk;xdef;odrf;=ujrJjzpfonf? rdrdtrsdK;om;ae‹twGuf *k%f,l=upjrJjzpfonf? u|Efkyfwdk‹ csif;trsdK;om;wdk‹. &dk;om;jcif;/ &J&ifhjcif;/ nD!Gwfjcif;[laomaumif;jrwfonfhtpOftvmrsm;jzifh csif;trsdK;om;ae‹udk xdef;odrf; tyfonfhenf;wl u|Efkyfwdk‹acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm; yckH;ajymif;wm0efv$JtyfcJhaom &nfrSef;csufrsm;;udk rsufjcnf rjywf qufvuftaumiftxnfazmfa&;rSm u|Efkyfwdk‹. ordkif;ay;vufiif;wm0efjzpfa=umif; cH,loifh=u ayonf? ,if;vufiif; wm0efrsm;um;-vGwfvyfa&;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;/ jynfaxmifpka&;wdk‹yif jzpfayonf? vGwfvyfa&; vGwfvyfa&;[lonfarG;uwnf;uygvmmaomvl.rlvtcGifhta&;jzpfonf/ vlwpfOD;csif;/ vlrsdK; wpfrsdK;csif;/ vGwfvyfpGm&yfwnfcGifh/ rdrd=urRmudk rdrzd mom vGwfvyfpGmzefwD;ydkifcGifh&Sdonf? EkdifiHa&;vGwf

35


vyfcGifh/ pD;yGm;a&; vGwfvyfcGifh/ vlr_a&;vGwfvyfcGifhrsm; tjynfht0&SdrSomv#if vGwfvyfa&; trSef&&Sdjcif; jzpfonf? vlrsdK;jcm;wdkif;wyg;utkyfcsKyfrSom vGwfvyfa&;qkH;&H_;jcif;&Sdonf r[kwfyg? rdrdvlrsdK;/ rdrdwdkif;jynf jzpfapumrl tcsKyftjcmtm%monf jynfolvxktwGif;Yr&SdbJ vlwpfOD;wpfa,muf/ vlwpfpkwpfzJG‹. vufwGif;Yom&SdaeI tm%m&Sifpepf usifhokH;aeygu vGwfvyfa&;qkH;&H_;onf? ? odk‹jzpfI tpdk;&[lonf jynfolvlxkrSa&G;cs,fwifajrmufaom udk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh zJG‹pnf;xm;aom tpdk;&r[kwfygu todtrSwf rðyoifh? vufeuftm;udk;jzifh wpfOD;wpfa,muf/ wpfpkwpfzJGrS tm%modrf;jcif;rsdK; r&Sdap&efudkvnf; zJG‹pnf;ykHtajccHOya'jzifh umuG,foifhonf? ,ckjrefrmEdkifiH. jynfra'o[kac:wGifonfh Armjynfudk vGwfvyfa&;ESifh ,SOfwJGokH;oyfygu a&S;ya'o&mZfacwfrSpI ,ae‹wdkifvGwfvyfa&; trSefr&&Sdao;a=umif; awG‹&Sd&ayonf? ya'o&mZfacwfwav#muf wdkif;oljynfom;tm;vkH;.touf/ tdk;tdrf/ pnf;Zdrfcsrf;om [lor#udk oufOD;qHydkifjzpfaom bk&ifuom ydkifqdkio f nf? t*Fvdyfvuf atmufu|efb0Y e,fcsJ‹AsL&dk ua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;atmuf vGwfvyfcGifhudkpGef‹v$wf=u&onf? ygvDrefacwf/ rqvacwf/ e0wacwfrsm; wav#muf ppftm%m&SifpepfatmufwGif vGwfvyfcGifhydwfyifcH=u&onf? odk‹jzpfI rvGwfvyfao;onfh Armjynftjzpfom ,ae‹wdkif&Sdaeygao;onf? csif;/ ucsif/ &Srf;/ u&if/ u,m;/ rGef/ &cdkifpaom wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;rSmrl t*Fvdyfe,fcsJ‹vuf atmuf rusa&mufrDSumvtxd vGwfvyfpGmaexdkifcJh=uolrsm; jzpfonf? e,fcsJ‹vufatmuf u|efb0 usa&mufonfrStpðyI ,ae‹wdkifatmif vGwfvyfcGifhydwfyifcH&olrsm; jzpfonf? vlrsdK;wpfrsdK;. vGwfvyf cGifh tcGifhta&;udk rqdkxm;bd/ vlenf;pktcGifhta&;r#avmufudkyif r&&Sdaom udkvdkeDe,fom;b0 tqifhY om &Sdae=uonf? odk‹jzpfI wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;ESifh ,if;wdk‹e,fajrrsm;.taetxm;rSm vGwfvyfa&; qkH;&H_;aom EdkifiHrsm;omjzpfaeayonf? 'Drdkua&pDa&; jynfolvlxk.qENjzifha&G;cs,fwifajrmufaom jynfol‹udk,fpm;vS,frsm;rS jynfolvlxkjyXmef;aom Oya't& tkyfcsKyfaompepfonf 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&; pepfjzpfa=umif; jynfoltrsm;oabmayguf em;vnf=uygonf? vkdvm;awmifhw=uygonf? 'Drdkua&pD. tajccHrSmvGwfvyfcGifhESifh vl‹tcGifhta&; jzpf onf? vGwfvyfcGifhESifhvl‹tcGifhta&;qkH;&H_;jcif;onf 'Drdkua&;pDqdwfokOf;jcif;yifjzpfonf? avmuygVw&m; r&Sdu jA[Rpdk&fw&m;xGef;um;rnfr[kwfay? 'Drkdua&pDqdwfokOf;aomt&yfYvljzpf&jcif;onf wd&dp>mefb0 xuf omvGefqdk;0g;onf? vGwfvyfa&;/ nDr#a&;/ wef;wla&;/ cspf=unfa&;/ nD!Gwfa&;/ jidrf;csrf;a&;/ wnfjrJa&;wkd‹onf wpfckESifhwpfckqufEG,faeaom 'Drdkua&pD.tESpfom&rsm;jzpfonf? 1948 ckESpfazaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹wGif jyefvnftw k fjrpfcscJhaom csif;awmif.'Drdkua&pD a'oEW& tkyfcsKkyfa&;pepfonfyif 1958 ckESpftdrfapmifhtpdk;&vufxufrSpI jyefvnfuG,faysmufcJh&onf? jynfaxmifpka&; jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;tm;vkH;. t"du&nfrSef;csufyef;wdkifonf jynfaxmifpktppftrSef ay:xGef;a&; yifjzpfonf? vlwpfOD;csif;/ vlrsdKl;wpfrsdK;csif;/ vGwfvyfpGm&yfwnfI jidrf;csrf;pGmyl;aygif;onhf jynfaxmifpkudk tvdk&Sd=uonf? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;aygif;pkHaexdkifaom wdkif;jynfY zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk pepfjzifh jynfaxmifpktppftrSefudk wnfaqmufrSomv#If vlwpfOD;csif;/ vlrsdK;wpfrsdK;csif;/ vGwfvyfpGm &yfwnfEdkifI udk,fh=urRmudk,fzefwD;cGifhESifhtwl 'Drdkua&pDxGef;um;a&;/ wdk;wufzHG‹òzd;a&;/ wnfwHhcdkifjrJ/ jidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf tmrcHcsuf&Sdrnfjzpfonf? vlrsdK;}uD;0g'/ tm%m&Sipf epfwdk‹udk umuG,fEdkifrnfjzpfonf? 36


jrefrmEdkifiHwGifEdkifiHawmftm%mudk vuf0g;}uD;tkyfqkyfudkifaeolwpfpkonf jynfaxmifpk FEDERAL rludkcJG xGufa&;rl[korkwf=uonf? cJGxGufa&;[laom t*Fvdyfpum;vkH;rSm SECESSION omjzpfonf? Federal ESifh Secession [laompum;ESpfvkH;udk jynfolvlxkrScJGjcm;em;vnfrnfr[kwf[laom txifjzifh vGJrSm;pGm 0g'jzef‹I jynfol vlxktm; vSnfhjzm;=uonf? ESifhywfoufI When a number of states previously Independent tpuwnf;u tpOftvmt& vGwfvyfonfhe,fajr (jynfe,f odk‹r[kwf EdkifiH) rsm;jzpfcJhonf/ jzpfonf? United together Federal

and they form a central government for political administration of something common affairs, while retaining independent of action in other metters they are said to form a faderation ,if;jynfe,frsm;

pkaygif;jyD; A[kdtpdk;&zJG‹/ bkHtvkyfESifhbkHvkyfydkifcGifhA[kdtpdk;&odk‹tyf/ usefonfht%mrsm;udk jynfe,frsm;u vGwfvGwfvyfvyfaqmif&Guf/ ,if;udk jynfaxmifpk zJG‹pnf;onf[kac:onf? The state is to have of Federal type of government, when it territory is con form of a number of administrative units its of way is giving definite stirring activity binding of constitution. Federal tpdk;&ykHpHqdkonfrSm tjcm;r[kwfr[kwfyg?

