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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,f o l o wf o vJ

wwd , t}ud r f ðyjyifwnf;jzwfxw k af 0jcif; 1 1

2 2


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

© rlyidk f= OD;cifatmif ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Ö rsufESmzHk; tjyiftqif cifOD;atmifESihf xGef;vSatmif

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk b,f o l o wf o vJ pma&;ol

OD;cifatmif

Ö uGeyf sLwm &efEkdifpkd; Ö jrefrmbmom (wwd,t}udrf) 2004 jynfhESpf/ atmufwkdbmv Ö xkwfa0ol a':cifrsKd;at;/ ‘acwfòydif’ *sme,f? The New Era Journal P.O Box (115) Raminthra P.O Bangkhen, Bangkok 10220 E-mail : newera@ksc.th.com

jref r mbmomjyef o l a'guf w mwif h a 0 a'guf w mat;ausmf

Printed in Thailand

Ö pmwnf;jzwfol jr0wD&Jacgif Ô

ISBN 974-87617-4-6

á *sme,fwu kd rf S xkwaf 0onf? 3 3

4 4


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

19/ 7/ 47 Ô jynfjrefrm a&$tdrfwGif;rSmjzihf rowDp&m ayGvdrfwJh tcif;&,fa-umifh (Adv k cf sKyfa&æ) a&wdrftwGif;rSmrS epf&onf? ? Ô a=omfætcif;ppfvkdufjyefawmh twGi;f wESprf mS avsmu f efwehJ nf;awGe‹J awmfveS t f +yD;rSm jrefjynfvw G &f efz‹kd }uHpnfrc|wfoaemf tm;tifoHk;vdk‹&,f ykef;vsufppfcsDæ? ? Ô ±kdif;vdkufav rsKd;rppfwJh tcif;ayxifh *dk%f;rdkufawG qdk;npfwJh tcsif;&,feJ‹ rsKd;cspfwoif;udkawmh owfcJh+yDæ? wyfzŒJG ZmenfawGrmS awmh ajcmufewf&Gmodk‹ jref;ºuG+yDwum;æ? jrwfwhJ omuDawG[mrd‹k aemufxyfvmzdk‹ wrf;wonftrsm;æ? ? Ô jzpfa=umif;i,f!¸ef ESpaf [mif;uG,v f eG af yr,fh q,fu h ;kd ˜cGe˜f av;cGe-f ESpu f akd wmh zefcgcg jyefumppfygv#ijf zifh t+rJwdkif oJqdkifepfvdk‹&,f arhypfroGm;æ? ? jr0wD&Jacgif (vGwfvyfa&;armfuGef;0if yxrqifh) 1959=ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv 5 5

6 6


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

rmwdum Oa,smZOf pma&;ol.ed'gef; bmomjyefo. l trSm Zmwfvrf;0ify*k Kd~ vfrsm; ○

aumvm[vaygif;ac|;cH tjrifxufykdxl; okcZmwfa-umif;jyef pyfpHxGef;.om; OD;b0if;.om; a-u;rHkOD;aomif;xkwfazmfajymqdk_yD wuUokdvfae0if; pufqkyfzG,fvlrsKd;a&;vlowfr+avm ○

tcef; (1) Akv d cf sKyfvyk }f uHc&H jcif; tcef; (2) t"duacgif;aqmifrsm; tcef; (3) w&m;qdik jf cif; tcef; (4) v#KdŒ0Suq f ef;-u,fjcif; tcef; (5) tajzr&ao;aom ar;cGe;f rsm; + arG tcef; (6) t-urf;zufrt tcef; (7) &v'f

7 7

tmZmenfrsm; vlowform;rsm; Oya'qkdif&myk*~dKvfrsm; EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm; ukdvdkeDtm%mydkifrsm; olwdk‹b,folawGvJ jrefrmtrnfrsm;ESihf ywfoufaom rSwfcsuf

11 17 21 25 25 26 28 30 34 36 37 41 63 107 131 153 181 205 206 214 222 227 229 234 240 246

tu,fI ,cktcsdeftxd OD;atmifqef;omtoufraobJ&SifaecJhaomf ed*kH;csKyf

pmwGJ

vkyf}uHr+ESihf ±Hk;wifw&m;pGJqdkr+wdk‹ESifhywfoufaom a-u;eef;pmtcsKdŒ &nf!¸ef;csufrsm; jrefrmpmtkyfpmwrf;rsm; t*Fvdyfpmtkyfpmwrf;rsm; t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh tpdk;&xkwfjyefjcif; ○

rSwfcsufrsm;

Zmwfvrf;0ifyk*~dKvfrsm; vlowform;rsm;ESifhOya'qkdif&myk*~dKvfrsm; tcef; (1) AdkvfcsKyfvkyf}uHcH&jcif; tcef; (2) t"duacgif;aqmifrsm; tcef; (3) w&m;qkdifjcif; tcef; (4) v#KdŒ0Sufqef;-u,fjcif; tcef; (5) tajzr&ao;aomar;cGef;rsm; tcef; (6) t-urf;zufr+tarG tcef; (7) &v'f pmwGJ (vkyf}uHr+ESihf ywfoufaom a-u;eef;pmtcsKdŒ)

255 263 273 273 303 303 304 306 307 307 307 307 311 322 325 332 337 351 358

8 8


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

&efukefòrd›awmf= 1947 -opa-w;vsjynf/ uifbm&mòrd›/ trsKd;om;wuUodkvf/ ajryHkqGJynm okawoe,lepf/ ypdzdwf=tm&S avhvmr+qdkif&mXmerS a&;qGJay;onf? 9 9

10 10 10


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

Oa,smZOf 1951 ckESpftwGif;wGif yxrOD;qHk; -opa-w;vsoHwref udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒ ±Hk;zGifhvSpfay;&ef u|efawmf &efukefòrdo › dk‹ qdkufa&mufcJhygonf? xdktcsdefonf wdkif; jynfudk *syefvufatmufrS jyefvnfu,fwifcJh_yD; _Adwdo#wdx k‹ HrS udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyf a&; &,laqmif&u G af y;Edik cf o hJ nfh acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm; vky}f uHc&H _yD;p wwdik ;f jynf vH;k wxdww f vefE‹ iS hf ,lóuH;r&cHpm;ae&onfh tcsed v f nf;jzpfayonf? 1947 ckEpS /f Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹ tpdk;&tzGJŒ tpnf;ta0;wGif OD;atmifqef;ESifhtwl ol. vkyfazmfudkifzuf tukefeD;yg;r# pufaoewfajymif;0wGif toufpaw;cHcJh&onf? þod‹k jzifh &Jabmfo;kH usdypf pfacgif;aqmifEiS hf jynforl sm;tay: qGaJ qmifr+ xufjrufvS onfh EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmif}uD;wOD; qHk;±+H;cJh&onf? xdt k‹ jyif _Adwdo# udkvdkeD u|ef oayguf vufatmufcHb0rS vGwfvyfaom EdkifiHawmfb0odk‹ ul;ajymif;aeonfh pyful;rwful;umvwGif a&S›wef;tcef;u¾rS yg0ifacgif;aqmifr+ ay;Edkifonfh tjcm;^m%fynm t&Sdeft0g xufjrufvSonfh acgif;aqmifajcmufOD;yg qHk;±+H;cJh& ayonf? OD;apmESifh taygif;tyg ig;OD;wdk‹tm; acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm; vkyf}uHr+twGuf aemufydkif;wGif w&m;pD&ifonfhtcg tjypfxif&Sm;awGŒ&Sdr+a-umifh tjypf'%fcsrSwf ay;tyfcjhJ im;vnf; tqdyk gvky}f uHr}+ uD;onf v#KdŒ0u S q f ef;-u,frt + wdjzifh ¹yGr;f wD; vsuf &Sad eygao;onf? OD;cifatmif. pmtkyo f nf vky}f uHrZ+ mwfvrf;tjynft h pHk udk azmfxw k af y;&ef ESpaf ygif;rsm;pGm pdw&f n S &f n S jf zifh óud;yrf;cJjh cif;jzpfI rsm;pGm pdwf 0ifpm;zG,f&m aumif;vSygonf? _Adwdo#tpdk;&. tkyfcsKyfa&; aemufqHk;ae‹rsm; ta-umif; OD;cifatmifrS xifxif&Sm;&Sm; rD;armif;xdk;jyonfhtvm; r_idrfrouf &Sd vSonfh tqdkygae‹&ufrsm;twGif; v+yf&Sm;cJh-uaom t"duZmwfaumifrsm;. yif udk,fp±dkufESifh pdwf&if;&nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk twGif;usus *Ce% azmfxkwfwifjy xm;onf? tu,fIom OD;atmifqef;ESihf a&mif;&if;ajcmufO;D wd‹k rusq;kH cJyh gv#if aemuf ydik ;f jzpfay:vmrnfh jrefrmhordik ;f onf rsm;pGm jcm;em;uGjJ ym;oGm;ayvdrrhf nf? ppf_yD; 11 11

p tcsdeu f qdyk gv#if vGwv f yfonfEh ikd if aH wmf ay:aygufvm&ef taetxm;rsm;pGm aumif;rGecf o hJ nf? xdt k csdeu f tjcm;tm&SEikd if rH sm;ESihf Edi+ ;f ,SO-f unfyh gu jrefrmEdik f iH. vlaer+tqift h wef;rSm jrifrh m;vSonf? {&m0wDjrpfa-umif;wav#muf jrpf0 u|e;f ay:w0S r;f qefa&pyg; oD;ESrH sm; wd;k wufpnfyif0ajymvSonf? xdrk w S yg; ayg rsm;onfrqdkEdkifaomfjim;vnf; a&eHESifh ajratmufo,HZmwwdrk‹ Smvnf; tawmf toif&h ydS g.? jrefrmjynfow l . ‹kd ynma&;tqift h wef;onfvnf; usef tm&Swu kd f 0ef;usifwcdkwGif pmaywwfu|rf;r+E+ef;xm; tjrifhrm;qHk;pHcsdefrsm;wGif yg0ifyg.? 'kw, d urBmppfwiG f ‚if;.tusKd;quftjzpf vlom;taygif; 'kuo Q u k Q awmf awmfcpH m;cJ-h u&onft h avsmuf jrefrmjynfonfvnf; _Adwo d #/ w±kwEf iS hf *syefppf wyfrsm; ppfwvif;cif;usif;&mwGif ajrpmyifjzpfc&hJ onf? udv k ekd eD ,fcsJa› cwfrS tp ysKd;cJah om aoG;cGt J yk cf sKyfa&;pepfa-umifh 'kw, d urBmppf}uD;t_yD; vGwv f yfa&;&p tcsdef jynfwGif;ppfjzpfvmum rD;[kef;[kef;awmufygavawmhonf?þodk‹ jzpf&onf rSm tjcm;tjcm;aom t&if;&Sief ,fcsJp› epfrsm;uJo h y‹kd if _Adwo d #wdo ‹k nfvnf; aoG;cJG tkyfcsKyfa&; rl0g'udk usifhoHk;cJhjcif;a-umifh jzpfonf? vufeufudkifppfwyfrsm;wGif Armr[kwaf om wkid ;f &if;om;tkypf rk sm;udo k m t"duxm; ppfoifwef;ay;_yD; yg0if apcJ±h rkH u ‚if;ppfom;rsm;jzifh wkid ;f jynfukd xde;f xm;cJo h nf? Armrsm;u rausreyf jzpfonfrmS vnf; rqef;-u,fvyS g? jrefrmjynfrS _Aw d o d #wyfw‹kd qkwcf mG cgeD;pJpw J iG f ArmESifh &S rf;/ u&if/ ucsifwdk‹ oabmuGJvGJr+ jyif;xefvmygawmhonf? topfjyefvnfwnfaqmufonfh jrefrmEdik if t H aejzifh trsK;d om;acgif;aqmif }uD;rsm;udk qHk;±+H;cJh&aomfvnf; 1950 ckESpfwGif 'Drdkua&pDjzifh a&G;cs,fwifajr‡muf aom tpdk;&tm; wnfaxmifEdkifcJhygonf? rajyrvnf&SdcJhonfh vlrsKd;pkrsm;twGif; wGiv f nf; twwfEidk q f ;kH jyefvnfaygif;pnf;a&;udk tm;xkwEf ikd cf yhJ gonf? &Sr;f vlrsK;d pkrsm;ESihf txl;ojzifh yl;aygif;Edik cf _hJ yD; &S r;f ud, k pf m;vS,f awmfawmfrsm;rsm;rSmvnf; jynfaxmifpt k pd;k &twGi;f ta&;ygaom tcef;u¾wGif yg0ifc-hJ uonf? wkid ;f jynf pD;yGm;a&;udk jyefvnfjr‡ifhwifum tbufbufrS jyefvnfxlaxmifI tm&Swdkuf w0S r;f pHcsdet f jrifrh m;qH;k qefpyg;udk a&mif;csjzef‹ jzL;Edik cf o hJ nf? wdik ;f jynfuv kd nf; urBmvSnfhc&D;onfrsm;twGuf jyefvnfvrf;zGifhay;cJhonf? omarmzG,f&m awm vufaus;&Gma'orsm;/ jrefrmh,Ofaus;r+ tcsut f csmXmersm;/ yk*òH rda› [mif;&Sd ordik ;f 12 12


13

Oa,smZOf

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

0ifxif&Sm;onfh bk&m;ykxdk; taqmufttHkæponfrsm;tm; urBmvSnfhc&D;onf rsm; avhvmEdkif&ef tpDtpOfrsm;udkvnf; aqmif&GufEdkifcJhygonf? oda‹k omf 1962 ckEpS w f iG f Adv k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;onf jynfow l ‹kd a&G;cs,w f ifajrm‡ uf cJo h nfh 'Dru kd a&pDtpd;k &udk ðzwfcs_yD; Edik if aH wmftm; ppftm%m&Sipf epfjzifh jyefvnf wnfaqmufvdkufonfhtcgwGifrl tqdkygpGrf;aqmifcsufwdrk‹ Sm &p&mr&Sdatmif t bufbufY ysujf y,fc&hJ onf? xda‹k -umifh 1947 ckEpS f vky}f uHrt + wGi;f Edik if aH &;acgif; aqmif}uD;rsm; usqH;k cJ&h jcif;onf tem*wfumvY ppfwyf. t"rR t-urf;zufr+ atmifjrifa&;twGuf vrf;cif;ay;ouJhodk‹ ta&;ygaom tcsufwcsuf jzpfvm onfrSm ,HkrSm;oHo,jzpf&ef rvdkawmhacs? tjcm;tcsufwcsufrSmrl jynfwGif;ppf udk trSDo[JðyI jrefrmEdkifiHY ppftm%m&Sif vlwef;pm;w&yf aygufzGm;vmcJhjcif; jzpfygonf? ppfAv kd cf sKyf}uD;wd‹k tm%m,pfr;l rd_yDqv kd #if xkt d m%mudk tvG,w f ul vufv$wfay;±dk; xHk;pHr&Sdyg? ppfAdkvfcsKyfrsm;onf tcsdef-umjrifhvmonfESifhtr# tcGifhxl;cHvlwef;pm;rsm; jzpfoGm;vsuf rdrdwdk‹ udk,fudkvnf; txufwef;v$m vl wef;pm;w&yftjzpf ,HkrSwfvm-uaomfvnf; ppfAdkvfcsKyf awmfawmfrsm;rsm;rSmrl ynmt&nftcsif;tm;jzifh !Hzh sif;olrsm; jzpfjcif;a-umihf acwfopfurBm}uD;wGif 0if qHhEdkifonfh tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfr+qdkif&m ±+yfaxG;eufeJ cufcJr+rsm;. twdrfteufudk óudwifodjrif qifjcifem;vnfEdkifpGrf;&Sdolrsm; r[kwfacs/ odk‹ESifhyif ppfAdkvfcsKyfwdk‹ onf vG,&f mvrf;udk vdu k -f uawmhonf? ‚if;rSm wkid ;f jynfukd jyifyurBmESihf tquf toG,jf zwfawmufvu kd jf cif;yif jzpfygonf? ‚if;tjyif jynfow l . ‹kd 'Dru kd a&pDpepf wnfaqmufa&;qENwu kd‹ dkvnf; acszsufvdkufavawmhonf? oda‹k omfjim;vnf; jrefrmjynfow l . ‹kd arG;&myg &ydik cf iG rhf sm;jzpfaom vlt ‹ cGihf ta&;wdo ‹k nf xm0& jiif;y,fc&H rnfum; r[kwyf gacs? OD;atmifqef;.orD; a': atmifqef;pk-unfonf jynfwGif;'Drdkua&pDawmif;qdka&; v+yf&Sm;r+}uD;udk acgif; aqmifr+ay;aeygonf?þpma&;aecsdefwGif olronf ppftm%m&Sifwkd‹. tdrfwGif; tcsKyf ðyvkyfjcif;udk cHae&jim;vnf; pdwf"mwfrus/ vlxkw&yfvHk; awmifhwae onfh taESmiftzGrJ‹ S vGwfajrmufa&; ar#mfrSef;csufudk wdkufyGJ0ifum &yfwnfvsuf yif &Sdygonf? jynfya&muf jrefrmrsKd;cspfrsm;tjyif urBmw0S rf;vHk;&Sd ppftm%m &Sipf epfukd pufqyk I f vlt ‹ cGit hf a&; csKd;azmufonfh rormr+rsm;udk &GrH ek ;f aom Edik f

iHwumrS vlrsK;d pHyk *k Kd~ vfrsm;uyg a':atmifqef;pk-unftm; axmufct H m;ay;vsuf &Syd gonf?þpmtkyaf &;ol OD;cifatmifonf jrefrmjynfow l . ‹kd vlrt + cGit hf a&;twGuf -opa-w;vsjynfwGif;rS wufwufºuGºuG wdkufyGJ0ifaeolrsm;wGif twufºuGqHk; yk*~dKvfwOD;jzpfygonf? ‚if;onf jrefrmEdkifiH 'Drdkua&pDjyefvnfwnfaqmufa&; aumfrwD/ -opa-w;vstzGJŒwGif 1988 rS 1992 ckESpftxd OuU@wm0efESifh EdkifiH wumqdik &f m aumfrwD. 'k=OuU@wm0efukd xrf;aqmifcyhJ gonf? 1991 ckEpS w f iG f vnf; jynfya&muf jrefrmtpdk;&tzGJŒ jzpfaom trsKd;om;!Gefa‹ ygif;tpdk;&. -op a-w;vsEdkifiHqdkif&m udk,fpm;vS,fvnf; jzpfcJhygonf? OD;cifatmifEiS hf ZeD; yufx&pf&mS wdo ‹k nf jrefrmhordik ;f wGif xif&mS ;cJo h nfh rsKd; ±dk;pOfqufrS aygufzGm;vm-uolrsm;jzpf-uI OD;cifatmif.zcifrSm uG,fvGefol &J Adv k cf sKyf OD;xGe;f vSatmifjzpfvsuf olZ‹ eD;. zcifrmS vGwv f yfa&;&_yD;acwf/ w&m; ±H;k csKyf w&m;ol}uD;vnf;jzpfum tdE, Nd òrdj› ytkycf sKyfa&; yËdnmOfc0H efxrf; ICS t zGŒJ 0ifwOD;vnf; jzpfco hJ nfh OD;aomif;pdejf zpfygonf? OD;cifatmifonf Armhvw G v f yf a&;wyfrawmfEiS hf Armha&wyfrawmfww ‹kd iG f wm0efxrf;aqmifc_hJ yD; ppf_yD;acwfwiG f yifv,fu;l oabFmukr% ` w D ckY xl;c|efatmifjrifpmG tr+xrf;cJo h nf? olEiS hf olZ‹ eD; wdk‹onf tar&duefEdkifiHwGif (12) ESpf-um aexdkifcJh-u_yD; -opa-w;vsEdkifiH/ uif bm&mòrdY› 1983 ckEpS rf pS I tajccs aexdik v f mcJ-h uolrsm; jzpfygonf? pma&;olOD;cifatmifrSm OD;atmifqef;vkyf}uHr+}uD;wGif yg0ifcJholtcsKdŒESifh ywfoufIvnf;aumif;/ xdktcsdefu tjzpftysuf tajctaet&yf&yfwEdk‹ Sifh ywf oufIvnf;aumif; udk,fwdkif tawGt ‹ óuH&SdcJh±Hkru a&S;a[mif;ordkif; taxmuf txm; pmtkypf mwrf;rsm;udv k nf; _Adwo d #armfueG ;f wdu k rf S ud, k w f ikd f okawoeðy cJhojzifh þacwfopfjrefrmhordkif;Y ta&;ygvSaom jzpfysufr+tpOfudk jyefajymif; ajym&ef toifhawmfqHk;yk*~dKvfwOD; jzpfcJhygonf? od&k‹ mwGif vlrodao;bJ usef&pf aeonfh tcsKŒdtcsKŒdaom v#KŒd0u S q f ef;-u,fr+ uGi;f qufrsm;um; use&f adS umif; usef &Sad eygOD;rnf? Oyrm þTr#-urf;ñuwfvaS om vlowfr}+ uD;udk OD;apmusL;vGe&f mY rnfonfhta-umif;tcsufwu dk‹ v+aH‹ qmftm;ay;wkdufwGef;cJh-uoenf; qdkonfudk ,ckwdkif em;vnf&efcufcJvSonfhtajc &SdaeqJyif jzpfygonf? odk‹&mwGif Tpm tkyfonf ppf_yD;acwfaemufydkif; jrefrmEdkifiHordkif;udk twGif;usus avhvmvdkuf

13

14 14


Oa,smZOf

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

pm;vdkol okawoDynm&Sifwdk‹twGuf wefzdk;rjzwfEdkifatmif taxmuftulðyyg vdrrhf nf? *syefacwf t"dywd a'gufwmbarmfa&;om;_y;D ppf_y;D acwfwiG f xkwaf 0onfh ‘jrefrmjynfwiG ;f atmifjrifr}+ uD;’ trnf&pdS mtkyw f iG f pma&;olu jrefrmjynfEiS yhf wf oufaom ordkif;qdkif&mtrSefw&m;rsm;onf jrefrmvlrsKd;wdk‹ udk,fwdkif jyefrajym jyor# umvywfvHk; rnfonhftcgr# ±kyfvHk;yDjyifpGm ay:vGifvmrnfr[kwfacs[k a&;om;cJhygonf? ‚if;uyif qufvufI 'kwd,urBmppfESifh ppfóudacwf jrefrmh ordkif;udk xdkacwfwGifyg0ifaom jrefrmwdu k‹ dk,fwdkif ra&;om;&ao;a-umif; 0efcH cJh_yD; ta-umif;t&m cdkifcdkifvHkvHkudk twGif;ususodxm;aom yk*d~Kvfwdk‹u ra&; om;ao;or# jrefrmjynfwiG jf zpfymG ;cJah om ta-umif;&if;rsm;. trSew f &m;udk od &Sed m;vnfEikd rf nfr[kwaf cs[k a&;om;cJyh gonf? acwfwacwf. ta&;ygvSonfh tjzpftysufrsm;udk euf±+dif;pGm od&Sdem;vnfap&ef a'gufwmbarmf a&;om;azmf jyouJhodk‹ OD;cifatmif. pmtkyfrSmvnf; tzdk;rjzwfEdkifaom taxmuftulwck jzpfayawmhonf?

(35) ESpfwkdifwkdif xrf;aqmifcJh_yD; t_idrf;pm;,lcJh&m (ruG,fvGefrD) tESpf (20) umvtwGif; “uifbm&mwkdif;pf” owif;pmwGif tywfpOf -oZmanmif;aom aqmif;yg;rsm; a&;cJhonfhtjyif “aemufqkH;uufzJcsyf” ac: pmtkyfvnf; a&;om; cJhonf? rmvfuGefESifh a&mufZmemwkt d‹ m; EkdifiHjcm;a&muf jrefrmrdwfaqGrsm;pGmwkd‹ u t_rcJ spcf ifpmG owd&-uvsu&f rdS nf? txl;tm;jzihf 'Dru dk a&pD jyefvnfxal xmif &ef ¯ud;yrf;vsu&f o dS rl sm;onf olwE‹dk pS Of ;D ckid rf mpGm tqufrjywf axmufct H m;ay;cJh -ujcif;ukd aus;Zl;wifowd&-urnfjzpfygonf?

Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô

rmvfuGef bGwfum; · uif b m&mòrŒawmf / =opa=w;vs Ed k 0 if b mv/ 1992 ck E S p f ?

· rpPwmþrmvfueG þf bGwu f m; (Mr. Malcolm Booker) onf 1998 ckEpS /f Zlvidk f v (15) &ufae‹/ touf (82) ESpfwGif rdrdaetdrf uifbm&m-rdY› uG,fvGefcJhonf? ol‹ZeD; a&mufZmem (Roxana) rSmvnf; xkdae‹wGifyif aq;±kHY a&m*ga0'em -um &Snpf mG cHpm;&_yD; em&Dom apmIaoqk;H oGm;&Smonf? olwE‹dk pS Of ;D pvk;H rSm oHwref0efxrf;rsm;jzpf-uonf? rmvfueG f bGwu f m;onf 1951 ckrS 1953 cktxd jrefrmjynfqidk &f m oHtrwftjzpf ceft ‹ yfjcif;cH&I yxrOD;qk;H -opa-w;vsoH±;Hk ukd (88) urf;em;vrf; (Strand Hotel Annex) wGif zGiv hf pS cf ahJ om a-umifh xkdtaqmufttkHY ,ae‹wkdif wnf&Sdvsuf&Sdonf? xkdaemuf tDwvD/ ,l*pdk vm;AD;,m;/ ±kad r;eD;,m;ESihf blvaf *;&D;,m;jynfrsm;wGif oHtrwf}uD;wm0ef aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf? 1976 ckEpS w f iG f uifbm&m-rdo › ‹dk jyefvm-u_y;D Ekid if jH cm;a&;oHwref 15 15

16 16


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

u|efawmfhZeD;. uG,fvGefav_yD;aomzcif}uD; w&m;ol}uD;a[mif; OD; aomif;pdefonf ‚if;aexdkif&m rJvfbkef;òrdr› S uGsefawmfwrdk‹ dom;pk. uifbm&mtdrf odk‹ 1989 ck/ Zlvdkifv oluG,fvGefcsdeftxd wESpfwacgufcef‹ vma&mufvnfywf avh&ydS gonf? touf&pS q f ,fausm_f yD qdak omfjim;vnf; zswv f wf-unfvif trSwf onmaumif;onfh OD;aomif;pdeo f nf olb ‹ 0oufwrf;wav#muf tr+xrf;cJo h nfh tawGŒtóuH taxGaxGukd jyefajymif; pm;òrHj› yefwwfonf? xdt k xJY acwfopf jref rmhordkif;wGif ta&;ygonfh tjzpftysufrsm;udk a&mifjyef[yfaponfh ta-umif; t&mrsm;pGmwdk‹vnf; ygwwfonf? OD;aomif;pdefonf ,cifwcsdefu vlwef;pm; tv$mwckjzpfaom tdENd, òr›djytkyfcsKyfa&; yËdnmOfcH0efxrf;tzGJŒ0if (I.C.S) wOD; jzpfonft h jyif w&m;a&;Xme twGi;f 0eftjzpfvnf;aumif;/ tusOf;axmifrsm; OD; pD;csKyf (axmifrif;}uD;) tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ 1947 ckESpfwGif wòydifwnf; wm0ef xrf;aqmifcJh&ygonf? _Adwdo#wdk‹xHrS 1948 ckESpf jrefrmEdkifiH vGwfvyfa&;&_yD; csdew f iG f w&m;±H;k csKyf w&m;ol}uD;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ aemufyikd ;f wGif Edik if yH ikd f odr;f ydkufa&;aumfr&SifESifh a&G;aumufyGJ t,lcHaumfr&SiftzGJŒwdk‹. OuU@tjzpfvnf; aumif; EdkifiHawmftpdk;&tzGJŒu txl;a&G;cs,fI wm0efay;tyfjcif; cHcJh&onf? OD;aomif;pde. f trSww f &tawGŒtóuHrsm;xJrS ol ESpEf pS òf cduòf cduf ajymjyavh &Sdaom tjzpftysufwckrSmrl uG,fvGefol u|efawmhfzcif AdkvfcsKyf (&Jwyf) OD;xGef; vSatmifEiS hf wdu k ±f u kd yf wfoufaeygonf? xdt k csed u f u|eaf wmhzf cifrmS &mZ0wfr+ h jyif t&Sed t f pHpk rf;ppfaq;a&;Xme t}uD;tuJ ( Dy. Inspector General ) jzpfonft 0g}uD;vSonfh t*Fvef bk&ifh&Jwyfrawmf}uD;. tzGJŒ0ifwOD;tjzpfvnf; 1940 ck aESmif;ydkif;wGif wm0efxrf;cJh&oljzpfygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh ‚if;.0ef}uD; tzGJŒ0ifrsm;tm; 1947 ck/ Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹wGif vkyf}uHowfjzwfcJhr+a-umifh OD;apmtm; tif;pdet f usO;f axmifwiG f xde;f odr;f xm;csed Yf 'k=&JcsKyf OD;xGe;f vSatmif ESifh w&m;ol}uD; OD;aomif;pdefwdk‹tm; OD;apm. vHkòcHa&;twGuf yl;wGJwm0ef ay;cJhygonf? xdka-umifhvnf; ‚if;wdk‹ESpfOD;onf ae‹pOfvdkvdk &efukefrS tif;pdef axmifodk‹ um;jzifh twloGm;avh&Sd-u&m c&D;wav#mufwGifvnf; ,m,D ‘jynfol‹

ppfwyf’ yHkpHjzifh zGJŒpnf;xm;aom jynfol‹&JabmftzGJŒ0iftcsKd‹wdk‹ apmifh-uyfaeonfh ppfaq;a&;pcef;rsm;pGmwdk‹udk jzwfoef;&avh&Sdonf? xdktcsdefu jynfol‹&Jabmf tzGŒJrmS vnf; OD;atmifqef;r&So d nfah emuf (tjzL/ t0g) ESpzf ŒJGuaJG e_y;D rnfonft h zGŒJ u rnfol‹vufatmufY opPmcHxm;onfudk twdtusrod&ao;acs? odk‹ESifhyif 1947 ckESpfaemufydkif;/ wnaewGif ‚if;wdu k‹ m;udk &yfwefa‹ p&ef ppfaq;a&;pcef; wckrS cyfxefxef trdea‹f y;wm;qD;vdu k u f m a&mifpakH jymufusm;ppf0wfpkH 0wfqif xm;onfh &JabmftcsKŒd/ ±dik zf ,faoewfajymif;rsm;jzifh csed x f m;vsuf olwx ‹kd aH jy;vm -uonf? xdt k cg u|eaf wmfzh cif OD;xGe;f vSatmifonf um;armif;ae&mrS &yfI qif; oufvdkuf_yD; ‚if;wdrk‹ nfolrnf0gjzpfa-umif; ajymjyvsuf ,if;aoewfudkifvlwpk . acgif;aqmifvufxJrS aoewfudk ykwfcsvdkufonf? ‚if;aemuf olwdk‹ a-umif trf;trf;-unfah eqJrmS yif um;ay:jyefwufI armif;xGuv f mcJo h nf? tqdkygtjzpftysufrsm;ta-umif; jyefajymif;ajymqdkor#udk u|efawmf-um; od&_yD;aemuf xdt k csurf sm;. v+a‹H qmfra+ -umifh xdt k csed u f tuif;raoao;aom jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;Zmwfvrf;tzHkzHkudk u|efawmf pwif pdwf0ifpm;rdawmhonf? wEdkifiH vHk; vdkufemusifhoHk;-u&rnfh _Adwdo#bk&ifhOya'ESifh acwfay:vufeufudkif a'o cHrsm;. Oya'rJhjzpfaer+rsm; a&maxG;,Sufwif v+yf&Sm;aer+udk u|efawmf txl; owdðy avhvmrSwo f m;&awmhonf? xdt k cgu tajctaet& jynfwiG ;f Edik if aH &; orm;rsm;. ud, k yf ikd pf pfwyfrsm;twGi;f tm%mudt k a-umif;ðyI xGuaf y:vmaom tusKd;pD;yGm; yÉdyuQrsm; r-umc%ay:aygufvmavh&Sdonf? tqdkyg ta-umif; t&mrsm;xJwiG f *VKefwyftjzpf (0g;&if;wkwu f Akd ef;jyvsuf) v#KdŒ0u S v f ufeufuikd f wyfzGJŒxm;aom emrnfqdk;jzifhausmf-um;vSonfh *VKefOD;apmudkrl u|efawmf pdwf t0ifpm;qH;k jzpf&ygonf? u|eaf wmfEiS t hf wl u|eaf wmf. om;i,fEpS Of ;D jzpfaom cifO;D atmifEiS hf xGe;f vS atmifav; (*sLeD,m) wdu ‹k vnf; tbd;k jzpfot l m; tqdyk gZmwfvrf;rsm; jyefajymif; qufvufajymqdk&ef r-umc% wdkufwGef;-uavh&Sdonf? trsKd;om; acgif;aqmif }uD;rsm; vky}f uHc&H r+EiS hf ywfoufI OD;apmESihf ‚if;.taygif;ygwdt ‹k wGi;f pum;0Suf ESihf a&;aompmrsm;udk ae&mowfrw S I f v#KŒd0u S pf mG vJv, S cf jhJ cif;rsm;ta-umif; ajym jyonft h cg u|efawmfwt ‹kd m;vH;k rde;f armawGa0oGm;rdawmhonf? xdt k a-umif;t &mrsm;udk wpGef;wp azmfjy&aomf ‘ajcqGHŒaeonfh raumif;qdk;0g;}uD;’/ ‘iSufaysm oD;pdrf;jzifh {nfhcH’/ ‘oHyk&m&nfudkóudufw,f’/ ‘a&uefxJrSm ig;r&Sd’/ ‘t&yfjrifhjrihf

17

18

pma&;ol. ed'gef;

17

18


19

ed'gef;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

vl}uD;’æponfæponfjzifæ h ? (t&yfjrihjf rihv f o l nf rnfoel nf;qdo k nfrmS ya[Vd) odE‹k iS hf OD;atmifqef;wdt ‹k m; vky}f uHr}+ uD;onf OD;apmESihf ‚if;. taygif;ygrsm; vuf csufomru w&m;Oya'a&SŒarSmufodk‹ rnfonfhtcgur# ra&mufvdkuf&bJ vGwf ajrmufqJ/ vGwfajrmufoGm;-uaom tjcm;tr+tcif;rsm;qdkif&m tcsKdŒ yk*~dKvfrsm; vnf; &Sdaumif;&SdavOD;rnf[k u|efawmf oHo,ruif; jzpfvmrdawmhonf? xdk‹ a-umifh u|efawmfha,muQr}uD;. ajymjycsufrsm;udk aemifvmaemufom;rsm;t wGuf pmjzifhrSwfwrf;wifxm;oifhonf[k u|efawmfcHpm;rdcJhonf? odk‹ jzpfonfht avsmuf u|eaf wmf. pmwdpk mprSww f rf;rsm;udk pkpnf;I t-urf;tm;jzifh pmwapmif wzGŒJ tjzpf a&;om;vdu k af omtcg OD;aomif;pdeu f aocsmpGmzwf-unh_f yD; oabm wlco hJ nf? þTwGif u|eaf wmfwE‹kd pS Of ;D . jyefajymif;owd&r+rsm;udk u|eaf wmf. xyf qif&h mS azG avhvmrSwo f m;r+rsm;ESihf aygif;pyfI jznf;jznf;csi;f wd;k csŒJa&;om;cJo h nf? u|efawmfu, kd w f ikd v f nf; xdo k ‹kd tke;f tke;f u|ufu|uf ±ke;f &if;qefcwf jzpfymG ;aecsdef tcgu xdkvkyf}uHr+}uD; jzpfyGm;cJh&m twGif;0ef±Hk;ESifh rsufESmcsif;qdkif wbufjcrf; &Sd a&wyf (urf;em;XmecsKyf) ðyvkyx f m;aom pdea‹f ygvfausmif;0if;twGi;f Y vli,f a&wyft&m&Sw d OD;tjzpf wm0efusaeqJjzpfonf? xd‹k jyif u|efawmht f m; þta-umif;t&mrsm;udk a&;om;&ef v+a‹H qmfay;cJo h nfh tjcm;ta-umif;w&yfrSmrl u|efawmf. OD;av;awmfol OD;a&$abmfjzpfonf? ‚if; rSm tdENd,òrdj› ytkyfcsKyfa&; yËdnmOfcH0efxrf; tzGJŒ0if (I.C.S) wOD;jzpfvsuf vGwf vyfa&;r&ao;rD ,m,Dtpd;k &tzGŒJ . twGi;f 0efwOD;jzpf_yD; vky}f uHrj+ zpfymG ;pOfu OD;atmifqef;. vuf0b J ufwiG f uyfvsufxikd af ecJ&h mrS th-H ozG,af umif;avmuf atmif usnfqefu a&Smifxu G o f mG ;jcif;a-umifh ab;roD&efrcbJ vGwaf jrmufc&hJ olwOD;jzpfygonf? OD;a&$abmfudk,fwdkif xdka-uuGJbG,f&m tjzpftysuf/ ol‹ rsuf jrifu, kd af wGŒZmwfa-umif;udk u|efawmft h m; jyefvnfajymjycJyh gonf? xda‹k -umifh Tpmtkyo f nf vky}f uHr}+ uD;ESiyhf wfoufI tajzwpHw k &may;&ef xuf OD;apmaemufrmS b,foal wG&ydS gvdr[ hf al om tawG;ESit hf wl oda‹k vmoda‹k vm ar;cGef;rsm;om xyfrH ay:aygufaumif; ay:aygufvmapygvdrfhrnf? u|efawmf. &nf&G,fcsufrSmrl OD;atmifqef;vkyf}uHr+ESifhywfoufI v#KdŒ0Sufr+tcsKdŒudk óud;pm; ajz&Sif;vsuf u|efawmfwdk‹EdkifiH. uH-urRmudk 0rf;enf;zG,f&m ajymif;vJoGm;apcJh onfh þjzpf&yfqdk;}uD;udk topfwzefjyefvnfI tao;pdwfavhvm&efjzpfygonf? u|efawmfESifhtwl jrefrmjynfoltrsm;pktaejzifh ,cktcsdefom OD;atmifqef;

touf&iS af ecJyh gv#if u|efawmfw‹kd ,ckcpH m;ae-u&onfh uH-urRmqd;k wdu ‹k kd a&Smif &Sm;Edkifayvdrfhrnf[k cdkif_rJpGm,Hk-unf-uyg.? Tta-umif;w&yfwnf;ESifhyif t qdyk g vky}f uHrZ+ mwfa-umif;udk cGjJ crf;pdwjf zm avhvmoifah yawmhonf? xdt ‹k wl vGef cJah om (45) ESpw f mumvu Ekid if AhH o d u k m}uD; usqH;k oGm;_yD;aemufyikd ;f / xdw k acwf . tarGtESpt f jzpf usef&pfco hJ nfh Ekid if aH &; a&pD;a-umif;wav#muf }uD;pk;d cJo h nfh avmb/ a'gowdk‹ jzifh ¹yGef;wD;aom t-urf;zufr+rsm;. tajccH t&if;tjrpfwdk‹ udv k nf; avhvmoifv h aS yonf? ,if;tarGukd tomw-unfvufc&H ef jiif;y,fweG ;f vSecf ahJ om yk*Kd~ vfrsm;ESihf r_yD;qHk;ao;aom jrefrmEkdifiH. vGwfvyfa&;/ 'Drkdua&pDta&;ESifh o[Zmwjzpf a&;wdt ‹k wGuf owW&d pdS mG wdu k yf 0JG ifaeolrsm;twGuf Tpmtkyu f kd &nf&, G af &;om; &jcif;jzpfygonf?

19

20

armif c if a tmif uif b m&mòrŒawmf / =opa=w;vs Ek d 0 if b mv/ 1992 ck E S p f ?

Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô

20


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

"Who Killed Aung San ?" (atmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ) pmtkyfa&; om;ðypkol OD;cifatmiftm; vGefcJhaom (13) ESpf/ 1986 ck/ pufwifbmvwGif rdwaf qGwOD;u rdwzf ŒJGay;pOf uifbm&mòrda› wmf/ jrefrmtdrw f ckY yxrOD;qH;k t}udrf awGŒqHkcGihf&cJhygonf? aqmif;tukef/ aEGtul;rdk‹ &moDomarmonfh TvwGif ‘uifbm&m’ Y yef;yGaJ wmf usi;f y_rjJ zpfojzihf t&yf&yfrS vma&mufvnfywf-uaom {nfo h nfrsm;jzihf pnfum;avh&o dS nf? u|efawmfrh w d af qGu OD;cifatmiftm; jrefrm ppftm%m&Sif Akv d af e0if;tpd;k &udk ESpaf ygif;rsm;pGm awmfveS af eolwOD;tjzpfvnf; D mxH aumif;/ ‘The Canberra Times’ (uifbm&mwkid ;f pfowif;pm}uD;) . t,f'w ay;pmrsm; tcef;u¾wGif jrefrmppftpkd;&. vSnfhuGufjy±kyfrsm;udk azmfxkwf_yD; ppftm%m&Sifpepfqdk;}uD;udk uavmifjzifh rSefrSefxdk;ESufwHk‹ jyefaeolwOD;tjzpf vnf;aumif; rdwq f ufay;cJyh gonf? OD;cifatmif. t*Fvyd pf may Edik ef if;u|r;f usif r+/ [mo^m%fºuG,0f r+/ tm0Z…e;f &$irf w + o ‹kd nf ol. xufjrufaom ^m%fynmudk a&mifjyef[yfaeonf[k u|efawmfrw S cf sufcsrdonf? aemufaemif olEiS fh &if;ES;D vm aomtcg AkdvfcsKyfae0if; wdkif;jynf. tcsKyftjcmtm%mudk twif;t"rR odrf; ydu k cf ahJ om 1962=ckEpS Of ;D umvtcsderf pS I ,ae‹xufwikd f worwfwnf; ppftm %m&Sipf epfukd awmfveS af eol rsKd;cspfwOD;tjzpf ydI k av;pm;vmcJyh gonf? xdak‹ emuf 1988=ckESpf/ jrefrmjynfwGif; vlxktHkºuGr+}uD;ay:aygufvmaom tcg ppftpk;d &. &ufpufpmG ESyd u f yG o f wfjzwfra+ -umifh jrefrmjynfol toufaygif; axmifEiS cfh sDI qH;k ±+;H cJ&h onf? jrefrmhvw G v f yfa&; Adou k m}uD; Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;. orD; a':atmifqef; pk-unf. wnf-unfajzmifhrwfaom acgif;aqmifr+atmufwGif jynfolwdk‹ wnD w!Gwfwnf; pkpnf;I jrefrmjynf. 'kwd,vGwfvyfa&;udk awmif;qdkcJh-uonf? ppftpkd;&onf a':atmifqef;pk-unftm; (6) ESpfwdkifwdkif tdrfwGif;tusOf;csxm; cJh_yD;/ trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJŒcsKyf tzGJŒ0ifrsm;ESihf ppftpkd;&udk qefu ‹ sifolrsm;tm; pepfwus acsr+ef;cJhygonf? TonfhumvwGif jynfya&muf jrefrmrsKd;cspfrsm;u vnf; EkdifiHt&yf&yfwGif ppftpkd;&qef‹usifa&; qENjyyGJrsm; usif;ycJh-uonf? 'Drkd

ua&pDusihfoHk;aom tpdk;&toD;oD;tm; csOf;uyfvsuf jrefrmppftpkd;&udk,fwdkif OD;pD;usif;yay;cJhaom 1990=ck/ taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJwGif tEkdif&&SdcJhonfh trsKd;om;'Dru dk a&pDtzGŒJ csKyftm; olwu ‹kd wdtwkid ;f tm%mv$aJ jymif;ay;&ef zdtm; ay;a&;twGuf óud;yrf;cJ-h uonfrmS ordik ;f rSww f ikd w f ck jzpfvmonf? -opa-w;vs &Sd jynfwGif;v+yf&Sm;cJh-uonfh jrefrmrsKd;cspfrsm;twGif; OD;cifatmifrSm a&SŒwef;rS yg0ifcyhJ gonf? OD;cifatmif. ‘atmifqef;udk b,foo l wfovJ’ t*Fvyd b f momjzifh pmtkyf ðypkaecsdefwGif -opa-w;vsjynfwGif twlwuG EkdifiHa&;v+yf&Sm;ae-uonfjzpfI u|eaf wmfEiS fh r-umc% pmtkyyf g ta-umif;t&mrsm;udk aqG;aEG;wdik yf ifc-hJ uonf? Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef;ESifh acgif;aqmifrsm; usq;kH onft h csed u f OD;cifatmif. zcifrmS jrefrmjynf. 'k=&JcsKyfjzpfaeIvnf;aumif;/ OD;cifatmifZeD;. zcifrmS vnf; w&m; a&;Xme. twGif;0efwOD;taejzifh vnf;aumif;/ axmifrsm;udk }uD;-uyftkyfcsKyf &onfh OD;pD;csKyftaejzifv h nf;aumif; aqmif&u G af e-u&aoma-umihf OD;cifatmif onf xdyk *k Kd~ vf}uD;ESpOf ;D xHrS OD;apmESifh taygif;tygrsm;ESifh ywfoufaom ta-umif; t&mrsm;tm; twGif;usus owif;tcsuftvufrsm; wkduf±dkufod&SdcGifh&cJhonf? xkd‹a-umihf OD;cifatmif. xdktcsdefu udk,fawGŒrsufjriftjzpftysufrsm;udk ESpf aygif;rsm;pGm pepfwus okawoeðypkxm;onfrsm;ESifh aygif;pyfvu kd af omtcg ckid f vHkaom orkdif;taxmuftxm;wcktaejzihf ydkrdkwdusjywfom;vmygawmhonf? Tae&mwGif OD;cifatmifonf ta-umif;jcif;&m trSeu f o kd m wifjy_yD;/ ta-umif; tusKd; qufEG,fr+rsm;udk pmzwfy&dowfrsm;uom qufvufI pl;prf; qifjcif awG;ac:Ekdif&ef csefvSyfxm;cJhonf? ta-umif;jcif;&m trSeftuef wifjyr+Y OD;cifatmifonf twGif;pnf;rS teD;uyfavhvmcJholjzpfI ol. tcsuftvuf rsm;onf w&m;Oya'tjrifwGif yDjyifwdusvSygonf? orkdif;okawoDrsm; quf vufavhvm&ef tajccHtw k jf rpfcsay;cJo h nfEiS v fh nf; wlygonf? OD;cifatmif. pmtkyft*Fvdyfrl&if;onf tqifhtwef;jrihfvSonf? odak‹ omf jrefrmjynfot l rsm;twGuf &nfp;l I jrefrmbmomjyef&ef vH;k yef;aomtcg tcuf tcJrsm;awGŒ I aESmifah ES;cJ&h onf? u|eaf wmfonfvnf; jrefrmpmayESifh uif;a0;ae onfrSm ESpftwef-umcJh_yDjzpfonfhtjyif ,cifu bmomjyefqdkonfh tawGŒtóuH vnf; r&SdcJhygacs? OD;cifatmifudk (pDtm'DbD) jrefrmjynf'Drdkua&pD jyefvnfwnf aqmufa&; OD;pD;aumfrwD (tjynfjynfqkdif&mESifh -opa-w;vs) . em,u}uD; tjzpf av;pm;vsuf/ ol. ta&;ygvSaom Tpmtkyfudk jrefjrefqefqef jrefrm

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bmomjyefo. l trSm

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trSm

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

bmomjzifh xkwaf 0vdak oma-umihf bmomjyeftjzpf wm0ef,rl yd gonf? uHaumif; onfrSm jr0wDOD;&Jacgif -opa-w;vsodk‹ a&muf&Sdvmojzifh pmwnf;jzwfay;&ef OD;&JacgifrS wm0ef,_l y;D / tcef;vdu k f txl;óud;pm;wnf;jzwfay;jcif;twGuf aus;Zl; wifz, G &f mjzpfygonf? txl;ojzifh rar#mv f ifb h J u|eaf wmf. vkyif ef;qkid &f mtykid ;f wGif wm0efyv d m onfhtcgrsm;Yvnf; u|efawmfhnD a'gufwmat;ausmf (atmifoef‹ausmf) tm; tultnDawmif;_yD; olESihftwl tcsKdŒtcef;rsm;udk bmomjyefygonf? tcsKdŒtcef; rsm;rSm a'gufwm at;ausmfbmomjyefqkd_yD;/ u|efawmfu wcsKdŒae&mY jyifqif jznfph u G v f suf OD;&JacgifrS xyfrw H nf;jzwfygonf? bmomjyefq&kd mYvnf; t*Fvyd pf mrS wdu k ±f u dk b f momjyefqrkd u + kd ta&;xm; I trsm;qk;H tok;H ðyaomfvnf; tcsKdt ‹ csuftvufrsm;wGif jrefrmpmzwfy&dowf ESifh ydkrdkqDavsmfap&ef jr0wDOD;&Jacgif. t}uHðycsuft& pma&;ol OD;cifatmif. oabmwlnrD j+ zifh tenf;tusOf; ðyjyifa&;om;cJo h nfrsm; &Scd o hJ nf? odk‹ jzpfI yl;wGJbmomjyefol a'gufwmat;ausmfESifh u|rf;usifpGm pmwnf; jzwfol jr0wDO;D &Jacgifwt ‹kd m; txl;aus;Zl;wif&ydS gonf? bmomjyefq&kd mY trSm; t,Gi;f &Scd yhJ gv#if u|efawmfw h iG o f m wm0ef&ydS gonf?

a'guf w mwif h a 0 qpf ' eD ò rŒ/ =opa=w;vs (9/ 9/ 99) yl ; wG J b momjyef o l a'guf w mat;ausmf qpf ' eD ò rŒ/ =opa=w;vs

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

1

Zmwfvrf;0if yk*Kd~ vfrsm; tmZmenf r sm;

OD;tke;f armif (34) ESpf/ o,f,lyadk‹ qmifa&;ESifh vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;Xme/ 'kwd, twGi;f 0ef (I.C.S)/ tpD&ifcpH mwckukd vma&mufwifoiG ;f aepOf vlowform;rsm;. usnfqefrsm; xdreS o f mG ;jcif;cH&onf? ae&mwGiyf if yGcJ sif;_yD;aoqH;k onf?

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef; (c) Adv k af wZ (32) ESp/f jrefrmhtrsKd;om;a&;v+y&f mS ;r+. acgif; aqmif}uD;/ bk&ifcHtr+aqmifaumifpD. 'k=OuU@ (odk‹ ) wu,fhvufawGŒtm;jzihf vGwfvyfa&;r&rD 0ef}uD;tzGJŒ. 0ef}uD;csKyf/ ‚if;tjyif xdktpdk;&tzGJŒ. umuG,f a&;ESifh EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;/ usnfqef (13) csufoifhaom '%f&mjzifh ae&mwGif yif yGcJ sif;_yD;aoqH;k cJ&h onf?

udak xG; (18) ESpf/ OD;&mZwf.oufawmfapmifh/ rEœav;teD;&Sd awmifjyif ody`H&yfrS rlqvifvil ,fwOD;jzpfonf? tpnf;ta0;cef;rwGi;f rS aoewforH sm;-um;&ojzifh teD;&Sd±Hk;cef;rS ajy;xGufvmpOf qkwfcGmajy;oGm;aeaom vlowform;rsm;. ypfcwfjcif;udkcH&onf? '%f&m (4) csuf&&Sd_yD; aq;±HkwGif aoqHk;onf?

'D;'kwOf ;D bcsKd (54) ESp/f pma&;q&m/ owif;pmq&mESihf 'D;'kw*f sme,f. t,f'w D m/ jyef-um;a&;0ef}uD;/ olt ‹ ouft&G,fESifh OD;aESmufxJ0ifoGm;aom usnfqef tyg t0if usnq f ef (5) csu&f &So d nfw h ikd f ae‹v,fyikd ;f txd &efuek jf ynfoa‹l q;±H}k uD;wGif touf&iS v f suf &Sad eao;onf?

vl o wf o rm;rsm;

ocifjr (49) ESp/f vli,facgif;aqmifrsm;-um;wGif touft&G,}f uD;&ifah om Edik if H acgif;aqmif/ b¾ma&;0ef}uD;/ tqkwfudk xGif;azmufoGm;aom aoewf'%f &mjzifh ae&mwGif yGcJ sif;_yD;aoqH;k onf? OD;tAŠ'&l mZwf (49) ESpf/ rEœav;°rd› rlqvifacgif;aqmif/ ynma&;ESifh trsKd;om; pDrHudef;0ef}uD;/ '%f&m (6) csuf&&Sd_yD; ae&mwGifyif yGJcsif;_yD;aoqHk;onf? OD;b0if; (46) ESpf/ OD;atmifqef;.tudk/ ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;ESifh axmufyHha&; 0ef}uD;/ usnfqef'%f&m (8) csuf&&Sd_yD; ae&mwGifyif yGJcsif;_yD;aoqHk;onf?

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pyfpx H eG ;f (40) ESp/f &S r;f jynfe,frS rdik ;f yGeaf pmfbmG ;}uD;/ e,fjcm;a'oqdik &f m twdik f yifcH0ef}uD;/ OD;acgif;wGif '%f&m (2) csuf&&Sd_yD; (20) &ufae‹ rGef;wnfhcsdefwGif &efuek °f rd/› jynfoa‹l q;±H}k uD;Y aoqH;k oGm;onf?

OD;apm/ 1900=jynfEh pS w f iG f om,m0wD°rdY› arG;zGm;onf? vlowform;rsm;. acgif; aqmif[k tpGyfpGJcH&ol/ orBm&ifh vufsmEdkifiHa&;orm;jzpf_yD; OD;atmifqef;. t"du°ydifbufjzpfonf? ol&d,owif;pmudk pwifxlaxmifolESifh rsKd;cspfygwD acgif;aqmifjzpfonf? 1940=ckESpf/ pufwifbmvrS 1942=ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dvtxd eef;&if;0ef/ 1942=rS 1946=txd ,l*E<mjynfwiG f txde;f odr;f cHc&hJ onf? 1947=ck ESp/f Zefe0g&DvwGicf sKyfqakd om atmifqef;=tufwvD pmcsKyfukd todtrSw«f y&ef jiif;qefco hJ jl zpfI OD;atmifqef;ESihf olt ‹ r+aqmifaumifpD vkyaf zmfuikd zf ufrsm;tm; owfjzwfr+jzifh 1947=ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (19) &ufwGif tzrf;cH&vsuf/ pGJqdkxm;onfh twdkif; tjypfay;cH&_yD;/ 1948=ckESpf/ arv (8) &ufae‹wGif tif;pdefaxmifY ¯ud;ay;cH&onf?

ref;bcdik f (43) ESpf/ [oFmwrS u&ifvlrsKd;wOD;jzpf_yD; *syefodrf;ydkufxm;pOfu jyefvnfcck aH wmfveS &f mY yg0ifco hJ nf? pufrv + ufrX+ meESihf tvkyo f rm;Xme0ef}uD;/ usnfqef (15) csufxrd eS cf o hJ nf? ae&mwGiyf if yGcJ sif;_yD;aoqH;k onf?

armifp;dk / aoewform;/ rif;vS-rd›rS *VKefwyfzGJŒ0ifwOD;jzpf_yD; OD;apm. teD;uyf aemufvkdufjzpfI ol‹ _cHtwGif;Y apmpD;pGmuyif aexkdifcJholjzpfonf? ao'%fay; cH&onf? 1948 ckESpf/ arv (8) &ufae‹wGifyif tif;pdefaxmifY ao'%ftpD &ifc&H onf?

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Zmwfvrf;0ify*k Kd~ vfrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

oufESif;/ aoewform;/ usKdufvwf-rd›rS *VKefwyfzGJŒ0ifa[mif;jzpf_yD; ,if;-rd› rsKd;cspfygwD. twGif;a&;rª;jzpfonf? OD;apmukd txl;-unfndK_yD; vkH;0O\kH,kH -unfukd;pm;oljzpfonf? ao'%fay;cH&onf? 1948 ckESpf arv (8) &ufae‹wGif yif tif;pdeaf xmifY ao'%ftpD&ifc&H onf?

xGuftajy;wGif vGwfajrmufEkdif&ef tultnDay;a&;twGuf ajcmufvkH;jyL;ao ewfwvufjzifh twGif;0efrsm;±kH; txGuf*dwfaygufrS apmifhaecJh&onf? ao'%f tay;cH&aomfvnf; tvkyf-urf;ESifhaxmif'%f tESpf (20) okd‹ av#mhcsjcif;cH&_yD; ,if;owif;ukd okcESiw hf -ydief ufwnf; today;cHc&hJ onf?

armifped /f aoewform;/ ¯udŒyifaumuf-rdr› jS zpfI ppftwGi;f u Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef;. Armhwyfrawmfom;jzpfc_hJ y;D aemuf jynfo&‹l aJ bmftzGŒJo‹dk 0ifa&mufco hJ nf? olr‹ b d rsm; rSm rsKd;cspfygwDukd vkdvm;ESpfoufolrsm;jzpfI olu ‹ kd OD;apm. aemufvkdufjzpf&ef odr;f oGi;f qGaJ qmifc-hJ uonf? ao'%fay;cH&onf? 1948 ckEpS /f arv (8) &ufae‹ wGif &efuek t f usOf;axmifY ao'%ftpD&ifc&H onf?

r_e}f u;D / }uH&mygwOD;jzpfI a&SŒajy;tzGŒJ EiS hf vku d yf goGm;cJo h nf? tkwzf -dk rdt › eD;rS aus; &Gmom;jzpf_yD; tvkyf-urf;orm;wOD;jzpfonf? OD;apmu ol‹ukd tapcHwOD;uJhokd‹ ckdif;cJhonf? 0ef}uD;tzGJŒpnf;a0;aea-umif; vlowform;rsm;ukd olu tcsufjycJh &onf? ao'%fay;cH&onf? 1948 ckESpf/ arv (8) &ufae‹wGif tif;pdefaxmifY ao'%ftpD&ifc&H onf?

&ef}u;D atmif/ touf (18) ESpo f m&S. d ? toufti,fq;Hk aoewform;jzpfonf? OD;apm w0rf;uGn J . D om;jzpfonf? pwkwaˆ jrmufaoewform;? vkt d yfvmonfh aemufqkH;tcsdefusrS ol‹ukd a&G;cs,fcJhjcif;jzpfonf? ol. waZmufuef;tusifh a-umifh aoewform;tjzpf tH0ifciG u f sjzpfco hJ nf? ao'%fay;cH&onf? 1948 ckEpS /f arv (8) &ufae‹wGif &efukeftusOf;axmifY ao'%ftpD&ifcH&onf?

b!Ge‹f / }uH&mygwOD;jzpfI a&SŒajy;tzGŒJ wiG f yg0ifonf? OD;apm.vl,aHk wmf t"du aemufvu dk af cgif;aqmifjzpf_yD; olwOD;om OD;apm.tdrt f wGi;f aexkid cf iG &hf onf? tod^m%f&SdI tkd;onfukef;w&m;±kH;wGif pma&;jzpfcJhonf? ocifEktm;owf&ef wm0eftay;cH&onf? bk&ifhoufao (azmfaumif) tjzpf bufajymif;xGufqkd&ef oabmwlco hJ jl zpfonf? xka‹d -umifh tajctaet& olt ‹ m; tjypfrcS iG v hf w $ rf + tay; cH&vsuf tvkyf-urf;ESifh jyif;xefaomaxmif'%f (10) ESpfESifh (6) v csrSwfcH cJ&h onf?

okc/ vlowform;rsm;tm; twGif;0ef±kH;okd‹ *spfum;jzifh armif;ykda‹ y;cJholjzpfonf? &efukef-rd›&Sd tpkd;&txufwef;ausmif;rS (9) wef;atmifjrifcJhonf? ppf_yD;aemuf usKdufvwf-rd› zqyvtzGJŒ. aiGxdef;jzpf_yD; ukefonfwOD;jzpfonf? oufESif;u ol‹ukd OD;apmESifh rdwfqufay;cJhonfhtjyif rsKd;cspfygwDwGJzuftwGif;a&;rª;tjzpf pm&if;wifay;cJhonf? OD;apm. _cH0if;okd‹ vkyf}uHr+rwkdifrD aemufqkH;a&muf&Sdvm oljzpfonf? ao'%fay;cH&aomfvnf; ¯ud;ay;rnfhae‹ rwkdifrDae‹ naeykdif;wGifrS tvkyf-urf;ESifhaxmif'%f tESpf (20) okd‹ av#mhcsjcif;cH&onf? cifarmif&if/ }uH&mygwOD;jzpfI a&SŒajy;tzGJŒpD;aom zkd'‹ fqefx&yfum;ukd armif;ol jzpfonf? OD;apmZeD;onf. wlawmfonf? 0ef}uD;tzGŒJ tpnf;ta0;xkid af ea-umif; v#Kd‹0SufoauFwjzifh owif;ay;_yD; vlowform;rsm; xGufcGmvm&ef tcsufjycJh onf? ao'%ftay;cH&aomfvnf; aemufykdif;wGif tvkyf-urf;ESifhaxmif'%f tESpf (20) okd‹ av#mhcsjcif;cH&onf?

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Oya'qd k i f & myk * ~ d K vf r sm; w&m;ol}uD;rif; OD;ausmjf rif/h 1898 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;onf? 0wfvkHawmf&rif;ESifh w&m;v$wfawmf w&m;ol}uD;rif; (1946 ckESpfrSpI)? OD;apmukd ppfaq;pD&ifcsuf csaom txl;ckH±kH;awmf.OuU@/ vGwfvyfa&;&_yD;aemuf w&m;v$wfawmfcsKyf. w&m;ol}uD;rif;jzpfvmonf? xif&Sm;ausmf-um;aom nDtukdav;OD;jzpfonfh Adkvfr;ª csKyfwifxGÉf (t}uD;qkH;)/ w&m;ol}uD;rif; OD;jrifhodef;/ a'gufwmxifatmif wkw ‹d iG f 'kw, d ajrmufjzpfonf? 1988 ckEpS f arvwGif uG,v f eG cf o hJ nf?

armife/D }uH&mygwOD;jzpfI a&SŒajy;tzGJŒESifh vkdufygoGm;cJhonf? vlowform;rsm;

OD;atmifomausm/f tqifhjrifh puf&Sifw&m;ol}uD;rif;/ OD;apmudk ppfaq;aom txl;cHk±Hk;awmf. tzGJŒ0ifwOD;jzpfI/ vGwfvyfa&;&_yD;aemuf w&m;v$wfawmf

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Zmwfvrf;0ify*k Kd~ vfrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

w&m;ol}uD;rif;jzpfvsuf/ xdk‹aemuf w&m;v$wfawmfcsKyf w&m;ol}uD;rif; jzpf vmonf?

Amwefe (pf)˜ bif*srif&maz;&,f (Vertannes,Benjamin Raphael)/ ,cifu ppfwyfrS Adkvf}uD;wOD;jzpfI/ xdka‹ emuf &efukef°rd&› Sd w&m;v$wfawmfwGif a&SŒaejzpf vm_yD;/ OD;apmtwGuf ckcHumuG,fay;cJhonfh ti,fwef; Oya't}uHay;jzpfcJhonf? rlvZmwdtm;jzifh jrefrmEdik if rH jS zpfaomfvnf; vGwv f yfa&;&_yD;onft h cg t_idr;f pm; ,lI _Adwed Ef ikd if o H ‹kd a&$Œajymif;oGm;cJo h nf? bwfpf (cf) / rdu k u f ,f tD; (Busk, Michael E.)/ 'kwd,urBmppfwGif ‘csif;'pf’ (exS rf sm;. aemufyikd ;f wGif &efuek °f rd&› dS &JwyfzŒJG Chindit) rS ppfjyefwOD;jzpfI/ 1940=ckEp wGif vufaxmufaumfr&Sifemrif;}uD; jzpfvmum/ vufeufudkifykvdyfwyfzGJŒ (Armed Police) twGuf jrpf}uD;em;wGif ucsifwi kd ;f &if;om;rsm;jzifh wyf&if;w&if; zGJŒcJhonf? uy`wdef a';ApfADAD,ef; (Capt, David Vivian) ukd olu zrf;cJhonf? (atmufwGif±+)?

OD;pDb;l / tqifhjrifh puf&Sifw&m;ol}uD;rif;jzpfI/ OD;apmudk ppfaq;aom txl;cHk±Hk; awmf. tzGJŒ0ifwOD;jzpfI/ vGwfvyfa&;&_yD;aemuf w&m;v$wfawmf. w&m;ol }uD;rif;wOD; jzpfvmonf? w&m;ol}uD;rif; OD;aomif;pde/f 1906=ckESpfwGif oHvsifY arG;zGm;onf? tdENd, yËdnmOfc0H efxrf; (ICS)/ w&m;a&;0ef}uD;Xme. twGi;f 0efEiS hf tusOf;axmifrsm; OD;pD;csKyf wm0efrsm;udk 1947=ckEpS w f iG f w°ydiw f nf; xrf;aqmifc&hJ onf? 1948=ck ESpf vGwfvyfa&;&&SdcsdefrS 1962=ckESpfwGif tem;,lcsdeftxd w&m;v$wfawmf. w&m;ol}uD;rif;wOD;jzpfI/ 1975=ckEpS w f iG f -opa-w;vsEdik if o H ‹kd ul;ajymif;aexdik f f eG o f mG ;cJo h nf? cJo h nf? rJvb f ek ;f °rd› (Melbourne) wGif 1989=ckEpS Yf uG,v Adv k cf sKyfxeG ;f vSatmif/ 1902=ckESpfwGif &efukef°rd›YarG;zGm;cJhonf? t*Fvdyftpdk;& vufxuf bk&ifh&JwyfzGJŒ0ifESifh r+cif;pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;Xme. 'k=&JcsKyf/ OD;apmESifh ol‹vlrsm;udk vsifjrefpGm zrf;qD;EdkifcJhonfhftwGuf EdkifiHawmf. av;pm;r+udk cHcJh& onf? w&m;ol}uD;rif; OD;aomif;pdeEf iS hf twlwI JG OD;apm. vk°H cHa&;wm0efukd ,lchJ &onf? vGwv f yfa&;&_yD;aemuf &JcsKyfjzpfvmcJ_h yD;/ 1948=ckEpS f vGwv f yfa&;&_yD; aemuf -o*kwv f wGif Adv k cf sKyf&mxl;jzifh 'k=OD;pD;csKyftqifo h ‹kd wd;k jri‡ jhf cif;cHc&hJ onf? 1960=ckEpS w f iG f &efuek °f rdY› uG,v f eG o f mG ;cJo h nf? umwpf/ bifepf˜ qm z&uf'&pf [ife&D ('J&uf) aupD (Curtis- Bennett, Sir Frederick Sw f iG f arG;zGm;cJo h nf? bk&ifOh ya't}uHay;yk*Kd~ vfjzpfI Henry (Derek) KC./ 1904 ckEp &mZ0wfr+cif;rsm;wGif atmifjrifausmf-um;aom _AdwdefEkdifiHom; a&SŒaewOD;jzpf onf? txl;ckH±kH;awmfwGif w&m;-ydif&mY ol‹ukdumuG,fckcH&ef t}uD;wef;t}uH ay;tjzpf OD;apmu iSm;&rf;cef‹tyfcJhonf? 1956 ckESpf Zlvkdifv (23) &ufae‹wGif olaexkdif&m vef'efwkdufcef;xJwGif aoqkH;vsuf&Sdonfukd awGŒ&onf? &ifcGJppf aq;olq&m0efu vGefcJhonfh (4=5) &ufuyif olt ‹ aejzifh aoqkH;_yD;jzpfonf[k xifjrifcsuaf y;onf? ok‹djzpfv#if olaoqk;H &ufonf emrnfq;dk jzifh ausm-f um;vsuf ao'%fuscHcJh&aom ol.tr+onf usL;vGefcJhaom Zlvkdifv (19) &uf tr+ (9) ESpjf ynfah jrmufonfh ae‹&ufcefw ‹ iG f jzpfaeayawmhonf? 29 29

f iG f arG;zGm;cJo h nf? 1933= ckEpS rf S wGwcf ˜f aumvif; ( Tooke, Colin)/ 1913=ckEpS w pI jrefrmhyv k yd w f yfzŒJGwiG f wm0efxrf;aqmifco hJ nf? 1945–46=ckEpS w f ‹kdY om,m 0wDc±dkif &J0efaxmufjzpfI/ OD;apmtr+udk v#Kd‹0SufpHkprf;axmufvS rf;aecJhol[k ,H-k unf&_y;D / OD;apmESiyhf wfoufaom olz‹ ikd w f rJG sm; tcd;k cHc&hJ onf? 1948=ckEpS w f iG f ±kww f &uf aoqH;k oGm;cJo h nf? cef;˜ tdyf (cs)f (Khan,H)/ pD;yGm;a&;orm;wjzpfvJ t_idrf;pm;-unf;wyfAkdvf}uD;? &efuek f at'Dvrf;&Sd OD;apmaetdrEf iS hf rsufEmS csif;qkid w f iG f aexkid o f /l r+cif;pkpH rf;ppf aq;a&;Xme 'k=&JcsKyf. arwWm&yfccH suft& OD;apm. _cH0if;tm; rsufjcnfrjywf apmif-h unfu h n l cD o hJ nf? w&m;vkjd youfaotrSwf (39)?

Ed k i f i H a &;orm;rsm; Adv k af tmif}u;D / aygif;wnf°rdY› 1919=ckEpS w f iG af rG;zGm;onf? 1945=ckEpS w f iG f *syef qef‹usifa&;v+yf&Sm;r+Y jrpf0u|ef;ay:ESifh zsmyHkc±dkiftwGif; Adkvfae0if;. vuf±Hk; t&m&Sw d OD;tjzpf yg0ifvyk u f ikd v f mcJo h nf? xdk‹aemuf vGwfvyfa&;&tHhqJqJ wyfrawmfudk jyefvnfzGJŒpnf;vdkufaom 30 30


Zmwfvrf;0ify*k Kd~ vfrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

tcg trSwf(4) Armhaoewfudkifwyf&if;wGif Adkvfae0if;vufatmufY tr+xrf; cJo h nf? qd&k , S v f pfvrf;pOfygwD. pnf;±H;k a&;rª;wOD;jzpfonf? 1962=ckEpS Yf Adv k f csKyfae0if; tm%modr;f onft h cg awmfveS af &;aumifp0D ifwOD;jzpfvmonf? 1963 =ckESpfwGif xkwfy,fcH&_yD; 1988=ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkwGif EdkifiHa&;avm uod‹k jyef0ifvmcJo h nf? a'guw f mbarmf/ c&pf,mefro d m;pkrþS 1897=ckEpS w f iG þf arG;zGm;cJo h nf?þtmareD,efaoG; wpdww f ydik ;f ygonf[q k o kd nf? ude;f b&pfwuUov kd w f iG f ynmoif-um;cJ_h y;D / abmf kd rf S yDtyd cf s'f D (Ph.D) bGŒJ&cJo h nf? a&S;OD;tp ausmif;q&m 'l;cfþ( Bordeaux) wuUov b0ESifh xdk‹aemuf 0wfvHkawmf&jzpfvmonf? qif;&Jom; 0HomEkygwDudk zGJŒpnf;cJh onf? 1936=ckEpS rf S 1939=ckEpS t f xd eef;&if;0efjzpfonf? xda‹k emuf 'kw, d urBmppf twGi;f þ*syefppfwyfuþzGŒJay;aomþtpd;k &tzGŒJ.þt"dywdjzpfc_hJ y;D /þ1947=ckEpS þf vGwv f yf a&;r&rDtcsed w f iG þf txde;f odr;f cH&onf?þ1977=ckEpS þf arvwGiþf uG,v f eG o f mG ;cJo h nf?

wOD;jzpfI/ xda‹k emuf *syefawmfveS af &;t_y;D / vGwv f yfa&;r&rD qd&k , S v f pfygwDukd pwifxlaxmifcJhol tzGJŒ0ifwOD;jzpfum/ 1950=ckESpfrsm;wGif OD;Ek. tpdk;&tzGJŒ twGif; wm0eftrsm;tjym;,lcJhonf? xdk‹a-umifh 1962=ckESpf AdkvfcsKyfae0if; tm%modr;f onft h cg tzrf;cH&vsuf/ 1966=ckEpS w f iG f jyefvw G v f monf/ 1985= ckEpS /f pufwifbmvwGif uG,v f eG o f nf? OD;ausm+f ird ;f / ysO;f rem;°rdY› 1915=ckEpS w f iG þf arG;zGm;onf?þ&efuek w f uUov kd w f iG þf ynm oif-um;cJh_yD;/þ1930=ckESpfrsm;wGifþausmif;om;acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfcJhI/þ1946=ck ESpfwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; ruG,fvGefao;rD (zqyv) tzGJŒcsKyf. taxGaxG twGif;a&;rª;csKyftjzpfrS xkwfy,fjcif;cHvdkuf&onfh uGefjrLepfygwDrS ocifoef; xGe;f . ae&mudk qufccH &hJ onf? xda‹k emuf OD;Ek 0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfcsdew f iG f jynfxaJ &; ESifh w&m;a&;Xme 0ef}uD;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ qdk&S,fvpfygwD. 'kwd,t}uD;qHk; acgif;aqmiftjzpfvnf;aumif; aqmif&GufcJh&I/ 1962=ckESpf AdkvfcsKyfae0if; tm %modr;f onft h cgYþtzrf;cHc&hJ _yD;þ1966=ckEpS w f iG f jyefvw G v f monf? 1986=ckEpS /f ZGev f wGif &efuek °f rdY› uG,v f eG o f mG ;cJo h nf?

ocifApde/f 1910=ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;onf? &efukefwuUodkvfwGif ynmoif-um;cJh onf? ocifAaomif;wdE‹k iS t hf wl uGejf rLepf0g'udk OD;pGm avhvmcJah om ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfonf/ xdka‹ emuf 1930=ckESpf wdkA‹ rmtpnf;t±Hk;udk a&S;OD;xl axmifcJholrsm;xJwGif wOD;tygt0ifjzpfonf? 'kwd,urBmppftwGif; 0if±dk;wef; tiftm;pkrsm;tay: vdv k m;cJo h jl zpfonf? xda‹k -umifh *syefacwfY olt ‹ m; refcsL;ud;k odk‹ jrefrmEdkifiH. oHtrwf}uD;tjzpf ceft ‹ yfjcif;udk cH&onf? 1947=ckESpfwGif vef 'efo‹kd OD;atmifqef;ESit hf wl vdu k yf goGm;cJo h nf? vufsmEdik if aH &;orm;jzpfonf? OD;AaqG/ xm;0,f°rdY› 1915=ckEpS w f iG af rG;zGm;onf? &efuek w f uUov kd w f iG f ynmoif -um;cJo h nf? 1930=ckEpS rf sm;wGif ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifjzpfco hJ nf? 1945=ckEpS f wGif qd&k , S v f pfygwD. OuU@tjzpf wifajr‡mufjcif;cH&aomfvnf; ocifjrudk OD;pm; ay;onft h aejzifh Ekwx f u G cf o hJ nf? xda‹k -umifh ocifjr vky}f uHc&H _y;D aemufrS qd&k , S f vpfacgif;aqmif jzpfvmjyefonf? (1956–57) ckESpfwGif c%wm 0ef}uD;csKyfjzpf cJah o;onf? od&‹k mwGif 1962=ckEpS f Adv k af e0if; tm%modr;f vdu k o f nft h cg tzrf;cH &_y;D / 1966=ckEpS w f iG f jyefvw G v f monf? 1987=ckEpS /f 'DZifbmvwGif uG,v f eG o f nf?

31

OD;Ek (c) ocifE/k 0g;c,fr°rd›Y 1907=ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;onf/ 1930=ckESpfrsm;wGif wdA‹k rmtpnf;t±H;k udk pwifxal xmifco hJ rl sm;xJwiG f wOD;tygt0ifjzpfonf? 1947= ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf trsm;oabmwl wifajr‡mufjcif;cH&vsuf jref rmEdik if . H 'Dru kd a&pDumvrsm;twGi;f qlyal omif;use;f r+rsm; jzpfymG ;aeonf-h um;rS zGŒJpnf;cJah om tpd;k &tzGŒJrsm;wGif olomv#if 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf t-umqk;H aqmif&u G cf hJ &oljzpfonf? oda‹k omf 1962=ckEpS w f iG f Adv k cf sKyfae0if;u olt ‹ m; &mxl;rSz,f&mS ;cJ_h y;D zrf;qD;axmifcsco hJ nf? 1966=ckEpS w f iG f jyefvnfvw G v f m_yD; Adv k cf sKyfae0if; ppft pd;k &udk qefu ‹ siaf wmfveS af &;twGuf pnf;±H;k &ef jynfyodx ‹k u G cf mG cJo h nf? 1980=ckEpS f vGw_f ird ;f csr;f omcGiahf y;&mwGif jrefrmEdik if o H ‹kd jyefa&mufvm_y;D ol 0ef}uD;csKyfb0u vkyv f ufp ydËuwf bmomjyefvyk if ef;udk jyefvyk af eqJwiG f 1988=ckEpS f 'Dru kd a&pD ta&;awmfyw kH iG f yg0ifum pufwifbmv (9) &ufae‹wiG f olu, kd w f ikd f 0ef}uD;csKyf tjzpfESifh -um;jzwftpdk;&tzGJŒudk a-unmcJhonf? xdk‹a-umifh tpdk;&u ol‹tm; 1989=ckEpS f 'DZifbmvrS 1992=ckEpS f {_yDvtxd tdrw f iG ;f tus,fcsKyfcsxm;jcif; cHc&hJ onf? xda‹k emuf 1995=ckEpS f azazmf0g&DvwGif &efuek °f rdY› uG,v f eG o f mG ;onf?

Adv k cf ifarmifuav;/ awmifil°rdY› 1912=ckESpfwGifþarG;zGm;onf/þ&efukefwuUodkvfY ynmoif-um;cJhonf? a&S;OD;tp ausmif;q&mvkyfcJh_yD;/ wyfrawmfwGif t&m&Sd

ocif±_armif/ (c) Adkvfae0if;/ jynf°rd›teD;&Sd aygif;wvnf°rd›Y 1910=ckESpfwGif

31

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Zmwfvrf;0ify*k Kd~ vfrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

arG;zGm;onf? &efuek °f rd/› *syq f ifaumvdyYf ynmoif-um;cJah omfvnf; 1931=ckEpS f wGif bGJŒr&bJ ausmif;rSxGufcGmcJh&onf? pmwdkufpma&;rS &JabmfoHk;usdyf0if jzpfvm_yD;aemuf 1943=ckESpfrS 1945=ckESpftxd jrefrmhtrsKd;om;wyfrawmf. ppfOD;pD;rª;jzpfonf? wzef 1949=ckESpfrS 1972=ckESpftxd wyfrawmf. umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyftjzpf aqmif&Gufum/ 1962=ckESpfwGif ppfwyfjzifh EdkifiH awmftm%mudk odrf;,lcJhonf? xdk‹a-umifh 1962=ckESpfrS 1974=ckESpftxd awmfveS af &;aumifp. D OuU@tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ 1974=ckEpS rf S 1981=ckEpS t f xd qdk&S,fvpfEdkifiHþorRwtjzpfvnf;aumif;/ 1962=ckESpfrS 1988=ckESpftxd jrefrmhq&kd , S v f pfvrf;pOfygwD. OuU@tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ °ydi0f o hH rl &Sd aqmif&u G cf I hJ / ,cktcsdefwGif (rqv) ygwDudk zsufodrf;vdkufaomfjim;vnf;/ ,ae‹txd ol. -oZmESifhtm%mrSm ppfwyfxJwGif euf±+dif;pGm pl;0ifaeqJ[k ,lqaecJhaomfvnf; ol.wefckd;tm%m !SdK;rSdefvmonf? 2002 ckESpf/ rwfvwGif ajr; (3) a,mufESifh orufwkd‹ EkdifiHawmfopPmazmufr+jzifh zrf;qD;jcif;cH-u&_yD;aemuf olukd,fwkdifyif tus,fcsKyfcHae&pOf 'DZifbmv (5) &ufae‹wGif &efukef-rd› aetdrfY uG,fvGef oGm;onf?

wGif Edik if jH cm;a&;0ef}uD;wm0efþxrf;aqmifco hJ nf? 1948=ckEpS f -o*kwv f wGif Adv k f rª;csKyf&mxl;jzifh t&efwyfzŒJGrsm; OD;pD;&ef 0ef}uD;tzGŒJrES w k x f u G _f yD; ol tkycf sKyfwnf; k af &SŒwiG f pufwifbmv jzwfvsu&f adS om (The New Burma Times) owif;pmwdu twGi;f vky}f uHowfjzwfjcif;cH&onf? ol.tpfurkd mS w&m;v$waf wmfcsKyf/ w&m; 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;ausmfjrifjh zpfonf? ocifxeG ;f tky/f 1907=ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;onf/ &efukefESifh udkvHbdk°rd›wdk‹wGif ynm oif-um;cJhI wdkA‹ rmtpnf;t±Hk;. tjcm;ppftkyfpk. acgif;aqmif (ocif ApdefESifh twl/ Adkvfae0if;vnf; xdktkyfpkwGifyg0ifonf) olonf [pfwvm (Hitler’s) . ‘rdkifuef‹’ (Mein Kampf) vrf;a-umif;twdkif; a&;om;xm;aom u|Ekfyfwdk‹ pGef‹ pm;cef;’ (Our Exploits) udk a&;om;oljzpf_yD;/ 1940=ckESpfwGif *syefodk‹ vdkufyg oGm;cJo h nf? 1940=ckESpfrsm;ESifh 1950=ckESpfrsm;wGif twdkuftcH vufsmEdkifiHa&;orm; b0Y &yfwnf&if; 1970=ckEpS f Zefe0g&DvwGif uG,v f eG o f mG ;cJo h nf?

ocifoef;xGe;f / ysOf;rem;°rd›Y 1915=ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;cJhonf? ausmif;q&mtjzpf vkyfudkifcJhI *syefacwf a'gufwmbarmf tpdk;&tzGJŒ Y 0ef}uD;&mxl;vufcHcJh_yD;/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. ZeD;a':cif-unf. tpfrjzpfol a':cifcif}uD;udk vufxyf ,lcJhonf? 1949=ckESpftxd (zqyv)tzGJŒcsKyf. taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;tjzpf vnf;aumif;/ uGefjrLepfygwD ESpfjcrf; uGJoGm;_yD;aemuf ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD (BCP) . acgif;aqmif jzpfvmygonf? ,if;ygwDonf 1948=ckESpf rwfv wGif ajratmufygwDtjzpfjzifh A[dktpdk;&udk v+yf&Sm;wufºuGpGm ykefuefcJhonf? aemufq;kH 1968 ckEpS w f iG f yJc;l ±d;k rawmxJY olv ‹ , l akH wmf &JabmfjroD;. vky}f uHjcif; cHc&hJ onf?

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udkvdkeDtm%mydkifrsm; tufwvD/ tm;vfuvDrif/h tm/ (Atlee, Earl Clement R.) 1883 ckEpS w f iG f arG;zGm;cJo h nf? 1945=55 ckEpS w f iG f avbmygwD. 0ef}uD;csKyf/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh ukd,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒukd vef'efokd‹zdwfac:I 1947 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv (13) &ufae‹rpS I awGŒqaHk qG;aEG;cJo h nf? Zefe0g&Dv (27) &ufae‹wiG f atmifqef;=tufwvDpmcsKyf csKyfqkdtqkH;owfEkdifcJhonf? OD;apmtay: _Adwdo# 0ef}uD;csKyf. tptOD;tjrifrsm;rSm *k%, f zl , G rf &Syd g? jrefrmhvw G v f yfa&;ESihf ,if;ESihf qufE, G af eaom udp&P yfrsm;ESiyhf wfoufI aemufyidk ;f wGif Ek=tufwvDpmcsKyfudk vef'efwGif 1947 ckESpf atmufwkdbmvwGif vufrSwfa&;xkd;csKyfqkdEkdifcJhonf? tufwvDonf 1967 ckEpS w f iG f uG,v f eG cf o hJ nf?

OD;wifxÉG /f 1895=ckEpS w f iG f arG;zGm;onf? 'g;vf0pfcsf aumvdyf (Dulwich College) ESifh udef;b&pfwuUodkvf ( Cambridge University) wdw k‹ Gif ynmoif-um;cJhonf? f uUov kd . f 'k=t"dywd (VicetdE, dN yËdnmOfc0H efxrf; (ICS) wOD;jzpf_y;D / &efuek w hJ nf? 'dik t f mcDacwfEiS hf (91) Xmeacwfrsm;Y 0ef}uD;tzGŒJ tawmf Chancellor) jzpfco rsm;rsm;wGif twGi;f 0efcsKyftjzpf aqmif&u G cf &hJ _yD;/ 1948=ckEpS f vGwv f yfa&;&csdef

a':refprpf/ qm–&D*sief ,f [sL; ( Dorman-Smith, Sir Reginald Hugh) 1899=ckEpS w f iG f arG;zGm;cJ_h y;D (1935–41) ckEpS rf sm;wGif uGeq f maA;wpf (ConhJ / _Adwo d #0ef}uD;tzGŒJ tawmfrsm;rsm;wGif 0ef}uD;tzGŒJ0if servative MP) trwfjzpfcI

33

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Zmwfvrf;0ify*k Kd~ vfrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ (1941–46) ckEpS rf sm;twGi;f jrefrmEdik if . H bk&ifcw H OD;jzpfum OD;apmESiv hf nf; rsm;pGm tu|r;f 0ifow l OD;jzpfonf? xdak emuf _Aw d o d # trsK;d om;a&; jynfo0‹l efxrf;od‹k jyefr0ifaomfvnf; [ef±‹ id+ ;f ,m;e,f wm0ef,&l aom tqifjh rif&h rJ ;ª (High Sheriff of Hampshire) ESifh ajy_idrf;a&; wm0efcH (JP) tvkyfrsm; vkyfudkif ygonf? 1977=ckEpS w f iG f uG,v f eG o f mG ;cJo h nf? vdw0f w d /f qm*|e*f ;D vfbwf/ ( Laithwaite, Sir John Gilbert) 1894=ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;onf? 1919=ckESpfwGif tdENd,EdkifiHqdkif&m EdkifiHjcm; a&;Xmeodk‹ 0ifa&muftr+xrf;cJhI (1939–43) wGif bk&ifcH. udk,fa&;twGif; 0eftjzpf tr+xrf;aqmifcJhonf? (1945–48) ckESpfrsm;wGif EdkifiHjcm;a&;XmeY jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m vufaxmuftwGif;0ef ( Deputy Under Secretary of State) tjzpf wm0ef,cl o hJ nf?

&ef‹/ Adv k cf sKyf qm/ [sL;bwf (Rance, Major-General Sir Hubert) 1898=ckEpS w f iG f arG;zGm;onf? (1943=45) ESprf sm;wGif ,lau taemufyikd ;f ppfOD;pD;XmeY wm0efxrf;aqmifcJh_yD; (1945=46) ESpfrsm;wGif jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m òrdj› ya&;&mþ!¸e-f um;a&;rª;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ wzef 1946=ck/þ-o*kwv f rSþ1948=ck/ Zefe0g&Dvtxd jrefrmEdik if . H aemufq;Hk bk&ifct H jzpfvnf;aumif;/ jrefrmEdik if . H txl;xl;taxGaxG vlrsKd;a&;a&m 0g'a&;yg uJGjym;ae-uonfh EdkifiHa&;tkyfpkrsm; t-um;wGif bufrvdkufbJ ajzmifhrwfpGm wm0efxrf;aqmifcJholwOD;jzpfonf? (1950=54) wGif x&ifheif'ufESifh wdkbmudk;EdkifiH. bk&ifcHESifh ppfaoemywdcsKyf wm0efxrf;aqmifco hJ nf? 1974=ckEpS w f iG f uG,v f eG o f mG ;cJo h nf?

vpfw0kd v J /f (5) qufajrmuf tm;vfatmhzf (0Dv, D H z&ef‹ppf[, J m;) th

( Listowel, the 5 . Earl of (William Francis Hare)

1907=ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;onf/ 1947=ckESpf {_yDvrSpI EdkifiHjcm;a&;XmeY tdENd,EdkifiHESifh jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m twGif;0eftjzpfvnf;aumif;/ (1947=ck/ -o*kwf vrS 1948=ck/ Zefe0g&Dvtxd) jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m twGif;0eftjzpfvnf;aumif; aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf? 1997=ckEpS w f iG f uG,v f eG o f mG ;cJo h nf? armifb h ufwef/ Apfaumifh armifb h ufwef atmhzf bm;rm; (a&wyfAv kd cf sKyf avmh-vl0pf-z&efppf-tJvb J wf-Apfwm-eDuv kd ufp)f (Mountbatten, Viscount Mountbatten of Burma (Rear-Admiral Lord Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas)

1900=jynfEh pS w f iG f arG;zGm;onf? (1943=46) ESprf sm;wGif tm&S. r[mrdwf wyfaygif;pk ppfaoemywdcsKyftjzpf wm0ef,lcJh&oljzpfonf? xdk‹aemuf (1947/ rwfvrS -o*kwfvtxd) tdENd,EdkifiH. bk&ifhtkyfcsKyfa&;tm%mykdif (Viceroy) tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ bk&ifcHcsKyf (Governor-General) tjzpfvnf;aumif; wm0ef xrf;aqmifcJhjyefonf? txl;ojzifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tm; av;pm;vsuf vGwf vyfaom jrefrmjynf.acgif;aqmiftjzpf rsm;pGm ta&;ay;cJo h jl zpfonf? 1979=ck/ -o*kwv f wGif owfjzwfjcif;cH&onf? 35 35

olwdk‹b,folawGvJ bif*av/ *|epf wsL;0yf ( Bingley, John Stewart ) 1899=ckEpS w f iG f arG;zGm;cJo h nf? (1946=47) ckEpS rf sm;twGi;f jrefrmEkid if w H iG f _Adwdo#aumifpD ( British Council) . udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf &efukef-rd›Y aexkdifcJh onf? OD;apmu tif;pdefaxmifxJrS pmtcsKd‹ olx ‹ Ha&;om;_yD; aiGawmif;cHcJhonf? axmufvSr;f a&;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif ol yg0ifywfoufaeonf[k ocifE/k OD;ausm_f ird ;f ESihf tcsKdy‹ k*~dKvfrsm;u t}uD;tus,foHo,jzpf-uonf? 1947=ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (4) &ufae‹wiG f jrefrmEdik if rH S tavmok;H q,f xGucf mG oGm;cJo h nf? 1979=ckEpS w f iG f _AdwdefEdkifiH/ qa&; (Surrey) e,fwGif uG,fvGefoGm;onf? 'de;f / Adv k rf ;ª yDwmtm;euf vef‹pfavmh ( Daine, Major Peter Ernest Lancelot) 1923=ckEpS w f iG f arG;zGm;cJo h nf? tdE, dN tcsujf yqufo, G af &;wyfY 1944=rS pwifI t&m&Sdtqifhudk &&SdcJhonf? 1947=ckESpfwGif ArmhppfOD;pD;XmecsKyf axmuf vS rf;a&;wyfY wm0efxrf;aqmifvsuf/ r*Fvm'kH ajrmufbuf&Sd yifr cJ,rf;rD; ausmufwdkuf. wyfr;ª vnf;jzpfonf? OD;apmwynfhrsm; xkwf,loGm;aom vuf eufrsm;ESifh ywfoufI olt ‹ m; zrf;qD;jcif;r&Sd? rd;k / Adv k rf ;ª a*s/ at (Moore, Major J.A) 1908=ckEpS w f iG f arG;zGm;onf? tdE, dN wyfrawmf. vufeuf}uD;wyfrS t&m &Sw d OD;jzpf_y;D / Adv k w f axmif&dS yifrcJ,rf;rD;ausmufwu kd . f wyfr;ª jzpfygvsuf OD;apm 36 36


Zmwfvrf;0ify*k Kd~ vfrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

wynfrh sm; xkw, f o l mG ;onfh vufeufrsm;ESiyhf wfoufI olu ‹ kd zrf;qD;cJah omfvnf; jypf'%fusc&H jcif;r&S?d

(Twentieth Century Impressions of Burma) ‚if;. “orki d ;f / jynfo/l ukeo f , G rf /+

OD;aratmif u|efawmhfbcifbufrS tzkd; OD;aratmif a&;om;cJhonhf “enf;[efESifh "avhxkH;pH” (Manners & Customs) aqmif;yg;rS aumufEkwfcsufrsm;ukd atmuf ygtwkid ;f azmfjyygrnf? Taqmif;yg;onf v+u d *f &dww f m _Aw d ed pf mtkyf xkwaf 0a&; ukr% ` v D rd w d ufrS 1910 ckEpS w f iG f xkwaf 0cJo h nfh “jrefrmEkid if . H 20 &mpktjrifrsm;”

pufrv + ufrv + yk if ef;rsm;ESihf o,HZmwt&if;tjrpfrsm;” *sme,fwiG f xnfo h iG ;f xm; jcif;jzpfonf? (pmrsufEmS =77 ESihf 88)? “arG;zGm;jcif;ESifhuav;b0? tjcm;wkdif;jynfrsm;rS uav;i,frsm;uJhokdy‹ if jrefrmuav;i,frsm;rSm vla‹ vmutwGif;okd‹ aysmf&$ifjrL;wl;jcif;rsm;pGmjzifh aºuG; a-umf0ifa&mufvmcJo h nf?æ uav;arG;zGm;_yD; (7) &ufajrmufonfhwkdif vma&mufowif;ar;jref;ol {nfhonfrsm;tm; wae‹ywfvnfvkH; {nfhcHavh&Sdonf?ææt"duajymqkdonfh ta-umif;t&mrSm uav;i,fta-umif;jzpfonf? olarG;zGm;vmonfh &ufESifh vwkd‹ESifh ywfoufI aqG;aEG;-uonf? ol‹tem*wfESifhywfoufI aysmf&$ifzG,f aumif;aom edrdwfzwfr+rsm;ukd «yvkyf-uonf? 0gqkdv (ZGef/ Zlvkdif) wGifarG;aom a,musfm;av;ESifh jymokdv (Zefe0g&D/ azazmf0g&D) wGifarG;aom rdef;uav;wkrd‹ Sm vla‹ vmu. aumif;cs;D axmyemt00ukd cHpm;&rSmused ;f aoonf? Ak'[ < ;l om;onf csrf;omrnf/ aom-umom; pum;rsm;rnf ponfponfwt kd‹ jyif tjcm;ta-umif; t&mrsKd;pkHukd uav;i,fwa,muf arG;zGm;csdefwGif rvGJraoGajym-uqkd-uonf? ykÀm;uJo h a‹dk om q&mwyg;yg; (ausmif;q&m okr‹d [kwf ynm&Sw d OD;OD;)þukþd yifzh w d _f y;D uav;arG;zGm;vmonfh euQwt f csdeu f dk rSwo f m;apum uav;i,f. trnfemr a&G;cs,&f mY uln! D e¸ jf yaponf? jrefrmvlrsK;d wkw ‹d iG f (&ckid v f rl sK;d wkr‹d v S I JG )þrdbrsK;d ±k;d emrnftpOfudk ,l±;dk r&Sad cs? rnfonft h &yfwumwGirf qkþd emrnfwr‹dk mS þwykpH w H nf; jzpf_yD;þrdbrsKd;±k;d pOfqufudk jyo±k;d r&Sad cs? trsm;pkrmS emrnf (2) rsKd;&S_d yD; wrsKd;rSm euQwt f vkt d & ZmwmwGif xnfo h iG ;f aomtrnfemrjzpfI tjcm;wrsK;d rSm oifo h vkd a&G;vku d jf cif;aomfvnf;aumif;/ rdbrsm; pdwu f ;l rdovkv d nf;aumif;/ ajymifavSmif ac:&if;rS rGr;f rHjyifqifIaomfvnf;aumif; rSnahf c:vku d o f nfh trnfemrjzpfonf? yxremrnfrsK;d rSm a&S;±k;d pOfvmtok;H «yvmonfh emrnfrsm;jzpfI ,if;uk-d unfjh cif; jzifh uav;i,farG;zGm;vmonfh &ufowWywftwGif;rS ae‹&ufukd rSefuefpGmajym qkEd idk o f nf? jrefrmtuQ&mrsm;rS pum;vk;H rsm;ukd &ufowWywf (7) &ufrS (1) &uf pDtm; tcsKd;csay;xm;onf? u/ c/ */ C/ i wko ‹d nf wevFmae‹twGu?f p/ q/ Z/ ps/ n wkd‹onf t*Fgae‹twGuf/ y/ z/ A/ b/ r wkd‹onf -umoyaw;ae‹twGuf pojzif?h ok‹djzpfI t*Fgae‹om;onf armifped f (okr‹d [kw)f armifaZmf/ -umoyaw;ae‹ orD;onf rjzL (okd‹r[kwf) rjr pojzifh jzpfvmonf? armifESifhr pum;vkH;wkd‹rSm (Master or Mister and Miss) wkd‹ESifh wlnD_yD; a,musfm;/ rdef;rvdifukd !¸efjyonfh

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ADA, D ef;/ uy`wed f a';Apf (Vivian, Captain David) 1932 ckESpfwGif pwif t&m&Sdjzpfvmonf? tdENd,wyfrawmfrS jrefrmvuf eufuikd yf v k yd w f yfzŒJGo‹kd vufeuft}uHay;yk*Kd~ vftjzpf aqmif&u G &f ef v$aJ jymif;jcif; cH&vsuf/ Zlvdkifv (20) &ufwGif tzrf;cH&_yD; vufeufrsm; a&mif;csr+jzifh pJGcsuf wifc&H onf? axmif'%f (5) ESpEf iS hf ±ly;D ig;axmif aiG'%f (2) ck yl;wGJ tjypfay;cH& onf? oda‹k omf 1949=ckEpS f tif;pdeu f kd u&ifvufeufuikd o f yl ek w f yfrsm; odr;f ydu k &f m wGif vGwaf jrmufco hJ jzifh u&ifah wmfveS af &;orm;rsm;ESihf yl;aygif;cJo h nf? xda‹k emuf tv,f±;dk rrSwqifh ta&S±› ;dk rawmwGi;f vufeufuikd f u&ifpcef;rsm;od‹k a&mufomG ; &mrS 1950=ckESpf/ -o*kwfvwGif xdkif;e,fpyfteD;&Sd aumhu&dwfe,fajrtwGif; v,fwJwckY u&ifhawmfvSefa&;acgif;aqmif apmbOD;}uD;ESifhtwl acwWpcef;cs aecdu k f ArmhwyfrawmfEiS hf wdu k yf jGJ zpfum towfc&H onf[k jrefrmtm%mydik rf sm;u ,lqcJah omfjim;vnf; trSepf ifppf xdak e‹u xkad e&mwGif olr&Scd yhJ g? 1950=ESpv f ,f cef‹Y xdik ;f Edik if rH w S qifh _Aw d ed Ef ikd if o H ‹kd jyefomG ;onft h csed t f xd olonf ESpaf ygif;rsm;pGm u&ifawmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;ESifh vGwfajrmufe,fajrrsm;twGif; aexdkifcJhonf? xdak‹ emuf (1980) ckESpftwGif; a0ve,f/ qGrfpD;òrdw › Gif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf? &ef;/ Adv k rf ;ª pD[ife&D ( Young, Major C. Henry) tdE, dN wyfrawmf v#ypf pfEiS hf pufrt + if*sief , D m tvky±f w Hk yfc. GJ wyfr;ª wOD; jzpfI OD;apmudk vufeufay;urf;cJhr+jzifh 1947=ck/ -o*kwfv (24) &ufae‹wGif tzrf;cH&_yD; axmif'%f (2) ESpf tjypfay;cH&aomfvnf; toem;cHpmwifojzifh v$waf y;cJo h nf? jrefrmEdik if rH S csufcsif; xGucf mG oGm;cJyh gonf?

jrefrmtrnfrsm;ESifh ywfoufaom rSwfcsuf

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39

Zmwfvrf;0ify*k Kd~ vfrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

,Ofaus;odraf rGŒpmG tok;H «yaom emrnfa&Sp› nf;rsm;jzpf-uonf? emrnfa&Sp› nf;ukd xnfrh wGuv f #if ESpv f ;Hk wGt J rnfrsm;jzpfonfh armifomcif/ armifz;dk wuf/ armifb&Si/f rpef;ar/ raiGbiG /hf rzGm;jrpfwr‹dk mS tok;H rsm;_yD; ok;H vk;H wG/J av;vk;H wGJ emrnfrsm;rSm &ckid v f rl sKd;wkr‹d v S I JG tok;H enf;onf? jrefrmpmrSm Asnf;wvk;H pDtoHxu G _f yD; emrnf . pum;vkH;wkdif;wGif t"dy`m,f&Sdonf? okad‹ omfvnf; emrnfqkdonfrSm t"dy`m,f oufa&mufapcsifovkd a,bk,s okr‹d [kwf vkt d yfovkd &nf!e¸ ;f rSnahf c:xm;jcif; jzpfonf[k tcsKdp‹ ma&;olrsm; a&;ouJo h ‹dk ,lqrnfqv dk #ifvnf; rSm;,Gi;f ygonf? oka‹d omfvnf; tcsKda‹ e&mrsm;wGif xku d o hJ ‹dk rSnahf c:avh&-dS ujyefonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh armifbcspf (zcif.tcspf) okd‹r[kwf rzGm;ouf (tzGm;.touf) pojzifh/ ,ckacwfwGifrl uav;i,fwOD;.emrnfukd oihfovkd ¯uHovkdvnf;aumif; okd‹r[kwf vlwOD;wa,muf pdwful;rdovkdvnf;aumif; okd‹r[kwf xif&Sm;ausmf -um;aom yk*Kd~ vfwOD;OD;. trnfemrukd ,ljcif;jzifah omfvnf;aumif; rSnahf c: -u onf? vlwOD;wa,muf. b0aemufykdif;wGif armif (okd‹r[kwf) r [lonfh emrnfa&SŒpnf;onf ajymif;oGm;onfudk Tae&mwGif azmfjy&efvadk yonf? t-urf; zsif;tm;jzifh touf (20) ESifh (35) ESpft-um; a,musfm;wOD;ukd emrnfa&SŒpnf; “ukd” (tukd) [k okH;E+ef;_yD; touf (30) ESpftxuf vlwOD;ukd “OD;” (OD;av;/ OD;}uD;) Oyrmtm;jzifh ukdbckdif/ OD;omvl pojzifh ac:a0:ayvdrfhrnf? tvm;wlyif vlvwfykdif;trsKd; orD;wOD;ukd “a':” (ta': ) wyfac:ayvdrfhrnf? Oyrmtm;jzifh a':apm? ,if;wkr‹d mS ,Ofaus;odraf rGŒ pGmok;H aom emrnfa&SŒpnf;rsm;jzpf_yD; touf t&G,f}uD;rm;olESifh vlaer+tqifhjrifhrm;olrsm;. trnfemrukd &nf!¸ef;&mY ok;H pG&J ef vk;H 0O\kv H t dk yfygonf? tvm;wl a&SŒpnf;rsm;jzpfonfh zk;d (tzk;d ) ESihf zGm; (tzGm;) wku ‹d rdk l ,cktcg jrif&cJygonf? jrefrmtrsKd;orD;wOD;onf vufxyfxrd ;f jrm;_yD;aemuf olremrnfukd ajymif;vJjcif;r&SdbJ b0wav#mufvkH; ukd,fykdifem rnftjzpf xdef;odrf;xm;jcif;ESifh t*FvdyftokH;jzpfonfh rpPpf (Mrs) ESifh tvm;wl jrefrmpum;vk;H r&Sjd cif;onf xl;jcm;csufw&yfjzpfonf?” jrefrmemrnfa&SŒpnf;rsm;tok;H ukd ykrd jkd ynfph aHk p&ef atmufygwku ‹d dk xyfrjH znfh pGuyf gonf? _Adwdo#ukdvkdeDe,fcsJŒtkyfcsKyfolrsm; okH;pGJonfhtac:ykHpH (Master, Mistress) (ppftwGif; jrefrmEkdifiHukd 0ifa&mufodrf;ykdufxm;pOfu *syefrsm;yifv#if rmpwm Master [k olwu ‹dk dk ac:a0:apcJo h nf) ukd tefwo k nft h aejzifh wkA‹d rmtpnf;t±k;H 0if trsKd;om; trsKd;orD;rsm;taejzifh ocifESifh ocifr (Master and Mistress) [lI

1930 ckESpfrsm;twGif; ukd,fhukd,fukd ac:a0:okH;pGJvm-uonf? tpnf;t±kH;. em,u}uD;jzpfol ocifukd,fawmfr+dif;u ociftjyif ukd,fawmf[lonfhtokH;ukd rª;rwf (a lord) jzpfonfhtaejzifh xyfwkd;um txl;«yokH;pGJcJhonf? Akdvf[lonfhtokH;ukd ppfwyft&m&Sdrsm;rSmuJhokd‹yif ArmhvGwfvyfa&; wyfrawmf pwifzŒJGpnf;pOfupI t&m&Scd eft ‹ yfc&H olrsm; okr‹d [kwf ceft ‹ yfc&H onf[k ,lqolrsm;u ‚if;wk. d‹ emrnfa&SŒpnf;tjzpf xifxifay:ay: okH;pGJvmcJh-uonf? 'k=Akdvf/ Adkvf}uD;/ Adkvfr;ª ESifh AdkvfcsKyf &mxl;tpOftwkdif;wkdr‹ Sm t_rJwrf; vufeuf ukdifwyfzGJŒ OD;pD;Xme (2nd Lieutenant rS General) txd tpOfvkduf tac:ta0: jzpfonf? b&Da*h', D m (Brigadier) rSm tu,fpifppftm;jzifh wyfrif;}uD; (wyfrrª;) ukd owfrSwfxm;jcif;jzpfonf? okd‹aomfvnf; AdkvfcsKyf}uD;rsm; (Generals) tjzpf tac:cHvkdaom ppfwyft&m&Sd tqifhqifhf taejzifh _Adwdo#pepfrS tar&duefpepf h þdk ajymif;vJc, H cl -hJ u ok‹d ajymif;vJ_yD; Adv k rf ;ª csKyf (Brigadier General) &mxl;tqifu jcif;jzpfonf? vlxk. -unfndKav;pm;cH&aom OD;atmifqef;twGufom AdkvfcsKyf}uD; (Great Supremo) qko d nfh trnfacgif;pOfonf wcsed af omtcgu oD;jcm;jzpfco hJ nf? oka‹d omfvnf; ol.orD;jzpfol 'Dru dk a&pDcseyf , D t H m; qefu ‹ si&f mY rnfor‹dk # xdcu dk f I r&onfh OD;atmifqef;ESifh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;[lonfh trnfemrwkd‹tm; AdkvfcsKyf}uD; rsm; trsm;tjym;ukd ckefysHausmfv$m;zefwD;vkduf_yD; omreftrnfemrw&yftjzpf e0w u txiftjrifa&mufapcJhonf? ukd,fhvlrsKd;ukdomowfjzwf_yD; rnfonfh ppfyGJrS rqifE$Jzl;onfh qkwHqdyf zJ¯ud;rsm; &iftjynfhxkd;vsuf ppfAdkvftm%m&Sif rsm;taejzifh xl;jcm;_yD; tjrifhqkH;jzpfonfh AdkvfcsKyfrª;}uD; (Senior General) &mxl;}uD;ukd zefwD;vkduf-ujyefonf? &S rf;rif;om; tEG,ft0ifrsm;url olwkd‹ trnfa&SŒwGif ‘pyf’ (Oyrmtm;jzifh pyfa&$ou dk )f [k ok;H pG-J uvsuf yk;d u&ifrsm;u ref; (Oyrm=ref;0if;armif) [ko;Hk pGu J m paumu&ifrsm;u apm (Oyrm=apm[efwmomar$;) [k okH;E+ef;-uygonf? (*VKefOD;apmuJhoakd‹ om jrefrmemrnf apmESifh rvGJrSm;&ef vkdygonf?) ucsift}uD; tuJrsm;url 'l;0g;[laom acgif;pnf;ukd ok;H -uonf? (Oyrmtm;jzifh qrm;a'o&Sd ucsift}uD;tuJ qrm;'l;0g; qif0g;aemif)?

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Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô

40


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

,ae‹onf jrefrmjyuQ'ed t f vkt d & 0gacgifv.ae‹wae‹ jzpfonf?þTvonf Ak'<bmom0iftaygif;wdk‹ 0gqdkouFef;uyfv_ª rJjzpfonfh 0gwGif;oHk;vywf. vw vjzpfay.? jrefrmjynfwiG ;f qefa&pyg;/ aumufyo J ;D ESH jynfv h #Hw;kd atmif rkwo f Hk rdk;wdk‹ onf;}uD;rnf;}uD; &Gmavh&Sdaom v wvvnf; jzpfygonf? Zlvdkifv (19) &uf/ eHeuf a0vDa0vif;tcsdew f iG f rkwo f rHk ;kd qifI avjyif;rkew f ikd ;f usa&mufawmh rnfh t&dyfta&mifwdk‹ ay:pðyaeay_yD? xdktcsdefwGif EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmif}uD;wOD; jzpfol OD;apm. trSwf (4)/ at'Dvrf;&dyfomjyifyY vli,fwodkuf pk±Hk;vsuf&Sd aeonf? OD;apm. oyf&yfaom_cH0if;onf &efuek òf rda› wmfajrmufyikd ;f / qifajczk;H t xufwef;pm; &yfuGufwcktwGif; at;csrf;qdwf_idrfvSonfh tif;,m;uefu|ef; qG,w f ck txufem;wGif wnf&adS eonf? OD;apmud, k w f ikd v f nf; apmapmpD;pD; tdyf &mrSxvsuf wynfih ,fom;rsm;udk aemufq;kH rSm-um;csufrsm; rSm-um;aeygonf? r-umrD OD;apm apv$wf&mokd‹ oGm;-uawmhrnfh olwdk‹tzGJŒonf jrefrmjynf}uD;. uH-urRmudk xm0&ajymif;vJomG ;apawmhrnf? OD;apm.wynfw h yef;xJwiG f olZ‹ eD; . wlawmfarmift&G,f cyfi,fi,f cifarmif&ifvnf;ygonf? cifarmif&ifonf ppf tpdr;f a&mif zd'‹k q f efx&yfum;ay:od‹k wuf_yD; um;armif;&ef jyifvu kd af omtcgwGif OD;apm. tjcm; wynfo h ;kH OD;wdv ‹k nf; um;ay:od‹k ckew f ufvu kd -f uonf? olw ‹ ‹kd xGuf cGmoGm;csdefrSm eHeuf (8) em&D (30) rdepf &Sdacs_yD? ‚if;wd. ‹k um; &efuek òf rdv › ,facgifo‹kd OD;wnfarmif;ESiv f monfurkd l rnforl # *±krpdkufrdvdkuf-uacs? 'kwd,urBmppf}uD; _yD;pjzpfI òrda› wmf}uD;twGif; ppfyHkyef; o¿mef um;}uD;um;i,f toG,o f , G w f ‹kd armif;ESiaf e-uonfrmS rqef;-u,fv?S em&D0ufcef‹t-umwGif zdk‹'fqefx&yfum;onf &efukefòrd›v,faumif&Sd teDa&mif tkww f ‹kd jzifh aqmufvyk pf jD c,fxm;_yD; cefx ‹ nfvaS om 0dw&kd , d acwf ESpx f yfwu kd f taqmufttHk}uD;jzpfonfh twGif;0efrsm;±Hk;}uD;teD; 'gv[dkZDvrf;ESifh (42) vrf;

axmifhwGif &yfwef‹vdkufonf? um;xJwGif ‚if;wdk‹tzGJŒxJrS armifeDwOD;om um; apmifhtjzpfaecJhvsuf cifarmif&ifESifh taygif;ygESpfOD; (b!GefE‹ Sifhr+ef}uD;) wdko ‹ nf twGif;0efrsm;±Hk; taqmufttHktwGif;odk‹ uif;axmuf&ef av#mufoGm;-uonf? tqdkygae‹ eHeufaESmif;ydkif;wGif bk&ifcH. tr+aqmifaumifpD tpnf;ta0; vkyf jzpfrnf/ rvkyjf zpfrnfukd olw‹kd odv-kd uonf? tpnf;ta0;vkyjf zpfonf[k odv#if odcsif; cifarmif&ifonf ‘ol&d,’ owif;pmykHESdyfwkdufrS w,fvDzkef;wckudk toHk; ðyvsuf ol‹q&mocifxHodk‹ pum;0Suf owif;ydk‹csufwckudk wdkwdkawmif;awmif; ydv ‹k u kd af wmhonf? “ypPwifuiG ;f rsm; &&S_d yD;yg_yDæ”? pum;0Sufjzifh twnfðycsuf&&Sd_yD;v#if_yD;csif; at'Dvrf;&Sd OD;apm.aetdrf rS *spfum;wpif; t&Sdefjyif;pGmarmif;ESifI xGufvmcJhonf? tcsdefrSm eHeuf (10) em&D? um;armif;ol okc.eHab;wGif touf (30) twGif;&Sd t&yf&Snf&Snf armif pdk;qdkolvnf; vkdufygvmonf? um;aemufydkif; uif;bwfpf tzHk;}uD;atmufwGif ykef;vsuf/ auG;vsuf vdkufygvmol (3) OD;rSm aoewfudkifxm;olrsm;jzpf-uaom armifped /f oufEiS ;f ESihf &ef}uD;atmifw‹kd jzpf-uonf? armifp;kd / armifped Ef iS hf oufEiS ;f wdk‹ wOD;csif;wGif awmfrD*ef;aoewf wvufpD&Sd-uonf? vlysKdt&G,f i,f&G,fol &ef}uD;atmifwiG rf l wcsucf si;f armif;jyef (Semi-automatic) pwif;*ef; aoewfw vuf udik af qmifxm;onf? *spfum;ajceif;jyifay:wGif twGi;f 0ef±;Hk Y óudwifapmifh qdik ;f aeaom b!Get ‹f wGuf awmfr*D ef;aoewfwvuf yg&Sv d monf? ‚if;wdt ‹k m;vH;k onf awmwGif;ppfpdrf;a&mif ppf0wfppfpm;rsm; 0wfqifxm;-uvsuf aysmhaysmif; onfh awmwGif;aqmif; ppfOD;xkyfrsm; aqmif;xm;-uonf? 1 ‚if;wdk‹. ppf0wfpHk ycHk;ay:wGif jrefrmEdkifiHY ppftwGif;u &Sd&if;pGJjzpfaom t*Fvdyfacwf òrda› pmifhwyf trSwf (12) aoewfudkifwyf&if;. trSwfwHqdyfudk wyfqifxm;-uonf? teD a&mifESifh tjzLa&mif tvHi,fESpfckwdko ‹ nf um;ta&SŒrSef. b,fbufaxmifhpGef; 0,f avwdkufwdkif; wzsyfzsyf±dkufcwfI ygvm_yD; ‚if;wdk‹pD;eif;vmonfh *spfum; onf &efuek òf rdv › ,faumifw±l o l ‹kd tjyif;armif;ESiv f mawmhonf? tqdkygtcsdefESifh ra&S;raESmif;wGifyif AdkvfcsKyfb0rS EkwfxGufxm;cgpjzpf aom OD;atmifqef;onfvnf; &efuek f uefawmf}uD;apmif;&Sd olaexdik &f m pdr;f vef; pdkjynfvSonfh wm0gvdef;vrf;aetdrfrS um;armif;ol tr+xrf;wOD; armif;ESifay; onfhum;udk pD;eif;vkdufygvsuf xGufcGmvmcJhonf? AdkvfcsKyfrSm touf (32) ESpf t&G,f&Sd jrefrmhtrsKd;om;v+yf&Sm;r+}uD;. acgif;aqmifESifh bk&ifcH. tvkyftr+ aqmifaumifpD 'k=OuU@jzpf_yD; trSeq f ykd gv#if vGwv f yfa&; tóudacwf tpd;k &tzGŒJ

41

42

tcef; (1) Adv k cf sKyfvyk }f ucH &H jcif; &efukefòrd›/ 1947 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (19) &uf/ paeae‹

41

42


43

Adv k cf sKyfvyk }f ucH &H jcif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

. 0ef}uD;csKyfwOD;vnf; jzpfygonf? OD;atmifqef;onf Adv k cf sKyftaqmifta,mif ppf0wfwefqmwdu ‹k kd pGey‹f ,fc_hJ yD;jzpfvsuf xdak e‹u vnfuwH;k tjzLa&mif&yS t f us/ô awmufajymifawmifhwif; tcsKd;usonfh ydk;wdkufyHktusôESifh a&$0ga&mif ydk;vHkcsnf æponfjzifh t&yf0wft&yfpm;rsm; 0wfqifxm;ygonf? OD;atmifqef;. aetdrf rSm OD;apmaexdik o f nfh at'Dvrf;tdrEf iS phf mv#if twGi;f 0efrsm;±H;k ESihf ra0;vHvaS om t&yfwGif &Sdaeonfhtavsmuf vlowform;rsm; ra&mufvmrDtcsdefuyif olu óudwifI twGif;0ef±Hk;odk‹ a&muf&SdoGm;cJhygonf? tjcm;aumifpD0ifrsm;onfvnf; vGwv f yfa&;tóudacwf jrefrmtpd;k &tzGŒJ vky±f ;kd vkypf Of tpnf;ta0;yGw J ckukd wuf a&muf&ef &nfreS ;f vsuf twGi;f 0efrsm;±H;k od‹k ra&S;raESmif; a&muf&v dS m-uygonf? jrefrmEdkifiH tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif vGwfvyfcGifh&&Sda&;twGuf _Adwdo#tpdk;&ESifh aphpyfaqG;aEG;cJ_h yD; jzpfonft h avsmuf udv k ekd t D yk cf sKyfa&;pepfatmufrS t_yD;tydik f vGwaf jrmuf&efrmS ajcmufvr#yif ra0;awmhaom tcsdet f cgvnf; jzpfayonf? xdktcsdefwGifyif b!Gef‹onf vufeufudkifaqmifxm;jcif; r&Sdjim;vnf; ol vky}f uH&rnfh om;aumifukd twGi;f 0efrsm;±H;k / y&d0% k t f wGi;f Y vdu k v f &H mS azGvsuf &S. d ? xdo k rl mS tjcm;olr[kwaf cs/ OD;atmifqef;. a&mif;&if;wOD;jzpfol vGwv f yf a&;r&ao;rD wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmf (Constituent Assembly) . OuU@jzpfol ocifEkjzpfygonf? b!Gefo ‹ nf A[dktaqmufttHk}uD;twGif; tv,faumifwGif wnf&Sdonfh jrifhrm;vSaom ukef;o¿mef trdk;rsm;atmufrS aygif;ul;vrf;rw av#muf (high-arched through way) jzwfav#mufvsuf&Sdonf? ocifEk. ±Hk; cef;onf v$waf wmftopf taqmufttH. k taemufbuftaqmiftwGi;f yxr OD;qHk;tcef;jzpfonf? twGif;0efrsm;±Hk;twGif; av;ajr‡mifho¿mef taqmufttHk rsm;twGif;rS tcef;wcef;jzpfacsonf? ‚if;tcef;twGif;odk‹ b!Gef‹ waphwapmif; tuJcwf-unfh±+vdkuf&mwGif tcef;wGif;Y xdkifaeolwOD;ukd awGŒvkdufI olowf& rnfo h [ l k olxifvu dk o f nf? oljzwfav#mufomG ;_yD; jyefvn S v hf mum twGi;f oku ‹d yf vsuf -unfv h u dk jf yefonf? tqdyk gyk*Kd~ vfrmS ocifEk r[kwyf gacs? odE‹k iS hf b!Gev ‹f nf; ‚if;taqmufttHkrS xGufcGmIvmcJh.? x&yfum;&Sd&modk‹ taomhESifI av#muf vm_yD;v#if teD;tem;&Sd vufzuf&nfqdkifwckxJokd‹ 0ifxdkifvdkuf.? xdkpOfwGif teD;tem;Y vrf;ovsm;vsuf&Sdol cifarmif&ifonf vufzuf&nfaomufvsuf &Sdonfh b!Gefu ‹ dkjrif_yD; teD;odkc‹ sOf;uyfvmum olwdkq ‹ &mocifxHodk‹ ay;ydk‹ _yD;jzpf aom pum;0Sufudk ajymjyvdkufonf? “tm;vHk;tqifacsmarm_yD; t}uHtpnft wdik ;f yDyjD yifjyif jzpfvsuf&adS eyg_yDæ”?

‚if;aemuf cifarmif&ifonf teD;tem; rvS rf;rurf; tcsuftcsmusaom ae&mY &yfxm;onfh zdk‹'fqefx&yfum;&Sd&modk‹ qufvufav#mufvmonf? xdk tcsdefwGif ±kwfw&ufqdkovdkyif vufeufudkifaqmifxm;onfh ol‹&Jabmf&Jbuf rsm;udk wifaqmifvmaom *spfum;udk vS r;f jrifvu kd af wmh.? olwa‹kd &mufvmukef -u_yD[k b!Gef‹odk‹ vS rf;Itcsufjyvdkufaomtcg b!Gef‹onf vufzuf&nfyef; uefudk tomt,mEdS rfhcsvdkufI ol.0ef;usifodk‹ pdk;&drfw}uD; vdkufvH-unfh±+aerd .? tqdyk g*spu f m; twGi;f 0efrsm;±H;k . A[drk ck Of ;D 0od‹k csO;f uyfvmcsed w f iG f tcuft cJwcktjzpf óuHawGŒ&onfrmS ‚if;wdu ‹k m;a&SŒwnfw h nfrh S tjcm;x&yfum;wpD; armif; ESiI f oGm;aejcif;yifjzpfygonf? ‚if;wd*‹k spfum;onf t&Sed o f wfvu kd v f suf xdx k &yf um;}uD; ta&SŒraS rmif;ESix f u G o f mG ;onftxd apmifah ecJ-h uonf? r-umrD vrf;&Si;f oGm;acs_yD? rnfolwOD;wa,mufur# ‚if;wd*k‹ spfum;udkvnf;aumif;/ twGif;wGif vdu k yf gvmolrsm;tm;vnf;aumif; &yfwef&‹ mS azGppfaq;&ef róud;pm;cJ-h uygacs/ Ttcsed Yf yif ‚if;taqmufttH}k uD;. taemufaqmif tay:xyfwiG f wnf &Sdonfh OD;atmifqef;. cef;raqmif}uD;twGif;odk‹ bk&ifcH. tvkyftr+aqmift zGŒJ aumifp0D ifrsm; 0ifa&mufae&m,l xdik v f u kd -f uyg_yD? tcef;us,f}uD;twGi;f wGif pma&;cHkwef;&Snf}uD;rsm;tm; ‘U’ pmvHk;. ajymif;jyeftoGifo¿mefjzifh cif;usif; xm;_yD; tcef;. awmifbuftydkif;wGif aumifpD0ifwdk‹twGuf ae&moD;oef‹cif; usif;xm;ygonf? r-umrD tqdyk gcHw k ef;}uD;. OD;ydik ;f A[dak e&mwGif OD;atmifqef; xdkifvdkuf_yD; ‚if;.vkyfazmfudkifbuf 0ef}uD;rsm;tm; E+wfqufvdkufygonf? xdkt csdefu atmifqef;. b,fbufwGif uyfvsufxdkifaeolrSm u|efawmf. OD;av; awmfol OD;a&$abmfyif jzpfygonf? OD;a&$abmfrmS tvkyt f r+aqmifaumifp. D twGi;f a&;rª;jzpf_yD; OD;atmifqef;.nmbufwGif xdkifaeolrSm 0ef}uD;tzGJŒ. 'k=twGif; 0efjzpfol OD;tke;f armif (I.C.S) jzpfygonf? ‚if;wdk‹ESifh uyfvsuf&Sdaom cHkwef;vsm;}uD;. nmbufjcrf;wGif xdkifaeol rsm;rSm b¾ma&;Xme aumifpD0ifjzpfol qdk&S,fvpfacgif;aqmif ocifjr/ rlpvif bmom0if ausmif;tkyf}uD;/ EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmif/ ynma&;ESifh trsKd;om;pDrHudef; Xmersm;. aumifpD0ifjzpfol OD;tAŠ'l&mZmwf/ OD;atmifqef;. tpfudkawmfol pD;yGm;a&;ESifh axmufyHha&;Xme aumifpD0if OD;b0if;/ owif;pmq&mESifh 'D;'kwf r*~Zif;t,f'w D m/ jyef-um;a&;Xme aumifp0D if OD;bcsKd/ u&ifvrl sKd;pkacgif;aqmif wOD;jzpfI tvkyo f rm;a&;&mXmeaumifp0D if ref;bcdik w f ‹kd jzpf-uygonf? OD;atmifqef;. b,fbufjcrf;wGif xdkifaeolrsm;rSm jynfov l‹ kyfief;aumif

43

44 44


45

Adv k cf sKyfvyk }f ucH &H jcif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

pD0if vli,ftpnf;t±H;k OuU@ OD;A*srf;/ vlra+ &;vkyif ef;rsm; aumifp0D if OD;atmifZH a0/ aumufyJoD;ESHXme aumifpD0if ([oFmw) OD;jrESifh e,fjcm;a'orsm;qdkif&m aumifpD0ifjzpfol &S rf;jynfe,frS rdkif;yGefapmfbGm;}uD; apmpHxGef;wdk‹ jzpf-uygonf? rdik ;f yGeaf pmfbmG ;}uD;onf wdik ;f &if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;aexdik &f m e,fjcm;a'orsm;ESihf jynfr}uD;wdk‹ aygif;pyfEdkifa&; óud;yrf;r+wGif ta&;ygt&ma&mufaom tcef;u¾ rS yg0ifcyhJ gonf? tpnf;ta0;udk eHeuf (10;30) tcsdefwGif pwifzGifhvSpfvdkuf&m tvkyftr+ aqmiftzGJŒ0if tm;vHk;wdk‹onf OD;atmifqef;&Sd&m a&S›wl±lwGif tcef;twGif;buf odk‹ rsufESmrlvsuf xdkifae-uygonf? odk&‹ mwGif xdktcsdefY o,f,lydka‹ qmifa&;ESifh vrf;yef;qufo, G af &;Xme 'k=twGi;f 0efjzpfol OD;tke;f armifonf tcef;twGi;f od‹k 0ifa&mufvmojzihf tpnf;ta0;}uD;rSm tcdkuftwef‹ &yfem;oGm;&onf? ‚if;0ifa&mufvm&onfh udp&P yfrmS xdak e‹eeH ufu txufjrefrmEkid if o H ‹kd c&D; vGeaf eol 0ef}uD;apmpHz;kd oif.ud, k pf m; ta&;ay:udpw P &yfukd &Si;f vif;wifjy&ef vdo k nft h wGuf wufa&mufvm&jcif;jzpfygonf? c&D;a&mufrqdu k yf if OD;tke;f armif onf ‚if;wifjyaqG;aEG;&rnfh udp&P yftm; OD;pGm wifjyaqG;aEG;cGiðhf yyg&ef yef-um; vku d o f nf? xkad e‹wiG f OD;tke;f armifonf trSew f u,f wm0efusaeol r[kwo f nfh tjyif ol‹ Y tjcm;ta&;}uD;onfh vkyfief;rsm; aqmif&Guf&ef&SdonfhtwGuf ,ck uJo h ‹kd cGiafh wmif;&jcif;jzpfygonf[k wifjyvku d yf gonf? tcef;}uD;twGi;f &So d r#aom wHcg;rsm;udv k nf; tcef;. ajrmufbuf&dS jynf olv ‹ kyfief;Xme aumifpD0if. ±Hk;cef;ESihfuyfvsuf rsufESmcsif;qkdif&Sd wHcg;aygufw ckrSvGJI tm;vHk;ydwfvkduf-u_yD; twGif;rS csufrsm;xdk;xm;-uonf? ‚if;tcef; wHcg;0Y rif;apaomif;pdef apmihf-uyfvsuf&Sdonf? aomif;pdefrSm vufeuf udkif aqmifrxm;yg? ol0wfqifxm;aom ppfpdrf;a&mifabmif;bDrSvGJI xdkvli,fav; wGif -oZmtm%m. t&dyfta,mif[lI tjcm; bmr#r&Sdygacs? jyify avomaqmif vloGm;vrf; (corridor) wGifrl tr+aqmifaumifpD. vufaxmuf twGif;0efjzpfol OD;wiftHk;onf rdwfaqGwOD;ESihf &yfwefp‹ um;ajym vsuf&Sd.? ±kwfw&ufqdkovdkyif OD;wiftHk;onf aoewfajymif;0csif;±dkufcwfoH/ !d;k !d;k nHnt H oHrsm;ESihf ajcoHjyif;jyif; eif;wufvmoHrsm; -um;vdu k &f ojzihf vSnhf -unfrh &d mwGif avSum;ay:ok‹d tajy;wufvm-uonfh vufeufuikd f vl (4) a,muf udk jrifvu kd &f awmh.? OD;atmifqef;&S&d m tpnf;ta0;cef;r}uD;od‹k ‚if;wd‹k taomh ESi_f yD; ajy;av#mufomG ;-uonfukd twGi;f 0efrsm;±H;k ok‹d rdwaf qGwa,mufEiS hf vku d f

ygvmol ukeo f nfwOD;jzpfonfh OD;xifabmfonfvnf; awGŒ jrifvu kd o f nf? a&SŒq;kH rS OD;aqmifomG ;olrmS armifp;kd jzpfonf? olu t&yfjrifjh rihEf iS fh rsufEmS &Sn&f n S rf ‹kd olu ‹ kd vG,v f , G u f u l l rSwrf Ed ikd yf gonf? vlysKdv&l , G af v;jzpfonfh &ef}uD;atmifrmS vnf; ol. ysKrd spEf ek ,faom ±kyo f iG af -umihf ay:vGiaf eonf? twGi;f 0efrsm;±H;k tpnf;a0; cef;rteD;Y eHeuftapmydik ;f uyif vma&mufapmihq f idk ;f aeol r+e}f uD;onf aoewf udik af qmifxm;aom olwv ‹kd l vlowform;rsm;tm; tpnf;a0;}uD; pwifae_yDjzpf a-umif; acgif;ndwt f csufjyvdu k o f nf? wckwnf;aom zGix fh m;onfh wHcg;teD;od‹k armifp;kd csO;f uyf oGm;onft h cgwGirf l rif;apav;armifaomif;pderf mS -uuftw hH ao jzpfaerdawmh.? xkd‹aemuf olonf owd&_yD; tcef;t0if0udk ydwfqdk‹wm;qD;&ef óud;pm;vdkufygao;.? 2 odk‹aomf armifpdk;ESihf oufESif;wdk‹u olwdk‹. awmfrD*ef; aoewfrsm;udk ol‹tm; csdef&G,fvdkuf.? xdk‹aemuf ol‹udk ab;odk‹wGef;vdkuf&m ol vnf; ',dr;f ',dik jf zpfomG ;pOfYyif aoewform;rsm; tcef;wGi;f od‹k wd;k 0ifomG ;ojzihf armifaomif;pdev f nf; taemufrS &J0phH mG ajy;vdu k o f mG ;ygao;onf? oda‹k omf olbmr# rwwfEikd af wmh? xkt d csed w f iG yf if aoewform;rsm;onf olwa‹kd oewfrsm;udk tpnf; ta0;cef;twGif;&Sd 0ef}uD;rsm;bufodk‹ csdef&G,f_yD; vS rf;atmfvkdufonf? “rajy;eJ/‹ rxeJæ ‹ ” xkt d wGi;f tH-h ooifah eaom OD;atmifqef;u rwfwyf&yfvu kd o f nft h cg armifp;kd u trdea‹f y;vdu k af wmhonf? “ypfæypfæ ypf” [laom trdefa‹ y;oHESihftwl aoewfoHrsm; qlnHoGm;_yD; AdkvfcsKyf}uD;vnf; -urf;ay:odk‹ yHkvJoGm;vsuf aoewf'%f&m (13) csufjzifh aoG; tdkifxJwGif vJavsmif; _idrfoufoGm;&Smawmhonf? xkdtcsdefY armifpdk;/ armifpdefESifh oufESif;wdk‹onfvnf; 0ef}uD;rsm;&Sd&modk‹ awmfr*D ef;aoewfrsm;jzifh w&pyfypfcwfaecdu k f &ef}uD;atmifonfvnf; 'l;axmuf csvkdufvsuf ol. pwif;*ef;aoewfjzifh vJavsmif;usoGm;_yD;aom yk*~dKvfrsm;ESihf cHkatmufwGif0yfI ykef;v#Kd;uG,fv#Kd; tumtuG,f,laeonfh yk*~dKvfrsm;xHodk‹ w &pyf pwif;*ef;jzifh ypfaeonf? Todk‹ rem;wrf;puUef‹ (30) cef‹ ypf_yD;aomtcg wGif armifp;kd u olv ‹ rl sm;tm; typf&yfI qkwcf mG &ef xyfrt H rdea‹f y;vdu k af wmh.? xkdtcsdefonf eHeuf (10) em&D (37) rdepfjzpfI OD;atmifqef;. udk,fa&; vufaxmufjzpfol Adv k x f eG ;f vSonf 0ef}uD;tzGŒJ tpnf;ta0;cef;rxJwiG f tqkyd g jrifuGif;okd‹ yxrOD;qkH; a&mufvmonfhyk*~dKvfjzpfonf? twGif;0efrsm;±Hk;twGif;&Sd tjcm;jcm;aom yk*~dKvfrsm;onfvnf; r-umrD zGihfxm;aom wHcg;ayguftwGif;odk‹ tajy;tv$m;0ifvm-u.? eHapmfvo S nfh aoewf,rf;cd;k ,rf;aiGŒ tcd;k tv#w H o ‹kd nf

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Adv k cf sKyfvyk }f ucH &H jcif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

cef;r}uD;tjynfh &Sdaeaomfvnf; tqdkyg tcdk;tv#Hrsm;twGif;rS tpaw;cHyk*~dKvf rsm;. cE<mudk,frsm;udk xifxif&Sm;&Sm;jrifae&ygonf? pm;yGJukvm;xkdif tawmf rsm;rsm;rSm arSmufcHkaZmufxkd;jzpfaevsuf ‘U’ pmvHk; ajymif;jyefyHk pm;yGJab;ywf vnfwGif aoG;tkdifrsm;jzihf npfayvsuf&Sdacs.? u|efawmfwdk‹. trsKd;om;acgif; aqmif/ zufqpfawmfveS af &; ol&aJ umif; Adv k cf sKyf}uD;atmifqef;rSmrl toufq;kH yg;vsuf -urf;jyifay:wGif vJavsmif;vsuf&adS cs_yD? olaoqH;k csdew f iG f touf (32) ESpfom &Sdao;onf? ocifjr. tqkwfrSm aoewfusnfqHrsm; azmufxGif;oGm; cJo h nfh '%fa-umifh ausrGvsuf&_dS yD; olonfvnf; pm;yGcJ }kH uD;wckatmuf aoG;tdik f xJwGif vJavsmif;aoqHk;ae&Smonf? OD;&mZwfwGif aoewf'%f&m (6) csuf&&Sd vsu/f OD;b0if;wGif aoewf'%f&m (8) csu&f &Scd _hJ yD;/ ref;bcdik w f iG f aoewf'%f&m (15) csufr#yif &&SdcJhonf? olwdt k‹ m;vHk; toufr&Sd-uawmhyg? olwd. k‹ toufrJh aom cE<mud, k }f uD;rsm;onfvnf; xkid cf rkH sm;ta&SŒo‹kd idu k pf u kd u f svsu&f adS e-uonf? wckxif&Sm;onfrSm OD;atmifqef;onf vlowform;rsm;. t"duypfrSwf jzpfcJhjcif;jzpfyg.? ‚if;udk ypfcwf_yD;onfhtcgY vlowform;rsm;onf ‚if;. nm buftjcrf;od‹k aoewfajymif;0udk a0S&‹ rf;vsuf aumifp0D ifwOD;csi;f udk ypfcwfc&hJ m aumifpD0iftawmfrsm;rsm;onf ‚if;wdk‹aexdkif&m cHkrsm;ay: Yyif ±kyfao;óud;jywf usqHk;oGm;cJh-u&&Smonf? b,fbuftjcrf;wGif aoewf'%f&m&&Sdol wOD;wnf; aomyk*Kd~ vfrmS rl aoewform;rsm; ypfcwfaeaomae&mESihf teD;qH;k wGif xkid af eol apmpHxeG ;f yif jzpfyg.? olonf olu ‹ v k m;xkid af y:Y xkid v f sut f aetxm;ESiyfh if &Sd aeao;onf?þolEiS þhf wpm;yGw J nf;xkid af eolþtrsm;xJrþS OD;a&$abmfEiS þfh OD;jrþ([oFmw) wdk‹rSm uHtm;axmufrpGmjzihf tpnf;ta0;cef;r}uD;. eHab;buf/ wHcg;0 wckqDodk‹ ajy;oGm;Edkif-u_yD; toufcsrf;om&m&&SdoGm;cJh-uonf? OD;a&$abmfu wHcg;udk zGihfEdkifcJhaomfvnf; -urf;jyifay:okd‹ rl;arhI vJusoGm;cJhonf? OD;atmifZH a0ESifh OD;A*srf;wdr‹k mS rl aoewfypfcwfptcsdeu f ukvm;xkid af y:rS yufvufvefus I -urf;ay: Y _idrfoufpGmvJavsmif;ae&mrS '%f&mt}uD;tus,fr&&SdbJ vGwf ajrmufxGufajy;oGm;EdkifcJhonf? xdka-umifh OD;A*srf;. nbufvufolºuG,fav; wGif aoewf'%f&mwckom &&Scd yhJ gonf? q&m}uD; OD;&mZwfonf aemufq;kH touf±jª cif;tjzpf toufaiGŒaiGŒuav; udk jznf;jznf; nifnifomom ±ªomG ;Edik cf o hJ nf? q&m}uD; OD;bcsKdwiG f aoewf'%f &m (5) csuf&&SdcJh&m wcsufrSm OD;aESmufwGif 0ifa&mufoGm;cJhonf? olESihf apmpH xGe;f wdE‹k pS Of ;D touf&iS v f suf&adS o;onfjzpfI aq;±Ho k ‹kd tjrefyv ‹kd u dk &f onf? apm

pHxGef;wGif OD;acgif;Y '%f&m (2) csuf&&Sdvsuf -urf;ay:wGif ikwfwkwfxdkifae_yD; yg;pyftwGif;rS aoG;rsm; pD;usaeum a&iwf&SmvGef;I oem;pzG,f a&awmif;ae &Smonf? tpnf;ta0;}uD;odk‹ tpD&ifcHpmwck tvsifpvdkay;yd&k‹ ef a&muf&SdcJhonfh twGi;f 0ef OD;tke;f armifcrsmrSmvnf; wud, k v f ;kH wGif aoewf'%f&m A&yGjzifh -urf; ay:Y vJusomG ;cJo h nf? olonfvnf; wcsed w f nf;wGiyf if toufaysmufae&Smyg_y?D owif;pm owif;axmufwOD;jzpfol armifoef;onf owif;Xme±Hk;cef; twGi;f rS qlqn l n H t H oHrsm; -um;v#if-um;csif; tajy;xGuv f mcJ&h m tpnf;ta0; cef;r}uD;rS qkwcf mG vmcJ-h uaom aoewfuikd v f o l wform;rsm;onf olu ‹ kd awGŒ jrif 3 aomtcg &yfwef‹&ef trdef‹ay;vdkufojzihf armifoef;onfvnf; ajrjyifay:odk‹ olu ‹ , kd u f þkd uref;uwef;vJcS svu kd v f suþf armh-unhv f u kd af omtcgþaoewform;rsm; xGuaf jy;aeonfukd wm;qD;&ef tcef;wcef;twGi;f rS ajy;xGuv f monfh OD;&mZwf . ud, k &f aH wmf udak xG;udk vS r;f jrifvu kd &f onf? xdt k csed w f iG f &ef}uD;atmifrmS a&SŒrS OD;aqmifaeonf? &ef}uD;atmifonf owday;vHa‹+ qmfjcif; tvsO;f rðyawmhbJ ol. pwif;*ef;aoewfjzihf qufwu kd yf pfxnfv h u kd o f nf? ud, k &f aH wmfav;rSm aoewf hJ y‹kd if '%f&m (4) csu&f &Su d m -urf;jyifay:od‹k yHv k o J mG ;awmhonf? 4 &ef}uD;atmifuo udkaxG;rSmvnf; vlysKdvl&G,fav;wOD;yif jzpfygonf? xdktcsdefYyif “atmif_yD/ atmif_yD” [k [pfaºuG;vsuf aoewform;rsm; twGif;0efrsm;±Hk; taqmufttHk}uD;twGif;rS ajy;xGufvm-uonf? xdkESihf wcsdef wnf; okconf *spfum;udk twGi;f 0efrsm;±H;k twGi;f avSum;ajc&if;teD;xd armif; csvmcJh_yD; um;pufudk E+d;xm;um tqifoifhapmihfqdkif;aeonf? odkE‹ Sifh vlowfo rm;rsm;tm;vH;k um;ay:od‹k ckew f ufvu kd -f uonf? xdt k cgrS okconfvnf; um;udk pufukefarmif;ESifI xGufcGmoGm;&ef jyifqifvdkufonf? odk&‹ mwGif taqmwvsif pdwv f u dk rf mefyg ±ª;±ª;'kid ;f 'kid ;f vkyv f u kd o f nft h avsmuf ta&;xJ um;tif*sifpufu ±kwfw&uf &yfqdkif;oGm;onf? armifpdefonf okcudk ab;odw k‹ Gef;xkwfvsuf um; pufukd óud;pm;IE+d;aeqJ okcu 0dkif;0ef;I *D,mudkxdk;ay;vdkuf&m jyif;xefaom puftm;t&Sdeft[kefjzifh aqmifhxGufoGm;awmhonf? twGi;f 0ef±;kH rS pywfvrf;odt ‹k xGuf *dw0f wGif armifeu D apmihq f idk ;f aeonf? ol.wm0efrSm tu,fI vlowf*dk%f;0ifwdk‹ xGufajy;&mwGif taESmifht,Suf t[eft ‹ wm;&Syd gu ‚if;. ajcmufv;kH jyL;aoewfjzifh 0ifa&mufu,fwifay;&efjzpf onf? od&‹k mwGif rnfonft h Eœ&m,frS rusa&mufcyhJ gacs? od‹k jzpfI armifeo D mv#if trdefu ‹ dk aoGznfvsuf *spfum;ay:odk‹ ckefwuf&ef óud;pm;cJh&m tqdkyg *spfum;rSm

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Adv k cf sKyfvyk }f ucH &H jcif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

wem&Dv#if uDvkdrDwm (50) jzifh armif;ESifoGm;jcif;a-umihf ratmifjrifvdkufyg? tqdyk g tcsif;t&mrsm;udk orm"dyEkH ydS w f u kd rf S 0D&, d aumif;onfh tvkyo f rm;wOD; jzpfol OD;pdefarmifu teD;tem;rS óuHawGŒvdkuf&onfhtwdkif; olvnf; csufcsif;yif *spfum;eHygwfudk ol‹tusôtdwfxJwGif tcef‹oifh&Sdaeonfh b%faiGoGif;vufrSwf pm&Gut f ay:Y a&;rSwx f m;vdu k o f nf? vlowform;rsm; pD;eif;vdu k yf gvmaom *spu f m;onf 'gv[dpk v D rf;twGi;f odk‹ t&Sdefjyif;pGm csKd;0ifvkduf_yD; ta&SŒbufodk‹ qufvufarmif;ESifoGm;&mrS wzef pawmh*w d v f rf;wav#muf ajrmufbufw±l o + ‹kd armif;ESio f mG ;jyef&m armifped o f nf okcarmif;aeonfukd aES;auG;vGe;f onf[k pdwrf &SnEf idk af wmhojzihf um;armif;wm 0efudk v$Jajymif;,lvdkufum t&Sdeft[kefjyif;pGmjzifh ajrmufbuft&yfrsm;odk‹ w& -urf;armif;ESifvm_yD; usOf;ajrmif;aumufauGŒvSonfh at'Dvrf;uav;xJodk‹ csKd; 0ifvu kd o f nf? OD;apm. tdrfeD;csif;jzpfol uy`wdefcef;onf ol‹ _cHtwGif;rS um;armif;xGuf vmpOf t&Sdefjyif;pGm armif;ESifvmaom xkd*spfum;ESihf acgif;csif;qkdifwdkufvkeD;yg; jzpfomG ;I um;b&dwu f kd twif;tkyv f u kd &f onf? uy`wed cf ef;onf a'gow}uD;jzifh olu ‹ kd wdu k v f ek ;D yg;jzpfomG ;aom um;aemufov ‹kd u kd -f unf&h m ‚if;um;onf vrf;w av#mufqif;oGm;_yD; tif;,m;uefu|ef;qG,fxdyf&Sd OD;apmtdrfwGif;odk‹ auGŒ0ifoGm; onfukd awGŒ jrifvu kd &f onf? olonf jynfvrf;ay:wGif ol‹um;udk &yfxm;vkduf_yD; uefudkjzwfvsuf OD; apm. yef;_cHtwGif;odk‹ vS rf;-unfhaerdonf? OD;apm[k olrSwfrdaeaom abmif; bDwjkd zihf vlwa,muftem; vlawG pk±;kH 0dik ;f &Haeonfukd olawGŒvu kd &f onf? xdt k csdeo f nf eHeuf (11) em&D jzpfonf? xkdtcsdefu tjzLa&mif &Syftusô/ rdk;jyma&mif abmif;bDwdk0wfxm;aom OD; apmonf “ig}uHv#if cHEdkif±kd;vm;” [efjzifh tljrL;aeyHk&onf? ol‹vlrsm;udk vkduf zuf_yD; tvkyfaumif;pGm atmifjrifacsmarmcJhonfhtwGuf csD;usL;pum;ajymae onf? aoewform;rsm;onf vufoD;qkyfrsm;udk avxJa0S&‹ rf;vsuf “atmif_yD/ atmif_yD” [k xyfraH ºuG;a-umf-ujyefonf? olwt ‹kd m;vH;k tpm;taomuf ,rum rsm;ESifh aysmyf cJG -H uonf? ,if;od‹k olw‹kd aysmyf yJG gwDt&Sed t f [keaf umif;aepOf b!Ge/‹f cifarmif&ifESihf armifeDwdkw ‹ okduf olwdk. ‹ zdk'‹ fqefx&yfum;jzifh jyefa&mufvm-u onf? OD;apmESifh yxr jyefa&mufvm-uolrsm;onf tdrf0&efwmokd‹ xGufvm-u _yD; atmifjrifr+twGuf aysmf&$ifpGm olwkd‹tm; E+wfqufaºuGa-umfae-ujcif;ukd

b!Geu ‹f cyf0if0h if0h g0g t*Fvyd v f dk “New Calendar” (jyuQ'ed o f pf) [lI tmarÈdwf oH[pfaºuG;vkdufonf? (w&m;±kH;a&mufrS olu ajz&Sif;jyonfrSm “acwfopf ay: _yD” vkd‹ a-unmonfhoabmjzpfa-umif;?) okd‹aomf ol‹acgif;aqmif}uD;u wzef t*Fvyd b f momESiyhf if “typfc&H wJt h xJrmS ocifEyk g&JŒvm;” vk‹d ar;vku d &f m tajzukd rpOf;pm;wwfatmifjzpfoGm;um jrefrmvkdyif ocifEktm; b,frSmr# &Smr awGŒojzifh ryga-umif; b!Gefu ‹ 0efcHvdkuf_yD; tajctaeudk qufpyf&Sif;jyonf? OD;apmu acgif;ndw_f y;D &Si;f jyr+ukd vufcv H u kd o f nf? olonf ocifEEk iS yfh wfouf_y;D pdk;&drfw}uD;jzpfyHkr&? atmifqef;udkz,f&Sm;a&; t"duvkyf&yfrSm atmifjrif_yD;pD; cJh_yDjzpfI olpdwfrylawmhyg? jrefrmrsKd;cspf0g'Drsm;. t"duacgif;aqmif vrf;&Sif; oGm;_yDjzpfojzifh _Adwdo#bk&ifcHcsKyf qm[l;bwf&ef‹ (pf) onf olt ‹ m; tcsdefra&G; ac:Edik o f nf? zke;f ac:oHukd olapmihaf r#mf&ayawmhrnf? olu ‹ kd ‘tpd;k &opf tjrefzŒJG yg awmh’ [k awmif;qdv k mvdrrhf nf[k ,H-k unfxm;onf? OD;apmonf OD;atmifqef;. t"duEdik if aH &;òydib f ufEiS fh tm%mvkbufjzpfonf? olonf txufo‹kd aumif;pGm aygufa&muf_yD; tpdk;&0efxrf;rsm;twGif;Yomru _Adwdo#ppfwyftwGif;Yyif ol‹vlawG&Sdaeonf? xdktcsdefu tjcm;EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;rSm touftm;jzifh i,f&G,fvGef;_yD; tawGŒtóuHenf;yg;vSao;onf[k qdkEdkifonf? touf (47) ESpf t&G,&f dS OD;apmonf TyGw J iG f 0g&ihv f ufa[mif;wOD;r[kwyf gavm? olonf ol&, d The Sun owif;pm. ydkif&SifESifh t,f'Dwmvnf;jzpfygonf? rsKd;cspfygwD. acgif; aqmifvnf;jzpf±Hkomru *syefacwfrwdkifrD 1940 rS 1942 ckESpftxd 0ef}uD;csKyf tjzpfvnf; wm0efxrf;aqmifcyhJ gao;onf? OD;apmtaejzifh wu,fwrf;tm;jzifh olwu ‹dk dk csufcsif;xGuI f c&D;OD;¯udEw + f qufjcif; r&SdcJhacs? ‚if;tjyif olxGufvmaomtcgYvnf; tvGeft-uL; 0rf;om aysmf&i$ af eykrH &acs[k okcu aemufyidk ;f wGif jyefvnfajymqkcd o hJ nf? trSet f m;jzifh olonf vky}f uHowfjzwfro + wif;ukd csucf si;f yif od&_dS y;D jzpfonf[k ,lq&ayrnf? oka‹d omfvnf; ,cktcgwGirf l ,if;udpu P dk _y;D _y;D om;udp[ P k owfrw S v f u dk yf &Hk ygonf? xdktcsdefwGif ol‹taejzifh wkdif;jynfukd tkyfcsKyf&ef tpkd;&opfzGJŒpnf;a&;twGuf tao;pdwt f pDtpOfrsm;ukd pdwu f ;l a&;qGaJ eaumif;aeayvdrrhf nf? ol. oufqidk f &mtcrf;tem;ESihf oufqidk af om 0wfpu Hk dk qm[l;bwf&efE‹ iS hf awGŒq&Hk mY 0wfqif &eftwGuf tdyfcef;xJwGif jzefx ‹ m;vsuf&Sdonf? od&k‹ mwGif xdkae‹u tpdk;&tzGJŒopf zGJŒpnf;&ef qifhac:cH&olrSm OD;apmr[kwf ygacs? (19/ 7/ 47) ae‹u ol‹om;aumiftjzpf owfrSwfxm;cJhaom om;aumif

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Adv k cf sKyfvyk }f ucH &H jcif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

rsm;xJrS wOD;jzpf_yD; vkyf}uHr+jzpfyGm;pOfu twGif;±Hk;twGif;r&SdvdkufbJ uHaumif; axmufrI vGwx f u G o f mG ;cJah om ocifEjk zpfonf? xkad e‹u OD;Ekxo H ‹kd jrefrmhtvif; 5 owif;pm t,f'Dwm OD;wifu ta&;w}uD; xdwfvef‹w-um; eHeuf (11) em&D wGif vS rf;Izkef;qufonf? xkdtcgrS xdkvkyf}uHr+}uD;ta-umif; od&Sd&_yD; twGif; 0efrsm;±Hk;odk‹ oltajy;tv$m;oGm;&onf? xdktcsdefwGif tavmif;rsm;udk &efukef jynfol‹aq;±Hk}uD;odk‹ a&$Œ _yD;ae_yD? ocifEkonf &efukefaq;±Hk}uD;okd‹ vdkufoGm;_yD; ,refae‹uyif olawGŒcJhaom OD;atmifqef;.tavmif;udk -unfhae&if; &ifxJY wpfqdk‹vmvsuf rsuf&nfrsm; vnfvmonf? vl;0pf (pf) vrf;&Sd ol‹aetdrfodk‹ jyef a&mufonfhtcg ae‹v,f (1) em&Dcef‹ &Sdae_yD? xdktcsdefu jrefrmEdkifiH. t"du EdkifiHa&;ygwDjzpfonfh zqyvtzGJŒcsKyf. acgif;aqmifrsm;onf olw±dk‹ Hk;ESihf eD;uyf pGm wnf&Sdaeaom jynfol‹&JabmftzGJŒ XmecsKyfwGif ol‹udk apmihfae-ua-umif; ol od&Sd&onf? jynfol‹&JabmftzGJŒonf ppfjyefppfr+xrf;a[mif;rsm;. toif;jzpf_yD; OD;atmifqef;udk opPm&Sad om jynfop‹l pftzGŒJ jzpfonf? ocifEk jynfo&‹l aJ bmftzGŒJ ±H;k od‹k a&mufaomtcg ocifwifu a&S;OD;pGm ajym qdkonf? “AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;ae&mrSm OD;apmudkom cefv ‹ dkuf&ifawmh wjynfvHk; 'kuQa&mufukefr,f? AkdvfcsKyfae&mrSm cifAsm;0ifEkdifatmif bk&ifcHudk cifAsm;oGm; awGŒ&r,f? 'gudk usaemfwdk‹ aqG;aEG;_yD;-uyg_yD” [k qD;óudE+wfquf ajymqdkvkduf onf? ,cifu bk&ifcH. tr+aqmifaumifpD0if (11) OD;&Sdonfhteuf ,cktcg (5) OD;om usefawmhonf? xkad e‹eeH uf ypfcwfrr+ S &Siu f sef&pfol 0ef}uD; (3) OD; jzpf onfh OD;b*srf;/ OD;atmifZHa0ESihf OD;jrtjyif (ydka‹ qmifa&;ESifh qufoG,fa&;&m 0ef }uD;) aumifpD0if apmpHzdk;oifESihf (jynfxJa&;ESihf w&m;a&;&m0ef}uD;) aumifpD 0if OD;ausmf_idr;f wd‹k jzpf-uonf? ocifEkonf wkH‹qkdif;raeacs? OD;atmifqef;ae&mY ol‹tm; tpm;xdk;&ef twGuf tr+aqmifaumifp. D 'k=OuU@ae&mtwGuf ocifEt k m; axmufcaH -umif; zqyvtzGŒJcsKyfþtvkyt f r+aqmifaumfrwDuþuefu ‹ u G o f rl &Sþd qH;k jzwftwnfðyay; vdu k o f nf? Twm0efukd ol,&l ygv#if vGwv f yfa&;&_yD;aemuf (6) vt-umwGif olu ‹ kd Ekwx f u G cf iG ahf y;&rnf[al om ¹cGi;f csufjzihf ocifEu k oabmwlvu kd o f nf? ocifEktdrfjyefa&muf_yD;þr-umrD bk&ifcHxHodk‹ roGm;&ao;rD tcsdeftwGif; bk&ifcu H olx ‹ zH ek ;f qufavonf? ocifEt k m; bk&ifcu H 0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;udk vuf cH&efEiS hf tpd;k &opfzŒJGpnf;&ef w&m;0if zdw-f um;wm0efay;jcif;udk cH&avawmhonf? xkdrSwyg; usqHk;oGm;aom tmZmenf}uD;rsm;. ZeD;/ rkqdk;rwOD;v#if ±lyD;aiG

(100˜000) pDudkvnf; u±k%ma-u;tjzpf axmufyHh&efvnf; bk&ifcHu t}uHðy onf? OD;atmifqef;onf olZ‹ eD;onf a':cif-unfukd vlrr,f uav; (3) a,muf f &G,f ESifh xm;&pfco hJ nf? atmifqef;OD; 6 ESifh atmifqef;vif; 7 om;ESpOf ;D tjyif ESpEf pS t orD;i,f atmifqef;pk-unfwdk‹ jzpf-uonf? ae‹v,fyikd ;f tdyrf uf aemufwuGurf mS rl eHeufu yifyef;cJrh t + pkpw k a‹dk -umihf olwdka‹ omufvkduf-uaom ,rumwdku ‹ OD;apm_cH0if;twGif;&Sd vufoyfarG;xm; aom olv ‹ lrsm;tm; òrdw › Gif;Y bmawGjzpfysufaeonfrsm;udk rodEkdifavmufatmif ae‹cif;ydkif; Z&ufrif;pnf;pdrfESihf tol&mewfrsm;b0 wc%a&mufoGm;apygawmh onf? odk‹aomf nae (3) em&D rxdk;rDuav;wGif tjyifvrf;rrS qlqlnHnH armf awmfum; tif*sifpufoHrsm;u olwu dk‹ dk tol&mtdyfrufrS vefE‹ dk;apcJhonf? ykvdyf ESifh ppfwyft&efwyfzGJŒrsm;u olwdrk‹ ar#mfvifhbJ ±kwfw&ufOD;apmtdrfudk 0dkif;xm; vdkuf-uonf? 8 xkdtcg armifpdk;onf csufcsif;yif ol‹aoewfudk aumufqGJvdkuf aomfvnf; olt ‹ em;&Sd olv ‹ lrsm;u olt ‹ m; aoewfroHk;&ef wm;qD;xm;-uonf? wzef r+e}f uD;uvnf; xdt ‹k wl ola‹ wmfraD oewfukd ajr‡mufvu kd o f nft h csdew f iG f ol‹ 9 vufudk ykvdyfwOD;u aoewfjzifh ypfcsvdkufonf? wjcm;aemufvdkufrsm;rSmrl xkad e‹eeH ufu twGi;f 0efrsm;±H;k wGif olwo ‹dk ;kH cJah om aoewfrsm;udk tdraf emufbuf&dS tif;,m;uefxJodk‹ tvsifpvdk ypfcsazsmufzsuf&ef óud;yrf;vsuf&Sdae-uonf? xdk ae&mrSm OD;apmu olwdk‹rdom;pktwGuf a&ueftpyfwGif aqmufwnfay;xm; aom bk&m;ausmif;aqmifav;teD;Y jzpfonf? atmifjrifr+onf wae‹yifrcHvdkufbJ vlowfr+jzifh olwdk‹tm;vHk; vufqkyf vufudkif tzrf;cHvdkuf&aomtcg tjrihfqHk;ae&mrS ðywfusvmaom olrsm;uJhodk‹ OD;apmvlrsm;pkonf pdwfua,mifacsmufcsm; ysufjym;ae-u_yD? odk‹aomfvnf; OD; f eft ‹ hH apmrSmrl &SmrS &Sm;aomol[k qd&k avmufatmif wnf_idrv f yS gonf? 10 xdwv -o0rf;enf;aom trlt&m[lI bmr#r&Sd? ol. tdrfudk ykvdyfwyfrsm; pD;eif;xm; onfhtcsdefumvwav#mufvHk; OD;apm. [efyeftrlt&monf vHk;0rysufjym;/ ol‹tm; apmihfa&Smuf&efvmaom ol‹vufatmufcH wynfhi,fom;rsm;ESihf awGŒ& onfh yHkpHrsKd;/ bmyJjzpfjzpf udpPtm;vHk; qdkif&m=Edkif&m ol‹tquftoG,frsm;t& uGif;qufrdrd xdxda&mufa&muf _yD;pD;oGm;onfhtcg ol‹bufu tav;omvdrfh rnf[k ,Hk-unfr+tjynfh ol‹ Y &SdaeyHk&onf? odk‹aomfvnf; vufxJwGif udkifxm; aom 0DpuDcGufxJrS vufusef,rumudk jznf;nif;pGm pkyfaomuf&if; ol‹ta&SŒrS ykvdyft&m&Sd (Police Superintendent) udk ta&;rpdkufovdk trl&mjzihf &SmazGzrf;

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Adv k cf sKyfvyk }f ucH &H jcif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

qD;ydik cf iG fh 0&rf;pm&Srd &Sd ar;vdu k o f nf? TwGif jy\emwck0ifvmonfrmS 0&rf;pm rygjcif;yifjzpf.? od‹k jzpfI w&m;Oya'ESifh tHacsm_f yD; [efyrkH ay:ojzifh odoo d mom pdwv f y+ &f mS ;aeaom t&m&So d nf olt ‹ xuft&m&Sx d H csufcsif;w,fvzD ek ;f quf_yD; ola&SŒqufvkyfudkifoGm;&rnfh wm0efydkif;qkdif&m E+wfrdefu ‹ dk aocsmpGm &&Sd_yD;aom tcgwGirf S OD;apmu olwt ‹kd m;vH;k udk olt ‹ rd w f iG f &SmazGciG ðhf yvdu k o f nf? ,if;od‹k &SmazG pOftcsed u f mvwav#mufv;kH OD;apmonf 0DpuDukd taomufrysuf jznf;jznf;csi;f qufvufpkyfaomufaecJhonf? jrefrmvlrsKd;zcifwOD;u olu ‹ av;i,frsm;tay: qufqo H nfeh nf;wl olv ‹ rl sm; a-umuf&ŒHGro + ufomoGm;ap&ef t&$wt f aemufrsm; jzifh ajr‡mufyihfacsmharmhr+rsm; ðyvkyf_yD; ykvdyfrsm;ay:wGifvnf; jrefrmjynf eef;&if; 0efb0u qufqHcJhonfh avoHtwdkif; txufpD;udk tydkif,lxm;avonf? r-umrD eHygwf (9) rr qyfr&Sif;*ef;wvuf/ pwif;*ef;wvufESifh usnfqH rsm;udk olŒtdrftwGif;rS ykvdyfu &SmazGawGŒ&Sdonfhwdkif OD;apmonf vHk;0[efrysuf ao;bJ olw ‹ ynfhrsm;ESifh jyufvHk;xkwfaeqJyifjzpfyg.? xkdvufeufESpfckvHk;onf OD;apmydik v f ikd pf ifEiS fh aoewfrsm; jzpfaomfjim;vnf; xdv k ufeufEiS fh usnfqrH sm;udk oufaocHypPn;f tjzpf odr;f vdu k -f uavonf? xkt d csed t f xd OD;apmu tòyH;rysu/f “uJ bmqufvkyfOD;rvJ” [k ar;vdkufonf? xkad‹ -umifh rsufESmxm;wif;wif;ESihf t&m&Sdonf aemufxyfw,fvDzkef;pum; tar;tajzrsm; ðyvkyf_yD; OD;apmqDvm um “'Dtcsdeu f p_yD; cifAsm;udk zrf;vdu k yf g_yD? cifAsm;udk usaemfw‹kd vHòk cHwahJ e&mrSm xdef;odrf;xm;zdk‹ tck csufcsif;ac:oGm;&ygr,f” [k ajymvdkufonf? odkw ‹ dkifatmif rSm;,Gif;onfhbufY ,Hk-unfcsufjyif;xefvGef;ol OD;apmonf wkefv+yfacsmufcsm; r+vHk;0r&Sdao;bJ ola‹ emufvdkufrsm;bufvSnfhum OD;apmu “a[h= rif;wdt k‹ dyf&m vdyfawG xkwf-ua[h? apmifvHkvHkavmufavmuf ,lvmzdkv ‹ nf; rarh-ueJ?‹ igwdk‹ oGm;r,fhae&mu tm%mydkifawGu igwdk‹udk vdkoavmufay;EkdifcsifrS ay;EdkifrSm” [k ajymae&mu wpHkwckudk pOf;pm;[efjzifh “at;avæ(3) &uf 'grS r[kwf (4) &ufavmuf ta0;rSm igwdt ‹k m;vH;k oGm;ae-u&rSmyg? bmrS rpd;k &dr-f ueJ”‹ [k olu bmrS rjzpfovdk xyfajymvdu k jf yefonf? OD;apm. ZeD;onf a':oef;cifonf xdak e‹u tdrw f iG rf &Sad cs? &efuek af jrmuf ydik ;f / tif;pde&f dS yxrtdraf xmifonf. OD;av;awmfol aetdro f ‹kd olra&mufaeonf? Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹ Y &JwyfzGJŒ0ifrsm; a&mufoGm;aomtcgu OD;apm. tdrfwGif cifarmif&if.ZeD;ESihf armifeD.ZeD; trsKd;orD;ESpfOD;tygt0if tdrfapa,musfm; av;wa,mufEiS hf rde;f rav;wa,mufwo ‹kd m usefaecJo h nf?

u|Ekyf . f zcifjzpfol OD;xGe;f vSatmifonf r+cif;axmufvS r;f a&;Xme=ykvyd f wyfzGJŒ }uD; (CID) . 'k=ykvdyfrif;}uD;jzpf_yD; (ykvdyfwyfzGJŒ }uD;udk &JwyfzGJŒ[k trnf rajymif;&ao;rD) xkdtcsdefu jrefrmjynfwGif 'kwd,tqihftjrihfqHk; ykvdyft&m&Sd }uD;jzpfonf? ,if;odk‹v#if zrf;qD;xm;olrsm;udk ykvdyfum;rsm;odk‹ ac:aqmifvm f yf csed w f iG rf S OD;xGe;f vSatmif xdak e&moda‹k &muf&v dS monf? 11 vsijf refvaS om ykvyd w zGŒJ }uD;. ta&;,laqmif&u G rf u + kd oltrdea‹f y;Ekid cf jhJ cif;onf uydw ` efcef;. owif; 12 k‹ *spfum;ESifhou l‹ m; wkdufvkeD;yg;jzpfcJh_yD; ay;r+t&jzpfonf? aoewform;wd. onfhaemufydkif;wGif 0if'grD,mygh(cf) &Sd OD;xGef;vSatmiftdrfodk‹ uy`wdefcef;u awmufav#mufomG ;cJo h nf? OD;xGe;f vSatmifukd tdrw f iG f rawGŒvu kd o f nft h cg cef; onf (CID) r+cif;axmufvS r;f a&;Xme ykvyd rf if;}uD;±H;k cef;od‹k ae‹v,f (1) em&Dcef‹ wGif vS r;f zke;f qufvu kd o f nf? OD;xGe;f vSatmifonf odr;f qnf;xm;aom vufeuf rsm;udk 0rf;enf;a-uuGJaom tawG;rsm;jzihf ppfaq;-unfhcJhonf? OD;apmtdrfwGif tjcm; udk,fydkifud&d,m wefqmyvmrsm;udkvnf; awGŒ&onf? txl;ojzifh r-um ao;rDurS ±kdufESdyfxm;[efwlaom pma&;puULu'frsm;tjyif 0ef}uD;csKyf[laom acgif;pOfESifh OD;apm[laom vufa&;quf wHqdyfwHk; ponfrsm;udkvnf; zrf;qD; &rdcJhonf? (CID) t}uD;tuJonf _cH0if;twGif;&Sd um;rsm;udkvnf; pdwf0ifwpm; -unhrf jd yefonf? *spfum;ESppf ;D &S_d yD; olonf tif*sifpufrsm;udk E+;d -unfo h nf? um; wpD;omv#if trk;d yg_yD; ,if;um;. eHygwfjym;rSm vwfvwfqwfqwf aq;okwf xm;rSe;f -unh±f EkH iS o fh Ed idk o f nf? ,if;um;onf vG,v f , G u f u l El iS fh pufE;d+ aomfvnf; tjcm;um;rSm ±kwfw&ufpufrEd+;ay? xdk‹ jyif zdk‹'fqefx&yfum;udk um;±HkxJwGif &yfxm;onf? &efolòydifbufrsm;udk z,f&Sm;_yD; rudkÉfudk t&,lum eef;wufonfh tpOf tvmudk jrefrmpum;wGif ‘okwo f ifa&;’ [k oH;k onf? OD;apmonf xdo k w k o f ifa&; óud;yrf;csuf}uD;udk tm;wufoa&m tuGufaphaph pDpOfvkyfaqmifcJhjim;aomf vnf; tm;vH;k ±kww f &uf tqH;k owfomG ;onf? bk&ifcx H rH S olt ‹ rd af wmfo‹kd tapmifh ta&Smufrsm;ESihfwuG w&m;0ifvdkufygvm&ef apv$wfvdkufaom wreftzGJŒudk vufcH&rnfhtpm; OD;apmESihf ol‹taygif;tygrsm;onf bvuf rm&D,m (Black Maria) jzifh axmifodk‹ ac:aqmifoGm;jcif;udk cH&avawmhonf? TEdkifiHawmf vkyf}uHr+}uD;wGif yl;aygif;}uHpnfolrsm;udk xdkae‹aemufydkif; axmifxJxnfh_yD; axmifwcH g;ydwcf sderf mS nae ae0ifcsdef jzpfaeav_yD? twGi;f 0efrsm;±H;k }uD;twGi;f &ufpuf-urf;-uKwfpmG vky}f uHr+ owif;qd;k }uD;

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Adv k cf sKyfvyk }f ucH &H jcif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

rSm òrd›awmftwGif; ysHŒESH‹oGm;_yD; wwdkif;wjynfvHk; ylaqG;aomu a&muf-u&av onf? twGif;0efrsm;±Hk;Y (6) a,muf yGJcsif;_yD; aoqHk;I aemufxyf (3) OD; xyfrH aoqHk;cJhonf? OD;bcsKdonf '%f&ma-umihf xdkae‹ ae‹v,fydkif;wGif aoqHk;cJh&_yD; apmpHxeG ;f onf aemufwae‹wiG f uG,v f eG o f mG ;&Smonf? i,f&, G af om ud, k &f aH wmf &JabmfudkaxG;rSmrl aemuf&uftenf;i,ft-umwGifrS uG,fvGefoGm;&Smonf? Ekdif iHa&;orm; wOD;wa,mufwnf;. tm%mavmb&rufudk auseyfr+ay;apEdkif &eftwGuf yk*Kd~ vf (9) OD; toufay;cJ&h avonf? _Adwo d #wx ‹kd rH S tm%mv$aJ jymif; ,la&; óud;yrf;aeqJumvY jrefrmEdkifiH. t&nftcsif;tjrihfrm;qHk; acgif;aqmif rsm;rSm EdkifiHawmf tcsKyftjcmtm%m&&Sd_yD; vGwfvyfa&;ra-unmEdkifrDyif usqHk; oGm;cJ&h &Smawmhonf? Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô

55 55

56 56


1946 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (27) &ufae‹wGif cef‹tyfvdkufonfh bk&ifcH. 0ef}uD;tzGJŒæ a&SŒwef; 0JrS,m? ocifbpdef/ AdkvfcsKyf}uD;atmifqef;/ bk&ifcH AkdvfcsKyf qm[sL;bwf&ef(pf)/ OD;baz/ OD;wifxGÉf? aemufwef; 0JrS,m? ocifjr/ OD;atmifZHa0ESihf ocifodef;az?

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;/ ppfaoemywd ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmf? (1943/ *syefjynf ‘[D±kd[Dwdk’ {u&mZf udk,fwdkif ‘wufae’ bGJŒtyfESif;cJhonf)

57

57

58 58


OD;atmifqef;

59 'D;'kwfOD;bcsKd ocifjr

pyfpx H eG ;f OD;b0if;

OD;&mZwf ref;bckdif

twGi;f 0efO;D tke;f armif &Jabmf ukad xG;

59 vkyf}uHcH&olrsm;? 0ef}uD;tzGJŒ0if (7) OD;ESihf t&m&Sd (2) OD;rSm 1947/ Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹wGif ypfcwfowfjzwfjcif; cHcJh-u&&Smonf?

vkyf}uHr+t_yD; bk&ifcH. 0ef}uD;tzGJŒESihf {nfhonfrsm;æ æ xkdifvsuf=0JrS,m? OD;ausmfndrf;/ qmbOD;/ av'D&ef(p)/ ocifEk/ qm[sL;bwf&ef(pf)/ The Earl of Listowel (jrefrmjynfqdkif&m twGif;0ef)/ Adkvfvusfm/ qm*vfbwfvdwf0dwf/ OD;wifxGÉf? ta&SŒwef;rwfwyf&yf= 0JrS,m? tmtDr*Gm&m;/ ref;0if;armif/ Adkvfzdk;uGef;/ udk,f&Hawmf (4) OD;/ ocifwif/ [oFmw OD;jr/ Aef;udka[mf/ rpP0dwfzdvf? taemufwef;= 0JrS,m? a*stvfav'if/ aysmfbG,fOD;jr/ qm&vfpwHk;[ef/ OD;b*srf;/ pDtuf (z) oD yD&wf(p) ESihf [,f&pf(p)

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

60 60


atmuf(p) zdk‹'Fòrd›Y emwmvl;yGJcsdef? 1983/ a':atmifqef;pk-unfaetdrfwGif rdom;pkrsm;ESihf rdwfaqGrsm;yg pk±Hk;vsuf? (a':atmifqef;pk-unf ab;wGif xkdifvsuf vufzuf&nfcGufudk vSrf;,laeol a'gufwmausmf0if;. arwWmvufaqmifyHkjzpfygonf?)

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

Adv k cf sKyfw‹dk ZeD;armifESHESifh &ifcGifykduforD;av; atmifqef;pk-unf 1945?

yifvkHòrdŒY/ 0JrS,m? AdkvfcsKyf/ anmifa&$apmbGm;}uD; pyfa&$okduf/ a':cif-unfESifh AkdvfxGef;vS/ azazmf0g&Dv/ 1947? 61 61

62 62


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

1947 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹wGif twGif;0ef±Hk;Y oem;!Smwmr+uif;rJh pGm aoewfjzihf ypfcwfowfjzwfjcif;cHvdkuf-u&ol yk*~dKvfrsm;rSm acwfopf jrefrm Ekid if . H txl;c|eq f ;kH Edik if ahH cgif;aqmifrsm; jzpf-uayonf? _Aw d o d #tyk pf ;kd r+. aemuf qHk;ESpfrsm;twGif;odk‹ jrefrmEdkifiHudk acgif;aqmifr+ay;&ef olwdk‹taejzihf owfrSwf jy@mef;jcif;cHcJh-u&aomfvnf; vGwfvyfa&;&&Sdonftxd tqHk;wdkifaqmif&GufcGifh r&&So d mG ;cJ-h u&Smacs? _Adwo d #wo ‹kd nf 1885 ckEpS w f iG f rEœav;-rda› wmfo‹kd csw D ufvm -u_y;D jrefrmEdik if . H aemufq;kH rif;qufukd tqH;k owfc-hJ uonf? Tod‹kjzifh 1824=26 yxr t*Fvyd =f jrefrmppfyrJG S pwifcahJ omþolw. ‹kd usL;ausmo f rd ;f ydu k rf u + kd tqH;k owf Ekid cf -hJ uonf? xdt k csed rf pS wifcahJ om _Aw d o d #ukd qefu ‹ siw f eG ;f vSe&f ef óud;yrf;cJo h nfh om;pOfajr;quf ±ke;f uefvy+ &f mS ;r+wu kd yf u JG kd ,ckacwfopf jrefrmEdik if aH cgif;aqmif rsm;u qufvufO;D aqmifra+ y;cJ-h ujcif;jzpfonf? jrefrmEdik if . H bk&ifoaD ygrif;udk zrf;qD;ac:aqmifoGm;_yD; tdENd,EkdifiH/ &wem*D&dodk‹ ydk‹xm;cJhonf? odk‹aomfvnf; bk&ifw h yfrawmf/ touf&iS u f se&f pfaecJah om rif;nDrif;om;tcsKŒd/ eef;awmft&m&Sd rsm;/ aus;&Gmol}uD;rsm;ESifh Ak'b < mom bke;f awmf}uD;rsm;yifv#if _Adwo d #ydik f tdE, dN Ekid if . H jynfe,fwckb0 a&mufomG ;cJ_h y;D jzpfaom wcsed u f jrefrmbk&ifEikd if aH wmf. ae&mtESH‹tjym;wGif "m;udk qGJudkif/ aoewfjzihf ,SOfòydifI tEkdifrcHawmfvSefcJh-u onf? Tta-umif;udk *|eftuf (zf) au'D (John. F. Cady) u ol. ‘acwfopf jrefrmEkid if o H rdik ;f ’ wGif Tod‹k a&;om;cJo h nf? ‘1886 ckESpfESihf 1887 ckESpfrsm;u wav#mufvkH; jrefrmEkdifiH txufjrefrm jynf. c±kid af 'owkid ;f wGif awmfveS x f ºuGrj+ zihf qlyu G v f suf&cdS o hJ nf? ppfpcef;rsm; ESifh ppf,mOfwef;rsm;onf twdkuftckdufcHcJh-u&_yD; aus;&Gmrsm;rS a,musfm;wdkif; vdkvdku wkdufcdkuf&ef tqifoifh&SdaecJh-uonf? EkdifiHolEdkifiHom;tm;vHk;u ppf twGif; cufcJusyfwnf;r+rsm;udk vufcHcJh-u_yD; ykefuefv+yf&Sm;r+rsm;udk a&iHkE+wf

ydwv f suf yl;aygif;uln0D ef;&Hay;cJ-h uonf? jrefrmwdk‹tjrifwGifum; ,if;yk*~dKvfrsm;rSm &JpGrf;owWd&Sdaom rsKd;cspfol&J aumif;rsm; jzpf-uonf? _Adwdo#wdu k‹ rl ,if;awmfvSefa&;orm;rsm;udk "m;jyrsm;/ vlqdk;olcdk;rsm;tjzpf owfrSwf_yD; tusOf;csKH;w&m;pD&ifum tjypfay;cJhonf? _Aw d o d #wo ‹kd rd ;f ydu k _f y;D wESpt f -umwGif tvGet f rif;-urf;wrf;pGm tkycf sKyfwwfaom H 0ef&iS f qmcsm;vfua&mh (pfo)f 0dwf (Sir Charles Crosthwaite) onf jrefrmEdik if . awmfrif;}uD; jzpfvmcJo h nft h avsmuf olonf ykeu f efxºuGrr+ sm;udk t!Smwmuif; rJph mG ESrd ef if;ypfco hJ nf? xko d ‹dk "m;jy[k owfrw S jf cif;cH&olrsm;ukd tpkvu kd t f òyHvu kd f uGyrf sufco hJ nf? vGwaf jrmufa&;wdu k yf 0JG iforl sm;tay: u±k%moufrad om aus; &Gmwkid ;f udk csucf si;f vufiif; rD;avmifwu kd o f iG ;f ypfvu kd o f nf? rde;f rrsm;ESifh uav; i,frsm;udkyif csrf;omcGihfray;cJhacs? ppfyGJwGif towfcH&olrsm;ESihf zrf;qD;&rdI óud;ay;jcif;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ acgif;jzwfjcif;jzihfaomfvnf;aumif; uGyfrsuf cH&olrsm;udk tm;vH;k aygif;v#if axmifaygif;rsm;pGm &Sad yvdrrfh nf? OD;atmifqef;. rdcifbufrS tbdk;awmfol Akdvfrif;a&mifonf a'ocHawmfvSefa&;wyfrsm;udk acgif;aqmifco hJ jl zpfonf? olonf _Adwo d #. tzrf;tqD;cH&_yD; acgif;jzwfuyG rf suf jcif; cHc&hJ avonf? xdktcgu _Adwdo#wdk‹taejzifh jrefrmEdkifiHY t_rJwrf;wyfrsm;ESihf ppfykvdyf pkpak ygif; (60˜000) udk wyfpx JG m;apcJ_h yD; ajrmufyikd ;f a'o&Sd ykeu f efxºuGru + kd (5) ESpfwdkifwdkif ESdrfeif;cJh&avonf? vltiftm; (500) jzihf rEœav;odk‹ yxrqHk; pwif csDwufvmpOfu jrefrmjynfov l x l u k kd ESyd u f yG o f rd ;f oGi;f &ef Toda‹k om cufcufccJ J ta&;,laqmif&u G &f r+ ðyvky&f vdrrfh nf[k _Adwo d #wt d‹k aejzifh vH;k 0 rawG;rxifrcd hJ -uacs? zrf;qD;&rdor# awmfveS af &;orm; acgif;aqmifrsm;tm;vH;k udk okwo f ifz,f &Sm;cJhonfhtwGuf jrefrmwdk. ‹ rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwfonf tESpf (20) cef‹ acwW _idrf0yf oGm;cJo h nf? udv k ekd eD ,fcsJŒw. ‹kd toH;k tE+e;f t& jrefrmEdik if o H nf _idr;f csrf;oGm;_yD[k qdk&vifhupm; csif;wGif;ESihf rHk&Gmc±dkifrsm;wGif a'owGif;xºuGr+rsm; &SdaecJh_yD; tif tm;ao;i,faom ajymufusm;wyfzGJŒuav;rsm;. csKHcdkwdkufcdkufr+rsm;um; ESpf aygif;rsm;pGm &yfpo J mG ;jcif; r&Scd ahJ csæ’[l.? xdk‹aemuf 1904 ckESpfwGif acwfynmwwf &efukefaumvdyf ausmif;om; vli,frsm;xJrS trsKd;om;acgif;aqmifrsm; pwifay:aygufvmavonf? ,if; ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf 1897 ckESpfrS pwif_yD; EdkifiHa&;t& Edk;-um;r+&Sd

63

64

tcef; (2) t"duacgif;aqmifrsm;

63

64


65

t"duacgi;f aqmifrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

aom ‘Ak'b < mom’ toif;tzGŒJ rsm; xlaxmifc-hJ uolrsm;ESit hf wl vufwaJG qmif&u G f rd-uonf? 1906 ckESpfwGif ‘Ak'<bmomuvsm%,k0’ toif; (0dkiftrfbDat) 1 udk aumvdyfausmif;om; (26) OD;jzifh zGJŒpnf;cJh_yD; ‚if;aumvdyfausmif;om;rsm;xJwGif OD;baz/ OD;vSaz/ OD;b'Gef;ESihf trfatbGJŒydkif&Sif OD;armifarmif}uD;wdk‹ yg0ifcJhonf? 1908 ckESpfwGif a':jrar. 2 ‘0dwdk&d,bk&ifr}uD; trSwfw& trsKd;orD; txuf wef;ausmif;’ wGif usif;yaom ‘0kdiftrfbDat’ tpnf;ta0;wckY t*Fvdyf acwfynmwwf vli,f0wfvHkawmf&rsm;jzpf-uaom OD;armifcif 3 (aemifwGif qm k‹ nf usaemf. rdcifESihfzcifbufrS tbdk;rsm; jzpf bGJŒ&&Sdol) / OD;aratmif 4 (‚if;wdo -uonf) OD;odrf;armifESihf tjcm;yk*~dKvfrsm;onf yGJOD;xGuf Eke,fao;aom trsKd; om;a&;v+yf&Sm;r+twGuf twlvufwGJrd-uawmhonf? xdak‹ emufydkif; r-umrDwGif tpdk;&. t}uD;wef;0efxrf;rsm;ESihf aemufxyf w&m;Oya'orm; 0wfvHkawmf& trsm;tjym;onf tzGJŒ0ifrsm; jzpfvmcJh-uonf? xkd‹a-umihf q,fpkESpfwcktwGif; rSmyif 0dkiftrfbDatonf EdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m tzGJŒtpnf;tjzpf tajcwusjzpfvmcJh_yD; ydkrdkcdkifrmawmifhwif;aom pepfusonfh Oya'wGif;v+yf&Sm;r+w&yfjzpfvm&ef rlv &nf&G,f&if;pGJ&Sdonfhtwdkif; ‘jrefrmtoif;rsm; taxGaxGaumifpD’ (*sDpDbDat) tjzpfo‹kd 1917 ckEpS w f iG f ajymif;vJjzpfay:oGm;cJah vonf? xkd‹aemuf 1920 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmvwGif &efukef&Sd ausmif;om;rsm;u udkvdkeD tm%mydkifrsm;udk yxrqHk;t}udrf ajAmifpdefac:vdkuf-uawmhonf? ,if;odk‹ jzpf &onfrmS tdE, dN Edik if /H umvuwWm; ,leb D mpDwD vufatmufcjH zpfcahJ om aumvdyf ausmif;ESpfausmif;udk tpm;xdk;_yD; yxrqHk; XmaewuUodkvfwck jrefrmEdkifiHwGif zGifhvSpfrnfh Oya' tqdkðycsufw&yfudk ygvDrefY wifoGif;jcif;a-umihfjzpfonf? wuUodkvf0ifcGihfpmar;yJGESifh ywfoufaom vdktyfcsufrsm;/ pmoif-um;a&;p&dwf rsm;/ ausmif;oH;k pmtkyjf y@mef;csurf sm;ætp&So d jzifh ‚if;Oya'yg tqdðk ycsuþf tao; pdwftcsuftvufwcsKdŒudk ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh tjcm;trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;u vufrcHEkdif-uacs? odk‹aomfvnf; _Adwdo#. tpkd;&vufatmufcHESihf tdENd, bk&ifccH sKyf. vufaxmufb&k ifcjH zpfol qm&,f*seD ,f u&ufa'guf (Sir Reginald Craddock) u ,if;awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk vspfvsL±+cJh_yD; ,if;Oya'tqdkðycsufudk rl&if;twkdif;yif &efukef,leDAmpDwDtufOya'tjzpf 'DZifbmv (1) &ufae‹wGif twnfðyjy@mef;vdkufavonf? xdk‹a-umihf (4) &uft-umwGif &efukef&Sd ausmif; om; (600) teuf (500) u oydwfwkdufyGJ qifE$Jvkdufonf? xdkoydwfaemufodk‹ &efukefòrd›awmf tjyif rEœav;ESifh tjcm;òrd›rsm;&Sd txufwef;ausmif;om;rsm;u

vnf; xdkoydwfudk qifE$Jvdkufygvm-uonf? xdktcsdefu vufaxmufbk&ifcH. _crd ;f ajcmufrr+ sm; &Sad evifu h pm; jynfov l x l w k &yfv;kH u oydwaf rSmufausmif;om; rsm;ukd tm;wufoa&m tultnDay;cJh-uonf? olw. dk‹ awmif;qkdcsufrsm; tm; vHk;um; r&&SdcJhacs? odka‹ omfvnf; ‚if;oydwfonf tqufjzwfI _idrf;owfr&Edkif awmhaom tem*wftwGuf tm;aumif;vSonfh trsK;d om;a&;pdw"f mwf rD;awmuf udk pwifawmufavmifomG ;apcJah vonf? topfwzef jyefvnfarG;zGm;vmcJh_yDjzpfaom jrefrmhtrsKd;om;a&;v+yf&Sm;r+ . tke;f tke;f u|uu f |uf yxrESprf sm;twGi;f wGiyf if &[ef;awmfrsm;xJrS trsK;d om; acgif;aqmiftjzpf pwifay:xGufvmcJholum; q&mawmf OD;OwWryifjzpfonf? ol onf &cdkiftrsKd;om; ax&0g' Ak'<bmom oHCmawmfwyg; jzpf±Hkr#ru tdENd, EdkifiHESihf wdkusKdwGif tcsdeftwef-umaexdkifcJhzl;aom t*Fvdyfpmwwf&[ef;wyg; jzpf_yD; jrefrmEdkifiHodk‹ 1919 ckESpfwGif jyefa&mufvmcJhonf? us,fus,fjyef‹ jyef‹ c&D;pwifxGufcGmcJh_yD; 0HomEk&udQw= trsKd;*k%fapmihfxdef;a&; wdkif;jynfcspfpdwf ta-umif; ajyma[mum ‘0HomEk’ toif;rsm; wwdkif;jynfvHk;tESH‹ OD;aqmif pnf;±H;k zGŒJpnf;cJ&h m t*Fvyd b f &k ift h pd;k &u ppfyv k yd rf sm; toH;k csI ‚if;tpktzGŒJrsm;udk vdu k v f òH zdcjJG cif;jzihf a'gow}uD; wH‹k jyefco hJ nf? xdktcgu ol. &J&Jawmufrdecf‹ Gef;rsm;a-umifh OD;OwWronf 1921 ckESpfwGif tzrf;cH&avawmhonf? wdkif;jynfqlylatmif v+Ha‹ qmfr+jzifh ±Hk;wifw&m;pGJjcif;cH& um q&mawmf &[ef;awmfrsm;xJrS yxrqHk;axmif'%f (18) v tjypfay;jcif; cHcJh&avonf? Ttjypf'%fcsrSwfr+. EdkifiHa&;ESihf bmoma&;vd+if;*,uf ±kduf cwfru + kd wwdik ;f wjynfv;kH cHpm;-u&avonf? t*Fvyd v f ufatmufcH jrefrmEdik if H Y wdkif;jynfqlylatmifvH+‹aqmfr+jzifh trsKd;om;a&;0g'DwOD; vlodewf-um; w&m; pGq J ckd &H jcif;rSm Tt}udro f nf yxrqH;k t}udrjf zpfonft h jyif xif&mS ;onfh Ak'b < m om oHCmq&mawmfwyg;jzpfaejcif;u jrefrmjynfolrsm;twGuf temay: wkwf usovdk cHpm;apawmhonf? TtjzpftysufrSm EkdifiHwEkdifiHvHk;. trsKd;om;a&; *k%o f u d mQ udk pdeaf c:vdu k jf cif;yifjzpfavonf? Todv ‹k #if q&mawmf OD;OwWronf vGwfvyfa&;r&rD t*FvdyfvufatmufcH u|efb0wav#muf pufwifbmv (9) &ufae‹wGif ysHvGefawmfrlonfhwdkifatmif axmifoGif;tusOf;csjcif;udk t}udrfrsm; pGm xyfzefwvJvJ cHc&hJ avonf? xdak‹ -umihfvnf; tjcm;xif&Sm;aom Ak'<bmom &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm;onf q&mawmf OD;OwWrudk tm;usum yg&mZduvnf; rus/ oHCab'uuHvnf;

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t"duacgi;f aqmifrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

rxdu k af om Tv+y&f mS ;r+rsm;wGif yg0ifaqmif&u G v f mavonf? xdt k xJwiG f q&m awmf OD;0dpm&rSmvnf; wyg;tygt0ifjzpfonf? q&mawmfonf 1888 ckESpfwGif rHk&Gmòrd›Y arG;zGm;cJh_yD;/ touf (20) t&G,fwGif &[ef;abmifodk‹ 0ifa&mufcJh_yD; oH Cor*~DtzGJŒ zGJŒpnf;a&;twGuf pnf;±Hk;aqmif&GufcJhonf? xdk‹aemuf q&mawmf OD;OwWr. tultnDjzifh t*Fvdyfpmudk oif,lvsuf bmoma&;ESihf EkdifiHa&;rsm; udk tdENd,EdkifiHodk‹ oGm;a&mufavhvmqnf;yl;cJhonf? xdka‹ emuf jrefrmEdkifiHodk‹ jyef ºuGvmaomtcg òrd›pGef awm&Gm aus;vufrsm;wGif EdkifiHa&;w&m;yGJrsm;udk tcGihf oifw h ikd ;f usif;ya[majymcJo h nf? xka‹d -umihf q&mawmf OD;0dpm&onfvnf; tzrf; cH&vdkuf/ jyefvGwfvmvdkuf/ jyefvnftzrf;cH&vdkufESifh tusOf;axmifoHo&mxJ Yom w0JvnfvnfjzpfaecJo h nf? xdt k wGi;f w&m;qdik &f m apmihq f idk ;f aepOf q&m awmfonf &ufaygif; (40) -um tpmiwfcHqENjycJhonfhtavsmuf pdwfydkif;qdkif &mt&r[kwfbJ ±kyfykdif;qkdif&mt& tm;enf;ae_yDjzpfaom q&mawmfonf wESpf ESihfudk;v tvkyf-urf;ESihf axmif'%f csrSwfjcif;udk cH&avonf? xkad‹ -umihf axmift&m&Sdrsm;onf q&mawmftm; ouFef;udk twif;c|wfap _yD; omrefaxmifuswOD;. t0wftpm;udk 0wfcdkif;&m q&mawmfu wif;rmpGm jiif;qefcJh&m q&mawmftm; 0wfvpfpvpfjzifh wOD;wnf; wdkufydwfxm;cJhonf? odk‹ jzifh q&mawmf. tpmiwfcHqENjyjcif;/ wOD;wnf;wkdufydwfxm;jcif;/ twif; t"rR ESmacgif;xJodk‹ ydkufoGif;_yD; Ek&d‹ nfxnfhjcif;æpojzifh &ufpufr+ oHo&mvnf vsu&f o dS nf? xdrk #omru tm%mydik w f ‹kd taejzihf q&mawmftm; t±l;pm&if; oGwf oGif;um emrnfqdk;vSaom &efukefwHwm;uav;t±l;axmifwGif xyfrHcsKyfaESmif xm;onftxd aqmif&GufcJh-uonf? xdka‹ emuf xdkae&mwGif (7) v aecJh&_yD; &ef ukefA[kdaxmif}uD;okd‹ jyefvnfydk‹ jcif;cH&jyefonf? q&mawmfuvnf; vkyfcsif&m vkyf aemufrqkwf[laom cH,lcsufjzifh acgif;rmpGm qufvufwdkufyGJ0ifcJhonf? aemufxyfwzef tpmtiwfcH qENjy_yD;aemuf q&mawmftm; tvkyf-urf;ESihf axmif'%f (6) ESpf csrSwftjypfay;vdkufjyefonf? OD;0dpm&uvnf; xyfrH tpm iwfcq H ENjyjyefonf? xkt d cg 'um/ 'umrrsm;u r-unf&h ufawmhojzifh vGw_f idr;f cGifh toem;cHpmwifygaomfvnf; xdt k csed u f jrefrmvlrsK;d jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD; *sK;d Zuf -o*wfpwyf(pf) armif}uD;u y,fcscJo h nf? xdk‹a-umihf 1929 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (19) &uf ol. tpmiwfcH qENjyr+ (166) &uf jynfhajrmufonfhae‹wGif aemufqHk;Y q&mawmf ysHvGefawmfrlcJh&av onf? ,ae‹wiG rf l &efuek f uefawmfrifyef;_cHEiS fh a&$w*d b kH &k m;teD; tvHv k rf;xdy&f dS

xif&Sm;onfht0kdif;}uD;wckay:wGif xkdacwf ('dk‹Arm tpnf;t±Hk;0if) jrLævl}uD; rsm;jzpf-uaom OD;csefxGef;ESihf OD;baqGwdk‹vufxufY txdrf;trSwf ausmuf wdik }f uD;xdy0f ,f q&mawmf. &yfawmfral -u;±ky}f uD;udk trSww f & ðyvkycf -hJ uav onf? xdkae&modk‹ OD;cdkuf&mvrf;onf ,cifu ‘Tiger Alley’ [k ac:wGifcJhaomf vnf; ,cktcg ,if;vrf;udk OD;0dpm&vrf;[k trnfajymif;vJowfrw S cf ahJ vonf? odk‹ jzpfav&m q&mawmfOD;OwWrESihf OD;0dpm&udk,fawmfwdk‹onf udkvdkeDtpkd;&udk qef‹usifwdkufyGJ0ifcJhonfh txift&Sm;qHk; q&mawmfrsm;jzpfa-umif; ordkif;u oufaocHaeygonf? ‚if;wdk‹onf trsKd;om;a&;v+yf&Sm;r+wGif Ak'<bmom &[ef; awmfrsm; 'um/ 'umrrsm;ESihftwl yg0ifvmr+udk vrf;xGifay;cJh-u_yD; Tt csufonfyif trsKd;om;a&;v+yf&Sm;r+ aemufqHk;atmifyGJqifEdkifjcif;. ta&;yg vmonfh tcsufwcsufjzpfvmayonf? q&mawmf OD;0dpm& ysHvGefawmfrlaom ESpfwGifyif ‘*sDpDbDat’. tzGJŒ0if wOD;jzpfol bkef;}uD;vlxGuf OD;&mausmfqdkolonf ‘*VKeftoif;’[k ac:aom v#KdŒ 0Suftoif;. toif;cGJrsm;udk e,frsm;wGif vdkufvHwnfaxmifvsuf&Sdonf? ,if; toif;rsm;rSm OD;OwWr. 0HomEktoif;rsm;ESihf qifwal omfvnf; olw. ‹kd zGŒJ pnf;yHk ESihf vkyfudkifaqmif&GufyHkrsm;rSm ‚if;toif;tzGJŒrsm;uJhodk‹ ajymifajymiffwif;wif;r [kwb f J v#KŒd0u S rf &+ v dS o S nf? *VKefonf [dELN '¾m&Drsm;wGif tvGet f m;aumif;aom iSufwrsKd;jzpf_yD; ooFu±kduf (ouUw) bmomwGif *±kV[k ac:onf? xdktcsdefu t&if;&Siw f . ‹kd avmbaZma-umihf wae‹wjcm; jr‡iw hf ufvmonfh ukeaf ps;E+e;f rsm; ESihf }uD;us,fcrf;em;aom udkvdkeDpD;yGm;a&;u rnfonfhtcgr# rsufESmomray; aom qif;&JEGrf;yg;onfh awmvufaus;&Gmrsm;ESifh e,fpGefe,fzsm;wdrk‹ S vli,frsm; ESihf aus;&Gmol/ aus;&Gmom; trsm;tjym;udk Ttoif;rsm;u qGJaqmifpnf;±Hk;Edkif avonf? jynfov l x l rk mS pyg;udk ud, k w f idk x f w k v f yk af e&ygvsuf pm;p&m qefr&Sd atmif qif;&JwiG ;f eufae_yD; xGuaf yguf&mS &ef tvkyw f ckcu k dk vky&f ayawmhrnf? xkdtcsdefwGif *sKd;Zuf-o*wfpwyf (pf) armif}uD;rSm ‘qm’bGJŒ jzifh olaumif; tðycH&_yD; rusef;rmI _Adwdefodk‹ cGifhjzifh tdrfjyefoGm;aom qmcsm; (vf) (pf) tif; k pf m; ,m,Db&k ifct H jzpf aqmif&u G cf iG &fh aom euf (pf) (Sir Charles Innes) .ud, yxrqHk; jrefrmvlrsKd;jzpfvmonf? qm*sKd;Zufonf trsm;qHk; qkd;qdk;&Gm;&Gm; xd cdkufonfh a'ojzpfaom &efukefajrmufydkif;&Sd om,m0wDc±kdifodo k‹ Gm;_yD; tjcm;ae &mrsm;wGif ðyvkyfcJhouJhodk‹ ‘'gbm’ yGJawmfudk usif;yavonf? 1930 ckESpf/ 'DZif bmv (21) &ufae‹ vlxkESihfawGŒqHkyGJwGif v,form;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u aus;

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t"duacgi;f aqmifrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

vufa'orsm;wGif tcGefaumufcHjcif;udk zsufodrf;ay;&ef (odkr‹ [kwf) wESpfqdkif; iHhay;&ef ,m,Dbk&ifcHtm; toem;cH-uonf? odak‹ omfvnf; qm*sKd;Zufu ,if; awmif;yefcsufukd csufcsif;yif jiif;y,fvu kd af vonf? xda‹k -umihf aemufwae‹wiG f om,m0wD v,form;olyek x f r+ jzpfay:vmavawmhonf? olw. ‹kd acgif;aqmif rSm ,cktcg q&mpH[k trsm;uac:wGifvmaom jrefrmorm;awmf OD;&mausmf jzpfavonf? olonf okyÀu *VKef&mZm (xif&Sm;ausmf-um;aom *VKefrif;) [laom bGŒJtrnfukd cH,I l olu ‹ , kd o f l bk&iftjzpf a-unmvdu k af vonf? xda‹k emuf aorxl;aerxl;b0Y rausreyfjzpfae-uaom v,form;rsm;jzifh ppfwyfwwyf udk xlaxmifvu kd o f nf? _Adwo d #udv k ekd w D yfrawmf. acwfrv D ufeufrsm;udk vuf csn;f oufoufr#jzihf &ifqidk &f ef olwq ‹kd ;kH jzwfc-hJ uonf? olyek w f . ‹kd vufeufwu dk f wGif&Sdaom vufeufrSm rD;aygufaoewf tvuf (30) xufrydkbJ oHydkufacsmif; rsm;ESihf bdkifpu,favxdk;wHrsm;jzifh ðyvkyfxm;aom vufvkyfaoewfrsm; tm; jznfx h m;avonf? ‚if;tjyif olww ‹kd iG f ta0;ypfvufeuf[I l jrm;/ 'l;av;/ vif; av;/ *GESihf vSHrsm;om &Sdavonf? xdk‹a-umihf tar&duefygarmuQ vlpDtif; 'b k a-umif;ESifh ywfoufI Toda‹k &;om; vsLydik ;f (Professor Lucien W. Pye) u xdt xm;cJah vonf? ‘1930 ckEpS w f iG f ay:aygufcahJ om q&mpHoyl ek x f ºuGro + nf vlrsK;d jcm; t*Fvyd f rif;ae&mY jrefrmvlrsKd;wOD;udk rif;tjzpfwif&ef óud;pm;aom awmfvSefykefuef r+rsm;. jrefrmh±kd;&mpOfvm tawG;tac:ESihf vkyfenf;vkyf[ef EdkifiHa&;/ bmom a&;yHpk EH iS fh udu k n f v D suf&o dS nf? wyGw J ;kd yÌvuf twwfynm&Sirf sm;/ tif;ESifh pr aq;rifa-umifxdk;olrsm;/ "m;_yD;/ wkwf_yD;/ aoewf_yD; wyGJjyefESmESihf aq;a&mif; olrsm;/ taqmifrsm;/ vufzGJŒrsm; taxmuftyHhtultnDjzifh "mwf±dkuf"mwfqif aA'ifudef;cef;tvdkt& q&mpHudk,fwdkif wGufcsufzGJŒpnf;vdkufaom *VKefwyfu acwfa[mif;jrefrmEdik if . H rif;crf;rif;em; taqmifta,mifjzpfaom xD;jzL ueuU '%fatmuf&Sd &mZyv†ifay:odk‹ q&mpHudk wifajr‡mufay;vdkufavonf? xdktcsdef u q&mpHonf rnfoa‹kd om orm;*k%jf yenf;rsm;jzihf vlxt k m; pnf;±H;k xm;onfr od? _Aw d o d #w. ‹kd acwfraD oewfvufeufrsm; tm;vH;k onf olwu ‹kd kd rxdreS /f razmuf xGif;Edkif[k olwdk‹udk,folwdk‹ xifaecJh-uavonf? ,if;v+yf&Sm;r+onf rodem;r vnfr+/ t,lonf;r+/ p}uFm0Vm. xl;jcm;qef;-u,faom y&avmuESihf yÌvuf twwfynm enf;emed\,rsm;udk vufcH&ef tqifoihfjzpfaer+wdk‹tay:wGif tajcpdkuf}uD;xGm;vmjcif;jzpf_yD; EkdifiHa&;&m atmifjrifr+twGuf tajctjrpfr&Sd

aom pdwfv+yf&Sm;r+qkdif&m tjrifusOf;ajrmif;onfh ar#mfrSef;csufwdk‹tay:wGif tajcwnfvsuf&Sdonfæ’ [k azmfjyxm;.? 1930 ckESpfrsm; tapmydkif;u jzpfyGm;cJhaom zdESdyfr+rsm;umvtwGif; jrefrmh aus;vufawm&Gmrsm;rS us,fajymvSaom v,f,majrrsm;udk aiGwdk;acs;pm;ol cspfwD;rsm;ESihf v,fydkif&Sif}uD;rsm;u odrf;,lcJh&m ,if;wdk‹vufrS ‚if;wdk‹ydkif v,f ,majrrsm;udk jyefvnf&,l&ef q&mpH. *VKefwyftwGi;f &Sd wdu k cf u kd o f t l rsm;pku xºuGc-hJ ujcif;jzpfonf? olwo ‹kd nf acwfynmrwwfaom ±d;k ±k;d ttrsm; jzpfaumif; jzpfayrnf? odk‹aomfvnf; olwdk‹. em-unf;cHpm;&r+rsm;um; tppftrSefjzpfav onf? odk‹ jzpfI jrefrmhorkdif;ynm&Sif a'gufwmxifatmifu Todk‹axmufjycJh onf? om,m0wDe,fu vlxktaejzifh Tpdwfrcsrf;ajrhzG,f&m tjzpfqdk;rS vGwf ajrmuf&ef wckwnf;aomenf;vrf;rSm _Adwdo# vlrsKd;jcm;tpdk;&udk ykefuefxºuG &efom &Sad vonf? xdt ‹k jyif e,fcsŒJorm;pk;d rd;k olrsm;atmufwiG f qif;&JwiG ;f eufae onfh tjzpfqdk;Y tiwfiwftjywfjywf touf&Sifae&onfxuf apmapmao& jcif;u jrwfonfr[kwfygvm;? &efukefajrmufbufrS yJcl;±kd;rawmifa-um&Sd tvHv$ihfxl&mawmif[k t"dy`m,f&aom ‘tvHawmif’wGif q&mpHonf ol. pHcsdefukd yxrqHk;t}udrf jr‡iw hf ifco hJ nf? *VKefrsm;udk wdu k cf u kd &f ef _Adwo d # wyf&if;w&yfv;kH udk apv$wcf &hJ m q&mpH. XmecsKyfusoGm;cJh_yD; taotaysmufrSm tvGeftrif;rsm;jym;vSonf? xda‹k emuf ykeu f efxºuGro + nf xdak cwfjrefrmEdik if w H iG f c±kid f (40) &So d nft h euf (12) c±kid o f ‹kd ysŒH Eo ‹HS mG ;cJo h nf? om,m0wD A[dkcsufrrSaeI [Hom0wDc±dkifESihf {&m0wDjrpf0u|ef;ay: wav#muf/ ajrmufbufwGif txufjrefrmjynfESihf &S rf;jynfe,ftcsKdŒae&mrsm;odk‹ yif ysŒHEo ‹HS mG ;cJo h nf? tpd;k &wyfrsm;uvnf; &uf&ufpufpuf ESyd u f yG af csre+ ;f cJo h nf? &Gmrsm;udk &GmvHk;u|wfjymusatmif rD;±+d‹ I pdkufysKd;cif;rsm;udk zsufqD;um a&wGif; rsm;udk zdyk‹ pfonf? oHo,&Sdaom olykefrsm;udk acgif;jzwfowf_yD; vltrsm;jrifom &ef vljrifuGif;wGif jyoxm;onf? ESvHk;emzG,ftjzpftysufwckrSm jynfòrd&› Sd vuf axmufaumfr&Sifemrif;}uD;±Hk;a&SŒwGif tjzwfcHxm;&aom acgif; (15) vHk;udk jyoxm;jcif;jzpfonf? TaoG;pGe;f aom jyyGrJ sm;. "mwfyrkH sm;udk (om,m0wD olyek f awmrS tmZmenf *VKefapm) trnfcH OD;apmydik q f ikd w f nf;jzwfaom ‘ol&, d ’ ‘The ‹ Jhonf? 5 Sun’ owif;pmwGif azmfjycJh_yD; rdwWLrsm;udk _Adwdo#v$wfawmfodk‹ ay;ydkc ,if; ykeu f efxºuGru + kd t_yD;wdik f acsr+e;f _yD;aomtcg olyek f (10˜000) ausmf

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t"duacgi;f aqmifrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

aoqHk;cJh_yD;/ (9˜000) rSm tzrf;qD;cH&um axmifoGif;tusOf;cscHcJh-u&onf? q&mpHudk,fwdkifESihf ol.t&if;ESD;qHk; vkyfazmfudkifbufESpfOD;jzpfonfh q&m^m%f ESihf AE<uac: &aohwOD;wdk‹ tygt0if (128) OD;rSm óud;ay;owfjzwfjcif;cHcJh-u& onf? 1931 ckEpS f Zefe0g&DvwGif bk&ifcw H m0efudk jyefvnfxrf;aqmifco hJ l qmcsm; (vf) tif;euf(p) (Sir Charles Innes) u olykefrsm;ukd ±kH;wifppfaq;&ef zGJŒpnf; ay;cJhaom txl;ckH±kH;u ao'%frsm;ukd csrSwfcJhjcif;jzpfonf? w&m;ol}uD;rif; uef;vpf(zf) (Justice Cunliffe) rSm ckH±kH;obmywdjzpf_yD; w&m;v$wfawmf w&m; ol}uD;rsm;tjzpf aqmif&Gufae-uaom rpPwm 'g0k('f) (Dawood) ESifh OD;bOD; (aemifwGifqmbGJŒ&vsuf jrefrmEkdifiH vGwfvyfa&;&_yD;aemuf orRwjzpfol) wkrd‹ Sm tzGŒJ0ifrsm;jzpf-uonf? ao'%ftjypfay;cH&aom q&mpHudk 1931 ckEpS f -o*kwv f (28) &ufae‹wGif ¯ud;ay;owfcJhonf? olu t,lcHcJhaomfvnf; y,fcscHcJh&onf? q&mpHonf ¯ud;pifay:ok‹d OD;acgif;ukad rmhvsuf wufomG ;cJo h nf? xkt d csed Yf olonf om,m0wDaxmiftwGif; (3) v&SdcJh_yDjzpfonf? tpkd;&bufwGifrl -rdj› y&JESifh t&m &Sdrsm;tygt0if aoqkH;olrSm vl (50) xuf rykdcJhacs? qlylaomif;usef;r+jzpfyGm;cJhaom c±kdifrsm;wGif tr+zGifhI w&m;qkdifjcif;rsm; «yvkyfcJhonf? w&m;cHtrsm;pkrSm acwfynmrwwfaom omrefaus;awmol aus;awmom;rsm;jzpf-uonft h avsmuf olwt ‹dk m; xkacsumuG,&f ef rsKd;cspfpw d f &So d nfh a&SŒaetrsm;tjym;u tca-u;aiGr,lbJ pdwt f m;xufoefpmG vku d yf gaqmif &Guaf y;cJ-h uonf? om,m0wDO;D yk/ a'gufwmbarmf/ ocifjrwkr‹d mS vlox d if&mS ;pGm aqmif&GufcJh-uolrsm;jzpf_yD; armifapmrSmvnf; xkd‹twljzpfcJhonf? armifapmrSm xkt d csdeu f vli,fa&SŒaeav;wOD;omjzpfonf? olonf om,m0wDe,fom;wOD; jzpf±o Hk mru q&mpHudk tvGet f rif;csD;usL;av;pm;oljzpfavonf? w&m;qkid &f m wGif yg0ifc&hJ aom ol.tcef;u¾ESifh _Adwo d #Ekid if jH cm;a&;twGi;f 0efxaH y;yda‹k om tdwzf iG afh y;pmyHpk jH zifh xkwaf 0aom vufurf;pmapmifrsm;a-umifh olonf vsifjref pGmemrnfausmI f xifay:olwOD; jzpfvmavonf? q&mpH*VKefrsm;. xGe;f ajymifr+ udk qufvufjr‡iw hf ifxm;Edik &f eftwGuf touf}uD;vm_yDjzpfI OD;apmjzpfvmaom armifapmonf q&mpH. edru hf somG ;aom v,form;olyek t f zGŒJ. emrnfukd cH,_l y;D 1938 ckESpfwGif olu ‹ dk,fydkifwyfzGJŒ udk w&m;Oya'abmif0ifatmif xlaxmifcJhav onf? ,if;wyfzGJŒ0ifrsm;onf tpdrf;a&mif,leDazmif;udk 0wfqif-u_yD; OD;atmif aZ,sacwf xputwkdif; 0g;&if;wkwfrsm;udk udkifaqmif-uonf? Todk‹ jzifh ‘*VKefwyf’ topfonf arG;zGm;vmcJah vonf?

xkd‹aemufykdif;wGif txrajrmufcJhaom v,form;ykefuefxºuGr+a-umifh ppfEkdifol ‘udkvdkeD’ tkyfpdk;olrsm;onf jrefrmjynftESH‹ olwdk‹. uvyfrsm;wGif aysmf &$ifjrL;wl;ae-uavonf? olwo dk‹ nf t,lonf;aom olykefrsm;. ±kd;tr+ESihf odyH` enf;jzifh ppfaq;I r&aom olyek w f . ‹kd yÌvufenf;rsm;pGmudk &,forG ;f aoG;-u_yD; olykefrsm;tm; vG,fulpGm ESdrfeif;EdkifcJhjcif;tay: yDwdaomre\jzpfae-uav onf? oda‹k omfvnf; &efuek Ef iS fh tjcm;ae&mrsm;&Sd ynmwwfvil ,frsm;twGuu f m; q&mpHoyl ek x f r+onf ajymufusm;ppfqifrt + wwfynm. tzk;d rjzwfEikd af om enf; y&d,m,frsm;xkwf,l&m oifcef;pmw&yfjzpfcJhavonf? &efvdkr+rsm; tqHk;owf oGm;&efum; a0;avpG? aemuf (10) ESpfr#-um_yD;onfhaemuf olwdkt ‹ m; om,mr+ udk ay;cJhaom urBmhtajctaeonf vHk;0ajymif;jyefjzpfoGm;vdrfhrnfudkum; olwdk‹ ud, k o f w l ‹kd ,H-k unfcsuftjynf&h adS e-uaom udv k ekd t D m%mydik rf sm;taejzifh óudwif odjrifEidk pf rG ;f r&Scd -hJ uacs? v,form; olyek rf sm; towfc&H _yD;onfw h ikd f av;av;eufeuf pOf;pm;awG; ac: -uaom vli,frsm;onf _Adwo d #wu ‹kd kd vufeufuikd af wmfveS &f ef rnfop‹kd nf;±H;k aqmif&Guf&rnfudk pwifaqG;aEG;vm-uavonf? ,if;vli,frsm;onf 1920 ck ESpf ausmif;om;oydwjf zpfay:_yD;aemuf wnfaxmifcahJ om trsK;d om;ausmif;rsm;rS aomfvnf;aumif;/ jrefrmpum;udk oif-um;a&; bmompum;tjzpf vufct H oH;k ðyaom t*Fvdyf=jrefrm ESpfbmom oifausmif;[k ac:onfh tpdk;&ausmif;rsm;rS aomfvnf;aumif; vm-uolrsm; jzpf-uonf? Oa&mypnf;rsOf;rsm;twkdif; waoG rwdrf; AdkvfqefpGm oif-um;vmcJh-u&aom ausmif;rsm;rS ynmqnf;yl;vmcJh& onfholrsm;ESihfpmv#ifum; ,if;vli,ftrsm;pkonf jrefrmhorkdif;/ jrefrmpmayESihf Ak'b < momwdu ‹k kd ydik yf ikd Ef ikd Ef idk f ausnufpmG od&-dS uavonf? xkdodk‹ xif&Sm;vmaom ausmif;om;wOD;um; ‘udk}uD;’ [k tac:cH&onfh udkEkjzpfavonf? olonf &efukefwuUodkvfrS 1929 ckESpfwGif 0dZ…mbGJŒ&&SdcJhonf? xkdpOfu olESihf rsm;pGm&if;ESD;aom ol. vkyfazmfudkifbufwOD;rSm aemifwGif urBmh ukvor*~}uD;. taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;csKyfjzpfvmrnfh OD;oef‹ jzpfavonf? ol . ynmoifESpf (1934=35) ckESpfrsm;twGif;wGif olx ‹ uf (8) ESpfi,f_yD; olv ‹ kdyif rsKd;cspfpdwfjyif;xefaom udkatmifqef;tm; udkEk awGŒqHkcJh&avonf? aemufxyf jrefrmEdik if YH ‘'dik t f mcD’ESifh ‘91 Xme’ tkycf sKyfa&;pepf acwfajymif; tcsdefumvrsm;twGif; ausmif;om;rsm; ydkrdkrsm;jym;pGm EkdifiHa&;udk yHkrSefaqG;aEG; &ef awGŒqHkjzpf-uavawmhonf? r-umrDrSmyif &efukefwuUodkvfwGif uHhaumfyif

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

&dyfrsm;atmufY tvGwfoabm EkdifiHa&;aqG;aEG;avh&Sdonfh tkyfpkav;wpk ay: aygufvmcJhavonf? xkdtkyfpkav;wGif udkEk/ udkatmifqef;wdt k‹ jyif jrefrmjynft v,fyikd ;f / ysO;f rem;òrdr› S vli,fwOD;jzpfonfh udak usm_f ird ;f / rmhupf f pmayrsm;udk us,f us,fjyef‹ jyef‹avhvmzwf±+xm;aom ^m%f&nf^m%faoG;xufjrufonfh (aemif aomtcg uGefjrLepfjzpfvmrnfh) udkodef;azESihf tdENd,EG,fzGm; rlqvifbmom0if uk&d m&Spw f v ‹kd nf; yg0ifavonf? ,if;ig;a,mufpvH;k yif 1935=36 ckEpS f ynmoif ESpftwGuf &efukefwuUodkvf ausmif;om;or*~. tvkyftr+taqmifaumfrwD 0ifrsm;tjzpf ta&G;cs,fcH&avonf? xkdtcsdefY udkEku OuU@ESihf udk&m&Spfu 'k=OuU@jzpfvmonf? udkatmifqef;onf jrefrmEdkifiH. trsKd;om;txdrf;trSwf wHqyd w f ckjzpfaom a'gif;iSu. f wGeu f sL;oHukd ,lxm;aom td;k a0trnf& or*~ r*~Zif;. t,f'w D mtjzpf ceft ‹ yfjcif;cH&avonf? 1936 ckEpS /f azazmf0g&DvwGif ay:aygufcahJ om jrefrmEdik if . H 'kw, d ausmif; om;oydwfudk Tvli,f (5) OD;tzGJŒu OD;aqmifr+ay;cJh&avonf? TwGif udkEk onf tpd;k &udk a0zefaom rdec‹f eG ;f rsm;ajyma[mr+jzifh ausmif;rS ,m,Dxw k yf ,fjcif; cHc&hJ avonf? xka‹d emufrsm;r-umrDyif udak tmifqef;onfvnf; tk;d a0r*~Zif;wGif yg&Sdaom aqmif;yg;wyk'ftm; a&;om;ol aqmif;yg;&Sif. trnfudk (t,f'Dwm yDyD) xkwfazmf&ef jiif;qefojzihf ausmif;rS txkwfcH&jyefavonf? i&JacG;}uD; d *Fvyd af qmif; vGwaf eonf (Hellhound at Large) 6 [k acgif;pOfwyfxm;aom xkt yg;u wuUodkvftm%mydkifrsm;udk vufoHajymifpGm jyuf&,fðyxm;avonf? xkd tcg &efuek w f uUov kd rf S ausmif;om; (700) ausmfEiS hf ,k'\efaumvdyf (Judson k ‹kd &mZ0wfom;qefqef College) rS &m*%ef;ausmfaom ausmif;om;rsm;onf xdo ausmif;xkwcf &H olrsm;tm; jyefvnfvufc&H ef awmif;qd_k yD; ausmif;om;oydwu f kd pwifvu kd &f m xkad usmif;om;oydwo f nf rEœav;aumvdyEf iS fh wEdik if v H ;kH &Sd txuf wef;ausmif;rsm;od‹k r-umrDyif ul;pufysHŒEo ‹HS mG ;avawmhonf? Oa&mypnf;rsOf;nD omoemðyausmif;rsm;&Sd ausmif;om;rsm;rSm a,bk,stm;jzifh _Adwdo#udk axmuf cH-uolrsm;jzpfonfhtm;avsmfpGm ‚if;ausmif;rsm;omv#if jrefrmEdkifiHwGif xkdtcsdef u qlyu G af e_yDjzpfaom vlxv k y+ &f mS ;r+rsm;Y ryg0ifc-hJ uacs? aemufqHk;wGif udkEkESihf udkatmifqef;wdku ‹ dk wuUodkvftm%mydkifrsm;u jyef vnfvufccH &hJ aomfvnf; xdyw f u kd &f ifqikd af wGŒru + m; _yD;qH;k roGm;cJah y? wEkid if v H ;Hk tES‹H jzpfymG ;cJah om Toydw. f tusK;d &v'ftjzpf ‘ArmEdik if v H ;kH qdik &f m ausmif;om; rsm; or*~’ (Auo) (All Burma Students' Union) udk zGJŒpnf;EdkifcJh_yD; udk&m&Spfu

yxrqH;k OuU@ESifh udak tmifqef;u 'k=OuU@jzpfvmcJo h nf? xka‹d emuf wuUov kd yf &d 0%ftwGif;Yom usifvnfae-u&aom ausmif;om;rsm;onf wuUodkvfjyify&Sd toif;tzGŒJ tpdwt f ydik ;f rsm;od‹k ajcqefr‹ -d uawmhonf? ‘wdA‹k rmtpnf;t±H;k ’ (Our Burmese Association) udk &efukefwuUodkvfrS enf;jyq&mwOD;jzpf_yD; t*Fvdyf bmomudk vGefpGm xl;c|efvsuf/ rdrdemrnfa&SŒwGif ocifwyfxm;aom rsKd;cspfwOD; jzpfonfhtjyif pma&;q&mwOD;vnf; jzpfaom ocifAaomif;. OD;aqmifr+jzifh pwifzGJŒpnf;cJhavonf? [if'DbmomwGif&Sdaom q[pf (Sahib) uJhodk‹yif jrefrm pum;wGif ‘ocif’ [lonfrSm t&Sifocif (Master) [k t"dy`m,f&&Sd_yD; t*Fvdyfvl rsKd;wOD;ESifh pmay/ pum;/ a&;om;ajymqkd&mwGif jrefrmwdk‹taejzihf rdrdukd,fudk ‘ocif’ [k oHk;E+ef;&efjzpfavonf? oludk,fwdkifESihf tpnf;t±Hk;tzGJŒ0ifwdkif;udk ‘ocif’ [k ac:qdak &;om;apjcif;tm;jzifh ocifAaomif;u jrefrmEdik if . H t&Sio f cif wdr‹k mS _Adwo d #wdr‹k [kwb f J olEiS fh usefwikd ;f &if;om; jrefrmvlrsKd;rsm;om jzpfa-umif; jyovd&k if;jzpfavonf? rsm;r-umrD jrefrmjynftv,fydkif; a&eHacsmif;/ acsmufæpaom a&eHajr rsm;wGif 1937 ckESpfY tvkyform; ta&;tcif; jzpfyGm;cJh&m TEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m us,fjyefv ‹ Sonfh v+yf&Sm;r+twGuf wdAk‹ rmtpnf;t±Hk;onf rdrdtiftm;ESihf pnf;±Hk; v+yf&Sm;r+udk jyo&ef yxrqHk; prf;oyfonfhyGJjzpfvmcJhonf? ‘wdkA‹ rmtpnf;t±Hk;’ onf xkt d a&;tcif;Y yg0ifywfoufc_hJ yD; vli,fociftrsm;tjym;onf xdo k ydwf orm;rsm;udk tultnDay;&eftwGuf &efuek òf rdr› S txufjrefrmjynfo‹kd c&D;xGucf mG cJh-uonf? tvkyform;rsm;uvnf; olwdk. ‹ awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk ydkrdk zdtm;ay; awmif;qdak &;twGuf &efuek òf rdt › xd ajcvsifcsDwuf&ef qH;k jzwfc-hJ uonf? &efuek f òrda› wmfo‹kd vlxck sw D ufro + nf 1938 ckEpS /f Ek0d ifbmvwGif pwifc_hJ yD; e,frsm;ukd ajc vsifjzwfoef;vmcJh&m v,form;rsm;u u±k%mw&m;a&SŒxm;I tvkyform; rsm;ukd tpm;taomufESihf em;aep&mrsm; ay;cJh-ujcif;tm;jzihf EkdifiHwck. t}uD; rm;qHk; vlwef;pm; (2) &yfjzpfaom tvkyform;tiftm;pkESihf v,form;tiftm; wdk‹rSm uGif;qufrdoGm;-uonf? odk‹ jzpfonfhtavsmuf 'DZifbmv/ yxrtywf twGif; jrefrmjynftv,fydkif;&Sd rauG;òrd›Y a&eHajrrS csDwufvrf;av#mufvmol rsm;tm; ykvdyfrsm;u wm;qD;vsuf acgif;aqmifrsm;udk zrf;qD;um usefaom ol rsm;rSm vrf;ab;&Sd ,m,Dpcef;wckwiG f xde;f odr;f cHvu kd -f u&onf? xkt d cg tvkyf orm;rsm;u tpmiwfcHqENjy-uvsuf tvkyform;acgif;aqmifrsm;udk zrf;qD; xm;onft h wGuf &efuek òf rdr› S ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf tvkyo f rm;rsm;udk

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t"duacgi;f aqmifrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

tiftm;jznfhwif;&ef 7 tvsiftjref rauG;odk‹ wufoGm;-uonf? ‚if;ausmif;om; acgif;aqmifrsm;vnf; tzrf;cH-u&jyefonf? ykvyd rf sm;. eHygwfww k rf sm;jzihf ±du k f ESurf u + kd owW&d pdS mG &ifqikd af usmfvm$ ;_yD; tu,fI qufvufomG ;ygu aoewfjzifh ypfcwfrnf[laom _cdrf;ajcmufr+rsm;ukdyif tefwkI tvkyform;rsm;onf quf vufcsw D ufEikd cf -hJ uonf? &efuek òf rda› wmfwiG rf l twGi;f 0efrsm;±H;k udk oGm;a&mufqEN jy-uonf? 8 xdktcg tpdk;&tm; wpxufwp tefwkvmaom qENjyr+rsm;udk acs r+e;f ypf&ef ykvyd rf sm;udk wae&mrS wae&mod‹k ajymif;a&$ŒtoH;k cscJ&h onf? twGif;0efrsm;±Hk;udk ydwfq0dk‹ dkif;&Hxm;aom ausmif;om;rsm;onf 'DZifbmv (20) &ufae‹ rGef;vGJcsdefavmufwGif twGif;0efrsm;±Hk;rS xGufcGmvmcJh-u_yD; olwdk‹ acgif;aqmifrsm; a[majymonfukd em;axmif&eftwGuf pywfvrf;ESifh za&Zmvrf; wdk‹qHk&mY pka0;ae-uonfh xkdvltkyfudk jrif;pD;ykvdyfrsm;u eHygwfwkwfrsm;jzihf 9 0ifa&mufwu kd cf u dk -f u_yD; ajrjyif&dS ykvyd rf sm;uvnf; vufo;D jzifh xd;k olx;kd / 0g;&if; wkwjf zifh ±du k o f u l ±ku d þf jzpfuek -f uonf? yxrqH;k t±du k t f ESucf -H u&olrsm;rSm vl trsm;. a&SŒqHk;rScsDwufvm-uol trsKd;orD;uav;rsm;ESihf txufwef;ausmif; olausmif;om;uav;rsm; jzpf-uonf? ,k'\efaumvdyfrS ausmif;om;vli,f wOD;jzpfol udkatmifausmfrSm owdarhatmif t±dkufcHvdkuf&_yD;aemuf rsm;r-umrD wGifyif aq;±HkY aoqHk;oGm;cJhavonf? Ttiftm;oHk; wdkufcdkufr+onf OD;apm &S,f,mtrsm;qHk;ydkifqdkifxm;onfh ol&d, (The Sun) owif;pmwdkuf ta&SŒwnfhwnfhavmufwGif jzpfyGm;cJhjcif;jzpf onft h wkid ;f olo ‹ wif;axmufrsm;ESihf tjcm;owif;pmrsm;rS owif;axmufrsm;u vnf; ausmif;om;rsm;. qENjyr+ESifh ykvdyftzGJŒ. &uf&ufpufpufvkyf&yfrsm;udk "mwfyHkrsm; ±dkuf,lxm;cJh-uonf? xkdnwGifyif owif;pmwkdufonf ykvdyftzGJŒ. 0ifa&mufp;D eif;jcif;udk cH-u&_y;D zvifrsm;ESihf tjcm;rSww f rf;wifypPn;f rsm; todr;f qnf;cHcJh-uonf? odk‹aomfvnf; aemufydkif;wGif Ttjzpftysufudk ppfaq;&ef zGJŒpnf;vdkufaom ‘txl;pHkprf;a&;aumfrwD’ . a&SŒarSmufwGif ,if;"mwfyHkrsm;udk oufaocHypPn;f tjzpf toH;k ðycJo h nf? xkd‹aemuf 'DZifbmv (27) &ufae‹wGif ðyvkyfcJhaom udkatmifausmf. psmyerSm ol&Jaumif;wOD;. psmyetjzpf *k%fðycHcJh&_yD; jynfol (3) odef;ausmf (0rf;enf;yef;enf;) wufa&mufc-hJ uonf? xdt k crf;tem;Y olu ‹ kd ‘aersK;d oD[ Akv d f atmifausmf’ [k Adkvf (t&m&Sd odk‹r[kwf acgif;aqmif) bGJŒtyfESif;vdkuf_yD; olao vkarsmyg; '%f&m&cJhaom pywfvrf;udk ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm -umaomtcgwGif ole‹ m

rnfwyfI ‘Adkvfatmifausmfvrf;’ tjzpf ,ae‹wdkif ajymif;vJac:a0:cJh-uonf? 1939 ck/ Zefe0g&Dv (8) &ufae‹wiG f &efuek òf rda› wmfo‹kd aemufq;kH Y a&muf&v dS maom a&eHajrtvkyo f rm;ESifh v,form;wyfzŒJG }uD; ESpcf rk S acgif;aqmifrsm;onf }uHawm ok\ef&Sd Akdvfatmifausmf*lodk‹ yxrqHk; oGm;a&muf*g&0ðycJh-uonf? xdk‹aemuf csDwufvmolrsm;onf ppfa-umif;tvkduf &efukefòrd›wGif;odk‹ 0ifa&mufvm-uI olwdk‹tm;vHk;aygif;qHk&m ‘qHk&yf’ onfum; &efukefòrd›awmf. ajrmufbuf t0if *dwfjzpf_yD;/ ,ae‹wGifrl urm&Gwf&Jpcef;wnf&Sd&m tif;pdefESihf jynfvrf;wdk‹qHk&m vrf;qHjk zpfavonf? oydwo f rm;rsm;ESifh qENjyolrsm;. yxrqH;k tiftm;pkrmS vl (4˜000) ausmf &SdcJh_yD; olwdku ‹ dk óudqdk&ef &efukefòrdw › Gif;rS vl (2˜000) ausmfxGufvm-uum olwdk‹ ESihf yl;aygif;cJh-uonf? vl (6˜000) tiftm;&Sdaom xdkvlxk}uD;onf 10 ppfa&;jy bifc&mwyfzGJŒu a&SŒqHk;rSaevsuf &efukefòrd›awmftwGif;odk‹ 0ifa&mufvmcJhav onf? olwdko ‹ nf vGefcJhonfh (12) &ufurS usqHk;oGm;cJhaom Adkvfatmifausmfudk *g&0ðy-u_yD;aemuf &efukefòrd›wGif;odk‹ qufvufcsDwufoGm;-u_yD; a&$wd*Hkbk&m; taemufbufapmif;wef;ESihf awmifbufapmif;wef;t-um;/ atmufypP,H qif ajcavsmrsm;wGif qufvufcsDwufoGm;-u_yD;aemuf tpnf;ta0;rsm; usif;ycJh -uonf? xkdtcsdefwGif wdk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk;ESihf OD;apm. *VKefwyfwdk‹rS udk,fpm; vS,frsm;u rdecf‹ Gef;rsm; ajym-um;-uonf? &efukefodk‹ tvkyform;ESihfv,form; tiftm;pk}uD;rsm; csDwufvmr+. aemufyikd ;f &v'ftjzpf vlaygif;ajrmufjrm;pGm tzrf;cH-u&avonf? rnfr#avmuf zrf;qD;cJh-uoenf;udkrl tzrf;cHqENjyolrsm;tm; ae&may;Edkifa&;twGuf &efukef ESihf tif;pdefaxmif&Sd tusOf;us &mZ0wfom;rsm;tm; axmifajymif;I z,f&Sm;ypf cJh&avonf? odak‹ omf Tv+yf&Sm;r+}uD;. wdkuf±kduftusKd;quftjzpf rsm;r-umrD ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m v,form;tpnf;t±Hk;ESihf ArmEdkifiHvHk;qkdif&m tvkyform; or*~ uGef*&ufwdk‹udk zGJŒpnf;EdkifcJhavonf? tar&duefEdkifiHom; ordkif;ynm&Sif z&ifh xa&*g (Frank Trager) u Tv+yf&Sm;r+. aemufqHk;&v'fudk atmufyg twdik ;f tusOf;csKyfazmfjycJo h nf? ‘tusOf;csKH;qd&k v#if ,cif (YMBA) ESihf (GCBA) trsKd;om;acgif;aqmifrsm; rsKd;qufu rpGrf;aqmifEdkifcJhonfrsm;udk ocifrsm;u atmifjrifpGm taumift xnfazmfEkdifcJhonf? tvkyform;ESihfv,form; tajccHvlxk}uD;ESpf&yfudk wck wnf;aom OD;wnfcsut f & twlwuG vufwrJG ad p_yD; pnf;±H;k nD!w G o f mG ;aponfh