jynfe,frsm;udkpkaygif;/ ,if;odk‹aygif;pkxm;onfh jynfe,fwdkif;jynfe,fwdkif;rS oD;jcm;owf rSwfxm;onfhtcGifhtm%mrsm;udk ay;&rnf? ,if;odk‹ay;xm;onfrSm binding constitution tajccHOya't& oD;jcm;tyfESif;xm;onfhtwdkif;/ aemufwzef the local governments are independent of central control and can freely excercise their function, so long as constitutional rule are bound naked. rlvzJG‹pnf;yHktajccH Oya'udk qef‹usifjcif;r[kwfor#umvygwfvkH; ,if;wGifygonfh jynfe,fonfvGwfvyfpGm aqmif&GufEdkif onf? Administrative unit

udkxyfrH&Sif;jy&v#if Federation ESifh Confederation [lI&Sdygonf? Fedaration is a Union State( United state) jynfe,frsm;pkaygif;xm;onfh jynfaxmifpkjzpfonf? while confederation action is union of state. okd‹jzpfI Federation onf Union state, Confederation onf Union of state jzpfonf A federation of there one is Union of State, while confederartion is Union of International Character qdkvdk&if;rSm Federation rSm National character udktajccHI Confederation rSm Intetnational character jzifhzJG‹pnf;ojzifh Confederation onfwxD;weef;qHaomEdkifiHi,frsm;udkpkaygif;xm;aoma=umifh International character udkaqmifonf? Federal

jrefrmEdkifiHwGif Fedearation jzifhpkaygif;onfjzpfap Confederation tjzpfpkaygif;onf jzpfap/ tajccH ta=umif; tcsufrsm;jynfhpkH tusKH;0ifjyD;om;jzpfa=umif; awG‹&ygrnf? t"duvdktyfonfrSmThe question of National Sovereignty trsdK;om;tcsKyftjcmtm%mtoD;oD;udk rnfodk‹ydkifqdkifI rnfodk‹yl;aygif;=urnfenf; [laom jy\emyifjzpfonf? k kH;ESifh qdkifaomvkyfydkif odk‹jzpfI jynfe,fwpfckpDwpfckpDY SovereigntytyfESif;jyD; jynfaxmifpkwpfcv cGifhudk jynfaxmif pktpdk;&(A[dktpdk;&)tm; tyfESHaomrludk Fedaral rl ppfppf[k u|Efkyfwdk‹ac:0gorkwf a&G;cs,f=ujcif;jzpfonf? Secession qdkonf rSm jynfaxmifpkwpfckvkH;.tzJG‹0ifjynfe,frsm;. Agreement odk‹r[kwf Constitution wGifrlwnfonf? jrefrmEdkifiHwGif Unitary tjynfaxmifpkpepfudkqufvuf usif;okH;I rjzpfawmha=umif;/ roifhawmfawmha=umif; tawG‹tóuH&ifhusufvmae=ujyD;jzpfonf? The indispenable quality of the federal state being a distribution of the power of the government between the federal authority and the federal units. Federal is a device for bringing together and satisfying deferent peoples and races of a country. When a number of states previously indepentent unit together and form a central government for political administration of certain common affairs while retaining independent

37


of action in other matters they are said to form a federation. A federation is a union state while a conderation, therefore, is a national union while a confederation is a union of an international character. Conferation is an assembly of ambassadors of the various states of league. International sovereignty of each remains quite unimpaired and its external sovereignty is limited only to a very small extent.

xdk‹tjyif 'kwd,urBmppftjyD; udk,fydkiftkyfcskKyfa&;ESifhygwfoufI ukvor8~.tpD&ifcHcsufwGif azmfjyxm; onfrSm Principle VI A non-self governing territory can be said to have reach a measure of self government by (a) Emergence as a sovereign independent states or (b) Free association with an independent state or (c) Integration with an independent state Principle VII (a) Free association should be the result of a free and voluntary choice by the people of the territory concerned express through informed and democratic precess it should be one which respect the individuality and the cultural characteristics of the territory and its peoples and retions for the peoples of territory which is associated with an independent states of that territorty through the expression of their will by democratic means and through constitutional processes. (b) The associated territory should have the reight to determine its internal constitution without interference, in accordance with due constitutional processes and freely expressed wishes of the people. This does not preclude constitutions as approprite or necessary under the the terms of the free association agreed upon. Principle VIII Integration with an independent state should be on the basic of complete equality between the peoples of the state while non-self governing territory and those of the dependent country with wich it integrated. The people of both territories should have equal status and rights of citizenship and effective participation at all levels in the excutive legislative and judical organs of government

[lIjzpfonf?

odk‹jzpfI uGsEKyfwdk‹.acgif;aqmif=uD;rsm;onf vGwfvyfa&;r&rSDuwnf;u jynfaxmifpktjzpf yl;aygif;&ef ta=umif;rJhvdkvm;=ujcif;r[kwfbJ jynfaxmifpktjzpfyl;aygif;&efrSwyg; wef;wlnDr#Edkifonfh tjcm;enf;vrf;r&Sda=umif; od&SdoabmwlnD=ujcif;jzpfonf? ,if;odk‹r[kwfygu rlvt*Fvdyfrtkyfpdk;rSD umvtwdkif; rdrdtrsdK;om; rdrdEdkifiHtoD;oD;tjzpf jyefvnf&yfwnf=u&efomjzpfonf? uGsEkyfwdk‹ jynfaxmifpk/ jynfaxmifpk[k ajymajymae&aom jynfaxmifpkonf trnfcHtwk ta,mifr[kwfbJ jynfaxmifpktppftrSefjzpfap&ef zGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'onf t"duyifr ta&; t=uD;qHk;jzpfonf? 1947 ckESpf zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'ESifh 1974 ckESpf zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya' [lI ESpf=udrfay:aygufcJhjyD;jzpfonf? ESpfckpvHk;onf jynfaxmifpktrnfcH wjynfaxmifzGJ‹pnf;yHkpepfjzifh a&;qGJxm;aom Oya'rsm;jzpf&m Armr[kwfaomwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;(7)rsdK;tm; Armwdkif;&if;om; vlwpfrsdK;wnf;u udkvdkeDðy v$rf;rdk;tkyfpdk;EdkifcJhonf? 1947 Oya'wGif e,fajrtydkif;tjcm;rStp Armr[kwfaomwdkif;&if;om;e,fajrrsm;tm; Armwdkif; &if;om;e,fajrtjzpf oGwfoGif;xm;onf? csif;jynftm; A[dktpdk;&taxmuftyH‹ txl;OD;pm;ay;ygrnf [kvdrfnmI jynfe,ftqifhyifray;bJ ‘0daoo’[laompum;vHk;jzifhacGs;odyfjyD;‘wdkif;’tqifhY xm;cJh onf? Tta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifhygwfoufI OD;0rRol;armif;rS 4if;.‘0ef=uD;jzpfpOftcuftcJtcsdK‹’ rSwfwrf;wGif (1) qlr&m/ em*awmifwef;e,fudk csif;0daoowdkif;twGif; xnfhoGif;ay;oifha=umif; 4if;e,ftrsdK; om;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;awmif;qdkjcif;/

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(2) (3)

csif;0daoowdkif;twGuf b¾mawmfcGJa0ay;&ef vufawG‹vkyfief;pOfrsm;/ tcuftcJ rsm; wifjyawmif;qdkcJhjcif;/ csif;jynfe,fowfrSwfay;a&;udk tjyif;txefawmif;qdkcJhjcif; - ponfwdk‹wGif 0ef=uD; csKyfESifhtjcm;0ef=uD;rsm;oabmwlygvsuf b¾ma&;Xme0ef=uD; jrefrmhtvif;OD;wif/ 0ef=uD;OD;ausmfjidrf;wdk‹uef‹uGufr_a=umifh tcuftcJESifh&ifqdkifcJh&onf/ TudpP/ Tt a&;a=umifh 0ef=uD;&mxl;rSE_wfxGufvdka=umif; rlvvGwfvyfa&;r&rSD AdkvfcsKyfatmif qef;.rl/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifhcsif;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;aqG;aEG;c%f; a&pHkarsma=umif; rsm;yg ajymqdk&onftxd jzpfcJh&onf – [lI azmfjyxm;onfudk awG‹&Sd&onf?

tvm;wlpGmyif 1974 Oya'onfvnf; xlrjcm;em;cJh? csif;0daoowdkif;rS csif;jynfe,f trnfodk‹ ajymif;vJjcif;wckomv#if&Sdonf? Armr[kwfaom csif;/ ucsif/ &Srf;/ u&if/ u,m;/ rGef/ &cdkif wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;(7)rsdK;wdk‹. ‘jynfe,f(7)jynfe,f’ESifh Armwdkif;&if;om;ydkif ‘wdkif;(7)wdkif;’ xm;&Sd um jynfe,fESifhwdkif;udk tqifhtwef; twlxm;&Sdonf? uGsEkyfwdk‹trsdK;om;acgif;aqmif=uD;rsm;ar#mfrSef;cJhonfh jynfaxmifpkyHkpHrSm – (1) wjynfaxmifpepfrSm yx0Dt&e,fajrpdwfydkif;I tcsKyftjcmtm%mudk A[dkrScsKyfudkif tkyfcsKyf&aompepfjzpfojzifh vlrsdK;wrsdK;wnf;/ bmompum;/ ,Ofaus;r_/ "avhxHk;pH tppt&m&mwckwnf;jzpfaomwdkif;jynfwGifom oifhawmfonf? jrefrmEdkifiHESifh vHk;0 rtyfpyf? jynfaxmifpkqdkonfhtwdkif; jynfaxmifrsm;pkaygif;aom jynfaxmifpkudkom tvdk&Sdonf? ppfrSef aom jynfaxmifpkonf atmufygt*Fg&yfrsm;ESifhjynfhpHk&rnf? (2) jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHwGif csif;/ ucsif/ &Sr;f / u&if/ u,m;/ rGef/ &cdkif/ Arm[lI vlrsdK; (*)rsdK;&SdonfESifhtnD trsdK;om;jynfe,f(*)jynfe,fudk zGJ‹pnf;&rnf? (3) jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfwGif vlrsdK;pktrsdK;om;v$wfawmf(txufv$wfawmf)ESifh jynf ol‹v$wfawmf(atmufv$wfawmf) ESpf&yfxm;&Sd&rnf? (4) vlrsdK;pktrdsK;om;v$wfawmf(txufv$wfawmf)udk jynfe,frsm;rS OD;a&tnDtr#pDap v$wfxm;aom v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifhzGJ‹pnf;I jynfol‹v$wfawmf(txuf v$wfawmf)udk jynfe,frsm;rS vlOD;a&tcsdK;tpm;tvdkufapv$wfxm;aom v$wf awmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifhzGJ‹pnf;&rnf? (5) jynfaxmifpktzGJ‹0if trsdK;om;jynfe,frsm;u wEdkifiHvHk;twdkif;twmjzifhaqmif&Guf &ef jynfaxmifpk=uD;udkay;xm;aom EdkifiHawmfumuG,fa&;/ EdkifiHjcm;qufoG,fa&;/ aiGpuUL/ aiG'*Fg;xkwfa0a&;ESifh ,m,DvJ$tyfxm;aom vkyfydkifcGifhtm%mrsm;udk tyfESif;xm;onfh jynfaxmifpktpdk;&udkzGJ‹pnf;&rnf? (6) jynfaxmifpkppfppfrlt& Oya'ðytm%m/ tkyfcsKyfa&;tm%m/ w&m;pD&ifa&;tm%m wnf;[laom tcsKyftjcmtm%moHk;&yfpvHk;ydkifqdkifonfh EdkifiHa&;tm%mtjynfht0 &Sdaom jynfaxmif(jynfe,f)tpdk;&rsm;udk zGJ‹pnf;&rnf? wEdkifiHvHk;twdkif;twmjzifh aqmif&Guf&ef jynfaxmifpktpdk;&od‹kay;tyfxm;aom vkyfydkifcGifhtm%mrsm;rSty usefvkyfydkifcGifhtm%m Residurary Power rsm;udk jynfaxmif(jynfe,f)tpdk;&odk‹ tjynfht0ay;tyfxm;&rnf? TonfrSm ppfrSefaomjynfaxmifpkpepf. tacgiftcsKyfjzpfonf? jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK; tm;vHk; wef;wl&nfwlyl;aygif;Edkifaom jynfaxmifpkppfppfrl. tESpfom&jzpfonf? 39


Tpmwrf;onf – (1) 1998-ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (20)&ufae‹usa&mufaom tESpfig;q,fjynfh csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ a&$&wkobiftxdrf;trSwf *k%fðypmapmiftjzpf a&;om;xm;aom pmwrf;jzpfonf? (2) OD;0rRol;armif;. vufa&;rlrSww f rf;ESifh 1951-ckESpf yxrOD;qHk;t=udrf usif;yaom “csif;trsdK; om;ae‹ atmifyGJobiftcrf;tem;ESifh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcHobif”rSwfwrf;rS OD;0rRol;armif;.rdef‹cGef;udk t"dujyefvnfazmfjyaom rSwfwrf;jzpfygonf? 4if;tjyif (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

1982 – wuUodkvfrsm;/ &efukef/ cp,ESpfvnfr*~Zif;/ qvdkif;vsefr_ef;.aqmif;yg; 1972 – jynfwGif;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹/ (33)OD;aumfrdwDodk‹ csif;vli,frsm;t=uHðycsuf rif;wyfbledef –csif;awmifordkif; usifa'G;barmif. aqmif;yg;rsm; wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;ta&;ESifh 1947 zGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya' 1990 – jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ‹csKyf xkwfjyefa=ujimcsufrsm; ponf wdk‹rS tcsuftvufrsm;vnf; yg0ifonf? 4if;tjyif (7) cGefrmudkbef; - yifvHkpdwf"gwf &Sifoefazmfaqmifa&;rS ppfrSefaom'Drdkua&pD zuf'&,fjynf axmifpk EdkifiHawmfopfwnfaqmufa&;odk‹ pmtkyfrS tcsuftvufrsm;jzifh jyefvnf jznfhpGuf xm;ygonf? qvdkif;uD;vJatmrf; aemufqufwGJ

ouU&mZf 2003-ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (18) &ufae‹ e,l;a'vDðrd‹wGif Chin Forum OD;pD;usif;yonfh csif;trsdK;om;ae‹tñuda[majymyGJY qvdkif;uD;vJatmrf;. csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ay:aygufvmyHkordkif; a[majymcsuf csif;trsdK;om;nDaemiftaygif;wdk‹cifAsm csif;trsdK;om;ae‹[m vGwfvyfa&;eJ‹ 'Drdkua&pDudk tajccHjyD; ay:aygufvmwJhtwGuf ajymrukefatmif &Snfvsm;eufeJwJh ordkif; a=umif;jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh onfuae‹tbdk‹&mawmh onf csif; trsdK;om;ae‹udk bmjzpfvdk‹ azaz:0g&Dv (20)&ufae‹ owfrSwf &ovJqdkwJh xl;jcm;wJhta=umif;t&m tcsufawG avmufudkbJ twdkcsHK;wifjy aqG;aEG;rSmjzpfygw,f?

40


yxrOD;qHk;rSwfwdkifuawmh 1918 ckESpfazaz:0g&Dv(20)&uf jzpfygw,f? arðrd‹/ t*FvdyfppfwyftwGif;rSm &SdwJhcsif;trsdK;om;rsm;zGJ‹pnf;wJh csif;trsdK;om;rsm;&J‹ yxrOD;qHk; aom vlr_a&;tzJG‹tpnf;jzpfwJh “csif;trsdK; om;ynma&;jrSifhwifa&;tzGJ‹”ay:aygufwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f? 'kwd,rSwfwdkifuawmh 1928 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufjzpfygw,f? rif;wyfe,f/vSd,kH;&GmrSm csif;trsdK;om; rsm;&J‹ yxrOD;qHk;aomEdkifiHa&;tzGJ‹tpnf;jzpfwJh “csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹”ay:ygufwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f? 1933ckESpf rwfv(24-25)&uf/ roHkEl;&Gm(rif;wyfe,f) nDvmcHuae “csif;trsdK;om;nDnGwfa&; tzGJ‹”vdk‹ trnfjyifqif cJhygw,f? tJ'D csif;trsdK;om;nDnGwaf &;tzGJ‹(crnz)&J‹ 1934ckESpfpufwifbmv (29)&uf/ 0&J&Gm(rif;wyfe,f) nDvmcHuae t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk &mZoH (9) csufay;xm; ygw,f? wwd,rSwfwdkifuawmh 1938 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufjzpfygw,f? tJ'D crnz&J‹ awmif;qdkcsuf(9)&yfeJ‹ ygwfoufjyD; t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;eJ‹ crnzOD;pD;wJh csif;vlxkoHk;axmifausmfwdk‹/ awmifydkif; csif;jynf/ uefyufvufðrd‹rSm awG‹qHkyGJusif;ywJhae‹/ awmif;qdkcsuf(9)&yfudk t*Fvdyftpdk;&u wckr# rvdkuf avsmEdkifa=umif; a=ujimwmeJ‹ csif;vlxku csufjcif; oydwfarSmufarmif;xkwfwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f? t*Fvdyf udk,fpm;vS,frsm; nwGif;csif; aqmðrd‹(rauG;wdkif;)udk xGufajy;=u&w,f? pwkwˆrSwfwdkifuawmh 1939 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&uf jzpfygw,f? t*Fvdyftpdk;&u crnztzGJ‹udk rw&m;toif;a=ujimjyD; OD;0rRol;armif;tygt0if crnzacgif;aqmif(9)OD; pwifzrf;qD;wJhae‹jzpfw,f? uefyufvufrSm t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk oydwfarSmufarmif;xkwfwJhudpPeJ‹ygwfoufjyD; t*Fvdyf tpdk;&u ‘wESpf’tcsdef,ljyifqifjyD; zrf;qD;axmifcswmjzpfw,f? tokwf(5)okwf/ vlaygif;(79)OD; EdkifiHa&;t usOf;om; tjzpf zrf;qD;axmifcscH&ygw,f? yOPreJ‹aemufqHk;rSwfwdkifuawmh 1948 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufjzpfygw,f? ajrmufydkif;csif;awmif/ zvrf;ðrd‹ rSm 1948 azaz:0g&D (19-22)usif;ywJh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHrSm “wdkufol=uD;rsm; ðzwfcsjyD; vlxka&G;cs,fonfhudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifhtkyfcsKyf&ef”qdkwJh tqdktrSwf(4)wifoGif;/ axmufcHwJhae‹ jzpfyg w,f? axmifZudkif;(wD;wdef)u wifoGif;jyD; qGefref;(zvrf;)eJ‹xef;armif;(uefyufvuf)wdk‹u axmufcH=u ygw,f? rJcGJqHk;jzwf&mrSm axmufcHrJ ig;axmifausmfeJ‹ uef‹uGufrJ(17)rJ &Sdygw,f? csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmvmcHusif;y&jcif;ta=umif;eJ‹ 1948 azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹udk csif;trsdK; om;ae‹owfrSwf&wJhta=umif; qufvufwifjyvdkygw,f? jrefrmEdkifiH[m 1948ckESpf Zefem0g&Dv(4)&ufrSm vGwfvyfa&;udka=ujimw,f? 1947 zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'tydkif;(5) csif;0daoowdkif;tc%f;/ yk'fr (196/ 197/ 198 )wdk‹t& csif;0daoowdkif;/ csif;a&;&maumifpD/ csif;a&;&mXme/ csif;a&;&m0ef=uD; qdkwmawG ay:aygufvmygw,f? OD;0rRol;armif;u yxrOD;qHk; csif;a&;&m0ef=uD; jzpfvmjyD; csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;pepf twGuf vlxkudkqENcH,lbdk‹udk yxrOD;qHk;aomvkyfief;tjzpf csrSwfaqmif&GufcJhygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;xk &J‹qENudk pHkprf;az: xkwfEdkifbdk‹ “csif;awmifpHkprf;ppfaq;a&;aumfr&Sif”w&yfzGJ‹pnf;ay;ygrnfhta=umif; 1948 Zefem0g&D(22)rSm jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH 0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹udkwifoGif;ygw,f? 1948 Zefem0g&D(28) &ufae‹ 0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹ owWrtpnf;ta0;/ tpDtpOf (5) oabmwlqHk;jzwfcsuft& csif;awmifpHkprf;ppfaq;a&; aumfr&Sif[m 1948 azaz:0g&D (5)&ufrSm ay:aygufvmygw,f? obmywdu OD;0rRol;armif;/ twGif;a&;rSL; u wdkif;rif;=uD;pnfolOD;odrf;armif (at wDtrf)/ tzGJ‹0ifu OD;pdk;0if;(trsdK;om;ynm0efa[mif;)wdk‹jzpfw,f?