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t"duacgi;f aqmifrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

tjyif acgif;aqmifru + ykd g olwu ‹kd ay;Ekid cf o hJ nf? olwo ‹kd nf Ttiftm;pk}uD;ESp&f yf . _y;D jynfph rkH t + wGuf vdt k yfaom tpdwt f ydik ;f w&yftjzpf olwu ‹kd , kd o f w l ‹kd cHpm;rdchJ -u_yD; ,if;tiftm;pk}uD;ESpf&yftwGuf oGufvufcsufcsmaom ajyma&;qdkcGifh&Sdol rsm; jzpfvmcJo h nf? &efukefòrd›Y avmavmq,f tcdkuftwef‹tm;jzihf Tv+yf&Sm;r+onf t&Sdef aooGm;vifhupm; ‚if;. A[kdqGJiiftm; "mwfa-umrsm;onf bk&ifheef;òrda› [mif; jzpfaom rEœav;od‹k a&$Œajymif;oGm;cJo h nf? od‹k jzpfonft h avsmuf pmoifwu dk t f oD; oD;Y tpkta0;jzifh &Sdae-uaom Ak'<bmom &[ef;awmf tajrmuftjrm;onf qENjyr+rsm;wGif yl;aygif;yg0ifvmcJ-h uonf? tcsKŒd qENjyr+rsm;wGif vl (40˜000) cef‹ tiftm;&Sd_yD; ,if;onf }uD;rm;aom tiftm;w&yfjzpfcJhonf? Todk‹ q&mawmf OD;OwWrESihf OD;0dpm&wdk‹ aus;Zl;a-umifh &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm; yg0ifv+yf&Sm;vm r+rsm;wGif us,fjyef‹aom tawG;tac:rsm;ESihf xda&mufaom enf;vrf;rsm;u wdik ;f &if;om;aygif;pHk yg0ifvmatmif qGaJ qmifonfv h uQ%mudk tm;jznf&h ma&muf oGm;ayonf? xkd‹a-umifh azazmf0g&Dv (10) &ufae‹wGif oduQmjrihfrm;aom oHCmawmf trsm;tjym;ESihf a'oqkdif&m ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm; zrf;qD;xm;r+udk uef‹ uGuq f ENjyonft h aejzifh rEœav;òrdY› vlxpk nf;a0;yGrJ sm; usif;ycJo h nf? tdraf wmf &mbk&m;tjyifbufY vl (50˜000) &Sad om vlx}k uD;onf rsK;d cspyf *k Kd~ vfw. ‹kd arwWm &yfccH sufukd pka0;em;axmifc-hJ uonf? ae‹v,f (1) em&DwiG f a&SŒq;kH rS oHCmawmf rsm;u tvHrsm;udk a0S&‹ rf;vsuf vlx}k uD;onf òrdv › ,faumifo‹kd pwifa&$Œvsm;vm cJ-h uonf? xdt k cdu k f ±kwjf cnf;qdo k vdyk if _Adwo d #'kw, d aumfr&Sief mrif;}uD;uk, d f wdik f }uD;-uyfvsuf&adS om vufeufuikd yf v k yd rf sm;u olwo ‹kd mG ;&mvrf;tm; ydwq f ‹kd xm;onfukd awGŒ jrif-u&onf? a&SŒq;kH rS acgif;aqmifvmaom oHCmawmfrsm;u 'kwd,aumfr&Sifemrif;}uD;udk olwdk‹tm; OD;aqmif!¸ef-um;ol y"meq&mawmf ESifh aqG;aEG;yg&ef arwWm&yfc-H uonf? xdt k csed Yf y"meq&mawmfonf csw D uf&ef pwifonfah e&mYyif vltrsm;tjym;ydrk ydk g0ifvm&ef pnf;±H;k cefc‹ t JG vkyrf sm;vsuf&dS onf? 'kw, d aumfr&Sief mrif;}uD;onf ,if;arwWm&yfccH sufukd tav;wrl ta&; ,l&ef jiif;qefvu kd u f m ykvyd rf sm;. ae&mwGif t_rw J rf;ppfwyfzŒJG0ifrsm;tm; tpm; xk;d vsuf 0ifa&mufae&m,lxm;aponf? rsm;r-umrD Armh±kdifz,fwyfrS ucsifwkdif;&if;om; ppfom; (8) OD;teuf (4) OD;onf rwfwyf&yfvsuf/ (4) OD;onf ajrjyifwGif 'l;axmufxkdifum tqifoihf

ypfrnfh taetxm;jzifh toihjf yifxm;vdu k -f u_yD; olwo ‹kd nf wu,fu h snfqefrsm; tjynfx h nfx h m;aom ±dik zf ,faoewfrsm;tm; qENjyolrsm;. wyfO;D od‹k wnfw h nfh csdef&G,fvdkuf-uonf? ra&S;raESmif;Yyif t&m&SdwOD;u a&SŒwdk;vm_yD; aºuG;a-umf oHrsm; atmf[pfae-uaom vlx}k uD;udk owday;vdu k o f nf? xka‹d emuf ppfc&moH -um;vkduf&_yD; ppfom;rsm;u pwifypfcwfavawmhonf? av;csufypfcwf_yD; aemuf vlwef;}uD;. a&SŒqHk;rS tcsKdŒoHCmawmfrsm; ajrjyifay:odk‹ vJusoGm;-u onf? aemufxyfppfom;rsm;u aoewfrsm;udk xyfrHcsdef&G,f-uaomtcg vlxk }uD;onf tESH‹tjym; tkyfpkuGJoGm;vsuf toufvkajy;-uawmhonf? Todk‹ xdef; rEdkifodrf;r& y&rf;ywm qkwfcGmxGufajy;ae-uaom qENjyolrsm;t-um; usnf qefrsm;uvnf; qufwkduf xdk;azmuf0ifa&mufoGm;cJhonf? &ufpuf-urf;ñuwf vSaom xdv k o l wfy}JG uD;_yD;oGm;onft h cgYum; zket f vdr;f vdr;f xaeaom vrf;ay: wGif aoG;rsm;tdkifxGef;vsuf aoaeolrsm;/ '%f&m&olrsm; wHk;vHk;yufvuf vJvsuf &Sdae-uayawmhonf? oHCmawmf (7) yg; tygt0if (17) OD;aoqHk;_yD; (13) OD;rSm jyif;xefpGm '%f&m&cJh-uonf? rEœav;òrd. › awmifbuf (5) rdkiftuGm tr&yl&vrf;ay:wGif&Sdaom tmZm enfAdrmefwGif e,fcsJŒ. om;aumif (17) OD;wdk‹tm; aemufwywft-um azazmf 0g&Dv (17) &ufae‹ Y trSwfw& jr‡KyfESHoò*õ[fvdkuf-uaoma-umihf ,if;tokb tcrf;tem;odk‹ rEœav;ESihf ywfywfvnf&Sd e,frsm;rS xdwfvefw ‹ kefv+yfvsuf 0rf; enf;ylaqG;r+rsm; cHpm;ae-u&aom jynfolvlxkaxmifaygif;rsm;pGm wufa&muf vmcJ-h uavonf? rEœav;Y psmyerusi;f yrD w&uftvdw k iG yf if &efuek &f dS a'gufwmbarmf}uD; rª;aom !Gea‹f ygif;tpd;k &tzGŒJ onf atmufvw $ af wmf (House of Representatives) Y OD;ykESihfOD;apmwd. k‹ t,Hkt-unfr&Sdtqdkudk ±+H;edrfhoGm;cJhonf? qif;&Jom;0HomEk (Nationalist Proletarian) ygwD.acgif;aqmifESihf q&m pH*VKefoyl ek rf sm;udk yxrqH;k xif&mS ;pGm tumtuG,af y;cJo h l a'gufwmbarmfonf jrefrmEdkifiH. (91) XmetkyfcsKyfa&;acwfY yxrqHk; eef;&if;0eftjzpf 1937 ckESpf/ {_yDv (1) &ufae‹wGif usrf;opPmusdefqdkcJh&avonf? odk‹aomf aemuf (2) ESpft -umwGif olvnf; ausmif;om;ta&;awmfyHka-umihf EkwfxGufay;cJh&avonf? xkd tcg om,m0wDrS 0g&ihf (*sDpDbDat) tzGJŒ0ifa[mif;wOD;jzpfol OD;yku a'gufwm barmfae&mudk qufcHcJhonf? OD;yk&mxl;vufcHcsdefwGif jrefrmEdkifiHtygt0if wurBmvH;k Y 'kuo Q u k w Q ‹kdjzihf yifv,fa0ae_y;D taemufbufwiG o f mru ta&SŒbuf

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t"duacgi;f aqmifrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

wGifyg zufqpfESihf emZDrsm; wefcdk;tm%m }uD;xGm;pðyvmcsdefjzpfonf? 'kw, d urBmppf jyuQ'ed rf sm;t&æpufwifbmv (1) &ufae‹wiG f [pfwvm u ydkvefudk usL;ausmf0ifa&mufonf? xdka‹ emuf ESpf&uf-um_yD;aemuf _AdwdefESihf jyifopfwu ‹kd *smreDtay: ppfa-unmvdu k o f nf? 'kw, d urBmppfum; jzpfymG ;cJah v _yD? ,if;odk‹ jzpfyGm;vdkufjcif;onf vGwfvyfa&;udk qmavmifrGwfodyfaeaom jref rmjynftwGufum; }uD;rm;aom tcsKd;tauGŒ/ tvSnfhtajymif;}uD;jzpfavonf? xkdtcsdefwGif OD;ykonf &efukefòrd&› Sd atmufv$wfawmfY _AdwdefEkdifiHtm; jrefrmEdkifiH u axmufcHtm;ay;oihfa-umif; xI axmufcHtqdkðyavonf? ajcmufv-um _yD;aemuf atmufv$wfawmfu qHk;jzwfcsufw&yfudk csrSwfcJhonf? ,if;qHk;jzwf csufrSm _Adwdef. ppfr+a&;&mrsm;udk tultnDtaxmuftyHhay;a&;onf udkvdkeD tkyfpdk;olrsm;u jrefrmEkdifiHtm; "eo[m, twGif; ‘'dkrDeD,ef’ tqihftwef;ay; rnfh uwday:wGif rlwnfaeonf[k awmif;qdv k u dk o f nf? od&‹k mwGif OD;yku vlóuduf rsm;aom awmif;qdkcsufudk at;wdat;pufwHk‹ jyefcJhjcif;onf 1940 ckESpf/ puf wifbmvwGif olu ‹ kd usqHk;cef;odk‹ a&mufoGm;apayawmhonf? xdkppfóudacwfumv vydkif;r#twGif; ‘wdAk‹ rmtpnf;t±Hk;’ESihf ‘ausmif;om; or*~’rsm;onf awmif;qdkr+rsm; ydkrdkðyvkyfvm-uonf? olwdk‹u udkvdkeDtm%m ydkifrsm;. zdESdyfr+enf;vrf;tm;vHk;udk &yfwef‹&ef awmif;qdkvdkufonf? ‚if;tjyif ,ckwnf&adS eqJjzpfaom v$waf wmftrwf wpdww f ydik ;f tm; jynfou l a&G;cs,_f y;D / usefv$wfawmftrwfwpdwfwydkif;tm; bk&ifcHESihf tpdk;&u wkduf±kdufceft ‹ yfonfh Oya'ðyzGJŒpnf;yHktpm; tm;vHk;wajy;nDrJay;a&G;cs,f-u&onfh wkdif;jynfðy v$wf awmfudk pwifjcif;jzifh 'Drdkua&pDudk jynfhjynfh00 csufcsif;taumiftxnfazmfay; &efvnf; olwdku ‹ awmif;qdkvdkuf-uonf? xdktcsdefY OD;yk. tpdk;&tzGJŒwGif opf awma&;&m0ef}uD;tjzpf aqmif&u G cf ahJ om OD;apmonf olu, kd w f ikd f eef;&if;0ef t opfjzpfvmaomtcg tkyfpktrsKd;rsKd;-um;wGif&Sdaeaom 0da&m"donf ydkrdkqdk;qdk; &Gm;&Gm;jzpfvmavonf? OD;apm. tm%mt&Sed jf rihw f ufvmjcif;onf ol.&nfreS ;f csu}f uD;rm;_yD; vGepf mG ^m%frsm;aom ud, k yf idk o f ±kyo f uefukd xyf[yfvsu&f o dS nf? olonf 1936 ckESpf taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJtwGif;u tm%mrJh EdkifiHa&; tzGJŒ tpnf;rsm;tm; r[mrdwfzGJŒ jcif;jzifh ol‹ae&mol tEdkif&cJhjcif;jzpfonf? odk‹aomf vnf; (3) ESpf-um_yD;aemuf OD;yktpdk;&tzGJŒwGif 0ifa&mufyl;aygif;_yD; wzef OD;yk0ef }uD;csKyfjzpfvmcsdefwGifvnf; ol‹aysmhnHhr+rsm;a-umifh OD;yktm; vlóudufenf;vm_yD qdo k nfukd OD;apmoabmaygufvmavonf? xda‹k -umihf 1940 ckEpS /f -o*kwv f wGif

OD;yktm; t,Hkt-unfr&Sdtqdkudk wifoGif;cgeD;wGif OD;apmonf tpdk;&tzGJŒrS Ekwx f u G _f yD; OD;ykukd qefu ‹ sifqENraJ y;cJo h nf? Tod‹k jzifh tpd;k &tm%mcsdecf iG ! f mS udk apmif;oGm;ap_yD; OD;yktpd;k &tm; ðywfusoGm;apawmhonf? od&‹k mwGif eef;&if;0efjzpfvmaom OD;apmonf ‘aemufvmwJh armifyv k J 'kid ;f 0efxufu’J qdo k uJo h ‹kd twdu k t f cHrsm;udk pepfwuszEd ydS o f nfh tm%m&Siq f efaom rl0g'rsm;udk usiho f ;kH cJo h nf? Tod‹k olðyvkyyf idk cf iG &fh oGm;jcif;rSm xdt k csdeu f _Adwo d # tm%mykdifrsm;onf olwdk‹. udkvdkeDtpdk;&rsm;tm; (waoG;woHwrdef‹ ) tm%m tm;vH;k eD;yg;r# ay;tyfxm;onfh topfjy@mef;xm;vdu k af om ppftwGi;f Oya'w &yfjzpfonfh Defence of Burma Rules (jrefrmhpnf;rsOf;Oya'orsm;udk umuG,f onfOh ya') udk olu tcGiahf umif;,lcjhJ cif;jzpfonf? od‹k jzpfonft h avsmuf OD;apm onf wdkA‹ rmtpnf;t±Hk;. v+yf&Sm;r+rSefor# w&m;r0ifa-umif; a-unmvdkuf_yD; xif&Sm;aom ociftrsm;tjym;tygt0if ol. EkdifiHa&;òydifbuftm;vHk;eD;yg;udk zrf;qD;_yD; wdkif;jynfqlylatmif v+HŒaqmfr+jzifh w&m;pGJqdkcJhonf? ,if;wdk‹xJwGif *syefESihf tquftoG,f&Sdonf[k oHo,t0ifcH&aom a'gufwmbarmfESihf a'gufwm odr;f armifwt ‹kd jyif ocifE/k ocifp;kd ESifh ocifApdew f v ‹kd nf; yg0ifavonf? xkd‹ jyif atmufajctqifhrsm;wGif olu ‹ dk vlóudufrsm;aprnfh tajccHvkyfief;&yfrsm; csrSwf&ef &nf&G,f_yD; wcsdefwnf;wGif jrefrmjynftESo H‹ dk‹ OD;apmonf c&D;xGufcJh_yD; olt ‹ m; axmufcaH -umif; jyoolreS o f r#tm; pD;yGm;a&;/ Ekid if aH &;wdE‹k iS fh ywfoufaom tcGihfta&;t&yf&yftjyif tpdk;&tr+xrf;jzpfygv#ifvnf; &mxl;rsm;jzifh &uf&uf a&ma&m qkcsvdkufavonf? bk&ifcH qmtmcsDabm aumhcf&def; (Sir Archibald Cochrane) 1941 ckESpf wGif jyefomG ;_y;D ola‹ e&mudk qm&Jv*f seD ,fa':refprpf (Sir Reginal Dorman-Smith) u qufcHaomtcg OD;apmESihf tqihfjrihf _Adwdo#tm%mydkifwdk‹ qufEG,fr+rSm ydkrdk cdkifrmoGm;avonf? qm&Jvf*sDe,frSm touf (42) ESpfom &Sdao;_yD; OD;apmxuf wESpfcef‹om }uD;avonf? r-umjrihfrD olwdk‹ESpfOD;onf wu,fh rdwf&if;aqG&if; f iG f usif;y&rnfjzpfaom taxG rsm;jzpfomG ;-uavonf? 11 xka‹d -umifh 1941 ckEpS w axGa&G;aumufyGJudk a&$Œqdkif;vdkufjcif;jzihf qm&Jvf*sDe,fu ol. vkyfydkifcGihft& OD;apm. oufwrf;udk aemufxyf (5) ESpf oufwrf;wcko‹kd wd;k ay;vdu k af vonf? xkd‹aemuf OD;apmudk ‘qm0ifpwefcsmcsD’ (Sir Winston Churchill) tjyif tjcm; _Adwo d #acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh awGŒqakH qG;aEG;&eftwGuf vef'efo‹kd zdwaf c:vdu k af v onf? OD;apm. &nf&, G cf sufrmS 'kw, d urBmppfwiG f _Adwo d #wd‹k atmifycJG _H yD;aemuf

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t"duacgi;f aqmifrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

jrefrmEdik if u H kd vH;k 0vGwv f yfonfh Edik if t H jzpf a-unmay;&eftwGuf _Adwo d #tpd;k & tm; qGaJ qmiford ;f oGi;f &efjzpfonf? olonftm%mESifh ywfoufI t±l;trl;jzpfae _y;D ordik ;f wGif olyg0ifco hJ nfh tcef;u¾tm; jrefrmEdik if u H kd vGwaf jrmufapcJo h t l jzpf wGi&f pfap&ef vdv k m;cJah yonf? taemufo‹kd c&D;pwifrxGucf mG rD rdru d , kd u f kd Ak'b < mom0ifwOD;[k a-unm xm;aom OD;apmonf olrsm;ESirhf wl wrlx;l jcm;onfh oljzpfonft h wkid ;f wdu k *f g;armh (of) av,mOfysH (Tiger Moth aeroplane) udk pD;oGm;&if; (326) ay ^m%fawmf tjrif&h o dS nfh a&$w*d akH pwDawmf}uD;udk av,mOfysHtm; 0JysHywfapI olonf ylaZmf uefawmhomG ;ao;onf? *VKefeef;&if;0ef. xl;qef;aom tðytrlEiS fh ywfoufI xdktcsdefu Ak'<bmom0iftrsm;pk. tjrifwGif pdwf}uD;0ifr+ESihf a&$wd*HkapwDawmf tm; r±kdrao rav;rpm; AdkvfqefpGm ðyvkyfoGm;onfh vuQ%mtjzpf xifjrif-u ayvdrfhrnf? tb,fa-umihfqdkaomf apwDawmfonf Ak'<. qHawmf&SpfqlESihf tjcm;"mwfawmfarGawmfrsm; udef;0yf&mjzpfI tjcm;tedpPoabmaqmif yk*~dKvf rsm;xuf jrihrf m;pGm wnf&adS e&rnfjzpfaoma-umihaf ywnf;? rnfokd‹qkdap OD;apmonf 1941 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbmv apmapmykdif;wGif vef'efokd‹ xGufcGmoGm;cJhavonf? olESifhtwl umuG,fa&;aumifpDtwGif;0ef OD;wifxGÉfu olt ‹ }uHay;tjzpf vkdufygoGm;cJhonf? OD;wifxÉG o f nf udr;f A&pfwuUov dk Yf ynmqnf;yl;cJ_h y;D &efuek w f uUov dk . f 'k=t"dywdEiS hf *k%o f a&jrifrh m;vSaom tdE, dN yËdnmOfcþH 0efxrf;wOD;vnf; jzpfay onf? eef;&if;0eftaejzifh ,cifu Oa&myok‹d ra&mufz;l acs? Oa&mywwku d v f ;Hk um; ppfrD;awmufavmifvsuf&Sdonf? olwkd‹ESpfOD;vkH; atmufwkdbmv (10) &ufwGif t*Fvefokd‹ acsmacsmarmarmqkdufa&mufoGm;-uonf? (18) &ufae‹wGif qm0if pwefcsmcsu D 0ef}uD;csKyftrd af wmfwiG f ae‹v,fpmpm;yGjJ zifh wnfcif;{nfch &H ef OD;apm ukd zdwf-um;cJhonf? jrefrmeef;&if;0eftaejzifh Tyk*~dKvf}uD;tm; rdrdvkdvm;csuf buf ,dr;f ,kid v f map&ef pnf;±k;H odr;f oGi;f Ekid pf rG ;f r&Scd ahJ cs? 'kw, d urBmppftwGi;f u ppf±;H+ vkqq J t J ajctaerS aemufq;Hk atmifyq JG ifonftxd _Aw d o d #vrl sK;d rsm;omru taemufwkdif; 'Drkdua&pDacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh zGJŒxm;aom r[mrdwftiftm;pk}uD; twGi;f wGiyf g r,dr;f r,dik af usmufpmwkid u f o hJ ‹dk acgif;aqmifra+ y;Ekid cf o hJ nft h wGuf csD;usL;axmyem«yjcif;cH&aom 0ef}uD;csKyftaejzifh ppfyGJqifE$Ja&;vkyfief;rsm;u om olu ‹ dk ywfvnf0idk ;f vsu&f o dS nf? _Aw d o d #tifyidk , f m ukv d edk eD ,frsm;ukd vGwv f yf a&;ay;&ef qefu ‹ siaf om ol&‹ yfwnfcsuu f v dk nf; trsm;uod_yD;jzpfonf? ok‹d jzpfI

csmcsDEiS hf OD;apmwkt ‹d -um; ESpef m&Dausmf-um ajymqkad qG;aEG;r+onf ,cifutwkid ;f jrefrmhEidk if aH &;tem*wfonf _Adwo d #w. ‹dk ppfyaJG tmifEidk rf + &v'ftay:Y wnfraDS e _y;D xkt d csed u f sro S m jrefrmhta&;ukd tav;ay;ajz&Si;f Ekid rf nf[al om wHk‹ jyefcsuo f ‹dk om tESpcf sKyfa&muf&o dS mG ;cJo h nf? csmcs. D wif;rmaom oabmxm;ESit hf wl olawGŒ cJ&h or# tjcm;_Aw d o d #acgif;aqmifrsm;. oabmxm;rsm;uvnf; OD;apmukd xyfwl xyfr# pdwt f aESmift h ,Sujf zpfapcJo h nf? Ekd0ifbmvukefykdif;wGif olonf t*FvefrS jyefvnfxGufcGmoGm;onf[kqkd onf? ar#mfvifch sufuif;rJv h suf pdwpf Ek;d paemifh jzpfaeaom OD;apmonf tjyefc&D; ukd tar&duefEkdifiHbufrS jzwfjyef_yD; orRw z&efuvif/ 'D/ ±l;pAJh (vf) (Franklin d #ukv d edk eD ,fwck D. Roosevelt) ukd 0ifawGŒonf? tar&dueforRwtaejzihf _Adwo . ta&;t&mrsm;wGif 0ifa&mufpGufzuf&ef vufwGef‹aeonfukd awGŒcJh&onf? aemufq;Hk c&D;pOftjzpf olwE‹dk pS Of ;D ypdzw d u f jdk zwfI ava-umif;jzifh jrefrmEkid if b H uf OD;wnfjyefvmcJo h nf? tar&duefEidk if rH S rxGucf mG rD OD;apmonf *syef&dS jrefrmynm awmfoifrsm;. tajctaersm;ukd pkpH rf;&ef &nf&, G cf sufjyI *syefaumifppf0efudk d af & oGm;a&mufawGŒqcHk o hJ nf? ykvq J yd u f rf; (Pearl Harbour) &Sd tar&duef ypdzw wyfukd *syefav,mOfwifoabFmrS av,mOfrsm;ESifh a&ikyfoabFmrsm;u vkH;0eD; yg;eD;eD; wkdufckdufzsufqD;_yD;onfh aemufw&uf 'DZifbmv (8) &ufae‹wGif olwkd‹ pD;vmaom av,mOfu [m0kdif,D&Sd [kdEkdvlvlokd‹ qkdufa&mufoGm;jcif;rSm xl;xl; jcm;jcm;wku d q f idk rf w + &yfjzpfacsonf? ok‹d jzpfI olwa‹dk v,mOfonf aemufa-umif; jyefvSnfhcJh&onf? tar&duefEkdifiHESifh twWvefwdwfyifv,fukdjzwf_yD; ta&SŒbuf ysHoef;vm&if; ay:wl*D vpfpbGef-rdY› olwkd‹ -uef‹ -umaecJhjyefonf? OD;apmu tcGifh aumif;,l_yD; xkdae&mY *syefaumifppf0efukd awGŒ jyefonf? olz‹ mom wOD;wnf; oGm;a&mufcjhJ cif;jzpfaomfvnf; olwa‹dk jymqko d r#udk wku d sKo d ‹dk pum;0Sujf zifh owif; ay;yk‹d jcif;cH&onf? _Adwo d #axmufvS r;f a&;u ,if;owif;ay;ykc‹d sufudk -um;jzwf zrf;,l_yD; pum;0Sufrsm;ukd azmfxkwfcJhonf? owif;ay;ykd‹csuf. tusOf;csKyfrSm *syefu jrefrmEkid if u H dk usL;ausm0f ifa&mufv#if jrefrmwku ‹d _Aw d o d #udk xºuGyek u f ef aumif;ykefuefvdrhfrnf? xkdtcsdefwGif olt ‹ aejzifh *syefukd wwfEkdifor# tultnD ay;rnf[lIjzpfonf? _Adwdo# EkdifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;u olwkd‹ESpfOD;ukd zrf;&efqkH; jzwfvu dk _f y;D [kid zf m-rdo › ‹dk av,mOfqif;onfEiS hf zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f vku d o f nf? OD;apm ESifh OD;wifxGÉfukd ,l*ef'gjynfokd‹ykd‹vkduf_yD; OD;apmtaejzifh ppftwGif;umv wav#mufvkH; txdef;todrf;cHxm;&onf?

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

OD;wifxÉG u f rdk l jyefvw $ af y;cJ_h y;D 1945 ck arvwGif jrefrmEkid if rH S qkwcf mG vsuf tdENd,EkdifiH qif;rvm;-rd›Y zGJŒpnf;aom qma':refprpf. ppfajy;tpkd;&tzGJŒukd oGm;a&mufy;l aygif;aponf? ODapmonf 'drk eD , D eftqifu h kd awmif;qd&k ef vef'efo‹kd wcrf;wem; xGucf mG roGm;rD vtenf;i,fcefu ‹ yifv#if eef;&if;0ef OD;apm rod&&dS ao;aom ocifatmif qef;onf olEiS fh pdwo f abmxm;wlno D nfh ppfaoG;ppfrmef pdwx f ufoefonfh rsKd; cspfvli,fyk*~dKvfrsm;ESihftwl *syefjynfodk‹ oabFmjzifh xGufcGmoGm;cJhavonf? xkd tcsdefu olwdk‹taejzifh udkvdkeDtm%mydkifrsm;ESihf aphpyfaqG;aEG;jcif;jzifh ar#mfvifh csurf sm; jynf0h oGm;vdrrhf nf[k r,H-k unf-uawmh? rsK;d cspv f il ,f rsK;d qufopftae jzihf 'dkrDeD,eftqifh tygt0if _Adwdo#bk&ifhtifyg,mESihf qufoG,fv+yf&Sm;/ EkdifiH udk xlaxmifomG ;&rnft h vkyrf sK;d udk rvdv k m;awmhbJ vH;k 0vGwv f yfa&;udk wdu k cf u kd f &,l&ef qH;k jzwfc-hJ uonf? vufeufuikd x f ºuGa&;enf;vrf;jzifo h mv#if olw&‹kd nf rSe;f csuf txajrmufEikd rf nf[k olw, ‹dk -kH unfc-hJ uonf? xkdtcsdefu udkatmifqef;onf touf (20) ausmfausmfom &Sdao;onf? odka‹ omfvnf; EkdifiHa&;0gtm;jzifh &ifhusufaeav_yD? wdkA‹ rmtpnf;t±Hk;. taxG axGtwGif;a&;rª;tjzpf xrf;aqmifcJh_yD; a'gufwmbarmfOuU@tjzpf aqmif&Guf onfh us,fjyef‹aom r[mrdwfwyfaygif;pk}uD;jzpfonfh xGuf&yf*kd%f; (Freedom ‹ nf tultnD&,l Bloc) udk pwifwnfaxmifcJholwOD;vnf;jzpfayonf? olwdko a&;twGuf taemufxuf ta&SŒudk ar#mf-unfh-uonf? 1940 ckESpfqef;wGif wkA‹d rmtpnf;t±k;H ok‹d tdE, dN trsK;d om;uGe*f &ufygwD &rf;*g(&f) (Ramgarh) nDvm cHo‹dk uk, d pf m;vS,t f zGŒJ vma&mufavhvm&ef zdw-f um;pm vufc&H &Syd gonf? xku d hJ ok‹d zdw-f um;jcif;ukd 0rf;omtm;&pGmvufc_H yD; taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rª; ocifatmif qef; acgif;aqmifvsuf ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifA[def;ESifh tjcm;toif;0ifrsm; yg0ifonfh uk, d pf m;vS,t f zGŒJ onf rwfvwGif tdE, dN jynfo‹dk ‚if;tpnf;ta0;wuf a&muf&ef oGm;-uygonf? xkduGef*&ufnDvmcHwGif -unf!kdav;pm;tyfaom r[wWr*E<DESifh wjcm;ausmf-um;aom uGef*&ufacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;jzpfonfh y¾pf*s0g[mvm(vf) ae±l;/ qlb(pf)cse'f &m bk(d pf) pojzifh awGŒ ¯uHpum;ajymcGi&hf -uygonf? y¾pfae±l;qkv d #if ocifatmifqef;onf ausmif;om;b0upI cs;D rGr;f ESpfoufcJholjzpf_yD; xkdyk*~dKvf}uD; t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh a&;om;cJhor# pmayrsm;ukd pdwt f m;xufoefpmG zwf-um;avhvmrSwo f m;cJo h nf? 1936 ckEpS w f iG f ukad tmifqef; onf ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m ausmif;om;rsm;or*~OuU@ wifajr‡mufjcif;cH&csdefwGif

pdwyf idk ;f jzwfum tquftoG,yf ifr&Scd ahJ om rpPwmae±l;tm; jynfv;Hk u|wf rEœav; ausmif;om;nDvmcHudk 1937 ckEpS w f iG f pDpOf&mwGif wufa&mufcs;D jri‡ &hf ef owW&d pdS mG zdwf-um;vkdufonf? y¾pfae±l;uvnf; jrefrmausmif;om;acgif;aqmif atmif qef;qkdol. *k%foduQmta-umif;rsm;ukd -um;od_yD;jzpfojzifh zdwf-um;jcif;ukd vufcH_yD; olukd,fwkdif nDvmcHwufcJhonf? ae±l;vma&mufjcif;jzifh trsKd;om; ta&;tm; txl;jrifhwufapcJhonf? acgif;aqmif csef'&m bkd(pf) 0g't& wjcm; wbufrS t-urf;zufru l , dk -Hk unfojl zpf_y;D jrefrmjynftm; vlprd ;f wa,mufr[kwf awmhyg? jypfr+Oya' yl;aygif;}uHpnfr+jzifh w&m;pGJqkdcH&vsuf olESifh awmfvSefa&; acgif;aqmif (16) a,mufwkd‹tm; rEœav;axmifwGif 1924 ckrS 1927 ckESpftxd tusOf;csjcif;cH-u&onf? y¾pfae±l;onf jrefrmvli,fukd,fpm;vS,frsm;tm; txl;{nfh0wfausyGef pGm -unfh±+xm;um nDvmcHt_yD;wGif olwko d‹ abmt& wjcm;ae&mrsm;ukdyg oGm; a&muf-unfh±+avhvmcsifonfhqEN &Sd-uygovm;[k ar;jref;&mwGif ocifatmif qef;uyif taemufajrmufa'oac: tuf(zf)*ef e,fpyfo‹dk oGm;a&mufvadk -umif; ukd arwWm&yfcHonf? xkdtcg c&D;pOfvkyfay;cJhonfrSm Ak'<*g,mrS t-rd›-rd›rsm;okd‹ 0ifa&muf-u_y;D a'vD-rda› wmfrw S qifh tdE, dN wku d if ,fujdk zwfausmu f m ywfv#m;0g; -rd/› ukid b f mawmif-um;uae bkaH b-rdr› S umvuwWm;-rdo › ‹dkjyef-u&ef pDpOfay;ygonf? taemufajrmufa'owGif ocifatmifqef;qENtwkid ;f xl;uJpmG “e,fpyf*E<”D bGŒJ& yxef=rlqvifacgif;aqmif}uD; cef/ tuf'l *gzm/ cef ESihf awGŒqaHk qG;aEG;cJ-h uonf? xkad cgif;aqmif}uD;onf a'otvku d f _Aw d o d #rsm;ukd awmfveS cf sio f nfph w d f jyif;xef pGm&Sad omfvnf; t-urf;rzufa&;oabmw&m; tjrif0g'ukd cH,x l m;oljzpfonf? oljrefrmjynfjyefa&mufvmaomtcgwGif udkvdkeDtm%mydkifrsm;u ol‹udk zrf;0&rf;xkwx f m;a-umif;udk olo&d avonf? xka‹d -umihf olonf wdik ;f jynftwGi;f rS wdwfwqdwfxGufcGmoGm;&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufI olESihf&if;EDS;aom rdwfaqGwOD;jzpf fh wl w±kwjf ynfo‹kd yxrxGuaf wmhrnfh w±kw=f ,d;k ',m; onfh ocifvòS rdif 12 ESit vdkif; [dkifvDoabFm (China-Siam Line, Hai Lee) ay:odk‹ &efukefqdyfurf;rS cdk; wufum vkdufygoGm;avonf? olt ‹ dwfuyfxJ&Sd ±lyD; (200) tjyif olw ‹ Gif pdwful; ,Oftdyfrufwckom ygoGm;avonf? ol‹taejzihf wdkif;jynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf wdu k cf u kd v f pdk w d &f _dS yD; tjcm;ppfvv kd m;aom ocifrsm;uvnf; ‘&Se[ f ikd ;f ’ odo ‹k mG ;_yD; ‘armf’ uGejf rLepfrsm;ESifh qufo, G rf &+ ,l&ef olu ‹ kd wdu k w f eG ;f cJ-h uonf? oda‹k omf ol‹ b0rSm tajctaet& tvsifpvdjk zpfvsuf&o dS nf? [oFmwc±kid f &J0efaxmufjzpf

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

ol aZ;AD;,m;qdo k u l atmifqef;udzk rf;rdv#if (5) ±ly;D csD;jr‡irhf nf[k vlo&d iS -f um; qkaiGxw k x f m;onf? od‹k jzpfI olEiS hf udv k òS rdiw f u ‹kd yxrqH;k awGŒonfh w±kwjf ynf odk‹ oGm;rnfhoabFmjzihf vkdufygoGm;cJh&jcif;jzpfonf? olwdk‹onf olwdk‹udk,folwdk‹ oabFmuke;f ywfay:rS vdu k yf gvmonfh w±kwcf &D;onf ‘wefvt l if&eS ;f ’ ESifh ‘wefqk awmif’ wdt ‹k jzpf ±kyzf sufc-hJ uonf? xdak e‹&ufum; 1940 ckEpS /f -o*kwv f (8) &ufjzpfonf? oabFm OD;wnfcw k f armif;aeonfum; trGdKifòrd›odk‹ jzpfonf? ‘trGdKif’ òrd›onf w±kwfurf;±kd;wef;&Sd òrdw › òrdj› zpf_yD; *syefwu ‹kd odr;f ydu k x f m;um ,cktcg ‘ZD&mrif;’ [k ac:ae-uav_yD? 1940 ckESpf ESpfv,favmufwGif rDemrDrql,kd 13 emrnfcHvsuf &efukefokd‹a&muf &Sdvmaom Adkvfrª;}uD; uif*sDqlZluD;ukd ArmhxGuf&yf*kd%f;rS a'gufwmbarmf. a&mif;&if;wOD;jzpfol a'gufwmodrf;armifu (6) ywfcef‹t-umwGif oGm;a&muf awGŒqcHk o hJ nf? trGKd ifwiG f aomifwifaeaom jrefrmrsKd;cspfvil ,f (2) OD;ukd *syefo‹dk oGm;Ekdifa&;twGuf pDpOfay;yg&ef olu qlZluD;ukd tqkd«ycJhonf? Adkvfrª;}uD;u csucf si;f yifoabmwlvu dk _f y;D a'gufwmodr;f armifu vli,f (2) OD;. "mwfyrHk sm;ESihf rdwfqufpmwapmifukd olu ‹ kday;vkdufonf? qlZluD;onf ol.vufaxmufwOD; jzpfol ql*sDtDrufql,lESifhtwl *syefokd‹ r-umrDyif jyefoGm;cJhonf? tjcm;vuf axmufwOD;jzpfol rpfZw l meDteD mtku d rdk l &efuek w f iG x f m;&pfco hJ nf? wkid af ywGif c&D;waxmufem;pOf azmfrq dk m (wkid 0f rf) &Sd *syefb&k ifw h yfrawmf rS tkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&SdwOD;ukd Adkvfrª;}uD;u jrefrmESpfa,muf pwif&SmazG&efESifh wkdusKdwGif olx ‹ Hokd‹ apmifh-uyfac:aqmifvm&ef rSm-um;cJhonf? trGKd ifwiG f ocifatmifqef;ESihf ocifv-S rdiw f ‹dk ta&SŒajrmuf{&d,m&Sd uGejf rL epfykdife,fajr ukef;wGif;ykdif;okd‹ c&D;oGm;vmEkdif&ef tultnDay;Ekdifrnfh wOD; wa,mufudk tquftoG,&f a&;twGuf (3) veD;yg;cef‹ &SmazGaomfvnf; tcsn;f tESD;omjzpfaeonf? olwkd‹rSm aiGa-u;vnf;ukef ar#mfvifhcsufvnf; cef;ajcmuf vsu&f o dS nf? xkt d csed w f iG f uifaywkid rf S Adv k rf ;ª uef'gu ulvefqu l |e;f rS Ekid if w H um d‹ kd ajc&mcHrdoGm;onf? olwkd‹ ykdifpcef;wGif;&Sd wnf;ckdcef;av; (Inn) wckwGif olwku rSm tHt h m;woifh jzpfonfEiS t hf r# a'gufwmodr;f armif.pmukd zwf&onfEiS hf pdwf vufayghyg;oGm;-uonf? *syefokd‹ qufvufoGm;&efom taumif;qkH;[lIvnf; awG;awmrdcJh-uonf? olwkd‹onf *syef=zdvpfykdif ujym;rsm;tjzpf tkdrkd'grGef*sD ESihf tDw'dk gwDtcD sD 14 [laom emrnfrsm;jzifh taxmuftxm;pm&Gupf mwrf;rsm;ukid f aqmifum Ekd0ifbmv (8) &ufae‹wGif zlultkdtmavqdyfokd‹ qif;oufcJh-uonf?

wku d sKda&mufonfEiS hf Adv k rf ;ª }uD; qlZu l ;D u olwu ‹dk dk avqdyw f iG f vma&muf ¯udqcdk o hJ nf? jrefrmhta&;twGuf bk&ifw h yfrawmfO;D pD;XmecsKyfrsm;u pdwrf ygw yg jzpfaeonfhtwGuf qlZluD;u olt ‹ dwfrS aiGpkdufxkwfI olwkdu ‹ kd -unfh±+xm;& 15 onf? rsm;r-umrD Armvrf;r}uD; (Burma Road) jyefvnfzGifhvSpfvkdufjcif;u olwkd. ‹ pdwfyg0ifpm;r+ukd jyefvnfEkd;xapcJhonf? -unf;wyfESifh a&wyfXmecsKyf ppfOD;pD;rª;rsm;u v#Kd‹0SuftzGJŒwzGJŒ zGJŒpnf;a&;tpDtpOfukd yl;aygif;vkyfaqmifvm _yD; aemufq;Hk Y 1941 ckEpS f azazmf0g&Dv (1) &ufae‹wiG f rDemrDuu D eftzGŒJ jzpfay: vmcJo h nf? rDemrDuDuefukd Adkvfrª;}uD; uif*sDqlZluD;u OD;aqmif_yD; *syef-unf;wyf a&wyft&m&Srd sm;tjyif t&yfom;rsm;jzifh ±k;H zGŒJ pnf;xm;onf? jrefrmok;H OD;jzpfonfh atmifqef;/ vS-rdifESifh ukdaqmif; 16 (‘uD&D,l’ pufr+txufwef;ausmif;wGif wufa&mufynmoif-um;aeol) wku ‹d dk *syefb&k ifw h yfrawmf. ppfO;D pD;XmecsKyfrsm; . wku d ±f u dk u f yG u f rJ a+ tmufwiG f xm;&Sv d u dk o f nf? uDueftaejzifh tqifh (3) qifh yg0ifaom azazmf0g&Dv pDrHudef;jzifh ol‹ppfqifa&;vkyfief;&yfrsm;ukd csufcsif;yif pwifcJhonf? yxrqkH;tm;jzifh jrefrmrsKd;cspf (30) OD;ukd [kdifeef (okrd‹ [kwf) azmfrkd qmwGif ppfoifwef;ay;&eftwGuf ac:xkw&f ef/ 'kw, d taejzifh oifwef;_yD;onf ESifh jrefrmjynfwGif;jyef0if_yD; _Adwdo#wkd‹ukd qef‹usifaom vufeufukdifxºuGr+ twGuf pnf;±kH;v+yf&Sm;um _Adwdo#wkdu ‹ kd armif;xkwf_yD; vGwfvyfa&;&,lEkdifa&; twGuf vufeufEiS ahf iGa-u; taxmuftyHah y;&ef/ wwd,taejzifh jrefrmrsKd;cspf rsm;ukd vufcEH idk af &;/ jynfwiG ;f jyef0ifEidk af &;ESihf befaumufraS e_yD; e,fpyfujdk zwf ausmfum vufeufrsm; o,faqmif_yD; _Adwo d #qefu ‹ sifa&;wyfzŒJG rsm;ukd axmufyhH Ekdifa&;twGuf ,kd;',m;=jrefrme,fpyf tcsuftcsmusaom ae&mrsm;wGif v#Kd0‹ u S t f ajccHpcef;rsm; wnfaqmufxm;&efw‹dk jzpfonf? yxrOD;qkH;aom ppfqifa&;trdef‹ukd vufcH&&Sdolrsm;rSm atmifqef;ESifh ‹f dk azazmf0g&Dv (14) &uf ql*sDtDrpfql,l (Sugii Mitsuru) wk‹d jzpfonf? ,if;trdeu ae‹pw JG yfxm;_yD; u0gqmuDqyd u f rf;rS aemufae‹xu G rf nfh 'gtDwo dk abFmyka‹d qmif d yf gI ykord /f &efuek o f o ‹dk mG ; a&;ukr% ` yD idk f “&Sew f if rm±l;” (Shunten Maru) jzifh vku &efjzpfonf? olwv ‹dk yk af qmif&rnfw h m0efrmS topfppk nf;xm;olrsm;ukd oabFmjzifh ckd;xkwf_yD; oifwef;&Sd&mae&mokd‹ ykd‹ay;&eftjyif axmufvS rf;a&;owif;opfrsm; pkaqmif; &efjzpfonf? olwkdu ‹ kd oabFmom; vufrSwfwkrsm; xkwfay;_yD; ql*sDrSm oabFm aiGpm&if;ukdifESifh tkdrkd'grGef*sDrSm pma&;jzpfoGm;onf? tkdrkd'gtaejzifh

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t"duacgi;f aqmifrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

±kyfzsuf0wfqifxm;&_yD; oGm;wkyg wyfqifxm;&onf? atmifqef;onf “&Sefwifrm±l;” ykodrfuyfonfESifh ukef;ay:okd‹ vGwfvGwf uif;uif; ta&mufwufoGm;EkdifcJhonf? trdajray: jyefeif;&onfhtwGuf ol‹rSm 0rf;omvsuf&Sd_yD; &efukef&Sd ocifjrxH owif;ay;ykd&‹ ef qufvufxGufcGmcJhonf? “&Sefwifrm±l;”u olu ‹ kefrsm;jzpfonfhqefukd xyfrHjznfhqnf;Iwif&ef &efukefokd‹ a&mufonft h csdew f iG f &Jabmf (4) OD;ukd a&G;cs,f_yD;jzpfonf? oka‹d omfvnf; atmif qef;ESifhtwl olwkd‹oabFmay:wufrnfhnwGif oabFmtv,f twuftqif; avSum;wGif ykvdyftapmifht-uyfrsm; wif;usyfpGmcsxm;onfhtwGuf ,if;rS wuf&ef rjzpfEkdifonfhtwGuf oabFmaemufykdif;wGif tcsufjya&ay:abmESifh csnx f m;aom oH¯ud;rS pGep‹f eG p‹f m;pm;wufc-hJ u&onf? Tyxr rsK;d cspt f okww f iG f 17 yg0ifolrsm;rSm ocifvSaz/ at;armif/ b*srf;ESifh ukdxGef;&Sdef wkd‹ jzpf-uonf? atmifqef;/ vS-rdifwkd‹ESifhtwl olwkd‹ukd wkdusKdrS azmfrkdqmpcef;okd‹ av,mOfjzifh ykda‹ y;cJh_yD; olwkd‹ jrefrm (6) OD;jzifh ppfoifwef;ukd pwifcJhonf? *syefoifwef;om; topftcsKdv ‹ nf; aemufykdif;wGif wufa&mufvmcJhonf? tvm;wl wm0efay;cH&olrSm tDemtkdrDZlwmeD (Inao Mitzutani) jzpf_yD; ol onf tkq d mumrS rwfv (25) &ufae‹wiG f &efuek o f ‹dk xGucf mG aom qefwifoabFm 'gtDwkdykd‹aqmifa&;ukr`%Duyif “ukdif±l;rm±l;” (Kairu Maru) oabFmjzifh vkdufyg oGm;cJh&onf? olonf &Sifrifemrnfjzifh oabFmaiGpm&if;ukdiftjzpf [efaqmif oGm;&onf? olonf vli,f (7) OD;ukd (3) OD;w}udrf/ (2) OD; ESpf}udrfwkdifwkdif tvnfxGufcGifh&_yD; jyefvmaom oabFmom;rsm;ESifh a&maESm_yD; oabFmay: ta&muf wifay;Ekid cf o hJ nf? wv-um_yD;aemuf oabFmaiGpm&if;ukid f ql*st D o D nf olwa,mufwnf; aemufxyf (3)OD;ukd “ukad q;tDrm±l;” (Kosai Maru) oabFmjzifh o,faqmifvmEkid cf jhJ yefonf? ZGev f wGif aemufq;Hk wacgufY &Sirf ifu xyfr_H y;D (11) OD;ukd “ukd±lrm±l;” (Koreyu Maru) oabFmjzifh xkwfvmEkdifcJhjyefonf? ‚if; (11) OD;wGif aemufqkH; (6) OD;rSm ocifApdef/ ocifxGef;tkyf tkyfpkrSjzpf_yD; ocifxGef; tkyfukd,fwkdif acgif;aqmifxm;onf? ocifxGef;tkyfESifhtwl ygvmolrSm tjcm;ol r[kwf aemufykdif; Adkvfae0if;jzpfvmrnfh ocif±+armifjzpfonf? rpfqlwmeD (c) oabFmaiGpm&if;ukid f &Sirf ifonf rsKd;cspf&aJ bmf (27) OD;teuf (18) OD;ukd yifv,f jzwfI o,faqmifvmEkdifcJholjzpfonf? ,dk;',m;=jrefrme,fpyfrS jzwfausmfvm ol ocifatmifoef;ESifh ocifoef;wifwkd‹tjyif ukdaqmif;ukdyg xyfaqmif;vkduf aomtcg emrnfausmf “&Jabmfo;Hk usdy”f t_yD;owfjzpfay:vmcJo h nf?

ociftkyfpk (2) ckt-um; r-umrDyif rausvnfr+rsm; jzpfay:vmcJhonf? 18 “ukd±lrm±l;” oabFmjzifh &efukefrStxGuf pifumyloGm;onfh c&D;pOfwGifyif ocif xGe;f tky. f oabmxm;a-umifh jzpfymG ;onfh rausvnfrr+ mS tapmqk;H jzpfonf? tjcm;xif&mS ;onfw h ckrmS Adv k af usmaf Zmajymjycsujf zpf_y;D bmwD;vfvifem. a'grmef[ek w f iG f uk;d um;xm;csufjzpfonf? ‘udkatmifqef;ESifh udkae0if;wdk‹ ‘[kdifeef’wGif r-umc% tcsif;rsm;-uonf? udkatmifqef;onf vl±dk;vlajzmifh ajAmiform;jzpfI udkae0if;u tvGef^m%frsm; vsuf wGufcsuf_yD;rS vkyfwwfonf? odka‹ omfvnf; udkatmifqef; t"du róuduf onfu udak e0if;. tusiphf ±du k f raumif;r+jzpfonf? olonf avmif;upm;orm; jzpfonfhtjyif rdef;rvnf; tvGef±+yfayGonf? xkad‹ -umihf tusifhpm&dwW aumif;rGef r+udk txl;tav;xm;aom udkatmifqef;ESihf usefaom u|efawmfwdk‹ &Jabmfrsm; uvnf; ,if;tcsufudk rESpfòrd-› ujcif;jzpfonf? odka‹ omf tem*wfudk ar#mfawG;I pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;twGuf u|efawmfwdk‹ wwfEdkifoavmuf tnDt!GwfaecJh-u ygonf?’ xdkrSwyg; atmufyg ‘bmwD;vfvihfwfem’ a&;om;csufudkvnf; owdrloihf ayonf? ‘&efukefwGif udkatmifqef;onf oabFmrSm;pD;rdcJhjcif;oufoufa-umihf *syefESihf qufoG,fvdkuf&jcif;um; r[kwfacs? *syefwdk‹. v#KdŒ0Sufvkyfief;rsm;udk olwdk‹. olv#Kdrsm;u &efukefESihf tjcm;ae&mrsm;wGif vkyfaqmifvsuf&SdcJhonf? 1930 ckESpfrsm;avmufuyif ‘±+dZdk=udkulbl’ (Shozo Kokubu) [k ac:aom *syef a&wyft&m&Sdwa,mufonf ocifApdefšocifxGef;tkyf tkyfpkESifh qufoG,fr+& cJhonf? xkd‹ jyif &efukef&Sd *syefolv#KdwOD;jzpfaom a'gufwm ‘qlumpm qlZluD;’ pDpOfay;cJo h nft h wGuf tjcm;rsKd;cspfy*k Kd~ vfwOD;jzpfonfh a'gufwmodr;f armifonf vnf; 1940 ckEpS w f iG f wdu k sKdo‹kd tvnfc&D;oGm;cJzh ;l onf? udak tmifqef;tygt0if ocifudk,fawmfrd+if;. aemufvdkufrsm;rSm *syefrsm;tay:Y ta-umif;a-umif;udk axmufqI oHo,&S-d uonf? wenf;tm;jzifv h nf; ratmifjrifaom w±kwjf ynf c&D;pOfonf jrefrmEdkifiH vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;v+yf&Sm;r+twGuf tultnD&rnfh ae&mudk óud;pm;&Sm}uHjcif;w&yf[k jrif&ayrnf? odka‹ omf ,if;óud;yrf;r+ ratmif rjrifjzpfomG ;onft h cg jrefrmvli,frsKd;cspfrsm;twGuf (olwv ‹kd ckd sifonfh vGwv f yf a&;udk E+wu f wday;aeonf)h *syefomv#if a&G;cs,fp&m &So d mG ;ayawmhonf?’ *syefwt ‹kd aejzihf Ttcsufukd aumif;pGmoabmaygufxm;-uonf? od‹k jzpf

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t"duacgi;f aqmifrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

I olwdk‹onf olwdk‹. ppfoifwef;tpDtpOfwGif ‘0if±kd;wef;’ vdkvm;aom vusfm tpGe;f a&muf0g'D ocifApdešf ocifxeG ;f tkyf tkypf u k kd xnfo h iG ;f I vuf0o J rm;rsm; tm; xdef;xm;&ef qHk;jzwfcJh-ujcif;jzpfonf? xkd‹a-umihfvnf; wdk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk; udk pwifwnfaxmifcJh&mY yg0ifcJhol wOD;jzpfaom ocifApdefonf ocifxGef;tkyf G cf o hJ nf? 0g&ifEh idk if aH &;orm; ESit fh wl 1938 19 ckEpS cf efr‹ pS I *syefukd pwifqufo, rsm;xJrS Ekid if jH cm;om;rdwaf qGrsm;þcsOf;uyfrw d zf ŒJG orl sm;rSm ocifApdeEf iS hf ocifxeG ;f tkyfwkdu ‹ þpcJh-uonfr[kwf? OD;apmomv#if yxrjzpfygonf? olonf owif;pm q&mwOD;taejzifh uk, d pf m;«yum *syefEidk if o H ‹dk 1935 ckEpS w f iG f tvnfomG ;cJo h nf? olonf xkcd &D;rStjyefwiG f &efuek -f rdw › iG f owif;pm}uD;wapmifjzpfaom “ol&, d ” owif;pm. t"du tpkydkif&Sifjzpfvmjcif;rSm wkdufqkdifr+w&yfjzpfykH&onf? olu vlra+ ygif;oif;qufqaH &;taejzifh *syefot H &m&Srd sm;ESihf tvnftywfvmolrsm;ukd azsmaf jz{nfch cH o hJ nf? ,if;oka‹d om {nfch yH rJG sm;ukd *syefEidk if t H a-umif; aqmif;yg;rsm; tm; rSerf eS yf EHk ydS af zmfjyavh&adS om olo ‹ wif;pmwGif tjynft h pko H wif;tjzpf a&;om; azmfjycJo h nf? aemufrS ay:aygufvmaom b0. oa&mfuu G w f &yfrmS *syefwE‹dk iS hf txufyg twkid ;f qufo, G cf o hJ nfh ocifApdet f m; *syefwu ‹dk yif t}uHay;r+a-umifh 1942 ckEpS f atmufwb dk mvwGif e,fpyfuae_yD; ,k;d ',m;Ekid if b H ufo‹dk jzwfu;l &ef ¯ud;pm;&m zrf;qD;cH&_yD; tusOf;cscH&jcif; jzpfayonf? rnfodk‹yifjzpfap ocifxGef;tkyfwdk‹ aemufqHk;tokwf a&muf&Sdvm_yD;onfh aemufwGifum; udkatmifqef;wdk‹ t&if *syefodka‹ &mufESihfaeaom udkaqmif;tyg t0if pkpkaygif; rsKd;cspfvli,f (30) OD;&SdoGm;av_yD? odk‹ jzpfI olwdku ‹ dk jrefrmhordkif; wGif ‘&Jabmfo;kH usyd ’f [k ac:a0:cJah vonf? olw. ‹kd *syefwyfr;ª rSm Akv d rf ;ª }uD; ‘au tD*sD=qlZluD;’ jzpfonf? olonf udkatmifqef;ESihf udkvSòrdifudk ‘trGdKif’ wGif zrf; qD;cJhol t&m&Sdjzpfavonf? &JabmfoHk;usdyf0if ocifudk,fawmfrd+if;tkyfpk. wck wnf;aom &nfreS ;f csufyef;wkid rf mS jrefrmEdik if H vGwv f yfa&;jzpfaomfvnf; Adv k rf ;ª }uD; qlZluD;ESihf *syefaxmufvS rf;a&;wdk‹ tzd&k‹ mYum; tjcm;&nfrSef;csufrsm; &Sif; &Sif;vif;vif;&Sdaeav_yD? 1938 ckEpS w f iG f *syefwo ‹kd nf w±kwjf ynf ajrmufyikd ;f ESihf ta&Sy› ikd ;f wdu ‹k kd usL; ausmf0ifa&mufcJhonf? od&k‹ mwGif *syefbk&ifhwyfrawmf. w±kwfjynftwGif;ydkif; ESihf aemufqHk;wGif tdENd,jynftxd xdk;azmufrnfh taemufbufcsD ppfqifa&; r[mAsL[mudk csefau&SdwfOD;aqmifaom (w±kwfjzL) ulrifweftpdk;&u tpGrf;

ukefqefu ‹ sifwGef;vSefae&m ,if;udk r[mrdwfu ulnDyHhydk;vsuf&Sdonf? xdktcsdef Y armfpDwkef;wdk‹. w±kwfeDuGefjrLepfrsm;vnf; tjyif;txef awmfvSefaejcif; a-umifh csefau&Sdwf ulrifwefwyfrsm; ajcukyfpcef;wckjzpfaom w±kwfjynf taemufawmifbufjynfe,fwckjzpfonfh ‘,leef’ od‹k r[mrdww f . ‹kd ppfypPn;f wef aygif;rsm;pGmudk tusOf;tusyfrsm;-um;rS ay;ydk‹ae&onf? &efukefqdyfurf;rS jrefrmjynftv,fyikd ;f tylyikd ;f uEœm&udk jzwfausmfvsuf &S r;f awmifwef;rsm;txd/ xkrd q S ufvufI ,leefjynfe,fo‹kd 0ifa&mufaom jrefrmvrf;r}uD; (Burma Road) onf xdktcsdefu vGefpGm ta&;}uD;_yD; *syefppfOD;udk wm;qD;Ekdifa&;twGuf wck wnf;aom axmufyahH &;vrf;a-umif;jzpfonf? xka‹d -umifh *syefwt ‹kd aejzihf jrefrm jynfudk 0ifa&mufodrf;ydkuf_yD; ,if;qufoG,fa&;vrf;a-umif;udk jzwfawmufvdk onf? xdkodðk‹ yvkyfEkdif&eftwGuf olwdk‹ ppfqifa&; atmifjrifacsmarmapjcif; tvdk‹ iSm ±kyjf yaumif;aom jrefrmwdik ;f &if;om; wdu k cf u kd af &;wyfwwyf tckid t f rm&S&d ef *syefwdk‹u vdktyfaecJhonf? TaxmufvS rf;a&;tpDtpOfudk ‘rDemrDuDuef’ (Minami Kikan) [k v#KdŒ0Sufemrnfay;xm;cJhonf? odk‹ jzihf *syefa&muf jrefrm vli,frsm;rSm TtpDtpOf. t"dutoufaoG;a-um}uD;jzpfvmcJhonf? odk‹ jzpfonfhtwdkif; 'DZifbmvwGif &JabmfoHk;usdyfrS (28) a,mufudk bef aumufodk‹ a&$Œajymif;vdkufonf? ukdaqmif; (okdr‹ [kwf) Adkvfxdef0if;ukd ,kd;',m; Ekid if &H dS *syefb&k ifw h yfrawmf. 0g'jzefc‹ sda&;Xmeok‹d wm0efcsxm;cJo h nf? ‘[kid ef ef’ wGif tpysKd; ppfa&;avhusifrr+ sm; ðyvky_f yD;aemuf ppfoifwef;udk ‘azmfrq kd mu|ef;’ od‹k a&$Œajymif;cJ&h m jrefrmvli,fwOD;jzpfonfh ocifoef;wifonf ,if;ae&mY iSuf zsm;a&m*gjzifh uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf? xkd‹aemuf 'DZifbmv (26) &ufae‹wGif bef aumufY ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf (Burma Independence Army) udk w&m; 0ifzŒJG pnf;vdu k af vonf? Tta-umif;ESiyfh wfoufI ocifvaS z (Adv k v f usfm) u aemufyikd ;f wGif Tod‹k jyefvnfajymjycJo h nf? “tJ'aD e‹u orm;awmf}uD; OD;vGe;f aztdrrf mS vlawGtm;vH;k [m wtm; pdwf xufoefae-uw,f? vlwdkif;qDu vufarmif;aoG;udk azmuf,l_yD; aoG;aomuf opPmqdk-uw,f? tJ'DnrSm *syefppfoifwef;pcef;u jyefvm-uwJh olawGtm;vHk; pk_yD; pnf;a0;-uw,f? udkatmifqef;u u|efawmfwdk‹pdwfóuduf twdwfedrdwf aumif;r,fh emrnfwckpD a&G;oifhw,fvdk‹ t}uHðyw,f? 'Demrnfu u|efawmfwdk‹ udk *k%v f &J adS pr,f? ,H-k unfrv + J ay;Ekid rf ,f? vkyif ef;_yD;pD;atmif aqmif&u G &f r,fh todpdwf"mwfvJ 0ifapr,f? aemuf u|efawmfwdk‹ csDwufr+udk qufvufo,f

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t"duacgi;f aqmifrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

aqmifay;r,fh emrnfrsK;d jzpf&r,fv‹kd olu ajymw,f? 'Dt}uHtpnf[m u|eaf wmf wdk‹ pkaygif;pOf;pm;xm;-uwmvJ r[kwfbl;? t&ifxJu t-um}uD; pOf;pm;xm;cJh -uwmvJ r[kwfbl;? 'g[m udkatmifqef;&JŒ t}uHtpnfyJ jzpfw,f? u|efawmf wdk‹udk tJ'Dvdk csjyawmh u|efawmfwdk‹tm;vHk; tJ'Dt}uHtpnfudk oabmusoGm; -uw,f? tJ'DrSmyJ u|efawmfwdk‹ emrnfawG a&G;-uw,f? prf;ac: -unfh-uw,f? oabmus-uw,f? emrnftopfe‹J ud, k u hf , kd u f kd eJeaJ wmif t&yfjriho f mG ;w,fvk‹d cHpm;-u&w,f” xdkae‹wGifyif olwdk‹tm;vHk;. emrnfa&SŒ Y Akdvfwyfvdkuf-uonf? Akdvf[l onfrSm vltaygif;/ av;pm;cH&r+ESihf -oZmtm%m&Sdr+udk jyqdk_yD; t&m&Sdtqifh&Sd olwdkif;. emrnfa&S›Y (OD;/ armif/ udk) tpm; wGJoHk;oGm;&onfh a0g[m&wckjzpf ayonf? Tod‹kjzifh udak tmifqef;u (Adv k af wZ) jzpfvmonf? udv k aS zu (Adv k v f usmf ) emrnfcH,lonf? ocifatmifoef;u (Adkvfp}ufm) ESihf udk±+armifu (Adkvfae0if;) pojzihf jzpfvm-uonf? wckwnf;aom ¹cGif;csufrSm ocifxGef;tkyfjzpfonf? ol u *syefemrnfudk cH,lvdkufonf? Ttkyfpk. wyfr;ª jzpfol Adkvfr;ª }uD; qlZluD;udk ‘Adv k rf ;kd óud;’ [k emrnfay;vdu k -f uonf? *syeft&m&S}d uD;rsm;uvnf; jrefrmemrnf &,lcsifonf? odk‹ jzifh TAdkvfrdk;óud;[laomemrnfudk udkatmifqef;udk,fwdkif a&G; cs,af y;cJjh cif;jzpfonf? oda‹k omf rd;k óud;wGi&f adS om pmt"dym` ,foufouftjyif Adv k f rª;}uD;qlZluD;udk ,if;jrefrmemrnfay;&mY vdrRmyg;eyfI av;eufaom t"dy`m,f udkvnf; aqmifayonf? tb,fa-umihfqdkaomf æ_Adwdo#wdk‹ tkyfpkd;pOfuyif “xD;±k;d ukd rd;k óud;ypfr,f” [laom wabmifpum;onf ysHŒEx ‹HS u G af y:vsuf&o dS nf? Twabmif. t"dy`m,frSm æbk&ifheef;pOf ueuU'%f ‘xD;’ wnf;[laom (_Adwdo# tcsKyftjcmtm%m) onf ‘rdk;óud;’ wnf;[laom aumif;uifrS usvm onfh vufeufa-umifh usKd;ysufaom tajcod‹k {uefqu kd af &mufomG ;vdrrfh nfæ[k qdkvdkonf? TwGif Akdvfrdk;óud;u AdkvfcsKyf}uD; ‘rDemrD’ (Adkvfrª;}uD; qlZluD;) [l aom &mxl;tqihfESihf emrnfcH,lum bDtkdifat ppfXmecsKyfudk uGyfuJvdkufum AkdvfcsKyf ‘rl&mumrd’ (uy`wdef Ekd'g) u ppfOD;pD;csKyf tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ AkdvfcsKyf ‘tdkrdk'g’ (udkatmifqef;) u tqihfjrihfppfOD;pD;t&m&Sd (jrefrmrsm;xJwGif &mxl;t }uD;qHk; tqifhtjrihfqHk;) tjzpfvnf;aumif; ceft ‹ yfjcif;cH&onf? tjcm; jrefrmt &m&Sd (8) OD;rSm 'k=Adv k rf ;ª }uD; &mxl;rS Adv k }f uD;tqift h xd &mxl;rsm;jzifh ppfO;D pD;Xme csKyfESihf tjcm;oD;jcm;wm0efrsm;wGif ceft ‹ yfcH-u&onf? Akdvfae0if;tm; ceft ‹ yfr+

rSm pm&if;. atmufajcwGifrS yg&Sdvmonf? jrefrmjynfwGif;&Sd &efolwyfzGJŒrsm;udk 'kuQa&mufap&ef pDpOf!¸ef-um; vkyfudkifoGm;&rnfhwyfrSm 'k=Adkvfrª;}uD;±+armif &mxl;emrnfjzifh OD;pD;uGyfuJ&ef wm0efay;jcif;cH&onf? *syeft&m&Sd}uD;rsm;. vlucJ wfru + m; rqd;k vSyg? olw ‹ iG f &Sad om yifu, dk t f &nftaoG;ESifh xdw k m0efonf 20 ododomomyif oihfavsmfvSayonfæ[k qdk&ayvdrfhrnf? 1942 ckEpS f apmapmykid ;f wGif bDtikd af tonf *syefwyfrawmfEiS t fh wl jrefrm jynfwGif;odk‹ 0ifa&mufcJhonf? tpueOD; (28) OD;rSvGJ_yD;v#if jrefrmtrsm;tjym; onf xkdif;EdkifiHwGifvnf;aumif;/ wu,fhe,fpyfwav#mufwGifvnf;aumif; bD tdkifatwyfxJodk‹ 0ifa&mufvmcJh-uonf? 21 arG;&yfajray:wGif a&SŒodk‹csDwuf&if; olwdk‹ *k%f,l0ifhºuGm;pGmjzifh jrihfjrifhrm;rm; v$ihfxlcJhonfhatmifvHrSm t0g/ tpdrf;/ teD oHk;a&mifjc,f/ tv,frS ua'gif;jzpfonf? 22 xdyfqHk;rS t0ga&mifvdkif;onf bmoma&;,H-k unfru + kd azmfjyonf? tv,frS tpdr;f a&mifrmS aygrsm;ºuG,0f aom ajr,mESifh aumufyo J ;D ESt H xGuu f kd jyqdo k nf? atmufajcrS teDa&mifrmS rl a-umuf &GHŒr+uif;aom &JpGrf;owWdudk azmf!¸ef;vsuf&Sdonf? tv,fA[dkwGif tjzLa&mif aemufcHjzifh puf0kdif;twGif;rS rmefrmetjynfht0jzifh ab;taygif;rS vGwfajrmuf apaom (arm& y&dwaf wmf) udk ud, k pf m;ðyonfh jrefrmh u˜a'gif;udk jyoxm;onf? ,if;onf EkdifiH. *k%fusufoa&wihfw,fr+ESihf xGef;ajymifr+wdk‹udk trSwftom; ðyxm;jcif;jzpf_yD; jrefrmbk&ifrsm; vufxufrSpI wdkŒArmtpnf;t±Hk;ESihf (BIA) acwftxd oH;k pGv J mcJah om tvHjzpf.? bDtidk af t. tiftm;rSm tpwGif (2˜300) om&Sad omfvnf;þr-umrDþjrefrmjynftv,fyikd ;f od‹k a&muf&o dS mG ;onft h csed Yf þtiftm; (30˜000) odk‹ wdk;wufoGm;avonf? 1942 ckESpf/ rwfv (7) &ufae‹wGif *syefwdk‹ u bDtidk af ttultnDjzifh &efuek òf rdu › kd acsmarmpGm odr;f ydu k Ef idk cf o hJ nf? xda‹k emuf _Adwo d #wo ‹kd nf a&$awmifY jyif;xefpmG ckcI H taemufbuf&dS tdE, dN od‹k ‘wrl;’vrf; rS pnf;urf;wus qkwcf mG oGm;cJo h nf? Ttcsed Yf urBmh 6 yH/k 1 yHu k kd pd;k ydik x f m;aom _Adwdo# t&Sifocifrsm;tm; rnfolr# rvSefEdkif[laom tawG;txifonf vGihfpif d uJh aysmufu, G o f mG ;cJo h nf? oda‹k omfvnf; wrif;ajymif;rS wrif;ta-umif;od qko od‹k jrefrmEdik if t H m; *syefrsm; odr;f ydu k &f mwGif &ufpufrE+ iS hf ywfoufI pHwifavmuf aom tppftrSefo±kyfouefrsm;udk r-umrD jrefrmrsKd;cspfwdk‹ pdwfysufzG,f&m awGŒ &Sdvm&awmhonf? 23 -rd›awmfokd‹ jyef0ifonfh tcsdefykdif;avmufuyif ol‹taejzifh *syefawmfvSefa&;twGuf pnf;±kH;&ef ¯ud;pm;cJha-umif;/ ppf_yD;aemuf AkdvfcsKyf atmifqef;u xkwfazmfajymqkdcJhonf? tcsdefapmvGef;ao;onfhtwGuf ‚if;tpD

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

tpOfukd ol±kyfodrf;vkduf&onf? *syefbk&ifhwyfrawmfu ArmhvGwfvyfa&; wyfrawmf (BIA) ukd zsufodrf;&ef qkH;jzwfcJh_yD; ysOf;rem;wGif tajccsxm;aom wyf&if; (3) &if;r#jzifh 1942 ckEpS f Zlvidk v f rSpI ArmhumuG,af &;wyfrawmf (BDA) ukd zGJŒpnf;cGifh«ycJhonf? bD'Datukd Adkvfrª;}uD; &mxl;jzifh Adkvfatmifqef;u uGyfuJcJhonf? 1943 ckESpf rwfvwGif a'gufwmbarmf/ ocifjrESifh AdkvfcsKyfwkdu ‹ kd wku d sKo d ‹dk zdw-f um;cJo h nf? xka‹d emuf a'gufwmbarmfu 0ef}uD;csKyf a['Duw D *dk sKEd iS hf aqG;aEG;cJ_h yD; wk*d sKdu “jrefrmEkid if H vGwv f yfa&;twGuf vrf;!¸epf nf;rsOf;rsm;” [k ac:onfh taxmuftxm;pmwrf;ukd a'gufwmbarmfokd‹ ay;tyfcJhonf? ukd,f pm;vS,ftzGJŒacgif;aqmifrsm;ukd *syef{u&mZfbk&ifukd,fwkdif taqmifta,mif bGJŒwHqdyfrsm; qifjref;ay;tyfcJh_yD; OD;atmifqef;rSm AdkvfcsKyf (ar*sm*sife&,f) &mxl;okd‹ wkd;jr‡ifhjcif;cH&um wwd,wef; wufaetxdrf;trSwfbGJŒwHqdyf tyfESif; jcif;cH&onf? a'gufwmbarmfonf jyefa&mufa&mufcsif; “jrefrmEkdifiH vGwfvyf a&;jyifqifr+aumfrwD” ukd zGJŒpnf;vkdufonf? aemufqkH;Y 1943 ckESpf -o*kwfv (1) &ufae‹wGif jrefrmEkdifiHukd vGwfvyfaomEkdifiHtjzpfvnf;aumif;/ a'gufwm barmfuv dk nf; Ekid if aH wmft"dywdtjzpfvnf;aumif; a-unmvku d o f nf? bD'aD t ukd ArmhtrsKd;om;wyfrawmf (BNA) tjzpf emrnfajymif;vkduf_yD; umuG,fa&;0ef }uD;&mxl; ,lxm;aom AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u Adkvfr;ª ae0if; (Adkvfr;ª }uD;&mxl;okd‹ vsifjrefpGm wkd;jr‡ifhcH&onf) ukd bDtifat. umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyftjzpf a&G;cs,f cJo h nf? oka‹d omfvnf; umuG,af &;0ef}uD;Xmeukd _Adwo d #pepftwkid ;f jyefvnfjyif qifzŒJG pnf;cJ&h m aemufwESpt f apmykid ;f wGif _yD;pD;oGm;onft h cg Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef; u OD;pD;aoemywd &mxl;ukd jyefvnf&,lvkduf_yD; Adkvfrª;}uD;ae0if;ukd ppf±kH;okd‹ ppfO;D pD;csKyftjzpf ajymif;a&$Œvu dk o f nf? vGwv f yfa&; ESpyf wfvnfae‹wiG f Adv k cf sKyf atmifqef;tm; *syef {u&mZfbk&ifu yxrwef; jrifhjrwfaom &wembGJŒwHqdyf (First Class Order of the Sacred Treasure) jzifh tyfESif;csD;jr‡ifhvkdufjyefonf? xkt d csed w f iG f pdw}f uD;0ifaeaom *syefb&k ifw h yfrawmfEiS hf olw. ‹dk a-umufrufz, G f uifaywkdif axmufvS rf;a&;,Eœ&m;wkd‹tay: rauseyfr+rsm; qlyGufvsuf&Sdae av_yD? tjzpftysufrsm;aygif;pkHaeonfh Ttcsdefukd u|efawmf a&;om;ae&mwGif rdrt d csKyftjcmtm%mukd vk;H 0O\kjH yefvnf&,lvo dk nfh zufqpfqefu ‹ siaf &; jrefrm rsK;d csprf sm;u usL;ausmo f rd ;f yku d x f m;onfh *syefwyfrsm;ukd jyefvnfawmfveS o f nfh v+y&f mS ;r+udk pdw0f ifpm;zG,f tusOf;csKyfjyefvnfwifjyvkad yonf?

ta&;}uD;aom trsKd;om;EkdifiHa&;ygwD}uD; (3) ck yl;aygif;_yD; “ArmhxGuf &yf*kd%f;” tjzpf 1939 ckESpf atmufwkdbmv (1) &ufae‹wGif jzpfay:vmcJhonf? ol. OD;wnf&nfrSef;csufw&yfrSm jrefrmEkdifiH. ukd,fykdifqkH;jzwfEkdifonfh tcGihft a&;ukd _Aw d o d #tpk;d &u todtrSw«f y_y;D v#if vGwv f yfa&;ay;&eftwGuf awmif;qkd &efjzpfavonf? tvm;wl &nfrSef;csufrsm;xm;&Sdaom “Armhta&;awmfykHygwD” [k ac:aom ajratmuftzGJŒwzGJŒukd ,if;u arG;xkwfay;cJhonf? tzGJŒ0ifrsm;ukd ocifrsm;/ qkd&S,fvpfrsm;/ uGefjrLepfrsm;-um;rS a&G;xkwfcJh _yD; ‚if;tzGJŒ. xif&Sm;aom acgif;aqmifrsm;tjzpf OD;ausmf_idrf;/ OD;AaqG/ ocif atmifqef;ESihf ocifoed ;f azwk‹d jzpfvmcJo h nf? tcsKa‹d omEkid if aH &;orm;rsm;u *syef ta-umif; tom;ay;ajymjyaomfvnf; uGefjrLepfw±kwfukdrl trsm;u ykdrkdvkdvm; -uonf? odef;azurl zufqpf*syefESifh yl;aygif;a&;ukd tjyif;txefuef‹uGuf oljzpfonf? 1942 ckEpS f tapmykid ;f wGif Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;u *syefb&k ifw h yfrsm;ESit hf wl Armhvw G v f yfa&;wyfrawmfudk OD;aqmifum trdajray:ok‹d atmifjrifpmG 0ifa&muf vmcsdefwGif odef;azu ajratmufqufoG,fa&;uGef&ufuwqifh *syefqef‹usif a&;pm&Gurf sm;ukd jzefa‹ 0tvkyrf sm;aecJo h nf? TwGif orkid ;f wGirf nfh uH-urRmw&yf jzpfvmcJhonf? Armhta&;awmfykHygwDu odef;azukd tdENd,okd‹v$wf&ef tm;vkH; oabmwlvu dk -f uonf? olwo ‹dk rd ;f oGi;f xm;ol rmhupf 0f g'Drsm;. aoG;aqmifpnf; ±kH;r+ pGrf;&nfay:wGif ar#mfvifhcsufxm;&SdonfESifhtnD wzufuvnf; r[mrdwf wkx ‹d rH S tultnDudk ,cifu rdwaf qGwOD;taejzifh &SmazG&ef qk;H jzwfvu dk -f ujcif; jzpfonf? ulrifwefwyfrsm;. tultnDu&dk ,lum ode;f azu wifa&$EiS t hf wl uom ukjd zwfI taemufajrmufvrf;a-umif;twkid ;f oGm;&ef ¯ud;pm;cJah omfvnf; xkad 'o wGif *syefwkd&‹ SdaeonfhtwGuf jyefvSnfhvmcJh&onf? xkdtcsdefwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmif qef;ESifh Adkvfvusfmwkd‹u jrefrmjynftv,fykdif;&Sd a&$bkdwGif &Sdae-u_yD; olwkd‹ESifh tHh-op&maumif;avmufatmif rar#mfvifhbJ awGŒqkHrdcJh-uonf? tHhtm;woifh jzpfae-uaom ,cifa&mif;&if;ESpOf ;D rSm xkt d csdew f iG f Armhvw G v f yfa&;wyfrawmf . tqifhjrifht&m&Sdrsm; jzpfae-u_yD; *syeft}uHay;rsm;teD;wGif vkdufyg&Sdaevifh upm; aESmifhaES;jcif;r&SdbJ olwkdE‹ SpfOD;ukd tumtuG,fay;vsuf olwkdc‹ &D;ukd jzpf ajrmufatmif aqmif&Gufay;cJhonf? odef;azESifh wifa&$onf ajcvsifjzifhwoG,f avSjzifhwwef &ckdifukdjzwfI 1942 ckESpf ZlvkdifvwGif b*FgvDokd‹ a&mufoGm;cJh-u

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

onf? olw. ‹dk v+y&f mS ;r+udk t}uD;tus,o f o H ,0ifvsu&f adS om _Aw d o d #tm%mykid f rsm;u olwku d‹ kd csufcsif;yifzrf;qD;vkduf-uonf? qif;rvm;wGif ckdv+Hae&aom ta0;a&muf_Adwdo# jrefrmtpkd;&taejzifh jrefrmhawmfvSefa&;v+yf&Sm;r+. ±kd;om;r+ukd tcsdefwkdtwGif; em;vnfvmonfh tavsmuf odef;aztaeESifh ta0;a&muftpkd;&tzGJŒ0ifrsm;ESifh awGŒcGifh&vmonf? 1943 ckESpf tapmykdif;wGif olwkd‹ukd w±kwfjynfokd‹ oGm;cGifh«yvkdufaomfvnf; (7) vcef‹ -um_y;D aemuf olwo ‹dk nf a'vDo‹dk vufcsn;f oufoufjzifh jyefvmcJ-h u&onf? ulrifwefa&m/ uGejf rLepfrsm;uyg ±ky0f wˆKypPn;f tultnD wpkw H &mrygbJ oem; -uifemr+ oufoufuo dk m ay;cJ-h uonf? _Adwdo#wkd‹taejzifh oabmxm;ajymif;_yD; olwkd‹bufygvmum v#Kd‹0Suf,l epfwckjzpfonfh trSwf (136) wyfzGJŒtopf zGJŒpnf;ay;vkdufonfhtwGuf olwkd‹ t}uD;tus,f 0rf;omyDwdjzpfae-uonf? xkdwyfzGJŒtaejzifh ta&S›awmiftm&S&Sd &efole‹ ,fajrrsm;ukd xkd;azmuf0ifa&muf/ vJAD;wyfrsm;ukd xlaxmifoifwef;ay;/ ajymufusm;ppfukd pnf;±kH;_yD;/ &Sd_yD;jzpfaom zufqpfqef‹usifa&; awmfvSefa&; v+y&f mS ;r+rsm;ESihf yl;aygif;aqmif&u G &f efjzpfonf? ok‹d jzpfI wifa&$udk a&ikyo f abFm ESifh ac:aqmifoGm;_yD; &ckdifurf;ajcwGif 1943 ckESpf Ekd0ifbmvwGif csxm;ay;cJh onf? aemufwESpf azazmf0g&DvusrS tzkd;rjzwfEkdifaom owif;rsm;ESifhtwl ol‹ukd oGm;a&mufac:,lEkdifcJhonf? odef;azu tdENd,wGif qufaecJhonf? olu r[mrdwfXmecsKyfESifh jrefrmhvGwfajrmufa&;v+yf&Sm;olrsm;t-um; qufoG,fa&; t&m&St d aersKd;aqmif&u G _f yD; wcsdew f nf;rSmyif jyef-um;a&;0ef}uD;Xme. 0g'jzef‹ csda&;vkyif ef;rsm;ukd aqmif&u G af y;aecJo h nf? xkdtcsdefY 1943 ckESpf -o*kwfv (1) &ufae‹ Y jrefrmEkdifiHukd vGwfvyfa&; &&Sd_yDjzpfa-umif; a-unmvkdufonf? t"dywd a'gufwmbarmfu ocifacgif; aqmif (4) OD;ukd tpkd;&tzGJŒ0if0ef}uD;rsm;tjzpf cef‹tyfvkdufonf? ocifjrukd 'k=0ef}uD;csKyf/ ocifEk=EkdifiHjcm;a&;/ ocifatmifqef;=umuG,fa&;ESifh ocif oef;xGef;=qufoG,fa&;wkd‹ jzpfonf? Tcef‹tyfr+rsm;rSm *syefwkd‹u aemufqkH; twnf«y&rnfjzpfaomfvnf; TuJhokd‹ -oZmwduUr&Sdaom yk*~dKvfrsm; ukd,fpm;«y yg0ifjcif;ukd vG,fvifhwul oabmwl_yD;jzpfayonf? olwkd‹tm; jyefvnfqef‹ usifawmfvSef&mwGif ‚if;wkd‹ (4) OD;pvkH; acgif;aqmifyg0ifrnfqkdonfukdum; ol wkd‹ rod&Sm-uacs? ocifoef;xGef;rSm xkdv+yf&Sm;r+. acgif;aqmifjzpfcJhonf? atmifqef;. &mxl;wm0efESifh ywfouf_yD; Ttajctaeukd Akdvfrª; tdyf(csf)/ yD/

qD;*&if; (Major H.P. Seagrim) u trSwf (136) wyfzGJŒokd‹ (3) vt-umwGif owif;ay;yk‹d _y;D jzpfonf? yxrqkH;vGwfvyfa&; ESpfywfvnfae‹wGif qef‹usifawmfvSefa&;acgif; aqmifrsm; pkHnDpnf;a0;rd-uonf? zufqpf*syefrsm;ukd rvkdvm;a-umif;ESifh tcGi&hf onfEiS hf olv ‹ ufatmuf&dS vufeufuidk w f yfzŒJGrsm;u olwu ‹dk dk xºuGqefu ‹ sif rnfjzpfa-umif; twdtvif; atmifqef;. ajym-um;csufu xkad e‹udk rSwrf w S &f & jzpfapcJhonf? EkdifiHa&;ygwDtm;vkH;taejzifh pkpnf;nD!GwfpGm &yfwnf-u_yD; zufqpfqef‹usifa&; jynfol‹vGwfajrmufa&;tzGJŒcsKyf (AFPFL) wnf;[laom emrnfukd vkdufavsmnDaxGpGm a&G;cs,fcJh-uonf? ygwDrsm;taejzifh zufqpf pepfudk acsr+e;f &efEiS hf jynfot ‹l pk;d &w&yf xlaxmif&eftwGuf tzGŒJ csKyfY yg0ifjcif; jzpfa-umif; tpnf;ta0;rS xkwfjyefvkdufaom a-unmcsufwGif yg0ifvmcJhonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. t_rJwrf;vufeufukdifwyfzGJŒrsm;ukd tiftm;&Sdaom r[mrdwrf sm;tjzpf wGux f m;aomfvnf; *syefwr‹dk a&mufEidk o f nfh jrefrmjynfajrmuf ykid ;f awmifwef;rsm;&Sd ucsi/f csi;f / em*ESihf vl&;DS vlrsK;d rsm;rSvnf; vJA;D wyfzŒJGrsm;ukd _Adwdo#u xlaxmifcJhonf? u&ifvlrsKd;wkdr‹ Sm vlrsKd;pkajymufusm;rsm;wGif t"du tiftm;pkjzpfonf? ,dk;',m;EkdifiHe,fpyf oHvGifc±kdif u&ifawmifwef;rsm;ukd toufaoG;a-ume,fajrtjzpf owfrSwfxm;onf? tb,fa-umifhqkdaomf ,if; e,fajrwGif _Adwdo#ukdvkdvm;_yD; trsm;pkrSm c&pf,mefrsm;jzpf-uaom u&ifrsm; aexkdif-uaoma-umifhjzpfonf? Adkvfrª; qD;*&if; taejzifh xkda'oY aemufcsef usef&pfaecJh_yD; vJAD;rsm; pkaqmif;jcif;ESifh avhusihfoifwef;ay;jcif;[lonfh txl;vkyif ef;&yfrsm;ukd pnf;±k;H aqmif&u G &f ef rdrpd w d q f ENt& oabmwlncD o hJ nf? _Adwdo#vlrsKd; (2) OD;/ u&ift&m&SdwOD;ESifh tjcm;opPmapmifhodaom _Adwdo# tpk;d &0efxrf;rsm;ESihf vJA;D rsm; yg0ifonfh tkypf w k pkudk olu OD;aqmifra+ y;_y;D 1943 ckESpf azazmf0g&DvrS 1944 ckESpf azazmf0g&Dvtxd ,if;awmifwef;rsm;wGif aqmif&GufvkyfukdifaecJhonf? *syefuvnf; olwku d‹ kd trdt& &SmazGzsufqD;&rnfh ppfqifa&;ukq d ifE_J$ yD; aemufq;Hk wGif qD;*&if;tkypf u k dk z,f&mS ;Ekid cf o hJ nf? qD;*&if; ESifhtwl&Sdaeaom _Adwdo#t&m&Sdrsm; owfjzwfcHcJh&_yD; vlxktay:ESdyfuGyfr+rsm; &yfwef‹oGm;ap&ef olukd,fwkdif vufeufcscJhonf? qD;*&if;ESifh ol‹vl (8) OD;rSm &efukefwGif aemufykdif;Y uGyfrsufjcif;cH&onf? 'k=Adkvfrª;}uD; a*s/ c±kdrmwD= wl;avmh(cf) (Lt. Col. J. Cromarty-Tulloch) tygt0if trSwf (136) wyfzŒJG0ifrsm; ukd u&ifawmifwef;rsm;ay:ok‹d avxD;jzifch say;cJ_h yD; aemufq;Hk xk;d ppfajymufusm;

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

v+y&f mS ;r+rsm;ukd jyefvnftouf0ifapcJo h nf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. taetxm;ukd qD;*&if;u owif;ay;ykd‹cJh&mwGif taxmuftxm;tcsufwcsufrSm xl;xl;jcm;jcm;ay:xGufvmcJh_yD; bufwmpAD. d mcJo h nf? ,if;tcsufudk arm&pf pm&Gupf mwrf;rsm; (Battersby Papers) wGif yg&Sv aumvpf (Maurice Collis) u ol. “jrefrmjynfY aemufqkH;ESifh yxrqkH; 1941=1948” [laom pmtkypf mrsufEmS (205) wGif uk;d um;azmfjycJo h nf? “1943 ckESpf Ekd0ifbmvwGif Adkvfrª;qD;*&if;ESifh ¯ud;rJha-u;eef;tquf toG,f«yvkyfEkdifcJhonf? ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmfrS atmifqef;u tajctae ay:aygufonfESifh *syefukd olw ‹ yfjzifh jyefvnfwGef;vSef&ef pDpOfaea-umif; azmfjy onfh ol. tapmqk;H owif;ay;ykc‹d sufw&yfrmS rSwo f m;p&maumif;vSonf?” 1945 ckESpfwGif _Adwdo#wkd‹ jrefrmjynfxJ jyefvnf0ifa&muf_yD; *syefukd tEkdifwkduf_yD;rS atmifqef;u xkdokd‹vkyfaqmif&ef qkH;jzwfcJhjcif;jzpfa-umif; t*FvdyfvlrsKd;trsm;tjym;u rSm;,Gif;pGm,kH-unfaecJh-uonf[k bufwmpAD (trSwf 136 wyfzŒJG/ txl;ppfqifa&;tr+aqmif) u jznfph u G x f m;jyefonf? “u|Eyfk f ukd,fwkdif jrifawGŒcJh&aom Adkvfrª;qD;*&if; owif;ay;ykd‹csuf. ckdifrmr+ukd u|Ekfyf tmrcH&Jonf? xkd‹xufrapm&ifawmif tenf;qkH; 1943 ckESpfwGif atmifqef; taejzifh *syefwu ‹dk dk u,fwif&iS rf sm;tjzpf xifrw S cf jhJ cif;ukd aemifw&cJ_h y;D awmfveS f a&;tzGJŒ0ifwOD;jzpfcJh_yD; jzpfonfqkdonfukd ocifEk.pmtkyf “*syefvufatmuf jrefrmjynf” wGif taxmuftxm;trsm;}uD; wifjycJhonf? 1944 ck ESpfukefcgeD;wGif atmifqef;u r[mrdwfwyfzGJŒrsm;ESifh qufoG,fr+ &&S_d yD;jzpfonf? ,cktcg rsKd;cspfArmhwyfrawmf (Patriotic Burmese Forces-PBF) jzpfvmaom ArmhtrsKd;om;wyfrawmfu 1945 ckESpf rwfv (27) &ufae‹wGif *syefwb ‹dk ufo‹dk olw. ‹dk aoewfajymif;ukd jyefvnfvn S chf ahJ wmhonf? “,if;pwif aygufurJG Y+ Adv k cf sKyf}uD; (2) OD;tygt0if *syef (700) cefu ‹ dk olwo ‹dk wfjzwfco hJ nf? aemufykdif; ppfqifa&;rsm;wGif &efukefokd‹ OD;wnfcsDwufvmaom _Adwdo#wyfukd ydwq f w ‹dk m;qD;rnfh wyfzŒJG tawmfrsm;rsm;ukd olwu ‹dk rv+yEf idk af tmif «yvkyEf idk cf -hJ u onf” [laom armifhbufwefrSwfpkrsm;ukd arm&pfaumvpfu “jrefrmjynfY aemufq;Hk ESihf yxrqk;H ” pmtkyf pmrsufEmS (236) wGif xyfru H ;dk um;xm;jyefonf? tdENd,&Sd r[mrdwfwyfzGJŒrsm;u ta&SŒbufokd‹ zdqif;vm_yD; arvtpykdif;wGif *syefwt ‹dk aejzifh &efuek rf S qkwcf mG ay;vku d &f awmhonf? *syefrsm; qkwcf mG oGm;aomtcg _Adwo d #wd‹k jyefa&mufvmavonf? xkt ‹d wl

jrefrmhtrsKd;om;a&;v+yf&Sm;r+rsm;uvnf; (AdkvfcsKyf&mxl;udk &aeygvsuf) wyfrS xGuv f u kd af om OD;atmifqef;acgif;aqmifrj+ zifh jyefvnftpðyvmonf? vH;k 0vGwf vyfa&;udk wESpftwGif;[laom uef‹oef‹csuft& jywfjywfom;om; zdtm;ay; awmif;qdkvmaom vlxkpnf;a0;yGJrsm; &efukefòrd›wGif topfwzefusif;y-ujyef onf? tdENd,EkdifiH/ qif;rvm;òrdw › Gif ppftwGif; ESpfrsm;Y ta0;a&muftpdk;& (0g) jynfajy;tpd;k &tjzpf oGm;a&mufaexkid cf &hJ aom _Adwo d #bk&ifcH qm&,f*sDe,f a': refprpfonf 1945 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (16) &ufae‹wGif &efukefodk‹ jyefvnf a&muf&Sdvmonf? odk‹aomf xdkrwdkifrD -o*kwfv (19) &ufae‹wGif *syefacwfu ajratmuftzGJŒtpnf;b0rS ajray:tzGJŒtpnf;tjzpfodk‹ OD;atmifqef;OD;aqmif_yD; jyefvnfpnf;±H;k v+y&f mS ;cJah om ‘zufqpfqefu ‹ siaf &; jynfoŒlvw G af jrmufa&;’tzGŒJcsKyf (zqyv) . rsKd;cspfacgif;aqmifrsm;u &efukefòrd&› Sd aeol&def±kyf&Sif±Hkcef;r}uD;wGif vlxpk nf;a0;yG}J uD;w&yf usi;f y_yD;v#if "eo[m,jyify&Sd vH;k 0vGwv f yfaom jref rmEdkifiHtjzpfudk awmif;qdkvdkuf-uonf? odk‹&mwGif ppftwGif;umvu awmfvSefa&;qifE$JcJhaom ,cifwyfrsm;rSm xkdtcsdefwGif vufeufrsm;±kyfodrf;jcif;udk cHcJh-u&onf? 1945 ckESpf/ pufwifbm vwGif oD[Vkd (f ,cko&D v d uFm) Edik if /H uef'òD rdY› _Adwo d #tpd;k &ESihf jrefrmhrsKd;cspfacgif; aqmifrsm;t-um; &&Scd ahJ om oabmwlncD sut f & tcsKŒdwyf&if;tenf;i,fom ppf yGt J _y;D jyefvnfzŒJGpnf;cJah om jrefrmhwyfrawmfwiG f jyefvnfyg0ifciG &hf &Scd o hJ nf? vuf eufrsm;jyeftyf&ef jiif;qefcJholrsm;u 'DZifbmv (1) &ufae‹wGif jynfol‹&Jabmf tzGJŒ (People's Volunteer Organisation) udk zGJŒpnf;cJh-uonf? ,if;tzGJŒonf wu,fwrf;tm;jzifh AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;tm; opPmapmihfodaom jynfol‹ppftzGJŒ jzpfonf? xda‹k emufyikd ;f rSpI tjzpftysufrsm;onf vsifjrefpmG jzpfysufco hJ nf? OD;apm onf ‘qm&,f*sDe,f’ u ol‹udk 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf ig;ESpfoufwrf; tydkay;cJhaomf jim;vnf; oufwrf;jynfh rxrf;aqmifcJh&acs? *syefu jrefrmjynfudk pwifxkd; azmuf0ifa&mufvmcsdefwGif olonf t*FvefEdkifiHodk‹ oGm;a&mufvnfywfae_yD; ta0;a&mufeef;&if;0eftjzpf aecJhonf? ta&SŒtm&SwGif *syefw. dk‹ t[kefjyif;pGm a&SŒw;kd csDwufaer+ukd -um;-um;csif; olonf (tvGe^f m%frsm;olyyD )D ay:wl*ED ikd if /H ‘vpPbGef;’ &Sd *syefoHtrwfESihf qufoG,f&ef óud;pm;cJhonf? xkd‹a-umifh _Adwdo# wdk‹u ol‹udk r,Hk-unfawmhbJ zrf;qD;vdkuf_yD; 1942 ckrS ppf_yD;onftxd udkvdkeD tm%mydkifrsm;u csKyfxm;cJhonf? odk‹aomf ppf_yD;acwf oljrefrmjynfjyefa&muf

97

98 98


99

t"duacgi;f aqmifrsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

onfESifh 24 ol‹rsKd;cspfygwDudk jyefvnfzGJŒpnf;cJhonf? ol‹ ‘*VKefwyf’udkvnf; ol. udk,faysmufrdwfaqGrsm; tultnDjzifh aqmvsifpGm jyefvnfwnfaxmifEdkifcJh_yD; ,if;wdk‹onf &efukefwGif tm%m&&Sda&;twGuf taqmwvsif pwifvkyfaqmif &ef tqifoihfjzpfae-uavonf?25 ode;f azjrif/h “olwa‹dk cwf/ olwt ‹dk wdw/f olwt ‹dk &dy”f / wkid ;f vif;pmay/ &efuek f 2000 ckESpf/ pmrsufESm 206=208? (Adkvfwaxmifowif;pm/ Zlvkdifv 19/ 1966? “rsKd;cspfa,mifaqmif *VKeftwk OD;apm” aqmif;yg;wGif azmfjyxm;onfh tcsuf tvufrsm;rSm pdwf0ifpm;zG,f&mjzpfvsuf avsmfuefonf?) “ppf}uD;t_yD; _Adwdo#tusOf;axmifrS jrefrmjynfokd‹ jyefa&mufaomtcg zqyvukdyif axmufcHawmhra,mif/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifhyif yl;aygif;awmh ra,mif avoHypfao;onf? OD;apmu ol‹tdrfokd‹ owif;pmq&mrsm;ukdzdwf-um;_yD; owif;pmuGefz&ifh ay;I ol‹ukd,f&nfaoG; ppftwGif;twˆKy`wWdukd Zmwf[eftjynfhESifh ajymjyykHukd jynfot ‹l m%m*sme,f. t,f'w D mwOD;taejzifh wufa&mufaom ocifoef;-rdiu f atmufygtwkdif; a&;om;azmfjyxm;onf? ocifoef;-rdiu f OD;apmtm; “'krd eD , D u H dk vufco H iho f vm;” [k ar;vku d af om tcg OD;apmu “usKyf0g'[m Armjynf jyef&a&;0g'yJ/ 'krd eD , D u H v dk ufc_H y;D vufeuf tjzpf Armjynfudk jyef&atmifvyk &f r,f? tkid , f mvefvadk ygh” [k ajzvku d af vonf? xkdtcsdefY 1946 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmvwGif _Adwdef/ avbm0ef}uD;csKyftopf ‘uvD;rifhtufwvD’ onf jrefrmEdkifiH. a&SŒa&;udk aqG;aEG;&eftwGuf vef'efodk‹ ºuGa&mufpum;ajymyg&ef OD;atmifqef;ESihf zqyvacgif;aqmifrsm;udk zdwf-um; vdu k o f nf? 1947 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&DvwGif vef'efot ‹kd oGm; e,l;a'vD 26 wGif OD;atmif qef;u “u|efawmfwu dk‹ vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;udkyJ vdkcsifygw,f? jrefrmEdkifiHtwGuf 'dkrDeD,eftqifheJ‹ ywfouf_yD; ajymp&mr&Sdygbl;” [k ajymqdkcJhonf? odk‹&mwGif trsKd;om;pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;udk wnfaqmuf&ef óud;yrf;onfhtaejzifh OD;atmif qef;onf vef'efu, kd pf m;vS,t f zGŒJwiG f olt ‹ m; qefu ‹ siaf om tjcm; jrefrmhEikd if aH &; acgif;aqmifrsm;udkvnf; oabmxm;}uD;pGm xnfhoGif;yg0ifapcJhonf? xkdtcg ppftwGif;umvu jrefrmEdkifiHESihf uif;uGmI OD;atmifqef;udk ±+H;edrfhoGm;cJhonfh oduQmrJhae_yDjzpfaom OD;apmESihf tjcm; OD;atmifqef;. qefu ‹ sifbufwOD;jzpfol ocifApdew f o ‹kd nf ykvif;ESihf bl;qdu ‹k o hJ ‹kd r[mrdwrf sm;jzpfomG ;um twdu k t f cH tif tm;pkjzpfvmonf? Zefe0g&Dv (27) &ufae‹wGif _Adwdo#tpdk;&u jrefrmEdkifiHudk

vkH;0vGwfvyfa&;ay;&ef oabmwlnDr+ &&Sdonfhtcg OD;apmESihf ocifApdefwdk‹ ESpf a,mufv;kH u vufrw S af &;xk;d &ef jiif;qefc-hJ uonf? oda‹k omf oabmwlnrD u + m; 27 H nf "eo[m,jyifywGif vGwv f yfaom orRwEdik if jH zpfvm &cJah v_y?D jrefrmEdik if o ayawmhrnf? ol. vef'efc&D;pOftwGif; OD;atmifqef;. _Adwdo#wdk‹tay: xm; &Sdaom oabmxm;rSm aysmhaysmif;oGm;cJha-umif; ‘uvD;rifhtufwvD’ udk,fwdkif u aemufydkif;wGif xkwfazmfajymqdkcJhonf? 28 “olwdk‹ (jrefrmudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒ ) [m vHk;0vGwfvyfa&;eJ‹ orRwEdkifiHjzpf a&;twGuf olwŒkd &ŒJ pum;vGerf a+ -umihf olwa‹kd emufvu kd af wG&ŒJ oabmxm;tay: uHraumif;vSpGm vdkufemtav;ay;cJh-u&w,f? 'gayr,fh ajymqdkaqG;aEG;r+awG qufvufðyvkyaf ewmeJt ‹ r# u|eaf wmfwt ‹kd ay: olw&‹kd ŒJr,Ho k uFmjzpfra+ wG aysmuf uG,fukefw,f? u|efawmfxifw,favæ wcsKdŒawG txl;ojzihf cdkifrmjywfom; wJh vlwa,mufjzpfwJh olwdk‹&JŒ acgif;aqmif OD;atmifqef;[m "eo[m,xJrSm qufvuf&adS eoihw f ,fqw kd mudk oabmaygufpðyvmygw,f” vef'efo‹kd oGm;a&mufco hJ nfh Eke,fi,f&, G af om jrefrmud, k pf m;vS,t f zGŒJ . tzGJŒ0ifwOD;u aqG;aEG;aepOfwGifyif ododomom Todk‹ xkwfazmfajymqdkcJhonf? “trSeaf jym&&if u|eaf wmfww ‹kd awG[m tawGŒtóuHr&ihu f suaf o;wJh vli,fav; wpkom jzpfygw,f” rSwo f m;p&mtaumif;qH;k onfum; ‘uvD;rift h ufwvD’ (Clement Atlee) . OD;apmtay: oH;k oyfcsufjzpfonf? urBmausmf pma&;q&mESifh jyZmwfq&m}uD; 0DvsH&SdwfpyD;,m; (William Shakespeare) . pum;&yfudk jyefvnftoHk;cs&if; uvD;rifhtufwvDu Todk‹ ed*Hk;ur`wf tqHk;owfcJhonf? “vlenf;pkygwD&ŒJ ud, k pf m;vS,w f OD;jzpfwhJ OD;apmu vGv J ‹kd olwt ‹kd m;vH;k [m ESpfvdkzG,f&m aumif;vSygw,f? ppf}uD;r_yD;cifu u|efawmf OD;apmudk awGŒcJhzl;yg w,f? ol[m’ òyH;òyH;uav;ESihf rdkufwJhol’ qdkwJh vlpm;rsKd;vdk‹ u|efawmfol‹udk tuJcwf_yD; todtrSwðf ycJyh gw,f”

99

100

Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô

100


N

N

AdkvfcsKyfxGef;vSatmif/ &JcsKyfESifh 'k=aoemywdcsKyf/ -o*kwfv=1948

101

101

twGif;0ef±Hk;/ 'kwd,urBmppfrjzpfrD ±kdufxm;aom yHkjzpfonf? pwk&ef;yHkpH taqmufttHk}uD;wGif tpkd;&±Hk;rsm;rSm ta&SŒtaemuf/ awmifydkif;rsm;wGif xm;&Sdonf? tm;vyfaeaom A[dkae&mrStp _cH0if; ywfywfvnfwGif ±kd;pifyHkpHOD;,smOfrsm; vSypGm pdkufxm;onf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; ±Hk;cef;rSm (taemufbuf tay:xyf) rS wnf&Sd_yD; bk&ifcH. 0ef}uD;tzGJŒtpnf;ta0;ae&myg yg0ifygonf? puf0dkif;jzifh jyxm;onf? ykvdyf±Hk;rSm tjcm;wbufjzpfaom ta&SŒwef;rSm&Sd_yD; axmufvSrf;a&;XmerSm ta&SŒawmifaxmifhY &Sdygonf? 1946=ckESpfwGif A[dkae&mvyfwGif ,m,DtaqmufttHkrsm; aqmufvkyfI wkdif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmftwGuf pwiftoHk;ðycJhonf?

w&m;qdik jf cif; Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

102 102


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

TAdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;±Hk;cef;ESihf 0ef}uD;tzGJŒ0ifrsm;. 1947/ Zlvdkif (19) &ufae‹wGif xkdifyHktpDtpOfrSm txl;cHk±Hk;wGif tpdk;& yef;csDq&mwifjyonfhyHkudk xyfrHyHk-urf;qGJxm;jcif;jzpfygonf?

w&m;qdik jf cif;

tif;pdefaxmiftwGif; txl;cHk±Hk;wGif ±Hk;wif ppfaq;&mwGif ‘*VKef’ OD;apm/ 0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif;ESifh aomif;usef;aom tzGJŒ. acgifol}uD;[k pGyfpGJcH&ol/ oufaocHae&mwGif awGŒ&yHk?

vkyf}uHr+wGif vlowform;[k pGyfpGJcH&olrsm;= armifpdk;/ oufESif;/ pdef}uD;ESihf &ef}uD;atmifESihf }uH&myg pGyfpGJcH&ol (txufykH) okc/ cifarmif&if/ armifeDESihf r+ef}uD;wdk‹tm; cHk±Hk;0uf_cHtwGif; awGŒ&yHk?

103 103

104 104


axmifrª; OD;pHwifhxH OD;apmvufa&;jzifh a&;ydk‹vdkufaom pmwdkESpfapmif? (w&m;0ef}uD; OD;aomif;pdefpkaqmif;cJhaom ypPnf;rsm;rS)?

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

tif;pdefaxmif= pDrHa&;qGJxm;onfh yHk-urf; (wdkif;wmtrSwft& r[kwf)? 1947= 48 ckESpf/ Tae&mwGifOD;apmtm; tusOf;csxm;jcif;/ ±Hk;wifppfaq;jcif;ESihf óud;'%fay;jcif; ðyvkyfcJh_yD; ol. cef‹rSef;&aom ocsKõõif;ae&mjzpfonf? (OD;bapmcif/ wlaqmifòrdŒ t&DZkdeme,f/ USA . arwWmvufaqmif) 105 105

106 106


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

vky}f uHowfjzwfrj+ zpfymG ;_yD; vtenf;i,ft-umwGif OD;apmESihf }uH&mygrsm; w&m;rqdkif-u&ao;rD xdkpOfu bk&ifcHjzpfol (vGwfvyfa&;&csdefwGif aemufqHk; bk&ifcHjzpfrnfh) qm[l;bwf&ef‹(pf) (Sir Hubert Rance) taejzifh OD;apmwdk‹tm; w&m;pD&ifrnfh txl;cHk±Hk;zGJŒ&mY rar#mfvifhbJ tcuftcJtcsKdŒ óuHawGŒcJh&onf? w&m;v$waf wmf w&m;ol}uD; OD;ausmjf rift h m; cH±k ;kH obmywdtjzpf a&G;cs,&f mwGif acsmacsmarmarm jzpfcJhonfqdkaomfvnf; orBm&ifhOya'ynm&Sifrsm;xJrS tzGJŒ0if tjzpf oifhawmfrnfhol (2) OD;tm; jznfhpGufceft ‹ yf&mwGifrl ±kwfw&ufqdkovdkyif tcuftcJrsm; jzpfay:vmcJhonf? vsmxm;ol tawmfrsm;rsm;onf ‚if;wm0efudk r,lv-kd uacs? tcsKŒdu olwr‹kd mS ESv;kH a&m*g&So d nf ponfjzifh qifajcay; a&Smifwrd ;f -uonf? tcsKŒdurl cH±k ;kH wGif wm0efr,lEikd af -umif; ajAmifjiif;qd-k uonf? aemufq;kH usrS orBm&ifh puf&Sifw&m;ol}uD;rsm;jzpf-uaom OD;atmifomausmfESifh OD;pDbl; (U Si Bu) wdk‹ ESpfa,mufu vufcHvdkuf-uonf? odk‹ jzifh qm[l;bwf&ef(‹ pf) onf 1947 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (20) &ufae‹wGifrS (3) OD;tzGJŒ txl;cHk±Hk;udk w&m;0if ceft ‹ yf wm0efay;Edik cf ahJ vonf? aemufav;&uft-umwGif yxrqHk; ppfaq;r+udk pwif«yvkyfEdkif_yD; w&m; vdkbufrS pGyfpGJav#mufvJcsufudk a&S;OD;pGm -um;emcJhonf? wzef bk&ifhoufao rsm;udk pwifppfaq;cJhonf? xdak‹ emuf ,cifu &efukefw&m;v$wfawmf. a&SŒae wOD;jzpfcJh_yD; t*FvefwGif aexdkifaom rpPwm bif*srif&maz;&,fAmwefepf (Mr. Benjamin Raphael Vertannes) udk iSm;&rf;Edkifa&;twGuf 1 OD;apmtm; cGifh«y cJh&onfhtwGuf w&m;qdkifjcif;onf atmufwdkbmv (15) &ufae‹txd qdkif;iHh oGm;cJo h nf?

w&m;qdkifjcif;udk tif;pdef&Sd txl;cHk±Hk;awmfwGif aemufqHk; pwif«yvkyfEdkif aomtcg ‚if;w&m;qdkifjcif;onf _Adwdo#bk&ifESifh OD;apm (tzGJŒacgif;aqmiftjzpf pGyfpGJcH&ol)/ armifpdk; (vlowform;tjzpf pGyfpGJcH&ol)/ oufESif; (vlowfform;t jzpf pGyfpGJcH&ol)/ armifpdef (ac: ) pdef}uD; (ac: ) vSatmif (vlowform;tjzpf pGyf pGJcH&ol)/ &ef}uD;atmif (ac: ) vSxGef; (vlowform;tjzpf pGyfpGJcH&ol)/ okc (twGif;0ef±Hk;odk‹ vlowform;rsm;tm; um;jzifh ydk‹aqmifay;cJh&ol um;'±dkifbm tjzpf pGyfpGJcH&ol)/ cifarmif&if (}uH&myg ulnDoltjzpf pGyfpGJcH&ol)/ r+ef}uD; (ac: ) armifre+ f (}uH&myg ulno D t l jzpf pGypf cJG &H ol) wd. ‹k tr+jzpfvmcJo h nf? tmZmenf (9) OD; &SdvmcJh_yD; ‚if;wdkt ‹ m; owfr+jzihf tpGyfpGJcH&ol w&m;cHrSm vnf; (9) OD; xGufay:vmcJhonf? w&m;cGifwGif rawGŒ&bJ ododomom aysmuf uG,af eolrmS wOD;wnf;omjzpf_y;D ‚if;rSm b!Ge‹fjzpfonf? aoewform;rsm; a&muf rvmrD twGif;0ef±Hk;odk‹ zdk‹'fqefum;jzifh uif;axmuftjzpf a&SŒajy;oGm;ESifh_yD; tajctaeavhvmolrsm;xJwGif olvnf;wa,muftygt0ifjzpfonf? odk‹aomf vkyf}uHr+tzGJŒ0iftm;vHk;udk qefu ‹ sif_yD; b!Geu f‹ tpdk;&oufaotjzpf aqmif&Guf &ef oabmwlvkdufaomtcg ol‹vltrsm;tjym;rSm xdwfvef‹tHh-ojzpfoGm;-u_yD; OD;apmrSm olu ‹ dk rsm;pGmem-unf;rkef;wD;oGm;onf? olonf t*Fvdyf=jrefrm ESpfbm omoif txufwef;ausmif;wGif ynmoifvmoljzpfI OD;apm. aoewform; h avsmuf OD;apm. *VKefwyfrS rsm;xJY ynmtwwfq;kH jzpfavonf? 2 od‹k jzpfonft aoewf cvkwEf ydS &f v#if aysmfae-uaom tjcm;vl&rf;um;rsm;xuf T&mZ0wfr+ . trsKd;om;a&;ESifh orkdif;a&;±+yfaxG;r+rsm;udk olu ydkrdkem;vnfoabmayguf onf[k qd&k ayvdrrhf nf? xdt ‹k jyif olt ‹ wGuf qkvmbfuvnf; &Sad o;onf? bk&ifh oufao jzpfoGm;onfhtwGuf olonf tjypfrS vGwf_idrf;csrf;omcGifh&oGm;onf r[kwyf gavm? Ttr+udk w&m;qdkifap&mY jynfolvlxka&SŒarSmufYjzpf_yD; tif;pdeftusOf; axmiftwGif;&Sd tcef;wcef;Y «yvkyfcJhjcif;jzpfonf? owfrSwfxm;aom xdkifcHk ta&twGufrSm tueft ‹ owfESifh 3 jzpfonfhtjyif ESpfbufav#mufvJcsufrsm;udk vnf; udk,fawGŒrsufjrif -unfh±+em;axmifcsifolrsm;uvnf; rsm;jym;vSonfh twGuf w&m;cGiftwGif; 0ifa&muf&ef cGifh«yvufrSwfrsm;jzifh xdef;csKyfcJh&onf? cGifh«yvufrSwf&&ef jynfolvlxkrSm tvkt,uf wef;pD&,l-u&onf? a&S;±dk; pOfvm _Adwdo# w&m;pD&ifa&;xHk;pHESifh jrefrmh±dk;&mjyZmwfwckrS taumif;qHk; o±kyaf qmifuu G rf sm; axG;a&m,Suw f ifjzpfaeonfh jrifuiG ;f udk &ifoyf±a+ rmcHpm;

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tcef; (3) w&m;qkid jf cif;

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109

w&m;qdik jf cif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

-u&rnf r[kwyf gavm? OD;apmonf w&m;cGiu f kd ae‹pOfvm&_yD; at;aq;wnf_idrv f suf ±kyrf ysufbJ ud, k u hf , kd u f kd xde;f odr;f xm;Edik o f nf? olonf ,ciftcgu eef;&if;0efa[mif; jzpf cJhzl;onfESifhtnD vdkufavsmnDaxG tqifajyvSonfh jrefrmh±dk;&m ydk;xnfrsm;udk ‹ m; acsmarmonf[kum; qdkIr&acs? aumif;pGm 0wfpm;qif,ifxm;onf? 4 olt odk‹aomfvnf; txl;ojzifh cef;rtwGif; ae&mawmfawmfrsm;rsm;,lxm;-uaom trsK;d orD;rsm;twGuu f m; rsupf jd zifrh jrifEikd af om olx ‹ rH S qef;-u,fonfh qGaJ qmif r+ taiGŒtoufwpHkw&mum; xGufay:vsuf&Sdonf? xdktcgu ol. 0wfpm;qif ,ifr+rSm vHk;0_yD;jynfhpHkonfum; r[kwfacs? tb,hfa-umifhqdkaomf rif;crf;rif; em;rsm;wGif trsKd;om;rsm; qif,ifavh&Sdaom acgif;aygif;udk 0wfqifxm;jcif;r&Sd I jzpfonf? wu,fwrf;tm;jzifh wdkeH‹eH‹ !Syfxm;aom ol‹qHyifonf ol‹Zmwdjzpf aom atmufjrefrmEdik if H om,m0wDc±dik f aus;vufawm&GmrS v,form;wOD;ESihf om olu ‹ kd wlaeapavonf? OD;apmonf olESifh tvdkwltvdkyg }uHazmf}uHzufrsm;udk zcifwOD;yHkpHjzifh r-umc% vS rf;-unfhwwfonf? olwdk‹onf ol. opPmawmfcH aemufvdkufrsm; ESpaf ygif;rsm;pGm jzpfc-hJ uonf r[kwyf gavm? vky}f uHowfjzwfr}+ uD;udk rusL;vGef &ao;cif olwdk‹onf tcsif;csif; opPmrazmufyg[k opPmqdk-u&onf? xdk‹aemuf wdik ;f jynftay: opPmazmufzsufrcd o hJ nft h wGuf rdrw d x ‹kd u kd f rdrw d u ‹kd jH zifh ao-u& jcif;jzpfonf[k aowrf;pma&;_y;D vufrw S af &;xd;k -u&onf? b!Geo ‹f nf tpk;d &. zdtm;ay;r+a-umifh yxrqH;k tav#mhay;cJo h jl zpfonf? xdk‹a-umifh olonf tvGef&ufa&maom qk}uD;udk &cJhayonf? olodor# cH±k ;kH awmftm; ajymjy&ef oabmwlncD v hJ #if olt ‹ ouftm; csr;f omcGiahf y;rnfjzpfI oluvnf; oabmwlncD ahJ yonf? vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+}uD; r«yvkyfrD Zlvdkifv (18) &ufnwGif OD;apm. at'D ‹f yxrqH;k xkwaf zmfajym vrf;tdrw f iG f tpnf;ta0;wck «yvkycf ahJ -umif; 5 b!Geu qdck o hJ nf? twdck sKyf&iS ;f jyonfh xdt k csdet f xd vky}f uHowfjzwfr+ tpDtpOfEiS hf ywf oufI olbmrS roda-umif; ajymqdo k mG ;onf? olc&D;&Snw f cku jyefvm_y;D tdyaf rm usaecsdef ±kwfw&uf tEd+;cH&_yD; ol‹q&m OD;apmu csufcsif;awGŒvdka-umif; qifh ac:cH&jcif;jzpfonf? xdka‹ -umifh n (9) em&DavmufwGif ola&mufoGm;onfhtcgY um; *VKefwyf. aoemywdt}uD;tuJa&SŒ Y armifp;kd / oufEiS ;f / armifped Ef iS hf okcwd‹k xdik Ef iS ahf e-u_yD;jzpfonf?

olxdkif_yD;r-umrD OD;apmu xkdav;a,mufvHk;udk txl;ojzifh OD;atmifqef; tm; t"duypfrw S x f m;I bk&ifc. H tr+aqmifwzGŒJ v;kH udk okwo f if&iS ;f vif;ypf&ef wm0efay;xm;a-umif; at;aq;pGmjzifh olu ‹ kd ajymjyonf? xdt k cg b!Geo ‹f nf r,Hk -unfEdkifavmufatmif -uufaoaooGm;onf? xdk‹ jyif v$wfawmfOuU@jzpfol OD;Ekukd olu, kd w f ikd o f wf&ef wm0eftay;cH&onft h cgYum; olonf ydrk t kd t hH m;oifh oGm;cJo h nf? yufpufvaS om TpDrcH sufukd oabmwlvu kd &f onfxuf olq ‹ &mudk ykdrdkav;pm;onfh taejzifhom olonf acgif;ndwfcJh&avonf? wu,fwrf;wGif vnf; ol‹q&m.trdef‹udk jyeffvnftwGef‹wuf&efaomfvnf;aumif;/ ol‹udk ay; tyfonfw h m0efukd jiif;qef&efaomfvnf;aumif; olw ‹ iG f enf;vrf;r&Sad cs? OD;apm.tdrfwGif «yvkyfcJhaom TtHh-op&maumif;vSonfh awGŒqHkyGJrwdkif rDuyif b!Gef‹ESifh ol‹tzGJŒonf ae&mtESH‹tjym;rS vufeufESifh usnfqefrsm;udk pkaqmif;vmcJh-uonf? olwdko ‹ nf xdkvufeufrsm;ESifh usnfqefrsm;udk tvHkydwf aowWm}uD;rsm;xJwGif xnfhodk_yD; OD;apmtdrfaemufbuf tif;vsm;uefxJwGif wcsKdŒukd od0k u S _f yD; wcsKdu ‹ kd OD;apm. Zmwdòrd› om,m0wDo‹kd o,fyx ‹kd m;cJ-h uonf? tif;vsm;uef. ‘uAif’u|e;f ay:wGiv f nf; q&mrsm;u aoewfypf oifcef;pmrsm; ydkc‹ say;cJhonf[k b!Gefu ‹ xkwfazmfoGm;onf? OD;apm. at'Dvrf;aetdrf _cH0if; twGi;f wGiv f nf; opfyifrsm;wGif ypfrw S rf sm;«yvkyI f aoewfypfavhusichf -hJ uonf? “'g[m b%fudk tEk-urf;pD;zdk‹yJvdk‹ usaemfwdk‹xifcJh-uw,f? vkyf}uHr+}uD;rwdkifrD ntxd tpdk;&wzGJŒvHk;udk okwfoif&Sif;vif;r,fh tpDtpOfudk usaemfwdk‹ vHk;0rodcJh &ygbl;”[k b!Geu ‹f ajymqdck ahJ vonf? TuJo h ‹dk b!Geu ‹f olwt ‹dk aejzifh 0ef}uD;tzGŒJ 0iftm;vk;H ukd owfjzwf&ef qk;d ,kwfaomtpDtrHukd bmr#rodem;rvnfcJh-ua-umif; ajymqkdjcif;onf vSnfhjzm; a,mifaqmifaompum;jzpfonf? olwkd‹vlwpkonf ysm,mcwfpGm v+yf&Sm;wuf ºuGvyk u f idk af e-ujcif;ukyd if tenf;qk;H t&dyt f ¹rGuo f o H ,&Sv d m-u_yD; b%fwu dk f ukd0ifpD;rnfhudpPxuf ykdrdk&efvkdaomta-umif;a-umifh jzpf&rnf[k xifvm-u& vdrfhrnf? azmfaumifb!Gefu ‹ ol. oufaocHxGufcsufwGif trSefpifppf jzpfay: cJo h nfqo dk nfh tawGŒt¯uHrsm; wifjy&mwGif ta-umif;wckrmS olEiS hf armifp;dk wko ‹d nf OD;apm. t}uHtpnfxifjrifcsurf sm; twGi;f usus odc&hJ onf? Zlvidk v f (15) &uf ae‹wGif acgif;aqmifu xkwfazmfajymjyonfrSm “jrefrmjynfwGif EkdifiHa&; quf vufaqmif&GufEkdif&ef twkduftcHEkdifiHa&;tzGJŒrsm;. acgif;aqmifrsm;ukd owf jzwfypf&rnfjzpf.”? xkd‹ jyif “trsm;qkH; vufeufukdif aemufvkdufrsm;&Sdaom

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w&m;qdik jf cif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

Ekid if aH &;tzGŒJ onf Ekid if u H dk tkypf ;dk rnfjzpfonf?” olwkd‹. vltkyftxJwGif 0g}uD;olwa,mufjzpfonfh cifarmif&ifuvnf; a&SŒaqmifv}l uD;. t}uHtpnfrsm;udk em;vnfr&+ o dS w l OD;jzpfvrd rhf nf? ol. ajzmifh csuw f iG f twdwu f mvujzpf&yfrsm;ukd wifjy&mwGif OD;apm.toufudk 1946 ckEpS f pufwifbmvwGif &ef&SmcJhonfhta-umif;rS qufI tHh-ozG,faumif;aom jzpfykH wpkH xkwfazmfajymjycJhonfrSm OD;apmu trdef‹ay;_yD; vkyfckdif;onfh wm0eft& “ppfO;D pD;Adv k cf sKyf. jynfvrf;aetdrf nykid ;f {nfch yH w JG iG f OD;atmifqef;tm; ypfcwf&ef apv$wcf &hJ m OD;atmifqef; um;jzifah &mufvmonfudk jrifaomfvnf; oljyefvmum OD;apmtm; OD;atmifqef; xkyd o JG ‹dk wufa&mufjcif;r&S[ d I l vdraf jymvku d af -umif;?” olajymwm rSew f ,fv‹dk ,k-H unf&v#if OD;apm vef'ef-rdr› S 1946 ck/ azazmf0g&DvwGif jyefa&mufvm_yD; r-umrDavmufujzpfvdrhfrnf? OD;apmonf ocifApdefESifhtwl atmifqef;=tufwvDpmcsKyfukd jiif;y,fcJh-u_yD; olwkd‹ESpfOD;u a'gufwmbarmf tygt0if wjcm;acgif;aqmifrsm;ygpkaygif;I zqyvtm; twkduftcHr[mrdwf wyfOD;jzpfrnfh ‘vGwfvyfa&; yxr r[mtzGJŒ’ ac: toif;zGJŒ&ef &nf&G,f¯ud;pm;cJh -uaomfvnf; atmifjrifjcif;r&Sdonfhtcsdefvnf; jzpfcJhonf? xkdumv0,f *VKef ppfo}l uD;.pdwaf e b,fv&dk o dS vJqw dk m pOf;pm;om-unf-h uygpk?‹d b!Geo ‹f nf cH±k ;kH awmfa&SŒ Y xGuaf y:vmcJah om ta&;}uD;qH;k oufaojzpfchJ ±Hkr#ru olonf OD;apmudk qef‹usifI oufaocHcJhonfh wOD;wnf;aom yk*~dKvf vnf; jzpfcJhavonf? (19) &ufae‹wGif twGif;0ef±Hk;Y &ufpuf,kwfrmaom vl owfr}+ uD;jzpfymG ;_yD;aemuf &efuek òf rdw › iG f vl (800) ausmfukd zrf;qD;cJo h nf? pDtikd f 'D (r+cif;pHkprf;axmufvS rf;a&;Xme)/ tif;pdefykvdyfwyfzGJŒESifh &efukefòrda› wmf ykvdyf $ af y;cJo h nf? aemufq;kH wyfzŒJG wu ‹kd 6 ppfaq;ar;jref;_yD; vltrsm;pkukd jyefvnfvw wGifum; w&m;vdkjy oufao (131) a,mufteuf (87) a,mufonf _Adwdo# bk&ifbufrS xGufqdkay;cJhonf? olwdk‹xJrS trsm;tjym;rSm twGif;0ef±Hk;twGif; wu,f 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufr+udk oufaoxGufqdkcJh-uonf? ,if;wdk‹rSm pma&; xifay:/ wHcg;udk apmifh-uyfay;cJh&aom rif;apvkvif aomif;pdef ponfwdk‹ jzpf onf? ‚if;tjyif owif;pmq&marmifoef;onfvnf; udak xG;owfrt + wGuf ouf aojzpfc_hJ y;D owd0&D , d &Sad om owif;axmuf udpk ed af rmifuvnf; vlowform;rsm; xGufajy;vGwfajrmuf&mwGif pD;eif;oGm;onfh *spfum;.eHygwfudk a&;rSwfxm;Edkif cJhonf? ‚if;wdkt ‹ m;vHk;u cHk±Hk;awmfa&SŒwGif oufaoxGufqdkcJh-uonf? 7 OD;xGe;f vSatmifuvnf; OD;apm. at'Dvrf;aetdru f kd tao;pdw&f mS azG&ef

trdeaf‹ y;cJhonf? tdrfaemufaz;wGif OD;apmu olwrdk‹ dom;pkudk;uG,f&ef wnfxm; aom apwDawmf&Sdonfh a&uefxJrS '\r (303) usnfqefrsm; xnfhxm;aom aowWm&Spv f ;kH / awmfr*D ef; (4) vuf/ pwif;*ef; (1) vufwu ‹kd kd &SmazGawGŒ&cdS o hJ nf? vufeufu|r;f usio f l ynm&Siw f OD;u xdo k o ‹kd rd ;f qnf;&rdaom vufeufusnq f ef rsm;ESihf vky}f uHowfjzwfc&H olrsm;. ud, k cf E<mxJrS &&Sad om usnq f efrsm;udk ppfaq; -unf±h c+ &hJ m a&uefxrJ S &&Sad om aoewf (50) vuf teuf (4) vufrmS Zlvikd v f (19) &ufae‹u twGif;0ef±Hk;Y vlowform;rsm; vkyf}uHowfjzwf&mwGif toHk; «ycJah om aoewfrsm;jzpfonf[k aumufcsucf sco hJ nf? xdkae‹u owWKjzifh «yvkyfxm;aom armfawmfum;eHygwfjym;twk (2) ckudk vnf; awGŒ&cdS o hJ nf? wckay:wGif (RC 1814) [k a&;om;xm;_yD; vlowform;rsm; pD;eif;aom *spu f m;aemufrS rSwo f m;rdvu kd o f nfh eHygwfjzpfaeonf? tjcm;wckrmS (RA 3123) jzpf_yD; ,if;udk zd' ‹k q f efx&yfum;wGif toH;k «ycJo h nf[k ,lq&ayonf? yxrqHk;eHygwfjym;. aemufausmbufwGif t0ga&mifaq;okwfxm;_yD; eHygwf (RB 4140) udk a&;om;xm;onf? u|Efy k . f zcifonf Zlvikd v f (19) &uf/ ae‹v,f wGifyif OD;apmaetdrfodk‹ a&muf&SdoGm;_yD; zdk‹'fqefum;ESifh tjcm;*spfum;ESpfpD;udk awGŒ&SdcJhonf? zdk‹'fqefum;wGif (MTLA 183) eHygwfjym;udk wyfqifxm;_yD; aq; yif rajcmufao;aom trdk;ESifh *spfum;wpD;rSmrl (GEN 167) eHygwfjym; &Sdaeay f u,ftm;jzifh prf;acsmif;ZvGev f rf;rS OD;bat; onf? (RB 9831) eHygwfrmS trSew qdo k . l *spfum;eHygwfjzpfa-umif; ykvyd rf sm;u ajc&mcHazmfxw k Ef ikd cf o hJ nf? OD;apm .ZeD;jzpfol a':oef;cif. wlawmfoljzpf_yD; olESifhtwl zdk‹'fqefum;wGif twl vdkufygcJhol cifarmif&iftm; ,if;eHygwfjym;rsm;udk aq;okwf&ef wm0efay;cJh a-umif; b!Geu ‹f xkwaf zmfajymqdck o hJ nf? OD;apm. tdrfaemufbuf a&uefxJwGif xyfrH&SmazG-u&mrS ydkrdkpdwf0ifpm; zG,faumif;aom &SmazGawGŒ&Sdr+}uD;w&yfudk xyfrHazmfxkwfEdkifcJhjyefonf? a&uef tpyfrS q,frDwmcef‹tuGmY avtvHkydwf oHjzLyHk;rsm;xJwGif xnfhoGif;xm;_yD; ajcmufaoGŒaeaom vufeufrsm;udk awGŒ&jyefonf? ,if;vufeufrsm;rSm b&if; *ef; (37) vuf/ aoewfajymif;tydk (59) ck/ usnfqeftjynfhjznfh '\r (38) ajcmufv;kH jyL; (8) vuf/ udv ‹k w f f ypPww kd vuf/ tar&duefvyk f umbdik þf (3)þvuf/ awmfrD*ef; (5) vufESifh r*~Zif;awmifh (6) ck/ pwif;*ef; (3) vuf/ pwif;*ef; usnfqeftawmifh (7˜000) cef‹ xnfx h m;aom *s,f&u D ef "mwfqyD ;kH (2) yH;k / '\ r (303) ±dkifz,f (3) vufESifh usnfqeftwGJtvdkuf tawmifh (7˜000)/ '\r

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w&m;qdik jf cif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

(303) usnq f efrsm;xnfx h m;aom usnq f efb;l (15) bl;/ '\r (303) usnq f ef (500) awmifhpDyg&Sdaom ycHk;odkif;usnfqefpvG,f (30) ckESifh rwfcf (36) _Adwdo# rD;vfvufypfA;kH (75) ckw‹kd jzpfonf? OD;apm. *VKefwyfESifh qufEG,fr+&SdolwOD;ydkif &efukef&Sd tjcm;tdrfwtdrf wGifvnf; vufypfAHk; (44) vHk;/ azmufcGJrdkif; (49) ck/ '\r (303) usnfqef tawmifh (730)/ pwif;*ef;usnfqeftawmifh (3˜000)/ usnfumtusôudk azmufEdkifaom usnfqefawmifhrsm;ESifh tcsdefxdef;cvkyfrsm;yg&Sdaom aowWm (7) aowWm/ vufypfAHk;rsm;tjyif b&if;*ef;/ awmfrD*ef;ESifh umbkdifaoewfusnfqef r*~Zif;awmifrh sm; yg&Sad om aowWm (7) aowWmwdu ‹k kd ykvyd rf sm;u &SmazGawGŒcjhJ yef onf? OD;apmESifh ola‹ emufvdkufrsm;wGif &efukefòrdw › Gif;Y awmfvSefa&;w&yf qifE$J &ef ppfvufeufypPn;f tvHt k avmuf&adS ecJah vonf? ,if;awmfveS af &;rSmvnf; OD;apm. pDrHcsufw&yf jzpfaumif;jzpfayvdrfhrnf? OD;apmESifh ol‹vlrsm;onf rnf onfudk OD;wnf&nf&G,fcJhygoenf;? TtcsufESifhywfoufI rnfolr# rodEdkifcJh ay? b!Geo ‹f nfyifv#if xdt k wGuf oJveG pf rsm; xyfraH y;Edik cf jhJ cif; r&Sad cs? w&m;±Hk;awmf. -um;emr+rsm;udk &ufowWywfaygif;rsm;pGm qufvuf«y vkyfaecJhaomfvnf; wae‹wm w&m;pD&ifr+udk -unfh±+avhvmEdkifa&;twGuf cGi«hf yvufrw S &f &S&d ef jynfov l x l rk mS eHeufwikd ;f wef;pDae-uqJjzpfonf? OD;apmudk qefu ‹ siaf om oufaorsm;rSm ydrk rkd sm;onfxuf rsm;vmaecJo h nf? ta&;}uD;aom oufaotrsm;tjym;udk ppfaq;_yD;onfhtcgYum; vlowf&ef yl;aygif;}uHpnfr+/ vlowf&ef tm;ay;ulnDr+ESifh OD;apmudk,fwdkif yg0ifywfoufr+rsm;udk qufpyf azmfjyaom Oya'pum;&yf tjynft h pHt k &qdv k #if “wlnaD om&nf&, G cf suf tusK;d pD;yGm;tvdk‹iSm vlowf&ef wm0efay;apcdkif;r+” ponfh pGJcsufrsm;jzifh olwdk‹ (9) a,mufvHk;udk w&m;pGJqdkEdkifcJhavonf? rnfoq ‹kd akd p wcsdeu f ola‹ emufvu kd jf zpfcahJ om b!Ge. ‹f oufaocHcsufEiS hf ajymif;vJomG ;aom oabmxm;rsm;onf xl;qef;vSpmG yif OD;apmtm; [efw ‹ m;&ef pGrf;EdkifcJhyHkr&acs? tjcm;aom ol‹vlrsm;. ajzmifhcsufrsm;a-umifhvnf; OD;apmt aejzifh pdwEf v S ;kH wkev f y+ cf yhJ rkH &acs? xdt k pm; olonf Oya'tultnDukd xyfr&H ,l &ef Edk0ifbmvv,fwGif qHk;jzwfcJhavonf? xdka-umifh t*FvefwGifaeaom olt ‹ udkjzpfol OD;armifarmif}uD;. tultnDjzifh emrnfausmf-um;aom bk&ifhtwdkif tyifcHwOD;jzpfol z&uf'&pf [ife&Dum;wpfbif;epf (Frederick Henry Curtisk o f nf? OD;apmonf csr;f omºuG,0f olwOD;tjzpf vlord sm; Bennett) udk iSm;&rf;vdu

cJah omfvnf; ,ck Ttr+EiS yhf wfoufI tydu k ek u f sp&dwrf sm; umrdomG ;ap&ef b%f rS acs;aiGtjref&&Sda&;twGuf ol‹rdom;pkydkif a&$aiG&wemrsm;udk taygifypPnf; tjzpf tyfEcHS &hJ avonf? 'DZifbmv (8) &ufae‹wiG f um;wpfbifepfonf OD;apmESihf yxrqH;k t}udrf awGŒqHk&ef tif;pdefaxmif*dwf0 usm;yg;pyfa&SŒodk‹ a&muf&Sdvmaomtcg u|efawmfh a,muQrjzpfol w&m;ol}uD;rif; OD;aomif;pdefu xkdae&mY ol‹tm; qD;óudE+wf qufcJhonf? _Adwdo# 0wfvHkawmf&rif;tm; vkyf±dk;vkyfpOft& olu ‹ dk&SmazG&ygrnf [k today;ajymqdkcJhonf? um;wpfbifepfuvnf; oabmwlnDcJhonf? odk‹ jzifh tjyeftvSeftjzpf olt ‹ r+onf OD;apmESifh vGwfvGwfvyfvyfawGŒqHkcGifhay;cJhonf? odk‹aomfvnf; ol‹ydkufqHtdwfudkrl axmif0efxrf;tm; ay;tyfxm;cJh&onf? ‚if; ydkufqHtdwftm; taotcsmcsdyfydwfI axmif. rD;cHaowWmxJY odrf;qnf;xm; vdu k &f onf? Tod‹k jzpfysuaf epOf ol‹ _Adwo d # 0wfvakH wmf&rif;tm; rzG,rf &mquf qHonf[k OD;apmu -um;od_yD;v#if jyif;jyif;xefxef uef‹uGufcJhonf? um;wpf bifepfu w&m;cGifodk0‹ ifa&mufvm_yD; jzpfysufcJhonfrsm;udk &Sif;vif;jyonfhtcg usrSomv#if olpw d af useyfomG ;avawmhonf? _Adwdo#twdkifyifcH. Oya'a-umif;t& r[mAsL[mrSm r-umrDyif xif&Sm; vmonf? ol‹tr+onfwGif tjypfr&Sda-umif; oufaojy&ef olonf vlowfr+t wGuf yl;aygif;}uHpnfr+/ tm;ay;ulnDr+ ponfhtjypfqdk&ef pGJcsufrSefor#udk azmf aumifb!Geft ‹ ay:odk‹ ajymif;vGJyHkcsvdkufavonf? b!Gefo ‹ nfomv#if OD;atmif qef;tm; vky}f uHonfh tpDtpOfwckv;kH . t"dupnf;±H;k vkyaf qmifol jzpfonf[k olu pGyfpGJvdkufonf? OD;apmonf b!Geft ‹ pDtpOfrsm;udk vHk;0rod&SdbJ vkyf}uHr+ }uD; jzpfyGm;onfhwdkifatmif ,if;udpPESifh ywfoufI wvHk;wyg'r# rodyg[k um; wpfbif;epfu qufvufav#mufvJonf? _Adwdo# 0wfvHkawmf&rif;u 1170 ck ESpw f iG f uifwmbm&D*% kd ;f csKyf bke;f awmf}uD; aomrufpf bufuuf (Archbishop Thomas Becket) tay: Y usa&mufcJhaom uH-urRmESifh Ed+if;,SOfcdkif;Ed+if;jyonf? xdkpOfu [ife&Dbk&if. aemufvdkufrsm;u uHqdk;vSaom bkef;awmf}uD;tm; olb ‹ k&m; ausmif;awmf}uD;xJwGifyif olw ‹ b dk‹ mom owfjzwfcJh-uonf? bkef;awmf }uD; bufuuftay:Y bk&ifu a'gotrsuaf jcmif;ajcmif;xGujf yvdu k o f nft h wGuf rif;vdv k u kd f rif;óuduaf qmifonft h aejzifh rif;ajrm‡ ifrsm;u bke;f awmf}uD;udk owfypf vdu k -f ujcif;jzpfonf? 0wfvHkawmf&rif;u ‘vlwdkif;tm; arwWm&yfcHr+’ wcktm; xyfrH wifjyaqG;

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w&m;qdik jf cif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

aEG;jyefonf? EdkifiHa&;orm;wa,muftaejzifh rdrdtm; axmufcHolwdkif;udk vGwf vGwv f yfvyf/ vG,v f , G u f u l l rdrEd iS ahf wGŒqckH iG hf ay;xm;&onft h wGuf ,if;odv ‹k m a&mufawGŒqo kH l vltyk }f uD;xJrS wOD;wa,mufu usL;vGev f u kd o f nfh vkyaf qmif r+rsm;ESihf ywfoufIrl olt ‹ aejzifh wm0ef,El ikd rf r+ &Sad cs? oda‹k omf ol. jiif;qdck suf rsm;udk taxmuftyHhjzpfap&eftwGuf 0g&ifhEdkifiHa&;orm;jzpf-uaom a'gufwm barmfESifh ocifApdef ponfwu dk‹ dk w&m;cHjy oufaorsm;tjzpf ac:,lvdkuf_yD; jyef vSefar;cGef;rsm; ar;cJhonf? vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+}uD; jzpfyGm;_yD; (2) &uft-umwGif ocifApdefudk umuG,fxdef;odrf;r+ «yvkyfonf? tb,fa-umifhqdkaomf xdktcgu olESifh a'gufwmbarmfwdk‹ ESpfa,mufvHk;onf zqyvtzGJŒcsKyfudk qef‹usif&ef twGuf r[mrdwfzGJŒ&ef pnf;±Hk;v+H‹aqmfae-uonfhtavsmuf Tvkyf}uHr+}uD;Y olwdk‹ yg0ifywfoufEdkifjcif;a-umifhjzpfonf? OD;apmESifh olwdk‹. cifrif&if;ESD;r+rSm vlwikd ;f todjzpfonf? olwq ‹kd ufqaH &;ar;cGe;f rsm;ESihf ywfoufI ajz-um;&mwGif OD;apmajzouJo h y‹kd if Edik if aH &;orm;rsm;taejzifh olwo ‹kd nf olwu ‹kd kd axmufct H m; ay;olrsm;/ olwdk‹aemufvdkufrsm;ESifh vkyfazmfudkifbufEdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;udk yHkrSef tm;jzifh awGŒqHkae-u&onf[k wHk‹ jyefajz-um;cJh-uonf? 8 odk‹&mwGif OD;apmESifh tjcm; acgif;aqmifEdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;t-um; cdkifrmaom tquftpyf&Sd-uonfh vuQ%mudrk l rawGŒ jrif&ygacs? w&m;vdb k ufrS uifwmbm&D*% kd ;f csKyf bke;f awmf}uD; towfc&H r+EiS hf jrefrm tpd;k &wzGŒJ v;kH udk tpkvu kd t f òyHvu kd f owfjzwfrw + t ‹kd m; um;wpfbif;epfu xl;xl; qef;qef; Ed+if;,SOfjyr+udk ±dk;±dk;av;ESifh jiif;csufxkwfEdkifcJhygonf? OD;apmonf bk&ifwyg;r[kwfonfhtjyif oltpGyfpGJcHae&onfh &mZ0wfr+udk olonf aemuf uG,frS }uHpnfóud;udkifaeonfh t&nftcsif;ESifh tjynhfpHkqHk; yk*~dKvfvnf; jzpfae onf[k w&m;vkb d ufu wifjyEdik cf ahJ vonf? bke;f awmf}uD; aomrufpb f ufuuf udk owfjzwfr+ESifh Ed+if;,SOf&mY oa&mfuGufjzpfoGm;jcif;rSm xdktr+a-umifh bk&if [ife&Dtaejzifh t&SufwuGJtusKd;enf;jzpf&_yD; towfcH&ol bkef;awmf}uD;rSm olawmfpif pm&if;0ifoGm;jcif;yifjzpfonf? um;wpfbifepftaejzifh Ttcsufudk *±krrl cd yhJ rkH &acs? ‚if;tjyif um;wpfbifepftaejzifh b!Gef‹. ta&;ygvSaom oufaocH csuu f dk wu,fwrf;acszsu&f mwGif rwwfEikd o f avmufjzpfc&hJ onf? w&m;vdb k uf u OD;apm.tdrfeD;csif; (39) a,mufajrmuf oufao uy`wdefcef;udk wifjyonfh tcgwGifum; OD;apmtm; pGyfpGJxm;aom tr+onf ydkrdkuspfvpfcdkifrmoGm;cJhonf?

uy`wdefcef;onf Zlvdkif (19) &ufae‹u vlowform;rsm;pD;vmaom *spfum;ESifh wdkufrdvkeD;yg; jzpfcJhonfjzpfonf? (17) &ufae‹wGif OD;xGef;vSatmifu OD;apm tdru f kd t_rJrjywf apmif-h unfah e&ef trdea‹f y;cJ_h yD;jzpfa-umif; xGuaf y:vmcJo h nf? OD;apm. b0ifyrkd jkd rifw h ufvmr+EiS hf ol. _cH0if;xJY vufeufyek ;f rsm; v#Kd0‹ u S o f rd ;f qnf;xm;onf[laom oHo,jzpfr+rsm;u pDtkdif'D. tm±Hkudk qGJaqmifcJhonf? OD;apm. aetdru f kd apmif-h unh&f ef yxrqH;k wm0efay;cH&olrmS &Jwyf-uyf atmif ausmfped jf zpf_yD; (18) &ufae‹wiG f uy`wed cf ef;u qufvufwm0ef,cl o hJ nf? od‹k jzifh uy`wed cf ef;u ol. pdwcf st,H-k unf&qH;k ol ESpOf ;D jzpfonfh olp‹ ma&;jzpfol vSwif ESifh aemufwa,mufjzpfaom pdk;jrifhwdk‹udk tif;vsm;uef u|ef;qG,fay:&Sd oHo, &Sdp&maumif;vSonfh &JwdkufESifhwlaom at'Dvrf;_cH0if;}uD;udk (24) em&D tcsdef jynfhapmifh-uyf-unfh±+&ef trdef‹ay;cJhonf? uy`wdefcef;. vlwa,mufonf ig;r#m;orm; a,mifaqmifaeonfhtwGuf uefpyfwGif em&Daygif;pGm xdkifaeEdkif onfh taumif;qHk;tcGifhta&;udk &&SdcJhonf? (19) &ufae‹ eHeufwiG rf l uy`wed cf ef;ESihf olv ‹ El pS af ,mufonf xd_k cH0if;tm; taumif;qH;k taetxm;rsKd;pHrk S apmif-h uyf-unf±h v + suf&-dS uonf? eHeuf (10) em &DwGif vSwifu «yvkyfaeus 0wW&m;twdkif; OD;apmtdrf0if;twGif;rS *spfum;wpD; xGuo f mG ;a-umif; uy`wed cf ef;xH owif;ydv ‹k u kd o f nf? vSwifonf ol. rSeaf jymif; xJrS rdk;umtusôuJhodk‹aom tay:±Hk0wfqifxm;onfh vl (4) a,muf odk‹r[kwf (5) a,mufudk um;xJwGif jrifvdkuf&onf? *spfum;. eHygwfudk (RC 1814) [k rSwo f m;rdvu kd &f onf? vSwifonf OD;apmud, k w f ikd f *dwaf ygufox ‹kd u G v f m_yD; um; xGuo f mG ;onfukd -unf±h v + su&f o dS nfuv kd nf; jrifvu kd &f onf? xda‹k emuf tdrb f uf jyefroGm;rD t0ifaygufudk apmifhaeoltm; wpHkw&m wD;wdk;uyfajymoGm;onfudk vnf; awGŒvu kd &f onf? wem&D-um_yD;aemuf uy`wed cf ef;onf olwv ‹kd yk if ef;_yD;pD; I jyefvmaom *spfum;ESiyhf if wdu k rf rd vdjk zpfcjhJ cif;jzpfonf? w&m;qdik af eonfh tcsed u f mvtwGi;f wGif ydrk ykd a[Vdqefaom tjcm;tao; pdwt f csuftvufrsm; xGuaf y:vmcho J nf? vlowform;wd. ‹k *spfum;a&SŒreS w f iG f wyfqifxm;aom tjzLESifh teDa&mif ‘v#yfyef;xnf’ ydwfpwdk‹. xl;jcm;r+ESifh ywfoufI (pDtdkif'D) t}uD;tuJ OD;xGef;vSatmifrSm tar;cH&onf? xdktcg u|ef awmf. zcifu “tEœ&m,f&SdwJh vkyfief;wck vkyfcgeD;/ 'grS r[kwf c&D;oGm;cgeD;qdk &if vlawG[m olwdek‹ J‹ olwd&k‹ JŒ rdom;pkawGtay: txdtcdkufysuftpD; rusa&muf apzd‹k ewfawGukd auseyfatmif ylaZmfyo&ygw,f” [k jyefajzcJo h nf? od‹k jzpfonfh

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117

w&m;qdik jf cif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

twdkif; vrf;ab;Y &Sdaeolrsm;taejzifh ZlvdkifvtwGif; xdkae‹u &efukefòrd›xJ wGif t&Sdefjyif;pGmjzifh armif;ESifoGm;vmaeaom ‚if;*spfum;onf tvGef‹tvGef ta&;}uD;aom vkyfief;wm0efwckjzifh oGm;aerSef; owdxm; oabmaygufrd -uayvdrrhf nf? ol‹0wfvHkawmf&rif; aemufem;rS uyfvsufvdkufygvm_yD; 'DZifbmv (11) &ufae‹wGif OD;apmu a&SŒodk‹xGufI usrf;opPmqdkum oufaoxGufqdk&mwGifrl oem;!Smwmr+&Sdaom ewfrsm;taejzifh ol‹bufY &SdaeyHkr&acs? ‘ol. EdkifiH a&;oufwrf; tESpf (30) twGif; olonf t-urf;rzufr+udk tpOfojzifh tcdkift rm ,Hk-unfoljzpfcJhonfhtwGuf b!Gef‹ESifh ol‹taygif;toif;rsm; TuJhodk‹ rdkuf rdkufuef;uef; qifuef;awmwdk;ouJhodk‹ aumufuspf,kwfrmvGef;pGm yl;aygif;}uH pnf usL;vGefcJhonfh jypfr+rsKd;udk olt ‹ aejzifh axmufcHcGifh«yay;p&mta-umif;r&Sd’ [k olu xGuq f o kd mG ;ojzifh em;axmifaeol y&dowf}uD; r,Ho k uFm tht H m;woifh jzpfoGm;cJhonf? ta-umif;aomfum; OD;apmwGif *VKefwyfac: ol‹udk,fydkif ‘jynf ol‹ppf’tzGJŒ }uD; &SdaecJhonfr[kwfygavm? odk‹ jzpfI rnfolr# ol‹tay: jrefrmEdkifiH . r[wWr*E<DuJhodk‹ ,Hk-unfav;pm;xifrSwfroGm;rnfrSmvnf; tvGefusdef;ao ygonf? odka‹ omf olu ‘Zlvdkifv (18) &uf ae‹cif;ydkif;wGif olonf AdkufemI aer aumif;jzpfaecJhum aemufwae‹vHk;vdkvdk tdyf&mxJ vSJaecJh&onf’[k qufvuf xGuq f o kd nf? (19) &ufae‹ rGe;f wnfyh ikd ;f avmufwiG rf S wpHw k a,mufu olu ‹ kd T vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+owif;tm; ajymjycJh_yD; xdktcsdefusrS Ta-uuGJzG,f&m jzpf&yf qdk;}uD;ESifh ywfoufI yxrqHk;t}udrf -um;zl;cJhjcif;jzpfonf’ [k olu ajymqdk vdu k o f nf? ol. t&if;tESD;qHk; aemufvdkufrsm;vnf;jzpf_yD; olESifhtwl ckcHxkacsaeol tjcm; (8) a,mufrSm ‚if;wdkt ‹ ay: ±Hk;awmfu pGJqdkonfh pGJcsufrsm;tay: pdwfryg wygjzifh jyefvnfwHk‹ jyefcJh-uonf? armifeDwOD;omv#if usrf;usdefum a&SŒxGuf oufaocHcJhonf? olw ‹ Gif tjypfr&Sda-umif; av#mufvJ_yD; Tv#KdŒ0Suf}uHpnfr+ESifh ywfoufI olbmr#rodcJh&a-umif;/ Zlvdkifv xdkae‹u zdk‹'fqefx&yfum;ay:wGif oltaejzifh c&D;onfwa,mufyrm vdkufygoGm;jcif;jzpfa-umif; ajymqdkcJhonf? zd'‹k q f efx&yfum;ay:wGif vdu k yf gcJo h l aemufwOD;jzpfonfh r+e}f uD;uvnf; wu,fh aoewform; oHk;OD;jzpfonfh armifpdk;/ oufESif;ESifh &ef}uD;atmifwdku ‹ Jhodky‹ if ±dk;±dk; av; awmif;yefjiif;qdkoGm;cJhonf? oda‹k omfvnf; ,cktcsed t f xd OD;apmtay: opPmapmifo h cd -hJ uaom ola‹ emuf

vdu k rf sm;onf r-umrDrmS yif av#mhay;p«yvmonf? olw. ‹kd jypf'%frsm; av#mhaygh oGm;ap&ef ar#mfvifhcsufjzifh jzpfaumif;jzpfayvdrfhrnf? yxr x&yfum;ay:wGif ygoGm;ol OD;apmZeD;onf. wlawmfol cifarmif&ifu olonf OD;apm.tdrfwGif 1942 ck/ ZGev f rSpI aexdik cf ahJ -umif;ESihf touft&G,u f mG jcm;r+t& olonf OD;apm . pum;udk em;axmif&rSmjzpfa-umif; oufaocHxGufqdkcJhonf? cH±k ;kH awmf. ar;jref;r+rsm;-um;wGif cifarmif&ifonf pdw"f mwfysufjym;oGm; cJ_h yD; aemufyidk ;f wGif ±H;k awmfo‹kd oufaocHypPn;f tjzpf wifjycJah om OD;apm_cH0if;t wGif;rS odrf;qnf;&rdonfh vufeufrsm;udk ol‹taejzifh aumif;aumif;od&SdcJhyg a-umif; 0efcHavawmhonf? vlowform;rsm; pD;eif;aom *spfum;armif;ol okc ESihf aoewform;rsm;jzpf-uaom armifped /f armifeED iS hf r+e}f uD;wdu ‹k vnf; tvm;wl 0efcHr+rsm;«y-u_yD; olwt dk‹ aejzifh OD;apmtrdeaf‹ y;or#udk aqmif&Gufae-ujcif;om jzpfI av#mhayghI jypf'%fcsrSwyf g&ef awmif;yefav#mufxm;-uonf? b!Ge‹f 0ef cHouJhodk‹ vdkufvH0efcH-uolrsm;teuf q,fausmfouft&G,f &ef}uD;atmifom v#if ol‹tm; &Jrsm;u t-uyfukdifzdtm;ay;r+a-umifh[k ta-umif;jyI ol‹xGufqdk csufukd jyefvnf±yk o f rd ;f oGm;cJo h nf? azmfaumifb!Geu ‹f rl Tod‹k v#Kd0‹ u S }f uHpnfr+ wGif tpGyfpGJcH&ol (9) a,mufvHk; yg0ifywfoufcJha-umif; jyoEdkifcJhonf? T&mZ0wfrr+ sm;udk tb,fah -umifh usL;vGe&f oenf;[k &SmazGar;jref;-unfh aomtcg OD;apmrSm OD;atmifqef;. EdkifiHa&;òydifbufoufoufomrua-umif; ydkrdkxif&Sm;vmonf? twGif;0ef±Hk;Y jzpfyGm;cJhaom owfjzwfr+rwdkifrD (10) vcef‹ tvdk 1946 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (21) &ufae‹wGif OD;apmrSm touf&ef&SmcHcJh& onf? olonf xdkae‹u tpdk;&tdrfawmfodk‹ oGm;cJhonf? um;aemufbufwGif ol‹ vlESpfa,mufvkdufygvsuf olonf tpdk;&tdrfawmf taqmufttHkrS ae‹v,fydkif; wGif tdrfjyef&ef jyefvnfxGufcGmvmcJhonf? at'Dvrf;tdrfodkt ‹ jyef jynfvrf;ay: &Sd ajreDukef;t0dkif;odk‹ta&muf olonf aemufbufodk‹ vSnfh-unfhvdkufaomtcg olwdk‹um;aemufrS *spfum;wpD; uyfygvmonfudk owdxm;rdcJhonf? t0dkif; wbufxyd f uke;f udw k uf&if; vrf;tauGŒ jzpfonft h wGuf OD;apm. um;armif;ol u um;t&Sed af v#mhcsvdu k o f nf? *spfum;onf olwu ‹kd rkd v SD m_yD; ‘jynfo&‹l aJ bmf’ ,l eDazmif;0wf vlav;OD;ESihf aoewfajymif;wck olwb ‹kd ufcsdex f m;onfukd OD;apmu vS r;f awGŒvu kd &f onf? aoewfjzifh wcsufvS r;f ypfvu kd _f yD; ‚if;um;onf t&Sed jf zifh armif;ajy;oGm;avonf? aoewfusnfqefonf OD;apm. um;jywif;rSef (2) ESpf bufpvH;k udk azmufxu G o f mG ;onf? usnq f efu olu ‹ kd rrSeaf omfvnf; rSeu f pJG rsm;

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119

w&m;qdik jf cif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

u ol‹rsufvHk;rsm;udk qdk;qdk;0g;0g; pl;&SoGm;cJhavonf? rsufvHk;wbufrSm tajc taetawmfqdk;ojzifh xdktcsif;jzpfyGm;_yD; OD;apmrSm aq;±HkwGif 9 &uftawmf-um wufa&mufuo k r+caH ecJ&h onf? xda‹k emuf tdE, Nd od‹k acwWomG ;um txl;ukq&m 0efwOD;jzifh rsufpdudk ppfaq;prf;oyfr+ cH,lcJh&ao;onf? odk‹aomf ol‹tm; wdkuf cdkufolrsm;rSm rnfolrnf0gjzpfrSef; rodcJh&vifhupm;æ xdkae‹u olt ‹ ouf&ef&Smr+ 10 aemufuG,fwGif OD;atmifqef;&Sdaeonf [k OD;apmu oHo,}uD;pGm 0ifcJhonf? *spfum;xJrS vlrsm;rSm jynfo&l‹ Jabmf,leDazmif; 0wfxm;-uonfukd olu &Sif;&Sif; vif;vif; owdxm;rdco hJ nf r[kwyf gvm;? TuJo h ‹kd jzpfysufcahJ omfvnf; 1947 ck ESpf/ Zefe0g&DvwGif _Adwdo#0ef}uD;csKyf ‘uvD;rifhtufwvD’ESifh jrefrmhvGwfvyf a&;twGuf awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;&ef OD;atmifqef; vef'efodk‹ oGm;&mwGifrl olu vdkuf ygoGm;cJo h nf? oda‹k omfvnf; pdwx f m;aumufuspv f aS om TjrefrmEdik if aH &;orm; }uD;onf (27) &ufae‹wGif _Adwdo#wdEk‹ Sifh oabmwlpmcsKyfudk vufrSwfxdk;&ef jiif; qefcJhjcif;jzifh OD;atmifqef;tay: xm;&Sdaom ol. tmCmww&m;udk jyocJh avonf? w&m;&ifqikd af e&onfh umvwav#mufv;kH jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD; OD;ausmf_idr;f onf w&m;vdkbufrS oufaoxif&Sm;aer+udk wifjy&ef aESmifhaES;aejcif;ESifh ywf oufI pdk;&drfylyefaeyHk&avonf? xdkudpPESifh ywfoufI olonf }udrfzefrsm;pGm rSwfcsuf«ycJhonf? odk‹aomfvnf; w&m;a&;u|rf;usifolrsm;taejzifh Tordkif; 0ifw&m;qdik rf t + ay: vH;k 0w&m;r#wap&ef/ Oya'a&;&mt& jynfph u kH v kH rkH &+ adS p&ef ydkrdkI *±k"rRxm;aecJh-uonf? (pDtdkif'D) t}uD;tuJjzpfol u|Efkyf.zcif OD;xGef; vSatmifonfvnf; yÌ*HyHk&Sdaom tif;pdeftusOf;axmif}uD;tm; (24) em&D tcsdef jynfh vufeufudkiftapmifhrsm;jzifh vHk;00dkif;&Hxm;vdkufavonf? vufeufjynfh wyfqifxm;aom axmufvS rf;a&;wyfu *dwfayguf0rsm;udk vludk,fwdkif apmifh -uyfvsuf&_dS yD; OD;apm. v+y&f mS ;r+wikd ;f udk t_rJ-unf±h v + suf&o dS nf? olZ‹ eD;onfEiS hf ae‹pOfawGŒcGifh&a&;twGuf ol. awmif;qdkcsufudk y,fcscJhonf? odk‹aomfvnf; olt ‹ m; tpm;taomufcsuf«ywfau|;&ef (5) ESpfoufwrf; uscHae&aom axmif uswa,mufudk olESifh wcef;wnf; aeapcJhonf? w&m;ol}uD;rif; OD;aomif;pdef u “u|efawmfwdk‹taeeJ‹ tjcm;axmifusawG&JŒ wdkufcdkufjcif;udk cH&r,fhab;u OD;apmudk vHkòcHr+&Sdapzdt k‹ jyif OD;apm&JŒvlawGu axmifwGif;xdk;azmuf0ifa&muf_yD; vGwfajrmufatmif «yvkyfoGm;rSm/ olwdk‹u,fwifzdk‹ óud;yrf;oGm;rSmudkvJ pdk;&drfae &ygw,f” [k ajymqdck o hJ nf?

Tod‹k pd;k &draf -umufvefa‹ e-u&onfukd rrSerf uef[q k I kd r&acs? OD;apmudk csKyfaESmifxm;_yD; yxrtywftwGi;f rSmyif vGwaf jrmuf&ef óud;yrf;r+w&yfukd azmf xkwfEdkifcJhonf? xdt k‹ jyif tif;pdefaxmifudk ywfvsuf vHkòcHa&; wif;wif;usyfusyf csxm;cJhaomfvnf; axmiftwGif;Yrl tv#Hy,f aygaygrsm;rsm; &&Sdpm;aomufae xdkif&onfh OD;apm. b0yHkpHudk tjcm;olrsm;u *±kpdkufrdcJh-uonf? ,cifu eef; &if;0efjzpfczhJ ;l onfh tqift h wef;udk jyefveS af v;pm;aomtm;jzifh wcef;ESiw hf cef; *H;k 0ifaygufrsm;jzifh ul;vl;oGm;vmaeEdik af om tcef;av;cef;yg&So d nfh tusOf;cef; us,f}uD;xJwGif OD;apmudk xm;&SdcJhonf? ol‹tm; csuf«ywfay;&efESifh cdkif;apor# udk «yvkyaf y;&ef tusO;f om;wOD; ay;xm;&m xdo k t l m; olu ‘bwfwvm’ (Butler) [k ac:_yD; xdo k El iS t hf wl olonf xdt k cef;us,f}uD;xJwiG f aexdik cf &hJ onf? axmif twGif;&Sd tr+xrf;rsm;tm; acgufqGJa-umfau|;jcif;jzifh ol. ay;urf;&ufa&mr+ udk yxrqHk;t}udrftjzpf olu jyocJhonf? xdkr#ru ol. usef;rma&;twGuf eHeuf 0DpuDwyuf/ n 0DpuDwyuf aomufciG ahf y;&ef awmif;qdck _hJ y;D ESp&f ufo;kH &uf udk 0DpuDwykvif;ukefatmif olu oHk;aqmifcJhonf? paumh0DpuDrsm;udk tvG,fwul tqifoifh&&SdoHk;aqmifEdkifapjcif;/ txl; tcGifhta&;ESifh vGefpGmta&;}uD;aom TtcsKyfom;tm; apmifh-uyfxdef;odrf;&m Y tbufbufu avsmh&aJ ejcif;wdu ‹k 0ef}uD;OD;ausmf_idr;f udk xdwv f efw ‹ -um; jzpf 11 oGm;apcJhonf? odk‹ jzifh OD;ausmf_idrf;u wm0ef&Sdol tusOf;OD;pD;Xmerif;}uD; Adkvf rª;}uD;baomftm; xdkae&mrS z,f&Sm;vdkuf_yD; w&m;a&;0ef}uD;Xme twGif;0eft jzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifaeqJjzpfaom w&m;ol}uD;rif; OD;aomif;pdefudk xdk&mxl; tm; v$aJ jymif;,lapavonf? tif;pdet f usOf;axmif t0ef;t0dik ;f jyify&Sd wdik ;f jynf . aygufuv JG v k t k ajctaerSm ydrk q kd ;kd 0g;vmonft h wGuf pd;k &dryf yl efrr+ sm;u axmif wGi;f vHòk cHa&;udk ydrk w kd if;-uyfapavawmhonf? odk‹aomfvnf; w&m;qdkifjcif;udkrl aemufqHk; 'DZifbmv (30) &ufae‹txd qufvuf«yvkyfcJhonf? pkpnf;&&Sdxm;aom xif&Sm;oufao tpkvdkuftòyHvdkuf udk qef;ppfoHk;oyf_yD;aemuf txl;cHk±Hk;awmftaejzifh pum;vHk;a& (52˜000) jzifh a&;om;xm;aom pD&ifcsufukd csrSwEf ikd cf ahJ wmhonf? xdak e‹u w&m;cGiu f kd zGiahf y; cJhojzifh Oya'ynm&Sifrsm;/ owif;pmq&mrsm;æpojzifh pk±Hk;a&muf&Sdvmvsuf ,if;vltyk x f w J iG f jrefrm0wfvakH wmf&rif;vnf;jzpf_yD; pma&;q&mvnf;jzpfaom a'gufwmarmifarmifvnf; yg&Scd yhJ gonf? a'gufwmarmifarmifu Tod‹k rSww f rf; wifco hJ nf?

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w&m;qdik jf cif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

‘pD&ifcsufuzkd wfcsderf mS wem&Dausmf-umavonf? yxrqH;k w&m;qdik o f nfh ae‹uuJo h y‹kd if w&m;cGicf ef;rrSm vlrsm;jzifh jynfu h syv f su&f adS ejyefonf? w&m;cHrsm; tm;vH;k a&muf&adS e-uonf? (8) a,mufrmS w&m;cHrsm;tm; xm;aom _ct H wGi;f &Sd -u_yD; OD;apmrSmrl ol. Oya't}uHay; 0wfvHkawmf&rif;ab;&Sd ukvm;xdkifwGif xdkifvsuf&Sdonf? pD&ifcsufudk qufvufzwfvsuf&Sd_yD; rqHk;EdkifonfESifhtr# owif;axmufrsm;rSm *emr_idrjf zpfum pdwrf &SnEf ikd af tmif jzpfae-uonf? tr+wJG wckvHk;udk jyefvnftusOf;csKyfjyaeonfudk em;axmifae&onfrSm u|efawmfh twGuf pdwf0ifpm;zG,f&mjzpfawmhonf? zwfaeaom toHrSm aysmhaysmif;onf? trSm;t,Gif;r&Sd? yk*~v"d@mefrS vGwfuif;onf? toHrSm teD;rSvmaomfvnf; ta0;rSvmaeouJhodk‹yif? w&m;cHrsm;onf xdkifvsufem;axmifae-uonf? rnfokd‹aom cHpm;rsKd;udkrS rjyo-u? t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh ajymqdkaeojzifh olwdk‹ trsm;pkrSm em;rvnf-uacs? tr+rSm aemufqHk;_yD;pD;oGm;_yDjzpfojzifh olwt dk‹ m;vHk; pdwo f ufom&m &aumif;&oGm;-uayvdrrhf nf?’ aoewform; (4) OD;jzpfaom armifpdk;/ oufESif;/ &ef}uD;atmifESifh armif pdefwt dk‹ m; vlowfr+jzifhvnf;aumif;/ OD;apm/ okc/ armifeD/ r+ef}uD;ESifh cifarmif&if wdkr‹ Sm vlowfr+udk tm;ay;ulnDr+jzifhvnf;aumif; tjypf&Sda-umif; awGŒ&SdcJhonf? xdak‹ -umifh olwt dk‹ m;vHk;udk ao'%ftjypfay;vdkufavonf? pD&ifcsufwckvHk;rSm t*FvdyfvdkjzpfonfhtwGuf ajymor#tm;vHk; OD;apmem; vnfygvdrfhrnfqdkjcif;rSm oHo,&Sdp&myifjzpfonf? ol‹ynma&;rSm a&S;acwf tajccHynma&;tqihfr#om &SdI ol‹aemufvdkufrsm;rSm ydkI edrfhusao;onf? odka‹ omfvnf; olwdkt ‹ ay: csrSwfvdkufaom jypf'%f. }uD;rm;av;yifr+udk w&m; ol}uD;rif; OD;ausmfjrifh. toHaetoHxm;t&vnf;aumif;/ w&m;cGifcef;r twGif;&Sd vltkyf}uD;. wHk‹ jyefr+t&vnf;aumif; olwdk‹cHpm;rdEdkif-uayvdrfhrnf? rdepftenf;i,f-um_yD;rS OD;apmu x&yfvkdufonf? w&m;ol}uD;u ±Hk;awmf. tqHk;tjzwfudk olem;vnf/ rvnf ar;jref;vdkuf&m olu olem;vnfyga-umif; avoHwdk;aomfvnf; cdkifrmonfh avoHjzifh jyefvnfajz-um;cJhonf? 12 olu toem;cH&ef óud;pm;av#mufvaJ omtcgwGirf l olt ‹ oHrsm;rSm wkeaf e avonf? tcsKdŒaom cdkifrmonfh oufaotaxmuftxm;rsm;udk olwifjycJh_yD; ,if;wdk‹udk vufcHoifhaomfvnf; w&m;vdkbufrSwifjyaom oufaotaxmuf txm;rsm;udkom ±Hk;awmfu vG,fvG,fulul ,Hk-unfcJha-umif; olu ajymqdk vdu k o f nf?

xdkaemuf Oya't}uHay;. eHab;&Sd ukvm;xdkifwGif;odk‹ olonf xdkifcs epf0ifoGm;onf? olu ‹ dk w&m;cGifrS ac:aqmifoGm;cgeD; &Jt&m&SdwOD;u vufxdwf cwfrnf«yaomtcg olu “ighukd bmvdv ‹k ufxw d cf wf&rSmvJ” [k pdww f pkd mG aiguf ief;vdkufonf? odk&‹ mwGif olu eHab;&Sd w&m;ol}uD;rif; OD;aomif;pdefudk tult nDawmif;onfht-unfhjzifh vS rf;-unfhvdkufaomtcgwGifum; olonf rmeaxmif v$m;onfyh x kH uf pdw±f y+ af xG;um a0cGrJ &onfyh akH y:aeavonf? TwGif ol. ,Hk -unfr+ay;tyfjcif;cH&aom w&m;ol}uD;rif;uvnf; -um;0ifvdkuf_yD; w&m;cGif cef;rtwGif;rS vufxdwfrcwfbJ apmifh-uyfac:,loGm;&ef OD;apmudk cGifh«yvdkuf avonf? oda‹k omf Zlvikd v f (19) &ufae‹ olt ‹ m; zrf;qD;pOfuwnf;u xm;cJah om tcef;us,f}uD;twGif;odk‹ r[kwfawmhbJ ao'%fuscH&olrsm;udkom oD;oefx ‹ m; &Sdaom óud;wdkuftusOf;cef;uav;odk‹ olt ‹ m; ac:aqmifoGm;avawmhonf? ‘ao'%fEiS hf ywfoufI t,lcv H m$ wifoiG ;f vdyk gu ,ck pD&ifcsucf srw S t f _y;D (7) &uftwGif; av#mufxm;-u&rnf’ [k txl;cHk±Hk;awmfu jypf'%fuscH&ol rsm;tm; owday;cJhonf? xdkoDwif;ywfonf jrefrmEdkifiH. w&m;pD&ifa&; acwf opfqDodk‹ olwdu k‹ dk ac:aqmifoGm;ayawmhrnf? tb,fa-umifhqdkaomf jrefrmEdkifiH taejzifh 1948 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (4) &ufae‹ Y "eo[m,tzGJŒrS uif;vGwfonfh vH;k 0vGwv f yfaom orRwEdik if aH wmf jzpfvmrnfjzpfaoma-umifah ywnf;? xdt k csed f rSpI jrefrmEdik if o H nf (vef'ef&dS ‘y&DAaD umifp’D u r[kwaf wmhb)J &efuek &f dS w&m; v$wfawmfcsKyfuomv#if t,lcHv$mwifoGif;r+udk aemufqHk; tqHk;tjzwfay;rnfh w&m;±H;k awmf}uD; jzpfvmayawmhrnf? _Adwo d # bk&ifrif;jrwfae&mudk jynfaxmif pkjrefrmEdkifiHawmftpdk;&u 0ifa&muftpm;xdk; aqmif&Gufayawmhrnf? tjcm; wenf;qd&k v#if ‘Edik if aH wmfEiS hf OD;apmšolv ‹ rl sm;’ jzpfvmayawmhrnf? od‹k jzpfonft h m;avsmfpmG OD;apmESihf tjcm;jypf'%fuscH&olrsm;. t,lcv H m$ 13 udk w&m;v$waf wmfo‹kd owfrw S cf suEf iS t hf nDþwifoiG ;f cJah omfjim;vnf; ,if;t,l cHvm$ wifoiG ;f r+rsm;rSmþy,fcsjcif;cHc&hJ onf? ‘w&m;cHwOD;pDonf Tv#KŒd0u S yf ;l aygif; }uHpnfr}+ uD;wGif toufaoG;a-umyrm ta&;}uD;aom tpdwt f ydik ;f w&yfpt D jzpf yg0ifc-hJ uonf’ [k w&m;v$waf wmfu xkwjf yefa-unmcJo h nf? TpD&ifcsucf srw S f r+ukd 0ifa&mufwm;qD;pGuzf uf&ef w&m;Oya'ta-umif;t& rnfoa‹kd omta-umif; tcsufurkd # rawGŒ&cdS &hJ acs? xdak -umifh jypf'%fcscH&olrsm;u w&m;v$waf wmfcsKyf od‹k qufvuftoem;cHvm$ wifoiG ;f cJ-h ujyefonf? vef'ef&dS ‘y&DAaD umifp’D u jy@mef; xm;cJhaom ,cifpnf;rsOf;Oya'rsm;rS vrf;!¸efr+rsm;udk&,lum w&m;v$wfawmf

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w&m;qdik jf cif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

csKyfu ,if;toem;cHv$mrsm;udk aocsmpGm pOf;pm;vsuf aemufqHk;wGif y,fcs vdu k af vonf? od‹kjzpfav&m jypf'%fcsc&H ol (9) OD;twGuf vrf;wvrf;om useaf wmhonf? ‚if;aemufq;kH ar#mfvifch sufrmS Edik if aH wmforRwxHrS ouf!mS axmufxm; u±k%m yGm;r+ukd awmif;cH&efom jzpfavonf? orRwEdik if aH wmfopf. *k%u f suo f a& jrifh rm;vSaom orRw}uD;rSm &S r;f jynfe,frS anmifa&$apmfbmG ; ‘pyfa&$ou kd ’f jzpfonf? xdak emufq;kH csed w f iG u f srS (3) OD;omv#if woufwu|e;f axmif'%f/ wenf;tm;jzifh tESpf (20) axmif'%fodk‹ tjypf'%fav#mhayghjcif; cH-u&onf? ‚if;wdkr‹ Sm *spfum; armif;ol okc/ vlowform;rsm; twGif;0ef±Hk;odk‹ a&mufrvmrD óudwifaxmuf vS r;f &ol cifarmif&ifEiS hf vlowform;rsm; xGuaf jy;vGwaf jrmuf&mvrf;udk ajcmuf vH;k jyL;wvufjzifh apmif-uyfc&hJ ol armifew D ‹kd jzpf-uonf? usefaomoltm;vH;k rSm óud;ay;cH&ayawmhrnf? TwGif &ef}uD;atmif. zcifjzpfolu ol‹om;i,f. toufudk csrf;omay;ap&ef aemufqHk;enf;vrf;tjzpf olo ‹ m;onf touf (16) ESpfom&Sdao;a-umif; oufaojy&ef óud;pm;cJh_yD; ±Hk;awmftzGJŒ0ifrsm;xHodk‹ &ef}uD; atmif. Zmwmudk wifjycJo h nf? w&m;0ifarG;pm&if;um; r&Scd ahJ cs? aq;bufqikd f &m ppfaq;ol q&m0efwOD;u &ef}uD;atmif.toufrSm tenf;qHk; (17) ESpf &Scd _hJ yD[k qH;k jzwfco hJ nf? Todk‹ jzifh cHk±Hk;awmfu &ef}uD;atmif. arG;zGm;onfh &ufpGJudk 1930 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (1) &ufae‹tjzpf twnf«yowfrSwfvdkufawmhonf? odk‹ jzpfI ol‹udk 1948 ckESpfaemufydkif; óud;ay;pD&ifonfh tcsdefwGifrl olonf touf (18) ESpf jynf_h yD;jzpfcahJ v_yD? 1947 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv (30) &ufae‹ txl;cHk±Hk;awmfu pD&ifcsufudk zwf -um;onfhtcsdefwGif &efukefòrd› a&$wd*Hkbk&m;vrf;ay:&Sd *sLAvDcef;rY EdkifiHawmf psmyetjzpf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh tjcm;vkyf}uHjcif;cH&olrsm;. ±kyftavmif; rsm;rSm vJavsmif;vsuf&SdaeqJyif? *sLAvDcef;ronf tcdkiftcHh tkwfwdkufjzpf_yD; ‘tdkifAD’ wdkifuyfyifwdk‹ jzifh pdrf;vef;pGm v$rf;òcHxm;um twifhtw,f pDjc,fxm; ojzifh yHko¿mefrSm t*FvdyfqefvSonf? ,if;udk rlvu Zmwfcef;rtjzpf wnf aqmufcJhjcif;jzpf_yD; wbufxdyfwGif uZmwfpifjrifh&SdI rsufESmcsif;qdkif tjcm; wbufxdyfwGif ab;wbufwcsufrS avSum;jzifh wuf&aom tay:xyf-unfh pif&Sdonf? yGJ-unfhpifcef;rrSm us,f0ef;_yD; u|ef;cif;-urf;jyifrSm ta&mifzdwf zdwfawmufvsuf&Sdonf? ywfywfvnf&Sd yef;_cHrsm;rSm jyyGJrsm;ESifh vlxkpnf;a0;yGJ

rsm; «yvkyo f nft h cgrsm;wGif ae&mawmfawmfrsm;udk zefw;D ulnaD y;xm;cJo h nf? obm0w&m;. jyuf&,f«yr+w&yfayyJvm;rod? OD;atmifqef;ESifh olv ‹ kyf azmfuikd b f ufrsm; vky}f uHowfjzwfjcif; rcH&rD ESpv f tvdw k iG yf if zqyv tzGŒJ csKyf }uD;u wdkif;jynf«yv$wfawmfac:,la&; tóudtjzpf Tcef;rYyifv#if taxGaxG nDvmcHw&yf usif;ycJhao;onf? ,if;wdkif;jynf«yv$wfawmftaejzifh vGwfvyf aom jrefrmEdik if aH wmf. yxrOD;qH;k aom zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfykH tajccHOya' rl-urf;udk a&;qGJayawmhrnf? xdk‹a-umifh arv (19) &ufae‹wGif OD;atmifqef;udk,fwdkif yifv#if xdn k v D mcHziG v hf pS af y;cJo h nf r[kwyf gvm;? OD;atmifqef;. ±kyftavmif;udk oltowfcH&_yD; aemufw&ufwGif ol. wm0gvde;f aetdrrf S *sLAvDcef;rod‹k o,faqmifvmcJo h nf? olEiS hf tjcm;tmZmenf acgif;aqmif}uD; (5) OD;wdk‹onf *sLAvDcef;r. uZmwfpifjrifhay: Y rSefacgif; rsm;twGif;wGif vJavsmif;vsuf&Sdae-uonf? rdkif;yGefapmfbGm;}uD; ‘pyfpHxGef;’. ±kyt f avmif;udrk l apmapmuyif um;jzifw h wef/ &xm;jzifw h oG,f &S r;f awmifwef; rsm;-um;&Sd ola‹ e&yfZmwdòrdo › dk‹ o,faqmifoGm;cJhay_yD? OD;tAŠ'l&mZwfESifh udkaxG; wdu ‹k v kd nf; rlqvifx;kH wrf;pOfvmt& ajrjr‡Kyfoò*õ[_f yD;av_yD? usqHk;av_yD;aom acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;tm; axmifaygif;rsm;pGmaom jynf olvlxku aemufqHk;taejzifh vma&muf*g0&«y-uvsuf&Sd&m ppf&JESifh òrdj› y&Jrsm;/ (-unf;§a&§av) wyfrawmfrS ppfom;rsm;/ jynfol‹&JabmfwyfzGJŒrS jynfol‹ppf tzGJŒ0ifrsm;u tvSnhfuswm0ef,l apmifh-uyfay;vsuf&Sdonf? tmZmenf}uD;rsm; . OD;acgif;udk vltrsm;jrifomatmif jyoxm;&m olwdt k‹ om;ta&. aoG;qkwf jzLa&mfaer+u olwdk‹&&SdcJhaom '%f&mrsm;. trSwfvuQ%mrsm;udk jyovsuf &Sdaeayonf? vma&muf-unfh±+oltrsm;pkrSm rsuf&nfrqnfEdkifavmufatmif jzpfc&hJ onf? vHòk cHa&;udrk l txl;wif;-uyfxm;&qJjzpfonf? vma&muf*g0&«yol wokwf u cef;rtwGif; wywfywf_yD;onfESifh olwdk‹udk acgif;rsm;a&SŒ Y pDwef;&yfapum trdea‹f y;vsuf OD;!Gwt f av;«yaponf? xdw k okwx f u G o f mG ;_yD;rS aemuf wokwf udk 0ifciG «hf yonf? tmZmenfwdk. ‹ ±kyftavmif;rsm;tm; jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk; *g&0«y&ef *sL AvDa[mwGif (9) v-um xm;cJh_yD;aemuf 1948 ckESpf/ {_yDv (11) &ufae‹wGif ±kyftavmif;rsm; yg&Sdonfhacgif;rsm;udk *sLAvDcef;rrS a&$wd*HkapwDawmf. ajrmufbuf topfaqmufvyk v f u kd af om tmZmenfArd mefo‹kd aemufq;kH c&D;tjzpf

123

124 124


w&m;qdik jf cif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

o,faqmifoGm;cJhonf? t_rJwrf; wyfrawmfom;rsm;u c&D;pOfwav#muf xdef; odrf;apmifha&Smufvsuf vdkufygvmaom psmye,mOfwef;onf a&$wd*Hkbk&m;vrf; twdkif; wufa&mufvmcJhonf? tmZmenf}uD;rsm;. rSefabmifoGif;"mwfyHk}uD; rsm;udk csdwfqGJ/ zHk;tkyfxm;aom acgif;rsm;udk trdk;zGifhx&yfum;rsm;/ *spfum;rsm; jzifh o,faqmifvmcJ-h uonf? jynfov l x l k (5) ode;f ausmf vdu k yf gvmcJah om ,mOf wef;onf a&$wd*HkapwDawmf. awmifbufapmif;wef;bufqDodk‹ jznf;nif;pGm a&$Œvsm;vmcJhonf? OD;atmifqef;tm; olwdk‹. AdkvfcsKyf}uD;tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ tppftrSeaf cgif;aqmiftjzpfvnf;aumif; cspfjrwfE;kd -uaom jynfo&‹l aJ bmfwyfzŒJG 0ifrsm;onf eHab;0J,mrS c&D;pOfwav#mufv;kH csDwufvu kd yf gvmcJ-h uonf? a&$wd*HkapwDawmfjrwf}uD;udk vuf0J&pfw0ufywf_yD;aemuf psmye,mOf wef;onf tmZmenfAdrmefopfqDodk‹ qdkufa&mufvmcJhonf? -unf;wyfrawmf om;rsm;ESifh a&wyfrawmfom;rsm;u acgif;aqmifrsm;udk yckH;rsm;ay:wGif xrf; aqmifvsuf AdrmefopftwGif;odk‹ o,faqmifoGm;cJhonf? jynfol&‹ JabmfwyfzGJŒ0if rsm;taejzifh olwdk‹acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;.tr+udk aemufqHk;xrf;aqmifjcif;tjzpf cHpm;rdvu kd -f uayvdrrhf nf? acgif;rsm;udk olw ‹ v ‹kd ufajymif;,liifomG ;-uvsuf owf rSwx f m;aom *lrsm;twGi;f od‹k oufqikd &f macgif;rsm;udk jznf;nif;pGm oGi;f ay;vdu k f -u_yD; olwo dk‹ nf *lrsm;. xdyfeH&Hrsm;Y oGm;a&mufae&m,l &yfae-uonf? olwdk‹ . bGwfzdeyfrsm;rS tkwfeDcJESifh vwfvwfqwfqwf uGefu&pftptersm; yvuf azmif;ay:odk‹ ususef&pfcJh-uonf? aemufqHk;wGifum; tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD; rsm;. ±kyftavmif;rsm;rSm xdkae&mY em;aeEdkif-uav_yD? vltkyf}uD;rsm;rSm wpwp aysmufuG,foGm;cJh-uonf? *lrsm;udk t_yD;owf ydwf_yD;aemuf yef;&Hq&mrsm;vnf; &Sif;vif;odrf;qnf;vsuf&Sd_yD? ntarSmifus vmonfEiS t hf r# wtmtmatmfjrnfwwfaom us;D rsm;onfyifv#if olw. ‹kd E+wu f kd ydwfvsuf wdwfqdwf_idrfoufoGm;-uav_yDwum;?

Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô

125 125

126 126


v#KdŒ0Suq f ef;-u,fjcif;

1963/ &efukefòrdŒ? _Adwdo#oHtrwf ‘tm;vfarmifhbufwef’ twGuf {nfhcHyGJwGif armifhbufwefu a':cifcif{tm; ol‹orD;ESifh rdwfqufay;aeykH?

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

txufygyH?k Adv k cf sKyfxeG ;f vSatmifEiS fh ZeD; a':cifcif{/ (1933)?

nmbufyHk? r[moD&dok"rR w&m;0ef}uD;þOD;aomif;pdefESihf ZeD;a':aiG!Gef‹/ (1953)? 127 127

128 128


OD;cifatmif=ZeD;a':cifcifpdefESifhom;rsm; cifOD;atmifESifh xGef;vSatmif/ (1996)?

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

129

129

130 130


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

OD;atmifqef;wdk‹ vkyf}uHcH&pOftcsdefu _Adwdo# vli,fwOD;jzpfol tefwdkeD › Gif wyfpGJxm;aom 0Jvfcsf (Welch) &D pwdkem (Anthony Stonor) onf uavmòrdw *si;f rJiw hf yf. wyf&if; trSwf (2) wGif wm0efxrf;aqmifaecJo h nf? olonf 1947 ckEpS /f pufwifbmv (14) &ufae‹wiG rf l &efuek òf rda› wmfY wm0efuscJo h nf? ql;av bk&m;vrf;ay:&Sd taqmufttHw k ck. yxrxyfwiG f wnf&_dS yD; ta&SŒtm&Swv$m; wGif tvsm;t&SnfqHk; ‘t&ufbm;’ &Sdonf[k *k%f,l0ifhºuGm;jcif;cH&aom t&m &Sdrsm;. uvyftwGif;odk‹ ol0ifa&mufvmcJhonf? ,if;uvyfonf &efukefòrd›ae emrnf}uD; tdE, dN vlrsKd; *DwmtwD;orm; ‘qD;'&pf0uf (pf)’ (Cedric West) acgif; aqmifonfh tuwD;0dik ;f &So d nft h wGuv f nf; ydI k pGaJ qmifr&+ cdS o hJ nf? pwdkemESihf olw ‹ yf&if;rS t&m&Sdi,fwcsKdŒonf uvyftwGif; ae&m,lxkdifcJh -u_yD; t&ufrSmvdkuf-uonf? olwdk‹t&ufbm;wGif; a&muf_yD; r-umvS rD jrefrm (2) OD; t0ifwHcg;udk 0kef;ueJ aqmihfwGef;0ifvmcJh-uonf? xkdESpfa,mufteufrS touf (30) 0ef;usif&Sd udk,fcE<mwkwfwkwfcdkifcdkifESifh wa,mufu “OD;apmu atmifqef;udk owfwmr[kwfbl;? 'gudk igvJodw,f? rif;wdk‹ _Adwdo#awGvJod w,f? bmjzpfvv ‹kd q J akd wmh rif;wdu ‹k tJ'v D yk }f uHr&+ ŒJ aemufu, G rf mS &Sad evdy‹k ”J [k pwifatmf[pfajymqdk_yD; olESihf ol‹tazmfwdk‹onf bm;aemufbuf&Sd zefcGufrsm;/ t&ufykvif;rsm;udk ±kdufcGJzsufqD;-uawmhonf? xdkae&mwGif&Sdaeaom tqihftjrihfqHk;t&m&SdrSm a*:&cg;wyfrS Akdvfrª;}uD; wOD;jzpf_yD;/ ‚if;uæ “bmrS rvky-f ueJ/‹ olwu ‹kd kd v$wx f m;vdu k /f igwyfxed ;f awGukd vS rf;ac:vdkufr,f” [k tHhtm;woihfjzpfae-uaom usef_Adwdo#t&m&Sdrsm;udk

atmfajymvdkufonf? jrefrmESpfOD; zsufqD;a&;vkyfief; qufvufvkyfudkifaeqJrSm yif pwdek mESifh olo ‹ il ,fcsi;f rsm;u _ird o f ufpmG xdik af ecJ-h uonf? a*:&cg;wyfrS 'k=Adv k f tqifh&Sdol cyfydefydefvli,fwOD;onf pm;yGJtao;wvHk;wGif ol‹bmomxdkifae_yD; bD,mwcGufudk pkyfaomufaeonf? wkwfwkwfcdkifcdkif jrefrmvli,fonf ol‹qD av#mufomG ;_yD; xdo k v ‹l ufxrJ S bD,mcGuu f kd ±ku d cf svdu k o f nf? vli,ft&m&So d nf ckef&yfvdkuf_yD; pm;yGJay:rdk;aeaom jrefrmtm; rsufESmudk xkd;csvdkuf&m jrefrmvl i,fonf -urf;jyifay: yufvufvefusoGm;onf? pwkdemonf ol‹oli,fcsif;rsm; bufvSnfhvdkuf_yD; pdwf±+yfaxG;pGmjzifhæ “tJ'Dvl b,folvJ´” [k ar;vdkufonf? t&m&Sdwa,mufu “tJ'g ocifoef;xGef;aygh? atmifqef;&JŒ a,mufzav” [k jyefajzvku d o f nf? xdt k csed rf mS yif wyfxed ;f wOD;a&muf&v dS m_yD; owdr&wcsu/f &wcsuf rl;a0 aeaom ocifoef;xGe;f udk qGx J _l yD; olo ‹ il ,fcsif;udyk g qGx J w k o f mG ;cJo h nf? t&uf a&mif;olu zefcGuftuGJtprsm;udk odrf;qnf;aepOfæ qD'&pf0uf (pf) ESihf olw ‹ D; 0dkif;u aemufqHk;ay:wD;vHk;rsm;udk pwifwD;cwf-uawmhonf? odk‹&mwGif pwkdem ESihf ol‹oli,fcsif;rsm;twGufum; omarmzG,f&m naecif;av;rSm ysufpD;oGm;cJh av_y?D xda‹k emuf olwo ‹kd nf qef;uaz;od‹k trJom;uifpm;&ef uvyfrS xGucf mG vm cJ-h uavawmhonf? xkdtcsdefumvwGif OD;atmifqef;tm; vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+ESihfywfoufI _Adwdo#wdk‹ yg0ifywfoufaeonf 1 qdkaom aumvm[vowif;onf ysHŒESH‹vsuf &Sdonf? odk‹ jzpfI a-uuGJzG,ftjzpfqdk;}uD;jzpfyGm;_yD; wywfrjynfhrD/ Zlvdkifv (25) &ufae‹wGifyif ocifEktpdk;&u ,if;aumv[vudk jywfjywfom;om; jiif;qef vdkufonfh a-unmcsufudk atmufygtwdkif;xkwfjyefcJh&avonf? ‘*k%foa&jrihfrm;vSaom OD;atmifqef;ESihf tjcm;tr+aqmifaumfrwDtzGJŒ 0ifrsm;tm; r-umao;rDu ol&aJ bmenf;pGm owfjzwfcrhJ w + iG f _Adwo d #bk&ift h pd;k & tzGJŒESihf jrefrmEkdifiH. bk&ifcHwdkq ‹ ufpyfaeonf[laom aumv[vrsm; jynfol vlxt k wGi;f wcsKa‹d e&mXmersm;Y ysŒH E‹HS jzpfay:vsu&f ydS gonf? Taumvm[vrsm; onf vH;k 0tajctjrpfr&Syd ga-umif;ESifh _Adwo d #b&k iht f pd;k &/ bk&ifcEH iS fh jrefrmtpd;k & wdt k‹ -um; eD;pyfaom em;vnfr+rsm; &Sdaea-umif; jrefrmtpdk;&taejzifh odaptyf ygonf? aESmihaf ES;-uef‹-umr+tenf;qH;k jzifh w&m;cHrsm;tm; ta&;,lEidk &f ef _Aw d o d # bk&ihftpdk;&/ bk&ifcHESihf jrefrmtpdk;&wdo k‹ nf wufºuGpGm yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufvsuf &Sdaeyga-umif;’ [lI yg&Sd.?

131

132

tcef; (4) v#KdŒ0u S q f ef;-u,fjcif;

131

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133

v#KdŒ0Suq f ef;-u,fjcif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

odka‹ omfvnf; jynfolvlxkrSm pdwfv+yf&Sm;ae-uonf? EkdifiHa&;tajctae rSmvnf; wif;rmaeonf? TonfrSm tif;pdeftusOf;axmifudk vHkòcHa&; ydkrdkwif; -uyfpmG csxm;&jcif;. tcsuw f csujf zpfonf? “vGr;f wylaqG;aewJEh idk if [ H m acgif; jzwfcHxm;&wJh -uufvdkygyJ” [k w&m;ol}uD;rif; OD;aomif;pdefu jyefvnfajymjy onf? jynfov l x l u k kd pdwv f y+ &f mS ;atmif a&;wwfaom tcsKŒd owif;pmrsm;uvnf; tajctjrpfr&Sad om pGypf cJG sufrsm; wifjya&;om;xkwaf 0jcif;jzifh tajctaetay: tjrwfxw k af e-uonf? tpd;k &u aumvm[vowif;rsm;udk y,fazsmuf&ef óud; yrf;_yD; oHk;&uft-um/ Zlvdkifv (28) &ufae‹wGif The Rangoon Guide Daily owif;pmwGif owif;wyk'fygvmcJhonf? ,if;owif;a-umihfyif bk&ifcH qm[l; bwf&ef‹pf (Sir Hubert Rance) u vef'ef EdkifiHjcm;a&;±Hk;&Sd jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m twGif;0ef vpfwdk0J (vf) (rª;rwf}uD;) (the Earl of Listowel) 2 xH ta&;w}uD; a-u;eef;ay;ydc‹k &hJ onf? ,if;owif;rSm Tod‹k jzpfonf? ‘_yD;cJhonfh Zefe0g&Dv 1947 ckESpfwGif OD;atmifqef; OD;aqmifaom jrefrm udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒ atmifqef;=tufwvDpmcsKyfþvufrSwfa&;xkd;cJhpOfu OD;apm ESihf ocifApdefwdko ‹ nf vufrSwfa&;xkd;&ef jiif;qefcJh-uonf? tm;vHk;jyefoGm;-u aomtcgYvnf; OD;apmonf aemufwiG f useaf e&pfco hJ nf? u|Eyfk w f ‹kd (The Rangoon 3 Guide Daily) taejzifh OD;apmudk aiG (5) odef; xdktcsdefuay;cJhol rsufESmjzL wa,muf. tultnDjzihf zqyvtzGJŒcsKyfudk zsufqD;&ef tpDtpOf&Sdjcif;a-umifh xdk&nf&G,fcsuft& OD;apm aemufcsefaecJhjcif;jzpfa-umif; wdkif;jynfudk today;cJh ‹ dk aiG _yD;jzpfonf? OD;apm t*FvefwGif &SdaepOf tcsKdŒ t*Fvdyft&if;&Sifrsm;u 4 olu a-u;tajrmuftjrm; axmufychH ahJ -umif; u|Eyfk w f ‹kd xyfro H &d &dS onf?þcH±k ;kH þpwif-um; emonfESifh Tv#KdŒ0Sufcsufrsm; ay:xGufvmawmhrnfjzpfI tvGefpdwf0ifpm;p&m aumif;vSonf?’ od&k‹ mwGif ,if;v#KdŒ0Sufcsufrsm;um; ay:xGufvmjcif;r&Sdacs? xkdot dk‹ ajct ae ±+yfaxG;aepOf OD;apmu xdktajctaetay: tjrwfxkwf&ef óud;pm;onfrSm xif&Sm;vmonf? axmifwGif;a&muf_yD; wywftwGif;rSm tr+rppf&ao;rD tcsKyf om;b0Y olonf axmifrª;}uD; OD;pHwifhESifh rdwfaqGzGJŒEdkifcJhonf? “cifAsm;om u|efawmhfudk ulnDcJh&if cifAsm;udk qk}uD;vmbf}uD;&atmif usdef;aoayguf u|ef awmfvyk af y;Edik yf gw,f” [k olu OD;pHwifu h kd yGiyhf iG v hf if;vif; ajymqdck o hJ nf? od&‹k m wGif olonf vla&G;rSm;_yD; csOf;uyfrrd eS ;f udk olrodcahJ cs? OD;pHwifo h nf rlqvifbm om0ifwOD;jzpf_yD; Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹wGif OD;atmifqef;ESihftwl vkyf}uHjcif;cHcJh

&aom OD;tAŠ'&l mZwf. wljzpfaeavonf? OD;pHwifhonf csufcsif;yif xkdudpPudk pDtkdif'Dt}uD;tuJ OD;xGef;vSatmifxH tpD&ifcHcJhonf? aemufwae‹wGif OD;pHwifhu OD;apmESihf oGm;a&mufawGŒqHk&m OD;apmu olvGwfajrmuf&ef tultnDay;rnfh uwdudk&v#if tvJtvS,ftjzpf ±ly;D aiG (50˜000) ay;rnfjzpfa-umif; jzm;a,mif;aoG;aqmifvmonf? xdt k cg OD;pH wifhonf !¸ef-um;csufrsm;t& aiGwefzdk;udk wdk;jr‡ifhawmif;qdkvkdufonf? axmif ydkif}uD; OD;wifarmiftwGuf aemufxyf ±lyD; (50˜000) ESihf w&m;a&;0ef}uD;Xme twGif;0efjzpfol w&m;ol}uD; OD;aomif;pdeftwGufyg ±lyD; (100˜000)udk xyfrH awmif;qdkvdkufjyefonf? xkdtcgwGifrS TudpPY _Adwdo#vlrsKd;rsm; yg0ifywfouf aeaom v#KdŒ0Sufqef;-u,fonfh tquftoG,frsm; xGufay:vmjcif;jzpfonf? aemufw}udrf OD;apmESifh awGŒaomtcg axmifr;ª }uD;u xkad iGukd xyfraH wmif; qdv k u kd o f nf? xkt d cg OD;apmu olt ‹ aejzifh uy`wed Af AD , D ef; (Capt. David Vivian) qdkoludk qufoG,f&OD;rnfjzpfa-umif; ESpfudk,f-um;wD;wdk;uyfI ajym-um;av onf? OD;apmrodonfrSm xkdtcsdefY jrefrmhykvdyfwyfzGJŒ. vufeufqdkif&m t}uH ay;yk*~dKvfjzpfol ‚if;_Adwdo#t&m&SdrSm tif;pdefaxmiftwGif; tjcm;tcef;wckxJY a&mufaeonfhtcsufjzpfonf? OD;atmifqef;wdk‹ vkyf}uHcH&_yD; aemufw&ufwGif OD;apmtm; vufeufrsm; xkwfay;r+jzifh ‚if;tm; zrf;qD;xm;jcif;jzpfonf? ZGefvtwGif;wGif b&if;*ef;tvuf (60) aysmufoGm;_yD;aemuf &efukef&Sd ykvyd w f yfzŒJG vufaxmuf aumfr&Sief mrif;}uD; rdu k u f ,fbwfpcf f (Michael Busk) u 0ef}uD;tzGŒJ tpnf;ta0;t_rJusif;yaeus twGi;f 0ef±;kH udk óudwifumuG,o f nfh taejzifh ydrk ckd sxm;&ef t}uHðycJo h nf? xdt k csdeu f acwfopfjrefrmhorkid ;f wGif Tr# avmuf aygufuGJvkeD;eD;jzpfaeonfhtqifhY EdkifiHa&;òydifbuftcsif;csif; ypfcwfr+ tvG,fwuljzpfyGm;Ekdifavonf? odk‹&mwGif jynfolvlxkarwWmjzifh ol‹rSm vkHòcHae onf[k ajym-um;_yD; OD;atmifqef;udk,fwdkif ,if;t}uHðycsufudk y,fcscJhonf? f kd &Sm&ef 0&rf;awmif;qdo k nft h cgwGiv f nf; bwfpcf f (Busk) u OD;apmtdru EkdifiHa&;ta-umif;jycsufrsm;jzifh y,fcscHcJh&jyefavonf? xkdtcsdefu OD;apmrSm t"du oHo,&SdcH&oljzpfonf? odk‹ jzpfIvnf; ol‹tdrfrSm awmufav#mufapmihf -unfhcHae&jcif;jzpfonf? odk‹aomfvnf; Zlvdkif (19) &uf vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+ jzpf yGm;_y;D rS OD;apm. tdr0f if;rSm aemufq;kH t&SmcH&_y;D 5 tcsKŒdvufeufrsm;udk jyefvnf &SmazGawGŒ&cdS jhJ cif;jzpfonf? qufvufppkH rf;ppfaq;r+rsm;rSm zdu k f (cs)f &dyo f m (Fytche Flats) udk (20) &ufae‹/ ae‹v,fydkif;wGif 0ifa&mufpD;eif; &SmazGcJhjcif;jzpfonf?

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v#KdŒ0Suq f ef;-u,fjcif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

‚if;a';ApfADAD,ef;qdkolonf xkdae&mwGif aexkdifvsuf&Sd_yD; yxrY &Jrsm; tm; 0ifa&mufcGihfray;cJhacs? olu &SmazG0&rf;-unfh±+vdkonf[k awmif;qdkvm onf? ,if;awmif;qdkr+udk vufaxmufaumfr&Sifemrif;}uD;bwfpfcfESifh vuf axmuf &J0efaxmufOD;odef;tkef;wdk‹u jiif;qef_yD; wdkufcef;twGif; twif;0if a&muf-u&m pdefa&$aiG&wemrsm; pkyHkxm;onfhtay: cvkwfwdkufvJrvdk jzpfcJh-u onf? yxrqHk;awGŒ&Sdonfh vufeufrSm ajcmufvHk;jyL;wvufjzpf_yD; ADAD,ef;. ZeD;vufqGJ t0wfaowWmav;xJwGif 0Sufxm;jcif;jzpfonf? em&D0ufcef‹t-um wGif ol‹*spfum;wpD;wdkufpm vufeufrsm;udk &SmazGawGŒ&Sd-uawmhonf? ±kdifz,f aoewf (3) vuf/ ypPwkd (3) vuf/ pwif;*ef;wvuf/ vufypfA;kH rsm;/ aemufxyf ±kid zf ,faoewfrsm;ESihf usnfqeftajrmuftjrm;wd‹k jzpfonf? tcsKdŒusnfqefrsm;udk wdu k cf ef;-urf;jyifay:wGif awGŒ&aom bGwzf ed yft&Snt f }uD;}uD;rsm;xJwiG f aocsm pGm odk0Sufxm;jcif;jzpfonf? xkda‹ -umifh uy`wdefADAD,ef;udk csufcsif;yif xdef;odrf; vdkuf-uawmhonf? T _Adwdo#uy`wdef. vufeufarSmifcdkr+wGif xifxif&Sm;&Sm; yg0ifywfoufaejcif;rSm trSew f iG rf l tH-h op&mraumif;vSacs? ppf_y;D acwf xdt k csed f u jrefrmhvufeufuikd w f yfzŒJGrsm;&Sd t&m&St d awmfrsm;rsm;rSm vufeuf0,fvo kd l rnf olu ‹ dkrqdk arSmifcdkaps;uGuf&Sm}uHI a&mif;csjcif;jzifh jyifywGif tydk0ifaiG&SmaecJh-u onf? jrefrmEkdifiH. EkdifiHa&;tajctaeudk rajz&Sif;Ekdifao;jcif;ESifh udk,fydkifcg; ydkufaqmif v#KdŒ0SufwyfzGJŒtrsm;tjym; &Sdaejcif;a-umifh vufeufazmufonfrsm; rSm vH;k 0jywfvyfrr+ &Scd jhJ cif;jzpfonf? aiGa-u;xkxnfyrm% rsm;rsm;pm;pm; &SmazG ay;&ef tultnDawmif;cHcjhJ cif;jzifh Tuy`wed t f &m&Sid ,f ADA, D ef;udk OD;apmtae jzifh aumif;aumif;odcyhJ &kH avonf? OD;apmu T_Adwo d # uy`wed t f m; qufo, G v f o kd nfh tHt h m;oifph &m owif; tpteudk OD;pHwifhu qufpyfajymqdk&mwGif pDtkdif'Dt}uD;tuJ OD;xGef;vSatmif taejzifh ,if;udpPudk axmufvS rf;vdkpdwf jyif;jyvmavonf? axmifrª;}uD;tm; owif;ydrk Ekd u +d x f w k cf ikd ;f vdu k _f y;D owif;o,fyo ‹kd t l jzpf aqmif&u G af ponf? OD;pHwifh onf OD;apmqDjyefoGm;_yD; uy`wdefADAD,ef; b,frSmaeonfudk oloda-umif; ajym vdkufonf? OD;apmu ol‹udk ol‹vufa&;jzifh a&;xm;aom pmwapmifay;&mwGif olu uy`wed Af AD , D ef;xH ta&mufya‹kd y;rnfjzpfa-umif; uwday;vdu k o f nf? OD;apm u uy`wed Af AD , D ef;xHay;aom yxrqH;k pmrSm v#KŒd 0u S o f auFwjzihf a&;xm;onf? “ajcqGŒHaewJh raumif;qd;k 0g;}uD;/ iSuaf ysmoD;pdr;f eJ‹ {nfch /H oHy&k m&nfrmS a'; Apf. tcspfqHk;æ”

OD;pHwifhu ‚if;pmudk OD;xGef;vSatmifxH ay;vdkuf_yD; OD;xGef;vSatmifu w&m;ol}uD;rif; OD;aomif;pdefudk qufvufjyonf? “u|efawmfwt ‹kd m;vH;k 'Dpm[m ta&;}uD;w,fv‹kd ,lq_yD; 0ef}uD;csKyf ocif Ektrd u f kd tjrefomG ;cJ-h uw,f? u|eaf wmfw‹kd jzpfovdk ocifEv k J Za0Z0gjzpfaew,f? jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; OD;ausmf_idrf;vJ 'DvdkygyJ? 'Dvdk pmtay;t,lvkyfwmudk tm;ay; zdk‹ u|efawmfwdkt ‹ m;vHk; qHk;jzwfvdkuf-uw,f” [k OD;aomif;pdefu jyefajymif;ajym qdck o hJ nf? xdkpum;0Sufpmwdkav;udk OD;pHwifhu aemufydkif;wGif ADAD,ef;&Sd&m axmif wGi;f tusOf;cef;av;qDo‹kd oGm;a&mufay;ydc‹k o hJ nf? oltaejzifh OD;apm. v#KdŒ0u S f owif;o,fyo ‹kd l vl,akH wmfv;kH 0r[kwaf omfvnf; OD;pHwifu h xdu k o hJ ‹kd jzpfoa,mif ta,mifaqmifaevdu k o f nf? “u|efawmf 'Dv}l uD;vlaumif;udk rSwrf w d ,f” [lI uy`wdefADAD,ef;u OD;apmxH pmjyefvdkufonfhtcgwGifrl ‚if;pmrSm ydkrdk ya[Vdqef vmavonf? OD;apmu “u|efawmfuawmh yefcsmyD” [k jyefa&;onf? xdkpum;0Suf pmwkdav;rsm;udk zwf&if;zwf&if; pHkprf;axmufvS rf;olrsm; oabmaygufpðyvmonf? OD;apmonf olwdk‹ESpfa,mufvHk;wufa&mufcJhonfh qef;jym;aom0wfpkH {nfch yH w JG ckukd &nf!e¸ ;f ajymqdak ejcif;jzpf_yD; oltquftoG,f ðyvkyfaeolrSm ADAD,ef;jzpfa-umif; vHk;0aocsmatmif ðyvkyfaejcif;jzpfonf? T od‹k yxrt}udrf pmrsm; tvJtvS,ðf yvky_f yD;aemuf ADA, D ef;onf u|efawmftpm; u|efawmfw‹kd [lI olu ‹ , kd o f l ±kww f &uf csufcsif;&nf!e¸ ;f ajymqdv k monf? -oZm wduUr&SdolwOD;jzpf[ef&Sdoludkvnf; pwifazmfjyvmonf? “u|efawmfwdk‹ 'gawG tm;vH;k udk pDpOfEidk yf gw,f? cifAsm;u t&yfjrihjf rihef ‹J vl}uD;vlaumif;udk bma-umifh rcsO;f uyfwmvJ”? OD;apmESifh ADA, D ef;wdp‹k mrsm;wGif ‘t&yfjrihjf rihef ‹J vl}uD;vlaumif;’ udk azmfjycJh-uonf? t&yfjrihfjrihfev J‹ l}uD;vlaumif;udk wdkuf±kdufqufoG,f&ef ADAD ,ef;u jyef-um;av[ef jyefpmtwkukd OD;apmxH &Jrsm;u ay;ydc‹k -hJ uonf? xkpd m && csif; em&Dydkif;twGif;rSmyif &efukef_Adwdo#aumifpDrS rpPwm *|efpwsL;0yfbif*av (John Stewart Bingley) qdkolxHodk‹ OD;apmu pmESpfapmifa&;om;ay;ydk‹vdkuf avonf? ‚if;aemuf odyfr-umrDyif OD;xGef;vSatmifonf aemufxyf _Adwdo#t&m&Sd (2) OD;udk vdrRmyg;eyfpGm ydyd&d&d vlrodatmif zrf;qD;vdkufjyefonf? Adkvfwaxmif vufeufwdkufrS b&if;*ef;tvuf (200) ESihf jynfvrf;ay:&Sd tjcm;ppfvufeuf ypPn;f odak vSmif±rkH S '\r (303) usnfqef tawmifw h ode;f apmapmydik ;f u ck;d ,l

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

r+wGif xdkt&m&Sd (2) OD; qufEG,fr+&SdaecJhonf? ‘pDtkdif'D’ taejzifh Zlvdkifvv,f rSpI ,if;vufeufcdk;,lr+rsm;udk pHkprf;axmufvS rf;&mwGif yg0ifcJhaomfvnf; txufygzrf;qD;r+ðy&mwGif olqifxm;aom axmifacsmuftwGif;odk‹ 0ifrdolrsm; udk,fwdkif TaxmifacsmufrSm rnfol‹vufcsufjzpfonfudk rnfolur# rodcJh-u acs? xkt d &m&Srd sm;xJrS wa,mufjzpfol tdE, dN -unf;wyf. ar*sm a*satrd;k (Major J.A Moore) onf trSefpifppftm;jzifh Adkvfwaxmif&Sd yifrvufeufypPnf; wdkufudk pDrHuGyfuJaeol t&m&SdwOD;jzpfonf? aemufwa,mufrSm ar*sm pD[if e&D,ef; (Major C. Henry Young) jzpfonf? olonf &efukef&Sd tdENd,-unf;wyf . v#yfppfESihf pufr+tif*sifeD,m tvkyf±HkwyfcGJ. wyfrª;tjzpf xrf;aqmifae oljzpfonf? AdkvfcsKyfwdk‹ vkyf}uHowfjzwfjcif;rcH&rD (4) &uftvdk Zlvdkifv (15) &uf ae‹wGif OD;atmifqef;onf vufeufrsm; aysmufqHk;aer+udk bk&ifcHxHodk‹ oludk,f wdik f owif;ay;ydc‹k o hJ nf? vufeufrsm; aysmufq;kH csdeEf iS fh jyefvnfawGŒ&cdS sdet f -um; tvGeftrif; tcsdefuGm[r+}uD;rm;aer+ESihf ywfoufI ol. pdk;&drfylyefr+udk txl; ojzifh xkwfazmfajymqdkcJhonf? ZGefv (24) &ufae‹wGif &Jrsm;[k ,lq&aom tzGJŒ wzGŒJonf vufeufoakd vSmif±o kH ‹kd a&muf&v dS m-uonf? yHpk w H us vufrw S rf sm; a&; xkd;xm;vsuf trSeftuefjzpfyHk&aom pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;jzihf xdktzGJŒu vufeuf rsm;udk xkwf,loGm;cJhonf? 6 xdktwkta,mif&JtzGJŒonf &JwyfzGJŒ. ,mOfudk roHk; bJ trSww f q H yd rf yg&Sad om x&yfum;wpD;udk toH;k ðyoGm;onft h wGuf oHo,jzpf ay:apcJhonf? odak‹ omfvnf; Zlvdkifv (14) &ufae‹usrSom xdkudpPudk xdyfydkif;tm %mydik rf sm; odc&hJ onf? vufeufrsm;um; aysmufomG ;cJah v_yD? oda‹k omf ,if;vuf eufrsm; rnfov ‹l uf0,f&adS eonfurkd l &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif;rod&acs? olwu ‹kd kd ppfaq;ar;jref;&mwGif olEiS hf OD;apm qufE, G rf &+ adS eonfukd ar*sm ,ef;u tvG,fwulyif 0efcHcJhonf? *VKefwyf. t}uD;tuJjzpfaom OD;apmESihf tif;vsm;uefjcm;vsuf olaexkid cf o hJ nf? OD;apmonf ar*sm,ef;ESifh tcsdet f awmf -um-um}uD; eD;eD;uyfuyf qufo, G rf &+ cdS o hJ nf? wcsed w f iG f at'Dvrf;&Sd ol‹ aetdrYf usif;yaom ygwDyGJodk‹ ,if;_Adwdo#t&m&Sd wufa&mufcJhzl;onf? xkdygwDyGJodk‹ ADAD ,ef;vnf; a&muf&cdS o hJ nf? xdyk gwDyYJG OD;apmESifh _Adwo d #aumifprD S ‘bif*av’ qdk oludk ar*sm,ef;u rdwfqufay;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? xkdodka‹ wGŒqHk&mwGif bif*avu OD;apmudk “u|efawmfwdk‹ cifAsm;udk tjynfht0ulnDzdk‹ jyifqifxm;_yD;yg_yD” [k toH us,f}uD;jzifh tmrcHcsufay;cJha-umif; ,ef;u ajymqdkcJhonf?

OD;xGef;vSatmifonf ADAD,ef;xH OD;apmu ay;ydak‹ om v#KdŒ0SufoauFwjzifh a&;xm;onfh rdwWLrsm;udk _Adwdo#ar*smtm; jyvdkufonf? ar*sm,ef;onf tHh-o avmufatmifyif Tv#KdŒ0Sufqef;-u,fr+udk ajz&Sif;jyawmhonf? Û ‘wap>u nwdkif; axmheif;axmheif;jzpfaeonf’ = ar*sm,ef;u olt ‹ drf rSm axmheif;axmheif;jzpfaeaom wap>tajcmufc&H onf[k emrnf}uD;aea-umif; &Si;f jyonf? Û ‘iSufaysmoD;tpdrf;eJ‹ {nfhcH’ = OD;apm. ygwDyGJwGif wnfcif;{nfhcHaom iSuaf ysmoD; trsKd;tpm;jzpfonfh tpdr;f a&mif oD;ar$;iSuaf ysmoD; t&Snrf sm;udk qdk vkjd cif;jzpfonf? Û ‘oHy&k m&nfrmS a';Apf. tcspfq;kH ’ = onf a';ApfrmS tjcm;olr[kwb f J _Adwo d #ar*sm. om;ti,fjzpfonf? olonf oHy&k m&nfukd óuduEf pS o f uf_yD; ygwD yGrJ sm;wGif ,if;udo k m ESpEf pS òf cduòf cduf aomufo;kH oljzpfonf? ppfaq;ar;jref;r+um; _yD;pD;oGm;aomtcg OD;xGe;f vSatmifonf ol±‹ ;kH cef;od‹k jyef_y;D tH-h op&maumif;vSaom xkwaf zmfawGŒ&rdS r+ sm;tay: jyefvnf pOf;pm;oH;k oyf onf? pGypf x JG u dk af om vufnKd‡ ;onf ‘bif*av’ qDo‹kd xd;k vsu&f adS eav_y?D olonf jrefrmtrsm;pkxuf udk,fcE<mjrihfrm;onfrSm aocsmonf? uy`wdefADAD,ef;. pmwapmifxw J iG f yg&Sad om “t&yfcyfjrihjf rihef ‹J vl}uD;vlaumif;” qdo k nfrmS olu ‹ kd &nf!e¸ ;f ajymqdjk cif;jzpfygovm;? tjcm;t&yfjriho f rl sm;vnf; trsm;tjym;&Sad e&m OD;xGe;f vSatmifonf Ttqifw h iG f wdw d u d sus twyfaumufcsurf csEikd af o;acs? xdt k csdew f iG f tif;pde&f dS txl;cH±k ;kH wGiv f nf; -um;emppfaq;r+rsm; qufvuf ðyvkyfvsuf&Sdonf? b!Gef‹u bk&ifhoufao azmfaumiftjzpf tcsKdŒxl;jcm;aom 0efccH sufrsm;udk azmfxw k v f suf&o dS nf? olonf OD;apm. rsKd;cspfygwD0ifjzpfvm_yD; aemuf vufeufrsm;/ cJ,rf;rD;ausmufrsm; pkaqmif;&efESihf &efyHkaiG&Sm&ef wm0ef oHk;&yf olu ‹ dk tay;cHcJh&onf? ZGefv (24) &ufae‹wGif Adkvfwaxmifyifr ppfvuf eufypPnf;wdkufrS b&if;*ef; tvuf (200) xkwf,loGm;olrSm oljzpfa-umif; b!Gef‹u xkwfazmfvdkufonf? xkdvufeufrsm;udk oHk;wefwif avmf&Dum;jzifh w}udrw f nf;wif_yD; OD;apm. at'Dvrf;aetdro f ‹kd olarmif;ydc‹k ahJ -umif; olu ajym qdv k u dk o f nf? aemufw}udrw f iG v f nf; jynfvrf;ay:&Sd tjcm; vufeufoakd vSmif±kH wckrS '\r (303) usnfqHtawmifh wodef;wdwdudk oloGm;a&muf,laqmifcJh& a-umif; 0efcHonf? Zlvdkifv (20) &ufae‹wGif OD;apm. tdrfaemufbufuefxJrS awGŒ&&dS aom tvHyk w d af owWmrsm;xJ&dS usnq f efrsm;rSm Txkw, f v l mr+ taxmuf

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v#KdŒ0Suq f ef;-u,fjcif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

txm;rsm; jzpfayonf? 0efccH sufEiS fh awGŒ&rdS w + r‹kd mS tH0ifciG u f sjzpfaeygonf? OD;apmZeD;onf. wlawmfol cifarmif&ifuvnf; qyfr&Sif;*ef;wvuf/ tar&duef umbdik o f ;kH vuf/ pwif;*ef;wvuf/ awmfr*D ef; (2) vuf/ vsL*gypPwkd wvuf/ ajcmufvHk;jyL; (2) vufESihf usnfqefrsm; 0,f,l&ef ar*sm,ef;qdkol ESihf qufoG,fr+ ðyvkyfcJha-umif; aemufqHk;wGif 0efcHcsufay;avonf? ar*smrdk;/ uy`wdef ADAD,ef;wdEk‹ Sihf OD;apm qufoG,fr+&SdyHk vufeufESifh cJ,rf;rD;ausmufwdkuf rsm;rS b&if;*ef;ESifh usnq f efrsm; rnfor‹kd nfyckH ;kd ,lcyhJ /kH ,if;wdu ‹k kd *VKefwyfzŒJG0ifrsm; &Sdaom c±kdiftwGif; jzefa‹ 0xm;yHkESihf OD;apmtdrfab;&Sd a&uefxJwGif 0Sufxm;yHkwdk‹ udk cifarmif&ifu ajymjyavonf? ukuUdKif;vrf;ay:&Sd ol (OD;apm) ydkif ajruGufay:wGif wnf&Sdaom ppfwyf o,f,lydka‹ qmifa&;pcef;. wm0efcHrSmvnf; ar*sm,ef;jzpfa-umif; cifarmif&if k x l rH S py&if; u xyfrx H w k af zmfjyefonf? 7 xd‹k jyif ar*smvefp‹ f (Major Lance) qdo f vuf zD;vf ±kid zf ,f (Springfield Rifle) wvuf/ awmfr*D ef; (2) vufEiS hf umbkid w wdu ‹k kd OD;apm&&Scd ahJ -umif;vnf; olu qufvufxw k af zmfonf? xkt d &m&S. d trnf tjynft h pHrk mS ar*smyDwm tm;eufpf vefp‹ af vmh'ed ;f (Major Peter Ernest Lancelot Daine) jzpf_yD;/ olonf urm&Gwf a&mfbmpuf±Hkab;&Sd bef*vdk ESpfxyftdrfwGif aexkid cf o hJ nf? OD;apmonf xdkbef*vdktdrfodk‹ r-umc% tvnfoGm;cJhzl;onf? ar*sm'def; onf jrefrmhppfOD;pD;XmecsKyf/ axmufvS rf;a&;wyfwGif wm0efxrf;aqmifae_yD; &efukefajrmufbuf&Sd r*Fvm'Hk yifrppfvufeufypPnf;odkavSmif±Hk. wyfr;ª vnf; jzpfonf? Todk‹ jzihf ar*sm,ef;ESifh ar*sm'def;wdo k‹ nf OD;atmifqef;wdt k‹ m; vkyf}uH owfjzwfrw + iG f ypfcwftoH;k ðycJah om vufeufrsm;udk OD;apmtm; ay;tyfcahJ -umif; ,H-k unfavmufonfh ckid rf maom ta-umif;tcsufwu ‹kd kd &&Scd o hJ nf[k cH±k ;kH awmfu azmfjyEkdifcJhonf? AdkvfwaxmifESihf tjcm;vufeufodkavSmif±Hkwdk‹rS vufeufrsm; &,lEikd af &;twGuf uy`wed Af AD , D ef;u &JtzGŒJ . pm&Gupf mwrf;twkrsm; ðyvkyaf y; cJhonf? ADAD,ef;onf &efukef zdkufcsf&dyfom (Fytche Flats) wGif aexdkifvsuf&Sd&m ,if;wdkufcef;rsm;wGif tjcm; _Adwdo#t&m&Sdi,frsm;ESihf a'ocHpD;yGm;a&;orm; tcsKdŒvnf; aexkdifvsuf&Sd-uonf? ,if;pD;yGm;a&;orm;rsm;txJrS rmvf[dkx&m (Malhotra) qdkolonf ,if;t&m&Sdrsm;ESihfvnf;aumif;/ OD;apmESifhvnf;aumif; txl;tu|rf;w0if &Syd &kH avonf? tdE, dN tEG,jf zpfol rmvf[x kd &monf _Adwo d # ukr`%Dwckjzpfonfh vDvf tif ukr`%D (Leele & Co) wGif tvkyfvkyfvsuf&Sd_yD;

ar*sm'def;ESihf txl;ojzifh eD;pyfr+&Sdonf? _Adwdo#aiGa&;a-u;a&; tusKd;pD;yGm;udk vdv k m;aom _Aw d o d #t&m&Sid ,frsm;onf OD;apmudk axmufc-H u_y;D &efuek u f ek o f nf todkif;t0kdif;tcsKdŒae&mrsm;wGif OD;atmifqef;. vuf0J,drf;aom tawG;tac: rsm;a-umihf pdwfuoduatmufjzpfvsuf&Sd-u&m OD;atmifqef;tm; qef‹usifðy vkyf&ef OD;apmudk aoG;xdk;ay;cJhyHk&onf[laom t,ltqtm; Ttcsuftvuf rsm;u twnfðyay;ovdk jzpfaeavonf? OD;atmifqef;tm; qefu ‹ sifaom r[mrdwftpdwftydkif;w&yftjzpf zGJŒpnf; xm;aom tjcm; vusfmEdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;vnf; &Sdao;onf? jrefrmjynfudk *syef odrf;,lxm;pOfu *syef±kyfao;tpdk;&. EdkifiHt"dywdjzpfcJhol a'gufwmbarmfrSm vnf; xdo k rl sm;xJwiG f wa,muftygt0ifjzpfonf? vky}f uHowfjzwfr+ jzpfymG ;_yD; v#if_yD;csif; OD;xGe;f vSatmif vku d v f zH rf;qD;xm;aom oHo,t&Scd &H ol vl (800) xJwGif olvnf; ygavonf? xdk‹twl tjcm;EdkifiHa&;orm;a[mif;wOD;rSm ocif Apdejf zpf_y;D olonf ocifxeG ;f tkyEf iS t fh wl &Jabmfo;kH usyd . f e,fcsŒJt*Fvyd t f m; qef‹ usifaom (*smr%D/ tDwvD/ *syef) 0if±kd;wef; vdkvm;ol (pro-Axis faction) udk acgif;aqmifr+ay;cJhonf? ‚if;wdkt ‹ kyfpkonf OD;atmifqef;ESihf Akdvfvusfmwdk‹ acgif; aqmifaom ‘ocifu, kd af wmfrid+ ;f tkypf ’k ESifh qefu ‹ sifbufjzpfonf? ocifxeG ;f tkyf onf olESihftwlvkdufygrnfh ol‹ -oZmcH jrefrmrsKd;cspfvli,f (11) a,mufudk OD;aqmifI aemufq;kH tokwt f jzpf *syefo‹kd a&muf&o dS mG ;cJo h nf? ,if;tokww f iG f ocif±a+ rmifac: Adv k af e0if;onfvnf; ygvmcJo h nf? txufyg vusmf Edik if aH &;orm;rsm;onf twlwuGpak ygif;um vusmf tpGe;f a&muftkyfpktjzpf zGJŒpnf;vdkuf_yD; ,if;tkyfpkonf OD;apmESihfvnf;aumif;/ EdkifiH jcm; pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;&Sifrsm;ESihfvnf;aumif; eD;uyfpGm qufoG,fr+&SdcJhonf? xkd‹ a-umifh olwo ‹kd nf OD;atmifqef;. òydib f ufrsm;jzpfonfrmS oHo,&Spd &mrvdak y? ,if;Ekid if aH &;orm;wOD;pDonf Ekid if jH cm;pd;k rd;k r+rS vGwaf jrmufa&;&&S&d efEiS hf _Adwo d # tkyfpdk;r+ae&mY olwu dk‹ dk,fwdkif tpm;xkd;0ifa&muf&ef wdkif;jynfudk acgif;aqmifvdk -uolrsm;jzpf-uonf? od&‹k mwGif olwu ‹kd kd ppfaq;ar;jref;&mYvnf; OD;atmifqef; tm; vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+wGif olwdk‹ tquftpyf&Sdaeonfh oufaocH tckdiftrm rxGuaf y:cJah cs? od‹k jzpfI olwu ‹kd kd jyefvw $ af y;cJ&h onf? OD;xGef;vSatmifu apv$wfxm;aom Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹u vlowfo rm;rsm;. um;ESihf um;wkdufr+jzpfvkeD;yg;jzpfcJhaom OD;apm. tdrfeD;csif; uy`wdef cef; }uD;-uyfonfh t&yf0wf&aJ xmufvSr;f a&;orm;rsm;u oHo,&Sad om _Aw d o d #

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v#KdŒ0Suq f ef;-u,fjcif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

t&m&Sdrsm;. v+yf&Sm;r+rsm;udk tcsdeftwef-um teD;uyfapmihf-uyf-unfh±+aecJh onf? OD;apmaetdrf. tjcm;wbufESihf tif;vsm;uef. u|ef;qG,furf;pyfrsm; ay:wGif ig;r#m;orm;toGif yHzk sux f m;-uaom uy`wed cf ef;. vlrsm;onf vky}f uH owfjzwfrr+ jzpfymG ;rDu OD;apm_cHtwGi;f vlt0iftxGuf v+y&f mS ;r+rsm;udk teD;uyf apmih-f uyf-unf±h a+ ecJ-h uonf? olwo ‹kd nf x&yfum;rsm; t0iftxGuEf iS fh av;vH aom ypPnf;rsm; _cHtwGif; cscJhonfrsm;udk owdxm;rdcJh-uonf? odk‹aomfvnf; xdt k csdeu f rnfuo hJ a‹kd om ypPn;f rsm; o,fy;kd aeonfukd rnforl # twdtusrod&dS cJ-h uacs? u|efawmf. a,muQrjzpfol w&m;ol}uD; OD;aomif;pdefu aemufydkif;wGif u|efawmhu f kd Tod‹k jyefajymjycJo h nf? “jrefrmpum;rSm pdeu f kd pdeu f yJ jzwfEidk w f ,f vd‹k qdx k m;w,f? OD;xGe;f vSatmif[m wcsdeu f *VKefwyf&ŒJ wyfr;ª }uD;wOD;jzpfcw hJ hJ OD;apmtwGufawmh w&m;Oya'udk qef‹usif_yD; oloGm;r,fhvrf;rSm tkwfwHwkdif; }uD;wckygyJ” [kyifjzpfonf? OD;apmESihf ola‹ emufvu kd rf sm; rnfr#^m%frsm;I rnfuo hJ ‹kd pDpOfonfjzpfap æ olwdk‹aoaocsmcsmrodonfrSm olwdk‹twGuf qef‹usifbuf (w&m;Oya' buf awmfom;) &efo}l uD;wa,muf &Sad eonft h csufyifjzpfavonf? d f bk&ifcH qm[l;bwf&efp‹ f (Sir Hubert Rance) onf vef'efo‹kd a-u;eef;±ku vdkufonf? “tcsKdŒaom twdkuftcH EkdifiHa&;orm;awGu vufeufrsm;udk cdk;,l pkaqmif;_yD;/ wpwp vufeufudkifxºuGr+vrf;a-umif;twGuf jyifqifoGm;_yD;/ tm%mudk wdkufcdkuf&,loGm;vdrfhr,fvdk‹ u|efawmfjrifrdygw,f” [k jzpf.? OD;apmtaejzifh uy`wdefADAD,ef;/ ar*sm,ef;/ ar*sm'def;ESihf tjcm;pdwfwl oabmwl _Adwo d #t&m&Srd sm;. tultnDrsm;udk &,lEikd af jcvnf;&Sad eav_yD? jynf wGif;ppfudk zefwD;Edkifonfh vufeuftvHktavmufvnf; OD;apmESihf ol‹*dk%f;wGif &Sdaeav_yD? OD;apm_cH0if;twGif; tcsdefESihftr# ðyvkyfaeaom wdwfwqdwfv+yf &Sm;r+rsm;udkvnf; aoewform; ciffarmif&ifu w&m;±Hk;awmfwGif Zmwfa-umif; jyefjycJhonf? ar*sm,ef;.tdrfrSm ajrjyifvrf;rS oGm;v#if (4) rdkifr#a0;aomfvnf; avSjzifh avSmo f mG ;v#if em&D0ufc&D;omjzpfonf? olEiS fh ol&‹ aJ bmfrsm;onf avSjzifh (7) acguf/ (8) acgufcefo ‹ Gm;cJh_yD; uefudkjzwfI vufeufrsm; o,fycdk‹ Jha-umif; cif armif&ifu xGuq f ckd o hJ nf? uef.w0ufcefa‹ vmufwiG f &Sad om uAifu|e;f (Cabin hf 0;I olw‹kd aoewfypfavhusih&f m pcef;wckjzpfco hJ nf? Island) rSmvnf; urf;ESia pdwful;,Ofvsuf rnfonfhtpDtpOfudk olwdk‹ óudwifa&;qGJcJhonfjzpfap/

OD;atmifqef;vkyf}uHowfjzwfcH&_yD; aemufqufwGJ tusKd;quftjzpf ,if;tpD tpOfrsm; ysuo f Ok ;f cJ&h avawmhonf? OD;apmonfvnf; Ekid if ahH cgif;aqmifjzpfrvm? olonf w&m;±H;k p&dwrf sm;ay;&efEiS fh tu,fI ar#mv f ifch su&f cdS v hJ #if olvw G af jrmuf a&;udk aiGjzif0h ,f,&l ef csufcsif;vufiif; aiGvt kd yfaeaom pdwyf sufz, G f tusOf; om;wOD;omjzpfvmcJo h nf? od‹k jzpfonft h avsmuf rEœav;&Sd csrf;omºuG,0f aom rdwaf qGwOD;xH pmwapmifa&;om;cJo h nf? OD;xGe;f vSatmifonf xko d u l kd csucf si;f zrf;qD;xm;vdkufonf? OD;apmonf tvm;wlarwWm&yfcHr+rsm;udk wjynfvHk;&Sd ol‹aemufvdkufrsm;xH ay;ydk‹cJhonf? xdkolrsm;udkvnf; tvm;wl xdef;odrf;xm; vku d o f nf? rwwfomonfhtqHk; OD;apmonf owdxm;a&Smif-uOf&rnfrsm;udkyif *±k rpdu k Ef ikd af wmhbJ ‘bif*av’ xHo‹kd ajymifajymifwif;wif;yif pma&;vku d af wmhonf? xkdpmY olwdk‹. tcsdef;tcsufae&mrsm;ESihf em;vnfxm;r+rsm;udk tusOf;csKH;azmf jyxm;_yD; olonf aiGa&;a-u;a&;tusyftwnf; jzpfaea-umif;ESihf aiGtjrefvdk a-umif; a&;om;xm;onf? jrefrmhxHk;pHtwkdif;yif wbufom;udk pdwftaESmihf t,Sufray;vdka-umif;vnf; jznfhpGufa&;om;xm;onf? odk‹&mwGif tjref ta-umif;jyef&efum; olu awmif;qdkxm;avonf? axmifrS vGwfvmcgp axmifxGufwOD;yHkpH yHkzsufxm;aom ykvdyfwOD;udk &efukef&Sd ‘bif*av’ aexdkif&m tdrfodk‹ udk,fwdkifudk,fus ,if;pmukd oGm;ay;cdkif; vdu k o f nf? ‘bif*av’ u pmtdwu f kd ,lvu kd _f y;D zGiafh zmufvu kd u f m pmo,faqmif vmoltm; ,H-k unfrt + jynfh xm;&So d nfyh pkH rH sKd;jzifh bif*avonf ola‹ &SŒwiG yf if pm udk us,fus,favmifavmif toHxGufzwfvdkufonf? bif*avhrsufESmrSm pmudk zwf&if; toHwdk;oGm;vsuf aoG;rsm; csufcsif;qkwf,kwfoGm;onf? olonf pmudk tydkif;ydkif; tppjzpfatmif csufcsif;qkwf_zJvdkuf_yD; xdkpm&Guftptersm;udk vuf xJuikd x f m;&if; twGi;f cef;od‹k tjref0ifomG ;onf? xdt k cdu k f axmifxu G [ f efaqmif xm;ol &Jom;onf tdro f m a&qGcJ svu kd o f -H um;vdu k &f onf? bif*avonf wHcg; rS jyefxu G v f m_yD;æ “rif;'Dae&mu xGuo f mG ;/ csufcsif;xGuo f mG ;” [k olu ‹ kd atmf [pf&if; armif;xkwfvdkufonf? ueOD;od&&dS aom taxmuftxm;rsm;u bif*avESifh OD;apmonf qufqH a&; tvGefaumif;cJha-umif; jyqdkaeonf? OD;apmonf -o*kwfv (22) ESihf (23) &ufae‹txd ae‹pGJrsm; wyfxm;aom pmESpfapmif bif*avxH a&;cJhonf? olonf aiGxyfrHawmif;qdkvdkuf_yD; uy`wdefADAD,ef;[k ,lqolwOD;udkvnf; ‘VV’ [k pm

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v#KdŒ0Suq f ef;-u,fjcif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

xJwGif &nf!¸ef;azmfjycJhonf? xdkpmrsm;u ol‹vGwfajrmufa&;ar#mfvifhcsufudk ajymqdkcJh±Hkomru jynfwGif;ESifhjynfy EdkifiHwum&Sd ±kdufcwfr+rsm;jzpfoGm;apEkdif aom xkwaf zmfrr+ sm; ðyvkyrf nfh _cdr;f ajcmufrr+ sm;yifv#if yg&Sv d mcJo h nf? OD;apmu pmo,faqmifvmolukd ,H-k unfpw d cf s&a-umif;vnf; bif*avudk tmrcHcsuaf y; xm;onf? xka‹d emufyikd ;f bif*avonf pmrsm;udk rnfonft h cgr# &&Sjd cif;r&Sad wmhacs? ykvyd w f yfzŒJGu aemufxyfpmwapmifukd bif*avxHomG ;ay;zd&‹k ef pmo,faqmifol tm; trdef‹ay;cJhpOfu xdkolonf bif*avtdrfodk‹ta&mufwGif ol‹udk pdwfwdk[ef wlaeaom t*FvdyfvlrsKd;wOD;u ab;odk‹wGef;xkwfypfcJhonf? bif*avonf ol‹ ypPnf;rsm;udk odrf;qnf;_yD; ol‹aetdrfrS urf;em;vrf;[dkw,fodk‹ csufcsif;ajymif; a&$ŒoGm;um urf;em;[kdw,fwGif wnwmae_yD;aemuf tapmqHk;&Edkifrnfh (bDtdk atpD) a&jyifqif;av,mOfysH (Flying Boat) jzihf jrefrmjynfrS xGucf mG rnfjzpfonf? xdak v,mOfyso H nf aemufae‹eeH ufwiG f xGucf mG ayawmhrnf? OD;xGe;f vSatmifonf jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD; OD;ausmf_idr;f tm; ,if;udpt P m; tvsiftjref tpD&ifcv H u dk o f nf? OD;ausmf_idrf;u csufcsif;yif bk&ifcH qm[l;bwf&efp‹ fESihf oGm;a&mufawGŒqHkonf? OD;ausmf_idrf;u ‘bif*av’ udk ykvdyfrsm;u pHkprf;ppfaq;Ekdifa&;twGuf csufcsif; zrf;qD;&ef awmif;qdkvdkufonf? odka‹ omfvnf; bk&ifcHu oabmrwlacs? jrefrm Edik if . H tvGecf spfjrwfE;kd jcif;cH&aom acgif;aqmifrsm; vky}f uHowfjzwfrw + iG f _Adwd o#wdk‹ yg0ifaeonf[laom jzpfEkdifajc&Sdonfh owif;tpte xGufay:oGm;ygu jrefrmEdik if w H iG &f adS eaom Oa&myvlrsK;d pkrsm;tay: t-urf;zuf pD;eif;wdu k cf u kd rf r+ sm;/ vufpm;acsrr+ sm; jzpfay:vmEdik o f nft h a&;udk bk&ifcu H awG;awmpd;k &draf eyH&k onf? olu OD;ausmf_idrf;udk oHo,&Sdaeaom xkdt&m&Sd}uD;tm; tenf;qHk; avmavm q,ftm;jzifh ta&;r,l&ef ajymqdkcJhonf? xku d o hJ ‹kd jzpfcahJ omfvnf; OD;xGe;f vSatmiftaejzifh ‘bif*av’ udk ola‹ etdrf rS ra&$Œajymif;rD oGm;a&mufawGŒqHkcGihf&cJhonf? awGŒqHkr+onf (5) em&Dcef‹ -umjrihf cJo h nf? pdwv f y+ &f mS ;aeaom bif*avonf rnfonft h &mudrk # xkwaf zmfcjhJ cif; r&Sd cJah cs? bif*avtaejzifh OD;apm pmrsm;ukd wk‹H jyef&ef óud;pm;cJyh v kH nf;r&[k OD;xGe;f vSatmifu aumufcsufcscJhonf? &uftwef-umaomtcg urf;em;&Sd a&jyifqif;av,mOfysH qdu k u f yfxm;&m qdycf w H w H m;ay:od‹k vufqt JG 0wfaowWmrsm;qGv J suf ‘bif*av’ wufvmaomt cg OD;xGef;vSatmifonf ol‹qDokd‹ at;aq;_idrfoufpGm av#mufoGm;vkdufonf?

olt ‹ usôtdwfxJwGif OD;apmu bif*avxH aemufqHk;a&;om;xm;_yD; ray;&ao; onfh pmrdwWLwapmifygvmcJhonf? OD;xGef;vSatmifudk rar#mfvifhbJ awGŒvkduf& pOfuyif wkefv+yfacsmufcsm;aeaom bif*avonf &Jt&m&Sd}uD;u “cifAsm;æ 'Dvufa&;udk rSwrf yd govm;cifAsm” [lI ar;_y;D pmudjk yvku d af omtcg rsuEf mS wGif aoG;r&Sad wmhbJ jzLqGwo f mG ;avonf? OD;xGef;vSatmifu olvdkvm;onfhtwdkif; zrf;qD;EdkifcGihftm%m ,ck ol‹rSm &S_d yjD zpfa-umif; ajymjyvku d o f nf? ‘bif*av’ onf a-umufvefw ‹ ek v f y+ o f mG ;onf? “u|efawmhfrSm oHwrefqdkif&m tumtuG,f&Sdw,f? cifAsm;= u|efawmfhudk zrf;&ifvJ u|efawmf bk&ifcHqD toem;cHEkdifao;wmyJ” [k olu jyefajymonf? xkt d cg OD;xGe;f vSatmifuæ“bk&ifcu H 'Dupd rP mS odyt f a&;}uD;w,fv‹kd xif &if óudufovdk ta&;,lEdkifwJh tcGifhta&; OD;Ek&JŒ ,m,Dtpdk;&udk ay;xm;_yD; jzpf ygw,f” [k at;aq;odraf rGŒpmG jyefajymvku d o f nf? Tod‹k ‘bif*av’ udk xdyw f u kd &f ifqikd af wGŒonfh OD;xGe;f vSatmif. &nf&, G f csufrSm &efukef&Sd _Adwdo#aumifpD. t}uD;tuJESihf (OD;atmifqef;ESihf trsKd;om; acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;tm;) vufawGŒtaumiftxnfazmf vkyf}uHowfjzwfcJhol rsm;t-um;&Sdaeaom uGif;qufudk oHo,uif;pGm qufpyfjy&ef óud;pm;jcif;om jzpfavonf? aemufq;kH Y OD;xGe;f vSatmifu bif*avudk jrefrmEkid if aH jray:od‹k rnf onfhtcgr# ajcrcsawmh&ef &nfrGef±kd;om;pGm owday;vdkufonf? bif*avonf bDtdkatpD a&jyifqif;av,mOfysHay:odk‹ tvsiftjrefwufoGm;_yD;aemuf ,ae‹t xd rnfonft h cgr# olt ‹ a-umif;r-um;&awmhacs? bif*av jrefrmjynfrS xGucf mG oGm;cJo h nfh &ufrmS 1947 ckEpS /f pufwifbmv (4) &ufae‹ jzpfonf? xda‹k emufyikd ;f olu ‹ -H urRmESio fh l rnfonft h &yfa'ood‹k a&mufomG ;_yD; rnfor‹kd nfykH jzpfysucf o hJ nf rsm;rSmrl rnforl #rodEikd af wmhaom v#KdŒ0u S q f ef;-u,fry+ ifjzpfaeayawmhonf? 8 xdktcsdefY OD;apmonf jyifywGif jzpfysufaeonfrsm;udk vHk;0rod&SdcJhacs? tif;pdeaf xmiftwGi;f &Sd olt ‹ cef;av;ESifh teD;&Sd w&m;±H;k tcef;wdo ‹k nfom olu ‹ rBm av;jzpfaeawmhonf? zrf;qD;cHae&pOfumvrSmyif OD;apm. wufºuGaom tif tm;wdk‹rSm ododomomqkwf,kwfvsuf&Sdaeonf? vGwfajrmuf&ef ar#mfvihfcsuf rSefor#rSmvnf; vsifjrefpGm usqif;vsuf&Sdonf? ol‹udk 'kuQay;onfrSm axmif usaeonfh tcsufoufoufwckwnf;awmhr[kwfacs? olonf ,cifu axmif uscJzh ;l onf? jrefrmEkid if u H kd *syef0ifa&muford ;f ydu k x f m;pOfumvwckv;kH (t*Fvef rS jrefrmEkdifiHodk‹tjyef) ,l*ef'gwGif olonf (4) ESpfwm tusOf;uscHaecJh&onf?