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aumfr&Sifu e,ftoDoD;uvlvkudk,fpm;vS,f/ wdkuftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ ol=uD;rsm;&J‹ vlxkqENudk 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&D(12)&ufuae(26)&uftxd ppfaq;cJhygw,f? tJ'pD pfaq;ae&if;rSmbJ csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcHudkvJ zvrf;ðrd‹rSm 1948 azaz: (19)uae(22)&uftxd wðydifxJusif;ycJhyg w,f? aumfr&Sif&J‹ppfaq;csufuawmh (12/ 02/ 48) wD;wdefðrd‹rSm urfawm/pkwWJ/pD;,if;e,f/ (16/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹ rSm [m;cg;e,f/ (17/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹rSm&mawmuf/ abmfvuGm/ vGefbef/ ig;rGwf/uefyufvuf/[m;cg;e,f/ (18/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹rSm xkwfv_dif/ uGmZyfe,f ppfaq;ygw,f? (19/ 02/ 48) uae (22/ 02/ 48) txd zvrf;ðrd‹rSm csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHusif;yjyD; vlxkqENkudk =um;emw,f? nDvmcHjyD;qHk;wJh aemuf qHk;ae‹ (22/ 02/ 48) rSm zvrf;ðrd‹rSmyvuf0e,f/ (23/ 02/ 48) zvrf;rSm wD;wdefuv$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,f refwHk;ekef;/ 26/ 02/ 48 zvrf;ðrd‹rSm csif;0daoowdkif;twGif;&Sd e,ft&m&Sdrsm;qENudk ppfaq; ygw,f? vlxkwifjywJh pepfa[mif;wdkufol=uD;tkyfcsKyfa&;csdK‹,Gif;tm;enf;csufrsm;uawmh (1) tm%mESifhtcGihfta&;tvGJoHk;pm;ðyI vlxktay:nSOf;yrf;EdSyfpuf=ujcif;/ (2) jynfolvlxktusdK;o,fydk;&efpdwfqENenf;yg;=ujyD; qufqHa&;rajyjypf=ujcif;/ (3) wdk;wufaomacwfudk&ifabmifwef;vdkufEdkifaom vlr_qufqHa&;t=um;tjrif/ A[kokwr&Sd=ujcif;/ (4) 0efaxmufrsm;ay;aomtm%mudk t&rf;rJhoHk;pGJ=ujcif;/ (5) EdkifiHawmftpdk;&csrSwfaomrl0g'ESifh rnDnGwfrqDavsmf=ujcif; aumfr&Sifu vlxkqENppfaq;csufudk tESpfcsKyfvdkufawmh (1) wdkufol=uD;rsm;ðzwfcs&efqEN&Sda=umif; wnDwnGwfwnf;xGufqdk=ua=umif;/ (2) wdkufol=uD;tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfa[mif;tpm; vlxkqENeJ‹a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufwJh udk,fpm;vS,frsm; tkyf csKyfwJh 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfopf wDxGiftpm;xdk;tkyfcsKyf&ef wnDwnGwfwnf; xGufqdk=u a=umif; awG‹&Sdyg w,f? aumfr&Sifu &efukefðrd‹rSm (10/ 03/ 48) tpnf;ta0;usif;yjyD; wdkufol=ud;rsm;udk 4if;wdk‹ tr_xrf;oufwef; tavsmuf xdkufoifhwJhyifpif/avsmfa=u;ay;bdk‹ aqG;aEG;ygw,f? aumfr&Sif&J‹ (18/ 09/ 48)ae‹ &efukefðrd‹ tpnf;ta0;rSm aumfr&SiftwGif;a&;rSL;&J‹ avsmfa=u;tao;pdwfwGufcsufr_ tpD&ifcHpmudk aqG;aEG;=u ygw,f? aumfr&Sifu (22/ 09/ 48)tpnf;ta0;rSm tjyD;owfaqG;aEG;r_/ tacsmudkifr_awGðyvkyfjyD; EdkifiHawmftpdk; &0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹tpnf;ta0;udkwifjybdk‹ qHk;jzwfygw,f? jyD;awmh 0ef=uD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;udk (30/ 09/ 48 )rSm wifoGif;ygw,f? twdkcskyfajym&&if 0ef=uD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;u oabmwlnDcsuf &&SdoGm;jyD;wJhaemuf Oya'a&;qGJwJh[mudk wESpfvHk;vdkvdk vHk;yrf;=ujyefw,f? tJ'ga=umifh ‘1896 Chin Hills Regulation Act’ ysufjy,fjyD; ‘1948 csif;0daoowdkif;tufOya'’eJ‹ ‘csif;0daoowdkif;tufOa' (Oya'rsm; ESifhoufqdkifapjcif;)’ Oya'rsm;udk jyXmef;edkifcJhygw,f? jrefrmEdkifiHrSm 'Drdkua&pDpepfeJ‹ a'oEW& tkyfcsKyfa&;udk tOD;qHk; azmfaqmifEdkif cJhwm[m *k%f,lp&mjzpfygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;ae‹owfrSwfa&;tpnf;ta0;udk 1950jynfhESpf atmufwdkbmv (9)&ufae‹/ &efukefðrd‹rSm csif;a&;&maumifpDu usif;yygw,f? txufuwifjycJhwJhordkif;aemufcHawG&SdwJh azazmf0&Dv (20)&ufae‹udk a&G;cs,f=ujyD; 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfcsrSwf&efqdkwJh tqdktrSwf(4)wifoGif;/ axmufcH/ qHk;jzwfwJhae‹ 1948ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹udkowfrSwfbdk‹ wnDwnGwfwnf; qHk;jzwf=uygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ tcrf;tem;udk 1951ckESpfazazmf0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹/ awmifydkif;csif;awmifc&dkif/ rif;wyfðrd‹rSm yxrOD;qHk; t=udrf usif;yygw,f? zvrf;rSmusif;ywJh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHudk edkifiHawmforwp0fa&$odkuf wufa&mufjyD; rif;wyfrSmusif;ywJh yxrOD;qHk;aom csif;trsdK;om;ae‹tcrf;tem;udk EdkifiHawmf0ef=uD;csKyfOD;Ek wufa&mufcJh ygw,f? yxrOD;qHk;aomcsif;a&;&m0ef=uD; OD;0rRol;armif;vufxufrSmawmh ‘csif;trsdK;om;ae@

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atmifyGJobif tcrf;tem;ESifh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHobif’qdkjyD; awG@&ygw,fqdkwJh ta=umif; ajymjy&if;eJ‹bJed*Hk;csKyftyfygw,f?