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v#KdŒ0Suq f ef;-u,fjcif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

urBmppf}uD;_yD;oGm;_yD;onfhaemufwGifvnf; wkdif;jynfqlylxºuGatmif v+Ha‹ qmfr+ jzifh axmiftwGi;f acwWtem;,lc&hJ ao;onf? vlowfrj+ zihf wOD;csi;f pDY tjypf&adS e aom ol‹rdcif.armif (9) a,mufvHk;udk w&m;v$wfawmfw&m;±Hk;Y t,lcH0if_yD; tm;vHk;vGwfajrmufcJhonfudkvnf; ol. EdkifiHa&;w&m;yGJrsm;wGif olu t_rJ 0gºuGm;ajymqdak vh&o dS nf? Toda‹k om ol&owWjd yoEdik rf r+ sm;rSm ,cktcg twdww f iG f usef&pfcJhav_yD? Tw}udrfwGifrl OD;apmtaejzifh tjypfrSausat;cGihfv$wf&ef aomfvnf;aumif;/ oem;-uifempGm tjypfukd av#mah yghpOf;pm;&efaomf vnf;aumif; ar#mv f ifEh ikd af wmhrnfr[kwaf wmhacs? OD;apmonf uy`wdefADAD,ef;xH pmxyfrHa&;jyefonf? Tw}udrfwGifrl yGifhyGihfvif;vif;yifa&;onf? Todka‹ &;om;vmjcif;rSm aemufqHk; rvkyfrjzpfonfh tajctae/ odrk‹ [kwf ar#mfvifhcsufqHk;±+H;aeonfhtajctae/ odrk‹ [kwf ESpf&yfvHk; a-umifhvnf; jzpfEkdifajc&Sdayonf? pmwapmifwGif OD;apmu ADAD,ef;udk ol‹tae jzihf jrefrmEdkifiHjyifywGif rnfonfhae&mwGif cdkv+HEdkifrnfenf;[k ar;jref;xm;onf? ADAD,ef;u tdENd,urf;±kd;wef;&Sd ay:wl*Dydkife,fajrjzpfonfh ‘*dktm’ tdENd,jynf e,fwGif jzpfEkdifa-umif; raorcsm ra&&mvSpGm jyefvnft}uH^m%fay;ajz-um; cJhonf? ,if;ae&monf olESihf yl;aygif;}uHpnfolrsm;twGuf cdkv+H&ef oufqdkifol rsm;u a&G;cs,fxm;onfah e&mjzpfygovm;? rnforl # twwfrodEidk af cs? ADA, D ef; onf rnfodk‹aomtaetxm;wGifrqdk tdENd,wdkufqG,f. xdktpdwftykdif;udk aumif;pGm od&x dS m;avonf? Ttcsdeftxd ‘bif*av’ jrefrmEkdifiHrS xGufcGmoGm;onfudk OD;apmu rod acs? xkt ‹d wGuf bif*avxHrS rnfonfjh yefpmr# r&&Sad omtcg OD;apmonf axmif jyify&Sd tjcm;qufo, G &f rnfo h rl sm;udk &Sm}uHavonf? OD;apmonf v#KŒd0u S o f auFw jzihf aemufxyfpmwapmifa&;jyefonf? “tif;vsm;uefxJ ig;r&Sd” axmifr;ª }uD; OD;pHwifhonf ‚if;pmudk &efukefjrpfwbufurf;&Sd 'vòrda› v;rS vufzuf&nfqdkifydkif&Sif jrefrmukvm;ujym;wOD;xH udk,fxdvufa&mufay;&ef vufcH&&SdcJhonf? pmygowif;pum;rSm xl;qef;vSonf? OD;apm. at'Dvrf; ae tdrfESihfuyfvsuf&Sdaom tif;vsm;uefrSm ig;rsm;ESihf wif;-urf;jynfhvsuf&Sdonf? ‘ig;rr#m;&’ [laom qkid ;f bkwu f av;rsm;rSm ae&mtES&‹H adS eaomfvnf; OD;apmtdrf udk apmihf-uyf-unfh±+aeaom uy`wdefcef;. vlrsm;utp rnfolur# ,if;udk t av;wrl rvkdufem-uacs? odk‹ jzpfv#if pmygowif;pum;rSm rnfonfudk qdkvkd

ygoenf;? yHkzsufxm;aom &Jt&m&SdwOD;udk ,cktxd rod&Sd&zl;ao;onfh OD;apm. taygif;ygxH ,if;pmwkdav;udk ay;yd&k‹ ef wm0efay;tyfvkdufonf? xkdolonf pm udk zwfvu kd _f yD; OD;apmvdak om ajcmufv;kH jyL;aoewfudk olt ‹ aejzifh &&Sad tmif &Sm azGay;Ekid v f rd rhf nfrxifa-umif; tEl;t!Gwaf wmif;yefajym-um;&Smonf? 'vòrdr› S ,if;vufzuf&nfqkdifydkif&Sifudk ppfaq;ar;jref;&ef zrf;qD;vdkufonf? aemufqHk; wGif pmyg v#KdŒ0u S pf um;rSm t"dym` ,fay:vmonf? OD;apmonf Oya'jyifyrS &SmazG xm;aom vufeufrsm;udk tvHkydwfaowWm}uD;rsm;wGif xnfh_yD; tif;vsm;uefxJ Y 0Sufxm;cJhonf? ‚if;wdk‹udk tm%mydkifrsm;u &SmazGawGŒ&Sd_yD; odrf;qnf;xm;cJh _yjD zpfonf? OD;apmtaejzihf t0Su&f vG,u f al om ajcmufv;kH jyL; (od‹k) ypPwakd oewf wvufudk wae&m&mrS &&Sd&ef ta&;w}uD;vdktyfaeonf? v#KŒd0u S o f auFwpmrsm;udk t"dym` ,fziG q fh Edk ikd af omfvnf; 'vrS vufzuf&nf qdik yf ikd &f iS Ef iS hf wcsdew f nf;wGif zrf;qD;xm;olrsm;xJrS tenf;tusOf;om azmfxw k f EdkifcJhonf? rnfodk‹qdkap OD;apm. tquftoG,f uGef&ufrSm vsifjrefpGm usOf; ajrmif;vmvsuf&o dS nf? uy`wdefADAD,ef;onfyifv#if uH-urRmudk t±+H;ay;pðyvmav_yD? wae‹wGif olonf w&m;ol}uD; OD;aomif;pdeu f kd csOf;uyf_yD; olt ‹ aejzifh ajzmifch sufwckay;vdk a-umif; ajymqdck o hJ nf? OD;aomif;pdeu f þolt ‹ aejzifh olajymor#udk pmjzifh a&;om; ,lxm;Edkifaomfvnf; xdkoadk‹ om pm&Gufpmwrf;rSm twdtusqdk&v#if w&m;r0if a-umif; t}uH^m%fay;ajymqdkcJhonf? rnfodkq ‹ dkap ADAD,ef;u olTodk‹ jzpf&jcif; rSm olwdk‹u uavmòrd›wyfpcef;teD; ppfom;rsm; pD;eif;vmaom &xm;wpif;udk 1947 ckESpf/ {_yDvtwGif; rdkif;AHk;jzifh azmufcGJcH&ojzifh ol‹&Jabmftawmfrsm;rsm; toufqHk;±+H;&onfhta-umif;udk w&m;ol}uD; OD;aomif;pdeftm; aemufa-umif; vSeI f qufvufajymqdjk ycJo h nf? Toda‹k om taumuf}uHzsuq f ;D r+EiS fh ywfoufI oHo,&Scd &H olrsm;rSm ‘jynfo&‹l aJ bmf’ wyfzŒJG 0ifrsm;jzpf-u_yD; xdjk ynfo&‹l aJ bmfwyf zGJŒrSm wu,fwrf;tm;jzifh OD;atmifqef;. udk,fykdifjynfol‹ppftzGJŒ jzpfavonf? aoqHk;ol/ '%f&m&ol ppfom;rsm;rSm a0v &J*sD;rJifh. wyf&if; (2) wyfcGJ (u) rS jzpf-u_yD; a0ve,fom;jzpfol ADA, D ef;taejzihf ,if;tjzpftysuftwGuf Akv d cf sKyf atmifqef;tay:Y cg;cg;oD;oD; em-unf;cHpm;rdonfjzpf&m aemufq;kH tusK;d quf tm;jzifh olonf OD;atmifqef;. t"duòydifbuf}uD;jzpfaom OD;apmESifh r[mrdwf zGŒJ rjd cif; jzpfavawmhonf?

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147

v#KdŒ0Suq f ef;-u,fjcif;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

ADAD,ef;. pdwfv+yf&Sm;zG,f&m jyefajymif;ajymqdkcsufrsm;wGif OD;apmxHrS ,cifu ol&&SdcJhaom rsm;jym;vSonfh tcGihfta&;ay;r+rsm;ESihf aemiftem*wfwGif pD;yGm;a&;vkyfydkifcGihf/ cHpm;cGihfrsm;udkyg ay;vmrnfh uwdcH0efcsufrsm;udk zHk;uG,f xm;avonf? ADA, D ef;onf OD;apm. vkyaf zmfuikd b f ufwOD;jzpfol xdyw f ifarmif uav;ESihf avmf&Dum;o,fylyadk‹ qmifa&;vkyfief;wGif tpkpyftzGJŒ0ifwOD;jzpfonfh tavsmuf ,ckupd YP olyg0ifaejcif;rSm a0vtrsK;d om;þrsK;d csppf w d x f ufoefrx + uf TpD;yGm;bufvkyfief;uom OD;apmESifh ADAD,ef;wdk‹ qufEG,fr+. t"du aESmifóud; ta-umif;tcsufjzpfayvdrrhf nf? _Adwo d #t&m&Srd sm;udk ppfaq;ar;jref;r+rsm;u OD;atmifqef;wd‹k vky}f uHc&H r+ ESifh ywfoufI rnfonfh oufaotcdik t f rmudrk # xkwaf zmfEidk jf cif;r&Scd ahJ cs? ar*sm rdk; (Major Moore) onf w&m;±kH;wGif w&m;pGJqdkjcif; vHk;0rcHcJh&bJ ar*sm,ef; (Major Young) rSmrl axmif'%f (2) ESpf tjypfay;jcif;cHcJh&aomfvnf; t,lcHwif &mwGif jyefvw G o f mG ;_yD; jrefrmjynfrS csufcsif;xGucf mG oGm;cJah vonf? uy`wed f ADAD ,ef;onfum; axmif'%f (5) ESpEf iS fh '%faiGw&yfv#if ±ly;D (5˜000) pD '%faiGEpS f &yf csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf? odk‹aomf 1949 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&DvwGif u&ifolykefxr+ ay:aygufcJh_yD; tif;pdefòrdu › dk u&ifolykefrsm;u pD;eif;cJhpOfu &efukefajrmufbuf&Sd emrnfqdk;vSonfh tif;pdeftusOf;axmifrS tjcm;axmifusrsm;ESihftwl ADAD,ef; vnf; vGwaf jrmufomG ;cJo h nf? xda‹k emufoo l nf axmifajy;b0jzifh tjcm;oGm;&rnfh ae&mr&So d nft h wGuf aemufq;kH Y ADA, D ef;onf u&ifoyl ek rf sm;ESifh aygif;rdomG ;onf? 1950 ckESpf/ -o*kwfvwGif xkdif;e,fpyf&Sd aumhu&dwfY u&ifolykef acgif; aqmif apmbOD;}uD;ESihftwl ADAD,ef;vnf; towfcHvdkuf&onf[k &efukefrS ppf wyftm%mydik rf sm;u ,lqae-uqJjzpfonf? olonf u&ifaomif;usef;olrsm;ESifh ESpftawmf-umaexkdifcJh_yD; 1950 ckESpfrsm;tv,fwGif ,dk;',m;rSwqihf _Adwdefodk‹ jyefvnfa&muf&o dS mG ;cJo h nf? ajratmufwiG f aexkid pf OfumvY Txl;qef;vSaom _Adwdo#uy`wdefESihf eD;eD;uyfuyf&SdcJh-uaom u&ifolykefrsm;taejzifh olt ‹ m; t_rJ ai;idik u f m rdwaf qGzŒJG&efcufcaJ om vlwa,muftjzpfvnf;aumif;/ OD;atmifqef; wdu ‹k þkd vky}f uHowfjzwfrE+ iS þfh ywfoufaomþrnfonft h a-umif;t&mudrk #þajymqdv k kd 9 pdwf tv#if;r&SdolwOD;tjzpfvnf;aumif; rSwfrdae-uonf? odk‹ jzpfv#if TudpPY _Adwdo#wdk‹ rnfr#avmuf eufeufeJeJ yg0ifywfouf d csdeu f jrefrmawmfawmfrsm;rsm; t±k;d cH,-kH unf-uouJo h ‹kd cJyh goenf;? 10/ 11/ 12xkt OD;atmifqef;tm; z,f&mS ;I olwv ‹kd ufa0udck _H yD; olwt ‹kd m; rvSerf nfo h w l OD;tm;

tpm;xk;d Ekid &f ef vef'ef &Sd tm%mydik &f yfuu G rf sm;rS 13 pDro H nfh yl;aygif;}uHpnfrw + &yf jzpfygovm;? odrk‹ [kwfygu ADAD,ef;/ 'def;/ ,ef;ESihf rdk;wdv k‹ dk vlrsKd;rsm;onf yk*~vd u vufeufarSmifcdkorm;rsm;ESihf rdrdwb dk‹ mom pGepf‹ Gepf‹ m;pm;vkyfvdkolrsm;om jzpf -uygovm;? xdt ‹k jyif ‘bif*av’ qdo k rl mS twdtus rnforl nf0gjzpfygoenf;´? OD;apmESihf ol. vufyg;aprsm;udk zrf;qD;jcif;/ ±Hk;wifppfaq;jcif;rsm;onf rnf r#avmuf aoaooyfoyf/ pepfwusESihf u|rf;usifvdrRmpGm aqmif&GufcJhonf jzpfapumrl ,if;tr+}uD;wckvHk;onf rsufpdwqHk; jrifEdkifavmuf±Hkxuf tq aygif;rsm;pGm ydrk ±kd y+ af xG;ywfoufrr+ sm; &SEd ikd cf ahJ yvdrrhf nf?

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Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô

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uifbm&mòrd›awmfY 'Drdkua&pDvdkvm;olrsm; qENjy&mwGif cifOD;atmifESihf xGef;vSatmifwdk‹ wyfOD;rS yg0ifcsDwuf-upOf (1996)?

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

a&wyfAv kd af v;cifatmif/ _Adwo d # t&efa&wyf (1945)? (1945 rS 1952/ _Adwdo# t&efa&wyfESifh Armh a &wyf r awmf (t_rJ w rf ; ) t&m&Sd tr+xrf;cJhonf?)

1991/ -opa-w;vsjynf/ uifbm&mòrd›awmf ‘8=av;vHk;’ vlowfyGJ ta&;awmfyHk qENjy&mwGif OD;cifatmifESihftwl apmvGifOD;wdk‹tm; SLORC oH±Hk;a&SŒwGif awGŒ&yHk? 149 149

150 150


151

151

1948 ckESpf/ {_yDv (11) &ufae‹wGif usqHk;oGm;cJhaom jynfol‹ acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;. tokbydk‹aqmifonfh tcrf;tem;Y Armha&wyfrawmf *k%fðywyfzGJŒtm; pnfol Akdvf}uD; ausmfodef;vGif OD;aqmifvsuf *sLAvD cef;raqmifrS tmZmenfAdrmefodk‹ wyfOD;rS taES;csDwufvmyHk?

tmZmenfacgif;aqmifrsm; usqHk;_yD; &ufvnfaomae‹wGif Armha&wyfrawmf ‘&wemyHk’ urf;em;pcef; XmecsKyfY oHCmawmf (9) yg;tm; qGrf;uyfvª'gef;_yD; tr#twef; ay;a0cJh-uonf? (0wfðyaeolrsm;twGif; Adkvfcifatmifudk a&SŒwef; vuf0JbufwGif awGŒ&onf)

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

152 152


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

OD;apmESifh ola‹ emufvu kd rf sm;. ±H;k awmfY w&m;qdik &f r+onf bufaygif;pHu k -unfhv#if w&m;r#wr+&Sdonf[k qdk&aomfjim;vnf; orm"dw&m;ol}uD;rif; OD; aomif;pdefonfyifv#if tcsKdŒae&mrsm;wGif oHo,0ifrdcJhygonf? Oyrmjy&ygv#if xHk;wrf;tpOftvmt& pD&ifcsufudk cHk±Hk;obmywduom a&;om;_yD; zwfjy&_rJ "rRwm&Scd o hJ nf? 'DZifbmv (30) &ufae‹u w&m;ol}uD;rif; OD;ausmfjriho f nf cH±k ;kH .pD&ifcsufukd trSew f u,fzwfjycJah omfvnf; ,ckO;D apmudk ppfaq;onft h r+wiG f rl txl;cHk±Hk;. tzGJŒ0ifwOD;r#omjzpfonfh OD;atmifomausmfu xkdpD&ifcsuftm; a&;om;wifjycJo h nfukd olowdxm;rdco hJ nf? TpD&ifcsucf sro + nf jrefrmjynfvw G f vyfa&;&&Sd&ef (5) &uftvdkwGif jzpfcJhonfhtwGuf vef'ef&Sd y&DADaumifpD (Privy Council) ac: w&m;v$wfawmfcsKyfodk‹ toem;cHpmwif&ef rjzpfEkdifawmhay? xdk‹ jyif Ttr+EiS fh ywfoufI txl;cH±k ;kH tzGŒJ 0ifrsm; ceft ‹ yf&mwGiyf if ueOD;tcuftcJ rsm; &SdcJhonf? vmrnfh q,fpkESpfaygif;rsm;pGmtwGif; jrefrmEkdifiHudk ajcmufvSeaf‹ e rnfh tjiif;yGm;zG,f&m jy\emrSm TcHk±Hk;jzpfvmEkdifonfudk vltrsm;tjym;u em; vnfoabmaygufxm;-uonf? tcsKdŒrSm vHk;0O\Hk a-umufvef‹ae-uonf? tu,fI OD;apmwa,mufwnf;omr[kwfbJ usef&Sdaom tjcm;}uH&mygrsm;u ,cktcsdefxd vGwfajrmufaecJhaomf xkdolrsm;u ,cktr+udpPwckvHk;udk rnfuJhodk‹ wk‹H jyefrnfqo kd nfrmS rodEikd af cs? ±kH;awmf. aemufqHk;pD&ifcsufxufausmfvGef_yD; óud;yrf;rdoltcsKdŒrSm ouf qdk;r&Snf-uay? &efukefteD;&Sd [Hom0wDrS c±dkif&J0efaxmufa[mif;wOD;jzpfol

aumvif;wk (cf) (Colin Tooke) onf TcH±k ;kH . ppfaq;r+_yD;onfah emuf OD;apm. tr+ukd v#KŒd 0u S pf mG pwifppkH rf;axmufvS r;f cJo h nf? wpHw k ck rSm;,Gi;f ae_yD[k olxif cJo h nf? wae‹ oltrd jf yefa&mufaomtcg olA‹ rmtdraf zmfu olt ‹ ,fvaf Z;&Si;f acG; }uD;rSm acG;±l;jyefae_y[ D k ajymcJo h nf? od‹kjzifh ola‹ cG;udo k l aoewfjzihf ypfowfvu kd &f _yD;/ ola‹ cG;rSm teD;&Sd jrpfurf;ab;wGif vJaoaeav_yD? wk (cf) rSm ,Hk-unfI r& Edik af tmif jzpfaeonf? xH;k pHtm;jzifh acG;±l;jyefa&m*grSm tcsdet f wef-um pwifjzpf yGm;&_rJjzpf_yD; xdkae‹eHeufuyif ol‹acG;rSm taumif;yuwd jzpfaeonfr[kwfyg vm;? odk‹ jzpfI wk (cf) onf ol‹acG;. acgif;udk jzwfum &efukefòrd›&Sd wd&p>mefuk q&m0efxH ,loGm;_yD; ppfaq;-unhf&m wd&p>mefukq&m0efu ol‹acG;wGif acG;±l; jyefa&m*gr&Sda-umif; twnfðycJhonf? xdk‹aemuf ol‹tdrfudk azmufxGif;cHcJh&_yD; Adv k cf sKyf}uD; atmifqef; vky}f uHc&H r+EiS fh ywfoufaom ol. pm&Gupf mwrf; zdik w f JG rsm; aysmufq;kH oGm;cJ&h jyefonf? &ufowWywftenf;i,f-um_y;D aemuf tpmtqdyf oihf_yD; wk (cf) onf aq;±HkwGif aoqHk;oGm;cJhavawmhonf? OD;apmtr+ESifh qufEG,fvsuf tqef;w-u,faoqHk;cJh&ol aemufwOD;rSm OD;wifxÉG jf zpfonf? olonf OD;atmifqef;. vH;k 0,H-k unfru + kd cH&aom wOD;wnf; aom AsL±ku d &uft&m&Sjd zpfonf? tdE, dN yËdnmOfcH 0efxrf;t&m&S}d uD;wOD;jzpfc_hJ y;D / 1940 ckEpS w f iG f &efuek w f uUov kd . f 'k=t"dywdtjzpf aqmif&u G cf zhJ ;l onf? 1941 ckEpS w f iG f OD;apmESit hf wl _Adwed Ef iS hf tar&duefEidk if w H o ‹dk ‹dk vku d yf goGm;cJ_h yD; vpfbeG Ef iS hf [kid zf m-rdr› sm;ukjd zwfI ava-umif;c&D;jzifh jyefvm&mwGif 1942 ckEpS f Zefe0g&DvwGif [kdifzmavqdyfY ESpfOD;vkH; tzrf;cH&onf? xkd‹aemuf rsm;r-umrD OD;wifxGÉfrSm jyefvnfv$wfay;jcif;cH&_yD; tdENd,EkdifiHokd‹ apv$wfum jrefrmppfajy;tpkd;&tzGJŒ. jyefvnfxlaxmifa&;qkdif&m t}uHay;t&m&Sdtjzpf cef‹tyfjcif;cH&onf? 1942 ckESpfrS 1945 ckESpftxd tdENd,EdkifiH/ qif;rvm;òrd›wGif aexdkifvsuf jynfya&muf aecJhonf? ppf_yD;aemuf bk&ifcH.aumifpDwGif b¾ma&;ESihf taumufcGefqdkif&m aumifpt D zGŒJ0ifjzpfvmcJo h nf? 1947 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&DvwGif jrefrmEdik if H vGwv f yfa&; twGuf !SdE+dif;aqG;aEG;&ef OD;atmifqef;ESihftwl vef'efòrdo › dk‹ vdkufygoGm;cJhonf? xdck &D;pOfwiG f _Aw d o d #tpd;k &ESifh oabmwlpmcsKyfukd vufrw S af &;xk;d &ef jiif;qefjcif; jzihf OD;apmonf OD;atmifqef;udk twdtvif; qefu ‹ sifvmcJhonf? jrefrmjynfvw G v f yfa&;&&S_d yD; yxrqH;k tpd;k &tzGŒJ wiG f OD;wifxÉG o f nf Ekid if H jcm;a&;0ef}uD;tjzpf cef‹tyfjcif;cHcJh&onf? odk‹aomf 1948 ckESpf/ -o*kwfvwGif f yfrsm;. ppfO;D pD;csKyfjzpf Ekwx f u G cf _hJ yD; Adv k rf ;ª csKyf&mxl; 1 jzihf t&efvufeufuikd w

153

154

tcef; (5) tajzr&ao;aom ar;cGe;f rsm;

153

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155

tajzr&ao;aom ar;cGe;f rsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

vmcJo h nf?Ekid if x hH yd w f ef;t}uD;wef;0efxrf;wOD;ESihf tpk;d &tzGŒJ 0if 0ef}uD;wOD;tm; ppfwyfrS jrifhrm;vSaom &mxl;wckokd‹ ay;tyfcH&jcif;rSm xl;qef;aumif;xl;qef; aeayvdrrhf nf? oka‹d omfvnf; ol. toufarG;0rf;ausmif;r+b0onf ppfrx + rf;b0 rS pwifcJhjcif;jzpfonfukd awmfawmfrsm;rsm;rod-uacs? olonf tdENd,&Sd tif'kd ppfwuUov dk rf b S ŒJG&cJ_h y;D tdE, dN yËdnmOfcH 0efxrf;b0ok‹d 0ifa&muf&eftwGuf ppfwyf t&m&S&d mxl;ukd pGev ‹f w $ cf jhJ cif;jzpfonf? orRwEkid if aH wmfopftaejzifh jynfwiG ;f ppfr;D awmufavmif_yD; ysufpD;vkeD;yg;tajctaeokd‹ qkdufa&mufaecsdefwGif ppfr+xrf; a[mif;rsm;ukd &Ekid o f avmuf jyefvnfppk nf;I ckid rf monfh t&HwyfrawmfzŒJGpnf;a&; av;vHvSonfhwm0ef}uD;ukd olz‹ momurf;vS rf;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? The New Times of Burma owif;pmudk pwifxlaxmifolESihf ,if;. t,f'DwmjzpfvmcJhonf? olonf w&m;ol}uD;OD;ausmfjrihf.tudkvnf; wdkufwdkufqdkifqdkifjzpfaecJhonf? xdt ‹k jyif olo ‹ wif;pmwGif toH;k ðy&eftwGuf OD;apm.tr+ukd xdt k csed u f OD;wifxÉG f onf pl;prf;avhvmaecJhonf[k trsm;u ,Hk-unfcJh-uonf? 1948 ckESpf pufwifbmvtwGif; wnY OD;wifxGÉfonf pywfvrf;&Sd olo ‹ wif;pmwku d ±f ;Hk cef;rS um;jzifh xGucf mG &m aygufuaJG pEkid af om ud&, d mwcku ol‹um;twGif; aygufuGJoGm;onf? qD'ifum;twGif;&Sd um;armif;olESifh tapmifh a*:&cg;ESpOf ;D (wOD;rSm ola‹ b;wGif xkid af eonf) rSm csucf si;f yif aoqk;H oGm;cJo h nf? Adkvfr;ª csKyftaejzifh aoavmufatmif '%f&m&oGm;onf? obm0w&m;u jyuf &,f«youJo h y‹dk if vGecf ahJ om wESpcf cJG efu ‹ OD;atmifqef; vky}f uHccH &hJ aom twGi;f 0ef±;Hk ukd vS r;f jrifEidk o f nfah e&mY T&mZ0wfrj+ zpfymG ;jcif;jzpfonf? xkt d cif;jzpfymG ; onfah e&mESihf "m;vG,cf w k f vrf;wzufwiG &f adS om pdea‹f ygvfausmif;twGi;f wGif a& wyfpcef; ,lbDtufpf ‘&wemykH’ (U.B.S. “Ratanabon) wnf&Sdonf? xkdnu u|ef awmfu wm0efust&m&Sw d OD;jzpf_yD; xkad ygufurJG t + oHrsm; -um;&jcif;ukd rSwrf ad e onf? t}uD;tuJ y=t&mcHAdkvfjzpfol au/ 'D=*0kduf(pf) (K.De-Goise) vuf atmuf&Sd a&wyfOD;aqmifv+yf&Sm;wyfzGJŒu xkdae&mokd‹ tajy;tv$m;a&muf&SdoGm; _yD; a*:&cg; (2) OD; vJaoae_yD; Adkvfrª;csKyfrSm touf&Sif±kHom&Sdonfh owfjzwf r+jrifuGif;ukd awGŒ -u&onf? a&wyfom;rsm;u ol‹ukd *spfum;ay:wif_yD; odyfr a0;vSaom &efuek af q;±k}H uD;ok‹d wufow k ±f u dk yf ‹dk-uaomfvnf; aq;±k}H uD;a&muf_y;D odyrf -umrDrmS yif OD;wifxÉG f aoqk;H oGm;avonf? [l;wifum (Hugh Tinker) u ol. *E<0ifajrmufavhvmr+jzpfonfh jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEkid if aH wmf (The Union of Burma) wGif ‘jynfaxmifpk. r¾dKif}uD;wckudk aorif;u 'kwd,t}udrf z,f&Sm;

ypfcJhjyef_yD[lIvnf;aumif;/ OD;wifxGÉfudk EkdifiHa&; òydifbufwOD;. tiSm;a-u; pm;orm;rsm;u vky}f uHcjhJ cif;jzpfonf[I l vnf;aumif;’ a&;om;cJo h nf? oda‹k omf vnf; xkd EdkifiHa&;òydifbuf rnfolrnf0gjzpfonfudkrl rnfolur# azmfxkwfEkdifjcif; r&Scd ahJ cs? OD;wifxÉG t f owfc&H r+onf OD;atmifqef;vky}f uHc&H r+}uD;tm; olu okaw oeðyvkyaf ejcif;ESifh qufE, G yf wfoufaeoavm/ odr‹k [kwf vufeufuikd w f yfrsm; twGif; tm;òydifaejcif;ESihf oufqdkifygoavm? 1948 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvwGif jrefrm EkdifiH vGwfvyfa&;&_yD;_yD;csif;yif uGefjrLepfrsm;onf tpdk;&udk vufeufudkif qef‹ usifcJh-uonf? u&ifwdkif;&if;om; olykefrsm;vnf; vufeufudkifxºuGcJh-uonf? xdkt ‹ jyif tiftm;toifhtwifhom&Sd_yD; ao;i,fvSao;aom Armhwyfrawmf wyf &if; trsm;tjym;vnf; ykeu f efc-hJ uonf? xkt d cgu tpd;k &udk qufvufopPmapmihf odaom wyf&if;rsm;teuf t"dutusqHk;rSm Adkvfr;ª csKyfae0if; OD;pD;uGyfuJaom trSwf (4) Armhvufeufuidk w f yf&if;jzpfonf? Tykeu f efrr+ sm;a-umifh 1948 ckEpS f tukeyf ikd ;f wGif ydrk pkd nf;pepfusaom wyfrsm;udk wd;k csŒJ zŒJGpnf;cJ&h onf? Oyrmtm;jzifh OD;wifxGÉf uGyfuJaom jynfaxmifpkt&efwyfzGJŒ (Union Auxiliary Forces) ESihf xdka‹ emuf ‘ppf0efxrf;’ [k ac:aom e,fjcm;a'owyfzGJŒ (The Territorial Forces, sitwundan) wdk‹ jzpf-uonf? xdkwyfzGJŒrsm;onf c±kdife,frsm;wGif a'oqdkif&m wm 0efrsm; ,lxm;-u&onf? ppfa&;wGio f mru Ekid if aH &;wGiyf g -oZmwdurU }uD;rm;r+ a-umihf OD;wifxÉG t f aejzihf ppfa&;&nfreS ;f csuw f iG o f m &yfwefr‹ aebJ Ekid if aH &;wGif yg tjrihq f ;kH tm%m&,lvckd si-f uaom ArmhwyfrawmftwGi;f &Sd t&m&Srd sm;twGuf tiftm;aumif;aom òydib f ufwOD;jzpfaecJah vonf? 1947 ckESpftwGif;u armfvòrdifY jynfaxmifpkppf&JwyfzGJŒ (Union Military Police) wGif 'k=Adkvftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifaeaom wkdif;&if;om;u&ifeDvlrsKd; (u,m;) jzpfonfh apm,dk;±ª; (Saw Yoo Shoo) onf ol. _Adwdo#t&m&Sdjzpfol f (18) &ufae‹wiG f ol‹ Akv d }f uD; rdu k u f ,fvaD v; (Captain Michael Lilley) Zlvikd v xHodk‹ a&mufvm_yD; “atmifqef; r-umrD vkyf}uHcH&vdrfhr,f? r_idrfroufjzpfvm cJh&if armfvòrdifòrdu › dk xdef;csKyfxm;Ekdifzdk‹ toifhjyifxm;yg” [k ajymcJhonfudk ,ae‹ xufwkdif rSwfrdaeao;onf? Adkvf}uD;vDav; rnfr#avmuf ydkrdkodxm;onf qdk onfukd rnforl # rodEidk af wmhacs? tb,fa-umihq f akd omf olonf rsm;r-umrD tcsed f twGi;f armfvòrdiòf rdw › iG f ±kww f &ufaoqH;k oGm;cJah oma-umihjf zpfonf? rSeu f efr&+ o dS nfjzpfap=r&So d nfjzpfap/ TZmwfvrf;tm;vH;k ESifh tjcm; tvm;

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

wl '¾m&DqefqefZmwfvrf;rsm;onf OD;atmifqef;ESihf ol‹vkyfazmfudkifbuf t&if;tcsmrsm;tm; vkyf}uHowfjzwfonfh yl;aygif;}uHpnfr+}uD;wGif OD;apmtjyif tjcm;olrsm; ydkrdkyg0ifywfoufaea-umif; vltrsm;tjym;tm; ,Hk-unfr+ jzpfap ayawmhonf? jyif;jyaom remvdk0efwdkr+a-umihfjzpfap/ tm%m&ruf irf;irf; wufaoma-umihfjzpfap/ odrk‹ [kwf tcsKdŒae&mXmersm;rS yk*~dKvfrsm;u u|Efkyfw. dk‹ i,f&G,fvSaom trsKd;om;ol&Jaumif;udk vGefrif;pGm r,Hk-unfonfhtwGuf a-umihfjzpfap/ rnfodyk‹ ifjzpfap/ tppftrSefwu,f&Sdaom odrk‹ [kwf awG;xifrSef; qr+r#omjzpfaom xkæ d xdæ k xdæ k xdæ k yk*Kd~ vfrsm;u OD;atmifqef;udk z,f&mS ;ypfcsif cJh-uayvdrfhrnf? OD;atmifqef;onf avmh'farmifhbufwef. ta&;ay;jcif;udk cHc&hJ oljzpfonf? oda‹k omfvnf; ti,fwef; _Adwo d #t&m&Srd sm;taejzifh ppfyt JG wGi;f OD;atmifqef;u *syefESihf yl;aygif;cJhonfudk rarhEkdif-uacs? ArmhwyfrawmftwGif; &Sd a&S;±kd;tpOftvm t&if;&SiftawG;tac:orm;rsm; (conservative elements) ESihf tvGrf;oifhaom &efukef&Sd EkdifiHjcm;om; t&if;&SifpD;yGm;a&; tkyfpkrsm;twGuf um; OD;atmifqef;. vuf0J,drf;aom EdkifiHa&;tawG;tac:rsm;onf pdwfysuf p&mjzpfaeayawmhonf? Ttcsufudk Adkvf}uD;ADAD,ef;/ Adkvfr;ª ,ef;ESihf 'def;wdk. ‹ yg0ifywfoufaer+rsm;u &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif; azmf!e¸ ;f jyovsuf&adS yonf? rnfoq ‹kd akd p/ jrefrmh&w J yfzŒJG . &mZ0wfrc+ if; ppfaq;a&;Xme (Criminal InJ rnfow l OD;wa,mufurkd # vuf vestigation Department) taejzihf OD;apmuvGI n‡Kd ;xd;k rpGypf cJG ahJ cs? Zlvikd v f (19) &ufae‹u twGi;f 0ef±;kH Y jzpfymG ;cJah om vlowf r+}uD;wGif OD;apmtaejzifh &nf&G,fcsuf/ OD;wnfcsuf &Sd±Hkwifru óudwif}uHpnfI yd&daocsmaomtpDtpOfjzifh aemufuG,frS óud;udkif!¸ef-um;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? ol udk,fwkdif um,uHajrmufaoewfcvkwfudk rqGJcJhonfhtwGuf ol‹tm; ‘vlowf r+’ jzifh pGcJ surf wifEikd af omfvnf; ‘tm;ay;r+’ jzihu f m; pGcJ suw f ifcahJ yonf? xkad cwf u jrefrmbmomjzihf xkwfa0aom pme,fZif;ESihf pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;wGif xkdtjzpf tysufEiS fh ywfoufI yl;aygif;}uHpnfr+ t&dyt f ¹rGurf #udak omfvnf;aumif; w&m; ±Hk;awmfY -um;emppfaq;r+rsm; ðyvkyf&mwGif Oya'ta-umif;t& c|wfacsmfwdrf; yg;r+rsm;tm; &nf!e¸ ;f Iaomfvnf;aumif; azmfjya&;om;cJjh cif;r&Scd ahJ cs? 1947 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (19) &uf ‘EdkifiHawmf vkyf}uHr+}uD;’ ESpfywfvnfae‹ wdkif;udk ‘tmZmenfae‹’ tjzpf trsKd;om;±Hk;ydwf&ufowfrSwfum ,ae‹wdkif ESpfpOf usif;yavh&o dS nf? xdak e‹wae‹v;kH usqH;k oGm;av_yD;aom acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;tm; vGrf;qGwfwo owd&vsuf jrefrmwrsKd;om;vHk;u *k%fðyr+ðy-uonf? tpdk;&o

wif;pmrsm;uvnf; tmZmenf}uD;rsm;ESifhywfoufI t,f'Dwmhtmabmfrsm; wav;wpm; t_rJa&;om;avh&o dS nf? usq;kH av_yD;aom tmZmenf}uD;rsm;. pGe‹f v$wfr+rsm;udk vuf&Sdtm%mydkifwd. k‹ óud;yrf;tm;xkwfr+rsm;ESifh qufpyfazmf!e¸ f; &ef óud;pm;-u&if; tmZmenf}uD;rsm;. txkyw ` rdW sm;udv k nf; azmfjyavh&-dS uonf? TtpOftvmtwdkif; 1992 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹xkwf ppftpdk;&ydkif ysif; &d_iD;aiGŒzG,faumif;vSonfh ‘vkyfom;jynfola‹ e‹pOf’ owif;pmwGif ‘rsKd;cspfpdwfESihf EdkifiHcspfpdwf ðypkysKd;axmifa&;’ [k a&S;qefqefacgif;pOfjzihf csD;rGrf;cef; zGihfxm; onfh aqmif;yg;wapmifY ‘,ae‹tcsed t f cgwGif Ekid if aH wmf_ird 0f yfyjd ym;r+wnfaqmuf a&;tzGŒJ onf rsKd;cspfpw d &f iS o f efaeap&ef rsm;pGm vkyaf qmifvsuf&o dS nf? Ekid if aH &; rsufESmpmESihf pD;yGm;a&;rsufESmpmwGifyg enf;rsKd;pHkjzihf EdkifiH.*k%foduQmESihf tcsKyf tcsmtm%mudk zsufvdkzsufqD;ðyvkyfum taxGaxGrauseyfr+rsm;udk aygufzGm; aponfh trsKd;rsKd;aom tiftm;pkrsm;. &efvdkonfh vkyf&yfrsm;a-umihf ,ckuJhodk‹ rsK;d csppf w d u f kd a&SŒwef;wifum xifxif&mS ;&Sm; jyefvnfazmfxw k af e&jcif;jzpfonf’ [lI a&;om;xm;onf? jrefrmEdkifiH 'Drdkua&pDta&;twGuf ay:aygufvmaom 1988 ckESpf/ vlxk tHkºuGr+}uD;udk ESdrfeif;cJh&mwGif _idrf;csrf;pGm qENjyae-uaom vli,fvl&G,f axmif aygif;rsm;pGmudk ppfwyfu aoewfjzifh ypfcwfowfjzwfcrhJ t + m; 1947 ckEpS u f vkyf }uHowfjzwfrE+ iS fh qufpyfvsuf tqdyk gaqmif;yg;Yæ‘wkid ;f jynfwiG f jzpfymG ;cJah om raumif;r+ ted@m±Hrk sm;rS u|Ekyf w f t ‹kd aejzifh oifcef;pmrsm; &&Scd _hJ yD;jzpfonf? 1988 ckESpf/ tzsufvkyf&yfrsm;rS awGŒóuHcHpm;cJh&aom rif;rJhp±kdufESifh ted@m±Hkrsm;udk oifcef;pmtjzpf u|Ekfyfwd&k‹ ,l_yD; TuJhodk‹ aemufwzef xyfrHrjzpfay:a&;twGuf wm;qD;&vdrhfrnf” [k qufvufa&;om;xm;avonf? tmZmenf}uD;rsm;tm; t_rJwap *k%ðf yavh&adS omfvnf; vlowform;rsm; rSm rnfolrsm;jzpf_yD; OD;atmifqef;udk rnfonfhtwGuf owfjzwfonfudkrl wvHk; wyg'r# azmfjy±dk;xHk;pHr&SdcJhacs? Oyrmtm;jzihf txufazmfjyyg vkyfom;jynfoal‹ e‹ pOf owif;pmyg aqmif;yg;Yyifv#if vufonfw&m;cHrsm;udkom &nf!¸ef;_yD; tvGefa00g;vsuf qdkvkdcsuf t"dy`m,fESpfcGxGufaeom pum;vHk;rsm;jzihfæ ‘ (19) Zlvdkifonf jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHtzdk‹ tarSmifusaomae‹ jzpfonf? tb,fa-umihfqdkaomf e,fcsJŒ0g'Drsm;u olwdk‹. a-u;pm;orm;rsm;udk cdkif;ap_yD; wdkufcdkufcJhI jzpfonf? aemufwESpft-umwGif jrefrmEdkifiHonf vGwfvyfa&;udk w&m;0if&&SdcJhaomfjim;vnf; e,fcsJŒ0g'Drsm; rsKd;aphcscJhaom udk,fhvlrsKd;tcsif;csif;

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

oabmxm;rnD!w G rf r+ sm;onf jy\emw&yftjzpf }uD;rm;pGm aygufzmG ;vmcJ_h yD; ,ae‹wdkif &SifoefaeqJjzpfonf? t-urf;zufvufeufudkif a&mifpHkaomif;usef; olykefrsm; wwkdif;wjynfvHk; r+daygufouJhodk‹ aygufvmcJh_yD; 0g;tpnf;ajyouJhodk‹ jzpfum ysupf ;D qH;k ±+;H r+rsm;udo k m jzpfay:apcJo h jzihf wyfrawmfu _ird 0f yfyjd ym;atmif aqmif&GufcJh&jcif;jzpfonf ’ [k qdkxm;jyefonf? wzef 1990 ckEpS /f pufwifbmvxkwf vkyo f m;jynfoa‹l e‹pOfowif;pmYvnf; vkyf}uHr+}uD;wGif _Adwdo#wdk‹ yg0ifywfoufaeyHkudk rD;armif;xkd;um a&;om;wifjy aom tcef;qufaqmif;yg;rsm; yg&Sdvmjyefonf? TonfrSm _Adwdo#wdk‹ESihf ywf oufI ¹cGi;f csufxm;apmihx f ed ;f cJah ompnf;udk yxrqH;k pwifazmufzsufvu dk jf cif; yifjzpfonf? xdt k csdeu f e,l;a,muf&dS urBmu h v k or*~}uD;Y _Adwo d #tpd;k & ud, k f pm;vS,frsm;u jrefrmEkdifiH. vlt ‹ cGihfta&;csKd;azmufr+rsm;udk wifjyaecdkufjzpfI _Adwo d #tpd;k &tm; odumQ usap&ef aqmif&u G o f nfh óud;yrf;r+w&yfom jzpfayvdrhf rnf? odak‹ omfjim;vnf; xkdtcsdefu vDvfESifh ukr`%DrS rmvf[dkx&m (Malhotra of Leele Co.) uJhodk‹aom xifxifay:ay:r[kwfonfh pD;yGm;a&;orm;rsKd;ESihf quf EG,fr+&Sdaom &efukefrS ADAD,ef;ESihf ti,fwef;t&m&SdtcsKdŒrSvGJI _Adwdo#tpdk;&. xdyfydkif;tkyfcsKyfa&;qkdif&m tm%mydkifyk*~dKvfrsm;xJrS Ttr+ESihf ywfoufqufpyf aejcif;udrk l xkwaf zmfEidk jf cif;r&Sad o;acs? Tyk*Kd~ vfrsm; yg0ifywfoufaer+rmS trsm;todyifjzpfonf? Tt&m&Sd tcsKŒd ESihf _Adwdo#pD;yGm;a&;orm;rsm;onf _Adwdo#aumifpDrS v#KdŒ0Sufqef;-u,fvSonfh a*stufpf bif*av (J.S Bingley) uJhodk‹aom yk*~dKvfrsm;ESifhtwl yl;aygif;um OD;apmESifh ol. vusmf *d% k ;f 0ifEidk if aH &;orm;tkypf u k kd wdww f qdwaf xmufychH o hJ nf [lIom vufwGif;&Sd taxmuftxm;rsm;t& qGJ,loHk;oyfcJh&onf? xdkrSwyg; bk&ifcHudk,fwkdif vef'efodk‹ ta-umif;-um;onfh a-u;eef;pmxJY Tyl;aygif;}uH pnfr+}uD;wGif xdyfydkif; _Adwdo#t&m&Sd}uD;rsm; yg0ifywfoufaea-umif; azmfjy rxm;onft h wGuf rdro d abmt& pdwv f u kd rf mefyg aqmif&u G af e-uaom &efuek f òrd&› Sd _Adwdo#t&m&Sdi,frsm;xJrS tcsKdŒyg0ifa-umif; oufaojy±HkrSvGJI txufazmf jyyg aqmif;yg;taejzihf _Aw d o d #tqihjf rift h &m&S}d uD;rsm;udk pGypf &JG ef rwwfEidk cf ahJ cs? OD;atmifqef;ESifh ol‹vlrsm; vkyf}uHowfjzwfcH&pOfu &efukef&Sd tpdk;&tdrfawmf twGi;f Yomru t*Fvefjynf/ vef'efòrd&› dS Edik if jH cm;a&;±H;k tqihjf rihf _Adwo d #tm%m ydik rf sm;yg tjcm;olrsm;enf;wl odoo d mom xdwv f efw ‹ ek v f y+ o f mG ;cJ-h u&avonf?2 OD;apmtaejzifh vef'efEiS fh tquftoG,&f adS -umif; jyoEdik af om wckwnf;

aom taxmuftxm;rSm OD;apm.tr+ukd ckcu H muG,&f eftwGuf &efyakH iG pkaqmif; cJhaom OD;apm.tudkt&if; OD;armifarmif}uD;qkdoljzpfonf? OD;apmtaejzihf t*Fvefjynf&dS ‘y&DAaD umifp’D ac: ‘w&m;v$waf wmfcsKyf’ od‹k toem;cHpm wifyikd cf iG fh &&Sdoifha-umif; 3 urBmausmf pmapmif}uD;wckjzpfaom ‘wkdif;rf’ (The Times) . t,f'DwmxHodk‹ olu ay;pmrsm; a&;om;ay;ydkc‹ Jhonf? ‚if;tjyif tr+r_yD;qHk;rDyif jrefrmEdik if . H zGŒJpnf;tkycf sKyfykH tajccHOya'tajymif;tvJrsm; jzpfay:cJo h nf? tu,f I xko d o ‹kd m rjzpfcv hJ #if OD;apmonf ‚if;ydik cf iG Efh iS fh tusLH;0ifr+ &Sad yvdrrhf nf? oda‹k omfvnf; OD;atmifqef;udk &Si;f ypf&ef }uHpnfrt + m; vef'ef&dS tcsKdŒaom todkif;t0dkif;rsm;u axmufcHcJhjcif; &Sd=r&Sd[laomtcsufESihf ywfoufI _Adwdef&Sd yk*~dKvfwcsKdŒyif oHo,0ifcJh-uonf? OD;atmifqef;aov#if ol‹ae&mY OD;apmudk 0ef}uD;csKyftopftjzpf jyefvnftpm;xd;k Ekid cf ahJ omfvnf; jrefrmEdik if u H kd _Adwo d #wd‹k vufckyfxJwGifyif qufvufxdef;xm;Ekdifayrnf? vkyf}uHr+}uD; jzpfyGm;_yD; (2) &uft-um 1947 ck/ Zlvdkifv (21) &ufae‹wGif _Adwdo#atmufv$wfawmfY avbmtrwf wGrf'&Dbwf (cf) (Tom Driberg) u ‘OD;atmifqef;ESifh ol‹vkyfazmfudkifbufrsm;udk av;pm;&aumif;rSef;odaom v$wf awmf. Tbufjcrf;&Sd trwfrif;rsm;taejzifh trSefwu,f eufeufeJeJ 0rf;enf; a-uuGJr+udk azmfjyvdkufygonf? ‘opPmazmuf taumuf}uH&ef v+H‹aqmftm;ay; vlrdkufarG;-uvsuf ,cktcg oufawmihfoufom jzpfae-uukefaom uGefqm aA;wpf vl}uD;vlaumif;rsm;xuf &efuek Yf &uf&ufpufpufðycJ-h uaom vlrorm rsm;taejzihf Tvkyf}uHr+}uD;. udk,fusihfydkif;qkdif&m tjypf&Sdr+rSm enf;yg;vdrfhrnf r[kwfa-umif; u|Ekfyf pGyfpGJajym-um;vdkufygonf’ 4 [k wifjyajymqkdvdkuf&m '&D bwf (cf) udk olt ‹ wku d t f cHtcsKdŒu avSmifajymifatmf[pfc-hJ uonf? avbmtpd;k &ESihf uGefqmaA;wpftwdkuftcHwdk‹ yl;wGJvsuf v+dufv+dufvSJvSJ 0rf;enf;a-umif; xkwfazmfajym-um;cJh-u_yD; T&mZ0wfjypfr+}uD;wGif ygwDESpfbufvHk;rS tvdkwl tvdkyg vdkufavsmnDaxGr+ r&SdcJha-umif; jiif;y,fcJh-uonf? 1990 ckESpf/ Ekd0ifbmv (17) &ufrS (22) &uftwGif; vkyfom;jynfoal‹ e‹pOf owif;pmwGif ydkrdkI ±+yfaxG;_yD; ykp>mqefaom aqmif;yg;rsm; tcef;qufyg&Sdvm cJhonf? Edk0ifbmv (13) &ufae‹wGif rdwˆDvmcsnfr#ifpuf±HkY ajym-um;aom AdkvfcsKyfrª;}uD; apmarmif. rdef‹cGef;udk txl;tqef;ðyI udk;um;xm;onf? Adkvf csKyfatmifqef;. tcef;u¾udk uyfajr‡miftoHk;csI vGwfvyfa&;óud;yrf;r+wGif OD;ae0if;. tcef;u¾udk yH}k uD;csŒJ &ef &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif;&nf&, G x f m;onf? &efuek f

159

160 160


161

tajzr&ao;aom ar;cGe;f rsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

&Sd udv k ekd t D m%mydik rf sm;u vef'efo‹kd ay;yda‹k om tcsKŒda-u;eef;pmta[mif;rsm;wGif yg&Sdonfh OD;ae0if;tm; tom;ay;azmfjyxm;csufrsm;udk owif;pmrsm;wGif jyef vnfazmfjycJ-h uonf? ‘umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; ae&mtwGuf vSaz (Adkvfvusfm) ESifh ae0if;t-um; &Sad eaom atmifqef;. axmufccH sufukd u|Ekyf f tpysKd;aqG;aEG;vku d yf gonf? ae 0if;onf (ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfrS ajymif;vJzGJŒpnf;cJhaom) ArmhrsKd;cspfwyf rawmf trSwf (4) wyf&if;. wyf&if;rª;tjzpfaqmif&GufcJh_yD; tpOftvmaumif; cJholjzpfI ppfwyftjrifrS-unfhv#if olonf tvm;tvm ydkrdkaumif;rGefolwOD; jzpf[ef&o dS nf? oda‹k omfvnf; vSazudk a&G;cs,fv#if ydrk v kd ól udurf sm;ayvdrrfh nf’ ‚if;tjyif atmufyg _Adwdo#umuG,fa&; OD;pD;csKyfAdkvfcsKyf}uD; wifyvm (Templer) . ajym-um;csuf taxmuftxm;udkvnf; vkyfom;jynfol‹ ae‹pOf owif;pmwGif yHw k u l ;l I azmfjycJo h nf? ‘jrefrmvlrsKd;wd. k‹ rqHk;Edkifaom oHo,rSm tvGet f‹ vGef _iD;aiGŒp&mjzpfvm cJhonf? odk‹aomfvnf; u|Ekfyfwdk‹taejzifh AdkvfcsKyf}uD; ae0if;udk tultnDay;&ef twGuf wwfpGrf;or# aqmif&Gufay;&ef tvGefpdwftm;xufoefvsuf&Sdygonf’ OD;atmifqef;. emrnfonf jrefrmjynfwGif xdktcsddeftxd udk;uG,ftyfol ozG,fjzpfaeonf? vGefpGmav;pm;&aom AdkvfcsKyf}uD;qdkonfrSm wyfrawmf. zcifomru EdkifiHawmf. zcifvnf; jzpfaecJhonf r[kwfygvm;? &JabmfoHk;usdyf 0ifwOD;jzpfcJh_yD; OD;atmifqef;ESifh &Jabmf&Jbufjzpfvmjcif;onf OD;ae0if;tm; tjrihfqHk;acgif;aqmifr+udk ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm awmif;qdkxm;Edkifzdk‹ jzpfvmcJhonf? &JabmfoHk;usdyfwGif OD;atmifqef;ESihf OD;ae0if;wdko ‹ nf qefu ‹ sifbuftkyfpk (2) pkrS jzpf-uvsuf ,if;wdE‹k pS af ,muf rnfonft h cgr# tap;ruyfc-hJ uacs? Ttcsufukd tpd;k &owif;pmrsm;u rnfonft h cgr# azmfjycJjh cif;r&Scd ahJ cs? oda‹k omfvnf; 1988 ckEpS f jrefrmjynftES‹H jzpfymG ;cJah om 'Dru kd a&pDvy+ &f mS ;r+ wGif t"duacgif;aqmiftjzpf ay:xGuv f maom Adv k cf sKyf. orD; a':atmifqef;pk -unfonf ‘OD;atmifqef;. tarGudk olu qufcHcJh&ygonf’ [laom OD;ae0if; . tqku d kd vlo&d iS -f um; pdeaf c:vmcJo h nf? od‹kjzihf tmZmenfae‹t_y;D aemufw&uf 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (20) &ufae‹wGif OD;ae0if;onf a':atmifqef;pk-unfudk tdrw f iG ;f Y tus,cf sKyfcsxm;vdu k af vonf? 5 a':atmifqef;pk-unfu usq;kH av _yD;aom zcifjzpfolESihf &Jabmf&Jbufrsm;udk *k%fðy&ef tmZmenfAdrmefodk‹ &efukef òrd›wGif;rSjzwfI vlxkcsDwufyGJudk OD;aqmifoGm;&ef pDpOfcJh_yD; OD;ae0if;ppfwyfu

vnf; vrf;ay:xGuo f l rnforl qdk aoewfjzihf ypfrnf[k _cdr;f ajcmufw‹kH jyefco hJ jzihf xdkae‹u vlxkcsDwufyGJudk zsufodrf;cJh&_yD; vlajrmufjrm;pGm tzrf;cHcJh&onf? xkd‹ aemuf wESpfausmfcef‹t-umwGif tpdk;&ydkif owif;pmrsm;Y 1990 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbm vtwGif; tcef;qufaqmif;yg;rsm; yg&Sdvmonf? ,if;aqmif;yg;rsm;taejzifh OD;atmifqef;. tarGqo kd nfukd cgxkwyf pfvu dk u f m OD;ae0if;tay: vlxu k -unf !kdav;pm;onf[laom tcsufjzihf tpm;xkd;Ekdif&ef óud;pm;-ujcif; jzpfaumif;jzpf ayvdrrhf nf? xkt d csed w f iG f tvGet f rif; xifay:ausm-f um;vmaom a':atmifqef; pk-unfu OD;ae0if;. tjrihfqHk; tm%mydkifqdkifr+udk pdefac:vsuf&Sdae_yDr[kwfyg vm;? odak‹ omf xdkr#jzihf r_yD;ao;? 1991 ckESpf/ ZGefv (28) &ufrS Zlvdkifv (2) &uf txd vkyo f m;jynfoa‹l e‹pOfowif;pmwGif oufwrf;-umjrihv f _S yDjzpfaom OD;apm. ol&d, (The Sun) owif;pmrS OD;atmifqef;tay: wdkufcdkufxm;aom aqmif;yg; tpOfvkdufwckvHk;udk rl&if;twkdif; jyefvnfazmfjycJhonf? u|Ekfyfwdk‹. trsKd;om; acgif;aqmif}uD;tay: OD;apmu apmfum;wdkufcdkufajymqdkxm;r+rsm;ESifh ,SOfwGJ vsuf OD;atmifqef;udk &,forG ;f aoG;_yD; oa&mfxm;aom umwGe;f yHrk sm;udyk ifv#if jyefvnfazmfjycJhao;onf? 0efwdkr+ESihf avSmifajymifr+rsm; jynfhESufaeaom yk*~dKvf a&;&m/ rl0g'a&;&mESifh tzGŒJtpnf;a&;&m wzufapmif;eif; wdu k cf u kd rf r+ sm;udk jyo&ef jyefvnfyHkESdyf&oa,mif a0zefcsufa&;om;xm;aomfvnf; tqdkygaqmif;yg;rsm; jyefvnfay:xGuv f monfh tcsed u f rkd l jrefrmpmzwfy&dowfu owdxm;rdcyhJ gonf? xkdtcsdefu a':atmifqef;pk-unftaejzifh tdrfwGif;tus,fcsKyf (2) ESpfausmfcef‹ cHcJh&_yD;jzpf_yD; csufukdpvkdAuforRw Am;uvuf(Af) [mA,f(vf) (Vaclav Havel) u olrukd Ekdb,fvf_idrf;csrf;a&;qktwGuf emrnfpm&if; tqkd«y_yD;cgpjzpfonf? wòydiw f nf;vdv k ydk if tpd;k &owif;pmY jrefrmhwyfrawmfxal xmif&mwGif OD;ae0if; . ta&;ygaom tcef;u¾udk xyfrHtxl;ðy a&;om;xm;aom wyfrawmf. acgif;aqmifr+orkdif;a-umif;udk tcef;qufaqmif;yg;tjzpf azmfjycJhonf? vkyo f m;jynfo‹l ae‹pOfowif;pmyg ,if;tcef;qufaqmif;yg;rsm;onf ta&; ygvSaom ar;cGef;rsm;udk jzpfay:apcJhonf? yl;aygif;}uHpnfr+ESihf ywfoufaom ,lqcsuo f t D &kd t D rsm;pkonfvnf; ‚if;ar;cGe;f rsm;udk A[kcd surf ðyvsu&f adS yonf? olu, kd w f ikd f tjrihq f ;kH acgif;aqmifjzpfvm&eftwGuf OD;ae0if;onf OD;atmifqef;udk pDrHudef;cs z,f&Sm;cJhoavm? vGefpGmaumufuspf,kwfrmvSaom }uHpnfr+wGif ppfw&k if e,f±yk u f av;wckyrm OD;apmonf qifxm;onft h uGux f J 0ifrcd ahJ vo avm? òydifbufwOD;tjzpf ‚if;tjyif olESihf tjrihfqHk;tm%mt-um; -um;cHydwf

161

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163

tajzr&ao;aom ar;cGe;f rsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

qdka‹ eol wOD;wnf;aom yk*~dKvftjzpf OD;atmifqef;tay: OD;ae0if;cHpm;rdcJhonf rSm xif&mS ;vSonf? olw&‹kd aJ bmfo;kH usdy0f ifrsm; *syefEikd if /H wdu k sKdwiG &f -dS upOfu ol wdk‹ tcsif;rsm;cJh-uonfrsm;udk touft&G,f Eke,fi,f&G,f-uao;aom tzGJŒxJ rS uset f zGŒJ0iftm;vH;k aumif;pGmod&cdS -hJ u_y;D taxmuftxm;rsm;vnf; &Scd yhJ gonf? twdkcsKyfqdk&v#if tjrifoHk;rsKd; ay:xGufvmonf? ‚if;wdkr‹ Sm æ 1? w&m;qdkifr+onf w&m;r#w_yD;v#if OD;apmtm; t"duvufonfw&m; cHtjzpf azmfxw k Ef idk cf o hJ nf? 2? OD;apmonf qifuGufxJ 0ifrdcJh_yD; w&m;qdkifr+ w&yfvHk;onf w&m;a&; jy,k*o f mjzpfonf? 3? OD;apmonf tjypfvnf; &Sdonfhtjyif qifuGufxJodv k‹ nf; 0ifrdcJhonf? yxrtjrifonf jrefrmtrsm;pk udk,fwdkif ,Hk-unfaomtjrifjzpf_yD; jrefrm &Jtm%mydkifrsm;ESihf pma&;q&mrsm; wifjy-uaom w&m;0iftjrifw&yfvnf; jzpfonf? 'kw, d tjrifrmS 1940 ckEpS f aESmif;ydik ;f umvu jrefrmEdik if w H iG f tr+xrf; cJhzl;_yD; ,cktcg _AdwdefEkdifiHwGif a&muf&Sdaexdkifae-uaom _Adwdo#t&m&Sd trsm; tjym; pG_J rJaomtjrifjzpfonf? wwd,awG;ac:r+tjrifrmS rl tajccHtm;jzihf jynfy a&muf oabmxm;uGv J o JG l jrefrmrsm;t-um; r-umrDtcsed u f rS ay:xGuv f monfh tjrifjzpfonf? txl;ojzihf xdwv f efw ‹ ek v f y+ zf , G af umif;vSaom vky}f uHowfjzwfr}+ uD;jzpf yGm;_yD; tESpf (40) eD;yg;cef‹ jzpfonfh 1986 ckESpf/ {_yDvtwGif;u u&iftrsKd;om; d maom aqmif;yg;wyk'f tpnf;t±k;H (KNU) rS xkwaf 0onfh pmapmifwckwiG f yg&Sv onf txufazmfjyyg 'kw, d tjrifudk axmufcx H m;onf? ,if;onf 'kw, d tjrifEiS hf ywfoufI a&;om;xm;aom trsm;od&onfh wckwnf;aom yHkESdyfrSwfwrf;jzpf onf? aqmif;yg;.acgif;pOfrSm ‘atmifqef;udk wu,f b,folowfovJ’ [lI yif jzpf_yD;v#if a&;om;oltrnfudk ‘u|Ekfyfwdk‹. &efukefowif;axmuf’ [k azmf jyxm;onf? ed'gef;udk atmufyg pmyd'k Ef pS yf 'kd jf zihf tpðyxm;onf? ‘1947 ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif jrefrmEdkifiH. 0ef}uD;csKyf OD;atmifqef;udk v#KdŒ 0Sufqef;-u,fpGm vkyf}uHowfjzwfcJhr+onf u&ifvGwfajrmufa&; óud;yrf;r+wGif }uD;rm;aom tcsKd;tauGŒwckukd jzpfapcJo h nf? (39) ESp-f umjrihcf _hJ yDjzpfaomfvnf; xdv k o l wfrt + m; tppftrSef }uHpnfzefw;D cJo h rl sm;udrk l ,ae‹xufwidk f vlo&d iS -f um; razmfxw k Ef idk af o;acs? tr+. tcsut f vufrsm;udv k nf; ,ae‹xufwikd f rajz&Si;f Edik af o;acs’

‘tppftrSef yl;aygif;}uHpnforl sm;xHrS tm±Hv k aJG jymif;oGm;ap&ef tuGucf s_y;D OD;apmudk w&m;±Hk;wifum tjypf'%fcscJhjcif;rSm qifuGufwckomjzpfa-umif; cdkif vHkaom oufaotaxmuftxm;rsm;&Sdaeonf? tu,fI OD;apmonf tuGuf qifccH &hJ onf[q k v kd #if jrefrmEdik if . H vGwv f yfa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;udk rnfow l u ‹kd wrSefwu,f owfcJh-uygoenf;? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;/ 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;EkESifh tjcm; yk*~dKvfrsm; yg0ifywfoufaeonfqdkonfh -um&SnfpGm pGJ_rJaeaom aumvm[v rsm;wGif trSew f &m; rnfr#avmuf &Sad eygoenf;’ jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD; OD;ausm_f ird ;f / tjcm;qd&k , S v f pf trmcH Adv k cf ifarmifuav; wdk‹tygt0if OD;Ek/ OD;ae0if;ESihf tjcm;wif;rmaom oabmxm;&Sdol jrefrmrsm;. tvdq k ENukd qefu ‹ sifvsuf u&ifEiS fh tjcm;vlenf;pk wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;tay:Y }uD; rm;aom vku d af vsmr+rsm; ðyvky&f ef OD;atmifqef;u pDpOfco hJ nft h csufukd pOf;pm; awG;awmp&mtjzpf xkdaqmif;yg;Y qufvufa&;om;xm;onf? xdk‹ jyif Zlvdkifv (19) &uf/ eHeufcif;wGif &efukefajrmufbuf&Sd u&ifvlrsKd; trsm;tjym; aexkdif aom tif;pdefòrd. › c±kdif&J0efaxmufjzpfol wdkif;&if;om; u&ifvlrsKd; apmpdefr+H qdk olonf OD;apmtm; zrf;qD;&ef trdef‹&&SdcJhojzihf ‘wu,fhvkyf}uHowfjzwfr+}uD; rjzpfyGm;rD eHeuf (9) em&Dcef‹wGif ‚if;u oGm;a&mufzrf;qD;cJh&onf’ [k a&;om; xm;&m xdak zmfjycsufrmS tH-op&maumif;vGe;f vSaom tqdðk ycsufjzpfaeayonf? ‘xdktcsdefu OD;apmonf wpHkw&m xl;xl;jcm;jcm; vkyfaejcif;r&SdbJ olr‹ dom;pk0if rsm;ESihftwl eHeufcif;tcsdefav;udk ðzef;aejcif;omjzpfonf’ [k apmpdefr+Hu ajym qdak -umif; xdak qmif;yg;wGif a&;om;xm;jyefonf? xda‹k emuf apmpderf o H+ nf nwGi;f csi;f yif yJc;l od‹k c±kid &f 0J efaxmuftjzpf ajymif;a&$Œ jcif;udck cH &hJ onf[k qdx k m;jyefonf? TwGif OD;apmudk u|eaf wmf. zcifjzpfol OD;xGe;f vSatmifu ae‹v,fyikd ;f wGif zrf;qD;cJhjcif;tpm; apmpdefr+Hu Zlvdkifv (19) &uf/ eHeufcif;wGif zrf;qD;cJhonf qdjk cif;rSm vH;k 0rSm;,Gi;f vGaJ csmfaeonf? twGi;f 0ef±;kH rS jyefvmaom vlowform; rsm;udk OD;apmu eHeuf (11) em&DwGif óudqdkvufcHcJhjcif;udk oludk,fwdkif jrifawGŒ cJh&ygonf[k w&m;±Hk;awmfwGif xGufqdkcJhaom uy`wdefcef;rSmrl OD;apmudk zrf; onft h csdeEf iS hf ywfoufI rrSm;,Gi;f Ekid af y? olonf OD;apmESihf OD;apmtdru f kd tcsdef -umjrihpf mG apmih-f unfah ecJo h v l nf;jzpfonf? xdrk w S yg; KNU pmapmifwiG f a&;om; ol/ tqdyk g aqmif;yg;&Sirf v S I JG xdak e‹u OD;apmtdro f ‹kd &Jrsm; eHeufyikd ;f 0ifzrf;jcif;ukd OD;apmudk,fwdkifujzpfap/ tjcm;wOD;wa,mufujzpfap rnfonfhtcgur# a&; om;ajymqdkcJhjcif;r&SdcJhacs? OD;apmtdrfudk &Jrsm; vma&muf0dkif;0ef;xm;onfhtcsdef

163

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165

tajzr&ao;aom ar;cGe;f rsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

rSm ae‹v,f (2) em&D &Sd_yD[k azmfaumfb!Geu f‹ vnf; twnfðyajymqdkcJhygonf? oda‹k omfjim;vnf; aqmif;yg;wGif yg&So d nfh tjcm;tajctjrpf&adS om a&;om; csufrsm;tm; avhvm-unfv h #if OD;Ek (,cifu ocifE)k ESifh Akv d cf sKyf}uD;ae0if; tp &Sdonfh oabmxm;wif;rmol jrefrmrsm; yg0ifywfoufaeonf[laom pGyfpJGcsuf udrk l owdcsyo f ihv f yS gonf? (_Adwo d # tvdak wmf&rd sm;) [k pGypf cJG x H m;&aom u&if vlrsKd;pkrsm; (ppftwGi;f Y u&iftajrmuftjrm; r[mrdwb f ufrS &yfc-hJ uonf) ESifh jrefrmjynfrS qkwcf mG oGm;aom _Adwo d #wda‹k emuf xd;k ppfqifvu kd yf gvmcJah om Armh vGwv f yfa&;wyfrawmfxrJ S pnf;rJu h rf;rJh y&rf;ywm jzpfae-uao;aom wyfrsm; t-um; aoG;ajrus cdkuf&efjzpfr+rsm; trSefwu,f jzpfay:cJhavonf? jrefrmEdkifiH k mG ;onfh vGwv f yfa&;&_y;D onfah emuf u&iftrsK;d om;tpnf;t±k;H (KNU) awmcdo tcsdefYum; xdkvlrsKd;pktcsif;csif;t-um; jzpfyGm;cJhaom roifhrwifh &efrD;yGm;onf jynfwiG ;f ppftjzpfo‹kd t&Sed w f ;kd jr‡io fh mG ;cJah wmhonf? 6 Todk‹ qdkyifqdk&jim;aomfvnf; OD;Ekonf u&ifvlrsKd;rsm;tay: touf!Sm qH;k Armacgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfayvdrrhf nf? u&ifaomif;usef;r+ ray:aygufrD 1948 ckESpf/ pufwifbmvwGif olonf u&ifrsm;. awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk avhvm&ef a'oqdkif&m udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&; aumfr&Sifw&yfudk cef‹tyfcJhonf? rsm;r-umrD 1949 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&DvwGif u&ifrsm;ESihf tpdk;&ppfwyft-um; jynfwGif;ppf jzpfyGm;aepOf OD;Ekonf _idrf;csrf;a&; tqdkðycsufw&yfudk urf;vS rf;cJhygao;onf? od‹k jzpfI u&ifw. ‹kd ykeu f efxºuGru + kd ppfwyftiftm; oufoufjzifo h m acsr+e;f vdk -uaom oabmxm;wif;rmol jrefrmrsm;u olt ‹ m; odumQ csonft h aejzifh ‘u&if Ek’ [k ‘emrnfajymif’ ay;cJ-h uonf? Ttjzpftysufrsm; jzpfyGm;_yD; ESpftwef-umrS autJif,lrsm;u txifvGJ rSm; rkef;wD;r+rsm; jzpfcJh-u[efwlygonf? 1962 ck/ rwfvwGif AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; tm%modrf;vdkufonfhtcg ol‹udk zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;cJh_yD; 1966 ckESpf/ atmufwdk bmvtxd v$wrf ay;cJah cs? ydrk I kd zGŒJpnf;yHt k ajccHOya'enf;usaom tpd;k &pepfw &yf jrefrmEdik if w H iG f jyefvnftoufoiG ;f &mY tultnDay;&ef OD;Ektygt0if ,cif Ekid if ahH cgif;aqmifa[mif; (21) OD;jzifh ‘t}uHay;tzGŒJ ’ udk ^m%fe^D m%feufrsm;aom ppftm%m&Sifu zGJŒpnf;ay;vdkufonf? 1962 ckESpfwGif OD;ae0if; oGwfoGif;cJhaom ‘jrefrmhq&kd , S v f pfvrf;pOfygwD’ wnf;[laom ‘wygwDtm%m&Sipf epf’ tpm; 1962 ckEpS f rwkid rf u D usio hf ;kH cJah om ‘ygwDpkH 'Dru dk a&pDpepf’ ESifh ‘vGwv f yfaom aps;uGuf pD;yGm;a&;’ odk‹ jyefvnfOD;wnfvkyfudkifoGm;&ef (21) OD;tzGJŒ. trsm;pku t}uH

^m%fay;cJo h nf? 1969 ckESpf/ ZGefv (2) &ufae‹wGif OD;ae0if;u ,if;t}uHðycsufudk jiif; y,fvdkufonf? xdk‹aemuf OD;Ekvnf; pdwfysufum wdkif;jynfrS xGufcGmoGm;cJhav onf? olonf vef'efodk‹ oGm;cJh_yD; xdkae&mYyif OD;ae0if;. ppftm%m&Sifpepfukd vufeufuikd af wmfveS &f ef pnf;±H;k vkyaf qmifrnfh olt ‹ pDtpOfrsm;udk -o*kwv f (29) &ufae‹wGif a-unmcJhonf? aemufqHk;wGif ,if;vGwfajrmufa&;ppfyGJonf xdkif;= jrefrme,fpyfwav#muf&dS jynfwiG ;f rS xGuaf jy;vm&olrsm; cdv k &+H mpcef;rsm;rS pwif cJo h nf? OD;Ek. vGwaf jrmufa&;v+y&f mS ;r+rS aygufzmG ;vmaom ppfwyfuv kd nf; ‘jynf cspfvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf’ (Patriotic Liberation Army- P.L.A) [k trnf ay;vdu k -f uonf? xkw d yfukd ArmhwyfrawmfY xifay:ausm-f um; vlord sm;-uonfh 0g&ifx h yd w f ef;ppfacgif;aqmifrsm; jzpfc-hJ uaom &Jabmfo;kH usyd 0f if Adv k v f usmf / Adv k f &efEikd Ef iS fh Adv k rf ;ª atmifwt ‹kd jyif vGwv f yfa&;&ptcsed u f Armhwyfrawmf. ppfqif a&; OD;pD;csKyf/ u&iftrsK;d om; Adv k rf ;ª csKyf [ifqef-um'd;k (Brig. Henson Kya Doe)/ Armhavwyf OD;pD;csKyfa[mif; AdkvfcsKyfawmfrDuvpfzf (Air Commodore Tommy ‹ OD;aqmif-uonf? OD;Ek. v+yf&Sm;r+tzGJŒonf yl;wGJppfqifa&;twGuf Clift) wdku xkdif;=jrefrme,fpyfwav#muf tajcpdkufxm;-uaom autJif,lESihf rGefwdkif;&if; om;olykefwEdk‹ Sihf oabmwlnDr+ vufrSwfa&;xdk;-uonf? odak‹ omf r-umvSygacs? jrefrmEkid if t H aejzihf yxrqH;k a&;qGjJ y@mef;cJah om 1947 ckEpS f zGŒJpnf;tkycf sKyfykH tajc cHOya'wGif &S rf;ESihf u,m;jynfe,fwdk‹udk ay;tyfxm;aom ‘cGJxGufvdku cGJxGuf ydik cf iG ’fh &So d nfh &ydik cf iG t fh ay:Y oabmuGv J t JG jiif;yGm;r+rsm; jzpfay:vmawmhonf? tu,fI ppftm%m&Sifwdu k‹ dk wGef;vSef_yD;onfESifh wòydifeuf olwdt k‹ m;vnf; ‚if; &ydkifcGihfudk ay;ygrnf[laom uwdu0wfudk wdkif;&if;om; vlenf;pkrsm;u ,ck awmif;cHvm-uonf? Todk‹ wdkif;&if;om;rsm;. ‘cGJxGufvdku cGJxGufydkifcGifh’ udk zGJŒpnf;yHktajccH Oya't& umuG,fwm;qD;xm;&efom vdkvm;ESpfòcdufaom OD;Ekonf 1973 ck/ Zlvikd v f wGif ol. acgif;aqmif&mxl;udk Adv k v f usmf tm; v$aJ jymif;ay;tyfum xkid ;f EkdifiHrS 0rf;enf;pdwfysufpGmjzifh xGufcGmoGm;cJhavonf? Adkvfvusfmonf tjrihfrm; qH;k pGr;f &nfEiS fh jynfph akH omyk*Kd~ vfwOD;jzpf_yD; OD;atmifqef;. yk*Kd~ vfa&;t& cifrif &if;ESD;aom rdwfaqGwOD;vnf;jzpfonf? 1978 ckESpf/ Ekd0ifbmvtwGif;wGif vufeufudkifwyfzGJŒ (2) zGJŒt-um; em;vnfr+vGJ&mrS jzpfyGm;yHk&aom autJif,lwdk‹ u ol‹pcef;tm; 0ifa&mufpD;eif;wdkufcdkufr+wGif AkdvfvusfmusqHk;oGm;cJhonf?

165

166 166


167

tajzr&ao;aom ar;cGe;f rsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

yDt,fvaf t wyfrawmfrmS vnf; xdt k usKd;quftjzpf tpdwpf w d t f ¹r¸m¹r¸m uGo J mG ; cJhonf? xdk‹aemuf (10) ESpfr# -umonftxd Armhvufeufudkifqef‹usifr+rSm r&Sd cJhawmhacs? xdk‹aemufwGifrS &efukefESihf te,fe,ft&yf&yfwGif jzpfyGm;cJhaom ppf wyf. vlowfuiG ;f rsm;rS xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&Smifvmaom 'Dru kd a&pDwu kd yf 0JG if ausmif; om;axmifaygif;rsm;pGm e,fpyfodk‹ a&muf&Sdcdkv+Hvm-u_yD; yDt,fvfatwyfrsm; tajccsomG ;onfah e&mrsm;Yyif tajccsum &efuek pf pftpk;d &udk vufeufuikd af wmf vSew f u kd cf u kd &f ef topfwzef óud;pm;-ujyefawmhonf? autJi, f pl mapmifwiG f tpGypf cJG &H aom jrefrmacgif;aqmifrsm;xJrS wOD;jzpf ol Adv k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;rSmrl OD;EkEiS fh tajccHupI jcm;em;aom yk*Kd~ vfwOD;jzpfonf? OD;atmifqef;vkyf}uHcH&r+ESihf ywfoufI &efukefbk&ifcH±Hk;rS vef'efodk‹ yxrqHk; tao;pdwaf &;om;ay;ydv ‹k u kd af om a-u;eef;wGif aoewform;rsm;udk Adv k af e0if; . trSwf (4) Armhvufeufuikd w f yfrS wyfzŒJG 0ifrsm;tjzpf azmfjyxm;onfukd owd csyfoihfonf? 7 xdak‹ emufydkif; bk&ifcH±Hk;rS ay;ydak‹ om a-u;eef;pmrsm;wGifrl ya[Vd qefvSaom ,if;owif;udk csefvSyfxm;cJhawmhonf? ,if;onf rSm;,Gif;azmfjyr+ ayyJvm;? odk‹r[kwf EdkifiHa&;&m axmufxm;p&m ta-umif;rsm;a-umifh tm%m ydkifrsm;u ueOD;owif;ay;ydk‹r+udk qufvufpHkprf;ppfaq;jcif;rðybJ a&Smif&Sm;cJh jcif;ayyJvm;? u|Ekfyfwdk‹ rnfonfhtcgr# odEdkif-uawmhrnfr[kwfacs? odk‹aomf vnf; ^m%feD^m%feufrsm;vSaom trSwf (4) Armhvufeufudkifwyf. wyf&if; rª;onf xdt k csed rf pS I jrefrmhjrifuiG ;f wGif ajcmufveS v ‹f su&f adS eayawmhonfwum;? 1911 ckEpS w f iG f arG;zGm;cJo h nfh w±kw=f jrefrmujym;jzpfol i,femrnf ±+armif ac: OD;ae0if;onf OD;Ekxuf (4) ESpfi,f_yD; OD;atmifqef;xuf (5) ESpf}uD;oljzpf onf? &Jabmfo;kH usdyt f zGŒJ 0if jzpfyifjzpfaomfjim;aomfvnf; OD;ae0if;onf 1946 ck ESp/f aemufyikd ;f usro S m ,SOòf ydio f rl sm;udk &uf&ufpufpufz,f&mS ;_yD; xdyyf ikd ;f ae&m od‹k r&rae pwifwufvS r;f vmEkid cf jhJ cif;jzpfonf? vGwv f yfa&;&_yD;aemuf uGejf rL epfrsm;/ jynfo&l‹ Jabmfrsm; awmcdkoGm;_yD; trSwf (1) ESihf trSwf (3) Armhvufeuf udkifwyfrsm; ykefuefxºuGonfh tcsdefwGif Adkvfae0if;. trSwf (4) Armhvufeuf udkifwyfonf tpdk;&twGuf wckwnf;aom rDScdktm;xm;&m t"dur¾dKif}uD;jzpf vmcJhonf? odk‹aomfvnf; EkdifiHawmfumuG,fa&;udk wjynfvHk; jzef‹usufxm;Ekdif &eftwGuf OD;wifxÉG . f jynfaxmifpt k &efwyfzŒJGrsm;uJo h a‹kd om wyfzŒJGtopfrsm;udk xlaxmifc&hJ onf? trsKd;om;nD!Gwfa&; ckdifrmap&ef &nf&G,fI wdkif;&if;om; u&iftrsKd;

om;wOD;jzpfol 'k=AdkvfcsKyf}uD; prpf'Gef; (Lt. Gen. Smith-Dun) udkyif wyfrawmf . umuG,af &;OD;pD;csKyftjzpf tpd;k &u ceft ‹ yfco hJ nf? olv ‹ ufatmufwiG rf S 'k=OD; pD;csKyf (2) OD;&Sdonf? wOD;rSm AdkvfcsKyfjzpfvm_yDjzpfaom OD;ae0if;ESihf aemufwOD; rSm &JAdkvfcsKyfjzpfol u|Efkyf.zcif AdkvfcsKyfxGef;vSatmif jzpfonf? 8 ppfwyf&mxl; tpOfwiG f eHygwf (4) ae&mY &Sad eaom OD;wifxÉG o f nf vufonfw&m;cH vlowf orm;ray:bJ 1948 ckESpf pufwifbmv (8) &ufae‹wGif towfcHcJh&onf? xdk‹ aemuf vtenf;i,ft-umwGif u&ifyek u f efr+ ay:aygufvmcJo h nf? 'k=Adv k cf sKyf}uD; prpf'Gef;taejzifh tpdk;&tay: qufvufopPmapmihfodaeaomfvnf; olonf &uftueft ‹ owfr&Sd cGi&fh uf&n S , f cl ikd ;f jcif;udk cHc&hJ onf? olu ‹ kd 1949 ckEpS f azazmf 0g&Dv (1) &ufae‹wGif tem;ay;vdkuf_yD; tvkyfrvkyfolrsm; pm&if;wGif xnfh oGif;jcif;cH&um olonf ucsifjynfe,ftwGif;wGif rdrdoabmESifhrdrd ta0;odk‹ oGm;a&mufaexkdifcJhavonf? 9 OD;xGef;vSatmifonf qif; ('f) [wf (pf) (Sandhurst) bk&ifhppfaumvdyf odk‹ 0ifcGifh&cJhol yxrOD;qHk; jrefrmtrsKd;om;jzpf_yD; 1922 ckESpfwGif oifwef;_yD;qHk; I bGŒJ &onfEiS fh bk&if. &mxl;cefx ‹ m;jcif;udk cHc&hJ oljzpfonf? olonf 1948 ckEpS f aESmif;ydik ;f wGif vef'ef&dS jrefrmoH±;kH od‹k jrefrmppforH ;ª tjzpf apv$wjf cif;cHc&hJ onf? xd&k mxl;rSm ,cifu oluikd w f , G cf &hJ onfh &mxl;xuf tqifrh sm;pGmedrahf om &mxl; jzpfavonf? 1951 ckEpS w f iG f _Adwed Ef ikd if YH olw ‹ m0efoufwrf;ukeq f ;kH cJ_h yD; olonf rdcifwkdif;jynfodk‹ jyefvmcJhonf? odka‹ omf olpD;vmaomoabFm oD[dkVfu|ef; (,ck oD&v d uFm) udv k b H q kd yd u f rf; qku d u f yfcsdew f iG f olu ‹ kd jrefrmaxmufvS r;f a&; t&m &Sdrsm;u vma&mufawGŒqHk_yD; oludkifaqmifxm;aom EkdifiHul;vufrSwfudk y,f zsufypfvdkuf-uonf? TonfrSm &Sif;vif;jyI r&Edkifavmufaom xl;qef;r+jzpf onf? Tod‹k jzifh olonf oD[Vkd w f iG f 1954 ckEpS t f xd aomifwifaecJ&h onf? jrefrm Edik if . H ArmhwyfrawmfY t&if;cH tqiht f jrihq f ;kH ppfwyft&m&S}d uD; (4) OD; &So d nfh teuf 1949 ckEpS t f a&mufwiG rf l OD;ae0if;wa,mufom usefcahJ yawmhonf? OD;ae0if;onf ‘rufcsD,m A,fvD’ t,ltqorm;/ tm%mt±l;trl;orm; jzpfonfrmS ,cifuvnf; rSecf o hJ nf? ,ckvnf; rSeaf eao;onf? oHo,jzpfp&m r&S?d Ekid if aH &;avmutwGi;f Y jzpfap/ ppfwyftwGi;f Y jzpfap/ olò‹ ydib f ufreS o f r#ukd 1940 ckESpfrS ,ae‹txd z,f&Sm;ypfcJhonfh olv ‹ ufoal‹ jcrsm;udk jrefrmtrsm;pk jrif awGŒae&onfr[kwfygvm;? xdak‹ emuf ydkItvS rf;us,f/ ydkI vufoGufvmonf? 1947 ckESpfY trsm;jrifuGif;rS OD;atmifqef; aysmufuG,foGm;cJh&onfudk OD;ae0if;

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169

tajzr&ao;aom ar;cGe;f rsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

taejzihf pdwfoufom&m&um usdwf_yD; 0rf;tom}uD;omaeayvdrfhrnf[k ,lq v#ifum; ta-umif;usKd;qDavsmfonf[k qdk&ayvdrfhrnf? tb,fa-umifhqdkaomf tjrihfqHk;tm%mtwGuf olt ‹ "du ,SOfòydifbuf}uD; r&SdawmhIjzpfonf? odka‹ omf OD;atmifqef;ESifh olv ‹ yk af zmfuikd b f ufrsm;tm; OD;apmu owfcsiv f matmif olt ‹ ae jzifh aemufuG,fu óud;udkifI tuGufqifEkdifavmufatmif pGrf;aqmifEdkifygrnf avm? ,if;odkq ‹ dkv#if odyfudk vGefoGm;avrnfvm;? odka‹ omfvnf; ,ae‹tcgwGif jynfya&muf jrefrmtcsKdŒu xdktwdkif;yif ,Hk-unfvsuf &Sdae-uayonf? 1992 ckESpf/ arvwGif tar&duefjynfaxmifpk ‘zdak‹ vmh'f'ga'; (vf)’ (Fort Lauderdale) Y ±kdufESdyfxkwfa0aom pmtkyfi,fwtkyfwGif ,if;wwd,tjrifudk aemufqHk;xkwfazmfxm;onf? zavmf&D'g (Florida) Y tvkyfvkyfaeaom jrefrm q&m0efwOD;jzpfonfh a'gufwm-uif[dk; (ac: ) a'gufwmEdkif0if;u xkdpmtkyfi,f udk a&;om;jcif;jzpfonf? ,if;pmtkyrf mS Adv k v f usmf .nDi,f &Jabmfjrv+id Ef iS hf olw‹dk pum;ajymqkrd t + a-umif;tcsuw f cktay: tajccHI a&;om;xm;jcif;jzpfonf? OD;jr v+id o f nf wcsdeu f Armhvufeufuidk yf v k yd af omif;usef;r+ErdS ef if;a&;wyfzŒJG (Burma Armed Police Striking Force) wGif tr+xrf;aqmifcJh_yD; aemufykdif;wGif ayzl;v$m r*~Zif;ukd t,f'w D mcsKyftjzpf wm0ef,x l w k af 0cJo h nf? olonf 1987 ckEpS f Zlvidk f vwGif tar&duefjynfaxmifpo k ‹dk aq;ukor+c, H &l ef oGm;a&mufco hJ nf? tar&duef jynfaxmifpk awmiftwWvefww d jf ynfe,frsm;. awmifyidk ;f tpGeq f ;Hk zavmf&'D g&Sd olu ‹ kd,fykdifaq;ukcef;wGif OD;jrv+difESifh pwifawGŒqkHcJh&r+jzifh a'gufwm-uif[kd;u ol.pdwfv+yf&Sm;zG,f jyefajymif;ajymjycsufukd pwifcJhonf? xkdaemufykdif;wGif olwE‹dk pS Of ;D ykrd &dk if;ES;D vmum r-umc%tjyeftvSef vnfywf-uum twlwuG pm; &if;aomuf&if; axG&mav;yg; aqG;aEG;ajymqkjd zpf-uonf? a'gufwm-uif[;dk tae jzifh 1957 ckESpfu zwfrdcJhaom vlxkOD;vS. pmtkyfwtkyfxJrS a&;om;xm;onfh *VKefOD;apm.touftm; &ef&Sm&ef ¯ud;pm;jcif;ESifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh tjcm; tmZmenfrsm;tm; vky}f uHowfjzwfjcif; ponft h a-umif;jcif;&mwko ‹d nf xkpd OfryS if q&m0ef.pdwu f dk ±+yaf xG;apvsuf ykpm> wyk't f vm; tawG;yGm;apcJyh gonf? 1988 ckEpS f pufwifbmv (10) &uf/ om,mvSarmaom zavmf&'D g. naecif;wcsed w f iG f OD;jrv+dif. aetdrfY ‚if;wkd‹ESpfOD; npmpm;aomufaecsdefwGif ‚if;ta-umif;t&m wkd‹tay: pum;pyfrdoGm;-uonf? q&m0efu ar;cGef;rsKd;pkHukd tm;wufwa&m ar;onf? olr‹ w d af qGu Ekid if aH &;orm;wOD;jzpfonfh &efuek b f aqG[k vlord sm;aom ol.wGJzufwOD;yg/ yg0ifywfoufcJhonfh tHh-o&ifzkdp&m Zmwfvrf;w&yfukd azmf

xkwaf jymjyavawmhonf? olESifh &efukefbaqGwkEd‹ SpfOD;rSm OD;apm.toufukd &ef&Smoa,mif }uHpnf Ekdif&eftwGuf (2) v-um oifwef;ay; avhusifhcH&a-umif;/ xkdokd‹ }uHpnfjcif;jzifh OD;atmifqef;ukd aoG;xk;d ajrm‡ ufyifah y;oltjzpf txifrmS ;tjrifrmS ;ap&efjzpfa-umif; olu twdtvif;zGifh[cJhonf? Tokd‹aom ol&Jabmfa-umifvSonfhvkyf&yftm; pnf;±kH;pDrHolrsm;rSm tjcm;olrsm;r[kwf? AdkvfcsKyfae0if;ESifh ol. teD;uyfqkH; vkyfazmfukdifzufjzpfol Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD;wkd‹omjzpfonf[k OD;jrv+difu ajymjy cJyh gonf? a'gufwm-uif[;kd jyefajymif;ajymjyonfh OD;jrvdi+ . f ajymqdck sufrmS atmuf ygtwdik ;f jzpfonf? “wae‹ u|efawmf ppf±Hk;rSm tvkyf_yD;vdk‹ tdrfjyefr,ftvkyfrSm u|efawmhf q&m Adkvfatmif}uD;uæ “udkjrv+dif cifAsm;tdrfrjyefeJt ‹ Hk;/ u|efawmhftdrfvdkufcJh? ta&;}uD;wJu h pd w P ck aqG;aEG;p&m&Sw d ,f” vd‹k u|eaf wmhu f kd ajymygw,f? u|eaf wmf oleJ‹ vkdufoGm;ygw,f? tJ'Daemuf olu u|efawmhfudk ar;w,f? “cifAsm;rSm aiG b,favmuf&o dS vJw”hJ ? u|eaf wmfuæ “u|eaf wmfrh mS aiGwode;f / ESpo f ed ;f avmuf awmh&Sdw,f” vdk‹ jyefajzawmh oluæ“aumif;w,f/ 'gqdk cifAsm;tdrftwGuf vHk avmufw,f? u|efawmfwr‹kd mS txl;wm0efwck vkypf &m&Sw d ,f? u|efawmht f rd rf mS cifAsm;ae/ tm;vHk;udpP0dpP_yD;&if cifAsm; tdrfjyefEkdifw,f” vdk‹ ajymjyw,f? 'DvdkeJ‹ Akv d af tmif}uD;tdrrf mS u|efawmf (2) vavmuf aecJ&h w,f? &efuek b f aqGuawmh Adkvfae0if;tdrfrSmae_yD; aoewfwvufeJ‹ typfavhusifhae&w,f? vHk;0aocsmzdk‹ u|efawmfwu ‹kd kd ydak vhusihaf y;wmyg? (wu,fwrf;u &efuek b f aqGu vufwnfh _yD;om;yg)? OD;apm&JŒ v+y&f mS ;r+ukd u|efawmfw‹kd tao;pdwaf vhvm&w,f? ol ±H;k udk oGm;zdk‹ tdrfuae b,ftcsdefxGufw,f? b,ftcsdefjyefa&mufw,fæpojzihfaygh? OD;apmtoufudk &ef&Smzdv k‹ kyfwJhae‹u olu olt ‹ eufa&mifum;}uD;xJrSm '±kdifbm ab;u xkdifvkdufvmw,f? u|efawmfwdk‹ ola‹ emufu uyfvdkufoGm;w,f? ae&m aumif;vJ a&mufa&m/ u|efawmfu olu ‹ m;udk ausmfwufvu dk w f ,f? tJ't D csderf mS &efuek b f aqGu aoewfcvkwu f kd qGðJ zwfvu kd w f myJ? yxrypfcsufu OD;apm ezl; udk &SyfrSefoGm;w,f? 'gta&;}uD;qHk;ypfcsufyJ? &efukefbaqGu aemufwcsuf xyfypfw,f? tJ'gu OD;apmudk rxdbl;? bmjzpfvdk‹vJqdkawmh OD;apmu ol‹xkdifcHk atmuf av#mcsvdkufvdk‹yJ? wwd,tcsufuawmh rdk;ay:axmifypfvkdufwmyg? &efuek b f aqGu æ“a[;/ udjk rv+id /f armif;ajy;ayawmh” vd‹k atmfajymvdu k w f ,f?

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171

tajzr&ao;aom ar;cGe;f rsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

u|efawmf b,favmufjrefjrefarmif;vdkufvJ rodbl;? tdrfudk b,fvdkjyefa&muf vmrSef;awmif rodawmhbl;? aoewfuawmh Adkvfae0if;&JŒ udk,fydkifaoewfyg? &efukefbaqGeJ‹ u|efawmfwdk‹vkyf}uHwmudk OD;apmvHk;0rodcJhygbl;? 'guawmh u|efawmfwdk‹ (4) a,muf/ Adkvfae0if;/ Adkvfatmif}uD;/ &efukefbaqGeJ‹ u|efawmf wdy‹k J odwmyg”? Adv k af e0if;onf OD;atmifqef;udk remvdjk zpfaecJ_h yD; t_rJa-umufaecJ&h onf [k a'gufwm-uif[;kd u jznfph u G o f nf? xkt d csdeu f taysmfusL;I vufvw G pf y,f toH;k tjzKef;}uD;aom Adv k af e0if;udk OD;atmifqef;u qly}l udr;f armif;aecJ&h onf? Adv k af e0if;u OD;apmtouf rqH;k ±+;H apbJ &ef&mS ±Ho k ufouf jrif;orm;^m%f 10 ESihf }uHpnfppD OfcjhJ cif;jzpfonf? xdak e‹u um;xJygol aoewform;ESpaf ,mufuv kd nf; OD;atmifqef;. udk,fydkifwyfjzpfonfh jynfo&l‹ Jabmfwyf (PVO) rS ,leaD zmif;rsm; udk 0wfxm;apjcif;jzifh ol‹toufukd &ef&Smr+aemufuG,fwGif OD;atmifqef;&Sdae onf[k OD;apmxifoGm;ap&efjzpfonf? odkr‹ Som OD;apmu OD;atmifqef;udk &efwHk‹ jyefvufpm;acsayvdrrfh nf? aoewform;rsm; rnforl nf0gjzpfonf[al om tcsuEf iS fh olw. ‹kd &nf&, G f csuf/ OD;wnfcsufrsm;rSvGJI Ttjzpftysuf. tao;pdwfudk 1940 ckESpfrsm; aemufydkif;wGif rSwfwrf;wifxm;EdkifcJh_yD; jzpfavonf? OD;atmifqef;towfrcH& rD (10) vtvdk 1946 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (21) &ufae‹wGif OD;apmtoufudk &ef&mS jcif;ESihf tcif;jzpfymG ;&mwGif jynfo&‹l aJ bmfrsm; yg0ifywfoufaeyH&k jcif;wdu ‹k kd vkyf}uHr+twGuf aphaqmfcsuftjzpf w&m;qdkifaepOftwGif;wGifyif udk;um;jcif;cH cJh&avonf? odk‹aomf OD;jrv+dif. Zmwfa-umif;jyefzGihftefjcif;rsm;onf cdkifvHkr+ rnfr#&Sdonfudkrl rnfolr# odEkdifawmhrnfr[kwfacs? &efukefbaqGonf twef -umuyif OD;aESmufuifqma&m*gjzifh aoqH;k oGm;cJ_h yD; OD;jrv+id rf mS vnf; zavmf&'D g odk‹ oGm;a&mufvnfywf_yD; ESpftenf;i,ft-um 1991 ckESpftwGif;wGif &efukef aq;±H}k uD;Y uG,v f eG o f mG ;cJah oma-umihjf zpfavonf? olwr‹kd uG,v f eG rf D 1989 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v f tmZmenfae‹txl;xkwf ‘The Burma 11 Review’ pmapmif trSwfpOf (6) wGif armifxl; (0dZm… =ody`HwuUodkvf) a&;om; aom ‘'Drdkua&pDodk‹ aemufqHk;c&D;’ aqmif;yg;yg&SdvmcJhonf? ,if;aqmif;yg;wGif aqmif;yg;&Sifu OD;atmifqef;tm; vkyf}uHowfjzwf&ef yl;aygif;}uHpnfr+wGif Adv k cf sKyf}uD; ae0if;taejzifh OD;aqmiftcef;u¾rS yg0ifcyhJ EkH iS fh OD;atmifqef;tay: xm;&Sad om OD;ae0if;. oabmxm;wdE‹k iS fh ywfoufI pGypf aJG &;om;xm;onf?