wGJbufusif;ywmudk

ouU&mZf 2004-ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (18) &ufae‹ e,l;a'vDðrd‹wGif Chin Forum OD;pD;usif;yonfh csif;trsdK;om;ae‹tñuda[majymyGJY qvdkif;uD;vJatmrf;. csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ay:aygufvmyHkordkif; a[majymcsuf obmywd=uD;eJ‹wuG=uGa&mufvm=uwJh csi;f trsdK;om;nDaemiftaygif;wdk‹cifAsm csif;trsdK;om;ae‹[m vGwfvyfa&;eJ‹ 'Drdkua&pDudktajccHjyD;ay:aygufvmwJhtwGuf ajymrukef atmif &Snfvsm;eufeJ wJh ordkif;a=umif;jzpfygw,f? twdkqHk;ajym&&ifawmh csif;a&;&maumifpDu 1950jynfh ESpf atmufwdkbmv (9)&ufae‹ &efukefðrd‹rSm csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ owfrSwfa&;tpnf;ta0; usif;yðyvkyfjyD; atmufazmfjyyg xl;jcm;csufordkif;rSwfwdkifrsm;udk tajcðyjyD; csif;trsdK;om;ae‹udk azaz:0g&Dv (20)&uf ae‹ owfrSwfygw,f? xl;jcm;csufrsm;uawmh - yxrrSwfwdkif 1918 azaz: (20)&uf csif;trsdK;om;ynma&;jrSifhwifa&;tzGJ‹zGJ‹pnf;onfhae‹ - 'kwd,rSwfwdkif 1928 azaz: (20)&uf csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGGJ‹ zGJ‹pnf;onfhae‹ - wwd,rSwfwdkif 1938 azaz: (20)&uf uefyufvufwGif t*FvdyfudkoydwfarSmuf armif;xkwf onfhae‹ - pwkwWrSwfwdkif 1939 aaz: (20)&uf csif;acgif;aqmifrsm; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;tjzpf pwif zrf;qD;onfhae‹ - yOPrrSwfwdkif 1948 azaz: (20)&uf zvrf;nDvmcHwGif 'Drdkua&pDtkwfjrpfcstqdkwifoGif; axmufcHonfhae‹wdk‹ jzpfygw,f? qufvufjyD; ordkif;rSwfwkdifwckcsif;&J ‹ta=umif;t&mawGudk twdkcsKH;&Sif;jy&r,f qdk&if yxrOD;qHk;rSwfwdkif 1918 ckESpfazaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufuawmh arðrd‹/ t*FvdyfppfwyftwGif;rSm&SdwJh csif;trsdK;om;rsm; zGJ‹pnf;wJh csif;trsdK;om;rsm;&J‹ yxrOD;qHk;aomvlr_a&;tzJG‹tpnf;jzpfwJh “csif;trsdK;om; ynma&;jrSifhwifa&;tzGJ‹” ay:aygufwJhae‹jzpfygw,f? OuUX OD;tGrfydkif; 'kOuUX OD;0rRol;armif; twGif;a&;rSL; &ufavmif;vdef; vla&S/ t&_d awmifydkif;ajrmufydkif;csif;trsdK;om; tzGJ‹0ifrsm;eJ‹ zGJ‹pnf;=uygw,f? tJ'Dtcsdef wHk;utajctaerSm t*Fvdyfppfwyf[m te,fe,f t&yf&yfu csif;trsdK;om;rsm;&J‹ pk&yf ozG,fjzpfygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;rsm;twGuf ynma&;[m t"duvdktyfcsufjzpfw,fvdk‹ pkaygif; oHk;oyfjyD; 'DtzGJ‹udkzGJ‹pnf;=u a=umif; od&Sd&ygw,f? tusdK;oufa&mufr_ awmfawmfrsm;rsm; &SdcJhygw,f? Oyrm OD;0rRol;armif;[m 1924 t*FvdyfppfwyfuxGufjyD; Zmwd0rRol;&GmrSm rlvwef;ausmif;zGifh udk,fwdkifausmif;q&mvkyf&if; EdkifiHa&;pnf; &Hk;r_awGpwifðyvkyfcJhygw,f? 'kwd,rSwfwdkif 1928ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv (20)&ufuawmh rif;wyfe,f/vSd,kH;&GmrSm csif;trsdK;om;rsm; &J‹ yxrOD;qHk;aomEdkifiHa&;tzGJ‹tpnf;jzpfwJh “csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹” ay:aygufwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f? OuUX OD;[mxef;tGrf 'kOuUX OD;0rRol;armif; twGif;a&;rSL; 0&Javm[m wdk‹tygt0if (12)OD; aumfrdwDeJ‹ pwifzGJ@ 43


pnf;ygw,f? 'DtzGJ‹&J‹ 1933ckESpf rwfv(24-25)&uf/ roHkEl;&Gm(rif;wyfe,f) nDvmcHu ae “csif;trsdK;om; nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹”vdk‹ trnfjyifqifcJhygw,f? jyifqif&wJhta=umif;uawmh csif;awmifwef;/ vla&Sawmifwef; / em*awmifwef; pojzifh t*FvdyfuuGJjym;pGmac:a0:aewJhtwGuf awmif ay:ajrjyeff‹ csif;trsdK;om;tm;vHk; aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&;udkOD;wnfjyD; jyefvnfjyifqifa=umif; od&Sd&ygw,f? tJ'D csif;trsdK;om;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ@ (crnz)&J‹ 1934ckESpfpufwifbmv (29)&uf/ 0&J&Gm (rif;wyfe,f)nDvmcHuae t*Fvdyf tpdk;&udk &mZoH (9)csufay;xm; ygw,f? tJ'gawGuawmh (1) csif;awmifa'otkyfcsKyfa&;udk jynfrESifhwef;wltcGifhta&;ay;&ef (2) csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;wGif csif;trsdK;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;yg0ifa&;qGJaom Oya'udkom usifhoHk;&ef (3) ynma&;/ usef;rma&;/ vlr_a&;/ pD;yGg;a&; wdk;wufzGH‹ðzd;a&;ðyjyifaqmif&Gufay;&ef (4) csif;awmifynma&;pepf tjrefqHk;ðyjyifaqmif&Gufay;&ef (t*Fvdyfpmtjyif jrefrmpmudkyg oif=um; cGifh ðy&ef) (5) bmoma&;vGwfvyfcGifhay;&ef (6) csif;awmifwef;vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;aumif;rGefatmiftjrefqHk;azmufvkyfay;&ef (7) jynfrESifhcsif;awmifwef;a'o vGwfvyfpGmul;vl;qufqHcGifhay;&ef (8) csif;vlrsdK;wdk‹tm; rnfonfhvlrsdK;ESifhrqdk wef;wl&nfwlqufqHcGifhay;&ef (9) jrefrmEdkifiHudkvGwfvyfa&;ay;aomtcg csif;awmifudkygwygwnf;vGwfvyfa&;ay;&ef wdk‹ jzpfyg w,f? wwd,rSwfwdkif 1938 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufuawmh tJ'D crnz&J‹ awmif;qdkcsuf (9)&yfeJ‹ygwfoufjyD; t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;eJ‹ crnzOD;pD;wJh csif;vlxk oHk;axmifausmfwdk‹/ awmifydkif;csif;jynf/ uefyuf vufðrd‹rSm awG‹qHkyGJusif;ywJhae‹/ awmif;qdkcsuf(9)&yfudk t*Fvdyftpdk;&u wckr# rvdkufavsmEdkifa=umif; a=ujimwmeJ‹ csif;vlxku csufjcif; oydwfarSmuf armif;xkwfwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f? t*Fvdyfudk,fpm;vS,frsm; nwGif;csif; aqmðrd‹(rauG;wdkif;)udk xGufajy;=u&ygw,f? t*Fvdyfcef‹xm;wJhwdkufol=uD;(36)OD;uawmif olwdk‹cef‹pmawGjyeftyfjyD; oydwfrSmyg0if=uw,fvdk‹ qdkygw,f? pwkwˆrSwfwdkif 1939 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufuawmh t*Fvdyftpdk;&u crnztzGJ‹udk rw&m;toif; a=ujimjyD; OD;0rRol;armif;tygt0if crnzacgif;aqmif(9)OD; pwifzrf;qD;wJah e‹ jzpfw,f? (tJ'Dae‹rSm vSd,Hk;&Gmu a':c,favmxHk/ awmifukef;&Gmu a':idkif;tGrf&def/ a':[m xef;rH/ a':idkif;a*vSL; trsdK;orD; (4)OD;vJ zrf;qD;ppfaq;cH&w,fvdk‹qdkw,f? bkef;=uD;OD;wdou EdkifiHa&;eJ‹rygwfoufa=umif;ajz=um;=ubdk‹ ñudwifoifay;xm;vdk‹ tajzaumif;wmeJh jyefvGwf=uw,fvdk‹ qdkw,f)? uefyufvufrSm t*Fvdyftpdk;& udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk oydwfarSmufarmif;xkwfwJhudpPeJ‹ygwfoufjyD; t*Fvdyftpdk;&u wESpf tcsdef,ljyifqif jyD; zrf;qD;axmifcswmjzpfw,f? tokwf(5)okwf/ vlaygif;(79)OD; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;tjzpf zrf;qD;axmifcs cH&ygw,f? 'Dta=umif;udk 1940ckESpfZeG fv(2)&ufae‹ ZvGefa'gifh=uD; vlvktpnf;ta0;rSm AdkvfcsKyfftmifqef; u xkwfazmfajym=um;whJtwGuf ig;usyfwef0&rf;xkwfcH&jyD; jynfyudkxGuf oGm;&ygw,f yOPreJ‹aemufqHk;rSwfwdkifuawmh 1948 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufjzpfygw,f? ajrmufydkif;csif; awmif/ zvrf;ðrd‹rSm 1948 azaz: (19-22)usif;ywJh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHrSm “wdkufol=uD;rsm;ðzwfcsjyD; vlxka&G;cs,fonfh udk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh tkyfcsKyf&ef”qdkwJh tqdktrSwf (4) wifoGif;/ axmufcHwJhae‹