“OD;ae0if;onf Adkvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD;ESihf wkdifyif_yD;oumv tcGihfta&; orm;wOD;jzpf_yD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. t"du òydifbuf}uD;jzpfaom OD;apmudk aoewfjzihyf pf&ef aoewform; (2) OD;udk wm0efay;tyfco hJ nf?” OD;atmifqef;tm; vky}f uHowfjzwf&ef }uHpnf&jcif;. &nf&, G cf suf tao; pdwf twdtusudk od&SdcJh-uol AdkvfcsKyf}uD;a[mif;rsm;ESihf ppfwyfacgif;aqmifrsm; tenf;i,fom&Scd o hJ nf? 1962 ckEpS w f iG f ppfwyfu tm%modr;f cJ_h yD; Zlvikd v f (19) &ufae‹wGif tmZmenfukef;odk‹ ppf0wfpHkjynfhjzifh csDwuf-u&ef ppfwyfu pDpOfcJh onf? wyfrawmf pwifwnfaxmifcJhol OD;atmifqef;om toufxif&Sm;&SdcJhygrl ,if;tm%modr;f r+ukd oabmwlnaD yvdrrhf nf[k jynfov l x l u k kd jyo&efjzpfonf? awmfvSefa&;aumifpD0if (17) OD;om &Sdonfhteuf (14) OD;onf xdkcsDwufr+ pDpOf a&;ESiyfh wfoufonfh tpnf;ta0;od‹k wufa&mufc-hJ uonf? Adv k rf ;ª csKyfwifazu Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;aoqH;k cJ&h r+ukd 0rf;enf;woajymqdck o hJ nf? Akv d cf sKyfae0if;u x&yfvdkuf_yD; æ “bmvdk‹ 0rf;enf;ae&rSmvJ? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;[m vlaysmhw a,mufyJ? 'ghtjyif wkdif;jynf&JŒ jy\emawGtay: olx ‹ ufpm&if b,fvdkudkifwG,f &r,fqdkwm ig trsm;}uD; ydkodw,f” [k cyfjywfjywfajymqdkvdkufonf? Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;. tmZmenfArd mefo‹kd oGm;a&mufrnfh r[mpDru H ed ;f }uD; rSm csufcsif;yif aysmufu, G o f mG ;cJah wmhonf? 12 acwfòydif*sme,f xkwfa0ol OD;wifarmif0if; 13 onf 1997 ckESpf/ azazmf 0g&Dvxkwf *sme,fwGif 'kwd,t}udrfxkwfa0aom u|Ekfyf. pmtkyftay:wGif òcH iHak &;om;&mYæ “‚if;tjyif TT xdkxdk tESDodk‹aom acgif;aqmifwdk‹. aemufvdkufqdkol tcsKŒdwo ‹kd nf rdrw d q ‹kd &m. Edik if aH &;&efo[ l k xifrw S o f rl sm;tay: rdrw d b ‹kd mom rdrd wdt ‹k pDtpOfjzifh }udrzf efrsm;pGm yl;aygif;}uHpnfr+ ðyvm-uonf? pma&;q&m &efuek f baqGudk,fwdkifu olESihf OD;jrv+difwdk‹onf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. &nf&G,fcsuf/ OD;wnfcsufrsm;tay: txiftjrifrmS ;ap&ef cyf±;l ±l;/ cyf&rf;&rf; tjrwfxw k f vkyf aqmifrr+ sm;wGif yg0ifaqmif&u G cf ahJ -umif;/ 1972 ckEpS yf ikd ;f Y befaumuf&dS rdwaf qG t0ef;t0kid ;f twGi;f wGif zGi[ fh 0efccH zhJ ;l onf” [k azmfjycJo h nf? txufygjy\emESiyhf wfoufI u|eaf wmf. ,k-H unftm;xm;onfh vkyaf zmf ukid b f ufwOD;jzpfco hJ l OD;wifarmif0if;. &efuek b f aqGEiS Ehf iS hf awGŒqpHk Ofu ajymqkd csurf sm;tm; aumufEw k rf w S o f m;xm;jcif;rsm;rSm OD;jrv+id u f trnfazmfxw k cf ahJ om olEiS hf &efuek b f aqG twlwI JG *VKefO;D apmESihf Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;wkt ‹d ay: Edik if aH &;

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

twGif; vkH;0vGwfvyfa&;’ [k aºuG;a-umfoHray;bJ _Adwdo#tpkd;&tm;‘'kdrDeD,ef’ av#mhaps;ay;um 0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfomG ;cJah omf OD;wifxÉG o f nf olv ‹ &l if;jzpf±o Hk mru ynmt&nftcsif;tm;jzifv h nf; _Adwo d #yËdnmOfc0H efxrf; (I.C.S) jzpfaoma-umifh rsKd;cspfygwDtpkd;&wGif {uefrkcs umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; jzpfvmvdrfhrnf? xkd‹a-umifh Adkvfae0if;onf a&SŒqufrawG;awmhbJ &efukefbaqGESifh vGefpGm&if;ESD;aom jrif;_cHom;Adkvf}uD; (,yufvuf) vSa,$tm; oGm;ac:ckdif;vkdufonf? xkd‹aemuf (jr0wD&Jacgif jyefajymif;ajymjyonfh &efukefbaqG. ajymqdkcsufrSm atmufyg twkid ;f jzpfygonf? vky}f uHra+ e‹ naeykid ;f rSpwifIjzpfonf?) “*VKefOD;apmtm; a&S;OD;pGm okwfoif&Sif;vif;&eftwGuf olESifh ukdjrv+difwkd‹ onf pywfvrf;wae&mrS *VKefapmtm; ol. ‘ol&d,’ owif;pmwkduf±kH;ay:rS qif;vm_yD; um;ay:wufcsdet f xdapmifI h olu ‹ m;ESihf rvS r;f rurf;rS uyfvu dk o f mG ; -uonf? *VKefOD;apm t_rJoGm;avh&Sdaom tdrfjyefvrf;rsm;twkdif; vkdufoGm;&mrS tcgtcGiahf umif;rnfh &efuek af xmif}uD;ESihf jynfvrf;xdyw f ae&mwGif &efuek b f aqG onf xkdtcGifhaumif;ukd vufrv$wfbJ olu ukdjrv+dif.um;ukd t&Sdefav#mhapI ol.vufwiG ;f rSþaoewfjzifþh um;'±kid b f mESi, hf OS x f idk _f yD; vku d yf gvmaom *VKefapm . aemufaphwnfw h nfu h cdk sdeu f m yxrtcsufypfxnfv h u dk o f nf? oka‹d omf vGepf mG tuif;yg;I t_rJrjywf owduyfaeaom *VKefapmonf ola‹ &SŒum;rSefxJrS ‘jynf ol&‹ aJ bmf’ ppf0wfp0Hk wfxm;onfh vlEpS af ,mufteuf acgif;wk;H qHawmufEiS o hf u l olt ‹ m;aoewfjzifþh csdev f u dk o f nfuþdk vS r;f jrif&aomtcsdeYf yifþaoewfow H csufEiS hf twlþol‹ezl;ylceJjzpfoGm;onf? xkdtcsdefYyif olonf um;zifxkdifckHab; '±kdifbm &Sd&mbufokd‹ olu ‹ kd,fukdvSJtcs aemufxyfaoewfoH (2) csuf xyfxGufvmonf? '±kdufbmuvnf; um;ukdb&dwftkyfI um;xJiakH‹ evkdufonf? um;rSefuGJprsm;rSm olwE‹dk pS Of ;D vk;H ukd vGiphf ifxrd eS -f uonf? ‘ukd&Jacgif&,f/ vlawG&JŒuHqkdwm rSefyJrSefovm;awmh rajymwwfygbl;? cifAsm;vJ u|efawmhfvufukd todom;yJ/ u|efawmfypfvkdufwmuawmh ola‹ emuf aphwnfw h nfu h dk ypfxnfv h u dk w f mygyJAsm? 'gayr,fh olu um;rSex f rJ mS u|efawmhf ukjd rifv‹dk vSnt hf -unfv h u dk rf mS u|eaf wmfypfvu dk w f u hJ sn[ f m ola‹ emufaphurdk rSeb f J ole‹ zl;ukd &Syrf eS o f mG ;wmyJ’ [k }udwrf Ekid cf rJ & ajymjyygonf? Tum; vGecf ahJ om 1972 ckEpS cf efu ‹ &Jabmfo;Hk usyd 0f if Adv k rf ;ª atmif/ pma&; q&m &efukefbaqGESifh ajrmif;jrbaqGwkd‹onf ,dk;',m;EkdifiH uvef'ef-rd› -oZm _cH}uD;twGi;f v#Kd0‹ u S zf iG v hf pS x f m;onfh toHvi$ Xhf meok‹d OuU@}uD; OD;EkEiS ahf wGŒq&Hk ef

tvm/ toHv$ifhXmeYþ(3)þ&ufr# aexkdifoGm;-upOftwGif;/ u|efawmhftm; &efukef baqGu pum;pyfrdI ajymjycJhzl;aom jzpfa-umif;ukefpOf/ ,kHcsif,kH r,kHcsifae/ twGif;a&;owif;uav;wuGufjzpfownf;?” OD;jrv+difESifh &efukefbaqGwkd‹ ajymjyonfhZmwfa-umif;ESpfrsKd;ukd E+dif;,SOf pl;prf;ppfaq;-unh&f mwGif Adv k rf ;ª csKyfatmif}uD;. -oZmt&Sed t f 0gukd cH&yk&H onfh OD;jrv+difonf olwkd‹.&nfrSef;csufwm0efrSm OD;apmtm; raoatmifyGwf&Syfypf& rnf[k ,kH-unfcJhygonf? &efukefbaqGrSmawmh pifppftm;jzifh Adkvfae0if;. ,kH -unftm;xm;jcif;wnf;[laom tumtuG,fukd&cJh_yD; ola‹ oewfukdyg tyfESif;cH &oljzpfI olt ‹ m; Adv k af e0if;u ESpOf ;D csi;f awGŒqI Hk trdea‹f y;vku d o f nfrmS OD;apmtm; aoatmif ypfowf&efyifjzpfonf? xkt d a-umif;ukd ukjd rv+id yf ifv#if odrnfr[kwf acs? ,if;okd‹v#if xkdudpPESifhywfoufI aoatmifypfonf/ acsmfypfonf[laom tEkrme t,ltq tqkd-urf; (2) rsKd; ay:xGufoGm;apumrl xkdolESpfOD;onf rkdufrJaomjypfr+}uD;wGif um,uHajrmuf tultnDay;cJh&olrsm;jzpf-u_yD; Adv k af e0if;ESihf Akv d af tmif}uD;wko ‹d nf aoG;xk;d ay;cJ-h uol txufq&m}uD;rsm;jzpfchJ -uonfrSm xif&Sm;yg.? olwkd‹.t}uHt& olwkd‹.om;aumif *VKefapmrSmum; raorD rsufpw d vk;H qk;H ±+;H &±ko H mru toufyif qk;H ±+;H &onft h ajctaeok‹d a&muf cJh&onf? xkdpGyfpGJcsufrsm;ESifh ywfoufI ,cktcsdefwGif Oya'txufrS aeEkdif ao;aomolrsm;u ,if;udpPonf olwkd‹ESifh vkH;0rywfoufa-umif; rD;aoatmif rajz&Si;f Ekid o f r#umvywfv;Hk TrSww f rf;rsm;onf aemifaomtcg jynfor‹l sujf rif ±ky&f iS t f jzpfo‹dk a&mufvmOD;rnfrmS tvGeaf ocsmyga-umif;? xdo k q ‹kd v kd #if OD;atmifqef;udk rnfol trSew f u,fowfoenf;? Tar;cGe;f rSm tvGef}uD;us,faom ar;cGef;jzpfayrnf? tb,fa-umihfqdkaomf }uHpnfr+}uD; wck. jzpfEkdifajc&Sdaom óud;udkifpDrHcJhol ^m%f}uD;&SifwOD;wa,muf. aocgeD; ajzmifch suu f vGI J rnfonft h &mu trSew f &m;udk tusK;d w&m; xdxrd rd d azmfxw k f Ekdifygvdrfhrnfenf;? xdka-umifhvnf; tjcm; rnfolwOD;wa,mufr#r[kwfbJ OD; apmom tjypf&Sda-umif; ±Hk;awmf. ed*Hk;ur`wf tqHk;owfaumufcsuf. aemuf ydkif;Y jzpfEkdifajc&Sdaom OD;apmtjyif tjcm; yl;aygif;}uHpnfolrsm;ESihf ywfoufI cdik cf idk v f v kH kH &SmazGawGŒ&rdS + r&Scd ahJ cs? OD;jrv+dif. zGihf[0efcHcsufonf ya[Vdqefqef pdwf0ifpm;zG,f&m aumif; onft h jyif trSew f &m;tcsKŒdonfvnf; ygayvdrrhf nf? vGwv f yfaom oufaorsm; r&Sb d v J suf tvGwo f abmpum;0kid ;f wckwiG f ava-umoiho f vdk xkwaf zmfajymqdk

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176 176


tajzr&ao;aom ar;cGe;f rsm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

1994 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv? uifbm&mòrdŒawmfwGif vGwfvyfa&;ae‹ (46) }udrfajrmuf tcrf;tem; e0w oH±kH;a&SŒwGif ,SOfòydifqifE$J-upOf? 0JrS,m apmvGifOD;/ a'gufwmat;ausmf/ yD=awm±kd/ rmvfuGefbGwfum;/ OD;cifatmif/ a'gufwmwifha0ESifh a':trmcsKd?

oGm;onfhta-umif;t&m tcsuftvufwpHkwckay:wGif tajcðyvsuf orkdif;udk jyefvnfjyifqifI &Edik yf goavm? tar&duef orRw *|eftufzu f ae'D vky}f uHc&H 15 h rdik ;f wGif ,ae‹wikd f rajz&Si;f Edik af o;aom tjcm;v#KŒd0u S q f ef;-u,fr+ r+ ESifh urBmo rsm;uJhodky‹ if trSefw&m;wckvHk;udk rnfonfhtcgr# odEdkifrnfr[kwfawmhacs? odk‹ &mwGif odxm;_yD; taxmuftxm;rsm;ESifh rdrdwdk‹ vHk;0rod-u&ao;bJ vGwfae onfh tcsuftvuftajrmuftjrm;udk tajccH_yD;v#if OD;apmwa,mufxJr[kwf [k ,lqv#ifvnf; &Ekdifayao;onf? rnfuo hJ y‹kd ifjzpfap tvGev f eG u f s,jf yefa‹ om orkid ;f a-umif; taetxm;t& ydkrdkta&;}uD;onfrSm OD;apm. aoewform;rsm;u &efukefòrd›v,f&Sd twGif;0ef rsm;±H;k txJo‹kd twif;0ifa&muf_yD; aoG;at;at;ESihf jrefrmEdik if . H tav;pm;&qH;k Ekid if aH &;acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;tm; ypfcwfowfjzwfc_hJ yD; Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk vkyf }uHcJhjcif;onf rsKd;quf (2) qufcef‹ (49) ESpfr# -umjrihfcJh_yDjzpfaomfvnf;þ,ae‹t xd &SifoefaeqJjzpfaom t-urf;zufr+ESifh r,HkouFmjzpfr+ tarGudk csefxm;&pfcJh jcif; jzpfayawmhonfwum;? Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô

177 177

178 178


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

1992 ckESpf/ rwfv? jynfaxmifpkjrefrmjynf !Ge‹f aygif;tpk;d &0ef}u;D csKyf a'gufwmpdef0if; -opa-w;vsjynfokd‹ c&D;vSnfhvmpOf qpf'eDòrdŒavqdyfY a'gufwmwifha0 óudqkdykH?

1971 ckESpf/ aomif;&if;jrpfwae&m? A[kdpdwf"mwfppfqifa&;Xme jynfcspfvli,fwyfaygif;pk toHv$ifhtzGJŒ0ifrsm;? 0JrS,m jr0wD&Jacgif/ ukdaxG;jrifh/ rcifrsKd;at;/ ukdwifarmif0if;ESifh ukdoka0?

1990 ckESpf/ Ekd0ifbmv? uifbm&mòrdŒawmf e0w oH±kH;okd‹ 'k=Akdvfrª;}uD; &JxGÉf v#Kd‹0SufpGmvm_yD; ppftpkd;&tm; u±k%moufol jrefrmrsm;ESifh awGŒqkH&mwGif uef‹uGufaeaom 'Drkdua&pDbufawmfom;rsm;ukd vma&mufyl;aygif;tm;ay;onfh ygarmuQ *sKd;ZufqD(vf)yg;pwkdif; (Prof. Josef Silverstein, Rutgers University, N.J, USA tm;

a'gufwmat;ausmEf iS t hf wlawGŒ&yk?H 179 179

1991 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv? tar&duef zavmf&D'gòrdŒwGif jrefrmjynfaqG;aEG;yGJusif;ypOf a-u;rkHOD;aomif; (FDB twkdifyifcHtzGJŒ0if) ESifh OD;wifarmif0if; (CRDB OuU@) wkd‹ wufa&muf-upOf? (OD;wifarmif0if; rdef‹cGef;wGif NCGUB !Gef‹aygif;tpkd;&tm; axmufcHulnD&ef wkdufwGef;ygonf?) 180 180


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

jrefrmtrsK;d om; trSww f q H yd rf S rmef0ifx h ,fvaS om Oa'gif;udk twk,o l nfh tvm; olonf cyfrwfrwfav#mufvmonf? olt ‹ em;&Sdvlrsm;udk vufqGJvsuf cGJ cGmumeD; E+wfqufpum;qdkonf? jznf;nif;pGm/ wnf_idrfpGm/ tòyH;wpGef;wpjzifh OD;apmonf óud;pifay:od‹k wufomG ;avonf? xkt d csed o f nf 1948 ckEpS /f arv (8) &ufae‹/ t±k%fwufcsdefjzpfonf? jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;&_yD;I (4) vESifh (4) &uf&SdcJh_yD? OD;atmifqef;ESihf olv ‹ kyfazmfudkifbufrsm; vkyf}uHcH&_yD; (10) vausmf ‹ ufoHk;pum;twkdif; owWd -umjrihfcJhav_yD? ‘owf&J&if ao&J&r,f’ 1 [laom olv udjk yonfh aemufq;kH vuQ%mtjzpf OD;apmonf ol‹ jrifuiG ;f udk zH;k tkyrf nfh acgif;pGyf udk jywfom;pGm jiif;y,fvdkufonf? ol‹aemufqHk;c&D;udk oufaocH&ef pk±Hk;vsuf&Sdol vltenf;i,fudk olonf cyf&J&Jyif wcsuf tjrefvS rf;-unhfvdkufonf? óud;ay;olonf olv ‹ nfyif;udk óud; uGi;f pGyv f u kd _f yD; óud;udk aqmihq f v JG u dk o f nf? puUey‹f ikd ;f twGi;f wGif vl-urf;rif;om; 2 ‹k nf tif;pdeaf xmif toufxu G o f mG ;avonf? armifp;kd / oufEiS ;f ESihf r+e}f uD; 3 wdo wGiyf if olwa‹kd cgif;aqmifaemuf óud;pifay:vku d o f mG ;-uonf? armifped Ef iS fh &ef}uD; atmifwo ‹kd nf &efuek w f iG f óud;ay;cHc&hJ onf? w&m;pD&ifa&; cHk±Hk;.wm0efum; _yD;pD;cJh_yD? w&m;Oya'onf wOD;aumif; pGefp‹ m;r+ 0g'tay: tEkdif,lEkdifcJh_yD? odka‹ omfjim;vnf; ,ae‹xufwdkif wdkif;jynft aejzifh cHpm;ae&qJjzpfaom jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;. t-urf;zufr+tarGudk OD;apmESihf ol‹ vlrsm;u csefxm;cJhavonf? OD;atmifqef; vky}f uHjcif; rcH&rDuyif jrefrmrsKd;cspfrsm;. ppftwGi;f acgif; aqmifjzpfaom a'gufwmbarmfuæ “aoewfu;kd uG,rf [ + m tpGt J vrf;}uD;aewJh t&mudk ud;k uG,o f vdk jzpfvmw,f? *syefawGqu D jrefrmawG ESpcf sufavhvmcJ&h

w,f? vlpkvla0; tpnf;t±Hk;udk tajccHwJh acgif;aqmifr+ enf;twwfynmeJ‹ vufeufwyfqifxm;olrsm;&JŒ tm%meJ‹ wifhw,fr+jzpfw,f? jrefrmEkdifiH&JŒ tem *wfukd a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufyaJG wGu qH;k jzwfrmS r[kwb f J aoewfu qH;k jzwfrmS jzpf w,f? jrefrmhEidk if aH &;rSm cifAsm;wd‹k vdt k yfwmu Ekid rf ,fb h ufu prdze‹kd ‹J aoewfawG tajrmuftjrm; &Szd y‹kd jJ zpfw,f” [k rSwcf sufcscJzh ;l onf? a'gufwm barmf. taumif;rjrifaom óudwiferd w d zf wfro + nf 4 OD;apmESifh wu,fvufawGŒ jzpfvmcJhonf? eef;pOfrudkÉfudk t&,leef;wufEkdifa&;twGuf òydib f uf[o l r#ukd vH;k 0O\k&H iS ;f vif;ypfonfh okwo f ifa&;udk jrefrmtm%m±l;rsm; ,ae‹wdkif usihfoHk;vsuf&Sdonf? trSeftm;jzifh Ttcsufudk pwifoabmaygufol rSm OD;atmifqef;udk,fwdkifyifjzpfonf? 1946 ckESpfOD;ydkif;wGif olonf xdktcsdefu bk&ifcjH zpfaom qm&,f*seD ,fa':refprpfEiS fh awGŒ _yD; ol. txD;userf E+ iS hf rdwaf qG enf;yg;r+wdk‹ESihf ywfouf_yD; ESpfudk,f-um;ajymcJhonf? xkdtcsdefu OD;atmifqef; onf rsuf&nf0Jvsufæ “trsKd;om;acgif;aqmif qdkolawG[m b,favmuf-um -umcHovJ/ 'Dwidk ;f jynfrmS awmh ody-f um-umrcHygbl;? olwr‹kd mS &efoo l yd rf sm;vGe;f w,f? touf&iS af ezd‹k (3) ESpq f w kd m trsm;qH;k ar#mv f if&h rSmyJ? usaemht f wGuaf wmh 5 aemufxyf (18) vxuf ydkae&zdk‹ wGufrxm;ygbl;” [k qdkcJhonf? aemufxyf (18) v -um_yD; oltoufrqHk;±+H;rD (6) &uftvdkwGif OD;atmif qef;onf &efukefòrd›Y vlxkpnf;a0;yGJ}uD;wckudk rdef‹cGef;ajymcJhonf? xkdae‹onf Zlvdkifv (13) &ufae‹ jzpf_yD; vwfwavma&G;cs,fjcif;cHxm;&aom wkdif;jynfðy v$wfawmf. wdk;wufr+ tajctaeESihf ywfouf_yD; olu ajymqdkcJhonf? xkdpnf; a0;yGJ}uD; wufa&mufolrsm;onf olr‹ defc‹ Gef;udk E+wfqufrdefc‹ Gef;tvm; cHpm;-u& onf? “cifAsm;wdk‹udk usaemf uae‹ajymcJhcsifw,f” [laom edrdwfjyaemufqHk;p um;jzifh OD;atmifqef;u olr‹ decf‹ Gef;udk tqHk;owfcJhavonf? 1947 ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif 0ef}uD;tzGJŒ wzGJŒvHk;eD;yg;udk &Sif;vif;ypfjcif;onf okwfoifa&; tawG;tac:. yxrqHk;ESihf t±kdif;tpdkif;qHk; &v'fjzpfonf? uHwl tusK;d ay;jzpfrnfh aemufwzGŒJ rmS wyfrawmfjzpfonf? orkid ;f . ta&;ay: tajct aersm;u ocifwjzpfvJ ppfom;jzpfol OD;ae0if;udk _Adwdo#u avhusifhoif-um;cJh olrsm;jzpf-u_yD;/ ynm&nfjrihrf m;vSaom t&m&So d ;kH OD;jzpfonfh Akv d rf ;ª csKyf wifxÉG /f AdkvfcsKyf xGef;vSatmifESifh 'k=AdkvfcsKyf}uD; prpf'Gef;wdk‹ESifhtwl vkyfazmfudkifbuf tjzpf ae&mcsxm;ay;cJo h nf? AdkvfcsKyfae0if;taejzifh ola&muf&Sdae&aom tajctaewGif tawmf rtD

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182

tcef; (6) t-urf;zufr+ tarG

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183

t-urf;zufrt + arG

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

rvnfcHpm;&ayvdrfhrnf? olò‹ ydifbufrsm;rSm r-umrDyif towfcH&olcH&/ &mxl;rS z,f&mS ;cH&olc&H jzpfuek -f uavonf? u|eaf wmf.þzcifjzpfoþl Av kd cf sKyfxeG ;f vSatmifEiS þfh '=k Adv k cf sKyf}uD;þprpf'eG ;f wdo ‹k m ta-umif;jycsuf tcdik t f vHrk &Sb d J &mxl;rS xkwyf ,fjcif;cH&onfr[kwaf cs? u&if wdkif;&if;om;rsm;ESihf tjcm;e,fpyfa'o&Sd vlxkudk pdwfauseyfap&eftwGuf 'k=AdkvfcsKyf}uD; prpf'Gef;udk umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyftjzpf a&G;cs,fcJhjcif;jzpf&ef rsm; ygonf? xdk&nf&G,fcsuftwGufyif tjcm;u&ifvlrsKd;ESpfOD;jzpfonfh qif;'f[wfpf ppfausmif;qif; Adkvfr;ª csKyf apm-um'dk;udk ppfqifa&; OD;pD;csKyftjzpfvnf;aumif;/ Adv k rf ;ª }uD; &S±D ;d+ udk avwyfO;D pD;csKyftjzpfvnf;aumif; wyfrawmfxyd w f ef; &mxl; rsm;twGuf a&G;cs,fcjhJ cif;jzpfonf? 'k=Adv k cf sKyf}uD; prpf'eG ;f ESit fh wl olwE‹kd pS Of ;D onfvnf; &mxl;rS xkwyf ,fjcif; cHcJh&onf? 1949 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvwGif u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t±Hk; (KNU) u vufeufuikd af wmfveS cf sdew f iG f wyfrawmfxrJ S ,if;xdyw f ef; u&if (3) OD;rSm tpd;k &udk qufvufopPmapmiho f q d jJ zpfonfrmS ,Hrk mS ;oHo,jzpfp&m r&Syd gacs? od‹kjzpfI olwdk‹xkwfy,fcH&jcif;onf vlrsKd;a&;oufouftay:wGif tajccHIaomfvnf; aumif; odk‹r[kwf olwdk‹udk &Sif;vif;ypfEkdifa&;twGuf csufaumif;&&SdoGm;ol òydif bufwOD;a-umihaf omfvnf;aumif; jzpfEidk af yonf? tm;aumif;aom òydifbufwdkif;udk z,f&Sm;ypf&ef OD;ae0if; pGJpGJ_rJ_rJjzpf&jcif; . tpdwftydkif;w&yfonf ol. tm;i,fpdwfrS trsm;qHk; tajccHjcif; jzpfEkdifacs &Sdayonf? OD;ae0if;. i,femrnfrSm ±+armifjzpfonf? udk±+armifonf *syfqif aumvdyrf S 1931 ckEpS w f iG f ausmif;xGucf &hJ _yD; ,cifcsmcsv D rf; (,ck ud, k rhf if;ud, k f csif;vrf;) &Sd &efukefòrd›/ qifajczkH;&yfuGuf pmwkdufcGJwckwGif ti,fwef;pma&; av;jzpfcJhonf? ol. txky`wWdudk a&;om;ol a'gufwm armifarmifu ‘jrefrm jynfESihf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;’ (Burma and General Ne Win) pmtkyfwGif ‘xdkpma&; tvkyo f nf ocifvil ,fuav;tm; pmrsm;/ a-u;eef;rsm;udk wdww f qdwpf pfaq; zwf±+_yD; ykvdyftzGJŒ. v+yf&Sm;r+udk ol‹&Jabmf&Jbufrsm;tm; óudwiftoday;EkdifcJh onf? olonf axmufvS rf;a&;tvkyfwGif xufoefonf? xkdtvkyfonf owif; &,la&; pcef;aumif;wckjzpfco hJ nf’ [k a&;om;cJo h nf? xdktcsdefu ol. &Jabmf&Jbufa[mif;jzpfcJhol wOD;wa,mufur# OD;ae 0if;xHrS wpHkw&m owday;cHcJh&jcif;udk jyefvnfrSwfrdjcif; r&Sd-uacs? OD;ae0if; jrif;òydifuGif; r-umc%oGm;cJhjcif;onfvnf; ol. EkdifiHa&;v+yf&Sm;r+udk tum

tuG,f ,lxm;r+w&yfjzpfa-umif;æ‘jrif;òydifuGif;onf vltrsm;pka0;&m ae&m jzpfonf? olonf jrif;wpfay;r+rsm;udo k m em;axmifonfr[kw/f tpd;k &Xme toD; oD;wGif vkyu f ikd af e-uaom olt ‹ odrw d af qGrsm;xH vSnyhf wfomG ;vm_yD; aemufq;kH owif;rsm;udk ar;jref;pHkprf;cJhonf’ [k a'gufwmarmifarmifu OD;ae0if;. vli,fb0udk pdwful;pdwfoef;aumif;aumif;jzihf qufvufyHkazmfxm;onf? OD;ae0if;tm; axmufcHtumtuG,fay;olrsm;xJwGif wOD;jzpfaejcif; twGuf olr-umc% xkwyf ,fypf&mwGif a'gufwmarmifarmif yg&Srd oGm;bJ &Sio f ef vGwfajrmufaejcif;jzpfayvdrfhrnf? Tonfudk óudwifcef‹rSef;I &Edkifonf[kqdk Ekid yf gonf? a'gufwmarmifarmifonf aysm! h o hH w l OD;jzpfonf? olonf OD;ae0if;t ay: rnfonf_h cdr;f ajcmufrr+ # rjzpfapcJ?h ‚if;tjyif uyfzm;owW0gjzpf&eftwGuf ol . ,cif ynmwwft&nftcsif;rsm;udk pGefŒv$wfypf&efvnf; olu 0efrav;acs? 1988 ckEpS /f -o*kwv f twGi;f xkt d csed u f jrefrmEkid if w H iG f Oya't& &yfwnfEidk af om wckwnf;aom EkdifiHa&;ygwD}uD;jzpfonfh jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwD (rqv) . OuU@ESifh jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if . H orRwtjzpfyif rnfrnf&&r[kwaf om a'guf wmarmifarmifuykd if wifajr‡mufapcJah yonf? od&‹k mwGif ydrk t kd pGr;f tp&Sad om tjcm;yk*Kd~ vfrsm;rSmrl okwo f ifa&;vrf;pOf. om;aumifrsm; jzpfcJh-u&onf? OD;atmifqef;. ausmif;om;b0u t&if;ESD;qHk; a&mif;&if;wOD; jzpfcJholjzpf_yD; 'k=0ef}uD;csKyf/ umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;wm0efrsm;ukd vGwfvyfa&;_yD;aemuf xrf;aqmifcJhol Adkvfvusfmonf olt ‹ aejzifh tpkd;&&mxl; tm;vkH;rSEkwfxGuf_yD; pD;yGm;a&;avmutwGif;okd‹ 0ifa&muf&ef taumif;qkH;jzpf a-umif; qkH;jzwfcJhonf? 6 OD;atmifqef;. tjcm; t&if;ES;D qH;k a&mif;&if;wOD;rSm Adv k af usmaf Zmjzpfonf? olonf 1950 ckESpfrsm; tv,ftxd wyfrawmfxJwGif qufvuf&SdaecJhonf? w±kwjf ynf}uD;wGif uGejf rLepfwa‹kd tmifycJG _H yD; wqufwnf; ,leefjynfe,frS jrefrm jynfxx J u G af jy;_yD; usL;ausmv f mol ulrifwefwyfrsm;tm; qefu ‹ siw f eG ;f vSeaf om wdkufyGJtrsm;tjym;udk olonf atmifjrifpGm aqmif&GufEkdifcJhonf? 1950 ckESpfrsm; apmapmydkif;wGif AkdvfausmfaZmonf tvGefausmf-um;aom wyf&if;rª;wOD;jzpfcJhonf? OD;ae0if;udk,fwdkifuvGJI ArmhwyfrawmfxJwGif quf vufwm0efxrf;aqmifaeol &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifxJrS olwOD;om usefawmhonf? tvGet f rif; ±dak oav;pm;jcif;cH&aom &Jabmfo;kH usyd o f nf acwfopfjrefrmhordik ;f wGif '¾m&Dqefqef taetxm;eD;yg;rsKd;okd‹yif a&muf&SdoGm;cJhonf? olwdk‹onf

183

184 184


185

t-urf;zufrt + arG

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

jrefrmEkid if . H vGwv f yfa&;zcifrsm;ESifh Ekid if v hH ufeufuikd w f yfrsm;udk pwifxal xmif cJo h rl sm; r[kwyf gvm;? xka‹d -umifh bDtidk af t (BIA)/ bD'aD t (BDA) ESifh bDtifeaf t (BNA) wdk‹. ti,fwef;t&m&Sdrsm;udk OD;ae0if;taejzifh pdk;&drfylyefp&m r&Sdacs? AdkvfausmfaZmomv#if wyfrawmfwGif tm%mtwGuf wOD;wnf;aom ol. ,SOf òydib f ufjzpfonf? bmwD;vfvifhwem (Bertil Lintner) u ‘a'grmef[kef’ (Outrage) wGif ‘txufjrefrmjynf&dS uGejf rLepfygwD Armjynfukd 1956 ckEpS w f iG f atmifrmCtrnf 0Sujf zifh tðywfwu dk pf pfqifa&;ðyvky&f mwGif odr;f ydu k rf ad om uGejf rLepfpcef;wckrS v#KdŒ0SufpmtcsKdŒudk &&SdcJhonf? oufaocHtaxmuftxm; (odkr‹ [kwf) wdkuf±dkuf qufo, G rf w + pHw k &mudk jyojcif;r&Sb d v J suf Adv k af usmaf Zmonf owif;ayguf-um; r+jzihf tpGyfpJGcH&onf? jynfolvlxkonf wkefv+yfacsmufcsm;oGm;_yD; rnfonfudk ,Hk&rnfrod jzpfoGm;cJhonf? odk&‹ mwGif AkdvfausmfaZmudk wyfrawmfrS xkwfy,fcJh _yD; acwW,m,Dxdef;odrf;xm;cJhonf? ol‹pGJcsufcdkifrmaprnfh taxmuftxm; wdwu d sus ray:aygufvmonft h wGuf 1957 ckEpS w f iG f Akv d af usmfaZmudk jyefvnf v$wfay;cJhonf? odk‹ jzihf olb ‹ 0wdk;wufr+vrf;a-umif;rSm ysufpD;oGm;cJh_yD; olonf &efukefòrd/› prf;acsmif;&yfwGif wyfrawmfrS ay;aom oihfwifh±Hkr#om&Sdaom yifpif vpmav;jzifh tajccsaexkdifcJhonf’ 7 [k a&;om;cJhonf? aomif;usef;r+a-umifh wpdwfwydkif;taejzifh ppfwyfonf tiftm;&&Sdvm cJo h nf? Adv k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;onf wyfrawmfwiG f olq ‹ yk u f ikd rf _+ rJ_rHap&ef tvkyrf sm; aecJo h nf? 1958 ckEpS /f atmufwb dk mvwGif tH-h op&majcvS r;f tjzpf olu ‹ kd 0ef}uD; csKyfwm0ef,&l ef jynfov ‹l w $ af wmfu tqdðk yvdu k o f nf? OD;Ekacgif;aqmifaom oef‹ &Sif;zqyvESihf OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf_idrf; qdk&S,fvpfacgif;aqmifESpfa,muf OD;aqmif aom wnf_rJzqyv[lI OD;aqmif zufqpfqefu ‹ sifa&; jynfolv ‹ Gwfajrmufa&; tzGŒJ csKyf}uD;onf ESpjf crf;uGo J mG ;cJ_h yD; tusK;d quftjzpf Ekid if aH &;tusyt f wnf;}uD; ay:aygufcJhonf? a&G;aumufyGJopf _yD;pD;onftxd tdrfapmifhtpdk;&udk OD;aqmif &ef Akv d cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;udk vkyyf ikd cf iG t fh m%m tyfEiS ;f cJah vonf? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;. tdrfapmifhtpdk;& pGrf;aqmifr+rsm;onf trSefwu,f tm;jzifh cs;D rGr;f zG,jf zpfonf? &efuek òf rda› wmfonf oef&‹ iS ;f oGm;onf? Oya'ESifh wnf _idrfr+udk jyefvnftpm;xkd;EkdifcJhonf? ESpfOD;ESpfbufr#waom tajccHrsm;jzifh aomif;usef;oltajrmuftjrm; vufeufcscJhonf? Tatmifjrifr+onf tkyfcsKyfr+ ,Eœ&m;twGif;&Sd t&nftcsif;jynfhrD_yD; oGufvufxufjrufaom t&yfom;0ef

xrf;rsm;/ tqifhjrihf ppfwyft&m&Sd}uD;tcsKdŒESifh 'kwd,urBmppfrS ppfjyef}uD;rsm; trsm;pka-umihfjzpfonf? tpdk;&rl0g'onf t&if;&Sif0g'jzpf_yD; vufawGŒusonfh twGuf rl0g'onf tvkyjf zpfco hJ nf? 1960 ckEpS w f iG f uwdðyxm;aom a&G;aumuf yGJrsm;udk usif;ycJh_yD; AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;onf OD;AaqGESihf OD;ausmf_idrf;acgif;aqmif aom tkypf b k uf tav;ay;cJo h nf? 1958 ckEpS w f iG f tusyt f wnf;jzpfcv hJ ifu h pm; OD;Ekonf vlxkaxmufcHr+udk qufvuf&&SdcJh_yD; tjywftowf tEkdif&&SdcJhonf? rJqEN&Sifrsm;taejzifh EkdifiHa&;wGif ppfwyf0ifpGufr+udk rESpfòcdufa-umif; OD;AaqG/ OD;ausmf_idrf; tkyfpkudk jiif;y,fvdkufjcif;jzifh jyovdkuf-uonf? odk‹aomfvnf; 1962 ckESpf/ rwfv (2) &ufae‹wGif wkdif;jynfonf uHqdk;rdk; arSmifuscJhavonf? vlóudufrsm;pGmjzifh a&G;cs,fcHxm;&aom 0ef}uD;csKyf/ 0ef}uD; tm;vHk;/ jynfaxmifpk}uD;. wkdif;&if;om; vlenf;pkrsm;. jynfe,facgif;aqmif rsm;ESihf qefu ‹ sifbuf ðyvmEkdifolrSefor# tzrf;cHcJh&avonf? 1947 ckESpf/ 'Drkdu a&pD zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfykH tajccHOya'}uD;udk zsuford ;f vdu k o f nf? jrefrmEkid if . H zuf '&,fwnfaqmufyHkonf ppfwyfpdk;rkd;aom A[dktajcðyEkdifiHawmf,Eœ&m;udk vrf; z,fay;cJ&h avonf? tm%modr;f &jcif;tm; tvGet f rif; ,d, k iG ;f ysufp;D vmaom jynfaxmifpk}uD;. tajctaersm;a-umifh[lI ta-umif;jycJhonf? &efukef. xdkumvudk rSwfrdol u|efawmftygt0if jynfoljynfom;rsm;taejzihf xdkodak‹ om ,dk,Gif;ysufpD;aeonfh rnfonfht&dyfvuQ%mudkr# xkdtcsdefu rawGŒrdcJhygacs? aomif;use;f r+ukd aumif;pGmxde;f xm;Ekid o f nf? pD;yGm;a&;rSm aumif;rGev f su&f o dS nf? 1960 ckESpf/ a&G;aumufyGJ_yD;aemuf EkdifiHa&;&moDOwkonf ododomomyif wnf _idrv f suf&o dS nf? AkdvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;. ppftm%modrf;r+onf aoG;ajrusr+r&Sd[k r-umc% a&;om;cJhaomfvnf; trSefpifppfwGif xdkodrk‹ [kwfacs/ 1948 ckESpfrS 1952 ckESpft xd jrefrmEkdifiH. yxrqHk;aom orRw}uD;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhaom pyfa&$ odu k . f (17) ESpt f &G,f om;i,fjzpfol pdik ;f _rD;onf tm%modr;f r+. yxrqH;k om; aumifjzpfcJhonf? pyfa&$odkufonf &S rf;vlrsKd;wd. k‹ t"duacgif;aqmifwOD;jzpf_yD; zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkpepft& jrefrmEkdifiH. pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr+udk xdef;odrf;xm; Ekid rf nf[k tckid t f rm ,H-k unfaxmufco H w l OD;jzpfonf? xkt d csdeu f u|efawmf ae xkid af omtdro f nf ukuKdU if;ESifh [mrpfwpfvrf;qHw k iG &f o dS nfh pyfa&$ou kd . f &efuek f tdrEf iS fh udu k t f enf;i,fr#om uGma0;onf? pyfa&$ou kd x f H u|efawmf t}udrrf sm;pGm oGm;vnfz;l _yD; tdrrf }uD;ESiw fh v JG suf

185

186 186


187

t-urf;zufrt + arG

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

aqmufxm;aom tcef;wGif aexkdifvsuf&Sdaom ol. t}uD;qHk;orD;ESihf cifyGef; onfwx ‹kd H r-umc%qdo k uJo h ‹kd oGm;vnfavh&o dS nf? pdik ;f _rD;. nDtudrk sm;jzpf-u aom apmqdkif;anmifa&$ (,l*sif;odkuf) ESihf apm[efzwdo k‹ nf ,cktcg uae'gEkdif iHY aexdkifvsuf&Sd-uonf? tm%modrf;onfhnY jzpfysufcJhonfhrsm;udk apm[efz u u|efawmhftm; atmufygtwkdif; jyefajymif;ajymjycJhygonf? “tJ'aD e‹ eHeuf (1) em&De‹J (2) em&D-um;rSm &efuek u f u k KdU if;vrf;/ trSwf (74) rSm &SdwJh (9) {u us,fwJh u|efawmfwdk‹tdrfudk ppfwyfu vm0kdif;ygw,f? _cHxJrSm aeaewJh tdrfapawG/ tvkyform;awG/ rDScdkaeolawG/ tapmifhawGeJ‹ olwdkr‹ dom;pk awG tm;vHk;udk xdef;odrf;xm;vdkufygw,f? 'Daemuf ppfom;awG[m tdrf&Sd&mudk a&SŒwdk;vm-uygw,f? ay (100) avmufawmif ra0;awmhwJh ae&mvJ a&muf a&m/ atmfwdkrufwpfaoewfawGeJ‹ bufaygif;pHkuae_yD; tdrfudk y&rf;ywm ypf awmhwmygyJ? (45) rdepfavmuf qufwu kd yf pfaecJyh gw,f? bma-umifh olw‹kd pypf _yD;/ bma-umifh olwt dk‹ ypf&yfoGm;&ovJqdkwm b,folrS rod-uygbl;? aoewfoH-um;-um;csif; u|efawmf&JŒ tudkwa,mufjzpfwJh ,l*sif; (Eugene= 23 ESpf) [m ol‹tdyf&may:u vSdrfhcsvdkuf_yD; ol‹tdyfcef;xJu wGm;oGm;_yD; xGufcJhygw,f? tdrfa&SŒwHcg;r tus,f}uD; yGifhaewmudk olawGŒvdkuf&ygw,f? ,l*sif;&JŒtyd &f m[m tdraf tmufxyfrmS yGiahf ewJh jywif;aygufa&SŒwnfw h nfrh mS &Syd g w,f? tdyf&mxJu vSdrfhrcsbJ xrsm;xdkifcJh&if tckxd ol touf&Sifvsuf &SdrSmr [kwfygbl;? ol&JŒ jcifaxmiftjzLav;[m aoewfusnfqef&mawGeJ‹ rGpm}uJae awmhwmygyJ” [k jyefajymif;ajymjycJyh gawmhonf? “u|efawmf&ŒJ aemuftudw k a,mufjzpfwhJ pdik ;f _rD; (17) ESpf aysmufaewmvJ oda&m/ u|efawmfhtaz[m atmufxyfqif;oGm;ygw,f? yGihfaewJh tdrfa&SŒwHcg; aygufem;rSm ,l*sif;udk olawGŒawmh olwdkE‹ Spfa,muf tdrfa&SŒwHcg;udk ydwf_yD;aomh cwf csufxkd;xm;vdkuf-uygw,f? reufusawmh tJ't D rd af &SŒwcH g;[m usnfqef&mawGe‹J jynfah ewmygyJ? u|ef awmhftazeJ‹ ,l*sif;wdk‹ b,fvdk usnfqefrrSefcJhovJ qdkwmuawmh tawmfqef; -u,fygw,f? taqmufttHw k ckv;kH ysufp;D aewmudk jrif&olwikd ;f u tJ'aD oewfypfcwf r+a-umifh u|eaf wmfw‹kd rdom;pkwckv;kH aoEkid w f ,fv‹kd oabmwl-uygw,f? ppfrjzpf cifu udv k ekd aD cwfypkH þH taqmufttHt k rd jf zpfaewmu u|eaf wmfwt ‹kd oufukd u,f cJhwmyg? ajrnDxyfrSm&SdwJh tkwfeH&HawGu (18) vufravmuf xlygw,f? tay:

xyfuom opfom;eJ‹aqmufxm;wmyg? ypfcJhwJh aoewfusnfqeftrsm;pk[m eH&Htxl}uD;awGudk razmufEkdifcJhygbl;? ppfom;awGu ajrnDxyfeH&Hxl}uD;awGeJ‹ tawmf eD;eD;uyfypfwmrd‹k ypfwahJ xmifh usO;f vGe;f _yD; odyt f Eœ&m,frjzpfcw hJ myg? ol wd‹k typf&yfwt hJ cgusrS ppfom;awGu u|efawmfw‹kd 0if;xJae˜aewJh vlwa,muf udk tdraf &SŒwcH g;aygufukd ac:vm_yD; ppfwyfu tm%modr;f vdu k w f t hJ a-umif; &Si;f jyygw,f? olwdku ‹ tdrfwHcg;zGihfay;zdk‹ trdefa‹ y;awmh u|efawmhftazu zGihfvJay; vdkufa&m ol‹udk zrf;awmhwmygyJ? u|efawmhftazeJ‹ ,l*sif;udk _cHudkjzwf_yD; tdrf ywfywfvnf _cHpnf;±kd;umxm;wJh yef;±HkawG wae&mrSm olwdk0‹ ifayguf vkyfxm; wJhae&mudk ac:oGm;ygw,f? tJ'DrSm u|efawmhftazudk um;wpD;eJ‹ ac:oGm;awmh wmygyJ? ,l*sif;udak wmh olw‹kd tapmift h -uyfe‹J tdrb f ufjyefac:vmcJ_h yD; usefwo hJ l awGtm;vHk; xGufvmcJhzdk‹ ajymygw,f? tdrb f uftjyefvrf;rSm t&m&Sw d a,mufu olwa‹kd oewfey‹J pfwm wa,muf a,mufxdoGm;w,f/ tJ'g rif;nDjzpfEdkifw,fvdk‹ ajymygw,f? ppfom;awGu 'Daemuf tdrfudk p&SmawmhwmygyJ? uHqdk;csifawmh olwdk‹ ypfvu kd w f hJ aoewfusnq f efwcku v#ypf pfzsLŒpaf owWmudrk eS x f m;awmh wtdrv f ;kH arSmiftwdusaeygw,f? olwdku ‹ kd acsmif;ajrmif;wkdufcdkufrSmudk pdk;&drfawmh tcef; wcef; 0ifwkdif;/ 0ifwdkif; ,l*sif;udk a&SŒu t&ifqHk;0ifapygw,f? r-umcifubJ u|efawmhftaz EkdifiHawmforRwtaeeJ‹ csufudkpvdkAufuD; ,m; oGm;vnfwkef;u csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m; tpdk;&u vufaqmifay;vdkufwJh atmfwdkrufwpf ypPwdkaoewf (2) vufuvGJvdk‹ olwdk‹bmrS rawGŒygbl;? tJ'D aoewf (2) vufvHk;udk u|efawmfhtaz&JŒ bD±dkxJrSm vHkvHkòcHòcH aomhcwfodrf;xm; wmjzpfygw,f? tJ'Dreufaemufydkif;rSm olwdk‹ u|efawmfwdk‹ _cHxJu jyefxGufcgeD;rSm t&m&Sd wa,mufu olv ‹ lawGudk olwydk‹ pfxm;wJh usnfqeftcGHawG jyefaumufcJhzdk‹ trdef‹ ay;ygw,f? 'gawmifrS ppfom;awG awGŒroGm;wJh usnfqef tcGH (100) avmuf tcsKdŒopfyifawG yef;±Hak wGatmufu u|efawmfw‹kd &cJyh gao;w,f? ppfom;awG xGuo f mG ;_yD; reufvv J if;vma&m pdik ;f _rD;udk u|efawmfw‹kd vku d f &Sm-uygw,f? tdraf &SŒqif0ifayguf&ŒJ vuf0b J uf yef;cif;xJrmS pdik ;f _rD;tavmif;udk awGŒ -u&ygw,f? ol‹acgif;eJ‹ ajcaxmufrSm aoewfusnfqefrSefxm;ygw,f? taqmifta,mifwcktjzpf toHk;ðywJh vSHwHwacsmif;udk olc‹ E<mudk,fab;em;rSm awGŒ -u&ygw,f?

187

188 188


189

t-urf;zufrt + arG

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

rwfv (1) &ufae‹ nrSm pdik ;f _rD;u olAu kd af tmifah ew,fv‹kd nnf;aeygw,f? olaumif;aumif; tdyfraysmfawmh wdwfqdwfaewJhnrSm toHAvH-um;wmeJ‹ ol xGuf-unfhwmvdo k‹ m u|efawmfwdk‹ xifrdygawmhw,f? pdwfv+yf&Sm;aewJh ppfom;awGu ta-umufvGefoGm;_yD; olu ‹ dkvJypf/ aemuf qufwdkuf qufypfwmvJ jzpfEkdifw,f? 'grS r[kwf óudwifpDrHxm;wJh tpDtpOft wdkif; ppfom;awGu pypfwmrSm olu ‹ dk rSefoGm;wmvJ jzpfEkdifygw,f? reufcif;rSm &JawG ppfaq;zdk‹ a&muf&Sdvmygw,f? &Jpcef;rSm 0ifa&mufae&m,lxm;-uwJh ppf om;awGu tJ'Dvdk ppfaq;r+rðyvkyfzdk‹ &JawGudk wm;jrpfcJhygao;w,f? vlowfr+ tjzpf tr+zGihfvdkufygw,f? owif;pmq&mrsm; a&mufvmawmh jzpfysufcJhwmudk tjynfhtpHkowif; ay;vdkufygw,f? 'gayr,fh owif;pmq&mawG olwdk‹ owif;pmwkdufawG jyef a&mufawmh 'Dtjzpftysufowif;trSefudk owif;pmxJ rxnfhzdk‹ olwdk‹ydwfyif wm;jrpfc-H u&ygw,f? tJ'Dowif;tpm; awmfvSefa&;aumifpDu ppfom;rsm;taeeJ‹ olwdk‹ wm0ef xrf;aqmif&mrSm ckcHr+eJ‹ &ifqdkifcJh&vdk‹ rdrdudk,fudk umuG,fwJhtaeeJ‹ tajctae t& jyefvnfypfcwf&mrSm pyfa&$odkuf.om;i,f rawmfwq aoqHk;cJh&w,fvdk‹ owif;xkwjf yefa-unmcJyh gw,f” ‘jrefrmEdkifiH. &S rf;vlrsKd;= jynfya&muf &S rf;wOD;. rSwfwrf;rsm;’ [laom ol. pmtkyfwGif rw&m;r+ aumufuspf,kwfrmr+wdk‹ }uD;pdk;aecJhonfh xdkn. em-unf;zG,t f awGŒtóuHrsm;udk cHpm;r+jyif;jypGmjzifh apmqdik ;f anmifa&$u a&;om; xm;jyefonf? ‘1962 ckESpf/ rwfv (2) &ufae‹/ eHeuf (4) em&Dcef‹wGif aoewfoHrsm; a-umihf u|eaf wmf ±kww f &ufE;dk vmcJo h nf? aoewforH sm;onf yxrwGif wd;k wd;k om jzpfaomfvnf; u|eaf wmf ydrk Ekd ;dk vmonfEiS t hf r# wpwpydu k s,v f mygonf? aoewf ypfcwfr+rSm tdrfa&S›tjyifbufwnfhwnfhrS jzpfonf? aoewfusnfqefrsm;onf jywif;aygufreS rf sm;/ abmifrsm;udk azmufxiG ;f 0ifa&mufvm_y;D eH&rH sm;udk xdreS v f i$ fh pifusvsuf&Sdygonf? ppfwyfwyfzGJŒwzGJŒonf ntarSmiftwGif;wGif u|efawmfwdk‹ tdrfbuf wGm;oGm;wufvm_yD; tdrfudk ab;wbufwcsufpDrS 0kdif;&Hum ypfcwf cJhjcif;jzpfygonf? touf (17) ESpfom&Sdao;aom u|efawmf. nDi,fjzpfol pdkif; _rD;rSm towfcHcJh&ygonf? oufqkdif&m tm%mydkifrsm;. tqdkt&rl wm0efxrf; aqmifaeonfh vufeufuikd w f yfzŒJG ukd ckccH o hJ nft h wGu[ f k qdyk gonf’

‚if;tcef;ESihf wGJbufxm;aom rSwfpkrsm;wGif apmqdkif;anmifa&$u ola‹ vh vmawGŒ&Sdr+udk TuJhodk‹ txl;ðy a&;om;xm;jyefonf? pmrsuEf mS (28)æ‘t&efppf&rJ sm; xlxyfpmG apmih-f uyfaeaom 0ef}uD;csKyfEiS fh 0ef}uD;rsm;. tdrrf sm;udrk l aoewfwcsufr# rypfcwfcjhJ cif;rSm xl;qef;vSygonf’ tm%m&Sifpepfonf ppfwyf. vlowf,Eœ&m;udk w&pyftoHk;csvsuf ol‹ vrf;a-umif;wGif&Sdaeaom tjypfrJhjynfolrsm;udk &Sif;vif;wdkufpm;oGm;cJhonf? wcsed u f jynforl sm;. cspjf rwfE;dk r+uckd &H _y;D *k%, f 0l ifºh uGm;zG,jf zpfaom wyfrawmf onf tm%m&SifwOD;. tm%mwnf_rJa&;twGuf ol‹cg;ydkufaqmif udk,fydkifppf wyftoGio f ‹kd ajymif;vJjcif; cHvu kd &f avonf? apmqdik ;f anmifa&$u ol‹ nt D owf cH&r+ukd ajzrajyEkid pf mG atmufygpum;&yfrsm;jzifh jyefvnfowdw&&Scd jhJ yefygonf? “u|efawmfn h u D kd u|efawmf ppfaq;-unfah wmh '%f&m (2) ck awGŒ&ygw,f? ±kdifz,fusnfqefwcku olajcusif;0wftwGif; azmuf0ifxm;ygw,f? ol‹acgif; aemufbufrmS vnf; ao;i,fwhJ usnq f aH yguf&mwck &Sad ejyefygw,f? 'g[m aoG; at;at;eJ‹ owfxm;wm xif&Sm;ygw,f? ppftkyfpku aoG;at;at;eJ‹ wGufcsuf owfjzwfc&H wJh vufeufrhJ vli,fv&l , G f jrefrmEkid if o H m; axmifaygif;rsm;pGmxJrmS ol[m yxrqH;k jzpfvrd rhf ,fv‹kd ajymEkid yf gw,f” orRwa[mif; udk,fwkdifyifv#if xdkae‹eHeufY zrf;qD;ac:aqmifoGm;jcif;cH& _yD; tif;pdefaxmifxJY Ekd0ifbmvtwGif;wGif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhavonf? ,if;ESifh ywfoufI tao;pdwt f csuftvufrsm; xkwjf yefa-unmjcif; rðycJah y? &S r;f jynf e,fY oDaygapmfbGm; apm-umqkdif 8 udk ppfwyfu ac:aqmifoGm;cJh_yD; olonf olr‹ dom;pkxHodk‹ rnfonfhtcgr# jyefa&mufrvmawmhacs? OD;ae0if; tm%modrf; _yD; r-umrDyif awmif}uD;òrd› ajrmufbuf&Sd Axl;òrd› wyfpcef;wGif olu ‹ dk w&m;pD&if jcif;rðybJ uGyrf sufypfco hJ nf[k ,H-k unf&avonf? 1958 ckESpfrsm;uJhodk‹ tdrfapmifhtpdk;& oufwrf; c%wmr#om r[kwfbJ tm%mudk a&&SnfudkifpGJ&ef &nf&G,fcsufjzifh ppfwyfu tm%modrf;,lrSef;odom xif&mS ;vmaomtcg Zlvikd v f twGi;f &efuek òf rda› wmfY ausmif;om;qlyrl + ay:ayguf vmavonf? jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOf[k ac:wGifaom OD;ae0if;. rl0g'topf udk OD;b_idrf;/ OD;odef;azjrihf (ocifodef;az) tp&Sdonfh tpGef;a&muf0g'a&;&m orm;rsm;udk ac:I axmufccH ikd ;f cJo h nf? 'Dru dk a&pDo‹kd jyefomG ;&ef a0;oGm;yH&k onf ESihftr# ausmif;om;rsm;u olwdk‹obm0t& uef‹uGufqENjy-uavonf? olwdk‹ . qENjyr+rsm;onf t-urf;zuf&ufpufrr+ sm;ESio hf m &ifqidk óf uHawGŒ&avonf?

189

190 190


191

t-urf;zufrt + arG

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

tm%modrf;_yD; (4) vt-um Zlvdkifv (7) &ufae‹wGif &efukefwuUodkvf 0if;udk ppfwyfu 0dkif;&Hvdkuf_yD; atmfwdkrufwpfaoewfrsm;/ pufaoewfrsm;jzifh ypfcwfcJhavonf? (15) a,mufom aoa-ucJhonf[k w&m;0ifa-unmcJh&m ,if;ta&twGufrSm t"dy`m,fuif;rJhvS_yD; enf;vGef;vSonf? rsufjrifoufao rsm;u ppfwyf. om;aumifrsm;rSm &mausmfonf[k qdck -hJ uonf? aemifaomtcg EkdifiHhacgif;aqmifrsm; jzpfvmrnfh udkatmifqef;/ udkausmf_idrf;/ udkEk/ udkAaqGESihf tjcm;vli,frsm; 1930 ckESpfrsm; ywf0ef;usifwGif pwifawGŒqHkcJh&m ae&mjzpf_yD; acwfopf jrefrmhrsK;d csppf w d "f mwfaygufzmG ;cJ&h m orkid ;f 0if wuUov kd o f r*~taqmuf ttHu k ykd if ppfwyfu aemufwae‹wiG f 'dik ;f erdu k jf zifh azmufcyJG pfvu dk af vonf? OD;ae0if;onf rnfoa‹kd om qefu ‹ sirf r+ sK;d udrk # onf;rcHcahJ cs? 1960 ckEpS f a&G; aumufyGJwGif oltav;ay;cJhaom OD;AaqGESihf OdD;ausmf_idrf;wdk‹udkyif OD;ae0if;u zrf;qD;_yD;av_yD? ,cifu ol‹q&ma[mif;rsm; jzpfcJh-uaom ocifxGef;tkyfESifh ocifApdefwdk‹onfvnf; vljrifuGif;rS aysmufuG,foGm;-u&onf? ,if;wdk‹onf OD;ae0if;xuf tqihjf rihcf -hJ uolrsm;jzpfI ab;z,fjcif; cHc&hJ avonf? wyfrawmftaejzifh ‚if;. jrefrmhenf;jrefrmh[efjzifh jrefrmhq&kd , S v f pf vrf; pOfudk vufawGŒtaumiftxnfazmf_yD; wESpfcef‹t-umwGif tkyfcsKyfaeaom ppf tkypf t k wGi;f wGiyf if &mxl;rS xkwyf ,fjcif;rsm; pwifjzpfay:vmavonf? ,cifu vGwv f yfcahJ om owif;pmrsm;rSm csKyfuikd jf cif; cHvm&onf? pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;rsm; udk jynfolydkifodrf;_yD; ppfwyfu ajymif;vGJudkifwG,fvmonf? OD;ae0if;. udk,f ydkifjrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwDrSvGJI usefygwDtm;vHk;onf w&m;r0ifa-umif; a-unmjcif;cH&onf? ,if;vkyu f ikd af qmif&u G cf surf sm;udk olv ‹ rl sm;xJuyif vlwikd ;f oabmwlnDcJh-uonfawmh r[kwfacs? olt ‹ ±kduft&m qufcHrnfhol[k ,lqjcif; cH&aom a&mif;&if;a[mif;jzpfol Akv d rf ;ª csKyfa[mif; atmif}uD;onf 1963 ckEpS w f iG f awmfvSefa&;aumifpDrS xkwfy,fjcif;cH&_yD; axmifoGif;tusOf;cscH&avonf? ppfwyfu wnfaqmufaeaom acwfopfjrefrmEkdifiHawmfwGif vHk;0tav#mhay;/ t±+H;ay;rSomv#if touf&Sif&yfwnfEkdifayrnf? jrefrmEkdifiHawmfudk ,Hk-unfr+ESihf tm;vH;k oabmwlnrD t + ay:wGif wnfaqmufjcif;r[kwb f J wOD;wnf;. tm%m &Sif tkycf sKyfra+ tmufwiG o f m wnfaqmufjcif;jzpfavonf? 1970 . q,fpkESpf tv,fydkif;ESpfrsm;wGif ausmif;om;qlylr+rsm;u jrefrm EkdifiHudk udkifv+yfaecJhonf? 1974 ckESpf/ Ekd0ifbmv (25) &ufae‹wGif urBmausmf jrefrmEkdifiHom; urBmhukvor*~}uD;. twGif;a&;rª;csKyfa[mif; OD;oefo ‹ nf e,l;

a,mufòrdw › Gif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf? olt ‹ avmif;udk ajrðr‡yfoò*õ[f&eftwGuf jref rmEkid if o H ‹kd av,mOfysjH zifh o,faqmifomG ;cJo h nf? wurBmvH;k u av;pm;-unf!_kd y;D f rif; remvdk urBmausmyf *k Kd~ vfwOD;jzpfonfh ‘OD;oef’‹ 9 tay: OD;ae0if;onf tvGet 0efwrkd j+ zpf_y;D olt ‹ avmif;udk &efuek òf rdp› eG &f dS omrefocsKiõ ;f wckwiG o f m ðr‡yEf v HS o kd nf? odk‹aomfvnf; ausmif;om;rsm;u trsKd;om;ol&Jaumif;wOD;ESihf xkdufwefaom EkdifiHawmfpsmye jzpfapcsif-uonf? ausmif;om;rsm;onf OD;oef‹tavmif; xnfh xm;onfh acgif;udk vk,l-u_yD; &efukefwuUodkvf0if;twGif;odk‹ o,faqmifoGm;cJh -uonf? Ak'<bmom &[ef;awmfrsm;uvnf; xdkv+yf&Sm;r+wGif yl;aygif;yg0if-u onf? ,if;v+yf&Sm;r+onf óudwifwGufqxm;ouJhodk‹yif aoG;at;at;jzifh acs r+ef;jcif;cH&avonf? ppfom;rsm;u ausmif;om;rsm;udk aoewfrsm;jzifh ypfcwfcJh _y;D ausmif;om;&maygif;rsm;pGmrSm tpkvu kd t f òyHvu kd f towfccH &hJ avonf? w&m; 0ifxkwfjyefa-unmr+rSm aoqHk;ol (9) OD;/ '%f&m&ol (74) OD;ESihf zrf;qD;cH&ol (1˜800) OD;jzpfonf? OD;oeft ‹ a&;tcif;jzpfyGm;_yD; (2) ESpft-umwGif wyfrawmftwGif;wGif }uD; rm;aom xkwfy,fr+wck xyfrHjzpfjyefonf? aròrdp› pfwuUodkvf ausmif;qif;t&m &Sdi,ftcsKdŒu OD;ae0if;udk &Sif;vif;ypf&ef }uHpnfóud;pm;cJh-uonf? -unf;wyfrS Adkvf}uD;tkef;ausmfjrihf OD;aqmifaom t&m&Sdi,frsm;onf ydkrdkvGwfvyfI ydkrdk 'Drdk ua&pDusaom jrefrmEkid if aH wmfukd wnfaqmuf&ef pdwu f ;l ,Ofc-hJ uonf? oda‹k omf olwdk‹.t}uHtpnfrSm ay:aygufoGm;cJh_yD; acgif;aqmifrsm; tzrf;cHcJh-u&onf? Adkvf}uD;tkef;ausmfjrihf 10 onf ao'%fuscH&_yD; uGyfrsufjcif;cHcJh&onf? ratmifrjrifjzpfomG ;onfh tm%modr;f &ef óud;yrf;r+wiG f yg0ifywfoufjcif; r&Sad omfjim;vnf; wyfrawmf. OD;pD;csKyfa[mif; Adv k cf sKyf}uD;ol&wifO;D 11 taejzifh ,if;tr+ESihf qufEG,fr+&SdaecJhonf? olonf ESpf&Snfaxmif'%ftjypfay;jcif;cHcJh& avonf? OD;wifO;D tay: opPmapmiho f o d nf[k txifc&H ol wyfrawmft&m&Sd (200) cef‹ ppfaq;ar;jref;jcif;cH&_yD; 1976 ckESpf/ Ekd0ifbmvwGif jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf; pOfygwD0ifESihf au'g (50˜000) ausmftm; vuf&Sd tkyfcsKyfaeaom ygwDrS xkwf H y,fa-umif; OD;ae0if;ud, k w f ikd f a-unmcJah vonf? 12 OD;wifO;D onf jrefrmEkid if . ppfO;D pD;csKyfrsm;xJwiG f vlcspv f cl iftrsm;qH;k OD;pD;csKyfwOD;jzpfonft h wGuf tiftm; aumif;aom òydib f ufwOD;tjzpf owfrw S cf &H _yD; ola‹ emufvu kd [ f k ,lqcH&olrsm; ESit fh wl z,f&mS ;cH&jcif;jzpfavonf? 1980 ckESpf apmapmydkif;umvwGif ‘okwfoifa&;’ onf vufawGŒtoHk;cs

191

192 192


193

t-urf;zufrt + arG

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

cH&jyefavonf? Tw}udrfwGif ypfrSwfonf EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;vnf;r[kwf/ 'Drdk ua&pDa&;wdkufyGJ0if ausmif;om;rsm;vnf;r[kwf/ oabmuGJvGJaom ppfwyf t&m&Sdrsm;vnf;r[kwf/ OD;ae0if;tpdk;&twGuf t"du taxmuftyHh a'gufwkdif }uD;jzpfaom jrefrmEkdifiH. tiftm;aumif;vSonfh ppfaxmufvS rf;a&;wyfzGJŒ jzpf avonf? &Jabmfo;kH usyd Ef iS t fh wl *syefwiG f &Sad epOfumvY OD;ae0if;onf a-umufp&m aumif;vSaom *syef ppfykvdyf uifaywkdif. axmufvS rf;a&;oifwef;twGuf txl;a&G;cs,fjcif;cHcJh&onf? *syefacwfwGif uifaywdkifwdkv ‹ ufcsuf cHcJh&olrsm; onf olwdk‹vkyf&yfrsm;udk ,ae‹wdkif rSwfrdaeqJjzpfonf? vlwa,mufudk olv#Kd (spy) [k pGyfpGJvdkufjcif;rSm uifaywdkif. vufpGJpum;vHk;jzpfonf? Tpum;vHk; onf olwdk‹tenf;tusOf;omwwfaom t*FvdyfpmrS ,loHk;vdkufaom a0g[m& jzpfonf? olv#Kd[w k o f nfjzpfap/ r[kwo f nfjzpfap/ vufonf;cGcH mG jcif;/ oGm;ESifh qHyifwu dk‹ dk qGJE+wfjcif;jzifh vlwa,mufonf trsm;tm;jzifh olv#Kd[k 0efcHr+ðyav awmhonf? oHo,&Sdolrsm;udkom Todk‹ &ufpuf-urf;ñuwfonfr[kwf? jrefrmAdkvf avmif; ausmif;om;rsm; ppfa&;jyavhusihf&mwGifyif xdkodk‹ &ufpuf-urf;ñuwf wwfonf? Tenf;vrf;rsm;onf tusKd;xda&mufr+&SdrSef; tcsKdŒu oabmayguf yif aygufjim;aomfvnf; ppfa&;jyavhusihfuGif;twGif; rw&m;_cdrf;ajcmufðyr+ cH&_yD; jynfov l x l w k &yfv;kH tay: zufqpft-urf;zuf0g' usio fh ;kH r+wu ‹kd kd jyefvnf -um;odvm&aomtcg jrefrmAdv k af vmif; ausmif;om;trsm;pktaejzifh aemufq;kH wGif *syeftm; jyefvnfqefu ‹ sifavawmhonf? ppf}uD;_yD;onfESihf jrefrmhwyfrawmfonf *syefudk tajccHcJh&r+ trsm;tjym; tm; ajrðr‡yo f ò*õ[yf pfvu kd af wmhonf? 1947 ckEpS /f -o*kwv f (29) &ufae‹wiG f um uG,fa&;0ef}uD; Adkvfvusfmonf _Adwdo#udk,fpm;vS,f a*s 'AvsL z&D;rif; (J.W S af &;xd;k vdu k o f nf? TpmcsKyf oabm Freeman) ESifh oabmwlpmcsKyfw&yf vufrw wlnDr+t& ppftoHk;taqmifypPnf;ud&d,mrsm;ESifh ppfa&,mOfwpD;udk _Adwdo#wdk‹ u jrefrmEkid if t H m; ay;&rnfjzpf_y;D _Aw d o d # -unf;wyf/ a&wyf/ avwyfwu ‹kd jrefrm EkdifiHwGif tajcpkduftzGJŒwzGJŒudk xlaxmifum jrefrmhumuG,fa&;wyfzGJŒ topfjyef vnfzGJŒpnf;&mwGif ulnDoifwef;ay;&rnfjzpfonf? xdkoabmwlnDr+udk 1954 ck ESpfwGif aemufqHk;Y zsufodrf;cJhaomfvnf; _AdwdefEkdifiHwGif oifwef;ay;r+rsm;udkrl xkdaemufydkif;wGif tvGwfoabmtm;jzifh qufvufaqmif&GufcJhonf?

xko d ifwef;ay;r+rsm;wGif axmufvS r;f a&;wyfzŒJG0ifrsm;udk oifwef;ay;r+rsm; vnf; aemufyikd ;f wGif wd;k csŒJyg0ifvmcJo h nf? jrefrmEkid if t H aejzifh t&nftcsi;f &So d nfh vli,fvl&G,frsm;udk _AdwdefEdkifiHodk‹ apv$wfI vef'efòrda› wmf &JwyfzGJŒ r+cif;ppfaq; a&;Xme (paumhwvef,'f) rS omru _Adwdo#axmufvS rf;a&;XmerS (MI. 6) u yg oGefoif!¸ef-um;r+rsm; &,lapcJhonf? oifwef;trsm;pkrSm &SufzD;vf &Jody`H (Sheffield Police Academy) wGif ðyvkyfjcif;jzpf_yD; vufa&G;piftcsKdŒomv#if ydkrdk tqifjrihfonfh v#KdŒ0SufaxmufvS rf;a&; oifwef;ausmif;jzpfonhf &Sufrd'f (Shetmead) odk‹ oGm;a&mufwufcGihf&&Sd-uonf? TuJhodk‹ axmufvS rf;a&;tpOftvmjzifh jynfhpHkolwOD;rSm pufbD;vufudkif yHpk H E+wcf rf;ar$;ydik &f iS jf zpfI E+wcf rf;ar$;vGi[ f k emrnfay;jcif;cH&aom Adv k rf ;ª }uD;vGif jzpfonf? 1930 jynfv h eG Ef pS rf sm;wGif olonf ocifwOD;jzpfcu hJ m rsK;d cspyf gwD acgif; aqmifjzpfol OD;apmESihf tcsif;rsm;cJhzl;onf? 1962 ckESpfY OD;ae0if; tm%modrf; ,lcsdew f iG f E+wcf rf;ar$;OD;vGio f nf ppfaxmufvS r;f a&;wyfzŒJG . t}uD;tuJ jzpfae qJyif? xkd‹aemuf rsm;pGmr-umrD ol‹udk tem;,lcGihfðycJhonf? tem;,lcGihfðyjcif; qdo k nfrmS xkwyf ,fvu kd jf cif;udk w&m;0ifo;kH E+e;f onfh toH;k tE+e;f jzpfonf? olu ‹ kd qufcHolrSm ‘Akdvfr;ª csKyfwifOD;’ jzpfonf? vkyfief;cGifoHk; rsufvHk;jyL;rsufqefjyL; rsurf eS rf sK;d wyfavh&o dS nft h wGuf Akv d rf ;ª csKyfwifO;D ukd rsurf eS w f ifO;D [k ac: -uonf? 1950 jynfhvGefESpfrsm;wGif qdkifyef ypPzdwfu|ef;Y olonf tar&duef A[kd axmufvS rf;a&;Xme (CIA) . oifwef;udk wufa&mufcJhonf? olonf trSef wu,ftm;jzifh OD;ae0if;. arG;pm;om;jzpfonf? OD;ae0if;onf ol‹udk 1972 ck ESpfwGif ppfaxmufvS rf;a&;wyfzGJŒ. t}uD;tuJtjzpf cef‹tyfvdkufonf? ol‹wm 0efonf _Adwdo#tpOftvmudk azmufxGuf_yD; ppf}uD;_yD;onfhaemuf zsufodrf;cH cJ&h aom uifaywkid f (odr‹k [kw)f *smr%D. oGuv f ufxufjrufvo S nfh *wfpwm ydkwdk‹. vrf;a-umif;twdkif; axmufvS rf;a&;wyfudk v#KdŒ0Suf&Jwyf toGifajymif; vJypf&efjzpfonf? Todk‹vkyfaqmifjcif;onf Adkvfrª;}uD;vGif t"duxm; vkyf aqmifcJhouJhodk‹ vdktyfonfh ppfaxmufvS rf;a&;owif;rsm;om pkaqmif;&efr [kwfbJ jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;udk xdef;csKyfxm;Ekdifrnfh v#KdŒ0Suf&Jwyf zefwD;xl axmif&ef &nf&G,favonf? ydkrdkta&;}uD;onfhtcsufrSm ppfwyftwGif; tqihf wkdif;wGif &SdaeEkdifaom oabmxm;uGJvGJolwdkif;udk &SmazGazmfxkwfI z,f&Sm;jcif; jzifh ppfwyfukd teD;uyfapmih-f uyf-unf±h x + m;&efjzpfonf? ppfwyfu olu ‹ kd qefu ‹ sif umjyefonfEiS fh olZmwford ;f _yDjzpfa-umif; OD;ae0if;u odavonf?

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t-urf;zufrt + arG

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

ta-umif;w&m; wdkufqdkifr+wdk‹a-umifhr[kwfbJ olwdk‹avhusihfay;vdkufol u zefwD;v+HŒaqmfonfhtwGufa-umihf uifaywdkif tpOftvmonf Todk‹ TES,f wzef jyefvnfarG;zGm;vmcJhavonf? Todk‹ jzihf ppfaxmufvS rf;a&;wyfzGJŒonf jrefrmEkdifiHwGif a-umufvef‹r+ rif;rlaeaprnfh EdkifiHa&; &JtzGJŒtpnf;wck jzpfvm avonf? Adv k cf sKyfwifO;D onf ppfa-uma&;pcef; tajrmuftjrm;udk tif;pdeaf xmif wGif }uD;-uyfwnfaqmufc_hJ yD; A[dak xmufvS r;f a&;±H;k udk tif;pdeaf xmifo‹kd ajymif; a±$Œvu kd o f nf? xkpd pfa-uma&;pcef;rsm;xJwiG f emrnfysufjzifh tausmf-um;qH;k rSm r*Fvm'HkavqdyfteD;&Sd a&-unftkdifpcef;jzpfonf? txdef;odrf;cH EdkifiHa&;orm; rsm;tm; !SOf;yef;EdSyfpufI ppfaq;ar;jref;&mwGif Akdvfrª;csKyfwifOD;udk,fwdkif tm;wufoa&m yg0ifavh&o dS nf[k owif;jzpfay:cJo h nf? oabmxm;uGv J o JG [ l k oHo,&Scd &H olrsm;onf eHeufr;kd rvif;rD olwa‹kd etdrf rS zrf;qD;cH&avh&Sd_yD; rsufpdrsm; pnf;aESmifcH&um a&-unftdkif odkr‹ [kwf tvm; wl pcef;rsm;odk‹ ac:aqmifoGm;cH&avh&Sdonf? rsufpdusdef;avmufatmif xkd;xm; onfh rD;a&mifatmufwGif ppfaq;ar;jref;r+ ðyvkyfonf? pD;u&ufaq;vdyfrD;jzifh tom;udk xkd;onf? *syefwdkv ‹ ufpGJ a&pufcs ESdyfpufenf;tjyif taemufwdkif;yHkpH jzpfaom v#yfppfusifpuf (electric shock) udkvnf; toHk;rsm;onf? OD;ae0if;.t±kduft&mqufcHrnfhol 'kwd,tqihfyk*~dKvf[k ,lqcH&aom Akv d rf ;ª csKyfwifO;D onfvnf; ola‹ &SŒu oGm;ESi_fh y;D ol Adv k rf ;ª csKyfatmif}uD;. uH-urRm rsKd;udk ta-umif;jycsuf vHk;0 uGJjym;jcm;em;pGmjzifh óuHawGŒ&avonf? 1960 ckESpf rsm; apmapmydkif;umvu xm;&SdcJhaom jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwD. wif;rm aom rl0g'rsm;jzihf -unfrh nfqv kd #if Akv d rf ;ª csKyf atmif}uD;onf ðyjyifajymif;vJa&; orm; vpfb&,f0g'Djzpfonf? rdbrJh Adv k rf ;ª csKyfwifO;D onf ola‹ rG;pm;zcif OD;ae0if; . ,Hk-unfpdwfcs&aom aemufvdkufwa,mufjzpfaomfvnf; ppfaxmufvS rf; a&;wyfzGJŒudk wnfaqmuf&if; olonf tm%m tqrwef}uD;xGm;vmonf? ol‹ vlrsm;omv#if EkdifiHjcm;odk‹ oGm;csifovdk oGm;vmEkdifonf? EkdifiHjcm;xkwf pmapmif rsm;udkvnf; axmufvS rf;a&;udpPtvdik‹ Sm zwfcGihf&&Sd-uonf? Todk‹ E+dif;,SOftaetxm;jzifh xGef;awmufvmaom ‘EkdifiHtwGif;rS EkdifiH’ udk ol. wOD;wnf; òydib f ufr&Sd tjrifq h ;kH tkypf ;kd oltaetxm;tay: tm;aumif; aom _cdrf;ajcmufr+w&yftjzpf OD;ae0if; cHpm;rdvmonf? 1983 ckESpf/ arvwGifrl Akv d rf ;ª csKyfwifO;D tz,f&mS ;cH&avawmhonf? axmufvS r;f a&;t}uD;tuJ aemuf wOD;jzpfol Adv k rf ;ª }uD;bdek ED iS t fh wl olonf xkwyf ,fjcif;cH&_yD; olu, kd w f ikd f zefw;D

cJah om emrnfq;kd vSonfh a&-unftikd f xde;f odr;f a&;pcef;od‹k apv$wjf cif; cHc&hJ av onf? Adkvfrª;csKyfwifOD;. tawmfqHk; axmufvS rf;a&;olv#Kd &maygif;rsm;pGm vnf; txkwyf ,fc-H u&onf? jrefrmEkid if . H oGuv f ufxufjrufvaS om axmuf vS r;f a&; vkyif ef;&yfrsm; ,m,D&yfomG ;avmufatmifyif ppfaxmufvS r;f a&; wyf zGJŒwckvHk; tiftm;csdeo J‹ Gm;cJhonf? Ttajctaeay:wGif yxrqHk; tcGihfta&;,loGm;olrsm;rSm ajrmufudk;&D; ,m;rsm;jzpf-uonf? rsufrSefwifOD;udk xkwfy,f_yD; (5) vt-um/ 1983 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmvwGif awmifudk;&D;,m;rS tm%mtqihfjrihfudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒ jref rmEkdifiHodk‹ tvnfa&muf&SdvmcJhonf? (9) &ufae‹ Y xkdudk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒonf &efukefòrd›awmf&Sd tmZmenfAdrmefodk‹ oGm;a&mufI usqHk;av_yD;aom jrefrmhol&J aumif;rsm;tm; *g&0ðy-uonf? xdak wmifu;kd &D;,m;ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;onf olw‹kd . orRw c|rf'l;0S rf (Chun Doo Hwan) ESifh ZeD;onfwdk‹ qdkufta&muftvmudk apmihfar#mfae-upOf eHeuf (10) em&D/ (55) rdepfwGif jyif;xefaom AHk;wvHk; aygufuGJcJhavonf? tmZmenfAdrmef. acgif;rkd;tv,fydkif;aygufxGufoGm;_yD; r+d yGihfyHk rD;cdk;vHk;}uD; tlxGufvmcJhonf? ,if;aygufuGJr+toHudk &efukefwòrdv › Hk;vdkvdk -um;cJ&h _yD; awmifu;kd &D;,m; vHòk cHa&;tapmifh w&mausmfcefr‹ mS aoG;rsm;pd&k v J$ suf ajy;v$m;aeonfukd jrifawGŒ -u&onf? (15) OD; yGcJ si;f _y;D aoqH;k cJ_h y;D xdt k xJwiG f 0ef}uD;tzGŒJ0if (4) OD; yg&So d mG ;cJo h nf? ,if;0ef}uD; (4) OD;rSm pD;yGm;a&;&m pDrHudef;0ef}uD;ESihf 'k=0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfol ±+qyf *|ef; (Shu Suk-Joon) / EkdifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; vDbrfqyf (Lee Bum-Suk) / ul;oef; a&mif;0,fa&;ESifh pufr+0ef}uD; uifa'gif0SD; (Kim Dong-Whie) ESihf pGrf;tifESihf obm0t&if;tjrpfqdkif&m 0ef}uD; qlqefcsL; (Suh Sang-Chui) wdk‹ jzpf-uonf? orRw. pD;yGm;a&;&m twGif;0efcsKyfvnf; aoqHk;cJh&onf? '%f&m&ol (12) OD; wGif yl;wGpJ pfO;D pD;csKyfrsm;. OuU@jzpfol Adv k cf sKyf}uD; vDuAD ufEiS fh awmifu;kd &D;,m; owif;axmuf (5) OD; yg0ifonf? orRwESihf olZ‹ eD;twGuf &nf&G,fI AHk;axmifcJh jcif;jzpfaomfvnf; rdepftenf;i,faemufus_yD;rS olwdk‹ a&muf&SdvmonfhtwGuf tysuftpD;rsm;vSaom TAH;k aygufurJG '+ %frS olwv ‹kd w G af jrmufomG ;cJ-h uonf? jrefrmppfwyfEiS fh &JwyfzŒJGrsm;u AH;k azmufco JG rl sm;tm; csufcsif;vdu k v f &H mS azG -uonf? wywftwGif;wGifyif ajrmufudk;&D;,m;olv#KdESpfOD;udk t&Sifzrf;rdaomf vnf; wOD;rSm ypfcwfzrf;qD;pOfwiG f aoqH;k oGm;cJo h nf? trSew f &m;ay:aygufc_hJ yD; jrefrmtpkd;&udk EkdifiHwumu csD;usL;cJh-uonf? odk‹&mwGif avhvmoltrsm;pk

195

196 196


197

t-urf;zufrt + arG

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

owdrrlro d nfh t"dutcsufw&yf&adS vonf? ,if;tcsufrmS wcsdeu f oGuv f uf xufjrufvSaom ppfaxmufvS rf;a&;tzGJŒtaejzihf vGefcJhonfh (5) vcef‹uom qdk;qdk;&Gm;&Gm; tiftm;csdeJ‹ roGm;cJhv#if ,ckAHk;aygufuGJr+ ay:aygufvmEkdifp&mt a-umif;r&So d nfh tcsufjzpfayonf? ,cktcg axmifoGif;tusOf;uscHae&_yDjzpfaom Adkvfr;ª csKyfwifOD;uJhodk‹ cdkif rmI tvkyóf ud;pm;aom axmufvSr;f a&;rª;csKyftopfwOD; xyfrcH eft ‹ yf&ef vdt k yf a-umif; OD;ae0if;taejzifh &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif; oabmaygufro d nf? ola&G;cs,v f u fkd f olrmS Adv k rf ;ª }uD; cif!eG ‹f jzpfonf? Akv d rf ;ª }uD;cif!eG o ‹f nf jrefrmEkid if H ta&SŒbufjcrf; &Sd u&ifppfrsufESmpmwGif wyfpGJxm;aom trSwf (44) ajcjrefwyfr. wyfrrª; jzpfonf? ol. ppfoufwrf;wav#mufvHk; olonf ±Hk;vkyfief;t&m&Sdom jzpfcJh onf? Adkvfrª;}uD;cif!Gef‹tm; a&G;cs,fr+onf toifhawmfqHk; a&G;cs,fr+jzpfonf? tb,fa-umihef nf;? olonf ArmhwyfrawmfwiG f ppfom;yDyo D o jzpfco hJ rl [kwaf cs? wdu k yf rJG sm;jzifh jynfEh u S af eaom wyfrawmfwiG f olonfwu kd yf w JG yGrJ # rE$cJ zhJ ;l acs? ol‹ vdv k rl sK;d wyfrawmfwiG f &Sm;yg;vSonf? TuJo h ‹kd &mxl;opfwiG f ceft ‹ yfjcif;a-umihf olonf tvGeftusL; aus;Zl;wifayvdrfhrnf? odk‹ jzpfI olt ‹ aejzifh opPmapmifhod ±dak oawmhrnfqo kd nfrmS ar;p&m rvdak wmhygacs? Adv k rf ;ª }uD; cif!eG . ‹f yxrqH;k ppfajrjyifrmS 1988 ckEpS w f iG f jrefrmEkid if H wrsK;d om;vH;k u ppftm%m&Sipf epfukd qefu ‹ siaf wmfveS cf o hJ nft h csed u f rSjzpfonf? rwfv twGif; ausmif;om;rsm; qENjyr+rsm;u ZGefvwGif r_idrfoufr+rsm; ydkrkdjzpfyGm;ap_yD; Zlvidk v f wGirf l jrefrmhq&kd , S v f pfvrf;pOfygwDtaejzifh ta&;ay: ygwDnv D mcH usif; y&avawmhonf? pdw0f ifpm;p&maumif;onfrmS OD;ae0if;u ol. aemufq;kH w&m; 0if&mxl;jzpfonfh rqvygwD OuU@&mxl;rS EkwfxGufa-umif; a-unmvdkufjcif; jzpfonf? rqvygwDOuU@ESifh jynfaxmifp}k uD;. orRwtjzpf acgif;aqmiftopf jzpfvmolrmS OD;pdev f iG jf zpfonf? trSwf (4) Armh±kdifz,fwyfwGif ESpfOD;twl&SdaepOfumvuyif OD;pdefvGifrSm OD;ae0if;. ,H-k unfpw d cf s&aom opPmcHwOD;jzpfco hJ nft h wGuf ,if;od‹k acgif;aqmif ajymif;vJvdkufjcif;udk jrefrmvlxk}uD;u cyf!Hh!Hh jyufvHk;wckuJhodk‹ oabmxm; -uonf? 1950 ckESpf/ -o*kwfvwGif u&ifaomif;usef;r+acgif;aqmif apmbOD; }uD;udk ajc&mcH&mS azGEikd cf _hJ y;D owfjzwfEidk cf ahJ om jrefrmppfwyfwyfzŒJGukd acgif;aqmif cJholrSm Akdvfrª;pdefvGifjzpfI olonf xkd‹twGuf emrnf}uD;oGm;cJhonf? Adkvfrª;}uD; pdev f iG Of ;D aqmifaom wyfzŒJG rsm;onf 1962 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v f wGiv f nf;aumif;/ 1970

ckESifh 1980 ckt-um; tv,fydkif;ESpfrsm;wGifvnf;aumif; &efukefY ausmif;om; rsm;udk tpkvdkuf tòyHvdkuf owfjzwfcJh-uao;onf? ‘om;owform;’ [k emrnf&aom OD;pdefvGifrSm 1988 ckESpf/ vlxkqENjyr+ rsm;udk OD;pD;ESdyfuGyf&ef w&m;0ifwm0efay;jcif;cHcJh&onf? Twm0efwGifrl odom jrifompGm ol ta&;edrfhoGm;cJhonf? -o*kwfv (8) &ufae‹wGif wwdkif;wjynfvHk; tESH‹ jynfoloef;aygif;rsm;pGmonf vrf;rrsm;ay:odk‹ xGufI ppftkyfpkd;r+&yfpJ&ef awmif;qdck -hJ uonf? jynfov l x l t k wGuf (26) ESp-f um zdEydS cf cH &hJ r+onf vHak vmuf cJh_yD? pxGufonfESihf ppfwyfonf -urf;-urf;wrf;wrf; wHk‹ jyefcJhonf? qENjyr+rsm; tm; aoewfjzihf ypfcwfvlpkcGJ&ef ajcjrefwyfr (22) rS ppfom;rsm;udk apv$wfcJh onf? qENjyaeol vltyk }f uD;rsm;xJo‹kd ppfwyfu vufvw G pf y,fypfcwfcrhJ a+ -umifh tenf;qHk; vl (3˜000) cef‹ aoa-ucJh&onf? TonfrSm rqvorkdif;wGifyif r&SdcJhaom aoG;ajrusr+jzpfonf? ,if;ypf cwfr+rSm rawmfwq jzpfysufcJhr+r[kwfonfhtjyif vufeuf[lI tyfwacsmif;r# r&Sdaom qENjyolrsm;. aoG;xkd;v+HŒaqmfr+a-umifhvnf; r[kwfygacs? OD;pdefvGif taejzifh ol‹q&morm;.trdef‹udk vG,fvifhwul taumiftxnfazmf aqmif &GufcJhjcif;r#om jzpfygonf? OD;ae0if;onf ZlvkdifvwGif &mxl;rS EkwfxGuf&mY “wEkid if v H ;kH u vlxak wGuakd jymr,f? qlqyl yl v l yk v f ‹kd &S&d ifawmh ppfwyfqw kd m ypf&if rSefatmifypfw,f” [k wjynfvHk;&Sd vlxk}uD;tm; aemufqHk;ydwf E+wfquftrSm pum;ajym-um;oGm;cJo h nf r[kwyf gavm? xdkokda‹ jymcJhonfhtwdkif; ppfwyfonf ypfcJhavonf? odk&‹ mwGif ,ckw}udrf ypfcwfro + nf rnfor‹kd # rpGr;f aqmifEidk cf ahJ cs? vlx}k uD;tm; tpkvu kd t f òyHvu kd f owf jzwfcJhaomfjim;vnf; &efukef/ rEœav;ESihf jrefrmEkdifiHajrmufydkif; ucsifawmifwef; &Sd jrpf}uD;em;rS awmifydkif;tpGef&Sd aumhaomifòrd›txd wjynfvHk;tESHŒ òrd›e,fwdkif;/ aus;&Gmwdkif;u twef;tpm; tv$mrsKd;pHkrS EkdifiHol EkdifiHom;tm;vHk;onf vrf;r rsm;ay:wGif qufvufcsDwuf qENjyqJyifjzpfonf? OD;ae0if;. ±kyjf yorRwtjzpf (18) &uf-um oufwrf;om wnf_rJc_hJ yD; -o*kwv f (12) &ufae‹wiG f OD;pdev f iG f &m xl;rS EkwfxGufay;vdkuf&avonf? zJxkyfxJrS aemufxyf *sKdumwaumifudk a&G;&jyefavonf? ,ckw}udrf ta&G;cH&olrmS Oya'ynm&Sif wydik ;f / pma&;q&m wydik ;f jzpfaom a'gufwmarmif armifjzpfonf? -urf;-urf;wrf;wrf; udkifwG,fr+rSm t±+H;ESihf&ifqdkifcJh&_yDjzpfI ydkrdkaysmhaysmif;aom vrf;a-umif;udk toHk;cs-unfhjcif;jzpfonf? od&k‹ mwGif jynfol

197

198 198


199

t-urf;zufrt + arG

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

vlxkudk Todkt ‹ ±l;vkyfI r&awmhacs? jynfolvlxktaejzifh rqvtm%mydkifwdk‹ . ta-umudk aemausaeav_yD? ausmif;om;rsm;/ Ak'<bmom&[ef;awmfrsm;/ a&SŒaersm;/ ausmif;q&mrsm;/ q&m0efrsm;/ v,form;}uD;rsm;/ puf±Hktvkyf±Hk tvkyform;rsm;ESihf qdkufum;orm;tp olawmif;pm;tqHk; jynfolrsm;onf ydkrdk rsm;jym;pGm qENjyr+rsm;wGif yg0ifvm-uonf? Tr# xkEiS x fh nfEiS fh tkwaf tmfaomif; eif; qENjyr+rsKd; óuHawGŒ&v#if urBmhrnfonfhae&m&Sd rnfonfhtpdk;&rsKd;rqdk òyduGJ ysufp;D oGm;_yD; yËdyuQ ajz&Si;f I&Ekid af om vdu k af vsmr+rsKd; ðyvky&f ayvdrrhf nf? od‹k aomfvnf; okwfoifa&; tawG;tac:udk tppftrSef udkifwG,fxm;aom jrefrm ppfwyfonf wvufrr# qkwfray;cJhacs? vkdufavsmr+rsm; ðyvkyfrnfhtpm; ,if; wdk‹. vHk;0O\Hk tm%mqkyfudkifxm;r+tm; apm'uwufrdaom jynfolvlxkudk wyfrawmfu tjypfay;'%fcwfavawmhonf? pufwifbmvþ(18)þ&ufae‹wiG f jrefrmhwyfrawmf.t}uD;tuJ Adv k cf sKyf}uD; apmarmif. tcef;u¾ a&mufvmonf? [efjytm%modr;f yGjJ zifh a'gufwm armif armifudk z,f&mS ;ypfvu kd o f nf? ppfwyfrsm;udk xyfraH pv$wjf yefonf? taumif;qH;k zGJŒpnf;yHkjzifh v+yf&Sm;&if; ppfwyfonf jynfolwtkyfpk_yD;wtkyfpkudk jruf&dwfonfh yrm &Sif;csoGm;avonf? jynfolvlxktajrmuftjrm; xyfrHaoaus&jyefonf? vwfvwfqwfqwftowfcx H m;&aom vufeufrhJ jrefrmt&yfom; axmifaygif; rsm;pGm. tavmif;rsm;tay:wGif EkdifiHawmf_idrf0yfydjym;r+wnfaqmufa&;tzGJŒ [laom ppftpkd;&w&yfudk xlaxmifvdkufavonf? (9) vcef‹ _idrfoufoGm;aomf vnf; omom,m,mum; r[kwfacs? uefu ‹ u G q f ENjyr+rsm;. xkxnfyrm%omru tpkvu kd t f òyHvu kd f owfjzwf r+twdkif;twmonfvnf; 1988 ckESpf ta&;awmfyHkudk 1962 ckESpfESihf 1974 ckESpf ta&;tcif;rsm;rS uGJjym;jcm;em;apayonf? ,cifu uef‹uGufqENjyr+rsm;udk tenf;ESit fh rsm; ausmif;om;rsm;uom ðyvkycf -hJ uonf? ,ckw}udrf v+y&f mS ;r+wiG f rl jynfolvlxku av;pm;-unf!kdonfh xif&Sm;aom acgif;aqmifwcsKdŒ yg0ifvm avonf? ,if;yk*~dKvfrsm;onf OD;ae0if;. tjrifhqHk; tm%mydkifqdkifr+udk twdt vif; pdefac:cJh-uonf? OD;ae0if;ae&mwGif ol‹±kyfao;±kyfrsm; jzpfonfh OD;pdefvGif/ a'gufwm armifarmifESihf ,ckAdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifwkd‹u tajymif;tvJ jrefqef pGm tqihfqifh qufcHcJh-u&onf? -o*kwfv uefu ‹ GufqENjyr+wGif yxrqHk; vlod &Sif-um; xkwfazmfajym-um;vmol jrefrmEkdifiH. EkdifiHhacgif;aqmifa[mif;}uD;rSm vGefcJhonfh (8) ESpfu EkdifiH&yfjcm;wGif cdkv+H&mrS jrefrmEdkifiHodk‹ jyefvmcJhol OD;Ekjzpf

onf? touf (80) ausm_f yjD zpfaom ,cif0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif;u 1962 ckEpS f tm%m odrf;r+onf w&m;r0ifbJ ,if;. tpdk;&onfomv#if w&m;0ifwckwnf;aom tpd;k &jzpfonf[k a-unmvdu k af vonf? od&k‹ mwGif ‘'Drkdua&pDv+yf&Sm;r+}uD;rSaeI vlóuduftrsm;qHk; acgif;aqmift jzpf Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef;. orD;jzpfol a':atmifqef;pk-unfþay:xGuv f mjcif;onf 13 f (26) &ufae‹w ‹ iG f a&$w*d b kH &k m; ydrk kd ta&;}uD;aumif; }uD;ayvdrrhf nf ’ -o*kwv . taemufbufapmif;wef;rkcfOD;wGif ðyvkyfaom vlxkpnf;a0;yGJ}uD;Y olr yx rqHk;t}udrf ay:xGufvmonfhtcg jynfolvlxk axmifaomif;csDI wufa&muf vmcJ-h uonf? trsm;pkrmS ausm-f um;vSaom olr. zcifjzpfoal -umifh olrudk vm a&muf-unfh±+vdk-ujcif;jzpfonf? odak‹ omfvnf; ra-umufr&GHŒ&Sdr+/ OD;ae0if;. vl owf&ef 0efrav;aom ppfom;rsm;. _cdrf;ajcmufr+rS rwGef‹r&GHŒr+ ponfh olr. ud, k yf ikd t f &nftcsif; oufoufrsm;uom olrudk r-umrDyif xifay:ausmfapmap cJah vonf? olr &Sad ejcif;uyif OD;ae0if;twGuf _crd ;f ajcmufrw + &yfjzpfaecJo h nf? usq;kH oGm;&Smaom wyfrawmf. zcifxrH S t,H-k unf&qH;k &Jabmf&b J ufwOD; 14 taejzihf wyfrawmfukd vufajymif;tarGqufc&H ,lc&hJ [ef Zmwfvrf;/ vl-um;xJ ysHEa‹HS eap &ef 1962 ckEpS u f pI OD;ae0if;u óud;pm;cJo h nf? ,cktcgwGirf l Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef; . orD;jzpfou l , kd w f ikd u f OD;ae0if;ESihf ol. wygwDtm%m&Sipf epfukd twdtvif; pdeaf c:vsu&f adS eav_yD? ppfaxmufvS r;f a&; t}uD;tuJjzpfvmol Adv k rf ;ª }uD;cif!eG t ‹f aejzifh olrudk wefjyefacszsuf&efESihf wwdkif;wjynfvHk; ay:aygufvsuf&Sdaom v+yf&Sm;r+}uD;udk z,f&Sm;&Sif;vif;ypf&ef wm0ef&Sdvmavonf? a':atmifqef;pk-unf. t&if;ESD; qH;k aemufvu kd w f OD;rSm ,cifa&wyfrawmfrS Adv k rf ;ª a[mif;wOD;jzpf_y;D u|eaf wmf. rdwfaqGa[mif;ESihf &Jabmfa[mif;wOD;jzpfol OD;baomf (odr‹k [kwf) armifaomfu jzpfonf? -o*kwv f (31) &ufae‹wiG f armifaomfuonf ol. rdwaf qGjzpfol {&m 0wDa&wyfpcef; wyfrª;Adkvfrª;}uD; oef;!Gef‹xH yk*~dKvfa&;pmwapmif atmufyg twkdif; a&;cJhonf? “wyfrawmftaeeJ‹ a':atmifqef;pk-unfukd &efov l o kd abmxm;_y;D vky}f uH owfjzwfzdk‹ tpDtpOfawG vkyfaew,f? tJ'DtxJrSm udk,fvJ vlowform;wdk‹&JŒ ypfrw S w f ck jzpfaew,f” armifaomfuonf aemufwESpft-umwGif tzrf;cHcJh_yD; tvkyf-urf;ESihf

199

200 200


201

t-urf;zufrt + arG

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

tESpf (20) axmif'%fcsrSwfcHcJh&onf? 1991 ckESpfwGif olonf tif;pdefaxmif twGif;wGif aoqHk;cJhavonf’ 15 1988 ckESpf/ pufwifbmvwGif ta,mifaqmif tm%modrf;r+jzpfyGm; _yD;aemuf a':atmifqef;pk-unfonf wEkid if v H ;kH tES‹H c&D;oGm;_yD; vlxt k m; awGŒqkH cJo h nf? olroGm;av&mwkid ;f wGif olrtm; ol&aJ umif;wOD;tjzpf óudqckd -hJ uonf? 1989 ckESpf/ {_yDv (5) &ufae‹wGif &efukeftaemufawmifydkif;wGif&Sdaom {&m 0wDjrpf0u|e;f ay:a'orS "EkjzLòrdu › av;od‹k olra&muf&o dS mG ;cJo h nf? olrESifh vlw pk vrf;wcktwdkif; av#mufvmcJh&mwGif ppfwyfrS Adkvf}uD;jrifhOD;onf olw ‹ yfESihft wl olrudk xdyfwdkuf&ifqdkifvmcJhonf? ‚if;t&m&Sdu ol‹ppfom;rsm;tm; aoewf udk usnx f ;kd I olrudck sed &f , G &f ef trdea‹f y;vdu k o f nf? oda‹k omfvnf; a':atmifqef; pk-unfu olr‹ dwfaqGa&mif;&if;rsm;tm; vrf;ab;odq k‹ if;&ef ajymvdkuf_yD; olrw OD;wnf; owWd&SdpGm a&Sq › ufwdk;oGm;cJhonf? uHaumif;axmufrpGmyif Adkvfr;ª wOD; xdktcsif;jzpfyGm;&modk‹ a&muf&Sdvm_yD; Akdvf}uD;jrihfOD; qufvufrvkyfaqmifEkdif&ef wm;jrpfcJhonf? rnfodk‹yifqdkap e0w. oabmwlnDr+t&om Akdvf}uD;jrihfOD;u ,if;od‹k aqmif&u G cf jhJ cif;jzpfayonf? olonf &mxl;wd;k jr‡ichf cH &hJ onf? Akv d rf ;ª . uH -urRmudrk l rod&awmhacs? tajctaeonf wif;rmvmcJo h nf? {_yDvapmapmydik ;f wGif &efuek òf rdY› usif; yaom e0w. owif;pm &Sif;vif;yGJwGif (7) &ufae‹xkwf vkyfom;jynfola‹ e‹pOf owif;pmtwdkif;qdk&v#if ‘tajctjrpf r&Sdolrsm;. rdk;vHk;jynfh rkom0g'rsm;’ ESihf ywfoufI Akv d cf sKyf}uD;apmarmifu &Si;f vif;jycJo h nf? ,if;oda‹k om aumvm[v wckrmS {_yv D (2) &ufae‹xw k f befaumufae‹pOfxw k f ‘The Nation’ owif;pmwGif yg&Sdaom owif;wyk'fjzpfonf? ,if;owif;u ‘aemufqHk; aumv[vwckrSm weoFm&Dwdkif;twGif;wGif tpdk;&. OD;aqmifr+jzifh vl (30) yg0ifaom wyfzGJŒwzGJŒ udk zGJŒpnf;cJha-umif;/ ,if;wyfzGJŒudk 'kwd, *VKefOD;apmtkyfpk[k emrnfay;xm;_yD; vufeuftjynfw h yfqifxm;a-umif;ESifh ,if;wyfzŒJG. vkyif ef;wm0efrmS a':atmif qef;pk-unfudk vkyf}uHowfjzwf&ef jzpfa-umif; [lIjzpfonf’ [k a&;om;xm; onf? olw. dk‹ &nf&G,fcsuf txajrmufatmifjrif_yD;ygu ‚if;tkyfpkonf tcsdeft wef-um ajratmuf0ifomG ;&efjzpfonf? rnfoydk‹ ifjzpfap/ a':atmifqef;pk-unfrSmrl ypfcwfjcif; rcHcJh&ay? odak‹ omf vnf; ‘1989 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v f (20) &ufae‹wiG f &efuek w f uUov kd &f yd o f mvrf;&Sd olr aetdrfudk ppfwyfu 0dkif;vdkuf_yD; olrudk tus,fcsKyfcsxm;vkdufawmhonf?’ 16

OD;ae0if;aexkid &f m tif;vsm;uefeaH b; tjcm;wbufurf;Y olr aeae&_yD; xdak e &monf olr.zcifukd vky}f uHowfjzwf&ef *VKefO;D apmtkypf u k tpDtpOfqJG Zmwf wdkufcJhonfhae&m teD;wGifyif jzpfavonf? olrwnfaxmifcJhaom ygwDjzpfonfh trsKd;om;'Dru dk a&pDtzGŒJ csKyf. 'k=OuU@onfvnf; zrf;qD;cHc&hJ _yD; axmif'%fEpS f &Snu f soGm;cJo h nf? olonf ,cifuvnf; axmif'%fuscHc&hJ zl;onf? ,if;yk*Kd~ vf rSm 1988=89 'Dru dk a&pDta&;awmfy. kH a&SŒwef;rS ay:xGuv f mcJah om wyfrawmf . ppfOD;pD;csKyfa[mif; AdkvfcsKyf}uD;wifOD; jzpfavonf? a':atmifqef;pk-unfrSm xdef;odrf;cHvdkuf&aomfvnf; olr. vlóudufrsm; a&yef;pm;r+rSm usqif;roGm;cJh ay? olrudk ab;z,fxw k v f u kd _f y;D aemuf 1988 ckEpS /f pufwifbmvu tm%modr;f pOfu uwday;cJo h nft h wdik ;f taxGaxGa&G;aumufyu JG kd usif;yay;&ef pdwcf soGm; &_yD[k ppfwyfu awG;xifcJhavonf? odk‹ jzihf 1990 jynfhESpf/ arv (27) &ufae‹ wGif jrefrmjynfolvlxkonf a&G;aumufyGJwGif rJay;cJh-u&onf? trsKd;om;'Drkdu a&pDtzGŒJcsKyfonf jynfov ‹l w $ af wmfu, kd pf m;vS,af e&m (485) ae&mteuf (389) ae&mudk tHh-op&m aumif;avmufatmif tEdkif&&SdcJhavonf? rqvwjzpfvJ wpn (wdkif;&if;om; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;ygwD) onf (11) ae&mr#om tEdkif&&Sd cJhonf? ,if;qENrJonf OD;ae0if;udk qefu ‹ sifa-umif;ESihf a':atmifqef;pk-unfudk axmufcaH -umif; jyovdu k af yonf? jynfolvlxku rdrdwdk‹.toHudk xkwfazmfcJhaomfvnf; ppfwyfu emcH&ef jiif;qefcjhJ yefavonf? jynfov ‹l w $ af wmfukd usif;yjcif;rðycJah y? xkt d pm; a&G;cs,f cH v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f (60) ausmfudk zrf;qD;cJh_yD; trsm;tjym;rSm tao;tzGJ pGJcsufrsm;jzifh v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,ftjzpfrS ±kyfodrf;cHcJh-u&onf? v$wfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,f (10) OD;cef‹ xkdif;=jrefrme,fpyfodk‹ xGufajy;wdrf;a&SmifoGm;cJh-u onf? ‚if;xGufajy;oGm;olrsm;onf 1990 jynfhESpf/ 'DZifbmv (18) &ufae‹wGif trsKd;om;!Gef‹aygif;tpdk;&udk xlaxmifvdkuf-uonf? 1947 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹wGif vkyf}uHowfjzwfcH&ol wOD;jzpf_yD; OD;atmifqef;. tudkawmfol OD; b0if;. om;jzpfol a'gufwm pdef0if;u ,if;tpkd;&tzGJŒudk OD;aqmifcJhavonf? 'Dru dk a&pDenf;uspGm a&G;cs,fjcif;cH&aom tpd;k &w&yfu &efuek òf rdw › iG f tkycf sKyf& rnfhtpm; OD;ae0if;. vufa0cHom; ppfaxmufvS rf;a&;wyfzGJŒ. t}uD;tuJ Akv d rf ;ª }uD; cif!eG ‹f ESpt f enf;i,ftwGi;f tvsiftjref -oZmtm%mwufvmonf udo k m jynfov l x l u k rsufjrifu, kd af wGŒ jzpfc&hJ avonf? ‚if;. oabmxm;wif; rmol tkypf 0k ifrsm;onfvnf; ae&m ydrk ckd idk cf efv ‹ mcJ-h uonf?

201

202 202


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

t-urf;zufrt + arG

OD;apm. aoewform;rsm; twGif;0ef±Hk;twGif; 0ifa&muf_yD; OD;atmif qef;ESihf ol. vkyfazmfudkifbufrsm;udk vkyf}uHowfjzwfcJhonfrSm ,cktcg (59) ESpf&SdvmcJhav_yD? OD;apmonf tm%mtwGuf ol‹òydifbufrsm;ukd &Sif;vif;ypfcJh onf? odak‹ omfvnf; xdyfqHk;acgif;aqmifum; oludk,fwdkifjzpfrvmEkdifcJhacs? ol. tarGrSmrl qufvuf&SifoefaeqJyif? OD;atmifqef;udk vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+ jzpfyGm; _yD;onfhaemufydkif; okwfoifa&;enf;udk OD;ae0if;ESihf ol. twGif;pnf;&Sd aemuf vdkufrsm;u atmifatmifjrifjrif usihfoHk;cJhavonf? 1947 ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvtwGif; -urRmiifonfh xdkae‹wGif trsKd;om;acgif;aqmifwOD; usqHk;cJh&±Hkwifru wEkdifiH vHk;. ±kd;om;jrihfjrwfr+ESihf vufawGŒtouf0ifv+yf&Sm;aeaom 'Drkdua&pDpepf tay:wGif xm;&Sdonfh EkdifiH. *k%f,l0ihfºuGm;r+onfvnf; tpdwfpdwft¹r$m¹r$m ysujf ym;use&f pfc&hJ avonf? OD;ae0if;taejzihf vky}f uHowfjzwfru + kd rpDrH r}uHpnfcv hJ #iyf if olonf OD;apm . tpOftvmtwdkif; xJxJ0if0if usihfoHk; rif;vkyftkyfcsKyfolwOD;jzpfavonf? OD;atmifqef;.orD; a':atmifqef;pk-unfurl touf (32) ESpft&G,fwGif owfjzwfjcif;cHvdkuf&I _yD;qHk;atmif rvkyfaqmifoGm;EkdifcJhaom trsKd;om;ol&J aumif;.tvkyfudk qufvufaqmif-uOf;vkyfaqmif&ef óud;pm;jcif;om jzpfav onf? jrefrmEkid if t H aejzifh ,ae‹tcgor,wGif _ird ;f csr;f aom 'Dru dk a&pDpepfusaom om,m0ajymaom EkdifiHwEkdifiHtjzpf &yfwnfaeoihf_yD;/ ,if;o±kyfouef. trSwt f om;tjzpf a':atmifqef;pk-unfukd jrefrmtrsm;pku ±+jrifae-uavonf? 17 wae‹ae‹wcsdecf sdeYf vGwv f yfaom 'Dru dk a&pD jrefrmEkid if aH wmfwiG f ,if;oda‹k om pGr;f &nfEiS jfh ynfph o kH nfh acgif;aqmifrsm; ay:xGuv f mrnfrmS aocsmvSygonf? ydkrdkaysmf&$ifzG,faumif;aom tem*wfae‹rsm;odk‹ ar#mfrSef;&if; xkdtcsdefwGif ,if;acgif;aqmifaumif;rsm;udk xyfrHvufv$wf tqHk;±+H;cHI rjzpfawmhay?

eef;&if;0efOD;apmESifh twGif;0efOD;wifxGÉf ICS wkd‹ukd vef'efòrdŒawmfwGif 1941 ckESpf atmufwkdbm§Ekd0ifbmvrsm;twGif; awGŒ&ykH? _Adwdo#tpkd;&. zdwf-um;csuft& 0ef}uD;csKyf 0ifpwifcsmcsDESifh wjcm;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh pum;vufqkHaqG;aEG;cJh-uonf?

Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô

1948/ arv (8) &ufae‹/ tif;pdefaxmifwGif; t±k%fwufcsdefwGif OD;apm uGyfrsufcH&csdefeD; óud;pifay:wGif awGŒ&ykH 203 203

204 204


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

aumvm[vaygif;ac|;cH

jrefrmEdik if . H xdyw f ef;acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; 1947 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v f (19) &uf ae‹ Y owfjzwfcJhonfh OD;apm. &mZ0wfjypfr+a-umihf xdk‹twGuf jypf'%fuscH&r+ ESihf ywfoufI ‘The Burma Bulletin’ 1 pmapmifwGif ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmt-um u|ef awmf aqmif;yg;oHk;yk'fa&;cJhzl;onf? xdkaqmif;yg;rsm;udk “òyH;r,f/ òyH;r,f= vl -urf;jzpfw,f”/ “wap>/ iSuaf ysmoD;ESifh oHy&m&nf”ESifh “u|eaf wmht f m; vufrid+ cf s umþE+wq f ufyg”þ[lIþacgif;pOfwyfc. hJ ? xdak qmif;yg;rsm;u u|efawmftm; tH-h o p&m aumif;avmufatmif wk‹Hjyefun l rD r+ sm; &&Sad pcJo h jzifh u|eaf wmht f aejzifh pmtkyf yHpk H a&;om;&mwGif taxmuftuljzpfapcJah yonf? pmtkyjf zpfvmaomtcgYvnf; pHkprf;ar;jref;r+rsm; a0zefcsufrsm; &&SdcJhjyefygonf? u|Ekfyfwdk‹ trdajr. vGwfvyf a&;r&rD aoG;jzifh ay;qyfcJh&aom acwfopforkdif;udk pdwf0ifpm;olrsm;twGuf tcsKdŒrSm ya[Vdqefqef pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;vSonfhtwGuf u|Ekfyfwdk‹taejzihf xyfrpH ak qmif;r+rsm;/ jyefvnf&iS ;f vif;csufrsm; csufcsif;ðyvkycf &hJ ayonf?

befaumuf. ‘The Nation’ owif;pmwGif yg&Sdvmonfh emrnfausmf pm f ay: aumufEw k f a&;q&m r,f,m'l;AGKd ufpf (Mair Dubois) . u|efawmfph mtkyt oHk;oyfcsufrSm tao;pdwfus_yD; tawG;tac: eufeJvSayonf? odk‹aomfvnf; olonf jrefrmEkdifiHom;ESihf EkdifiHjcm;om; pma&;q&mrsm; a&;om;r+tcsKdŒay:wGif om ol.awG;ac:r+udk tajcpdkufxm;ayonf? txl;ojzifh OD;xGef;vSatmif yg0if cJh&onfhtcef;u¾ESihf ywfouffI t_idrf;pm;Akdvfr;ª csKyfa[mif; OD;armifarmifa&; om;aom “jrefrmhtrsK;d om;a&;v+y&f mS ;r+rsm; (1940=1948)” ‘ (Burmese Nationalist Movements (1940-1948)’ udk tppftrSef t&if;cHtjzpf udk;um;xm;av onf? r,f,m'l;AGKd ufpu f ,if;pmtkyyf g atmufygpmyd'k rf sm;udk ud;k um;xm;onf? pmrsufEmS (317) æ“0ef}uD;tzGŒJ cef;rrSm OD;atmifqef;. ud, k yf ikd t f cef;jzpf _yD; jrefrmh&JwyfzGJŒ. &mZ0wfr+cif; pHkprf;axmufvS rf;a&;Xme t}uD;tuJ 'kwd, &JAdkvfcsKyf ±Hk;cef;.tay:wnfhwnfh txyfwGif&Sdonf? vkyf}uHr+jzpfyGm;csdefu Oa&myppft&m&Sd (2) OD;/ 'kw, d &JAv kd cf sKyf (pDtidk 'f )D tcef;wGif &Sad e-u_yD; ypfcwf r+rsm; jzpfyGm;_yD;_yD;csif; ‚if;wdkE‹ SpfOD; *spfum;wpD;jzihf armif;xGufoGm;cJh-uonf[k aemufw&ufae‹xkwf owif;pmrsm;u a&;om;cJh-uonf? aemufydkif;wGif ‚if;wdk‹ ESpfOD;rSm jrefrmhppfOD;pD;XmerS awmifydkif;c±kdif/ ppfOD;pD;rª;=Adkvfrª;csKyfeuf&Sf (Brig k rf ;ª csKyf=Adv k rf ;ª csKyf Nash) ESifh jrefrmhppfO;D pD;XmecsKyfrS axmufvS r;f a&;ppfO;D pD; Adv Edkuf (Brig Knight) wd‹k jzpfa-umif; od&&dS onf” pmrsufESm (321)æ“tH-op&maumif;onfhtcsufrSm pDtkdif'Dt}uD;tuJ taejzifh bmjzpfaeonfukd od&adS e_y;D tcif;jzpfymG ;_y;D _y;D csi;f rnfou ‹l kd zrf;qD;&rnf udk od&Sdaeonfhtcsufjzpfonf? r+cif;pHkprf;axmufvS rf;a&;Xme (pDtkdif'D) t}uD; tuJ/ 'kwd,&JAdkvfcsKyf OD;xGef;vSatmiftaejzifh aoewfypfcwfr+rsm; jzpfyGm;_yD; rdepfydkif;twGif;rSmyif &JAkdvfcsKyf (IGP) udk AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tcef;xJodk‹ ac: aqmifoGm;cJh_yD; ae‹rukefrDrSmyif &JwyfzGJŒwzGJŒudk OD;aqmifI OD;apm_cH0if;odk‹ oGm;cJh onf? (,if;wyfzGJŒrSm BAPS ac: jynfol&‹ Jabmf wyfzGJŒ0ifrsm;ESifh zGJŒpnf;xm;aom t&efppfwyftzGŒJ jzpf_yD; ppfrjzpfru D _Adwo d # &J*s;D rifh (wyf) rS _Adwo d #t&m&Srd sm; OD; aqmif_yD; yef*syfESihf e,fpyfa'orsm;rS tdENd, rlqvifrsm;ESifhom zGJŒpnf;xm;

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tcef; (7) &v'f ‘Adv k cf sKyfEiS t hf wl tzd;k wefacgif;aqmifaumif;rsm; u|Eyfk w f -‹kd um;rS aysmufu, G o f mG ;cJah v_y?D ol&aJ bma-umifvaS om &efo. l om;aumifjzpf cJ-h u&onfh ‚if;wdt ‹k m;vH;k rSm jrpfa&jyifvm$ Y jzpfay:vmaom a&ðryfyrm (odrk‹ [kwf) a&yef;yGm;rsm;rS wzef jzpfwnftyfaom a&ylaygif;rsm;yrm tvm;o¿mefwv l . S ? u|Ekyf w f ‹kd cHpm;&or#um; Oyrmtm;jzifh E+id ;f ,SOf wdik ;f wmI r&Ekid af umif;wnf?h ’ (ocifEk toHvi$ rhf ed c‹f eG ;f =22 Zlvikd v f / 1947)

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

onfh BMP ac: Armppfyv k yd t f zGŒJ ukd tpm;xk;d zGŒJ pnf;xm;onft h zGŒJ jzpfonf” pmrsufESm (339)/ rSwfcsuf (123) æ“vlowform;rsm; twGif;0ef±Hk; taqmufttHw k iG ;f rSþxGucf mG oGm;_yD; rdepftenf;i,f-um_yD;aemuf (pDtidk 'f D t}uD; tuJ/ 'kw, d &JAv kd cf sKyf OD;xGe;f vSatmifonf olt ‹ cef;rS &JAv kd cf sKyftcef;od‹k ul;oGm; _yD; tay:xyftcef;rS ±kw±f w k o f o J t J oH-um;&a-umif;ESifh oGm;-unf±h o + ihaf -umif; ajymqdkI tay:xyfwufoGm;cJh&m tjzpfqdk;}uD;udk awGŒ jrifcJh&jcif;jzpfonf” Todk‹ txufwGif qufpyfwifjycJhonfh jzpfpOfrsm;wGif yg&SdcJhaom u|Ekfyf zcif. tcef;u¾ESihf ywfoufI a&;om;ajymqdkr+rsm;udk u|efawmfhtaejzifh tav;wrl jyefvnfrwH‹kjyefcahJ -umif; r,f,m'l;AGKd uf (pf) u a&;om;azmfjycJo h nf? &nf!e¸ ;f csurf sm;rSm &efuek x f w k f owif;pmrsm;rS owif;rsm;tay: tajccHxm;yH&k avonf? vky}f uHowfjzwfrj+ zpfymG ;_y;D aemufw&ufwiG f yHEk ydS af zmfjycJah om Oa&my t&m&Sd (2) OD; owif;udk &nf!e¸ ;f xm;a-umif; 0efcrH + ðyxm;avonf? xdo k ‹kd tkwf atmfaomif;wif;jzpfaeaom tcsed w f iG f u|eaf wmfpak qmif;&&Sx d m;aom owif;rsm; rSm tjzpfrSefrsm;ESifh vkyf}uHowif;rsm; a&maxG;aeonf? vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+udk e,fcsJŒ _Adwdo#wdk‹u }uHpnfcJhjcif;jzpfonf? 2 jrefrmhEkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;rSm e,fcsJŒ _Adwdo#wdk. ‹ xifovdk jc,fvS,ftoHk;csr+udk cHcJh&onf? a'ocH jrefrmtrsKd;om; yËdnmOfcH 0efxrf;rsm;rSm olwdk. ‹ (txuft&m&Sdšq&morm;) _Adwdo#wdkt ‹ ay: ,dr;f ,kid rf t + wGuf tjypfqzkd , G &f mjzpfonfæponfwr‹kd mS vlxt k -um; xif&mS ;onfh ,lqcsufrsm; jzpfaecJhonf? T,lqcsuf oHk;csuftay: a0zefwdkufckduf&mwGif vusfmorm;rsm;xuf vuf0Jorm;rsm;u ydkrdkjyif;xefpGm wdkufcdkufonf? uGefjrL epf ae‹pOfowif;pmrS a&;om;wdkufcdkufr+rSm tjyif;xefqHk;jzpfavonf? ,if;odk‹ v#if tydkiftEkdifa&;om;ajymqdkr+rsm;rSm vkyf}uHowfjzwffr+}uD; _yD;_yD;csif;yif ydkrdk qd;k &Gm;vm_yD; xde;f rEkid o f rd ;f r& jzpfvmonf? 1947 ckESpf/ Zlvkdifv (19) &ufae‹ eHeufcif; tv,fcef‹wGif *VKefwyfzGJŒ0if vlowform; (4) a,mufonf 0ef}uD;rsm;aumifpDcef;rtwGif;odk‹ twif;0if a&muf_yD; tcef;wGif;&Sd olrsm;tm; olwu dk‹ dkifaqmifvmaom atmfwkdrufwpf ao ewfrsm;jzifh puUe‹f (30) cef‹ -um ypfcwfc-hJ uonf? aoewfypforH sm;rSm taqmuf ttHkwck òydusoGm;ouJhokd‹ vnf;aumif;/ vufypfAHk; 'gZifaygif;rsm;pGm aygufuGJ ouJo h v ‹kd nf;aumif;/ ajymif;us,f atmfwrkd ufwpfvufeuf}uD;rsm; ypfcwfouJh odk‹ vnf;aumif; tvm;o¿mefwlvSonf? uyfvsut f cef;um; Adv k cf sKyf. uk, d af &;vufaxmuf Adv k x f eG ;f vS.tcef;

jzpf_yD; xkt d csed w f iG f {nfo h nfjzpfol ArmhppfO;D pD;XmecsKyf OD;pD;Adv k cf sKyf (General Officer Commanding Burma Command) . ukd,f&Hawmf (aide-de-camp) Adkvfoef;0if;ESifh pum;ajymvsuf&Sdonf? aoewfrsm; ypfcwfonfESifh olwkd‹ -urf; jyifwiG f 0yfaecJ-h uaomfvnf; r-umcif jyefx-u_yD; Adv k x f eG ;f vSonf pnf;a0;cef; r}uD;twGi;f ok‹d tajy;0ifa&mufco hJ nf? olonf yxrqk;H a&muf&v dS moljzpfonf? (tcef; 1/ pmrsufESm 46)? vufeufudkif vlowform;rsm; avSum;ay: wufvm onfudk jrifvdkuf&aom tpdk;&tr+aqmiftzGJŒ. vufaxmuftwGif;a&;rª;jzpfol OD;wift;Hk onf xkcd ef;rod‹k aemufxyf0ifa&mufvmoljzpfonf? xkdae‹/ paeae‹ eHeuf (9) em&DrS pwifI TtaqmufttHktwGif;wGifyif jrefrmEkdifiH &JAdkvfcsKyf OD;barmifonf tqihfjrifh òrdj› y&Jt&m&Sdrsm; tpnf;ta0;udk }uD;-uyfðyvkyv f su&f o dS nf? &efuek òf rda› wmf &Jrif;}uD; OD;atmifcsed Ef iS fh 'kw, d &JAv kd f 3 csKyf OD;xGe;f vSaS tmifwv ‹kd nf; xkt d pnf;ta0;od‹k wufa&mufvsuf&o dS nf? olw‹kd onfvnf; aygufurJG r+ sm;a-umihf xdwv f efa‹ csmufcsm;oGm;-uonf? ,if;aygufuJG r+udk oufaoxGufqdk&mwGif &efukefòrd›&Jrif;}uD;u tkwfrsm; òydusoHuJhodk‹vnf; aumif;/ u|Efyk . f zcifu tH;k tH;k ºuGuºf uGuq f n l o H rH sm;tjzpfvnf;aumif; xifjrif cJ-h uonf? od‹k jzifh xdak e‹tpnf;ta0;onf wefo ‹ mG ;cJo h nf? &JwyfzGJŒ. ±Hk;cef;rsm;onf ESpfxyftaqmufttHkjzpfaom twGif;0ef±Hk;. ta&S›buftaqmifwGif wnf&Sdonf? tpdk;&±Hk;cef;rsm;rSmrl ta&S›/ taemufESihf awmifbufww ‹kd iG f qufpyfwnf&adS eaom taqmufttHrk sm;twGi;f ae&m,lxm; -u_yD;/ ajrmufbufwGif taqmifao;wckom&Sdonf? ,if;ajrmufbuftaqmif onf (xdt k csed u f a&wyfrS ,m,Dawmif;,lwyfpx JG m;aom) pdea‹f ygvf (St. Paul's) ausmif;udk rsuEf mS rlvsu&f _dS yD; av;axmifyh /kH twGi;f 0ef±;kH taqmufttH. k pwkwˆ ajrmuf rsufESmpmjzpfvsuf&Sdayonf? ta&SŒbuftaqmif ajrnDxyfwGif&Sdaom jrefrmEdik if H &JAv kd cf sKyf±;kH cef;rSmrl Akv d cf sKyf.tcef;ESifh wnfw h nfq h efu ‹ sifbufwiG &f dS onf?þtaemufbuftaqmifþyxrxyfwiG &f adS omþAkv d cf sKyf.tcef;onf ðzwfIwyf I&aom eH&t H &Sirf sm;&S_d yD; tpd;k &tr+aqmiftzGŒJ cef;rtjzpf wd;k csŒJtoH;k csI&onf? txl;cHk±Hk;u oufaorsm;udk -um;emr+ pwifv#if pwifcsif;yif Ttr+}uD; . w&m;0ifwikd w f ef;oljzpfaom &efuek òf rda› wmf &Jrif;}uD; OD;atmifcsed o f nf w&m; vdb k ufrS yxrqH;k pwifoufaocHojl zpfvmonf? olonf jrefrmEkid if H &JAv kd cf sKyf ±Hk;cef;rS taemufbuftaqmifodk‹ vrf;av#mufvmcJh_yD; aumifpDcef;rodk‹ a&muf aomtcg AdkvfxGef;vSESihf OD;wiftkH;wdk‹udk ,if;ae&mwGif awGŒcJh&a-umif; olu

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

oufaocHxu G q f ckd o hJ nf? OD;xGef;vSatmifonf w&m;vdkjyoufaotrSwf (38) jzpfonf? olonf zswfvwfoGufvufoltjzpf vlodrsm;jym; xifay:ausmf-um;oljzpfonf? olonf taemufawmifbufxGufaygufrS pywfvrf;odk‹ um;armif;xGufcGm_yD; taemuf bufydkif;odk‹oGm;um awGŒor#vltaygif;udk ar;jref;awmhonf? ar;jref;I c&D; ra&mufonft h cg olonf taemufajrmufbuf*w d rf S jyefvmcJo h nf? xdt k csed w f iG f jrefrmEdik if aH wmf &JAv kd cf sKyf OD;barmiftaejzihf ypfcwfrr+ sm;ESifh ywfoufI od&EdS iS _fh y;D jzpfaeum OD;xGef;vSatmif jyefa&mufa&mufcsif; olu xkdowif;udk ajymjyvdkuf onf? xda‹k emuf olwE‹kd pS af ,mufv;kH owfjzwfr+ tcsi;f jzpfymG ;&mae&mod‹k csucf si;f oGm;cJh-uonf? xdk‹aemuf twGif;0efcsKyf (Chief Secretary) OD;umpD. ±Hk;cef;odk‹ qufvufoGm;-uum a-uuGJzG,f&m tjzpfqdk;udk today;cJh-uonf? OD;xGef;vS atmiftaejzifh OD;umpDESihf pum;ajymaeqJrSmyif uy`wdefcef;xHrS w,fvDzkef; tac:0ifvmonf? uy`wdefcef;tm; twGif;0efrsm;±Hk;odk‹vm&ef ajymvdkufojzifh ‚if;onf em&D0uftwGif; a&muf&Sdvm_yD; pDtkdif'Dt}uD;tuJtm; oludk,fwdkif tpD&ifcaH vawmhonf? OD;armifarmifu olp‹ mtkyfxJwGif azmfjycJhaom Oa&mywdkufom; ppfwyft &m&Sd (2) OD;rSm jrefrmhppfOD;pD;±Hk;/ jrefrmjynfawmifydkif;c±kdifa'o wyfrif;jzpfol Adkvfr;ª csKyf ‘euf (&Sf) ESifh jrefrmhppfOD;pD;XmecsKyf±Hk; ppfOD;pD; (axmufvS rf;a&;) Adkvf rª;csKyfjzpfol ‘Ekduf’ wdt k‹ jzpf xkwfazmfod&SdcJh&onf? olwo dk‹ nf ypfcwfr+rsm;jzpf_yD; _yD;csif; *spfum;wpD;jzifh armif;xGufoGm;cJh-uonf? tmZmenfae‹ ywf0ef;usif avmufwGif xkwfa0aom ppftm%mydkifwdk‹. owif;pmrsm;u wdkufwdkufqdkif qdik f r-umc%qdo k vdk pmrsuEf mS (317) wGif yg&Sad om Ttv,fpmyd'k u f kd ud;k um; azmfjyavh&Sdonf? 4 pma&;olu Tta-umif;t&mudk &nf!¸ef;azmfjycJhaom pm rsufESm (339) &Sd rSwfpk trSwf (125) udk udk;um;v#ifvnf; qDavsmfayvdrhfrnf? (“Adv k rf ;ª csKyf euf (&S)f rSm tpd;k &tdraf wmftwGi;f &Sd bk&ifc. H vufatmufcH dN ud, k yf ikd t f wGi;f 0eftzGŒJrþS twGi;f 0efcsKyfjzpfol yD*st D ;D euf (&S)f (P.G. E Nash) (tdE, yËdnmOfcH0efxrf;= ICS) . tudkawmfoljzpfonf? Zlvdkifv (28) &ufae‹pGJjzihf ay;ydk‹aom a-u;eef;trSwf (313) (Telm.Gvr-SSB, No. 313) pmydk'f (6) wGifæ Zlvdkifv (18) &ufae‹wGif u|Ekfyfonf zdvpf (&Sf) wufa&mufaeaom aq;±Hkodk‹ tvnfoGm;a&mufcJh&m ol‹taejzifh vufeuftrsm; aysmufqHk;aer+udk od&Sdae a-umif; awGŒ&SdcJh&onf? olu OD;apm. bef*vdkudk ntcsdefwGif ppfajrjyifoHk; rSef

ajymif;rsm;jzifh apmihf-unfhaecJh&m OD;apmonf vl (4/ 5) OD;ESihftwl avSwpD;jzifh t}udrftawmfrsm;rsm; rouFmzG,f&m tif;vsm;ueftwGif; oGm;vmaeonfudk awGŒ&cdS &hJ a-umif; owif;rsm; u|Eyfk t f m; xyfraH jymjycJo h nf? OD;apmtaejzihf aumif; aumif;rGefrGef t_rJ0wfpm;qif,ifxm;wwf&m ol0‹ goemt& rdef;rr+ayyJvm;[k ,lqcJhonf? ppfwyft&m&Sdrsm;taejzihf OD;apmonf vufeuftajrmuftjrm; pkaqmif;aecJah -umif;þ,H-k unfae-uonft h csuu f þkd eufþ(&S)f þuþ[ef‹ (Lt.Col. Hunt) udk owday;cJh&ao;onf? ‘[ef’‹ qdkonfrSm jrefrmppfOD;pD;XmecsKyf/ umuG,fa&; Xme/ vHkòcHa&;t&m&Sd 'k=Adkvfrª;}uD;wOD;jzpfonf? TonfrSm vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+ wu,frjzpfymG ;rDtcsdeu f jzpfonf? ‘[ef’‹ onf ppfrjzpfru D &efuek w f iG f pD;yGm;a&; vkyif ef;wckY tvkyv f yk u f ikd cf zhJ ;l oljzpf_yD; OD;apm.pdwt f xmudk od&cdS o hJ jl zpfonf? 'kw, d &JAv kd cf sKyfþ(pDtidk 'f )D þuvnf; olt ‹ m;þuefujkd zwfIþOD;apmtdru f þkd axmufvS r;f apmihf-unfhcdkif;xm;cJhonf? OD;apm.tr+wGif pDtkdif'D&JwyfzGJŒ. oufaoxGufqdk csufu-kd unfyh g?)” owfjzwfr+jzpfyGm;aecsdefwGif tpdk;&tr+aqmiftzGJŒcef;ratmufwGif &Sdaom ±Hk;cef;wGif qm[l;bwfpf&ef‹. vufaxmuftwGif;0efjzpfol ‘qmepfavrdktm (Sir Nick Larmour)’ 5 onf tvkyv f yk af ecJah -umif; od&onf? Tonfu u|Eyfk w f ‹ kd 6 tm; ‘zdvpfeuf (&Sf)’ . tjcm;xGufqdkcsufwckudk tm±Hka&mufoGm;apcJhonf? ,if;xGufqdkcsufrSm atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf? “TrESpòf rdz› , G f tjzpftysufowif;. tjcm;±+axmifw h ckrmS vky}f uHrr+ jzpf yGm;rD wywftvdkavmufY tpdk;&tr+aqmiftzGJŒwGif tpnf;ta0;&Sdaecdkuf tr+ aqmifcef;rodk‹ wufa&mufoGm;aom avSum;t0ifwHcg;0Y jrefrm&JwyfzGJŒESifh wGJ zufI wm0efcsay;xm;aom _Adwdo#t&m&SdESpfOD;udk wm0efcsxm;cJhjcif;yif jzpf onf? TonfrSm jrefrmvlrsKd; &JwyfzGJŒ0ifw. dk‹ *k%foduQmudk xdcdkufapojzihf ‚if; t&m&Srd sm;udk jyefvnf±yk o f rd ;f ay;cJ&h onf? od‹k jzpfav&m (19) &ufae‹u ‚if;t&m &Sdrsm;om wm0efcsxm;onfhae&mwGif &SdaecJhaomf rnfodk‹ jzpfysufEkdifonfudk cef‹ rSe;f wGuq f -unfI h &ayonf? tb,fa-umihq f akd omf olwo ‹kd nf vufeufrsm; udik f aqmifxm;-u_y;D rouFmzG,&f m vlowform;rsm; 0wfqifxm;-uaom ppfwyf,l eDazmif;ta[mif;rsm;a-umihf vG,fvG,fESihf ausmfjzwfcGihfay;vdrfhrnfr[kwfacs?” Zlvikd v f (19) &ufae‹/ nae (4) em&D (25) rdepfwiG f ‘qm*D;vfbwfvw d 0f w d ’f (Sir Gilbert Laithwaite) xHo‹kd ,m,Db& k ifc. H twGi;f 0ef ‘qm'AvsL'D azmifvm’ (R.W.D. Fowler) ay;yda ‹k om a-u;eef;pmwGif yg&So d nfh tcsut f vufrsm;ESifh zdvpf

209

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211

&v'f

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

euf (&Sf) ajymqdkcsufrsm;rSm uGJvGJqef‹usifvsuf&Sdonf? (pmrsufESm=268 pmwGJ/ yl;wGJ pmrsuEf mS =230) ? ‘azmifvm’. owif;ay;ydc‹k suw f iG f rwdus rrSeu f efrr+ sm; jynfhESufvsuf&Sd_yD; vlowform;rsm; pD;eif;vmaom *spfum;wGif trSwf (12) ppfwyf. trSwt f om;rsm; yg&So d nf[k olu ajymqdck o hJ nf? oda‹k omfvnf; tpd;k & tr+aqmiftzGJŒcef;r. wHcg;0tjyifbufwGif wm0ef,lapmihf-uyfae-uaom vufeufudkif jynfo&l‹ Jabmfrsm;rSm aoewform;rsm; ypfcwfr+a-umihf jyif;xefpGm '%f&m&-u_yD; ‚if;vlowform;rsm;udk trSwf (4) ArmhaoewfudkifwyfrS wyfzGJŒ 0ifrsm;tjzpf olwu ‹kd rSwo f m;rdvu kd -f uonf? xdak e‹u tpd;k &tr+aqmiftzGŒJ cef;r . wHcg;aygufY &yfaecJhaom ±Hk;vkvifaomif;pdefonf awmpdrf;a&mif abmif;bD &Snf 0wfqifxm;cJo h nf? OD;&mZwf. i,f&, G Ef yk sKdaom ud, k &f aH wmf udak xG;onf aoewfypfcwfoHrsm; -um;onfESihf uyfvsuftcef;rS ajy;xGufvmjcif;a-umihf aoewfypfcv H u dk &f jcif;jzpfonf? olonf ppfwyfypkH H ,leaD zmif;udk 0wfqifxm;_yD; xkdtcsdefu ypPwkdaoewf udkifxm;cJhyHk&onfhtwGuf jynfol‹&JabmfwyfzGJŒ0ifrsm; ESifh txiftrSm;cHvdkuf&jcif;jzpfayvdrfhrnf? trSwf (4) ArmhvufeufudkifwyfrSm Adv k af e0if;. wyf&if;jzpfonf? -urRmqdk;0ifonfh xdkae‹u vHkòcHa&;avsmh&JaeonfrSmawmh jiif;Ir&acs? tjcm;±Hk;wuf&ufrsm;ESifhwlaomfvnf; ae‹w0uf±Hk;ydwf&uf&onf[k u|Ekfyfwdk‹ ajymavh&Sdaom paeae‹wGif vHkòcHa&;rSmvnf; avsmh&Jaejcif;jzpfayvdrfhrnf? odk‹ aomf t&m&mrSm omrefyHkrSeftwdkif;jzpfonf? bk&ifcH. tr+aqmiftzGJŒtpnf; ta0; usif;yaecsdefwGif tr+aqmifcef;rodk‹ wuf&m avSum;&if;wGif _Adwdo# ppf wyfrS t&m&Srd sm;tm; wm0efcsxm;jcif;rSmvnf; t"dutm;jzifh taqmifta,mif oabmrsKd;om jzpfayvdrfhrnf? AdkvfcsKyf. ±Hk;cef;okd‹ csOf;uyf&ef tjcm;enf;vrf; rsm; trsm;tjym; &Sad o;onf? jrefrmvlrsK;d wd‹k *k%o f u d mQ udk xdcu kd af ponft h wGuf a-umifh EdkifiHjcm;om; tapmihft-uyfrsm;udk z,f&Sm;apcJhonfqdkonfrSm rSefuef aumif; rSefuefvdrfhrnfjzpfaomfjim;vnf; twGif;0ef±Hk;0if;twGif; vHkòcHa&;udk xdef;odrf;apmihfa&Smuf&eftwGuf &JwyfzGJŒwzGJŒ wm0eft_rJcsxm;jcif;rSm xHk;wrf; tpOftvm jzpfonf[k ,H-k unf&ayonf? aoewfoHrsm; xGufay:vmonfESifh vlowform;rsm;. *spfum;udk xGuf ajy;&mwGif tqifoihjf zpfaeap&eftwGuf um;armif;olu avSum;ajc&if;em;od‹k armif;a&$Œxm;onfukd &JwOD;u xdak e&mrS qufvufa&$ŒomG ;ap&ef um;armif;ol udk ajymcJhaomfvnf; um;armif;olu a&$Œray;cJh[k od&Sd&onf? tcsKdŒtr+aqmif

aumifpD0ifrsm;wGif txl;t&m&Sdrsm; oufawmfapmifhrsm;&Sd-u_yD; AdkvfxGef;vSESifh udkaxG;wdkr‹ Sm xdktcsdefu teD;tem;wGif &SdaecJh-uonf? Todka‹ om óudwifowd xm; vkyfaqmifr+tcsKdŒ &Sdyif&Sdjim;aomfvnf; tm;vHk;csKyf-unfhvkdufaomtcg óud wifumuG,fr+rSm tvGeftrif;vdktyfaecJh_yD; xkdtcsdefu twGif;0ef±Hk;rSm wu,f yif ‘wHcg;r&S=d "m;r&S’d tajctaejzpfco hJ nf? t"du0ifayguf}uD;rsm;rSm [if;vif; yGiv hf suf&_dS yD;þ±H;k csdet f wGi;f wGiyf ifþarmfawmf,mOfrsm;/ vrf;oGm;vrf;vmrsm; O'[dk jzwfoef;oGm;vmvsu&f adS yonf? OD;apmu óudwifaxmufvSr;f &ef apv$wcf o hJ nfh tzGŒJEiS fh vlowform;wd‹k pD;eif;vku d yf goGm;aom *spu f m;wd‹k vG,v f , G u f u l l 0ifxu G f oGm;vmEkdifcJhjcif;u T wHcg;r&Sd/ "m;r&Sd tajctaeudk jyoaeayonf? vHkòcHa&;twGuf óudwifumuG,fr+ vdktyfjcif;. tjcm;odomxif&Sm;onfh tcsufrSm t"duacgif;aqmifjzpfol AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk,fwdkifu &efoludk tav;rxm;bJ olt ‹ zd‹k jynfov l x l . k arwWmjzihf vHòk cHaeonf[k vGrJ mS ;pGm cHpm;rd aejcif;jzpfonf? TonfrSm jynfolvlxktrsm;pk}uD;udk &nf&G,f&if;jzpfonf? ol‹ taejzihf 0if0h gyv$m;r+ukd rESpòf rdo › jl zpfonft h wGuf tvkyrf mS jzpfap/ tdrrf mS jzpfap/ oloGm;av&m rnfonfhae&mYjzpfapæ ol‹twGuf txl;umuG,fapmihfa&Smufr+ vdt k yfonf[k olu rxifjrifrcd ahJ cs? oda‹k omfvnf; xdt k csed u f tEœ&m,fonf xifxif&mS ;&Sm; eD;uyfvsu&f o dS nf? _Adwdo#wdk. ‹ vufeufwdkufrsm;rS vufeufESihf cJ,rf;rD;ausmuf tajrmuftjrm; tcdk;cHxm;&onfudk olvnf;odonf? Zlvdkifv (15) &ufae‹u ,m,DjynfxJa&; 0ef}uD; (aysmfbG,f) OD;jrvdkufygvsuf AkdvfcsKyfudk,fwdkif bk&ifcHxH oGm;a&mufum b&if;*ef;rsm;/ tykyd pPn;f rsm;ESifh ywfoufaom oHo,jzpfz, G u f pd &P yfrsm;ESihf ywf oufI awGŒ&x dS m;csuu f kd owif;ay;ydc‹k ahJ o;onf? ,if;udp&P yfrmS ZGev f (24) &uf ae‹wGif jzpfyGm;cJh_yD; wu,faysmufqHk;oGm;onfhtcsdefESihf aysmufqHk;a-umif; od&Sd csdefwdt k‹ -um; tcsdeftwef-um uGm[-umanmif;oGm;cJhonfESihfywfoufI ol. pd;k &draf omuudk OD;atmifqef;u ‘qm[l;bwfp&f ef’‹ udk xdt k csdeu f xkwaf zmfajym jycJyh gonf? Tr#avmuf tvGet f rif;ta&;}uD;aomudp&P yfrmS ,refae‹urS xdyf ydkif;acgif;aqmifrsm; od&SdcJh&onf? (tcef; 4/ pmrsufESm =137) oHk;&uf-um_yD; aemuf vkyf}uHr+}uD;rjzpfyGm;rD w&uftvdkwGif ocifEkonf qm[l;bwfpf&ef‹xH oGm;a&mufI ppfwyfvufeufwu kd u f rnforl nf0grSe;f rodaom olrsm;udk cJ,rf; rD;ausmuf tajrmuftjrm; xkwfay;cJha-umif; xyfrH owif;ay;ydk‹cJhao;onf? Adv k cf sKyfEiS fh bk&ifcw H ‹kd awGŒq_kH yD;aemuf &efuek òf rdx › w k o f wif;pmrsm;u ,if;owif;

211

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213

&v'f

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

udk rsufEmS zH;k owif;jzpf azmfjycJ-h uonf? Tvufeufcdk;,lolrsm;tay: jrefjrefqefqef jywfjywfom;om; ta&;,l aqmif&Guf&ef tpDtpOfw&yfudk Zlvdkifv (19) &ufwGif usif;yonfh tr+aqmif aumifpD. aemufqHk;tpnf;ta0; tpDtpOfwGif OD;atmifqef;ESihf ol‹tpdk;&tzGJŒ u xnfo h iG ;f xm;_yD;jzpfonf? tpnf;ta0;_yD;onfEiS fh (48) em&DtwGi;f OD;apm. tdru f kd 0ifa&mufp;D eif;&SmazG&ef pDpOfxm;onf[v k nf; ,H-k unf&avonf? Tvufeufcdk;,lr+udk pHkprf;ppfaq;&mwGif jrefrmh&JwyfzGJŒ. r+cif;pHkprf;ppf aq;a&;Xme (pDtikd 'f )D onf &efuek òf rd&› rJ if;}uD;ESifh yl;aygif;qufo, G v f suf aqmif &Gufvsuf&Sdonf? _Adwdo#wdk‹. jrefrmhppfOD;pD;Xme ppfaxmufvS rf;a&;uvnf; Ttr+udk udkifwG,fvsuf&Sdonf? odk‹&mwGif olwdk‹taejzifh jrefrm&JwyfzGJŒESihf rnfr#avmuf eD;uyfpGm yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdonfudkrl rod&acs? Zlvkdifv (17) &ufae‹rSpI (pDtkdif'D) u OD;apmtdrfudk apmihf-unfh&ef wm0efcsxm;ay;cJh_yD; OD;apm. tdrfeD;csif;jzpfol uy`wdefcef;onf TteD;uyfapmihf-uyf-unfh±+&mwGif yg0ifaqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdonf? OD;xGef;vSatmifxH uy`wdefcef;. ae‹ nrpJ wzGJzGJ owif;ay;ydkr‹ +u *VKefwdk. ‹ ppfqifa&;tajccHpcef;udk pD;eif;&ef pDpOfr+udk jzpfap cJo h nf? *VKefw. ‹kd XmecsKyfukd olw. ‹kd Akv d cf sKyf/ vlowform;tzGŒJEiS t fh wl odr;f ydu k f rd_yD;aemuf a'gufwmbarmfESifh ocifApdeftp&Sdonfh qef‹usifbufštwkduftcH Ekid if aH &;acgif;aqmifrsm;. tdrrf sm;udv k nf; 0ifa&mufp;D eif;-u&onf? aemuf&uf owWywfrsm;twGif; cef‹rSef;ajc vl (800) cef‹ txdef;odrf;cH-u&onf? 'kwd, &JAdkvfcsKyf (pDtkdif'D) OD;xGef;vSatmiftaejzifh ol‹tvkyfudkol vkyfudkif&mwGif u|rf;u|rf;usifusif vkyfudkifEdkifonfrSm xl;qef;vSonf r[kwfyg? ol&&SdcJhaom t_rJwrf;wyfrawmf. avhusifhr+ oifwef;rsm;tjyif ppfwyfESihf òrd›jy&JwyfzGJŒwGif ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm wm0efxrf;aqmifcJh&onfh b0tawGŒtóuHrsm;u ol. yifudk,f t&nftaoG;rsm;udk taumif;qH;k taetxm;txd xufjrufomG ;ap&ef aoG;ay; cJjh cif;a-umihjf zpfonf? rsKd;±kd;pOfqufwnf&SdcJhaom rsKd;cspfpdwfudk qufcH&&Sdaomfvnf; EdkifiHa&; ESihf cyfuif;uif;aecJh_yD;/ olonf w&m;0if tm%mydkifrsm;tay: opPmapmihfod±kd aoI ol.wm0efukd xrf;aqmif&mwGirf l qEN*wd/ b,m*wd wdrk‹ v S w G u f if;atmif t_rJowd&cdS o hJ nf? jrefrmEdik if . H òrdj› ytkycf sKyfa&;ESifh Armhwyfrawmfxw J iG f wm0ef xrf;aqmif-uol jrefrmrsm;xJwiG f olvv kd l tawmftrsm;tjym; &Syd gvdrrhf nf? _Adwd o#tpd;k & vufatmufcH rif;r+xrf;wd. ‹k obm0/ olw. ‹kd _Aw d o d #wt ‹kd ay: axmuf

cH,drf;,dkifr+twGuf vli,frsKd;cspfrsm;u olwdk‹tay: yxrwGif oHo,tjrifjzifh -unf±h a+ e-uaomfvnf; olw. ‹kd vkyif ef;qdik &f m toH;k 0ifra+ -umihf vGwv f yfa&;& _yD; tpdk;&rsm;vufxufY trsm;tjym;rSm vufcHjcif;cHcJh-u&onf? xdka‹ -umihf qdk &S,fvpfacgif;aqmif OD;ausmf_idrf;tygt0if rsKd;cspfacgif;aqmifrsm;. ,Hk-unfr+ udk &&Scd -hJ uol t&m&Srd sm;teuf (2) OD;rSm OD;xGe;f vSatmifEiS hf u|eaf wmf. a,muQr jzpfol w&m;0ef}uD; OD;aomif;pdew f ‹kd jzpf-uonf?

u|efawmf.pmtkyf t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh yxrt}udrfESifh 'kwd,t}udrfxkwf rsm;wGif tusOf;csKH;wifjycJah om yk*Kd~ vftcsKdE‹ iS hf tjzpftysuftcsKdw ‹ . ‹dk zrf;pm;r+udk cH-u&aom pmzwfolrsm;&SdcJh-uonf? olwkt d‹ aejzifh ,if;wkEd‹ SifhywfoufI ykdrkdod &Sv d _dk y;D olwo ‹dk o d r#uv dk nf; r#a0vk-d uonf? *|eb f if*av/ apmpderf /H+ apmbOD;}uD; ESihf rmvf[x dk &muJo h a‹dk om yk*Kd~ vfrsm;ESihf ywfoufqufE, G I f jzpfonf? _Adwdo#aumifpD. udk,fpm;vS,f ‘*|efpwsL;0yfbif*av’ udk u|Ekfyfpmtkyf wGif xl;jcm;qef;-u,faom t&yfjrihfjrihfESihf vl}uD;vlaumif;[k azmfjycJhonf? (tcef;=4/ pmrsufESm = 136 ESifh pmrsufESm= 143)? xdka‹ emuf xdktcef;tqHk;wGif ‘bif*av’ yg0ifywfoufqufE, G af er+ukd pma&;q&mrsm;u jzwfueJom azmfjycJh -uaomfvnf; bif*avonf OD;atmifqef;ESihf rdwfaqGrsm;udk qefu ‹ sifonfh tif tm;pkrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;oGm;rdy&kH avonf? xda‹k -umihv f nf; bif*avESifh olv ‹ v kd rl sKd; rsm;twGuf OD;atmifqef;onf _Adwdo#tifyg,mtusKd;pD;yGm;udk tEœ&m,fðy rnfholrsm; jzpfaecJhonf? OD;apmusif;yðyvkyfonfh ygwDyGJwckwGif ar*sm,ef;u ‘bif*av’udk OD;apmESihf rdwq f ufay;cJo h nf? ,ef;.tqdt k & *VKeft}uD;tuJEiS fh yxrqHk; awGŒqHkaomyGJwGifyif olwdk‹taejzifh OD;apmudk vHk;0tultnDay;rnfh ta-umif; vlwikd ;f -um;Edik af vmufatmif us,favmifaomtoHjzifh ajymqdck o hJ nf 7 k af &;txkyw ` jdW zpfaom ‘u|Ekyf . f jrefrm [k qdak vonf? ‘qmbOD;’ u ol. ud, jynf’ (My Burma) wGif ol‹ta-umif; w}udrfom wdkwdkav; a&;om;xm;onf? odk‹aomfvnf; ,if;rSm rSwfom;avmufatmif vHkvHkavmufavmuf ywfoufae ayonf? jrefrmwd. ‹k trsKd;om;a&;tpDtpOfrsm;udk rnfonfeh nf;ESirfh qdk zsufq;D ypfrnfh _Adwdo#e,fcsJŒ0g'D pifppfwOD;jzpfonfh tqihfjrihf òrd›jytkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&Sd

213

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215

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

wOD;ESifh ‘bif*av’ onf taygif;toif;jzpfvsuf&Sdonf? odk‹ jzpfonfhtwdkif; bif*avtaejzifh olw. dk‹ tpDtrHrsm;bufodk‹ ,drf;,dkif vkdufygvmrnf[k ,lq&onfh EdkifiHa&;-oZmwduUr&Sdol jrefrmwOD;ESihf rdwfaqGzGJŒ vdkyHk ay:cJhygonf? xkdtcsufESihfywfoufI 1947 ckESpftwGif; tjzpftysufwckudk qmbOD;u jyefajymif;a&;om;csufrmS atmufygtwkid ;f jzpfonf? “u|Eyfk w f o ‹kd nf zGŒJpnf;tkycf sKyfyt kH ajccHOya'udk a&;qGaJ eqJjzpfonf? rGeEf iS fh u&ifwdk‹xºuGr+tay: ,if;onf tawmftwef -oZmoufa&mufr+&SdcJhayonf? wae‹aomtcg nae (5) em&DcGJwGif trnftm;jzifh ‘a':e,fbm;rif;yuf (csf)’ (Donald Burman Petch) [k ac:aom tqihfjrifh òrdj› ytkyfcsKyfa&;t&m&SdwOD;onf a&$awmif-um;&Sd u|Ekfyf.tdrfwGif u|Ekfyftm; tcsdef;tcsufr&SdbJ vma&mufawGŒ qHkavonf? u|Ekfyfonf ,cifu Todk‹ xkdolvma&mufawGŒqHkvdrfhrnf[k rxif rSwcf ahJ cs? u|Eyfk o f nf xdo k t l m; odaomfvnf; olu ‹ kd rawGŒrjrifco hJ nfrmS ESpt f awmf -umcJah v_y?D w&Ha&mtcgu olEiS u fh |Eyfk o f nf ajrmif;jrwGif twl&adS ecJ-h u_y;D olu ta&;ydkifjzpfI u|Ekfyfu puf&Sifw&m;ol}uD;wOD;jzpfonf? 1930 ckESpfwGif u|Ekfyf onf w&m;v$wfawmfodk‹ &mxl;wdk;jr‡ifhjcif;cH&csdefrSpI olESihf u|Ekfyfwdk‹ rawGŒcJh-u awmhacs? olvmvnfcsdefwGif olonfvnf; weoFm&Dwdkif;. wdkif;rif;}uD; jzpfae ay_yD? olESifh u|Ekfyfonf yËdoE<m& pum;rsm; ajymqdk-u_yD;aemuf yuf (csf) u “bOD;/ cifAsm;wdk‹ tck vGwfvyfa&;&awmhr,f? cifAsm;wdt k‹ aeeJ‹ zuf'&,ftpkd;& yHpk zH ŒJGvrd rhf ,fv‹kd u|efawmfem;vnfxm;w,f? weoFm&Dwidk ;f udk jynfe,fwcktjzpf u&ifawGudkay;zdk‹ cifAsm;&JŒ vkyfazmfudkifbuf vli,frdwfaqGawGudk cifAsm;bmvdk‹ rqGJaqmifwmvJ? 'Dtwkdif;omqdk&if u&ifeJ‹ ArmawGt-um; tjyif;txef òydif qdkifr+awG jzpfvm-uvdrfhr,f? u&ifawGtaeeJ‹ armfvòrdifudk olwdk&‹ JŒ t"du qdyf urf;vkyfEkdifovdk cifAsm;wdk&‹ JŒ &efukefudk cifAsm;wdk&‹ JŒ t"duqdyfurf;vkyfEkdifwmyJ r[kwfvm;? 'Dvdk tòydiftqdkif&SdrS wdk;wufrSmaygh”[k oluajymonf? xkdodk‹ajymonfhtwGuf u|Ekfyfonf t}uD;tus,f a'golykefxrdonf? xdk‹ a-umihf u|Efkyfuæ “cifAsm;u uav;uvm;pum; ajymaewmyJ? 'grkef‹a0wm r[kwfbl;? cifAsm;em;vnf&rSmu weoFm&Dwkdif;rSm u&ifawGu vlenf;pkjzpf_yD; ArmawGu vlrsm;pkqw kd myJ? ArmawGtjyif rGeaf wGvJ &Sad o;w,f? 'Dawmh vlenf; pku vlrsm;pkudk tkyfcsKyfzdk‹ cifAsm;rar#mfvifheJa‹ v? cifAsm;ajymovdkom vkyfvkduf &if r-umcif jy\emawG jzpfvmvdrrfh ,f? b,fvykd jJ zpfjzpf u&ifawGukd wkid ;f wck ay;zdk‹ zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHkOya'xJrSm u|efawmfwdk‹ xnfhqGJxm;_yD;_yD? 'ga-umihf 'DudpP

rSm cifAsm;wdk‹&ufa&mwmxuf u|efawmfwdk‹u ydk&ufa&mw,fqdkwm cifAsm;em; vnfxm;yg? aemuf_yD; cifAsm;wdk‹ t*FvefrSm paumhcsfeJ‹ 0JvfcsfawG[m ESpfaygif; rsm;pGmuwnf;u udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGihfawmif;aecJhwm cifAsm;wdk‹ ay;zdk‹ jiif;cJhwmyJ r[kwv f m;? cifAsm;t}uHðywmu u&ifeA‹J rmt-um; jy\emjzpfapzdy‹k ?J 'gudak wmh u|efawmfwdkt ‹ aeeJ‹ vufrcHEdkifwJhtwGuf 0rf;enf;ygw,f? cifAsm;vdk t*Fvdyfvl rsKd; enf;enf;yJ&Sdwm u|efawmfodwJhtwGuf 0rf;omrdygw,f? tck= cifAsm; oGm; awmhrvm;? u|efawmfnpmpm;zdk‹ tcsdefausmfaeyg_yD? u|efawmfvJ qmaeyg_yD? cifAsm;twGuf bmrS r&Sw d t hJ wGuf cifAsm;udk npmpm;zd‹k qufaezd‹k u|eaf wmf rajym awmhygbl;” [k ajymvdu k yf gonf? xdktcg olonf xvdkuf_yD;æ “xyfaqG;aEG;zdk‹ u|efawmfvmygOD;r,f” [k ajym&if; xGucf mG oGm;avonf? &uftenf;i,f-um_y;D aemuf &efuek &f dS _Aw d o d #aumifp. D ud, k pf m;vS,f ‘a*s tufpfbif*av’ ESihftwl olonf xyfvmjyefonf? odk‹aomf u|Ekfyfu ol‹wdk‹udk awGŒqHk&ef jiif;qdkvdkuf&awmhonf? ESpaf ygif; (40) eD;yg;cef‹ u|Eyfk Ef iS fh qufo, G rf j+ ywfaf ecJah om rdwaf qGwOD;jzpf onfh OD;bapmcifu tar&duefjynfaxmifp/k tm&DZ;kd em;jynfe,f/ ‘wlqif’ òrdr› aS e I 1949=50 ckESpf rsm;twGif;u pdefrH+ (tcef; 5/ pmrsufESm =145) udk olod&SdcJh a-umif; pma&;om; ajym-um;vmcJhonf? 1968 ckESpf. {_yDvtwGif;u u&if trsKd;om;pmapmifwGif ‘atmifqef;udk trSefwu,frnfolowfoenf;’ [laom aqmif;yg;udk a&;om;cJo h l u|Ekyf w f . ‹kd owif;axmufonf pderf a+H &SŒ Y ‘apm’wyfI u&ifemrnf ay;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? odk‹aomfvnf; &efukefòrd›/ atmuf-unfhjrifwdkif vrf;wGif u|Ekfyf. rdwfaqGESihf tdrfeD;csif;jzpfcJhpOfu ol‹emrnfonf OD;pdefr+Hom jzpfavonf? xdktcsdefu olonf tpdk;&tvkyfvkyfaecJh_yD; &mxl;rS csxm;jcif; cHaecJh&onf? u|EfkyfxH pma&;om;ol rdwfaqGonf OD;pdefr+H &JwyfzGJŒwGif tr+xrf; aejcif; &Srd &Su d v kd nf;aumif;/ tu,fI tr+xrf;aeqJjzpfygu 1947 ckEpS /f Zlvidk v f wGif olonf tif;pdefc±dkif. wm0efcH [kwfr[kwfudkvnf;aumif; rod&Sd&acs? oda‹k omfvnf; u|Ekyf . f rdwaf qGuæ “u|efawmfonf OD;pdefr+Hudk oduQmorm"d&SdolwOD;/ E+wfapmihfpnf;olwOD; tjzpf txl;rSwfrdygonf? tu,fI ol‹a&;om;csufrsm;onf wu,frjzpfysuf cJhygu OD;atmifqef;ESihf olv ‹ kyfazmfudkifbufrsm; towftjzwfrcH&rD olt ‹ aejzifh OD;apmudk zrf;qD;cJhav[efa&;om;xm;jcif;rSm vkyf}uHZmwfvrf;xGifjcif;om jzpf

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217

&v'f

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

ygvdrrhf nf? xda‹k -umihf tqdyk ga&;om;csufrsm; rnfr#rSerf nfukd olt ‹ aeESifh pOf;pm; I r&Ekdifyg? xdk‹ jyif u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t±Hk;. &efukefowif;axmufu OD;pdef r+Hudk udk,fwdkifudk,fus vlcsif;awGŒqHkar;jref;cJhjcif; &Sdr&SdESifh xdkaqmif;yg;udk a&; om;csdef 1968 ckESpfwGif OD;pdefr+Honf toufxif&Sm; &Sdae=raeudk vHk;0rod&yg? odk‹ jzpfonfhtavsmuf ‘&efukefowif;axmuf’ taejzifh OD;apm.tr+wGif OD;pdefrH+ yg0ifaejcif;ESifh ywfoufI wqih-f um;udk ola&;om;cJjh cif;om jzpfayvdrrhf nf” [k a&;om;cJo h nf? tjcm;jzpfEdkifajc&Sdaom ±+axmifhwckrSm uy`wdefcef;u u|Efkyf.zciftm; vlu, kd w f ikd f vma&muftpD&ifc_H yD;onfah emuf Edik if aH wmf&AJ v kd cf sKyf/ twGi;f 0efcsKyf/ &efuek òf rd&› rJ if;}uD;ESihf u|efawmf. zcifwo ‹kd nf OD;apmudk zrf;qD;&ef qH;k jzwfcjhJ cif; jzpfonf? OD;apmtdru f kd 0ifa&mufp;D eif;&ef &efuek òf rd› &Jrif;}uD; OD;atmifcsdeu f kd wm 0efay;cJah omfvnf; olt ‹ aejzifh OD;apmaexkid &f m at'Dvrf;rSm tif;pdef pD&ifpt k wGi;f yg&Sad eonft h wGuf wHq ‹k ikd ;f aecJo h nf? od‹k jzpfI xkt d csdeu f OD;pderf o +H nf tif;pde. f c±kid rf c+ if;0efaxmufjzpfcyhJ gu olu ‹ kd vS r;f I today;ta-umif;-um;rdayvdrrhf nf? xkd‹a-umihf 'k=&JcsKyf (pDtdkif'D) jzpfaom u|Ekfyf. zciftaejzifh aESmihfaES;umþ-uef‹ -umr+rjzpfap&ef t}uHðycJh_yD; oludk,fwdkif xdkwm0efudk ,lcJhjcif;jzpfayvdrfhrnf[k u|Efkyfem;vnfrdygonf? 1986 ckESpf {_yDvwGif xkwfa0cJhaom txufazmfjyyg u&iftrsKd;om;pmapmifwGifyg&Sdaom aqmif;yg;ESifhywfouf_yD; pdwf0ifpm;ol u&ifaoG;csif;rsm;&Sd-uonf? 1950 ckESpf -o*kwfvtwGif;wGif “om;owform; pdefvGif OD;aqmifaomwyfzGJŒu xkdif;=jrefrme,fpyf aumhu&dwfteD;wGif apmb OD;}uD;/ olt ‹ aygif;ygrsm;ESihf uk, d &f aH wmfrsm;ukd ajc&mcHro d mG ;_y;D aemufq;Hk Y &Si;f vif; okwo f ifypf&mY yg0ifomG ;onf[k rSm;,Gi;f owfrw S jf cif;cH&onfh Adv k }f uD; a';ApfAAD D ,ef;. tcef;u¾ESifhywfoufI xkd u&ifaoG;csif;rsm;u tawmfav;aqG;aEG; ajymqkv d m-uonf? u|eaf wmhpf mtkyt f cef;wcef;wGiv f nf; ‚if;tjzpftysuEf iS hf ywf oufI a&;om;azmfjycJh_yD; 0&rf;ajy; _Adwdo#Akdvf}uD;taejzifh u&ifacgif;aqmif . tzGŒJ xw J iG f ryg&So d nft h wGuf jrefrmppfwyfu olu ‹ o dk wfjzwfco hJ nf[k ajymqkd csuu f dk jiif;qkcd yhJ gonf? oka‹d omfvnf; u|eyf . f u&ifrw d af qGrsm;taejzifh ADA, D ef; ukd odyfpdwfr0ifpm;bJ ya[Vdqefqef xdktcsdefY apmbOD;}uD; vkyfaqmifaecJh jcif;uko d m txl;pdw0f ifpm;-uygonf? tb,fah -umifq h adk omf olonfomv#if 1946 h /l ckEpS f tapmykid ;f wGif u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t±k;H autJi, f l (KNU) ukd zGŒJ pnf;cJo vGwfvyfa&;&_yD;aemuf wESpft-umwGif u&ifhykefuefxºuGr+ukd OD;aqmifcJhol

olwkd‹.av;pm;&aom acgif;aqmifr[kwfygvm;? u&iftrsKd;om;umuG,fa&; tzGJŒ autJif'Dtkd (KNDO) taejzifh autJif,l. vufeufukdifvufwHjzpfcJh_yD; ykeu f efxºuGr+ jzpfcsderf pS _yD; txufazmfjyyg u&iftrsKd;om;pmapmifyg aqmif;yg; xGuaf y:vmonft h csdex f q d v dk #if (36) ESpef ;D yg;cef‹ ausmfjzwfc_hJ yD; ,if;ykeu f efrr+ mS ,ae‹wkdif t"Ge&f‹ Snfvsuf&Sdaeayonf? autJif,l. tqkdygtjzpftysufESifh ywf oufI ykdrkdtao;pdwfjrifodEkdifap&eftwGuf u|efawmfu olwkdu ‹ kd zwf±+avhvm Ekdif&ef pmtkyfaumif;rsm; !¸efjycJhygonf? okda‹ omfvnf; jyefvnfrGrf;rHjyifqifwkd; csŒJxm;aom u|Eyfk . f pmtkyf 'kw, d t}udrf (t*Fvyd b f mom) xkwu f dk 1996 ckEpS w f iG f ±kdufESdyfxkwfa0_yD;onfESifh 1996 ckESpf atmufwkdbmvwGif ,lEkdufwufuif;'rf; (United Kingdom) &Sd bDbp D D (2) ±kyjf rifo-H um;rS tmZmenfae‹ ESpf (50) jynft h jzpf taxmuftxm;rsm;jzifh txl;tpDtpOfw&yfjyo_yD;aemufY ,if;ta-umif;t &monf xyfrHay:aygufvmjyefonf? 1996 ckESpf atmufwkdbmvtwGif;wGif vlawGŒar;jref;r+«yvky&f eftwGuf xkwv f yk af &;rª;rsm;u u|eaf wmfu h dk t*Fvefjynfo‹dk zdwfac:cJhonf? xkwfvkyfa&;rª;rsm;taejzifh 0d0g'jzpfaeaom u&iftrsKd;om;pm apmifyg aqmif;yg;acgif;pOftwkid ;f tpDtpOf.acgif;pOfudk tok;H «yvdrrhf nfuv dk nf; aumif;/ tpGypf cJG aH e&onfh _Aw d o d #w‹dk yg0ifywfoufrr+ mS t"duausm±k;d jzpfvrd rhf nf ukv d nf;aumif; u|eaf wmfwt ‹dk aejzifh xkt d csed u f rod&cdS ahJ cs? ‚if;±kyjf rifo-H um;tpD tpOftaejzifh tcsKa‹d om u&ifvrl sK;d rsm;. apm'uwufru + v dk nf;aumif;/ ,lau &Sd -unf±h o + t l ajrmuftjrm;. ±+wcf sru + v dk nf;aumif; jzpfay:apcJo h nf? taemuf EkdifiHrsm;xHrS cJ,rf;rD;ausmuf taxmuftyHh&&Sda&; ar#mfvifhcsufjzifh apmbOD; }uD;u ,if;c&D;vrf;ukd uHukdykHI tokH;cscJhjcif;/ ,cif0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif; OD;EkESifh AkdvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if; tp&Sdonfh wif;rmaomoabmxm;&Sdol Armrsm; yg0ifywf oufaer+ukd u&iftrsKd;om;pmapmifyg aqmif;yg;u pGyfpGJxm;jcif;/ jrefrmEkdifiH awmifwef;om;rsm;. rdwfaqGrsm; tp&Sdonfh _Adwdo#tzGJŒtpnf;rsm;rS v#Kd‹0Suf v+y&f mS ;aeonfh yk*Kd~ vfrsm; yg0ifywfoufaeonf[k bDbpD D (2) tpDtpOfu wifjy cJjh cif; ponfwr‹dk mS wckEiS w hf ck qufpyfaeayonf? v#Kd0‹ u S v f y+ &f mS ;olrsm;. yxr qkH;tpnf;ta0;ukd jrefrmEkdifiH awmifwef;om;rsm;. rdwfaqGrsm;tzGJŒ 8 (Friends of the Burma Hill Peoples) ukd zGJŒpnf;onfhtcsdef 1947 ckESpf Zlvkdifv EkdifiHawmf vkyf}uHr+rwkdifrD vef'ef-rdY› usif;ycJha-umif; ‚if;±kyfjrifoH-um;tpDtpOfu jyocJh aomfjim;vnf; autJi, f rl S txl;uk, d pf m;vS,f tkv d AD m boef; taejzifh _Adwo d # vkv d m;aom u&ifrsm;. tajccHvv dk m;csufudk tultnD&&Sad &;twGuf a&muf&dS

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

vm_yD;aemuf tpnf;ta0;ukd 0ufpfrifpwm yef;_cHtwGif;þ1948þckESpfþZGefv (30) &ufwiG u f sif;ycJ_h yD; ‚if;rdwaf qGrsm; ay:aygufvmjcif;jzpfonf[k xkt d csdet f xd ,kH -unfaecJ-h uonf? rnfo‹dkjzpfap/ u&ifaomif;use;f olwyfzŒJGrsm;twGuf aemufq;Hk taumiftxnfay:vmaom tusKd;jzpfxGef;r+ESifh ywfoufI ar;p&mar;cGef;jzpf vmcJhonf? autJif,lwkd‹ 1949 rS 1960 txd qifE$Jaom ppfqifa&;w&yfvkH;ukd jyefvnf-cHikHokH;oyfI tajzay;cJholum; wjcm;olr[kwf? autJif,lOuU@ tjzpf apmbOD;}uD;ukd qufqHcJhol apm[efwmomar$; (Saw Hunter Tha Hmwe) (c) apm[efwm aumupm (tkyfpkd;ol) jzpfonf? olonf 1963 ckESpf &efukefwGif usif;yaom _idrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yGJ.&v'ftjzpf A[kdtpkd;&xH vufeufcsoGm; cJo h nf? rwfv (22) &ufae‹wiG f &efuek jf refrmhtoHraS eI u&ifvrl sKd;wkt ‹d m; olt ‹ awGŒt¯uHrsm;ukd jyefajymif;ajymjyoGm;cJo h nf? atmufygwkr‹d mS qufpyfaom aumuf Ekwcf surf sm;jzpfonf? “autJif'DtkdxJrSm&SdwJh u|efawmfwkd‹taeeJ‹ 1949 u 1952 txd ppftul taxmuftyHh&&Sdzkd‹ taemufbufukd ar#mf-unfhcJh-uw,f? tquftoG,f &&SdEkdif r,fv‹dk ar#mfvifch sufe‹J e,fpyfuo dk mG ;wJh vrf;c&D;rSmyJ apmbOD;}uD;eJ‹ apmpHau;w‹dk usq;Hk cJ&h w,f? 'gayr,fh bmtultnDrSr&cJb h ;l ? 1953 cku 1960 txd taemuf ukdausmckdif;_yD; ta&SŒbuf (jrefrmjynfwGif;u ulrifwefwyfzGJŒrsm;/ xkd‹aemuf w±kwfeD ESpfckvkH; ratmifjrifcJh) ukd tultnD&zkd‹ u|efawmfwkd‹ -unhf-ujyefw,f? tJ'o D ifcef;pmrsm;&&S_d yD; 1960 aemufyidk ;f up_yD; uk, d u hf , dk u f t dk m;uk;d zk‹d uk, d v hf rf; ukd,foGm;zkd‹ u|efawmfwkd‹ qkH;jzwfcJh-uw,f?” 'Dru dk a&pDpepfwiG f Ekid if aH &;ygwDrsm; ouf0ifvy+ &f mS ;Ekid af &;twGuf &efyaHk iG axmufyahH &;onf toufaoG;a-umozG,jf zpfonf? ok‹d jzpfI csr;f omºuG,0f aom wOD;csi;f yk*Kd~ vfrsm;xHrv S nf;aumif;/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;rSvnf;aumif; tvSLaiG rsm;ukd Ekid if aH &;orm;rsm;u vG,v f ifw h ulvufc-H uonf? vSL'gef;olrsm;uvnf; tjyeftvSet f m;jzifh OD;pm;ay;r+udk ar#mv f if-h uonfrmS xif&mS ;onf? ajrykid &f iS rf sm;/ ukeo f nf}uD;rsm;tjzpf csrf;omºuG,0f olrsm; pm&if;0ifEidk o f rl sm; jrefrmrsm;xJwiG f tvGe&f mS ;yg;onf? oka‹d omfvnf; pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;}uD;trsK;d rsK;d vkyu f idk _f y;D ,if;pepf twGif;rSyif tusKd;tjrwfaiG ajrmufjrm;pGm pkaqmif;rdaom w±kwfrsm;/ tdENd, vlrsKd; tajrmuftjrm;&So d nf? wcsKdt ‹ aejzifh olwp‹dk w d ¯f uduf Ekid if aH &;orm;rsm;. aiGtdwfukd ulnDjznfhay;-uonfrSm ,kHrSm;p&mr&Sdacs? Oa&myukr`%D}uD;rsm;wGif trsm;pkrSm _Adwdo#wkd‹ jzpf_yD; olwkd‹. }uD;rm;us,fjyef‹ aom vuf0g;}uD;tkyfr+ESifh

&Snfvsm;aomuGef&ufjzifh ukdvkdeDEkdifiHwkd‹. pD;yGm;a&;ukd tykdifpD;tkyfpkd;xm;-u onf? tpk;d &tzGŒJ twGi;f wGiv f nf; ‚if;wk. ‹d tkypf u k tm%mcsed cf iG ! f mS ukd xde;f xm; -uonf? jyefvnfodrf;ykduf_yD; 'kdrDeD,Htqifhukd vufrcHbJ vkH;0vGwfvyfa&;ukd awmif;qkrd + xif&mS ;vmonfw h idk f olwt ‹dk aejzifh a'oqkid &f m Ekid if aH &;orm;rsm;ukd odrf;oGif;pnf;±kH;&ef olwkd‹ukd,folwkd‹ vkdtyfonf[k rxif-uacs? *VKefOD;apm. EkdifiHa&;&nfrSef;csufrsm;um; tqkH;tpr&Sdacs? ol&‹ nfrSef;csuf jynfhajrmufap&ef rnfokda‹ om pnf;urf;uvem;ukdr# *±krpkdufcJhacs? EkdifiHjcm;rS aiGa-u;taxmuf tyHhukd &Sm}uH&,lxdef;odrf;EkdifolrSm olomv#if yxrOD;qkH;ol jzpfayonf? ol. eef;&if;0efb0 xdyfqkH;a&mufcsdefwGif _Adwdo#bk&ifcH qma':refprpf. ta&;ay; jcif;cH&oljzpfonfESifhtnD tpkd;&pdwf¯uduf &mxl;wck&&ef ay;aomvmbfaiG vufc&H ,lrE+ iS yhf wfoufI ar;&mwGif olu 0efc±H o Hk mru aiG tajrmuftjrm;jzpf a-umif; wkd;wkd;wdwfwdwfajym_yD; aemufwcgr«yvkyfawmhyg[k jznfhpGufvsuf bk&ifcHukd tajymiftysufajym-um; ajymqkd&JcJhonf? 9 ppfyGJ'%fjzifh ysufpD;ae±kHomru EkdifiHa&;/ vlr+a&;t& ±+yfaxG;ayGvDae aom EkdifiHokd‹ OD;apmtaejzifh jyefvm&jcif;jzpfonfhtjyif ykdIta&;}uD;onfu b,folurS ol‹ukd ta&;w,lr&Sd-uawmhonfh EkdifiHjzpfaejcif;yif? ol‹ykHpHtwkdif; oloGm;&mvrf;wGif ydwf&yfaeol rnfolukdrqkd z,f&Sm;ypf&ef tpDtrHrsm;csrSwf ae_yD; tvSL&Sifrsm;ESifh aiGa-u;&Ekdifrnfhae&mrsm;ukd toJtrJ&Sm}uHaecJhonf? a'ocH axmufyHhrnfholrsm; enf;yg;ae_yDjzpfI ol‹&Sm}uHr+e,fukd ykdrkdjzef‹ -uuf& awmhonf? 1947 ckEpS f tapmykid ;f wGif oHo,jzpfz, G f v+y&f mS ;r+rsm; jzpfvmcJo h nf? atmifqef;=tufwvDpmcsKyfcsKyfq_dk yD;aemuf Akv d cf sKyfEiS hf uk, d pf m;vS,rf sm; wkid ;f jynfjyefvmcsdew f iG f olu t*FvefwiG f acwW aemufcsefae&pfco hJ nf? xkt d csdew f iG f OD;aqmifEkdifiHa&;ygwDukd qef‹usifwkdufckduf&mY tokH;«y&eftwGuf aiGa-u; trsm;tjym;ukd trnfrazmfvkdonfh tvSL&SifwOD;u ol‹ukday;cJha-umif;ESifh t*Fvyd t f &if;&Sirf sm;xHrv S nf; tvm;wl aiGa-u;ta&twGuu f dk ol&&Scd ahJ -umif; owif;xGuv f mcJo h nf? (±+=Rangoon Guide Daily owif;ay;ykr‹d + pm=50) jrefrm t}uD;wef;t&m&Sdtqifhu ‚if;oHo,&SdaeykH&onfomru _Adwdo#umuG,f a&;Xme vk-H cHa&;t&m&Su d ArmppfXmecsKyf (Defence Security Office-Burma Command) . 1947 ckESpf -o*kwfv (20) &uf owif;ay;ykd‹r+wGif u|efawmf.zcif + iG f olt ‹ ae jzpfol 'Dtidk *f s=D pDtidk 'f D (DIG-CID) ESihf tcsed -f umjrifph mG pum;ajymqkrd w jzifh bk&ifhtpkd;&ESifh a,bk,stm;jzifh _Adwdo#wkd‹tay: ,if;oHo,0ifaer+rsm;rS

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

uwdawmif;onf? xkad‹ -umifh olwt kd‹ m;vkH;u oabmwlvkduf_yD;aemuf olwt kd‹ m; vkH;ukd bk&m;pifa&SŒac:oGm;_yD; opPmqkdum opPma&aomuf-u&onf? xkd‹aemuf aowrf;pma&;-u&um toD;oD;vufrSwfxkd;_yD; ,if;aowrf;pmrsm;ukd olu odr;f ,lxm;vku d o f nf? xkd‹aemufykdif;wGif OD;apmukd nbufykdif; um;jzifh r-umc%xGufxGufoGm; onfukd jrifawGŒ -u&onf? b,foGm;onfrod/ wcsKd‹c&D;rsm;wGif ol‹vl,kHawmf wa,mufa,mufukd ac:oGm;avh&Sd_yD; wcsKd‹c&D;rsm;ukdrl olwa,mufwnf;om oGm;wwfonf? ,if;c&D;rsm;rSm r*Fvm'kb H ufo[ ‹ dk I l ,lq&onf? xka‹d emufyidk ;f wGif awmfrD/ pwif;/ b&if;ESifh ajcmufvkH;jyL;aoewfrsm;twGuf usnfqefawmifh wodef;okH;aomif;ausmfukd avmf&Dum;}uD; (2) pD;jzifh (Zlvkdif 12 &uf) ae‹wGif ,laqmifa&muf&SdvmcJhonf? ,if;usnfqefawmifhrsm;ukd usyfaiG okH;odef; ig;aomif;omay;&_yD; tvGeaf ps;oufoufomomESihf 0,f,&l &Scd w hJ mjzpfa-umif; tjyif r-umrD usyfwodef;cGJay;_yD; aemufxyfusnfqefawmifhwoef; wokwf &&SdEkdifp&m&Sdao;a-umif; olv ‹ lrsm;ukd olukd,fwkdif xkwfazmfajymjycJhonf? aemif tcgrSo&d onfrmS _Adwo d #ppfwyftaejzifh ,if;usnfqefawmifrh sm;ukd zsufq;D ypf &efjzpfaomfvnf; wu,frzsufq;D bJ tzsufpm&if;jyum eD;pyf&mvlrsm;ESiq hf uf oG,fI ckd;xkwfa&mif;csjcif;jzpfonf? xkd‹a-umifhvnf; OD;apmtaejzifh tvGefcsKd omaom aps;E+e;f jzifh ,if;wku ‹d dk &&Scd jhJ cif;jzpfonf? xkrd #ruao; ok;H I&ao;aom ESpv f ;Hk jyL;rsm; tygt0if aoewfa[mif; tvuf (1˜500) &&Sad tmif pDpOfaeqJjzpf a-umif;ukv d nf; olu ajymao;onf? ok‹d jzpfI a&mufaeaom ,if;usnfqefrsm; ukd yef;_cHtwGif;ESifh teD;0ef;usifwGif olwkd‹wawG tvsiftjref okd0Sufoihfwm ok0d u S _f yD; tjyifo‹dk jzef‹ jzL;oihw f m jzef‹ jzL;vku d -f uonf? &uftenf;i,f-um_y;D wnaewGif okconf xk;H pHtwkid ;f a&uefxYJ a&csK;d _y;D t0wftpm;vJum tdraf &SŒbufo‹dk vrf;av#muf&efxu G v f m&m OD;apmESihf vlo;Hk a,muf ukvm;xkdifrsm;wGifxkdif&if; wpkHwck aqG;aEG;ae-uonfukd awGŒvkduf& onf? xkt d cg OD;apmu ‘tif;æuko d ck cifAsm;a&mufvmwmtawmfy’J [k ajymajym qkdqkd ukvm;xkdiftvGwfwvkH;ukd !¸efjyjcif;a-umifh xkdukvm;xkdiftvGwfwvkH; wGif 0ifxidk v f u dk o f nf? OD;apmu “u|efawmhrf mS tck ta&;}uD;wJu h pd w P ck&w dS ,f? tJ'gu t&if[mxufykd_yD; ta&;}uD;w,f? tJ'DudpPrSm cifAsm;u um;armif;ay; &r,f? cifAsm;b,fvv dk /J tJ'gukd vkyEf idk rf vm;” [k qufar;vku d o f nf? ol trde‹f ay;wm emcH&rnfhtaetxm;rSm &Sdaejcif;ESifh um;armif;EkdifolrSm oltygt0if

ok;H OD;om&So d nft h wGuf okcu olvyk yf grnf[k jyefajzvku d o f nf? xka‹d emufwiG rf l OD;apmonf usev f rl sm;ESihf qufvufaqG;aEG;ae-uonf? xkv d yk if ef;rSm oufqidk o f l emrnfwpkHw&mukd xkwfazmfajymqkdjcif; r&Sd-uaomfvnf; wkdufckdufypfcwfr+rsm; ESifh ywfoufonfh em;pGefem;zsm; ol-um;&aom pum;vkH;rsm;t& olwkdt ‹ aejzifh rsm;r-umrD wpkHwckaomae&mwGif oufpGef‹ ¯ud;yrf; vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+wckukd pDpOfae-ua-umif; ol &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; odvkduf&onf? xkd‹aemufwGifrl olwkd‹ vlpck v JG u dk -f uonf? azmfaumifb!Gef‹ oufaocHcsufu okcajymjyonfh aemufqkH;tykdif;ESifh ywfoufI oHo,jzpfaponf? txufu twkdif;qkdv#if okcrSm xkdif±kHr# 0ifxkdif vku d _f yD; odyrf -umrD tpnf;ta0;_yD;pD;oGm;ykaH y:ygonf? b!Geu ‹f xGuq f &dk mwGif olq ‹ &mu olu ‹ adk c:csed w f iG f olu tdyaf ysmaf ecJo h nf? (±+=pmrsuEf mS 109 ESihf 113)? n (9) em&Dcef‹ olukd,fwkdif a&muf&SdoGm;csdefwGif armifpkd;/ oufESif;/ armifpdefESifh okcwkd‹rSm OD;apmESifh twl&SdaecJhonf? okca&mufoGm;csdefwGif yxr (3) OD;onf okcESihf b!Gew ‹f ‹dk a&mufrvm-uao;rDuyif olwa‹dk cgif;aqmifEiS hf aqG;aEG;ESi-hf u_y;D aemufxyfem&Dtawmf-um qufvufaqG;aEG;aeqJ yxr okca&mufvm_yD;/ xkad‹ emufwGifrS b!Gef‹ a&mufvm[efwlonf? xkdtcsdeftwGif; okcu em;axmif aecJhonf? OD;apm. aemufvkdufrsm;xJwGif t,kH-unf&qkH;ESifh tckdifrmqkH; wynfhrsm;jzpfvsuf vlowf&ef wm0eftay;cH&ol (armifpkd;/ oufESif;/ armifpdef) xkd (3) a,mufESifh b!Gef‹wkd‹taejzifh vkyf}uHr+rwkdifrDntxd ‚if;wkd‹vkyfaqmif& rnfw h m0efudk rod&cdS -hJ ujcif;rSm em;vnf&efcufvo S nf? okcu qufvufajymqkd&mwGif xkdr#avmuf ta&;ygvSaomae‹u ol‹t aejzifh aoewform;rsm; r+cif;jzpfyGm;&m ae&mokd‹ oGm;&mwGif pD;eif;vkdufygvm onfh armfawmf,mOfukd armif;&onfholomjzpfa-umif; wpkdufrwfrwfajymqkdcJh onf? cifarmif&ifESifhtzGJŒu ‘zkd‹'fqef’ x&yfum;jzifh oloGm;&rnfhae&mukdyif apmpD;pGm xGufcGmoGm;cJhonfukd olrod&SdcJhonfomru armifpdef. vrf;!¸efr+jzifh twGif;0ef±kH;okd‹ olu armif;oGm;cJh&jcif;jzpfonf? twGif;0ef±kH;wGif um;tif*sif pufukd E+d;xm;&ef ol‹tm; armifpdefu trdef‹ay;cJhaomfvnf; aoewfoH-um;& onfhtcsdefwGif um;tif*sifpufu ±kwfw&uf&yfoGm;cJhonf? um;tif*sifpufukd xyfcgxyfcg ol¯ud;pm;E+d;aomfvnf; aoewform;rsm; avSum;rS ajy;qif;vm onfudk oljrif&onfw h idk f um;pufudk E+;d Ir&ao;ay? xk*d spfum;ukd ykrH eS u f idk w f , G f aeolrSm armifpdefjzpfI olE+d;vkdufrS um;uE+d;oGm;onf? okcu tjyefvrf;

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w0ufavmufxd armif;vmcJhonf? ol‹ukd armif;wmaES;vGef;onf[k tjypfajym cH&_yD; armifpdefu olv ‹ ufrS ajymif;,lI qufvufarmif;vmcJhonf? ol‹ajymjycsufrsm;wGif tjcm;pdwf0ifpm;p&maumif;onfhwcsufrSm w&m; rqkid &f ao;cif olu ‹ dk wku d yf w d cf x H m;&csdeYf &ef}uD;atmifu Tudpu P dk armifp;dk ESihf tjcm;olrsm; tpDtpOfqGJaeonfrSm -um_yDjzpfa-umif;/ ol‹ukd ESpfukd,f-um; ajym cJhjcif;jzpfonf? xkd‹aemufykdif;wGif OD;apm.vlrsm; pdwfoabmxm; ajymif;vJp«y vm_yD; armifpkd;ESifh oufESif;wkd‹u olwkd‹taejzifh t&nftcsif;&Sd_yD; *k%foa& jrifhrm;aom yk*~dKvf}uD;wOD;ESifh tr+wwGJxJ&Sdaejcif;a-umifh olwb kd‹ ufu tm;om ap&ef OD;apmu pGr;f aqmifEidk &f nf&o dS nft h wGuaf -umifh rvkt d yfbJ pdwyf yl efrr+ jzpf -u&ef olwkd‹.&Jabmfrsm;ukd azsmif;zscJh-uaomfvnf; olwkd‹ &Jabmfrsm;tm; pdwf "mwfrusatmif rvkyfEdkif-uacs? okcrSm 0rf;enf;a-uuGJvsuf&Sd_yD; ol‹taejzifh OD;apmtdrfokd‹ aemufusrS a&mufvm&oljzpfI *VKefacgif;aqmif}uD;ESifh &uf (40) om twlaecJh&vsuf puf±kyfozG,f tapcHvkd tokH;cscH&um "m;pmcHtvkyfcH& jcif;ESihf Toka‹d om emrnfq;dk vSonfh &mZ0wfrw + iG f yg0ifywfoufc&hJ jcif;wkt ‹d wGuf t}uD;tus,f aemifw&rda-umif; OD;vSukd ajymqkdcJhonf? okcrSm vlxkOD;vS. aemufpmtkyfwtkyfwGif xyfrHyg&Sdaomfvnf; 'Dwcg wGifrl cyfwkdwkdav;omygcJhonf? ,if;pmtkyfrSm “ppf/ tcspfESifhaxmif” (1973 f b dk momjyefc&H onf) trnf ckEpS w f iG f The Victim tjypfrchJ &H oltrnfjzifh t*Fvyd v &Sd 0wˆKjzpfonf? ,if;0wˆKrSm "m;jyr+jzifh axmifwoufus_yD; &efukefaxmif wGifþxkdtcsdefu (9) ESpfuscH_yD;jzpfol armifouf (c) xGef;jrifhta-umif;jzpfonf? olu (1957 ckavmufwGif) bDuvyf(pf) tqifhjzifh axmifusoGm;_yD;aemuf tyfcsKyfXmeY pma&;tjzpf wm0eftcscHxm;&ol okcukd awGŒcJh&onf? xkdtcg xkXd mewGiyf if tvkyv f yk af e&ol armifoufu okcukd tpk;d & tzGŒJ0if0ef}uD;rsm;tm; vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+jzifh axmifwoufuscHae&oltjzpf od&SdcJhonf? okctaejzifh olt ‹ ay: t}udrt f awmfrsm;rsm; !SmwmpGm qufqcH o hJ nf[k oluajymjycJo h nf? xka‹d emufyidk ;f wGif okcrSm ZmwfjrKyfomG ;cJo h nf?

1947 ckESpf/ ZlvkdifvwGif tmZmenftjzpf usqHk;cJh&ol acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm; . rsKd;qufrsm;xJwGif ,cktcgY txif&Sm;qHk;jzpfaeolrSm AdkvfcsKyfudk,fwdkif.

orD;jzpf_y;D þxt dk csed u f þuav;r#omjzpfco hJ l a':atmifqef;pk-unfjzpfonf?þu|eaf wmf . a&;om;r+udk zwf_yD;aemuf tjcm; uav;i,fwOD;uvnf; olrSwfrdor# u|efawmftm; ajymjycJo h nf? olonf ‘pyfpHxGef;’.om; ‘pyfaq;[kef’ jzpfI ol‹zcifjzpfol rdkif;yGefapmf bGm;}uD; Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹u towfcH&onfh wkefv+yfzG,fowif;udk -um;& csdefu olonf ol. nDi,fwOD;/ nDr (2) OD;wdk‹ESihftwl awmif}uD;òrd›wGif&Sdaom a,musfm;av;ESifh rde;f uav;rsm; a&maESmynmoif-um;&onfh ‘pdet ‹f if;þ(ef)þuGef Aif’h ausmif;wGif ynmqnf;yl;vsuf&_dS yD; touftm;jzifh (12) ESpo f m &Sad o;onf? olr‹ dcifESihf tjcm;nDrwOD;rSm uG,fvGefcJh_yDjzpf_yD;/ a,musfm;av;rsm;rSm (avwyf Adv k rf ;ª csKyf) ‘awmfru D vpf (zf)’. rdciftrd Yf aexdik v f suf&-dS uonf? pdwyf yl efvy+ f &Sm;vsufae-uaom rdbrJhuav; (4) a,mufonf &efukefòrdo › dk‹ &xm;jzihf pD;eif; vku d yf gcJ-h uaomfvnf; ‘rkwo f ek ’f rd;k }uD;þonf;xefpmG &GmoGe;f r+a-umihf &xm;vrf; rsm; a&v$rf;um ompnfvrf;qHkwGif wywfvHk;vHk; olwdk‹ aomifwifaecJh-uonf? &efuek òf rda› wmfwiG rf l aemifwiG f vGwv f yfaom orRwjrefrmEkid if aH wmf. yxr qHk; EkdifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;jzpfvmonfh rdk;rdwfapmfbGm; pyfcGefcsKdu olwdk‹udk aumif; pGmapmihaf &Smufxm;cJ&h onf? *sLAvDa[mwGif Ekid if aH wmfpsmyetjzpf &Sad eqJjzpfaom tmZmenf}uD;rsm;. ±kyfuvmyf&Sd&modk‹ olwdk‹tm; ac:aqmifoGm;aomtcgwGif ‘pyfaq;[ke’f onf rSeaf cgif;xJwiG f vJavsmif;aeaom olz‹ cif. ud, k cf E<mudk rif; nDrif;om;tqihfESifh vdkufzufaom eef;oHk;tqift,ifrsm;ESihf txl;jyifqifxm; onfukd owdxm;rdco hJ nf? pyfpx H eG ;f . ±kycf E<mudk ol‹ òrda› wmfjzpfonfh rdik ;f yGeòf rdo › ‹kd &xm;jzihf o,faqmif &mwGif a&$anmifòrdr› w S qifh usef (44) rdik f c&D;pOfukd armfawmf,mOfjzifh t_yD;owf o,faqmifc&hJ onf? ±k;d &m"avhx;kH wrf;rsm;t& tcrf;tem;usi;f ycJ-h u_y;D aemuf qH;k ae‹ rD;oò*õ[&f mod‹k tjcm;jynfe,frsm;rS apmfbmG ;rsm;/ *k%o f a&&Sd yk*Kd~ vfrsm;ESifh vlaxmifaygif;rsm;pGm wufa&mufvmcJ-h uonf? pyfaq;[keo f nf om;t}uD;qH;k jzpfonfESihftnD psmye eH‹om xif;pifudk rD;±+dŒay;cJh&onf? olŒzcif. udk,fcE<m onf tvGefvsifjrifpGm rD;avmifjymusoGm;cJhonfudk olrSwfrdcJhonf? jymrsm;udk pkpnf;I *loGif;xm;cJhonf? ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm -um_yD;aemuf xkd-urRmiifonfhae‹u aoqHk;oGm;_yD;olrsm;ESihf toufiifaeolrsm;udk aq;±Hk}uD;odk‹ ,laqmifoGm;&m &efuek t f axGaxG jynfoa‹l q;±H}k uD;wGif wm0efusaeol q&m0efwOD;u pyfpx H eG ;f onf c%wðzwfr# owdjyefvnfvmwdkif;æ“wjcm;vlawGudk *±kpdkufyg? olwu dk‹

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u|efawmhfxuf ydkxdcdkufw,f” [k nnf;wGm;a-umif; pyfaq;[kefudk jyefajymif; ajymqdck o hJ nf? rdik ;f yGeaf pmfbmG ;}uD;onf aemufw&ufwiG f uG,v f eG o f mG ;cJah vonf? pyfaq;[kefonf ,cktcg ol. ZeD;onfESihfwuG orD;oHk;a,muf/ om; wa,mufEiS t fh wl -opa-w;vsEikd if /H qpf'eDòrdw › iG f aexdik v f su&f o dS nf? 1993 ckEpS /f atmufwkdbmvY uifbm&mòrd&› Sd -opa-w;vs trsKd;om;wuUodkvf (Australian National University) wGif usif;yaom ta&SŒawmiftm&Se,fpyfa'orsm;ESihf ywfoufaom aqG;aEG;yGJwckodk‹ “&S rf;vlrsKd;rsm; 1947=67” pmwrf;wapmifudk olþwifoiG ;f cJo h nf? ,if;pmwef;wGif “Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;onf ay;xm;aom uwd udk wnfavh&Sdonfhacgif;aqmifrsKd;jzpfI &S rf;wdku ‹ olt ‹ ay: ,Hk-unfr+tjynfht0 xm;&SdcJhonf? wdkif;ðyjynfðyv$wfawmfu ‚if;. vkyfief;&yfrsm;udk t_yD;rowfEkdif rDrSmyif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;acgif;aqmifaom xdyfydkif; trsKd;om;acgif;aqmif}uD; rsm; 1947 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹wGif uHraumif; ta-umif;rvSpGm vkyf}uH owfjzwfcHcJh&onf? ,if;odk‹ AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; usqHk;cJh&r+onf aemifESpfaygif; rsm;pGm t-umwGif &S rf;vlrsKd;rsm;tay: Y usa&mufvmrnfh uH-urRm trsKd;rsKd; wdk‹twGuf t}uD;rm;qHk;ESihf wckwnf;aom tajccHta-umif;tcsuf jzpfayvdrfh rnf” [lI olu wifjycJo h nf?

av;pm;&aom tmZmenfacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;. om;wOD;jzpf_yD; ol‹zcif jzpfolESihf oludk,fwdkif ywfoufaeaom rSwfwrf;rSwf&mrsm;rSwqihf u|efawmfxH odk‹ tcsKdŒaom ta-umif;t&mrsm;udk a0r#ay;ydk‹ulnDcJholrSm OD;b0if;.om;/ a':atmifqef;pk-unf. tudw k 0rf;uGaJ wmfol a'gufwmpde0f if;jzpfonf? olu (a':atmifqef;pk-unfajymcJhzl;onfhtwdkif;) ol‹b0tawGŒtóuHudk pwifajymcJhonf? “u|efawmfhzcif aoqHk;pOfu u|efawmfonf i,fvGef;vSI rrSwrf cd yhJ g” [k qdo k nf? rSeyf gonf? xdq k ;kd &Gm;vSaom tjzpftysuf jzpfymG ;pOfu olonf touf wESpEf iS afh jcmufvt&G,rf #om &Sad o;onf? a':atmifqef;pk-unf uvnf; tvm;wlyif “atmifqef;”[laom yk*~dKvfa&;txky`wWdpmtkyf. tcsD; ed'gef;udk Toem;pzG,pf um;vH;k rsm;jzihf tpysK;d xm;cJo h nf? -opa-w;vsEikd if /H uGi;f (p) vefwuUodkvf (Queensland University) u 1984 ckESpfwGif xkwfa0cJhaom ‘tm&Sacgif;aqmifrsm;’ pmpOfwGif Ta&;om;r+ yg&SdcJhjcif;jzpfonf? rdwfquf

tcef;jzpfonfh ‘tpOD;v$rf;rdk;r+rsm;’ Y ‘olz‹ cifonf touf (13) ESpfwGif t*Fvdyf pmoifcsifvGef;vSI olZ‹ mwdewfarmufòrdr› S ‚if;bmom&yfoif-um;&m jrefrmjynf tv,fyikd ;f &Sd a&eHacsmif;òrd› trsKd;om;ausmif;od‹k xGucf mG oGm;cJah -umif; jyefajymif; a&;om;xm;cJhonf? xkdausmif;Y OD;atmifqef;onf ausmif;q&mwOD;jzpfaom ol‹tudk OD;b0if;. apmifha&Smufr+udk &&Sd_yD; ol‹tudku pnf;urf;wif;-uyfr+ESihf udk,fydkifawG;ac:r+wdu k‹ dk tnDtr#aygif;pyfum oly‹ nma&;ESihf usef;rma&;udk }uD; -uyfay;cJhonfhtwGuf uHaumif;cJha-umif; olru a&;om;xm;onf? av;ESpft-umwGif nDtpfudk (2) OD; uGJuGmcJh&onf? tudkjzpfolu ol. ausmif;q&mvkyfief;udk qufvufvkyfudkifaepOfrSmyif nDjzpfolu txufwef; ausmif;rS wuUov kd 0f ifciG fh &&Scd o hJ nft h wGuf &efuek w f uUov kd Yf ynmqnf;yl;&ef olv ‹ rf;ol qufav#mufcahJ vonf? OD;atmifqef;onf trsK;d om;a&;v+y&f mS ;r+rsm; ESifh jynfhESufaeaom (15) ESpfwmumvudk ausmfjzwfcJh_yD; trsKd;om;ol&Jaumif; wOD;tqihfudk &&SdcJhavonf? 1946 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (26) &ufae‹wGif topfa&muf&Sdvmaom (,m,D) bk&ifcH _Adwdo#AdkvfcsKyf ‘qm[l;bwf&ef‹pf’u tzGJŒ0if (9) OD;yg&Sdaom tr+aqmifaumifpu D kd zGŒJ pnf;cJ&h m (zqyv) tzGŒJ csKyfrS OD;atmifqef;tygt0if (6) OD;yg0ifum OD;atmifqef;udk 'k=obmywdtjzpf ceft ‹ yfcJhonf? aemufwESpf/ {_yD vwGif wdkif;jynfðyv$wfawmftwGuf a&G;aumufyGJrsm;usif;ycJh&m olonf ppf_yD; acwf ESpfrsm;wGif wyfrawmfrSxGufI t&yfom;b0jzihf EdkifiHa&;odk‹ 0ifa&mufcJh _yD; (a&eHacsmif;òrd›e,f/ zqyv tzGJŒcGJ. OuU@tjzpf a&G;cs,fjcif;cHcJh&aom) OD;b0if;rSmvnf; rauG;òrde› ,f/ taemufajrmuf v$waf wmftrwfavmif;wae&m wGif 0ifa&mufta&G;cHc&hJ ayonf? 1947 ckESpf/ Zlvdkif (22) &ufae‹wGif vGefcJhaom oHk;&ufu vkyf}uHowfjzwf jcif;cH&aom acgif;aqmifrsm;twGuf trSwfw& 0rf;enf;pum;udk toHv$ihfajym -um;&mwGif OD;Eku a'gufwmpde0f if;. zcifjzpfot l m; bk&ifc. H tr+aqmifaumif pDY cef‹tyfjcif; ta-umif;xkwfazmfajymqdkcJhonf? “OD;b0if;onf u|efawmfESihf aumvdyfY twlwl wufa&mufcJholwOD;jzpfygonf? olonf EdkifiHa&;e,fxJodk‹ aemufusrS 0ifa&mufvmcJo h w l OD;jzpfaomfvnf; ol. ud, k yf ikd u f , kd &f nfu, kd af oG; rsm;ESifh tusihfrysufr+u ol,ckxrf;aqmifaeaom ae&mESihf xkdufwefoljzpfjcif; a-umifh tr+aqmifaumifppD m&if;wGif olt ‹ m;xnfo h iG ;f &ef u|efawmfpw d u f ;l &cJ_h yD; Akv d cf sKyfEiS hf aròrdY› awGŒ -upOfu u|eaf wmfu, kd w f ikd f t}uHðycJjh cif;jzpfonf” [k OD;Ek

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u xkwaf zmfajymqdck o hJ nf? xko d ‹kdjzifh OD;b0if;onf ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&;ESifh axmufyahH &;qdik &f m aumif pD0ifjzpfvmcJ_h y;D ol‹Y (ZeD;onfEiS fh uav; (6) a,muf (a,musmf ;av; (4)þa,muf/ rdef;uav; (2) a,muf) &Sdonfhteuf udkpdef0if;rSm (5) a,mufajrmuf uav; jzpfonf? olwdk‹onf 1947 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv vqef;ydkif; OD;b0if; raoqHk;rD (14) &ufrmS yif a&eHacsmif;rS &efuek òf rda› wmfo‹kd ajymif;a&$ŒvmcJ-h uonf? xdt k csed u f ,ck a':atmifqef;pk-unfaexkid &f m eHygwf (54) ESifh rsuEf mS csi;f qdik f vrf;wbufjcrf;&S/d wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf; trSwf (51) aetdrf}uD;Y olwdk‹tm; ae&mcsxm;jcif;cHcJh& onf? tdrftopfodk‹ a&muf&Sdvm&mwGif udkpdef0if; rSwfrdor#rSm wpHkwa,mufu ole‹ m;vmI “'Dtdrf[m rif;wdak‹ e&r,fh tdrfyJ” [k olu ‹ dk ajymqdkjcif;yifjzpfonf? xdt k csed u f OD;atmifqef;wd‹k rdom;pkrmS uefawmf}uD;teD;/ wm0gvdr;f &Sd tpd;k &tdrfwGif aexkdifvsuf&Sd&m wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf;ESifh twefi,fa0;aomfvnf; rdom;pk (2) pkonf r-umc% awGŒqHk-u_yD; uav;i,farmifES rwpkwdk‹ twlwl upm;-uum aysmf&$ifvmcJh-uonf? odak‹ omf ,if;odk‹ olwdak‹ rmifES rwpk aysmf&$ifr+ onf a&S›vmrnfh (14) &uf (19/ 7/ 47) rwkdifrD ,m,Doabmr# aysmf&$ifae-u& onfh ‘b0tdyrf uf’ wckr#om jzpfae&Smonfurkd l olwr‹kd od-uacs? xdk‹aemuf 0rf;enf;zG,ftjzpftysuf jzpfvmcJhonf? Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹ u aumifpDcef;rtwGif; tpnf;ta0;Y OD;b0if;onf ol‹ nD. nmbufwef;wGif aumifpD0if OD;tAŠ'l&mZwfESihf 'D;'kwfOD;bcsKdwdkt ‹ -um; xkdifaecJh_yD; aoewfusnf qef (8) csufxdrSefum yGJcsif;_yD; aoqHk;oGm;cJh&onf? xkdtcsdefu ol‹toufrSm (46) ESprf #om jzpfavonf? xdk‹aemufwGifrl OD;b0if;. ±kyftavmif;udk &efukefjynfol‹aq;±Hk}uD;. &ifcGJ±HkrS ‘*sLAvDa[m’ odk‹ EkdifiHawmfpsmyetjzpf xm;&Sd&ef o,faqmifoGm;cJh-u onf? OD;b0if;. rdom;pkonfvnf; ol. usef&pfaom ±kyftavmif;udk &Sdcdk; uefawmh&ef r-umc%qdkouJhodk‹ *sLAvDa[modk‹ oGm;cJh-uonf? odka‹ omf a'guf wmpdef0if;taejzifh ,if;odk‹ oGm;cJh-ujcif;ukdvnf;aumif;/ EkdifiHawmfpsmyetcrf; tem;rsm;udkvnf;aumif;/ tmZmenfAdrmefY *loGif;ðryfESHjcif;udkvnf;aumif; rSwf rdjcif;r&Sad wmhacs? oljyefvnfpOf;pm;owd&aeao;onfrmS txl;ðyvkyaf om tcrf; tem;rsm;wGif olz‹ cifvJavsmif;&m tmZmenfAdrmefodk‹ olwdrk‹ dom;pkoGm;a&mufI yef;acGcscJh&onfh tcsdefrsm;udkom jzpfavonf? xdka‹ emuf a'gufwmpdef0if;onf ynm&yfqikd &f m qnf;yl;avhvmr+rsm; qufvufðyvkycf _hJ y;D ‘[rf;bwf’ wuUov kd rf S

ocsFmynm&yfwGif a'gufwmbGJŒudk &&SdcJhavonf? olonf ‘oD&dvuFm’ESifh ‘Edkif±kd bD’wdk‹wGif&Sdaom ‘udkvHbdk’wuUokdvfESihf ‘Edkif±kdbD’wuUodkvfwdk‹tjyif aemifwGif &efuek Yf oif-um;a&;wm0efrsm; ,lco hJ nf? olonf olz‹ cifEiS t fh vm;wlpmG pdww f nf _ird af t;aq;_y;D ynmydc‹k soif-um;a&;Y arGŒavsmrf &+ &Su d m Edik if aH &;e,fxo J ‹kd 0if&mY vnf; aemufuscJo h nf? 1988 ckEpS w f iG f ES rjzpfol a':atmifqef;pk-unfu taxG axGtwGi;f a&;rª;tjzpf aqmif&u G u f m trsK;d om;'Dru dk a&pDtzGŒJcsKyfukd zGŒJpnf;vdu k f aomtcgY olonf rdk;_cdrf;aomtcg rdk;óud;ygwwfouJhodk‹ tzGJŒ0ifwOD;tjzpf 0if a&mufc&hJ onf? oda‹k omfvnf; ppftm%mydik rf sm;u trsK;d om;'Dru dk a&pDtzGŒJcsKyfukd zsufodrf;cJhv#if ulnD0kdif;&H taxmuftcHtjzpf &nf&G,fum zGJŒpnf;cJhaom topf ygwD tzGJŒwckjzpfonfh ‘trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDygwD’ udk OD;aqmif&ef olu ‹ dk a&G;cs,f cJhonf? odk‹ jzpfonfhtavsmuf 1990 ckESpf/ arva&G;aumufyGJwGif OD;pdef0if;onf yJc;l wkid ;f rJqENe,frS vG,v f , G u f u l l tEkid &f &Scd ahJ vonf? xdek nf;wlyif wkid ;f jynfukd tkyfcsKyf&ef trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJŒcsKyfudkvnf; jynfolvlxku rJqEN tjywf towfay;um a&G;cs,fcJhaomfvnf; ppfwyfu *k%foduQmuif;rJhpGm wdkif;jynfudk w&m;r0if qufvuftyk cf sKyfaecJah vonf? olwo ‹kd nf Ekid if aH &;t& zrf;qD;r+rsm;/ xde;f odr;f r+rsm;/ txl;ojzihf topfa&G;cs,fcx H m;&aom v$waf wmfu, kd pf m;vS,f rsm;udk w&m;r0ifjyefvnf±yk o f rd ;f r+rsm;tm; trsKd;om;'Dru dk a&pDtzGŒJ csKyfEiS fh r[m rdwyf gwDrsm;tay: enf;rsK;d pHjk zihf (rqvESiw fh pnwd. ‹k ud, k pf m;) ðyvkyo f mG ;cJo h nf? trsKd;om;'Dru dk a&pDtzGŒJ csKyfrS ta&G;cs,fc&H aom v$waf wmfu, kd pf m;vS,f rsm; aemufq;kH wGif v#KŒd 0u S af wGŒq-kH u_yD; ta&G;cs,cf H v$waf wmfu, kd pf m;vS,f tpk wpkukd ,m,Dtpd;k &w&yf zGŒJpnf;&ef !¸e-f um;cJo h nf? a'gufwmpde0f if;ESifh vkyaf zmf udkifbuf (7) OD;onf xkdif;e,fpyfwGif&Sdaom jrefrmEdkifiH 'Drdku&ufwpfr[mrdwf tzGJŒ. e,fajrjzpfaom ‘vGwfajrmufe,fajr’ odk‹ xGufajy;vmEkdifcJhonf? jrefrm EdkifiH 'Drdku&ufwpf r[mrdwftzGJŒ. ulnDr+udkvnf; tjynfht0&&SdcJhjcif;a-umifh 1990 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv (8) &ufae‹wGif rme,fyavmY 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf a&G;cs,f jcif;cH&aom a'gufwmpdef0if;u -um;jzwftpdk;&w&yfudk ‘jynfaxmifpkjrefrm EdkifiH trsKd;om;!Geaf‹ ygif;tpdk;&’ tjzpf a-unmcJhavonf? xdak‹ emuf tajctae t&yf&yfa-umifh a'gufwmpdef0if;ESifh ol. 0ef}uD;tzGJŒ0iftcsKdŒonf xkdif;EkdifiHrS tar&duefjynfaxmifpo k ‹kd a&$Œajymif;oGm;a&mufum olw. ‹kd XmecsKyfukd 0g&Siw f ef 'Dpw D iG f zGihf vSpcf &hJ onf? a'gufwmpde0f if;onf rv$rJ a&Smifomvufxyf_y;D wESpo f m&Sad o;vsuf om;

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orD;udk,f0efudk vG,fxm;&_yDjzpfaom ZeD;onf pDpDoG,fudk aemufuG,fwGif csef xm;cJ&h onf? a'gufwm pde0f if;. tudjk zpfol OD;at;0if;ESifh tjcm;0rf;uGaJ rmifES r rsm;onfvnf; jrefrmEdkifiH vGwfajrmufa&;wkdufyGJwGif a':atmifqef;pk-unftm; 0ef;&Hxm;-uonfhtwGuf óudwifcef‹rSef;xm;onfhtwdkif; ppftm%m&Sifwdk‹. tjypfay;ta&;,lr+udk cH-u&avonf? OD;at;0if;onf 1996 ckESpfwGif tzrf;cH &pOfu a':atmifqef;pk-unf. teD;uyfvufaxmuftjzpf aqmif&u G v f su&f _dS yD; xdktcsdefrSpum tif;pdefaxmifwGif ESpf&Snfaxmif'%fcH&&Smonf? olonf ESv;kH a&m*gcHpm;&onf? oltzrf;cH&onfEiS fh Adv k cf sKyf. tudw k OD;jzpfol OD;atmif oef;.om;jzpfol ‘OD;csKdatmifoef;’ uvnf; brsKd;bdk;wl csufcsif;yif ola‹ e&modk‹ tpm;xk;d 0ifa&mufvmcJo h nf? ppfwyfu 1997 ckEpS /f ESpv f ,fwiG f olEiS fh ol‹nrD i,f rroef;wdu ‹k kd zrf;qD;cJjh yef_y;D rroef;. cifyeG ;f OD;jrihaf qGuykd g tqpfac:oGm;cJo h nf? xda‹k emuf olwu ‹kd kd rw&m; oif; tufOya't& axmif'%f (3) ESppf ED iS fh aemufxyf ta&;ay: tufOya't& axmuf'%f (7) ESpfpD csrSwfcJhjyef&m olwdk‹tm;vHk; tif;pdefaxmifwGif ,if;axmif '%frsm;udk cH-u&&Smonf? 0rf;omp&m rSwcf suw f ckudk jznfph u G Ef idk yf g_y?D a'gufwmpde0f if;onf olZ‹ eD;ESihf orD;wkEd‹ Sifh 2000 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (15) &ufae‹wGif atmfpvkd (Oslo) -rdY› jyefvnf aygif;pnf;EkdifcJhyg_yD? ZeD;ESifh orD;jzpfolwo kd‹ nf ppfwyftkyfpkd;aeaom jrefrmEkdifiHrS ,if;ESpq f ef;wGif aemufq;Hk Y atmifjrifpmG xGuaf jy;vGwaf jrmufvmcJ_h y;D xkid ;f Ekid if rH S wqifh aemfa0EkdifiHokd‹ a&muf&SdvmcJhonf? 1990 ckESpf atmufwkdbmv (25) &ufae‹wGif &efukef-rdŒrS pxGufvmuwnf;u a'gufwmpdef0if;taejzifh (10) ESpf ausmfausmf olwE‹dk iS hf awGŒ&jcif;r&Scd yhJ g? orD;i,fjzpforl mS (9) ESpcf yJG if &Sad eyg_yD? aemufq;Hk Y olwc‹dk &D;pOfrmS 2001 ckEpS f -o*kwv f (4) &ufae‹wiG f tar&duef jynfaxmifpk 0g&Sifwef'DpD&Sd olwkda‹ etdrfwGif jyefvnfa&muf&Sdjcif;jzifh aysmf&$ifpGm t_yD;owfEidk cf yhJ gonf? ‚if;tjyif OD;at;0if;/ OD;csKdatmifoef;/ rroef;ESihf olc‹ ifyeG ;f wk‹d axmifrS jyef vnfvGwfajrmufcJh_yDjzpfa-umif; u|efawmf avhvmod&Sd&yga-umif;?

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a-u;rHkOD;aomif; xkwfazmfajymqdk_yD ,cktcg tar&duefjynfaxmifpk zavmf&'D gwGif aexkid v f su&f adS om emrnf }uD;owif;pmq&mESihf pma&;q&mwOD;jzpfol ‘a-u;rHk’ (The Mirror) OD;aomif; onf 1998 ckEpS /f Zlvidk v f (15) &ufae‹wiG f jrefrmbmomjzihf (acwfòydirf )S xkwaf 0 10 h nf? aom ‘jrefrmhtvif;’ owif;pmY xl;jcm;vSaom aqmif;yg;wyk'f a&;om;cJo ,if;aqmif;yg;onf AdkvfcsKyfESihf olv ‹ kyfazmfudkifbufrsm; usqHk;cJh&onfh (51) ESpf ajrmuf tcsdeftcgor,ESihf wdkufqdkifaeavonf? ,if;aqmif;yg;. acgif;pOfrSm ‘OD;atmifqef;tm; vkyf}uHr+}uD;/ ar*smae0if; }uH&mygavm’ jzpfavonf? arhr&EdkifwJh 1947 ck/ Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹u touf (20) om&Sdao;_yD; ‘Armhacwf’ owif;pm. owif;axmufwOD;jzpfol (atmifAv) OD;aomif;onf aoG;acsmufcsm;zG,jf zpf&yftcsKdŒukd ud, k af wGŒrsufjrifjzpfc&hJ onf? xdt k csdeu f ol. o,f,lydk‹aqmifa&;,mOfrSm pufbD;omjzpf_yD; ,if;pufbD;udk aeylrdk;&Gmra&Smif òrd›wywfeif;um owif;pkaqmif;&onf? xdkae‹ eHeufapmapmydkif;wGif olonf twGi;f 0ef±;kH od‹k a&muf&cdS _hJ y;D Adv k cf sKyf. twGi;f a&;0ef Adv k x f eG ;f vSEiS hf pum;ajymqdk cJhum yef;qdk;wef;&Sd ‘owif;pmq&mrsm;toif;’ wdkufodk‹ a&mufcgpYyif w,fvD zkef;udkifolwOD;uæ“twGif;0ef±Hk;rSm ypfukef_yDwJha[h” [k atmfojzifh owif; axmuftm;vHk; twGif;0ef±Hk;odk‹ ajy;-uonf? ola&mufcsdefwGif yxrqHk; rD;owf um;u OD;atmifqef;udk o,fomG ;onf? xda‹k emuf '%f&mjyif;xefpmG &&S_d yD; rao ao;aom rkid ;f yGeaf pmfbmG ;}uD;udk vlemwifxrf;pifjzifh 'kw, d um;ay: wifaeonf? xkdtcg olonf &if;ESD;pGmaygif;xm;aom rD;owfAdkvf. tulESifh ,if;um;ay: Y vku d yf gcGi&fh cJo h nf? &efuek jf ynfoa‹l q;±H}k uD;odo ‹k mG ;&m wrdik rf # c&D;wav#mufv;kH emusio f jzifh nnf;nLvl;vGea‹f eaom apmfbmG ;}uD;udk olemðyu '%f&m&aom &if bwfukd ESyd &f if;xde;f xm;&mrS OD;aomif;udk tultnDawmif;ojzifh ajcovH;k rsm;udk ESyd u f m ajc&if;u xde;f ay;xm;&onf? apmfbmG ;}uD;. &S r;f abmif;bDt0grSmrl eD&J ae_yD; ol‹vufwGifyg aoG;wdk‹ jzihf pdk&$Jaeawmhonf? aq;±Hkodk‹ a&mufaomtcg cGJ pdwcf ef;Y Od;D atmifqef;.toufukd u,fEidk Ef ;dk ESifh q&m0ef}uD; OD;boef;u csuf csif;cGJpdwfaea-umif; olod&onf? xdka‹ emuf twefi,f-umaomtcg olonf OD; atmifqef; aoewfusnfqef (13) csufjzifh csufcsif;aoqHk;cJha-umif; a'gufwm boef;ud, k w f ikd f rSwcf sufa&;om;xm;onfukd zwfvu kd &f onf? 234 234


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vkyf}uHr+}uD;. ±+yfaxG;r+twGif;Y OD;aomif;onf pGJpGJ_rJ_rJ okawoeðycJh onf? Ttr+wiG f OD;apmtjyif tjcm;}uH&mygrsm; &S&d OD;rnf[k olcikd rf mpGm ,H-k unf cJo h nf? od&‹k mwGif olp;l prf;&SmazG&m vrf;a-umif;wdik ;f onf w&m;Oya'tjrifwiG f ryDjyifaom quf&efr&Sad wmhonfh vrf;ydwEf iS fh tqH;k owfco hJ jzifh tajzr&&Scd ahJ cs? OD;aomif;onf xkdtcsdefu ol‹tawG;tac:ESihf ol‹tawGŒtóuHrsm;t& Adkvf ae0if;taejzifh }uH&mygwOD;jzpf&rnf[k pGJ_rJpGm ,Hk-unfcJhaomfvnf; urBmausmf w&m;0ifpakH xmuf}uD;rsm;uJo h ‹kd olt ‹ aejzifh pdwv f u kd rf mefyg owW&d &dS dS pHpk rf;axmuf vS rf;r+rsm; rðyvkyfEkdifcJhacs? tb,fa-umihfqdkaomf OD;ae0if;onf ºuGufawmxJ rS a-umifwaumifuJhodk‹ -oZmwduUr&Sdaom yk*~dKvfwOD;jzpfae_yD;/ jynfwGif;ppfudk ta-umif;ðyI wdkawmif;vSaom vtenf;i,ftwGif; xdyfydkif;&mxl;rsm;odk‹ vsifjrefpGm wdk;wufoGm;cJhaoma-umihfjzpfonf? xdk‹a-umihf OD;aomif;u ol. ±+axmifrh aS eI ol-um;odor# ol.,k;d pGycf sufrsm;udk atmufygtwdik ;f qufvuf a&;om;cJo h nf? G cf su/f OD;wnfcsuo f nf t"dujzpfyg.? “&mZ0wfr+ rSeo f r# (motive) &nf&, od‹k jzpfav&m OD;atmifqef;udk z,f&mS ;vdak om ol. &eforl sm;pm&if;udk -unf&h yg rnf? olraorD wvcef‹u wnaewGif bk&ifcH a':refprpfxHodk‹ OD;atmifqef; aygufvm_yD;æ“usaemfrh mS &eforl sm;vSw,f” [k nnf;onf? “rif;u vlxck spfwhJ [D;±kd;yguGm” [k bk&ifcHu ESpfodrfhaomtcg “orkdif;rSm ol&Jaumif;awG[m oHk; av;ESpfyJ ae-u&ygw,f? usaemfhtzdk‹ aemuf (18) vavmufae&&if uHaumif; yJ” [k rsuf&nfvnf&GJjzifh ajymoGm;onf[k bk&ifcHu ol. pmtkyfwGif rSwfwrf; wifco hJ nf? xkt d csed u f rnfoal wGonf OD;atmifqef;udk rvdv k m;-uoenf;? ocif pdk;/ ocifoef;xGef; uGefjrLepfrsm;u róuduf-uyg? xdktcsdefwGif epfwdu k‹ olykefx &ef jyifqifae-uapumrl (acsmif;ajrmif;owfjzwfr+) vlowf0g'udk cdkifrmpGm y,f xm;olrsm;jzpfojzifh epftyk pf u k kd rnfou l rS oHo,r&Syd g? oda‹k omf twdu k t f cH OD;apmESifh ocifApdew f u ‹kd OD;atmifqef;tay: rvdv k m; -uonfrmS xif&mS ;onf? bdvyfoo ‹kd mG ;um vGwv f yfa&;awmif;pOfu atmifqef;= tufwvDpmcsKyfukd olwv ‹kd ufrw S rf xd;k bJ oydwaf rSmufc-hJ uonf? txl;ojzihf OD;atmifqef;udk rvdkvm;qHk;olwrdk‹ Sm jrefrmEdkifiHESihf pD;yGm;jzpfcJh zl;-uaom t*Fvdyft&if;&Sifwpkjzpfonf? olww dk‹ Gif ‘txl;pdwf0ifpm;olrsm;tzGJŒ’ [k v#KŒd0u S t f zGŒJwck &So d nf? xkt d zGŒJukd oDaygacwfu pwifzŒJGpnf;xm;onf? txuf

jrefrmjynfukd odr;f ydu k &f ef vnfq,f0g'jzefv ‹ suf vufyg;ap ppfAv kd }f uD;rsm;udk v+‹H aqmfum wdu k cf u kd af pcJo h rl sm;jzpfonf? od‹k jzpfav&m vGwv f yfa&;&vkvck sdew f iG f OD;atmifqef;u qdk&S,fvpfqefaom rdef‹cGef;rsm;udk ay;cJh±Hkr#ru vGwfvyfa&;& _yD;v#if pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;}uD;rsm;udk ‘EkdifiHydkif’ ðyrnf[k ‘qdk&efwdkADvm’ pD;yGm;a&; pDrHudef;udk a&;onf? xdka‹ -umifh txufazmfjyyg t*Fvdyf v#KdŒ0SuftzGJŒu olwdk. ‹ &efoludk z,f&Sm;&ef pepfwus tuGufcsvsuf vkyf}uH-ujcif;jzpfayonf? odk‹ jzpfav&m ,if;tzGJŒu tqihfjrihfaom t*Fvdyf ppfAdkvf}uD;rsm;udkvnf; 0,f,lxm;onf? ppfAdkvf}uD;tcsKdŒonf t*Fvdyfukefonfb0rS ppf0wfpHk 0wfvm olrsm; jzpfonf? olwdk‹wGif tm%mvnf; &Sdonf? aiGudkvnf; vdkoavmuf&Edkif onf? xd‹ka-umihf olwdk‹u tm%m±l; OD;apmudk qufoG,fum vufeufESihf aiGay; _yD; vky}f uH&ef wdu k w f eG ;f onf? “OD;atmifqef;r&So d nfEiS fh oift h m; bk&ifcu H zdwf ac:I eef;&if;0ef&mxl;udk ay;&aprnf” [k rpm;&0cref; uwdðy-u&onf? xda‹k -umihv f nf; vky}f uHrj+ zpfpOfu t*Fvyd pf pfAv kd cf sKyfwOD;ESifh vHòk cHa&; xdyf oD; t&m&S}d uD;rsm; twGi;f 0ef±;kH wGif &S-d ujcif;jzpfonf? Ttcsufukd t*Fvyd t f &m &S}d uD;wcsKŒd wifóudo-d uonf? od‹kjzpfonft h avsmuf OD;apmudk zrf;onfEiS fh t*Fvyd f t&m&Sd}uD;rsm; tdENd,odk‹ xGufajy;-uonf? cufonfrSm bdvyfrS t*Fvdyftpdk;&u jrefrmEkdifiHwGif qlylr+udk rvdkvm;? bk&ifcu H vnf; OD;atmifqef;ESifh zqyvtzGŒJ ukd auseyfonfrmS trSejf zpfonf? TwGif ‘txl;pdwf0ifpm;olrsm;tzGJŒ’ . OD;wnfcsufjzpfaom atmifqef; z,f&Sm;a&; pDrHudef;rSm vla&G;rSefjcif;a-umihf atmifjrifoGm;aomfvnf; OD;apmudk tm%mtyfa&;udpPrSm atmifjrifr+r&? bdvyftpdk;&ESihf bk&ifcHu 'Drkdua&pD ,Hk -unfolrsm;yDopGm zqyvtzGJŒ }uD;udk qufvuftm%mtyfrnf[k OD;Ekudk eef; wif-uonf? vkyf}uH_yD;aemuf a&Smif&Sm;jcif;rðybJ aetdrfYyif pdwfcsvufcs wpkwa0; 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om atmifycJG aH eaom OD;apmonf bk&ifc. H zdwpf mudk apmihaf epOf jrefrmykvyd rf sm;. zrf;qD;jcif;udk cH&onf? bma-umihf OD;ae0if;tm; }uH&myg wOD;jzpfEkdifonf[k ,lq&jcif;rSm OD;ae 0if;. OD;wnfcsuft& ,d;k pGyv f u kd &f jcif;jzpfI xdt k csdeu f Adv k af e0if;onf rsm;pGm pdwfqif;&Jaeonf? tm%m&mxl;&ruf}uD;rm;vSaom 'k=Adkvfr;ª }uD;ae0if;onf rdrd. ppf0wfpHkudk 0wf&wkdif; pdwfrcsrf;rom t_rJjzpfum qJa&;avh&Sdonf? zuf

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

qpfawmfveS af &;umv wyfrawmfaoemywd&mxl;rS qif;ay;&um topfzŒJGvu dk f aom wyfrawmfwiG f Adv k rf ;ª &mxl;jzifh tqihaf v#musvkyu f ikd af e&jcif;udk olraus reyfjzpfaeonf? ppfOD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyfaomrwfpf/ 'k=OD;pD;csKyf Akdvfrª;}uD; prpf'Gef;wdk‹vuf atmufwGif ajrmufydkif;wdkif;rª;tjzpf Adkvfrª;&mxl;ESihf ae&onf? zufqpfawmf vSefa&;umvY ol‹atmuf&mxl;i,faom awmifydkif;wdkif;rª; apm-um'dk;u ,ck Adv k rf ;ª csKyfjzpfojzihf olx ‹ uf tqifjh rihaf ejyefonf? vGwv f yfa&; jyifqifcsed u f u&ift&m&Srd sm;onf olw. ‹kd vkyo f ufEiS fh ynm t&nftaoG;t& xkdufwefaom &mxl;rsm;udk &cJhonf[k prpf'Gef;u ol. rSwf wrf;wGif a&;om;azmfjycJo h nft h wdik ;f vGwv f yfa&;&pu ppfrx + rf;ouf (15) ESprf S (20) txd &Sd-uaom u&ifppfAdkvftrsm;pkonf wyfrawmfwGif v$rf;rdk;aeonf? Adkvfr;ª }uD; apm'dkeDtjyif u&iftrsKd;om; 'k=Adkvfr;ª }uD; (8) OD;&Sdaeao;onf? xdk‹ a-umihf ar*sm&mxl;om &&Sad om Adv k af e0if;tzd‹k &mxl;wuf&ef a0;vSojzihf qwf qwfcgemaeonf? xdk‹ jyif ar*sm&mxl;rSm odrfi,fvS±Hkru ol‹.txufwGif ol‹xufppf0g&ifh aomolrsm; cHaeojzihf ppfwyfrSxGufum ocifApdef. ‘wdk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk;’ wGif 0ifvsuf Ekid if aH &;vky&f ef wdu k w f eG ;f -ua-umif;ESifh rqvacwf orRw q&marmif armifa&;aom Adkvfae0if;ta-umif; pmtkyfwGif yg&Sdonf? OD;atmifqef;onf &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifb0jzifh *syefacwfY twlaecJhpOf um vuyif Adkvfae0if;. p±kdufudk aumif;pGmodonf? odk‹ jzpfav&m OD;atmifqef; tpdk;&wnf&Sdaeor# umvywfvHk; ar*smae0if;tzdk‹ &mxl;wdk;wuf&ef/ xdyfoD; &mxl;&&S&d ef rjzpfEidk af wmh_yDæ[k olawG;xm;[efwo l nf? od‹k jzpfonft h wdik ;f Adv k f ae0if;uvnf; olb ‹ 0wufvrf;Y cvkww f o H if; vrf;r&Si;f bJ wm;qD;aeaom OD; atmifqef;udk z,f&mS ;vdo k nfrmS rkcsjzpfonf? xda‹k -umifh OD;apmu wdu k ±f u dk q f uf onfjzpfap/ ocifApdefrSwqihf qufonfjzpfap/ t*Fvdyft&m&Sd}uD;rsm;u wdkuf ±kdufqufonfjzpfap/ Adkvfae0if;tm; OD;apm. tpdk;&opfwGif xdyfydkif;&mxl; &aprnf[k uwday;ojzifh xdkae‹u vkyf}uHtkyfpkrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;ulnDcJhav oavm[k awG;awmp&mjzpfvmygonf? oufaoxkwfygOD;tHh? xdkae‹rwkdifrD OD;atmifqef;udk vkyf}uHvdrfhrnf[l aom owif;t& txl;tapmihft-uyfrsm; wifóudcsxm;ygonf? vkyf}uHr+rjzpfrD oHk;ywfcefr‹ S pwifum vufeufudk v#KdŒ0Sufudkifaqmifxm;aom t&yf0wf t&yf

pm;ESihf ppfom;rsm;udk OD;atmifqef;. ±Hk;cef;wcdkESihf twGif;0ef±Hk;wGif owif; axmufrsm; awGŒ -u&ygonf? xk&d aJ bmfrsm;rSm wyf&if; (4) rS &Jabmfrsm;jzpfonf? AdkvfvGifu vHkòcHa&;udk wm0ef,lonf[k odcJh-uyg.? vkyf}uHr+}uD;jzpfaomae‹u xdk&Jabmfrsm;udk rawGŒ&yg? xdak‹ -umihf TudpPY twGif;vlu wHcg;zGihfay;aom vkyf}uHr+}uD;jzpfonfrSm aocsmyga-umif;” [l.? ‚if;tjyif &Syd gao;onf? u|efawmfwkd‹ EkdifiH&yfjcm;Y &&SdcHpm;ae&onfh vGwfvyfaom ywf0ef;usif twGif;Y a-u;rkHOD;aomif;u ol.ºuG,f0aom ajymqkdr+ a&;om;r+tokH;tE+ef; rsm;jzifh Adv k cf sKyfae0if;ESihf oli‹ ,fom;rsm;. &rf;um;r+a-umifh trdajray: usa&muf cJo h nfh 0rf;enf;zG,t f jzpfq;dk rsm;ukd r-umc%nnf;wGm;cJyh gonf? olu u|efyfwkd. ‹ (20) &mpk trsKd;om;acgif;aqmiftaejzifh trsKd;om;a&; vkyif ef;&yfrsm; tm;oGecf eG pf u dk v f yk af qmifaepOf qifjcifwrHk hJ &nfreS ;f csu}f uD;vGe;f _y;D vufpm;acswwfaom eef;&if;0efa[mif;. ,Eœ&m;qifvyk &f yfrsm;a-umifh vrf;ck vyfwiG f a-uuGzJ , G u f sq;Hk cJ&h onft h a-umif;vnf; r-umc%ajymqkad vh&ydS gonf? xkdokad‹ om puf¯ud;,Eœ&m;wyfqifr+wGif taygif;yg tvkdwltvkdygrsm;vnf; yg&Sd rSmaocsmvS_yD; xkdtxJwGif ae0if;vnf; xGufay:vmcJhonf? OD;apm.}uHpnfr+ wGif ae0if; yg0ifywfoufru + dk OD;aomif;u wdwv d if;vif; vlo&d iS -f um;azmfxw k f cJhonf? Ak'<[l;ae‹wkdif; 0g&Sifwef'DpDrS xkwfv$ifhaom ‘vGwfvyfaomtm&StoH’ jrefrmykid ;f tpDtpOf. 2000 ckEpS f atmufwb dk mvESihf pufwifbmvxkwv f i$ chf suf (trSwf 112 ESifh 113) wkw d‹ Gif ol. ajym-um;csufrsm;wGif ae0if;yg0ifywfoufr+ tcsKdt ‹ pdwftykdif;rsm;ukd xkwfazmfcJhonf? ,if;wkrd‹ S oufqkdifonfrsm;ukd atmuf wGif aumufEw k af zmfjyygrnf? “OD;atmifqef;. vk-H cHa&;uku d muG,&f ef wm0efay;xm;aom txl;tapmifh ESpOf ;D onf t_rw J ap OD;atmifqef;. vufwurf;wGi&f ydS gvsuf tcif;jzpfymG ;aom Zlvkdifv (19) &ufae‹ eHeufu r&Sd-ubJ aysmufuG,fae-uonfrSm Adkvfr;ª ae0if; .tpDtpOf[k rkcs,k-H unf&avonf? xkdtapmifhwkd‹rSm Adkvfae0if;. vlrsm;jzpf-uonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ukd v#Kd0‹ Sufoufawmfapmifhrsm;tjzpf wm0efay;vkdygonf? pdwfcs&aom &Jabmfrsm; ay;yg[k OD;ausmf_idr;f u Adv k af e0if;xHrS awmif;&mrS&&Scd o hJ nf? Adv k rf ;ª ae0if;ay;aom oufawmfapmifh (2) OD;jzpfol &Jabmf bwkyEf iS hf &Jabmf &Jjrifhwkd‹onf aoewfypfvufajzmifh-uonf? ajcmufvkH;jyL;ESifh ypPwkd (vf) (10)

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239

&v'f

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

csuyf pfv#if (8) csuw f o ‹dk nf ypfrw S w f . ‹dk A[ko d ‹dk xdreS af tmif ypfEidk o f rl sm;jzpfonf? Adkvfae0if;. &moufyefvl,kHawmf. zsmykHajymufusm;wyfrS ajymufusm;Adkvf. vufprJG sm;jzpf-uonf? xkad e‹ a&Smifae-uaom oufawmfapmifh (2) OD;onfvnf; aysmufomG ;onf? &uftenf;i,f-umrS tavmif;awGŒ -u&onf? tvHeDolykefwkd‹u owfonf[k tr+yw d v f u dk o f nf? zqyv acgif;aqmifopfjzpfvmol twGi;f 0efa[mif; OD;wifxÉG o f nf Adv k rf ;ª csKyf&mxl;ESifh ppfr+xrf;pOfu vkyf}uHr+}uD;wGif OD;apm. taygif;ygrnfolenf;[k oJveG pf rsm; &SmazGcahJ vonf? ‘e,l;wkid ;f ’ t,f'w D mcsKyfvnf;jzpfol OD;wifxÉG u f OD;apmESifh }uH&mygrsm;ta-umif;ukd ol.owif;pmY zGifhvSpfa&;om;vkdonf[k ta-umif;jyum owif;axmufcsKyftm; owif;tptersm;ukd vkdufvHpkHprf;&ef !¸e-f um;cJah vonf? r-umygay? ,if;ok‹d tr+a[mif;ukd jyefazmf&ef tm;xkwo f jzifh OD;wifxGÉfyg vkyf}uHcH&um toufay;oGm;&&Smonf? zsmykHrS ajymufusm;Adkvf. vufcsufjzpfonf[k od-uaomfvnf; tr+udk rnforl S razmf0?hH *VKefOD;apmESifh }uH&mygyk*~dKvfrSm Adkvfr;ª ae0if;jzpfonf[k oJvGefp&Smvkdol wko ‹d nf OD;wifxÉG Ef iS hf OD;xGe;f vSatmifw. ‹dk uH-urRmukd jrifawGŒ -uojzifh tr+}uD;. oJveG pf ukd rvku d 0f ahH wmhbJ ,ae‹widk f tajzr&onfh ar;cGe;f rsm;tjzpf E+wyf w d af e -u&avawmhonf?” ,ae‹xufwidk f OD;wifxÉG f owfjzwfr+ }uHpnf¯ud;yrf;olrsm; rnforl nf0g[k rnfolur# vlod&Sif-um;pGyfpJGcJhjcif;r&Sdacs? rSef;qajymqkdr+rsm;ESifh aumvm[v rsm;&Scd o hJ nfreS af omfvnf; txufazmfjyyg tjzpftysufrsm;wGif zsmykH ajymufusm; Adkvfukd vufaxmuftultjzpf ESpf}udrfwkdifazmfjycJhonfrSm xl;qef;aeayonf? AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh ol‹0ef}uD;tzGJŒukd &Sif;vif;&mY *VKefOD;apmESifh r[mrdwf «yvkyfcJholrSm ppftm%m&Sifomjzpfa-umif; OD;aomif;u qufvufI tao;pdwf ajymqkd oufaojycJjh yefonf? “OD;atmifqef;ukd owf±rHk #ESihf 0ef}uD;csKyfrjzpfEidk o f nfudk OD;apmu aumif; pGm em;vnfod&Sdonf? vGwfvyfa&;&csdefY &Sifbk&ifjzpf&efrSm ppfwyfukd vkdtyf onf[k OD;apmu od&Sdonf? OD;apmtaeESifh OD;atmifqef;ukdvkyf}uH&ef bdvyf tpkd;&xH pum;qkd&efESifh jrefrmjynfY wyfpGJxm;aom t*Fvdyfwyfrsm;.tulukd r&Ekdifapumrl OD;apmtzkd‹ bk&ifcHESifh zqyvtkyfcsKyfr+ vufatmufcH jrefrm

ppfwyf. oabmwlnDcsuf axmufcHcsuf ckdifrmpGm&&SdavrSom OD;atmifqef;ESifh zqyv0ef}uD;rsm;ukd owfjzwf_yD;csdefY tm%m&Ekdifrnfjzpfonfukd rkcsod&rnf jzpfonf? &Sifbk&ifjzpfcsifol okd‹r[kwf EkdifiH.tkyfcsKyfr+tm%mukd &&Sdvkdoltzkd‹ ausmaxmufaemufcpH pfwyf vkt d yfonfudk aumif;pGmod&&dS ayrnf? xkdtcsdefu jynfol‹&JabmftzGJŒrsm;wGifvnf;aumif;/ Auy tvHjzLuGefjrL epfw. ‹dk vufwiG v f nf;aumif; vufeufyek ;f axmifaomif;&Sad eonf? olwo ‹dk nf zqyvtpk;d &tm; vufeufpu GJ idk I f olyek x f &efjyifqifae-uonf? tvHew D u ‹dk rl &ckdifbufwGif vufeufpGJukdifum olykefxae-u_yDjzpfonf? xkdtajctaersKd;wGif b&if;*ef;aoewf okH;av;&m/ usnfqefrsKd;pkH woef;cef‹om&Sd_yD; wynfhwyef; ok;H av;q,fEiS hf tm%modr;f &ef}uHpnfjcif;onf &,fz, G &f mjzpfaeonf? vufa&G; pifwynfhrsm;ukdapv$wf_yD; 0ef}uD;csKyfESifh tpkd;&tzGJŒ0if 0ef}uD;rsm;ukd vkyf}uHol OD;apmonf }uD;rm;ckdifcef‹aom ppfwyf. ausmaxmufaemufcH&SdrSom }uD;rm; onfh tpDtpOfukd &Jwif;pGma&;qGJI &Jwif;pGm vkyfaqmif0HhrnfrSmaocsmonf? OD;apmonf ppfwyf. tm;ay;axmufcHr+&,l_yD;rSom ,ckuJhokd‹aomt}uHukd }uHpnf0rhH nfjzpfonf?”