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jzpfygw,f? axmifZudkif;(wD;wdef)u wifoGif;jyD; qGefref;(zvrf;)eJ‹ xef;armif;(uefyufvuf)wdk‹u axmufcH=uygw,f? rJcGJqHk;jzwf&mrSm axmufcHrJ ig;axmifausmfeJ‹ uef‹uGufrJ(17)rJ &Sdygw,f? csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmvmcHusif;y&jcif;ta=umif;eJ‹ 1948 azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹udk csif;trsdK; om;ae‹ owfrSwf&wJhta=umif; qufvufwifjyvdkygw,f? jrefrmEdkifiH[m 1948ckESpf Zefem0g&Dv(4)&ufrSm vGwfvyfa&;udk a=ujimygw,f? 1947 zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya' tydkif; (5) csi;f 0daoowdkif;tc%f;/ yk'fr (196/ 197/ 198 )wdk‹t& csif;0daoowdkif;/ csif;a&;&maumifpD/ csif;a&;&mXme/ csif;a&;&m0ef=uD; qdkwmawG ay:vmygw,f? OD;0rRol;armif;u yxrOD;qHk; csif;a&;&m0ef=uD; jzpfvmjyD; csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;pepftwGuf vlxkudkqENcH,lbdk‹ yxr OD;qHk;vkyfief;tjzpf csrSwfaqmif&GufcJhygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;xk&J‹qENudk pHkprf; az:xkwfEdkifbdk‹ “csif;awmifpHkprf;ppfaq;a&;aumfr&Sif”w&yf zGJ‹pnf;ppfaq; &if; vlxknDvmcHudkvJ wðydifxJusif;y bdk‹pDpOfcJhwmjzpfygw,f? csif;awmifpHkprf;ppfaq;a&; aumfr&Sif[m 1948 azaz:0g&Dv (5)&ufrSm ay:aygufjyD; obmywduOD;0rRol;armif;/ twGif;a&;rSL;u wdkif;rif;=uD; pnfol OD;odrf;armif(at wDtrf)/ tzGJ‹0ifuOD;pdk;0if;(trsdK;om;ynm0efa[mif;)wdk‹jzpfygw,f? aumfr&Sifu e,ftoDoD;uvlvkudk,fpm;vS,f/ wdkuftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ ol=uD;rsm;&J‹ vlxkqENudk 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&D(12)&ufuae(26)&uftxd ppfaq;cJhygw,f? tJ'pD pfaq;ae&if;rSmbJ csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcHudkvJ zvrf;ðrd‹rSm 1948 azaz: (19)uae(22)&uftxd wðydifxJ usif;ycJhyg w,f? aumfr&Sifu (12/ 02/ 48) wD;wdefðrd‹rSm urfawm/ pkwWJ/ pD;,if;e,f/ (16/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹rSm [m;cg;e,f/ (17/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹rSm&mawmuf/ abmfvuGm/ vGefbef/ ig;rGwf/ uefyufvuf/ [m;cg;e,f/ (18/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹rSm xkwfv_dif/ uGmZyfe,f ppfaq;ygw,f? (19/ 02/ 48) uae (22/ 02/ 48) txd zvrf;ðrd‹rSm csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcHusif;yjyD; vlxkqENkudk =um;emw,f? nDvmcHjyD;qHk;wJh aemufqHk;ae‹ (22/ 02/ 48) rSm zvrf;ðrd‹rSm yvuf0e,f/ (23/ 02/ 48) zvrf;rSm wD;wdefuv$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,f refwHk;ekef;/ 26/ 02/ 48 zvrf;ðrd‹rSm csif;0daoowdkif;twGif;&Sd e,ft&m&Sdrsm;qENudk qufvufppfaq; ygw,f? vlxkwifjywJh pepfa[mif;wdkufol=uD;tkyfcsKyfa&;csdK‹,Gif;tm;enf;csufrsm;uawmh (6) tm%mESifhtcGihfta&;tvGJoHk;pm;ðyI vlxktay:nSOf;yrf;EdSyfpuf=ujcif;/ (7) jynfolvlxktusdK;o,fydk;&efpdwfqENenf;yg;=ujyD; qufqHa&;rajyjypf=ujcif;/ (8) wdk;wufaomacwfudk &ifabmifwef;vdkufEdkifaom vlr_qufqHa&;t=um;tjrif/ A[kokw r&Sd=u jcif;/ (9) 0efaxmufrsm;ay;aomtm%mudk t&rf;rJhoHk;pGJ=ujcif;/ (10) EdkifiHawmftpdk;&csrSwfaomrl0g'ESifh rnDnGwfrqDavsmf=ujcif; aumfr&Sifu vlxkqENppfaq;csufudk tESpfcsKyfvdkufawmh (3) wdkufol=uD;rsm;ðzwfcs&efqEN&Sda=umif; wnDwnGwfwnf;xGufqdk=ua=umif;/ (4) wdkufol=uD;tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfa[mif;tpm; vlxkqENeJ‹a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufwJh udk,fpm;vS,frsm; tkyf csKyfwJh 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfopf wDxGiftpm;xdk;tkyfcsKyf&ef wnDwnGwfwnf; xGufqdk=u a=umif; awG‹&Sdygw,f? aumfrd&Sifppfaq;csuf/ nDvmcHqHk;jzwfcsufwxyfwnf;udkufnDwma=umifh aumfr&Sifu &efukefðrd‹rSm (10/ 03/ 48) tpnf;ta0;usif;yjyD; wdkufol=ud;rsm;udk 4if;wdk‹tr_xrf;oufwef;tavsmuf xdkufoifhwJhyifpif/ 45


avsmfa=u;ay;bdk‹ aqG;aEG;ygw,f? aumfr&Sif&J‹ (18/ 09/ 48) ae‹ &efukefðrd‹ tpnf;ta0;rSm aumfr&Sif twGif;a&;rSL;&J‹ avsmfa=u;tao;pdwfwGufcsufr_ tpD&ifcHpmudk aqG;aEG;=uw,f? aumfr&Sifu (22/ 09/ 48) tpnf;ta0;rSm tjyD;owfaqG;aEG;r_/ tacsmudkifr_awGðyvkyfjyD; EdkifiHawmftpdk;&0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹ tpnf;ta0; udkwifjybdk‹ qHk;jzwfygw,f? jyD;awmh 0ef=uD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;udk (30/ 09/ 48 )rSmwifoGif;ygw,f? twdkcskyfajym&&if 0ef=uD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;u oabmwlnDcsuf&&SdoGm;jyD;wJhaemuf Oya'a&;qGJwJh[mudk wESpfvHk;vdkvdk vHk;yrf;=ujyefw,f? tJ'ga=umifh ‘1896 Chin Hills Regulation Act’ ysufjy,fjyD; ‘1948 csif;0daoowdkif;tufOya'’eJ‹ ‘csif;0daoowdkif;tufOa' (Oya'rsm;ESifhoufqdkifapjcif;)’ Oya'rsm; udk jyXmef;edkifcJhygw,f? 'DOya't& csif;0daoowdkif;twGif; 'Drdkua&pDpepfeJ‹ a'oEW&tkyfcsKyfa&; udk jrefrmEdkifiHrSm tOD;qHk; azmfaqmifEdkifcJhygw,f? 1950jynfhESpf atmufwdkbmv (9)&ufae‹/ &efukefðrd‹rSm csif;a&;&maumifpDusif;ywJh csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ owfrSwfa&;tpnf;ta0;rSm txufuwifjycJhwJhordkif;aemufcHawG&SdwJh azazmf0&Dv (20) &ufae‹udk a&G;cs,f=ujyD; 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfcsrSwf&efqdkwJh tqdktrSwf(4)wifoGif;/ axmufcH/ qHk;jzwfwJhae‹ 1948ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹udk owfrSwfbdk‹ wnDwnGwfwnf; qHk;jzwf=ujyD;wJhaemuf csif;trsdK;om; ae‹ tcrf;tem;udk 1951ckESpfazazmf0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹/ awmifydkif;csif;awmifc&dkif/ rif;wyfðrd‹rSm yxrOD;qHk; t=udrf usif;yygw,f? zvrf;rSm usif;ywJh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHudk edkifiHawmforwp0fa&$odkuf wufa&mufjyD; rif;wyfrSmusif;ywJh yxrOD; qHk;aom csi;f trsdK;om;ae‹ tcrf;tem;udk EdkifiHawmf0ef=uD;csKyf OD;Ek wufa&mufcJhygw,f? yxrOD;qHk;aomcsif;a&;&m0ef=uD; OD;0rRol;armif;vufxufrSmawmh ‘csif;trsdK; om;ae@atmifyGJobif tcrf;tem;ESifh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcHobif’qdkjyD; wGJbufusif;ywm awG‹&yg w,f? csif;trsdK;om;ae‹/ csif;0daoowdkif;ae‹/ csif;jynfe,fae‹ qdkwmawG rwluGJjym;a=umif;udkvJ qufvufwifjy vdkygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;ae‹uawmh trsdK;om;a&;ñud;yrf;r_aemufcHordkif;rsm;eJ‹twl ay:aygufvmjyD; azaz:0g&Dv (20)&uf jzpfygw,f? 1947ckESpf pufwifbm(24)&ufae‹ twnfðywJh zJG‹pnf;yHkt& csif;0dao owdkif;jzpfvmwJhtwGuf csif;0daoowdkif;ae‹uawmh pufwifbmv(24)&uf jzpfygw,f? aemuf 1974ckESpf Zefem0g&Dv(3)&ufae‹ twnfðywJh zGJ‹pnf;yHkt& csif;jynfe,fjzpfvmygw,f? 'g a=umifh csif;jynfe,fae‹ uawmh Zefem0g&Dv(3)&ufjzpfygw,f? trsdK;om;ae‹u trsdK;om;w&yfvHk;eJ‹oufqdkifjyD; 0daoowdkif;/ jynfe,fae‹awGqdkwmuawmh tJ'Dtwdkif;twm{&d,mtwGif; aexdkifwJhvlawGeJ‹qdkifygw,f? aemufwckqufvufwifjyvdkwmu Armtpdk;&tqufqufvufxufrSm tpdk;&udk,fwdkif csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ udk ao;odrfyaysmufatmif/ OD;wnfcsufvrf;vGJatmif/ t"dyg,ftESpfom&ysufjy,fatmif ñud;yrf;csufawG awG‹ñuH&ygw,f? 1956/ 1957/ 1958 umvrsm;rSm ygvDrefu y,fzsufbdk‹ ñudyrf;bl;ygw,f? 1966 awmfvSefa&;aumifpDqdkwJh tpdk;&vufxufrSm csif;0daoowdkif;ae‹vdk‹ tpdk;&uajymif;vJusif;ybdk‹ pDpOfcJh ygw,f? OD;0rRol;armif;u ol‹&Gm0rRol;uae rif;wyfygwD,lepfudk vma&mufuef‹uGuf umuG,fw,f? csif;trsd;om;ae‹tcrf;tem;tjyD; (23/ 02/ 66)ae‹&Gmtjyef um;arSmufaoqHk;cJhygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;ae‹&J‹ zcif=uD;udk,fwdkif csif;trsdK;om;ae‹udk toufeJ‹vJjyD; umuG,f&ygw,f? rqvtpdk;&u 1976 uae 1980txd csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ESifh csif;jynfe,fae‹qdkjyD; t"rRwGJbuf ezl;pnf;wyf usif;ycdkif;ygw,f? 1981 upjyD;awmh csif;jynfe,fae‹vdk‹ usif;ycdkif;ygw,f? 1988 aemufydkif; e0w/ etz ppftpdk;&vufxufqdk&if usif;ycGifhudkawmifrSbJ ,ae‹txd ydwfyifxm;qJbJ &Sdaea=umif;wifjy&if; ed8Hk;csKyfygw,f?

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(14/09/ 2005 rS 31/ 10/ 2005) e,l;a'vDwGif Chin Forum ðyvkyfaom zGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'a&;&moifwef;Y qvdkif;uD;vJatmrf;. csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ESifh zGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya' ydk‹cscsuf ,ae‹ydk‹csrnfhacgif;pOfrSm uGsEkyfwdk‹. “csif;trsdK;om;ae‹”ay:aygufvmjcif;onfyifv#if zGJ‹pnf;yHkESifhygwfoufonfh ta=umif; yif jzpfygonf? jrefrmEdkifiHonf 1948-ckESpfZefem0g&Dv(4)&ufae‹wiG f vGwfvyfa&;&&Sda=umif;/ vGwfvyfa&;&onfESifhwðydkif euftokH;ðy&ef 1947-ckESpf –Oya'a&;qGJa=umif;rsm; ajymjycJhjyD; jzpfygonf? ,if;Oya'twGif;rSmyif 1948 –csif;0daoowdkif; tufOya'udkjyXmef;jyD; a'oEW&tkyfcsKyfa&;udk 'Drdkua&pDepfjzifh taumiftxnfazmfEdkif&ef usGEkyfwdk‹acgif;aqmif=uD;rsm; tajrSmftjrif=uD;rm;pGm vkyfaqmifcJh=uyHk/ csif;trsK;om;ae‹ay:ayguf vmyHkESifhvnf; qufEG,faea=umif;wdk‹udk ajymjyygrnf?

jrefrmEdkifiH[m 1948ckESpf Zefem0g&Dv(4)&ufrSm vGwfvyfa&;udk a=ujimygw,f? 1947 zGJ‹pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya' tydkif; (5) csif;0daoowdkif;tc%f;/ yk'fr (196/ 197/ 198 )wdk‹t& csif;0daoowdkif;/ csif;a&;&maumifpD/ csif;a&;&mXme/ csif;a&;&m0ef=uD; qdkwmawG ay:vmygw,f? OD;0rRol;armif;u yxrOD;qHk; csif;a&;&m0ef=uD; jzpfvmjyD; csif;awmiftkyfcsKyfa&;pepftwGuf vlxkudkqENcH,lbdk‹ yxr OD;qHk;vkyfief;tjzpf csrSwfaqmif&GufcJhygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;xk&J‹qENudk pHkprf; az:xkwfEdkifbdk‹ “csif;awmifpHkprf;ppfaq;a&; aumfr&Sif”w&yf zGJ‹pnf;ppfaq;&if; vlxknDvmcHudkvJ wðydifxJusif;ybdk‹ pDpOfcJhwmjzpfygw,f? csif;awmif pHkprf;ppfaq;a&; aumfr&Sif[m 1948 azaz:0g&Dv (5)&ufrSm ay:aygufjyD; obmywduOD;0rRol;armif;/ twGif;a&;rSL;u wdkif;rif;=uD; pnfol OD;odrf;armif(at wDtrf)/ tzGJ‹0ifuOD;pdk;0if;(trsdK;om;ynm0ef a[mif;)wdk‹ jzpfygw,f? aumfr&Sifu e,ftoDoD;uvlvkudk,fpm;vS,f/ wdkuftkyf/ acsmif;tkyf/ ol=uD;rsm;&J‹ vlxkqENudk 1948ckESpf azaz:0g&D(12)&ufuae(26)&uftxd ppfaq;cJhygw,f? tJ'pD pfaq;ae&if;rSmbJ csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcHudkvJ zvrf;ðrd‹rSm 1948 azaz: (19)uae(22)&uftxd wðydifxJ usif;ycJhyg w,f? aumfr&Sifu (12/ 02/ 48) wD;wdefðrd‹rSm urfawm/ pkwWJ/ pD;,if;e,f/ (16/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹rSm [m;cg;e,f/ (17/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹rSm&mawmuf/ abmfvuGm/ vGefbef/ ig;rGwf/ uefyufvuf/ [m;cg;e,f/ (18/ 02/ 48) zvrf;ðrd‹rSm xkwfv_dif/ uGmZyfe,f ppfaq;ygw,f? (19/ 02/ 48) uae (22/ 02/ 48) txd zvrf;ðrd‹rSm csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&m nDvmcHusif;yjyD; vlxkqENkudk =um;emw,f? nDvmcHjyD;qHk;wJh aemufqHk;ae‹ (22/ 02/ 48) rSm zvrf;ðrd‹rSm yvuf0e,f/ (23/ 02/ 48) zvrf;rSm wD;wdefuv$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,f refwHk;ekef;/ 26/ 02/ 48 zvrf;ðrd‹rSm csif;0daoowdkif;twGif;&Sd e,ft&m&Sdrsm;qENudk qufvufppfaq; ygw,f? vlxkwifjywJh pepfa[mif;wdkufol=uD;tkyfcsKyfa&;csdK‹,Gif;tm;enf;csufrsm;uawmh (11) tm%mESifhtcGihfta&;tvGJoHk;pm;ðyI vlxktay:nSOf;yrf;EdSyfpuf=ujcif;/ (12) jynfolvlxktusdK;o,fydk;&efpdwfqENenf;yg;=ujyD; qufqHa&;rajyjypf=ujcif;/ (13) wdk;wufaomacwfudk &ifabmifwef;vdkufEdkifaom vlr_qufqHa&;t=um;tjrif/ A[kokw r&Sd=u jcif;/ (14) 0efaxmufrsm;ay;aomtm%mudk t&rf;rJhoHk;pGJ=ujcif;/ (15) EdkifiHawmftpdk;&csrSwfaomrl0g'ESifh rnDnGwfrqDavsmf=ujcif; aumfr&Sifu vlxkqENppfaq;csufudk tESpfcsKyfvdkufawmh (5) wdkufol=uD;rsm;ðzwfcs&efqEN&Sda=umif; wnDwnGwfwnf;xGufqdk=ua=umif;/ 47


(6) wdkufol=uD;tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfa[mif;tpm; vlxkqENeJ‹a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufwJh udk,fpm;vS,frsm; tkyf csKyfwJh 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfopf wDxGiftpm;xdk;tkyfcsKyf&ef wnDwnGwfwnf; xGufqdk=u a=umif; awG‹&Sdygw,f? aumfrd&Sifppfaq;csuf/ nDvmcHqHk;jzwfcsufwxyfwnf;udkufnDwma=umifh aumfr&Sifu &efukefðrd‹rSm (10/ 03/ 48) tpnf;ta0;usif;yjyD; wdkufol=ud;rsm;udk 4if;wdk‹tr_xrf;oufwef;tavsmuf xdkufoifhwJhyifpif/ avsmfa=u;ay;bdk‹ aqG;aEG;ygw,f? aumfr&Sif&J‹ (18/ 09/ 48) ae‹ &efukefðrd‹ tpnf;ta0;rSm aumfr&Sif twGif;a&;rSL;&J‹ avsmfa=u;tao;pdwfwGufcsufr_ tpD&ifcHpmudk aqG;aEG;=uw,f? aumfr&Sifu (22/ 09/ 48) tpnf;ta0;rSm tjyD;owfaqG;aEG;r_/ tacsmudkifr_awGðyvkyfjyD; EdkifiHawmftpdk;&0ef=uD;rsm;tzGJ‹ tpnf;ta0; udkwifjybdk‹ qHk;jzwfygw,f? jyD;awmh 0ef=uD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;udk (30/ 09/ 48 )rSmwifoGif;ygw,f? twdkcskyfajym&&if 0ef=uD;rsm;tpnf;ta0;u oabmwlnDcsuf&&SdoGm;jyD;wJhaemuf Oya'a&;qGJwJh[mudk wESpfvHk;vdkvdk vHk;yrf;=ujyefw,f? tJ'ga=umifh ‘1896 Chin Hills Regulation Act’ ysufjy,fjyD; ‘1948 csif;0daoowdkif; tufOya'’eJ‹ ‘csif;0daoowdkif;tufOa' (Oya'rsm;ESifhoufqdkifapjcif;)’ Oya'rsm;udk jyXmef;edkifcJhygw,f? 'DOya't& csif;0daoowdkif;twGif; 'Drdkua&pDpepfeJ‹ a'oEW&tkyfcsKyfa&;udk jrefrmEdkifiH rSm tOD;qHk; azmfaqmifEdkifcJhygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;ae‹owfrSwfa&;tpnf;ta0;udk 1950jynfhESpf atmufwdkbmv (9)&ufae‹/ &efukefðrd‹rSm csif;a&;&maumifpDu usif;yygw,f? atmufygordkif;aemufcHawG&SdwJh azazmf0&Dv (20)&ufae‹udk a&G;cs,f =ujyD; 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfcsrSwf&efqdkwJh tqdktrSwf(4)wifoGif;/ axmufcH/ qHk;jzwfwJhae‹ 1948ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv (20)&ufae‹udkowfrSwfbdk‹ wnDwnGwfwnf; qHk;jzwf=uygw,f? csif;trsdK;om;ae‹ tcrf; tem;udk 1951ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv(20)&ufae‹/ awmifydkif;csif;awmifc&dkif/ rif;wyfðrd‹rSm yxrOD;qHk; t=udrf usif;yygw,f? zvrf;rSm usif;ywJh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHudk edkifiHawmforwp0fa&$odkuf wuf a&mufjyD; rif;wyfrSmusif;ywJh yxrOD;qHk;aom csif;trsdK;om;ae‹tcrf;tem;udk EdkifiHawmf0ef=uD;csKyfOD;Ek wufa&mufcJhygw,f? yxrOD;qHk;rSwfwdkifuawmh 1918 ckESpfazaz:0g&Dv(20)&uf jzpfygw,f? arðrd‹/ t*FvdyfppfwyftwGif;rSm&SdwJh csif;trsdK;om;rsm;zGJ‹pnf;wJh csif;trsdK;om;rsm;&J‹ yxrOD;qHk;aom vlr_a&;tzJG‹tpnf;jzpfwJh “csif;trsdK;om; ynma&;jrSifhwifa&;tzGJ‹”ay:aygufwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f? 'kwd,rSwfwdkifuawmh 1928 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufjzpfygw,f? rif;wyfe,f/vSd,kH;&GmrSm csif;trsdK;om; rsm;&J‹ yxrOD;qHk;aomEdkifiHa&;tzGJ‹tpnf;jzpfwJh “csif;awmifnDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹”ay:ygufwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f? 1933ckESpf rwfv(24-25)&uf/ roHkEl;&Gm(rif;wyfe,f) nDvmcHuae “csif;trsdK;om;nDnGwfa&; tzGJ‹”vdk‹ trnfjyifqifcJhygw,f? tJ'D csif;trsdK;om;nDnGwfa&;tzGJ‹(crnz)&J‹ 1934ckESpfpufwifbmv (29)&uf/ 0&J&Gm(rif;wyfe,f) nDvmcHuae t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk &mZoH (9) csufay;xm; ygw,f? wwd,rSwfwdkifuawmh 1938 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufjzpfygw,f? tJ'D crnz&J‹ awmif;qdkcsuf(9)&yfeJ‹ ygwfoufjyD; t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;eJ‹ crnzOD;pD;wJh csif;vlxkoHk;axmifausmfwdk‹/ awmifydkif; csif;jynf/ uefyufvufðrd‹rSm awG‹qHkyGJusif;ywJhae‹/ awmif;qdkcsuf(9)&yfudk t*Fvdyftpdk;&u wckr# rvdkufavsmEdkifa=umif; a=ujimwmeJ‹ csif;vlxku csufjcif; oydwfarSmufarmif;xkwfwJhae‹ jzpfygw,f? t*Fvdyfudk,fpm;vS,frsm; nwGif;csif; aqmðrd‹(rauG;wdkif;)udk xGufajy;=u&w,f?

48


pwkwˆrSwfwdkifuawmh 1939 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&uf jzpfygw,f? t*Fvdyftpdk;&u crnztzGJ‹udk rw&m;toif;a=ujimjyD; OD;0rRol;armif;tygt0if crnzacgif;aqmif(9)OD; pwifzrf;qD;wJhae‹jzpfw,f? uefyufvufrSm t*Fvdyftpdk;&udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk oydwfarSmufarmif;xkwfwJhudpPeJ‹ygwfoufjyD; t*Fvdyf tpdk;&u ‘wESpf’tcsdef,ljyifqifjyD; zrf;qD;axmifcswmjzpfw,f? tokwf(5)okwf/ vlaygif;(79)OD; EdkifiHa&;t usOf;om; tjzpf zrf;qD;axmifcscH&ygw,f? yOPreJ‹aemufqHk;rSwfwdkifuawmh 1948 ckESpf azaz:0g&Dv(20)&ufjzpfygw,f? ajrmufydkif;csif;awmif/ zvrf;ðrd‹ rSm 1948 azaz:0g&D (19-22)usif;ywJh csif;0daoowdkif;vHk;qdkif&mnDvmcHrSm “wdkufol=uD;rsm; ðzwfcsjyD; vlxka&G;cs,fonfhudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh tkyfcsKyf&ef”qdkwJh tqdktrSwf(4) wifoGif;/ axmufcHwJhae‹ jzpfyg w,f? axmifZudkif;(wD;wdef)u wifoGif;jyD; qGefref;(zvrf;)eJ‹ xef;armif;(uefyufvuf)wdk‹u axmufcH =uygw,f? rJcGJqHk;jzwf&mrSm axmufcHrJ ig;axmifausmfeJ‹ uef‹uGufrJ(17)rJ &Sdygw,f? 'DnDvmcHu csif;awmifpHkprf;ppfaq;a&;&J‹ tpDtpOfw&yfxJu jzpfay:vm&wJh ta=umif;&yfwckjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh csif;trsdK;om;ae‹onfyifv#if zGJ‹pnf;yHkESifhygwfoufaeygonf[k ajym&jcif;jzpfygonf? odk‹jzpfI 'Drdkua&pDtkyfcsKyfa&;pepfqdkonfrSm 1948 uwnf;u usGEkyfwdk‹wnfaqmufcJhjyD;jzpfonf? ,ck usGefyfwdk‹ wnfaqmuf&efrSm zuf'&,fpepf tvSnfhjzpfonf[k usGEkyfajym&jcif; jzpfygonf? (zGJ‹pnf;yHktajccHOya'a&;&moifwef; - 21/ 09/ 2005 ydk‹cscsuf) ----------------

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Chin National Day Backgroung History  

Chin National Day Backgroung History

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