239

240

wuUokdvfae0if;

“u|efawmfrarhEkdifaom q,fhukd;Zlvkdif”

(aqmif;yg;ESifh xifjrifcsufrsm;)

‘wuUov dk af e0if;’ onf Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;. ,k-H unfpw d cf sonfh uk, d af &; vufaxmufAv kd x f eG ;f vS. uavmiftrnfjzpfygonf? Akv d x f eG ;f vStaejzifh vuf &Sd ppftpkd;&. pmtkyfpmwrf; pme,fZif;Xme. rsufESmzkH;ygrusef cGifh«yjcif;t& 1995 ckESpfwGif ol vpOfa&;cJhonfh ‘EG,feD’ r*~Zif;rS aqmif;yg;rsm;ukd pkaygif;_yD; ‘trSwfw& AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;’ ac: pmtkyfwtkyf xkwfcJhonf? xkd‹aemuf olu qufvufI ‘pwkid o f pf’ r*~Zif;wGif a&;cJah om aqmif;yg;rsm;ukd pkaqmif;um 1997 ckESpfwGif ‘jynfaxmifpkAdokum AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;’ trnfjzifh 'kwd,pmtkyfukd xkwfcJhjyefygonf? xkdpmtkyfwGif ylaqG;aomujzpfay:&onfh ‘u|efawmfrarhEkdif aom q,fhukd;Zlvkdif’ qkdonfh aqmif;yg; (pmrsufESm 72) rS atmufygaumufEkwf csufrsm;ukd azmfjyvkduf&ygonf? pma&;ol. trSmpmwGif a&;om;xm;onfht wkdif; TaemufqkH;pmtkyfukd AdkvfcsKyf}uD;. (82) ESpfajrmuf arG;ae‹ESifh yifvkHpm csKyf ESpf (50) jynfh txdr;f trSwrf sm;tjzpf *k%«f yxkwaf 0vku d jf cif;jzpfonf?

240


241

&v'f

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

“1947 ckESpf Zlvkdifvqef;wGif ‘bD/ tkd/ 'D’ (BOD) vufeufcJ,rf;okdavSmif a&;wyfrS armif;jyefvufeufrsm;ESihf cJ,rf; usnq f eftajrmuftjrm; rormolwpk xkwf,loGm;-ua-umif;ukd &JXmecsKyfu owif;&ojzifh jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;rSwqifh tpk;d &tzGŒJ xH tpD&ifccH yhJ gonf? xkdtcsdefwGif jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; OD;ausmfndrf;onf EkdifiHjcm;c&D;xGufaeI v,f,mpkdufysKd;a&;0ef}uD; aysmfbG,fOD;jru acwWjynfxJa&;0ef}uD;tjzpf wm0ef,laeonf? okd‹ jzpfI aysmfbG,fOD;jru wm0eft& xkd0ef}uD;Xme wkduf±kduf uGyfuJaom aomif;usef;r+ESdrfeif;a&;wyfrS (aemifwGifjynfaxmifpkppf&Jwyf) wyfpw d w f pdwu f dk Adv k cf sKyf. ±k;H cef;jyifbufwiG f vk-H cHa&;wm0efcsxm;vku d o f nf? OD;jru TuJo h ‹dk vk-H cHa&;tpDtpOfudk Adv k cf sKyftm; todray;cJo h nft h jyif pma&;ol tm;vnf; rajym&ef arwWm&yfccH o hJ nf? okd‹aomf wae‹wGif twGif;0efrsm;±kH;&Sd AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;±kH;okd‹ AdkvfcsKyfESifh twlvmpOf tapmifhcsxm;onfh &Jabmf okH;av;OD;ukd AdkvfcsKyfvS rf;jrifoGm;&m pma&;oltm; ol‹±kH;cef;a&SŒrSm &Sdaeonfh vufeufukdif&Jabmfrsm; bmvkyfae-u wmvJqkdwm ar;ygawmhonf? jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;u vkdtyfw,f,lqI vkH-cHa&; twGuf tapmifch sxm;a-umif; ajymjyonft h cgwGif Adv k cf sKyfu ‘rvkyd gbl;uGm/ ighudk b,folurSvnf; vkyf}uHrSmr[kwfbl;/ iguvnf; rpkd;&drfbl;? igh±kH;cef;a&SŒrSm vufeufukdif &JabmfawG csxm;wmukd igrjrifcsifbl;’ qkd_yD; OD;jrtm; csufcsif;jyef ±kyfodrf;ckdif;&ef trdeaf‹ y;vkdufygawmhonf? 0ef}uD; OD;jronf tvGefpdwfraumif; ykH&aomfvnf; trdeu f‹ kd emcHvkduf&ygonf? xdkae‹ naebuf ±kH;rStdrfokt d‹ jyefwGif pma&;oltm; ar;jyefygonf? ‘tdrrf mS &Sad ewJh &JabmfawGrmS vufeuf&o dS vm;vk?‹d ’ olwu ‹dk jynfo&‹l aJ bmfawGjzpfI vufeufr&Sad -umif; jyeftajzay;&mwGif Adv k cf sKyf u olukd,fwkdifawmh ao&rSmvnf; ra-umuf/ b,folurSvnf; ol‹udk vkyf}uH r,f rxifaomfvnf; ‘tdrfrSm&SdwJh uav;awGtwGufawmh igpkd;&drfovkdjzpfrd w,f’? xkd‹a-umifh tdrfu&JabmfawGukd ‘oifhawmfr,fhvufeuf enf;enf;yg;yg; ay;xm;yg?’ AdkvfxGef;vSonf trdeft ‹ & AdkvfcsKyftdrfwGifaeaom &Jabmfrsm;tm; awmfrD*ef;wvuf/ pwif;*ef;wvuf/ ajcmufvkH;jyL;ESpfvufESifh usnfqefrsm; ygay;&ef tpDtpOfvyk cf o hJ nf?” txufygaumufEw k cf surf sm; azmfjyxm;aom aqmif;yg;wGif pma&;oltae jzifh t"dym` ,fygonfh aemuftcsufwck a&;om;azmfjyxm;ao;onf? “trSefawmh ,if;-urRmiifonfh 0ef}uD;tpnf;ta0;onf Zlvkdif (19) &uf

paeae‹wGif usif;y&efr[kwfbJ/ Zlvkdifv (16) &uf Ak'<[l;ae‹wGif vkyf&rnfjzpf onf? 1946 ck pufwifbmv (26) &ufae‹u Akv d cf sKyftpk;d &tzGŒJ tm%mukd vufcH &,l_yD;tcsdefrSpI 0ef}uD;tzGJŒtpnf;ta0;ukd tywfpOf paeae‹ eHeuf (10) em&D usif;yaeusjzpfonf? xkdtcsdefu *VKefOD;apmonf bk&ifcHu wkduf±kdufcef‹tyf xm;aom 0ef}uD;wOD;jzpfae&m olvnf; tywfpOf paeae‹widk ;f usi;f yaom tpnf; ta0;ok‹d wuf&onf? oka‹d omfvnf; ‘atmifqef;=tufwvDpmcsKyf’ ukd OD;apmESihf ocifApdef oabmrwlbJ uef‹uGufojzifh jrefrmjynfjyefa&mufaomtcg tpkd;& tzGŒJ0ifrS Ekwx f u G &f onf?” _Aw d ed Ef idk if rH S jyefvm_y;D aemuf Adv k cf sKyfonf tywfpOf0ef}uD;tzGŒJtpnf;ta0; ukd paeae‹rvkyaf wmhbJ Ak'[ < ;l ae‹ usif;y&ef ajymif;a&$Œowfrw S v f u dk o f nf? ,if;ta-umif;ukd *VKefOD;apmurod? oka‹d omf Zlvidk v f (16) &ufwiG f wkid ;f jynf«yv$waf wmf. qyfaumfrwDwckjzpf aom zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfykH tajccHOya' a&;qGJa&;aumfrwD tpnf;ta0;usif;y&ef ¯udwifowfrw S x f m;_y;D jzpfaeonf? xkt d cg Adv k cf sKyfu 0ef}uD;tzGŒJudk vmrnfh pae ae‹o‹dk ajymif;&ef qk;H jzwfvu dk jf cif;jzpfygonf? wuUov dk af e0if;. aqmif;yg;yxrykid ;f wGif ygonft h a-umif;rsm;ukd txl; tm;jzifh jrefrmacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;twGuf vkH-cHa&;tpDtpOf&Sdr&SdudpPtay: jyef vnfaphaph awG;q-unfyh gu txiftjrifoabmxm;trsKd;rsKd; ay:aygufvmavh &Syd gonf? jrefrm&JtzGŒJEiS hf wGx J m;onfh _Aw d o d #t-uyfwyfom; ESpOf ;D tm; tpk;d &tzGŒJ tpnf;ta0;usif;ycsdew f idk ;f wGif cef;rok‹d twufavSum;xpfwae&mwGif wm0ef csxm;avh&o dS rl sm;ukd vky}f uHrr+ jzpfrD wywftvkw d iG f ±kyo f rd ;f vku d jf cif;onf rvkyf oifhonfh udpPjzpfonf[lI _Adwdo#wkd‹u a,bk,stm;jzifh ,lq-uonf? TuJh okd‹ ±kyfodrf;vkduf&onfrSm jrefrmwkd‹. arwWm&yfcHjcif;a-umifhjzpfI av;euf aom trSm;jzpfa-umif; xif&mS ;cJo h nf[k ,k-H unf-uonf? tb,fa-umifq h adk omf _Adwdo# tapmifhppfom;rsm;onf vlowform;rsm;u trSwf (12) -unf;wyf 0wfpkHa[mif;rsm; 0wfqifxm;jcif;ukd csufcsif;owdxm;rd-urnfjzpfaoma-umifh aESmifah ES;r+r&Sb d J wk‹H jyefEidk cf -hJ urnfjzpfonf? xku d o hJ ‹dk owdrxm;rdonfw h idk f tavh tusihf pnf;urf;emxm;ol rnforl qkd tapmifw h m0efae&mrSm &Sad ecJ-h uv#if xkpd pf 0wfpkH rjynfhrpkH t!kda&mifuif;bwfzdeyfrsm;0wfvsuf vufeufpkH ukdifwG,fum avSum;twif;wufvmol vlwpkrSm wpkHw&mrSm;,Gif;aea-umif; tvG,fwul jrifawGŒEkdif-uvdrfhrnfomjzpf.? tHh-op&maumif;onfrSm xkd_Adwdo#tapmifhppf

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

om;rsm;ae&mwGif jrefrmrsm;tm; vlpm;xkd;umuG,fapmifha&Smuf&ef w&m;0if pDpOfxm;jcif;r&So d nfh ta-umif;yifjzpfygonf? jynfwiG ;f vk-H cHa&;tygt0if jrefrm acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;tm; txl;umuG,af pmifah &Smufay;&ef wm0efrmS jynfxaJ &; 0ef}uD;Xme. 0wW&m;jzpf_yD; ‚if;vufatmuf tkycf sKyfvsuf&o dS nfh t&yfom; &JEiS hf vufeufukdif&Jwyfrsm;ukd tokH;«y&efjzpfonf? 0ef}uD; OD;ausmfndrf;taejzifh pkd;&drfylyefr+&SdykH&ygonf? a-u;rkHOD;aomif;ukd,fwkdif odcJh&onfrSm OD;ausmfndrf;u Adkvfr;ª ae0if;ukd AdkvfcsKyftm; v#Kd0‹ SufpGm apmifha&Smufay;&ef ,kH-unfpdwfcs&rnfh ppfom;rsm; tvk&d I dS wm0efcsxm;&ef awmif;qkcd jhJ cif;jzpfonf? vky}f uHr}+ uD;rjzpfrD ok;H ywfavmufuyif BOD rS vufeufrsm; ck;d xkw_f yD;csdeEf iS hf OD;ausmfnrd ;f Ekid if jH cm; roGm;rDtcsde[ f ck efr‹ eS ;f onf) owif;axmufrsm; owdxm;rd-ucJo h nfrmS Akv d cf sKyf ±kH; ywf0ef;usifESifh twGif;0efrsm;±kH; tjcm;ae&mrsm;wGif t&yfom;t0wftpm; 0wfqifxm;um vufeuf0Sufukdifxm;onfh ppfom;rsm; tapmifhcsxm;jcif;jzpfyg onf? xkw d yfq, G t f m; Adv k rf ;ª }uD;vGif (E+wcf rf;ar$;) u uGyu f cJ o hJ nf? jynfxaJ &; 0ef}uD;uyif tykdjznfhpGufI Adkvfae0if;tm; aoewfypfvufajzmifhonfh vlESpf a,mufukd AdkvfcsKyftm; tqufrjywftapmifh wm0efay;&efajymI xkdvlrsm; ykd‹ xm;cJyh gonf? TuJhokd‹ jzpfapumrl vkyf}uHr+jzpfay:vmonfhtcsdefwGif xkdtapmifhrsm;rSm aysmufjcif;rvS aysmufvsuf&Sd-uav_yD? ! vuf&t dS csdeu f mvusrS Adv k x f eG ;f vSu a&;om;xm;onfrmS (Adv k af e0if;ESihf -unf;wyfyg0ifywfoufaer+ukd csefvSyfxm;cJhjcif;ukd tajctaet& em;vnf oabmaygufEidk yf gonf) OD;ausmfnrd ;f r&So d nft h csdew f iG f ol‹ 0ef}uD;wm0efrsm;ukd acwWxrf;aqmifaeonfh aysmfbG,fOD;jru pkd;&drfruif;bJ vufeufukdif &Jwyf pdwfwpdwfukd AdkvfcsKyf±kH;teD;tem;wGif tapmifhwm0efcsxm;ygonf? xkdwyf om;rsm;ukd Adv k cf sKyfjrifonfEiS hf csucf si;f ±kyo f rd ;f vku d &f ygawmhonf? Adv k cf sKyftae jzifh wkdif;oljynfom;rsm;. arwWm&dyf-rHatmufwGif vkH-cHvsuf&Sdonf[k pdwfcs,kH -unfonfhtavsmuf TuJhokd‹aom txl;tumtuG,f tapmifhta&Smufrsm;ukd vufrcHjiif;y,fcJhjcif;jzpfayvdrfhrnf? okad‹ omfvnf; AdkvfcsKyfonf olt ‹ drfom;rsm; twGuf ab;&efurdk l pk;d &drrf yd &Hk ygonf? tajctaerSm tvGet f rif;±+yaf xG;cJo h nfh twGuf xkdumvukd jzwfausmfvGefum toufxif&Sm;usef&Sdaom ^m%ftajrmf tjrif&Sdol vlenf;pkrSmvnf; tcsdefESifhtr# ykdrdkenf;yg;vmonfhtavsmuf tcsdefr vGefrD yGifhyGifhvif;vif; zGifh[ajymqkd-u&ef tcsdefwefyg_yD?

jrefrmjynfppfXmecsKyftaejzifh jynfwGif;vkH-cHa&;twGuf wm0ef,l&efrvkd awmhbJ jrefrmtpk;d &uom rdrw d t ‹dk a&; rdrw d w ‹dk m0ef ,l&efjzpfonf[k _Adwo d #wk‹d u wbufwiG f ,lq&yfwnfvmygonf? rnfoy‹kd ifqadk p jrefrmjynfonf olw. ‹dk ukdvkdeDvufatmufcH EkdifiHb0wGif &SdqJjzpfao;onf? ppfOD;pD; AdkvfcsKyf}uD; b&pf (General Briggs) onf bk&ifhwyf&if; (5) ESifh oHcsyfum ,mOf (5) pD;ukd &efukef-rd› wGi;f ok‹d bk&ifcEH iS hf _Aw d o d #ro d m;pkrsm;tjyif wjcm; _Aw d o d #EiS yhf wfoufonfh vk-H cHru + dk a&S;±+vsuf ajymif;a&$Œpcef;csco hJ nf? -unf;ESi&hf J tapmifw h yfom;rsm;rSm tcif;jzpfymG ;&mae&mwGif &Srd aecJ-h uyg? xkdtckduftwef‹wGif wpkHw&m ta&;,l aqmif&GufEkdifol &Sdr&Sd pOf;pm;awG;awm -unfh-uygpkd‹? p}uøvrf;wav#mufwGif t&yfom;t&m&SdwcsKd‹ &SdaecJh-uonf? OD;tke;f cifEiS hf OD;armifarmifwo ‹dk nf vlowform;rsm; wufvmonfuydk if jrifvu dk f -u&ygonf? OD;wiftek ;f u ol±‹ ;Hk cef;rS jrifvu dk o f nf? ukeo f nf OD;xifabmfuawmh ±k;H udpEP iS afh &mufaepOf vlq;dk rsm;ESihf rsufEmS csif;qkid af wGŒvu dk o f nf? Adv k x f eG ;f vSEiS hf {nfo h nfAv kd o f ef;0if;wko ‹d nf 0ef}uD;tzGŒJ tpnf;ta0; usif;yvsuf&adS om tcef; wcef;wGi&f adS e-uonf (Adv k o f ef;0if; vma&mufjcif;ta-umif;ESihf ypfc_H yD;csdew f iG f olbmvkycf o hJ nfudk rnforl # azmfxw k cf jhJ cif;rawGŒ&yg?) ±k;H vkvif armifaomif;pdef onf (bk&ifcH. acwWtwGif;0ef. 19§7 naeykdif; vef'ef -rd›okd‹ykd‹vkdufaom a-u;eef;owif;wGif jynfo&l‹ Jabmftapmifh[k txifrSm;cHcJh&ol) cef;rwHcg;0wGif apmifhae_yD; wjcm;vkvifwa,mufESifh pum;ajymvsuf&SdpOf vlowform;rsm; a&mufvm-uum olt ‹ m; wGe;f z,fvu dk -f uonf? xkad emuf 0ef}uD; tAŠ'&l mZwf. tyg;awmf_rJvli,f ukdaxG;onf tjcm;±kH;cef;wcef;rS ajy;xGufvm&m ypfcwf_yD; jyefxGufvmaom vlqkd;wokdufESifh rsufESmcsif;qkdifawGŒqkHI &ef}uD;atmif. ypfowfjcif;ukd cHvu dk &f onf? pD;yGm;a&; ae‹pOfowif;pm owif;axmuf uko d ef;u xkdypfcwfr+ rsufjrifoufaocHjzpfcJhonf? ukdaxG;rSmvnf; jynfol‹&Jabmftjzpf txifrSm;cHcJh&jcif;jzpfonf? xkdokd‹aom jynfol‹&Jabmfwa,mufu xkdvlowf orm;rsm;tm; Adv k af e0if;. Armhaoewfuidk w f yf&if; (4) rS ppfom;rsm;jzpfonf[k ajymjycJhonf? (xkdta-umif;ukd txufyg acwWtwGif;0ef. a-u;eef;wGifvnf; xnfhoGif;xm;onf?) xkdpGyfpGJcsufESifhywfoufI aemufxyfr-um;&awmhyg? twGif;0ef±kH;wGif ,mOfoGm;,mOfvmtwGuf wOD;wnf; wm0efusaeonfh &Jom; armifaxG;onf ppf0wfpkH0wfol vlig;a,muf *spfum;ESifh 0ifvmonfukd yxr qk;H awGŒ&oljzpfonf? rsm;r-umrD um;armif;ol okcu ol, ‹ mOfudk xGuaf jy;&efwiG f

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tqifoifhjzpfap&ef avSum;xpfatmufteD;okd‹ jyifqifa&$Œajymif;aepOf &Jom; armifaxG;u xkdae&mwGif r&yf&ef trdefa‹ y;aeonfhtcsdefwGifyif aoewfoHrsm; ay:xGufvmum aoewform;wa,muf ajy;qif;vmonfhtwGuf &Jom;vnf; tvsit f jrefxu G o f mG ;cJyh gonf? &Jom;armifaxG;taejzifh ,mOfrsm;&yf&mae&mwGif awGŒcJhonfh tjcm;wa,mufrSm Adkvfrª;}uD; ausmf0if;ESifh vkdufygvmol umuG,f a&;XmerS ±kH;vkvifarmiftkef;qkdoljzpfaeygonf? ±kH;awmfwGif armifaxG;ESifh armiftkef;ESpfa,mufpvkH;u okcjzpfa-umif; oufaocHcJh-u ygonf? txufyg yk*Kd~ vfrsm;onf ab;rSy-JG unfyh &dowfrsm;ozG,o f mjzpf-u_yD; w&m;ppfaq;&mwGif oufaotaxmuftxm;twGuo f m tok;H csEkid o f rl sm;jzpfonf? oka‹d omf xkt d csdef u twGif;0efrsm;±kH;twGif; typftcwf jzpfay:&mwGif wkdufckdufjcif;ukd wm;qD; [efw ‹ m;Ekid o f l okr‹d [kwf xGuaf jy;&mwGif wm;qD;Ekid o f rl sm;&Scd v hJ #if rqkid ;f rwG ta&; ,laqmif&u G &f ef rnforl #ay:xGuv f mjcif;r&Scd yhJ g? Adkvfae0if;onf wyf&if; (4) t&m&SdtcsKdE‹ Sifhtwl wyfpkduf&m ysOf;rem;-rdr› S x&yfum;ESifh uaomuarsm &efukef-rdŒokd‹ qif;vm_yD; aemufwae‹ (20§7) eHeuf wGif a&mufvma-umif;od&onf? tpkd;&tzGJŒ. aqG;aEG;wkdifyifr+rsm; olwkd‹yg0if -uaomfjim;vnf; wyfrawmfESifh &Jwyfrsm;tm; txl;wyfvSefo ‹ wday;csuftrdef‹ ukd olwkd‹taejzifh ta&;w,lxkwfjyefcJhjcif; r&dScJhyg? u|efawmfukd,fwkdifu a&wyfwGif &Sdaeonfhtcsdefjzpf_yD; ,ae‹wkdif r&Sif;vif;onfhudpPwckrSm HMS ‘&wemykH’ [k ac:onfh jrefrmjynf bk&ifha&wyf (qENt& t&efa&wyf) Burma R.N.V.R urf;ajcpcef;XmecsKyfonf twGif;0efrsm;±kH; ajrmufbufwGifwnf&Sd_yD; (former St. Paul's English High School) za&pmvrf; (,ck taemf&xmvrf;) wvrf;omjcm;aomfvnf; wyfveS o ‹f wday;jcif;ESihf vrf;rsm;ay:wGif uif;vSnw hf m 0efrsm;ukd ray;cJo h nft h csujf zpfygonf? (aemufrS wyfpcef;a&SŒwiG o f m ae0ifr;D _ird ;f nrxGuf&trdefx ‹ kwfum xdef;csKyfxm;ygonf)? bDbDpDjrefrmykdif;toHv$ifhXmerS vky}f uHr}+ uD;þESpf (50) jynfh txdr;f trSwf toHvi$ &f mwGif Akv d rf ;ª ausmaf Zm (a&wyf) ESifh awGŒqkHar;jref;onfhtcef;wGif ajymjyonfrSm AdkvfausmfaZmonf xkdae‹u ‘&wemykH’ pcef;wGif tqifhjrifhAdkvftaejzifh wm0efusaecJh&m twGif;0efrsm;±kH; bufrS aoewfypfoHrsm; -um;-um;jcif; za&Zmvrf; (,ck taemf&xmvrf;) &Sd t"dut0if0ok‹d tjrefomG ;cJyh gonf? vrf;ay:wGif vlrsm;rSm pdwv f y+ &f mS ;vsu&f u dS m Za0Z0gjzpfae-uonfudk awGŒ jrif&_y;D olwc‹dk rsmrsm; -um;od&onfrmS vnf; tpk;d & acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; vkyf}uH&ef tm;xkwfcJha-umif;ESifh vkyf}uHolrsm;rSm EkdifiHa&;

qefu ‹ sifbufrsm; jzpfaumif;jzpfvrd rfh nfjzpfa-umif; aumvm[vowif;rsm;om jzpfygonf? Adkvfrª;ausmfaZmtaejzifh em&D0uf-umrS AdkvfcsKyf toufqkH;±+H;oGm; a-umif;ukd od&ygonf? u|eaf wmfvnf; xkad &'D,t dk ar;tajzwGif yg0ifc_hJ yD; xkad e‹ u tajctaeukd ajymcJyh gao;onf? tywfpOf0ef}uD;tzGJŒ tpnf;ta0;usif;yvsuf&Sdonfhae‹ukd *VKefOD;apm aumifpDrS xGuf&jcif;a-umifh rodEkdifa-umif; oHo,jzpfonfhtxiftjrifESifh ywfoufI olaumifpDrS xGufoGm;&onfrSm vaygif;-umvm_yDjzpfaomfvnf; aemufqkH;«yvkyfonfh tpnf;ta0;onf olwufaeusae‹wGifyif trSefwu,f usif;yjzpfco hJ nf? 0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif; OD;apmonf xkad e‹xt dk csdew f iG f tpnf;ta0; usif;yvsuf&rdS &Sd aocsmatmif «yvkycf yhJ gao;onf? a&SŒajy;uif;axmuftkyfpku tpnf;ta0;usif;yae_yD[k twnf«yonfh tcsed u f srS olu vlowform;rsm;tm; apv$wv f u dk jf cif;jzpfygonf? aemuftcsuf wckrmS xkad e‹wiG f aumifp. D tpnf;ta0;tpDtpOfY OD;apm.aetdru f dk 0ifa&muf pD;eif;um ywf0ef;usifrSm&Sdonfh a&ueftwGif; aomifwl;&SmazG&ef tqkd«ycsuf&Sd a-umif;ESihf TuJo h ‹dk ta&;,l&efrmS ESp&f uftawmtwGi;f rSmyifjzpfa-umif; OD;apm . axmufvSr;f a&;u od&cdS o hJ nft h wGuf vky}f uHrt + &Sed jf rifo h mG ;jcif;jzpfEidk yf gonf?

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pufqkyfzG,f vlrsKd;a&; vlowfr+avm uifbm&m&Sd -opa-w;vs trsK;d om;wuUov kd rf S a'gufwma*[ef 0Da*s,0D g a'ae (Dr. Gehan Wijeyewardene, Ph.D) u 1994 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmvxkwf xkdif;=,leefpDrHcsuf owif;pmpOf trSwf (23)/ pmrsufESm (23=24) wGif u|Efkyf pmtkyt f ay: òcHio kH ;kH oyf&if; atmufygar;cGe;f udk ar;xm;onf? “u|Efkyfwdk‹acwf&Sd jrefrmacgif;aqmifr+ESihf ywfoufI ar;cGef;rsm;ar;&ef tcsuftvufwck jzpfay:vm_yD; atmifqef;jy,k*fonf vdktyfcsufwckjzpfae onf? odak‹ omfvnf; olonf trSm;uif;yg&JŒvm;? tdENd,EdkifiHtrsKd;om;uGef*&uf tpnf;ta0;rS tjyefwGif ol‹udk zrf;qD;&ef t*Fvdyfwdk‹u trdef‹xkwfxm;cJhonfh taxmuftxm;rsm;&Sdonf? ,if;zrf;qD;trdef‹xkwfvdkufjcif;u ol‹udk trGdKifodk‹ vGwfajrmufatmif xGufcGmoGm;apcJhonf? ,if;trdef‹rSm EdkifiHa&;jypfr+twGuf r[kwfbJ txl;tm;jzifh pufqkyfzG,f vlrsKd;a&; vlowfr+twGuf jzpfavonf?”

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ol (AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;) onf trSm;uif;yg&JŒvm;´? Ak'<bmom jrefrmvlrsKd;wa,mufudk ,if;ar;cGef;tm; wOD;csif;ar;ygu wkH‹ jyefrnfh tajzrSm rvGJraoGyifæ“usKyfu bk&m;avmif;rS r[kwfwm” [k ajz ayvdrfhrnf? OD;atmifqef;udk,fwkdifvnf; xkdodk‹ajzayvdrhfrnf? u|Ekfyfwdk‹twGuf ,if;odk‹ obm0ususazmfjyr+rSm u|Ekfyfwdk‹ wOD;csif;onf tedpPoabmaqmif yk*Kd~ vfrsm;jzpf-u_yD; vH;k 0tjypfuif;pifI trSm;vH;k 0r&Sad om tqihjf rihyf *k Kd~ vftae txm;&&Sd&efrSm umvteEœ a0;uGmvGef;vSayonf[k ±kd;om;pGm ajymqdkvkdyg a-umif;? (olr‹ w d af qG tcsed rf wdik rf D aoqH;k &_y;D onfah emuf) OD;Eku Ak''< \etjrif rS ta-umif;ESifh tusK;d oabmt& Toda‹k xmufjycJo h nf? “Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;[m tjrihfrm;qHk;*k%fodrfeJ‹ -oZmt&Sdefudk vG,fvG,feJ‹ &cJhwmr[kwfygbl;? ol‹&JŒ pGef‹ v$wrf /+ wnf-unfr/+ ±k;d om;r+/ pG_J rJr/+ rsK;d csppf w d ef ‹J &JprG ;f owW&d rdS a+ wGukd &if;ES;D jrK‡ yfEHS _yD; &,lc&hJ wmyg? ol&ŒJ b0wav#mufv;kH 'Dvkd olrwlwhJ t&nftcsi;f awGukd olu worwfwnf; r,dr;f r,kid f awmufav#mufjycJv h ‹kd jynfov l x l u k olw&‹kd ŒJ arwWmeJ‹ ,H-k unfcsufukd jyefvnfw‹kH jyefcw hJ mjzpfygw,f”? OD;atmifqef;Y ol‹trSm;rsm; &Sdaumif;&Sdayrnf? odk‹aomfvnf; jrefrmjynf olvx l u k olt ‹ m; ol. ud, k u f sio fh u d mQ rsm;t& arwWm&Scd /hJ ,H-k unfc_hJ yD; xkad rwWm ESifh xd, k -kH unfro + nf rusKd;raygufcahJ cs? ‘tdv k AD m*d;k vfprf pf’ uæ “u|Efyk w f o ‹kd nf vlvlcsif;qufqH-u&mY ol. tm;enf;csufrsm;udk El;El;nHhnHhudkifwG,f&ayrnf? tb,fha-umifhqdkaomf taumif;qHk;t&mrsm;Y tvGefeD;uyfpGm tcsKdŒcsKdŒaom trSm;t,Gi;f rsm; rDw S , G v f su&f _dS rjJ zpfonf? od‹kjzpfI ol.aumif;uGurf sm;tm; odr;f usK;H I rxdcu kd o f mG ;apbJ xkt d rSm;t,Gi;f tzsi;f todrrf sm;udk cGjJ cm;aygif;oifvsuf 11 y,fEkwfypf&ayrnf” [k qdkcJhonf r[kwfygvm;? odka‹ omfvnf; ar;cGef;um; usef&Sdaewkef;yif? atmifqef;. tm;enf;csuf rsm;u olu ‹ kd txl;tm;jzifh pufqyk zf , G af umif;vSonfh vlrsKd;a&;tajccH vlvcl sif; owfjzwfru + kd usL;vGeaf pcJzh ;l oavm? 1939 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (3) &ufae‹wGif _AdwdefESihf jyifopfwdk‹u *smreD tay: ppfa-unm_y;D (6) &uft-umwGif wdu k w f u kd q f ikd q f ikd yf if *VKefapm arG;&majr jzpfaom om,m0wDwGif usif;y-uonfh wdk‹Armtpnf;t±Hk; nDvmcH}uD;u qHk; jzwfcJhaom rl0g' a-unmcsufudk tao;pdwfxkwfjyefcJhonf? ,if;wGif tajccH tcsu}f uD; (9) csuf yg&Scd o hJ nf? tESpo f m&tm;jzihf jrefrmwd. ‹k yl;aygif;aqmif&u G f r+udk &&Sdvdkv#if tcsKdŒaom awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk vkdufavsm&rnfjzpf_yD; jyifqifr+

rsm; _yD;onfEiS hf wòydief uf vGwv f yfa&;udak y;&ef awmif;qdx k m;avonf? _Adwo d # tpdk;&taejzihf ,if;urf;vS rf;csufudk rodusKd;u|efðycJhaomfvnf; vGwfvyfa&; &&Sd&ef urBmhtajctaet& tusyftwnf;udk tcGihfta&;,l toHk;cs&ef trsKd; om;a&;Ekd;-um;vmu EkdifiHa&;ESihf tEkynmaygif;pyfI jynfolvlxkudk qGJaqmif oGm;EdkifcJhonf? olwdk‹. qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk vlxkxH o,faqmifoGm;aom EkdifiH a&;acgif;aqmifwdk. ‹ v+Ha‹ qmfrD;xkd;ay;r+rsm;a-umifh ‚if;.tawG;tac:onf vl xktwGi;f Y vsifjrefpmG ysHŒEo ‹HS mG ;cJo h nf? xda‹k -umifv h nf; 1939 ckEpS /f atmufwb kd m vwGif EkdifiHa&;tzGJŒtpnf;}uD; ESpfzGJŒ jzpfaom a'gufwmbarmf. ‘qif;&Jom; 0HomEktzGŒJ ’ESifh wdA‹k rmtpnf;t±H;k wdo ‹k nf tjcm;tzGŒJ tpnf;rsm;udyk g pnf;±H;k vsuf trsK;d om;nD!w G af &;wyfO;D jzpfonfh ‘Armhxu G &f yf*% kd ;f ’ udk (xkd tcsed w f iG f ygvDrefY tm%mrJh twdu k t f cHb0 a&mufae_yjD zpfaom) a'gufwm barmfu OuU@tjzpfEiS fh (trwfr[kwfaom) ocifatmifqef;u taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;tjzpf zGJŒpnf;cJh onf? ocifatmifqef;ESihf ajratmufawmfveS af &;orm;rsm;jzifh zGŒJ pnf;xm;aom ‘Armhta&;awmfyHkygwD’ rS rdwfaqG oli,fcsif; tpktzGJŒuav;wckonf tvGef wufºuGorl sm; jzpfae-uonf? xdak‹ emuf 1940 ckESpf/ rwfvwGif ocifatmifqef;onf ‘tdENd,trsKd;om; uGef*&uf’ . ‘&rf*wf’ tpnf;ta0;odk‹ wufa&mufcJhonf? oljyefvmtcsdefwGif r[mrdwrf sm;twGuf Oa&myY qifEaJ$ eaomppfonf tajctae vsifjrefpmG qkwf ,kwfqdk;&Gm;vsuf&Sd_yD; jrefrmEkdifiH. bk&ifcHtaejzifhvnf; _Adwdo#wdk‹. òrd›jy tkyfcsKyfa&;qdkif&m trdef‹rsm;udk rvkdufem&ef pnf;±Hk;v+H‹aqmfr+rsm;ESifh (tu,fI vGwv f yfa&;ay;&ef uwdrðyygu ppfukd wm;qD;aESmif, h u S &f ef) trsKd;om;a&;ESifh vGwfvyfa&; tkyfpkrsm;. _cdrf;ajcmufr+rsm;udk &ifqdkifae&avonf? xdk‹a-umifh _Adwo d #wdt ‹k aejzifh jrefrmEdik if t H m; tkycf sKyfxm;aom Oya'rsm;tm; umuG,o f nfh taejzifh oabmxm;uGJvGJolrsm;udk zdESdyfr+rsm; ðyvmonf? txif&Sm;qHk; ocif rsm;ESihf tjcm;EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;udk vkdufvHzrf;qD;_yD; aoG;xdk;v+aH‹ qmfr+jzihf ±Hk;wif w&m;pGu J m axmifrsm;twGi;f od‹k ypfoiG ;f cJo h nf? Ttcsed rf mS ygvDrefwiG f *VKefapm eef;&if;0efjzpfaecsdefjzpfonf? trsm;tjym;rSm (12) vxd axmifcscH&aomfvnf; xdk‹xufydkIyif xdef;odrf;xm;r+udk cH&olrsm; &Sdao;onf? ocifEkESihf a'gufwm barmfwo ‹kd nf Zlvikd f (4) &ufEiS hf (10) &ufae‹ww ‹kd iG f toD;oD;tzrf;cHc-hJ u&onf? xdktcsdefumvwGif om,m0wDòrd›rS odyfra0;aom {&m0wDwdkif;twGif;&Sd ZvGefòrdw › Gif vlxktpnf;ta0;wckY ocifatmifqef;u pum;ajymqdkcJhonf? ol

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. t"du&efoljzpfoltm; jyefvnfwHk‹ jyefonfhtaejzifh bk&ifcHjzpfol ‘qm=tmcsD abmvfaumhu&def;’ tm; olajymaeus yGifhyGifhvif;vif; 'Jh'dk;yHkpHjzifh pdefac:cJhjcif; a-umifh [oFmwc±kid f &J0efu olt ‹ m; zrf;0&rf;xkwv f u kd o f nf? xkt d csed u f Oa&my ujym; t&m&Sdrsm; ðyaeustwdkif; ol‹tm; zrf;rdv#if qkaiG (5) usyf ay;rnf[k qkawmfaiGudkyg xnfhoGif;xm;_yD; ol‹tm; oduQmcsxm;avonf? xdktcsdefrSpI ocifatmifqef;onf ajratmufo‹kd yke;f v#K;d oGm;cJo h nf? -o*kwv f (8) &ufae‹wiG f tazmfjzpfol ocifvSòrdifESihftwl olonf wdkif;jynftwGif;rS wdwfwqdwfxGufcGm oGm;cJh&m olw ‹ Gif ±l;yD;aiG (200) ESifh twGuftcsufaumif; wckom ygoGm;cJhonf? aemufqHk;wGif olonf ‘AdkvfawZ’ (ac: ) Adkvfrª;csKyf ‘tdkrdk'g’ (ac: ) AdkvfcsKyf atmifqef;tjzpf wyfrawmfwckudk OD;aqmifvsuf jyefvnfxGufay:vmcJhonf? 'kw, d urBmppf yGOJ ;D xGurf pS Iþocifatmifqef;þxGucf mG oGm;onft h csed t f xd txufu azmfjycJo h nfh umvwav#mufv;kH wGif rsKd;cspfvil ,focifrsm;/ ausmif; om;rsm;ESifh tcsKŒdEidk if aH &;orm;rsm;onf olw. ‹kd t,ltq/ 0g'a&;&mESihf pdw0f rf;uGJ jym;r+rsm;udþk ab;z,fxm;I ‘_Aw d o d #e,fcsŒJpepfu’kd òzdcsEikd &f ef ±ke;f uefóud;pm;-u&m wGif nD!w G af &;wyfO;D w&yfukd cdik rf mpGm zGŒJpnf;Edik cf -hJ uonf? ocifatmifqef;onf ud, k u f sK;d rzuf owW&d pdS mG jzifh wkid ;f &if;om;tcsi;f csi;f vlrsK;d a&;cGjJ cm;r+ vH;k 0uif;&Si;f aom trsK;d om;a&;v+y&f mS ;r+rsm;wGif OD;aqmifr+ tcef;u¾udk ,lco hJ nf? OD;atmif qef; tdE, dN rS jyefvm_y;D onfrS w±kwjf ynfox ‹ kd u G cf mG oGm;onftxd (4)þvcefu ‹ mv udk txl;&nf!e¸ ;f &aomfvnf;þolt ‹ aejzihþf ta-umif;udpw P cka-umifh wpHw k a,muf udk owfjzwfco hJ nfh taxmuftxm;/ odr‹k [kwf owif;tpteþvH;k 0r&Scd ahJ cs? xdk tcsed u f þtpd;k &rSww f rf;rsm;uvnf; olt ‹ m; Oya'a-umif;t&þwkid ;f jynfqyl v l y+ &f mS ; r+rsm; jzpfymG ;atmif aoG;xd;k v+a‹H qmfcsujf zpfaom Ekid if aH &;v+a‹H qmfrr+ sm;ESifh ‘ppfqef‹ usifa&;’ 0g'jzefr‹ +rsm;a-umihfom olu ‹ dk zrf;vdkjcif;jzpfa-umif; jyqdkvsuf&Sdonf? ocifatmifqef;onf ppfrjzpfrD w&Ha&mtcgu &ufpufpmG &mZ0wfr+ wpHk wckudk usL;vGefcJhzl;onf[laom pGyfpGJcsufESihf ywfoufI cdkifvHkaom taxmuf txm; vHk;0r&Sdacs? odk‹ jzpfv#if ,if;pGyfpGJcsufonf rnfodkr‹ nfyHk pwif ay:ayguf vmygoenf;? rnfov ‹l ufcsufenf;? jrefrmEdik if q H idk &f m w&m;±H;k rS rSww f rf;rsm;udk okawoeðyolwOD;wa,muf. vGrJ mS ;pGm aumufcsufqjJG cif;rS wqihef m;vnfr+ vGJvmjcif; jzpfvdrfhrnf[k ,lq&ayonf? ocifatmifqef;onf Todk‹aom vl owfr+usL;vGefcJhonf[k pGyfpGJajymqdkcsufrsm;ESihf ywfoufI 1945 ck/ Edk0ifbmv &ufpGJjzifh _Adwdo#wdk. ‹ jrefrmtpdk;&u ay;ydka‹ om a-u;eef;rsm;udk xdkolu awGŒrd

aumif; awGŒrdayvdrfhrnf? ,if;owif;rsm;onf pGyfpGJxm;aom &mZ0wfr+. jzpf yGm;ESpu f kd rSm;,Gi;f pGmjzihf 1932 ckEpS [ f k a&;om;ay;ydx ‹k m;cJ_h yD; ,if;&ufpu JG kd aemuf ydik ;f wGif jyefvnfjyifqifcjhJ cif;jzpfonf? ar;cGef;rsm; xyfrHay:aygufvmjyefonf? vlrsKd;a&;t& vlowfr+wckudk &nf!e¸ f;azmfjyr+onf tcsdefumv vGJrSm;pGm azmfjyrdcJhv#if ,if;onf wu,fjzpf ysufcJhaomfvnf; aemufydkif;umvwGif jzpfysufcJhjcif;avm? xdkoq dk‹ dkv#if ,if;tr+ onf vlrsKd;a&;t&avm/ odkr‹ [kwf xdkjypfr+onf vlowfr+avm? tajzudk &Sm&ef óud;pm;rnfqdkv#if 1946 ckESpf/ tOD;ydkif;umvudk jyefoGm;&ayvdrfhrnf? xkdESpf az azmf0g&Dv (28) &ufae‹wiG f usi;f yaom Oya'ðyaumifp. D yxrqH;k tpnf;ta0; wGif ocifxGef;tkyfuxI jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf (BIA) . t"du wyfzGJŒ rsm; weoFm&DrS Armjynfajrmufyikd ;f od‹k csw D uf-upOf oxkt H eD;Y _Adwo d #bufawmf om; rlqvif&Gmol}uD;wOD;udk ocifatmifqef;u owfcJha-umif; pGyfpGJavonf? ocifatmifqef;onf xkdtcsdefu Adkvfr;ª csKyf&mxl;ESihf t}uD;wef; ppfOD;pD;t&m&Sd &mxl;rsm;udk udkifpGJxm;onf? olt ‹ xufwGif *syeft&m&Sd (2) OD;om &Sdawmhonf? xdka‹ -umihf ocifatmifqef;udk zrf;I ±Hk;wifppfaq;oihfonf[k ocifxGef;tkyfu tqdkðyonf? vlowfr+tm; olonf rsufjrifoufaojzpfI w&m;qkdif&mwGif ol‹ taejzifh oufaocH&ef vdkvm;vsuf&Sdonf[k qdkonf? tpdk;&taejzihf TtjzpftysufESihf ywfoufI apmpD;pGmuyif &Jwdk‹xHrS twGi;f a&;tpD&ifcpH mudk &&Sx d m;_yD;jzpfonf? oda‹k omfvnf; aumifp0D if ocifxeG ;f tkyf. tqdkðycsufrSm yxrqHk; vlod&Sif-um; xkwfjyefajym-um;csufjzpfonf? xdk pOfu bk&ifcHjzpfol ‘qm&J*sDe,fvf a':refprpf’ onf ,if;pGyfpGJcsufrsm;udk tao udkifum OD;atmifqef;tm; oduQmn‡dK;rdSefap&ef toHk;csvdkojzifh t&trd qGJudkifcJh onf? 12 ‘a':refprpf’ u vef'ef&Sd jrefrmEkdifiHqkdif&m EkdifiHjcm;a&; twGif;0efxHodk‹ a-u;eef;±kdufI OD;atmifqef;udk zrf;&ef cGihfðyrdef‹awmif;cHcJhonf? odk‹aomfvnf; pHkprf;ppfaq;r+rsm; ðyvkyfaeqJjzpfI _Adwdo#tpdk;&u csufcsif;zrf;cGihfrðycJhacs? odEk‹ Sihf rwfv (27) &ufae‹wGif &efukef&Sd tpdk;&tdrfawmfY ‘qm&J*sDe,f’xH rnfuJh od‹k aqmif&u G o f ihaf -umif; tpD&ifcpH mwifjy&ef tpnf;ta0;w&yf usif;ycJ-h u&m xdyw f ef;ppfwyfEiS fh &JwyfzŒJGt&m&S}d uD;rsm;/ tkycf sKyfa&;t&m&Srd sm;u OD;atmifqef; udk xdef;odrf;cJhv#if ykefuefxºuGr+ jzpfvdrhfrnf[k óudwifcef‹rSef;-uonf? òrd›jy t&m&Sdrsm;url ,if;odk‹ ta&;,laqmif&Gufvkdufv#if wu,fhudk vlxkaygufuGJr+ jzpfapvdrfhrnf[k cHpm;rdcJh-uonf? xdka‹ emuf avmh'farmifhbufwefu xdkudpPudk

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

-um;jzwfwm;qD;cJhonf? ‘avmh'farmifhbufwef’ u EkdifiHjcm;a&; twGif;0efxH v#KdŒ0SufoauFwjzihf pm (27§3) a&;om;ay;ydck‹ Jhonf? ‚if;pmwGifæ “ppfa&;qkdif&m bk&ifcHcsKyftjzpf xrf;aqmifcJhonfhtwGuf ,cktcg jref rmjynfESihf ywfoufI u|EkfyfwGif wm0efr&Sdaomfvnf; u|Ekfyftaejzifh jrefrmEdkifiH . tem*wfta&;ESifh ywfoufI txl;pdw0f ifpm;r+ &Sad eqJjzpfygonf? atmifqef; udk zrf;&ef tqdkðycsufESihf ywfoufI u|Ekfyftaejzihf tvGeftrif; pdwftaESmihf t,Sujf zpfryd gonf? xGe;f tkyu f &nf!e¸ ;f cJah om tr+onf oifu u|Ekyf x f H azmfjy cJah om tr+jzpfcv hJ #if ,if;tr+onf vlowfr[ + w k =f r[kwf pOf;pm;qH;k jzwfay;&rnfh udpPjzpfvmygonf? tjiif;yGm;zG,f&m tjzpftysufonf ,cktcg (4) ESpfwm -um cJ_h yDjzpfonf? tu,fI 0da&m"djzpfaeaom tjrifoabmxm;rsm; &Sad ernfqv kd #if TuJhodk‹aomjzpf&yfrsKd;udk arhaysmufypf&efonf u|Ekfyfwdk‹twGuf taumif;qHk; rl0g'jzpfvrd rhf nf[k u|Ekyf af wG;rdygonf? OD;atmifqef;. wcgw&H pdwv f u kd rf mef yg vkyfaqmifr+rsm;onf pdwftaESmihft,Sufjzpfp&maumif;aomfvnf; olonf u|Ekyf t f eD;Y yGiv hf if;pGm ajymqdq k ufqaH ejcif;rSm avmif;upm;yGw J ckY yg0ifupm; aejcif; r[kw[ f k xifjrifryd gonf? i,f&, G Ef yk sKad om olt ‹ ouft&G,t f & olonf aemif ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpfae&ef ta-umif;&Sdygonf? u|Efkyf. oabmxm;tjrifay;&v#if olESihf olr‹ dwfaqGrsm;udk u|Efkyfwdkx ‹ ifjrifonfh jrefrm EkdifiHtzdk‹ ppfrSefaumif;rGefaom tem*wfwnf&Sdrnfh vrf;a-umif;udk tm±HkpdkufI jyoay;jcif;omv#if ydkrdkaumif;rGefvdrfhrnf[k u|Ekfyfxifygonf? ,ckavmavm q,fwGif OD;atmifqef;udk zrf;qD;vdkufjcif;onf _Adwdo#tifyg,mtwGif; jrefrm EkdifiH. tem*wfqufqHa&;udk t}uD;us,fqHk; qkwf,kwfysufjym;r+ jzpfay:ap vdrfhrnf[k ,lqa-umif; u|Ekfyfw&m;0ifajymvdkygonf” [l.? toufq;kH ±H;+ oGm;cJah om ol}uD;.ZeD;jzpfol a':trmonf {_yv D wGif bk&ifcH . ppfa&;qdkif&m twGif;0efxHodk‹ toem;cHpm wifoGif;cJhonf? xdkpmrSm {_yDv (8) &ufþae‹pGJwyfxm;_yD; xdktcsdefu ‚if;pmudk jynfolvlxktm; today;jcif; r&Sd cJhacs? ol}uD;.trnfrSm ‘tAŠ'l&m&Spf’ jzpf_yD; oxHkc±kdif/ aygifòrd›e,ftwGif;&Sd oJjzLuke;f &Gm. ol}uD;jzpfavonf? olr. wifjycsufrmS Tod‹k jzpfonf? “olr. a,musmf ;onf oJjzLuke;f &Gm. ol}uD;jzpfol zcifO;D &m&Spu f , G v f eG f _yD;aemuf vGefcJhaom (25) ESpfcefu ‹ xdk&Gm. ol}uD;jzpfvmcJhonf? oJjzLukef;&Gm . ol}uD;tjzpf aqmif&GufaepOfumvwGif olonf _Adwdo#tpdk;&tay: tvGef w&m opPmapmiho f o d jl zpfI txuftm%mydik rf sm;. pdww f ikd ;f us olw ‹ m0efrsm;udk

xrf;aqmifcJhonfjzpf&m TonfESihfywfoufI armfvòrdifrS 'k=ta&;ydkifrif; ‘OD; bpef;’u oufaocHEdkifygonf? xdt k‹ jyif ocifv+yf&Sm;r+rsm;u _Adwdo#wd. k‹ tkyf csKyfa&;udk enf;rsKd;pHkjzifh 'kuQay;vmonfhtcgY arwWm&yfcHav#mufxm;ol. cifyGef;onf qlylxºuGr+ rSefor#udk olta&;ydkifonfhtwGif;rS ae‹a&mnyg ESdrfeif; xdef;csKyfI rD;aoatmifvkyfcJhygonf? ,if;tcsufudk ,ck AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;jzpf vmaom ocifatmifqef;onf _Adwo d #wu ‹kd kd jyefvnfwu kd cf u kd &f ef *syefo‹kd roGm;rD uyif aumif;pGm od&v dS rd rfh nfxifygonf?” olru ocifatmifqef;ESihf ol‹taygif;ygrsm;u olra,musfm;udk 1942 ck ESpw f iG f zrf;qD;cJyh rkH sm;tm; qufvufazmfjycJo h nf? “*syefw‹kd rkwrW bufrS csw D ufvmonfEiS fh _Adwo d #wv ‹kd nf; oxHck ±kid rf S qkwf cGmoGm;cJ&h m rsm;r-umrDrmS yif ,if;od‹k zrf;qD;r+ jzpfay:cJjh cif;jzpfonf? olra,musmf ; udk óud;ESifhwkyf_yD; EGm;vSnf;jzifh oxHkòrd›odk‹ ,laqmifoGm;um tpma&pm ray;bJ &Spf&ufcef‹ csKyfaESmifcJhonf” [k olru ajymqdkcJhonf? xdk‹aemuf ol‹udk abmvHk; upm;uGi;f od‹k ac:aqmifomG ;um *d;k wkid w f iG f um;pifwifI vlaxmifaygif;rsm;pGma&S› wGif vSHpGyfjzifh xdk;owfcJhjcif;jzpfonf? olru æ“_Adwdo#w&m;Oya'onf qif;&J ESihf csrf;omt-um; cGJjcm;r+ r&SdonfjzpfI ocifatmifqef;udk Oya't& ta&;,l aqmif&Gufay;yg&ef av#mufxm;tyfygonf” [k qufvufwdkifwnfxm;onf? toem;cHav#mufxm;ol/ uGef*sDrdk‹ ('f) umum/ aygifòr›drSwqihf [k vdyfwyf um ‘rr’ [lI jrefrmvdk vufrSwfa&;xkd;xm;onf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;uvnf; {_yDv (12) &ufae‹xkwf owif;pHk*sme,fwGif aqmif;yg;wyk'af &;um ol&‹ yfwnfcsufukd olb ‹ momol &Si;f jycJo h nf? ,if;aqmif; yg;rSm jrefrmvdk a&;xm;jcif;jzpf_yD; t*Fvyd v f kd bmomjyefcsufrmS ‘[Hom0wD’ wGif yg&SdcJhonf? wzef ocifxGef;tkyfu Oya'ðyaumifpDtpnf;ta0;wGif ol‹udk pGyf pGcJ sufrsm;ESifh ywfoufI jyefvnfacsyxm;onfrmS atmufygtwdik ;f jzpfonf? “ ‘vlowfr’+ [lI trnfwyfxm;aom tr+wiG f ‚if;&GmrS &Gmol}uD;udk &Gmol &Gmom;rsm;pGq J akd om jypfru + sL;vGerf r+ sm;twGuf ao'%ftjypfay;cJ&h jcif;jzpfonf? u|Ekfyftaejzifh &Gmol}uD;. emrnfudkvnf;aumif;/ &Gmudkvnf;aumif; ol usL; vGecf o hJ nfqakd om jypfrr+ sm;. oabmobm0 twdtusudv k nf;aumif; tjynfh tpHk rSwrf Ed ikd jf cif;r&Syd g? xd&k mG ol}uD;rSm u|Efyk w f ±‹kd j+ rifo;kH oyfcsuft& aumufuspf ,kwrf molwOD;jzpf_yD; &Gmol&mG om;rsm;tay: rw&m;qufqcH o hJ /l vGepf mG armufrm ±kid ;f pdik ;f oljzpfI oxHck ±kid o f ‹kd yxrqH;k a&muf&v dS maom u|Eyfk w f ‹kd Armhvw G v f yfa&;

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

wyfrawmfu rv$rJ a&Smifom xde;f odr;f xm;cJo h nfuo kd m u|Ekyf rf w S rf yd gonf? xdktcsdefu u|EkfyfESihf aemufwa,muf (u|Efkyftm; ,cktcg pGyfpGJaeol) [ocifxGef;tkyf] wdk‹ ajrmufydkif;rS qif;vmum bDtdkifattwGuf wyfom;opfrsm; pkaqmif;&efEiS fh -um;jzwftrsKd;om;tpd;k &twGuf tkycf sKyfa&; 0efxrf;rsm; &&S&d ef xdek ,fajrwGif a&muf&adS ecJyh gonf? oxHòk rdw › iG f ‘_ird ;f csr;f r+xed ;f odr;f a&;’ aumfrwD udk u|Ekfyfu zGJŒpnf;ay;cJh_yD; xkdtcsdefY xdkc±kdiftwGif; jypfr+rsm; usL;vGefxm;onfh twGuf zrf;qD;cHxm;&ol (4=5) OD;&Sda-umif; od&SdcJh&onf? u|Efkyf xyfrHod&Sd& onfrSm aus;&Gmol§om;rsm; pdk;&drfa-umihf-ujzpfae&onfh vGefpGm taxmuf txm; oufaooufuefcikd v f akH om tr+wck&adS ejcif;ESifh ,if;rSm olwo ‹kd xHt k ydik f (oJjzLuke;f ) &Gm. ol}uD;ud, k w f ikd jf zpfaejcif; jzpfygonf? olusL;vGecf o hJ nfh jypfr+ rsm;twGuf tjypfay;rnfqdkv#if ao'%fxuf edrfh_yD;ay;I rjzpfa-umif; u|Efkyf tm; tpD&ifc-H uygonf? “'Dvq kd v kd #if olu ‹ kd owf&awmhrmS aygh” [k u|Eyfk af jymqd_k y;D tpGypf cJG &H oltm; u|Ekyf pf &D ifcjhJ cif;jzpfonf” [k azmfjyxm;.? xdk‹aemuf OD;atmifqef;ESihf a':refprpfwdk‹ awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;cJh-uonf? ‘qm&J*sDe,fvf’ u ,if;aqG;aEG;csufrsm;udk 1946 ckESpf/ arv (25) &ufae‹wGif a-u;eef;jzifh twGif;0efxH tpD&ifcH wifjycJhonf? oufqikd af om a-u;eef;trSwf (6) . wpdww f ydik ;f udk atmufwiG f ud;k um; azmfjyygonf? “olþ(atmifqef;)þuþolonfþaus;&Gmw&Gmodt ‹k a&mufwiG þf aus;&Gmol}uD;onf aus;&Gmol§om;rsm;tay: rnfor‹kd nfykH armufrm±dik ;f pkid ;f pGm zdEydS q f ufqv H mcJjh cif;ESifh ywfoufaom qd;k qk;d &Gm;&Gm; owif;rsm;udk -um;odc&hJ onf[k ajymqdck yhJ gonf?þxdk tcsed o f nf ppfjzpfaeonfh e,fajrobm0w&m;Oya'ESifh tkycf sKyf&cufco J nfh um vjzpfonf? wwkid ;f wjynfv;kH vH;k 0w&m;Oya'rJah eonfh tajctaejzpfaeonf? w&m;±H;k rsm;vnf;r&S/d w&m;ol}uD;rsm;vnf; r&Sad cs? tr+omG ;tr+vmudk aocsmpGm pOf;pm;_yD;aemuf pl;&Sxufjruf tm%mpufESihfwlonfht&mudk jyefvnf tpm;xdk; vsuf csufcsif;ta&;,laqmif&u G &f ef vdt k yfru + o kd wdrI l xdv k t l m; ao'%fay; &rnf[k olq;kH jzwfcsucf sco hJ nf? TonfrmS olu ‹ , kd yf ikd q f ;kH jzwfcsujf zpfI ud, k w f ikd f wm0ef,v l suf trdec‹f srSwf taoowfcjhJ cif;jzpfonf” [k azmfjyxm;onf? 1945 ckESpf tukefavmuf cyfapmapmydkif;uyif jrefrmhppfOD;pD;Xme ppfOD;pD; csKyfu ta&S›awmiftm&S r[mrdwfwyfaygif;pk AkdvfcsKyf}uD; avmh'fvl;0pfarmifh bufwefxo H ‹kd ,if;tr+wu JG kd wifjycJ&h m armifb h ufwefu olr‹ w S cf sufrsm;ESit fh wl

jyefvnfay;ydk‹cJhonf? rSwfcsufwckwGif “u|Efkyftxifajym&v#if wu,ftjzpf tysufwnf&Sdaeonfh r_idrfrouftajctaersm;wGif tm%mudkoHk;I tusOf;±Hk; w&m;pD&ifr+uom wnf_idrfatmif tkyfcsKyfEkdifrnf[k ar#mfvifh&efom &Sdayonf? xd‹k jyif vlord sm;aom jypfra+ [mif;rsm;twGuf tjypf&o dS w l u ‹kd jyefvnfay;qyf-u 13 &ayvdrfhrnf” [l.? xdo k }l uD;tm; owfcjhJ cif;. tay:,HO;D wnfcsuf/ &nf&, G cf sufEiS fh ywfouf _yD; oHk;rsKd;oHk;axG jzpfvsuf&Sdonf? yxrtaejzifh &Gmol}uD;u ‚if;. aus;&Gm ol§om;rsm;tay: rawmfrw&m; ðyrlaqmif&Gufcsufrsm;onf &yf&Gmwnf_idrfr+ aqmif&Guf&mwGif ao'%ftjypfay;r+ESihf xkdufwefcJhonf[laomtcsuf/ 'kwd, taejzifh aus;&GmtydkifwGif ocifv+yf&Sm;r+rsm;udk ESdrfeif;I _Adwdo#wdk‹. tusKd; pD;yGm;udk pdwaf &mud, k yf g rsuEf mS vdt k m;& aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf[al omtcsu/f wwd, taejzihf ol‹udk ao'%fay;cH&jcif;onf ol‹ Y&Sdaom jypfr+a[mif;rsm;twGuf taºuG;qyf&jcif;jzpfonf[al om tcsuyf gwnf;? &&Sad om owif;rsm;tay: tajc cHI u|Eyfk t f aejzifh aumufcsuq f &JG rnfqv kd #if ,if;oH;k rsK;d vH;k olt ‹ cef;u¾ESio fh l yg0ifco hJ nf[I l jzpfygonf? xkdrSwyg; rsufjrifoufaowOD;u (ocifxGef;tkyfr[kwf) u|efawmf tm;þjyefajymjycJo h nfrsm;udk u|eaf wmfu, kd w f ikd f rSwrf ad eygonf? xko d al jymjycsurf mS Tod‹kjzpfyg.? tAŠ'l&m&Spf. jypfr+ESihf jypf'%fudk oxHkòrd›aevlxktm; xkdpD&ifr+rwkdifrD ae‹aygif;rsm;pGmuyif óudwiftoday;xm;cJh_yD; pD&ifonfhae‹wGifvnf; vma&muf -unfh±+-u&ef zdwf-um;xm;cJhonf? xdkae‹u tusOf;om;udk abmvHk;uGif;*dk;wdkif wGif óud;jzifh wkyfcsnfxm;onfudk rsufjrifoufaou jrifcJhygonf? tusOf;om; a&SŒwGif (bDtdkifat) &Jabmfrsm; wef;pDae-uygonf? t&m&Sd ,leDazmif; 0wfqif xm;ol vlwa,mufu vHpS yG jf zifh yxrqH;k tcsuu f kd pxk;d ygonf? oH;k onfv h ufeuf rSm vSHpGyfjzpf_yD; ±kdifz,faoewf. ajymif;wGifwyfqifxm;vsuf taoxdk;csufrSm aumuf±dk;tdwfudk avhusihf&mwGif xkd;ouJhodk‹ jzpfonf? xkdt&m&Sdonf teD;qHk;&Sd &Jabmftm; tvm;wlxkd;&ef trdef‹ay;vdkufyHk&ygonf? xdk&Jabmfonf trdef‹tm; csufcsif;vkdufem_yD; tusOf;om;tm; vHSpGyfjzifh xyfcgxyfcg xkd;ygawmhonf? yljyif;ajcmufaoGŒvsu&f adS om ajr}uD;tay:wGif aoG;rsm; tdik x f eG ;f vsuf &Syd g onf? vltyk }f uD; uGo J mG ;_yD;aemuf tavmif;aumifukd xdak e&mrS z,f&mS ;ypfvu dk f awmhonf? xdka‹ -umihf opfom;*dk;wdkiftay:wGifom vHSpGyfxdk;xm;csufrsm; usef&Sd

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

aecJo h nf? rsm;r-umrD xdu k iG ;f xJwiG yf if abmvH;k uefupm;vsu&f adS e-uavonf?

u|eaf wmft h aejzihf awG;jrif,q l csu[ f k qd&k rnfjzpfaom edrw d jf yar;cGe;f wck udk aemufqHk;txd csefxm;&pfcJhygonf? tu,fI OD;atmifqef;om towfrcH&v#if jrefrmEdkifiH. EkdifiHa&;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;vrf;a-umif;onf rnfo‹kd ajymif;vGo J mG ;Ekid yf goenf;æ´? jrefrmEkid if H vGwv f yfa&;&vk&qJumvESifh ywfoufI a&;om;csurf sm;wGif Tar;cGef;tay: xifjrif,lqcsufrsm;udk wkdif;&if;om;ESifh EdkifiHjcm;om; avhvm oHk;oyfolrsm;u wifjycJh-uygonf? tm;vHk;eD;yg; oabmwl-uonfrSm olonf aumif;rGefaom }uD;us,fjrihfjrwfonfh vlom;wOD;jzpfonf [lIwnf; æ txl;ojzihf jrefrmEdik if o H m;rsm;twGurf mS rl olonf T&mpkEpS t f wGi;f olw‹kd . ol&Jaumif;aywnf;? txky`wWda&;olrsm;u jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;u cspfcifav;pm;onfh Txl; jcm;qef;jym;onfh vlyk*~dKvfxl;wOD;. b0udk olwdk. ‹ ynm&yfqdkif&m a&;om;r+ rsm;wGif wifjycJh-uonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. cdkif;E+dif;yHkaqmifzG,fjzpfaom rsKd; cspfpdwf"mwf/ ol&owWd/ vHk‹vO\[/ aemufvdkufvlxktay: qGJaqmifEdkifr+ tp&Sdonfh csD;rGrf;p&m rGefjrwfvSonfh t&nftcsif;rsm;onf jynfolvlxktm; ol‹tay: cspfcifjrwfEkd;ap_yD; usefurBmwckvHk;uyg pHerlemxm;um av;pm;cJh& ayonf? olom qufvuftouf&SifaecJhaomf tcsdefESihft&G,ft& ,if;t&nf tcsi;f rsm;onf prf;oyfppfaq;cH&_y;D jzpfayvdrrfh nf? oluwday; óud;yrf;tm;xkwf cJhonfh (wESpftwGif;) aemufqHk;yef;wdkifudk ol‹toufjzihf &if;I 1948 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvwGif a&muf&SdoGm;apcJhayonf? xdk‹ jyifw0 orRwEdkifiHopf. xGef;opf awmufyaom tem*wfjzpfwnfa&;onfvnf; olom toufrao &SdaecJhygrl olaqmif-uOf;&rnfh }uD;rm;us,fajymvSaom vkyif ef;wm0ef}uD; jzpfayvdrrfh nf? Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;. trsK;d om;a&;ESiyfh wfoufI v+y&f mS ;cJah om wuUov kd f ausmif;om;b0ESihf xdka‹ emuf wdkA‹ rmtpnf;t±Hk;0iftjzpf rmhufcf0g'ESihftpysKd;cJh aom EkdifiHa&;wdk‹udk xm;bdOD;/ Tar;cGef;twGuf qufpyfr+pwif&mae&monf 1945 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (6) &ufae‹ Y r[mrdwfwyfaygif;pk aoemywdcsKyf

‘avmh'v f ;l 0pfarmifb h ufwef’ 14 ESifh olp‹ pfO;D pD;rª;rsm;u wbuf/ Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef; ESihf olu ‹ dk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒu wbuf/ xdk (2) buf-um;wGifjzpfay:vmaom !SdE+dif; wkdifyifr+rsm;onf ‘uef'D’ òrd›Y ðyvkyfcJhaom aemufqHk;aqG;aEG;yGJjzpfayvdrfhrnf? xdt k csdeu f ‘ArmhrsKd;cspfwyfrawmf’ [k ac:wGicf ahJ om jrefrmhtrsKd;om;wyfrawmf d o d #wyfrawmf. t_rw J rf; udk tvsit f jrefzsuo f rd ;f &ef oabmwlncD -hJ u_y;D 15 _Aw wyf&if;rsm;wGif yl;aygif;yg0ifvsuf jyefvnfpm&if;oGif; 0ifa&mufcJh-u&jcif;jzpf cJhayonf? awGŒqHkaqG;aEG;r+rSm aEG;axG;vd+ufvSJr+&Sd_yD; olwdk‹cGJcGmonfhtcgYæ “csmcsDvdkjzpfcsifovm;/ 0,fvifwefvdk jzpfcsifovm;/ cifAsm;qHk;jzwf&vdrfhr,f? cifAsm;taeeJ‹ wcsdefwnf;/ wòydifwnf;rSm ppfom;wa,mufa&m/ EkdifiHa&;acgif; aqmifwa,mufa&m rjzpfEdkifbl;” [k armihfbufwefu AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk t}uHay;cJo h nf? olu Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk pmwdak v;wapmifyg ay;cJah o;onf? xkv d .tukeaf vmufwiG f Adv k cf sKyfu (TonfrmS ‚if;toH;k tE+e;f udk w&m; 0if aemufqHk;oHk;cJhjcif; jzpfayvdrfhrnf) r[mrdwfwyfaygif;pk. aoemywdcsKyf ay;cJo h nfh pmwdak v;udk ta-umif;jyefco hJ nf? ‚if;pmxJwiG f topfjyefvnfzŒJG pnf; aom wyfrawmfwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tm; Adkvfrª;csKyf &mxl;udkvnf;aumif;/ jrefrmbufrS 'kw, d ppfaq;a&; t&m&Scd sKyf &mxl;udv k nf;aumif; ceft ‹ yf&ef urf; vS rf;xm;cJh&m AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u Todk‹ ta-umif;jyefcJhonf? “ArmhwyfrawmfopfwGif u|Ekfyftm; cef‹tyf&ef toif.urf;vS rf;csufudk (zqyv) tzGŒJcsKyfEiS hf rsK;d cspAf rmhwyfrawmftwGi;f &Sd u|Eyfk . f vkyaf zmfuikd b f ufrsm; a&SŒarSmufwGif u|EkfyfcsjycJhygonf? TudpPESihf ywfouf_yD; qHk;jzwfcsufw&yfudk t_yD;tjywf rSwfwrf;wifEkdifa&;twGuf vkyfaqmifp&mtcsKdŒ usef&Sdaeao;aomf vnf; ,ck tu|Ekyf af jymEdik o f nfrmS ppfwyfrS tu|Efyk f tem;,lawmhrnfqjkd cif;yif jzpfygonf? ppfwyfY qufvufwm0efxrf;aqmif&ef rjzpfEdkifawmhonfhtwGuf u|EfkyftvGefw&m tm;wHt k‹ m;em pdwfraumif;jzpfrdaomfvnf; TonfrSm trsm; pk qHk;jzwfcsufjzpfI ,if;qHk;jzwfcsufudk u|Efkyfvdkufemvkyfudkif&ayrnf” [lI jzpf.? xda‹k emuf wyfrawmfopfwiG f jrefrmwdb ‹k ufrS xdyw f ef;&mxl;ae&mtwGuf Adv k v f usmf udk axmufct H rnfay;cJo h nf? Adv k af e0if;udk r[kwcf ahJ cs? wcsed w f nf;Y yif Adv k v f usmf . vkyaf zmfuikd b f ufae&mudk ,l&eftwGuf t_rw J rf; Armhwyfrawmf rS tqiht f jrihq f ;kH u&ift&m&Sjd zpfonhf Adv k rf ;ª }uD; -um'd;k udk ceft ‹ yf&ef pOf;pm;ay; apvdka-umif; arwWm&yfcHcJhavonf? ,ckvwfwavm _yD;pD;cJhaom ta&SŒawmif tm&SppfyGJtwGif; u|Efkyfwt dk‹ wGuf toifaqmif&Gufay;cJhonfrsm;udkvnf; jrefrm

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tu,fI ,cktcsdeftxd OD;atmifqef;om toufraobJ &SifaecJhaomf

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257

&v'f

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

EdkifiHjynfolvlxkudk,fpm; ±kd;om;pGm aus;Zl;wif0rf;ajrmufa-umif;udk olu azmf jycJo h nf? xka‹d emuf ESpEf idk if H aumif;rGeaf om qufqaH &;tm; qufvufxed ;f odr;f xm;Edik &f ef ar#mv f ifrh u + akd zmfjyvsuf olu ‘avmh'af rmifb h ufwef’ udk *syef qmrl±idk ;f "m;ajr‡mifwvuf vufaqmifay;cJah vonf? k cf sKyf}uD;ppf0wf Ttcsderf pS I OD;atmifqef;onf _Adwo d #yHpk H great coat Adv pHkudk t_yD;c|wfypfvdkufonf? onfhrwdkifrDuvnf; *syefAkdvfcsKyf ppf0wfpHkudk c|wf ypfc_hJ yD;av_yD? xda‹k emufwiG rf l jrefrmtrsKd;om; trsKd;orD;rsm; ,ae‹xufwikd f *k%f ,l0ifhºuGm;pGm 0wfqifavh&Sdaom trsKd;om;0wfpHkjzihf olonf aeom;wus jyef jzpfoGm;onf? pdwfrmeftjynfhjzihf rdrdtrsKd;udkom cspfwwfaom vli,fEdkifiHa&; orm;wOD;tjzpfrS wyfrawmf. AdkvfcsKyf}uD;wOD;tjzpfodk‹vnf;aumif;/ ,if;rS wqihf vdrmR yg;eyfI tajrmftjrif}uD;rm;aom Ekid if aH &;orm;wOD;tjzpfEiS fh aemuf qHk;wGif EkdifiHhacgif;aqmif yDyDootjzpfodk‹vnf;aumif; qifhuJqihfuJ ul;oef; ajymif;vJjzpfay:r+onf tpðycJhav_yD? od&k‹ mwGif xdktcsdefrSpI olb ‹ 0tqHk;ydkif;odk‹ a&wGufrnfqdkv#if (662) &ufom usefygawmhonf? tcsdefonf wpwp ukef qHk;vsuf&Sdonf? odka‹ omfvnf; olt ‹ wGuf vkyfaqmifp&m trsm;tjym; usef&Sdae ao;onfwum;? AdkvfcsKyfu olppfwyfrS tem;,lawmhrnf[k avmh'farmifhbufweftm; ta-umif;-um;r+rðyrD wvceft ‹ vdkwGif *syefacwfu v#KdŒ0SufzGJŒpnf;vmcJh&aom zufqpfwdkufzsufa&;tzGJŒ }uD;udk zufqpfqef‹usifa&; jynfol‹vGwfajrmufa&; tzGJŒcsKyftjzpf OD;atmifqef;. acgif;aqmifr+atmufwGif jyifqifwdk;csJŒ I w&m; 0ifzŒJG pnf;cJo h nf? xdt k zGŒJ csKyfonf jrefrmEdik if w H iG f uGejf rLepfygwDxufyI kd tiftm; taumif;qH;k tzGŒJtpnf;jzpfvmcJo h nf? xdpk Ofu (zqyv) tzGŒJcsKyfwiG f uGejf rLepf ygwDEiS fh vli,ftpnf;t±H;k tjyif t"du yg0ifzŒJGpnf;xm;onfrmS ‘qd&k , S v f pfygwD’ jzpf_yD; ‚if;onf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;vufxuf uGefjrLepfygwDudk (zqyv) xJrS xkwfy,fvdkuf_yD;onfhaemuf t"dutpdwftykdif;tjzpf rdrdudk,fudk r-umrD wnfaqmufvmEkdifcJhonf? xdka‹ emuf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;r&Sdonfhaemuf qdk&S,f vpf0g'udk tzGŒJ csKyf. oabmw&m;tjzpf csrSwcf -hJ uonf? EkdifiHa&;tajctaerSm t&Sdeft[kefaumif;vmcJh_yD; 1946 ckESpftaejzifh vlxktpnf;ta0;rsm;/ qENjyyGJrsm;tjyif vGwfvyfa&;udk axmufcHaom ykvdyf oydw/f axmifoydwEf iS fh tvkyo f rm;oydwf wdu k yf rJG sm;jzihf jynfEh u S v f suf&o dS nf? aus;vufawm&Gmrsm;wGif tvHeDuGefjrLepfygwDvufcsufa-umihf Oya'rJhr+rsm;

ysHŒESH‹vsuf&Sdonf? ESpfv,fydkif;wGif ‘bk&ifcH qm&J*sDe,f a':refprpf’ jyefoGm;&_yD; ‚if;ae&mudk AdkvfcsKyf‘qm[l;bwf&efp‹ f’ u qufcHcJhonf? aphpyfaqG;aEG;jcif;tm; jzihf ‘atmif qef;=tufwvD’ pmcsKyfudk atmifatmifjrifjrif tqHk;owfvkduf_yD; aemuf 1946 ckESpfrS 1947 ckESpfodk‹ ul;ajymif;oGm;cJhonf? wESpftwGif; vGwfvyf a&;&&rnfqdkonfh &nfrSef;csufyef;wdkifudkvnf; ol. jyif;jyif;xefxef óud;pm; tm;xkwfr+t& vS rf;jrifawGŒae&ay_yD? jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm; &Sm}uHae onfum; pD;yGm;a&; wd;k wufrr+ sm; &&Sad prnfh vGwv f yfa&;jzpfonf? olwt ‹kd aejzifh udkvdkeDpD;yGm;a&;yHkpH vufa0cHb0udk tqHk;owfapvdk_yD; ,if;udk w&m;Oya't& EkdifiHydkifðyvkyfjcif;/ jynfolydkif or0g,r/ yk*~vdu yHkpHrsm;jzifh tòydiftqkdif zGHŒòzd;wdk; wufapjcif;wdu k‹ dk OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Gufvsuf tcsKyftjcmtm%m (3) &yfudkvnf; ygwDpkH qd&k , S v f pfpepfopfw&yfjzifo h m tpm;xd;k vkyu f ikd v f -kd ujcif;jzpfonf? xdk‹a-umihf 1947 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv apmapmydkif;wGif OD;atmifqef;onf &S rf;jynfawmifydkif; yifvHkòrd›Y &S rf;/ ucsif/ csif; (u&ifbufrS avhvmol=4= OD;) wdk‹ESihf usif;yðyvkyfaom nDvmcHw&yfodk‹ wufa&mufcJhonf? xkdtcgu olonf (zqyv) tzGJŒcsKyfudk udk,fpm;ðyoGm;jcif;jzpf_yD; olESihftwl OD;wifxGÉf/ Adkvfcif armifuav;wd‹k vku d yf goGm;cJo h nf? Adv k cf sKyf. ±k;d om;yGiv fh if;r+/ vlrsKd;}uD;pdwrf &Sd r+/ owWd&Sdr+/ pGJ_rJpGm óud;pm;r+/ tajrmftjrif}uD;rm;r+/ udk,fusifhw&m;aumif;rGefr+ ponfh *k%fowif; ausmfapmr+onf ol‹t&if a&SŒajy;a&mufESihfvsuf&Sdum ol‹udk xdkae&mY aygif;pnf;nD!Gwfa&;. t"dur¾dKiftjzpf ±+jrifjcif;udk cHcJh&onf? oHk;&uft-um aqG;aEG;!SdE+dif;-u_yD;aemuf olonf wdkif;&if;om;udk,fpm;vS,f rsm;. ,Hk-unfr+udk &&SdcJhum wdkif;&if;om;udk,fpm;vS,frsm;u trsKd;om;vGwf ajrmufa&;v+yf&Sm;r+wGif yg0ifyl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&ef oabmwlnDcJh-uavonf? xdak‹ emuf yifvHkpmcsKyf}uD;udk t_yD;owf atmifjrifpGm csKyfqdkEkdifcJh-uonf? xdkrSwyg; &efukefwGif 1947 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv (27) &ufae‹usif;yðy vkyfcJhaom jrefrmjynf t*Fvdyfukefonf}uD;rsm;toif;. ESpfywfvnf tpnf; ta0;odk‹ AdkvfcsKyfu bk&ifcH. ‘tr+aqmifaumifpD’ 'k=obmywdtjzpf wuf a&mufc_hJ yD; xdt k pnf;ta0;Y obmywdred c‹f eG ;f udk wH‹k jyefajym-um;pOfu vGwv f yf a&;&_yD;v#if ær-umrDygwDpHk qdk&S,fvpfpD;yGm;a&;pepf wnfaqmuf&ef &nf&G,f xm;a-umif; xkwaf zmfajymqdo k mG ;onfrmS pdw0f ifpm;zG,jf zpfonf? “jrefrmjynfY ta&;}uD;aom pufr+vkyfief; t&yf&yfudk jynfolydkifvkyf&ef u|Efkyfwdk‹ }uH&G,fxm;a-umif;/ xdkodk‹ðyvkyfrSom jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk; vl‹b0.

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

vdktifqEN[lor# jynfhpHk-uI aysmf&$ifpGm aeEdkifaom tqihftwef;udk &&Sdrnf[k u|Efkyfwdk‹ pGJ_rJpGm ,Hk-unf-ua-umif;”/ “xkdrSwyg; vuf0g;}uD;tkyf t&if;&Sif0g' onf tcgcyfodrf; vdkvm;tyfonf[k u|Ekfyfrxifa-umif;/ tajctaeESihf tcsdef umvtm;avsmfpGm u|EkfyfwdkE‹ dkifiHtaejzifh a&SŒodkw ‹ vS rf;rwufEdkifrD tcsdeftwGif; Yom xdt k &if;&Sipf epfukd xde;f csKyfvsuf 0ifa&mufvyk u f ikd o f mG ;&rnfjzpfa-umif;” ponfjzihf ajymqdo k mG ;avonf? xda‹k emuf {_yv D twGi;f usi;f yaomþ‘wkid ;f jynfðyv$waf wmf’odþ‹k ygwDpakH &G;aumuf yGJrsm;Y (zqyv) tzGJŒcsKyfu vHk;0eD;yg; tEkdif&&SdcJhygonf? xdktcsdefY tzGJŒcsKyft aejzihf Ekid if t H wGuf vkypf &mwm0efrsm; jynfEh u S v f su&f o dS nf? t"du ‘y±d*k su’f vkyf ief;}uD;rsm;tm; qHk;jzwfEdkifa&;twGuf aumfrwDrsm;wGif yg0ifwm0efxrf;aqmif &efþtzJŒG0ifrsm;þa&G;cs,-f u&onf? xdEk iS fh wcsed w f nf; arv/ wwd,ywftwGi;f wGif tzGJŒcsKyfu ‘zGJŒpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk tajccHOya'’ (rl-urf;) a&;qGJ&ef aumfrwDw&yfudk ceft ‹ yfwm0efay;cJhonf? ‘wdkif;jynfðyv$wfawmf’ taejzihf ZGefv (10) &ufrSpI tpnf;ta0;rsm;þpwifusi;f yonft h cgþqufvufu;kd um;þtoH;k csomG ;Ekid af &;twGuf ,if;aumfrwDu Oya' (rl-urf;) udk tcsderf D t_yD;owfa&;qGaJ y;cJo h nf?þ,if;wif jycJah om Oya' (rl-urf;) onf 'Dru dk a&pDEiS fh qd&k , S v f pf0g'udþk r&raewnfaqmuf rnfh vGwv f yfonfh tcsKyftjcmtm%mydik f jynfaxmifpo k rRw jrefrmEdik if aH wmfukd yHak zmfxm;avonf? ajcmuf&uf-um_yD;aemuf OD;atmifqef;onf zGŒJ pnf;yHt k ajccH Oya'opfEiS fh ywfoufonfh tajccHvrf;!¸ejf y@mef;csuf (7) &yfukd csrw S &f ef tqdw k &yfwifoiG ;f cJo h nf? ,if;tqdu k kd tacstwifaqG;aEG;-u_y;D aemuf OD;atmifqef;. &Si;f vif;csufrsm;udk em;vnfomG ;onft h cgY auseyfpmG axmufcv H u kd -f uonf?15 OD;atmifqef;onf ae&mtESa‹H &mufaeonf? olonf tajccHOya' (rl-urf;) a&;qGJonfh aumfrwDudkvnf; 0ifa&muf}uD;-uyfay;onf? wcsdefwnf;rSmyif EdkifiHawmf jyefvnfwnfaqmufa&; pDrHudef;a&;qJG&mYvnf; yg0ifaqmif&GufcJh onf? ZGev f (6) &ufae‹wiG f ‘qd&k efwAdk v D m’ (Sorrento Villa) Y olonf trsK;d om; nDvmcHw&yfudkvnf; OD;aqmifusif;yao;onf? tzGihfrdef‹cGef;Y tdwfoGefzm arSmuf ol ajymcJhonfhtwkdif; ,if;nDvmcHu tajctae. awmif;qdkcsuft& vkyfudkif&mY vG,fulacsmarmI vufawGŒtusKd;&Sd_yD; ðyjyifajymif;vJ&mY &nfrSef; csuf r}uD;rm;vGe;f aom tpDtpOfrsm;udo k m pdwu f ;l r,Of/ a&SŒavmr}uD;bJ a&;qGJ oGm;&efjzpfonf? xdkY or0g,rvkyfief;rsm;udk tm;ay;xm;_yD; jynfolvlxk. pdwaf &mud, k yf g yl;aygif;yg0ifru + kd tav;teufxm;onfh vdt k yfcsufrsm;ESifh tqdk

ðycsufrsm;udk olu t}uHðywifjycJhonf? tcsed o f nf olt ‹ zd‹k rsupf w d rSw d f v#yw f jyuftwGi;f vsijf refpmG ukev f eG v f suf &Sd&m xdktcsdefwGif olt ‹ wGuf tvkyfvkyfcsdefrSm (6) &ufom usefawmhonf? Zlvdkifv (13) &ufwGif òrd›awmfcef;rY ol‹b0wav#muf jynfolvlxkESihf aemufqHk;awGŒqHkcJh&onfh vlxkpnf;a0;yJGY olu wdkif;jynfðyv$wfawmf. vkyf ief;&yfrsm; wdk;wufr+tajctaeudk wifjy_yD; wdkif;jynf. tem*wfta&;tay: ola‹ wG;ac:,lqxm;csufrsm;udk &Sif;vif;ajym-um;cJh&m ,if;rdecf‹ Gef;udk aemifaom tcg jzpfay:vmrnfh twdwef rd w d jf y rdec‹f eG ;f [kyif ,lqvufccH -hJ uonf? “vGwv f yfa&;udk r-umrD&awmhr,f? oda‹k omfvJ ya'omyif[m ajru ayguf vmrSm r[kwyf gbl;? vGwv f yfa&;qdw k idk ;f ya'omyifajru raygufEikd b f ;l qdw k mudk cifAsm;wdp‹k w d x f rJ mS vGwv f yfa&;&awmhr,fqv kd &‹kd &dS if [kwv f m;æ pdwu f ;l u b,f vdpk w d u f ;l -uovJq&kd if ya'omyif}uD; csucf si;f ae‹csi;f / ncsi;f aygufvm-uawmh r,fq&kd ifæ[kwv f m;æ u|eaf wmfwt ‹kd vkyv f yk rf S jzpfr,fqw kd m cifAsm;wd‹k em;vnf apcsifw,f? tESpf (20) avmuf u|efawmfwdk‹ pum;cyf±kdif;±kdif;ajym&&if pum; cyf±dkif;±kdif;ajym&w,fqdkwm pum;cyf±dkif;±kdif;ajymrS vlawGu rSwfrdw,f? pum; cyf±idk ;f ±kid ;f qd&k ifæ[kwv f m;ætawmfu h kd _yaJ tmifóud;pm;Ekid rf /S þvkyEf idk rf þS tJ'gþtawmhf udk ukef;vkyfEkdifrS/ ±kef;vkyfEkdifrS tESpf (20) avmuf &SdwJhtcgrSm awmfumusr,f” Zlvidk v f (13) &ufae‹u ðyvkyaf om ,if;vlxpk nf;a0;yGw J iG f obmywdtjzpf wdik ;f jynfðyv$waf wmf. OuU@jzpfol (OD;atmifqef;ud, k w f ikd u f ,H-k unftm;xm; av;pm;ol)þocifEu k aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf?þocifEo k nfþ_Aw d ed Ef idk if o H ‹kd csp-f unfa&;ud, k f pm;vS,ftzGJŒudk OD;aqmifoGm;cJh_yD; ,if;vlxktpnf;a0;yGJrwkdifrD w&ufuyifjyef a&mufvmcJo h nf?þu}kd uD;EkuþO;D atmifqef;.t±du k t f &mudþk qufc&H jcif;rSmþoihaf vsmf onf?þraobJuseI f tarGcb H 0a&mufaeolw. ‹kd oabmwlncD sut f & OD;atmif qef;. óud;yrf;tm;xkwfr+rsm;ESihf pGrf;aqmifEkdifr+rsm;udk tarGqufcH&&SdcJhonf? vGwv f yfa&;rwdik rf yD if trsKd;om;pDru H ed ;f 0ef}uD;Xmeudk jyefvnfzŒJG pnf;cJ_h yD; jzpfav&m 1948 ckEpS /f {_yDvwGif qd&k ifwAkd v D m nDvmcH. &v'ftjzpf pD;yGm;zGŒH òzd; wd;k wufa&; (2) ESppf rD u H ed ;f . tajccHpnf;rsOf;rsm;udk xkwjf yefa-unmEkid cf o hJ nf? ygvDref 'Drdkua&pDpepftwGif;rS ‘qdk&S,f'Drdku&ufwpf’ vlr+zlvHka&; EdkifiHwEdkifiH wnfaqmuf&mwGif EkdifiHawmfpDrHudef;jzihf pufr+vufr+vkyfief;rsm; zGHŒòzd;wdk;wuf ap&ef ±+jrifo;kH oyf-u_y;D ‘Ekid if yH ikd ’f ðyvkyjf cif;rsm; r-umrDjzpfay:vmcJo h nf? oda‹k omf jim;vnf; cHpm;csufjyif;xefjcif;/ a&SŒaemuftpDtpOfrmS ;,Gi;f jcif;/ avm}uD;jcif;ESifh

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

bufvdkufr+&Sdjcif;wdku ‹ EkdifiHydkifðyvkyf&jcif;. &nf&G,fcsufudk wdrf;apmif;xdcdkuf apcJhonfomru 1948 ckESpfrSpI (10) ESpfwmumvtwGif; tawG;tac: t,ltq uGJjym;jcm;em;aom jynfe,ftkyfpkrsm;ESifh zGJŒpnf;xm;onfh jrefrmEkdifiH jynfaxmifpt k pk;d &tay: OD;Eku (olonf ‘ocif’[laom a&SŒpnf;udk 1952 ckEpS w f iG f ðzwfypfco hJ nf) jynfaxmifpo k rRwEdik if H 0ef}uD;csKyftaejzifh OD;aqmifO;D &Guðf ycJu h m/ ,if;umvtwGi;f olEiS fh vkyaf zmfuikd b f ufrsm; csrSwv f yk af qmifcahJ om pDru H ed ;f 0if tcsKdŒvkyf&yfrsm;udk [efw ‹ m;aESmihfaES;apcJhonf? OD;Ektaejzifh ol0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfp (uGejf rLepf/ &JabmfjzL/ rGe/f u&ifrsm; olyek x f vmonfh -um;rS) wkid ;f jynfjyefvnf wnfaqmufa&;wGif pGr;f aqmifatmifjrifrt + csKŒd &&Scd o hJ uJo h ‹kd æol. ud, k yf ikd v f pf b&,f0g'/ '\etjrifESihf Ak'<0g'wdk‹ a&maxG;¹yGef;wD;xm;tyfaom qkd&S,fvpf tawG;tac:wdk‹u rZÆdryÉdy'genf;jzihf OD;aqmifvrf;jycsuft& bmoma&;/ EkdifiHjcm;qufqHa&;ESihf trsKd;om;jyefvnfoihfjrwfa&;wdk‹udk aqmif&Guf&mwGif vnf; pGrf;aqmifatmifjrifr+tcsKdŒ &&SdcJhygonf? ,if;twGuf orkdif;wGif OD;Ekudk todtrSwðf yum armfueG ;f wif&ayonf? Tae&mY ‘OD;atmifqef;om acgif;aqmifI ol. qd&k , S v f pftawG;tac: oabmw&m;rsm;udk taumiftxnfazmfcGihf&cJhrnfqdkv#if OD;atmifqef;vrf;pOf onf ydrk akd umif;rGeaf om &v'frsm;udk &vdrrhf nf’ qdjk cif;rSmvnf; cefr‹ eS ;f ,lqcsuf omjzpf_yD; tjiif;yGm;zG,f&m jzpfayonf? 16 ‘tpdk;&qdk&S,fvpfpepf’ udk taumif txnfazmf&ef pDru H ed ;f udk tysufrcHbJ tm%mudk oH;k I pGr;f tm;ukef óud;yrf;tm; xkwfr+u ‘vlr+zlvHka&;EkdifiH’ wnfaqmuf&mY ‘'Drkdu&ufwpf’ tpdk;&w&yf pGrf; Ekid o f nfh twkid ;f tqxuf ausmfveG o f mG ;um uGejf rLepfqefaeygvdrrhf nf? rnfoq ‹kd akd p/ tu,fI OD;atmifqef;om toufxif&mS ;&SI d / olu ‹ wdtwdik ;f 1948 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (4) &ufae‹wGif &,lEkdifcJhaom vGwfvyfa&;&&Sdonftxd wdik ;f jynfukd acgif;aqmifEikd cf ahJ omf wdik ;f jynftaejzihf tpaumif;cJrh nfrmS oHo, &Szd , G rf [kwaf cs? vGwv f yfa&;&&So d nfþh tcsderf pS I awmufavmifc_hJ yD; ,ae‹xufwidk f avmif òrdufqJjzpfaom wkdif;jynf. tem*wfudk arS;rSdefoGm;atmif _cdrf;ajcmufaecJhaom jynfwGif;ppfrD;onfvnf; ol.t&Sdeft0gESihf -oZmrsm;a-umihf _idrf;owf_yD; jzpfay vdrrfh nf? w&m;aor[kwb f J tajctaet& qd&k , S v f pf0g'udk csdecf sdeq f q toH;k cs&mYyif OD;atmifqef;. (pdwful;,Of qdk&S,fvpf pmtkyf}uD;orm;rsm; jzpf-u onf)h tpGe;f a&muf0ef}uD;tcsKŒd. pdwt f m;xufoefru + kd r#wap_y;D / xka‹d emuf wzef

jzpfay:vmjyefaom ‘EdkifiHydkif’ vkyf&yfrsm;udkvnf; yHkpHopfjzpfapcJhayvdrhfrnf? odk‹ jzpfav&m ‘ygvDref'Drkdua&pD’ . yxr (14) ESpfwmumv 17 onf OD;atmif qef;. vrf;!¸efjyor+ uif;rJhcJh_yD; a'oaygif;rsm;pGm r-umc% qlylxºuGr+rsm; a-umihf (rD;yHkxJrSm a&vdkuf&SmouJhodk‹ ) &Sd&m ,if;wdku ‹ wdkif;wyg;om; 0ifa&muf odr;f ydu k t f yk pf ;kd onfxuf tusKd;w&m;ydrk q kd ;kd &Gm;onfh zufqpfppftm%m&Sipf epf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif ay:aygufvmatmif OD;Ektpdk;& tm%mvkcHvdkuf&onfhtajcokd‹ uHqdk;rdk;arSmifuspGm OD;wnfoGm;apcJhavonf? tu,fI OD;atmifqef;om xdktcsdefY EdkifiHawmftm; yJhudkifoGm;ol jzpfaeOD;rnfqkdv#if ,if;tajctaersm; rnfonft h cg r# ay:aygufvmp&m ta-umif;r&Sad cs? OD;atmifqef;udk tarGqufcHoltjzpf/ wdkif;jynfrysufcif tcsdefrD u,fwif &av[ef vky}f uHvnfq,fpum;vH;k ºuG,cf ahJ om Adv k cf sKyf}uD; ae0if;onf 1962 ckESpfwGif tm%modrf;cJh_yD;aemuf tiftm;csnfheJ‹ I pGrf;&nfrxufjrufawmhaom ‘ygvDref'rD u dk a&pDpepf’ udk zsuo f rd ;f ypf&ef a-unmcJ_h yD;aemuf nD!w G af &;udk wd;k jr‡i&hf efEiS fh pD;yGm;a&;vsifjrefpmG wd;k wufap&ef tm%m&Sipf epfuom jrefrmEkid if t H zd‹k toifah vsmfq;kH jzpfonf[k olu awG;xifco hJ nf? ol. ‘jrefrmhq&kd , S v f pfvrf;pOf ygwD’ wnf;[laom wygwDqdk&S,fvpfpepftm; zefwD;wnfaqmuf&jcif;. rlv blwESifh &nf&, G cf sufukd Tod‹k xkwjf yefa-unmcJo h nf? “jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmf awmfvSefa&;aumifpDonf wkdif;jynftm; acsmufxu J sumeD; tajctaerS vufrwifav; u,fwifc_hJ y;D aemuf ,cktcg jref rmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOfjzihf EdkifiHol EkdifiHom;wdk‹. vlaer+b0ESihf pD;yGm;a&;b0udk jyefvnfwnfaqmuf&ef óud;yrf;vsuf&o dS nf” xdk‹aemuf 1962 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (4) &ufae‹wGif awmfvSefa&;aumifpDu csrSwjf y@mef;cJah om ygwDzŒJG pnf;yHk pnf;rsOf;tyd'k f (18) wGif xl;jcm;aom aemufq;kH ay: jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOfudk taumiftxnfazmfI urBmausmf qdk&S,fvpf pD;yGm;a&;udk wnfaqmufoGm;rnf[k twdtvif;azmfjyxm;onf? TonfrSm ,leDazmif;0wf qdk&S,fvpfrsm;tzdk‹ ed*Hk;. ed'gef;jzpfayawmh onf? Todk‹ jzihf jynfolvlxktm; Tpepf}uD;. 0rf;E+wfaq;cg;}uD;udk twif;rsKd csap_y;D wdik ;f jynfrmS vnf; t&Suw f uGJ tusK;d enf; acsmufxJ xd;k usomG ;cJah vonf? 1987 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmvtwGif;wGif olwdk‹vufxuf a&$wGif;/ aiGwGif;rsm; awGŒae_yDæqdkonfh-um;rS EdkifiHjcm;t&efaiG vHk;0jywfawmufae_yD; EdkifiHjcm;aºuG; _rD tar&duefa':vm oef; (4²4) axmif wifae_yjD zpfaom OD;ae0if;tpd;k &rSmvnf;

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rsufESmatmufcs tzwfq,fr&awmhbJ urBmhtqif;&JqHk;EdkifiHb0 av#musoGm; vsuf a'0gvDcH/ olawmif;pm;EdkifiH 18 tqifhtwef;owfrSwfay;yg&ef ±dkusKd;pGm av#mufxm;r+udk urBmhukvor*~}uD;u axmufxm;!Smwm oem;-uifempGmjzihf atmufwb kd mv (29) &ufae‹wiG f twnfðyowfrw S af y;cJo h nf? od‹kjzpfav&m yxrOD;pGm ‘ygvDref 'Dru kd a&pDpepf’ atmufwiG v f nf;aumif;/ xda‹k emuf (zufqpf) ‘ppftm%m&Sipf epf’ atmufwiG v f nf;aumif;/ ESpaf ygif; (40) eD;yg; qdk&S,fvpfpepfudk prf;oyfcJh_yD;aemuf ,if;prf;oyfr+ESpfckvHk; ratmifjrifcJh onfrmS &Si;f aeyg_yD? xkEd pS cf t k euf OD;ae0if;vufxuf ppftyk pf . k vkyaf qmifcsuf rSwfwrf;rsm;rSmrl oduQmtusqHk;/ &Sufp&mtaumif;qHk;/ oifcef;pmtjzpfqHk; jzpf ayonf? vuf&Sd (etz) acgif;aqmifrsm;rSm w&Ha&mtcgu taz}uD;ðyor# Ekvm cJh&onfh OD;ae0if;. om;rsm;omjzpfonfhtavsmuf tm%m&Sifenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh qufvufusio fh ;kH vsu&f o dS nf? ppfwyft&if;&Si0f g'rSmum; txufvm$ vlwef;pm; udk vlxw k &yfv;kH tay: *kwaf oG;pkyf tjrwfxw k &f mY ydrk t kd iftm;}uD;rm; qd;k &Gm;oGm; apayawmhonf?

“tawmfq;Hk olrsm;rSm olwu ‹dk -H urRmukd _raJ tmif rwwfEidk -f u? olawmfaygif;/ EkaºuGaumif;I ol,kwfrm oufqkd;&Snfonf?”20 u|efawmhfrdcifajr. _yD;cJhonfh axmifpkESpftqkH;owf&mpkESpfrSm nDnDr#r# ESpfykdif;tuef‹uJhokd‹ jzpfcJhonf? ae‹tvif;a&mifESifh ntarSmif uGJjym;ouJhokd‹ yxrykid ;f rSm awmufy_y;D 'kw, d ykid ;f rSm trku d af rSmifz;Hk v$r;f cHc&hJ onf? ukv d edk eD ,fcsŒJ. aoG;pkyjf c,fv, S f r+atmufrS rdrzd mom vGwaf jrmufatmif rqkwrf epf csw D ufc&hJ m ar#mfvifhcsufa&mifjcnfoef;cJh_yD? usdef;aoayguf vGwfvyfa&;ukd jrifawGŒae& onfhtcsdefwGifrS vrf;jya&Sa› qmifvif;a&mifonf ±kwfw&uf_idrf;owfcHcJh&onf? ae‹tvif;a&mifuadk qmifaom aerif; 0ifa&mufu, G af ysmuf (ae0if) onft h vm; o¿mefuJhokd‹yif uH-urRmu AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; (olawmfaumif;) apmapmpD;pD; ZD0ed cf sKyfapcJo h nf? jrefrmvlx}k uD;u olu ‹ dk &mpkEpS . f trsK;d om;ol&aJ umif;tjzpf *k%«f yowfrw S cf o hJ nf? trSefwu,fwGifvnf; olonf tawmfqkH;yk*~dKvfwOD;jzpfonfESifhtnD

u|Eyfk w f . ‹dk orkid ;f wGif olonf xkt d wkid ;f rwdraf um raysmufrysuf qufvufwnf &SdoGm;rnfomjzpfonf? wqufwnf;rSmyif r_yD;qkH;Ekdifonfh trkdufarSmifnrsm; twGi;f wGif -urRmqk;d u 0ifa&mufvmcJo h nf? &Jabmfo;Hk usyd t f xJwiG f tzsi;f qk;H jzpf ol rdru d , dk u f dk Adv k af e0if; (ol,w k rf m) [k *k%af &mifvr$ ;f °cHxm;olu &nfreS ;f csuf }uD;rm;onfh EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh acwW,m,Dr# ypm;ay;r+cH-u&onfh ppfwyf t&m&Sd aemufvkdufwkd‹. tm;ay;axmufcHr+jzifh ol. okwfoifa&;ajcvS rf;ukd cwfjrefjrefvSr;f cJo h nf? TonfrmS 1962 ck rwfvtpykid ;f olu tvk;H pkt H m%mukd odr;f yku d &f ef qk;H jzwfvu dk o f nft h csed rf pS wifco hJ nf? ppftm%m&Sipf epfudk xlaxmif vku d _f y;D olu ‹ , dk o f l eef;yv†iaf y:wifvu dk u f m t}udraf ygif;rsm;pGm ±kyaf o;q&muJo h ‹ dk «yrlc&hJ m 2002 ckEpS f 'DZifbmv (5) &ufae‹ touf (92) ESpw f iG f aemufq;Hk ZD0ed cf sKyf oGm;onfw h idk af tmif jzpfavonf? oltaoaemufusonfrmS trSe/f olo ‹ ufwrf; wav#muf tESpf (40) r# twGi;f pdw, f w k jf zifh &uf&ufpufpuf jc,fv, S t f yk cf sKyfr+ '%fudk vlxu k pdwyf su0f rf;enf;zG,cf pH m;cJ&h onfrmS xkx ‹d ufyrdk -kd umanmif;onf[k xifrw S cf &hJ onf? u|efawmfhpmtkyf. ed*kH;csKyfu¾ ,cktykdif;ukd Akdvfae0if; (c) ±+armif21 . uk, d af &;twˆKy`wdW pmzwfot l m;wifjy&ef &nf&, G &f if;r&Syd g? oka‹d omfvnf; ol. aemufq;Hk ESprf sm;twGi;f usq;Hk cef;wGif ol. uk, d yf idk q f ef;jym;r+rsm;ukd tusO;f csKyf tpOfvu dk w f ifjyvk&d if;jzpfonf? Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;ESihf olEiS t hf wl vky}f uHc&H aom a&mif;&if;rsm;wkd‹. acgif;aqmifr+ukd wkdif;jynfrS z,f&Sm;ypf&mwGif olonf t"dutcef;u¾rS yg0ifcJhonfhtwGuf jzpfysufr+ tpOfjrifuGif;rsm;twGif; olu ‹ ¾ukd xyfrt H xl;«y&ef oifawmfonf[k ,lq&ygonf? OD;apmuJo h r‹dk [kwb f J olEiS o hf t ‹l ckid ;f cHwr‹dk mS olwu ‹dk sco H ifo h nfh ¯ud;pifEiS hf ,ae‹acwf Ekid if w H um &mZ0wfr+ w&m;±kH;wku d‹ kd vGwfajrmufoGm;cJh-uonf? jrefrmhq&dk , S v f pfvrf;pOfygwDOuU@&mxl;rS aemufq;Hk Ekwx f u G o f nfh 1987 ckESpf Zlvkdifv (23) &ufae‹wkdifatmif ol. (25) ESpfwm tm%m&Sifpkd;rkd;r+umv twGi;f yxrqk;H rS aemufq;Hk txd olonf rnfoa‹dk om °ydiq f idk rf E+ iS hf qefu ‹ sifru + rdk # vufoifh rcHcahJ cs? ol tm%m&,l_y;D r-umrDyif &efuek w f uUov dk af usmif;om;rsm;u tenf;i,fr# qef‹usifr+«y&mwGif ol. trdef‹tm%mukd olu a-unmjycJhonf? ol. vufr&GŒHaoewform; Adv k rf ;ª }uD;pdev f iG u f ol.trde‹f (wyfrawmfux dk v d m&if "m;"m;csif;/ vSHvSHcsif;&ifqkdifr,f) twkdif; vufeufrJhausmif;om;vli,frsm;ukd &mESifhcsDI owfjzwfypfcJhonf? trSefrSmrl ol‹ukdxdvmv#if wkH‹ jyefvufpm;acs&ef

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

rsm;jzpfonf[kqkdaom vlyk*~dKvf (9) OD;. trnfrsm; (3 OD;rSm uG,fvGef_yD;) usef tcsuftvufrsm;rSm olonf 2002 ckESpf 'DZifbm (5) &uf/ eHeuf (7) em&D (30) rdepfwGif aoqkH;cJh_yD; uG,fvGefol.qENt& ol‹±kyftavmif;ukd a&a0;okomefY ae‹v,f (1) em&D (30) rdepfwiG f rD;o°*õ[cf ahJ -umif;jzpfonf? vku d yf gyka‹d qmiforl sm;/ olruse;f rrmpOfEiS hf aus;Zl;&Sizf cif. tokbtpDtpOfwiG f ulnrD a+ y;cJ-h uolrsm;ukd aus;Zl;wifa-umif; azmfjyvsuf tqkH;owfxm;onf? rl&if;a&;om;csurf mS rdom;pkxrJ S wOD;OD;u a&;om;cJyh &Hk _yD; pENmjzpfy&Hk av onf? aemufq;Hk ykEH ydS af zmfjy&mwGif olr.rdcifudk wOD;wnf;aomZeD;tjzpf txif f eG )f qko d . l rdcifrnfol t&Sm;«yvkyx f m;onf?23 om;orD;rsm;wGif OD;ode;f (uG,v jzpfa-umif; rjyxm;? aiGp;dk ESiahf t;atmif (uG,v f eG )f wkr‹d mS yxr w&m;0ifZeD;jzpfol a':wifwifESifh &&Sdaomom;rsm;/ 'kwd,ZeD; a':cifaroef;ESifh twlygvmaom yxrtdraf xmif a'gufwmawmif}uD;ESi&hf aom orD;ok;H a,muf a'gufwmvJv h 0hJ if; (uG,fvGef)/ oDwm0if;/ a'gufwmaomfwm0if;/ a':cifaroef;u olESifharG;aom a'gufwmpENm/ a'gufwma-u;rk0H if;ESihf °zd;a00if;/ wu,fwiG rf l olEiS t hf a-umif;yg aom ZeD; (5) OD;&Sdonf[k qkdEkdifonf? ae0if; oGwfoGif;cJhaom ppfwyftkyfpkd;r+. trSwv f uQ%mjzpfonfh nHzh sif; aomvky&f yf. tysuftpD; tpdwt f ykid ;f w&yfjzpf onfh Twckwnf;aom &Sif;vif;&cufonfh ema&;a-umfjimukd ppfaq;twnf «yay;olrmS ppftyk pf yk ifjzpfI olwu ‹dk o dk m tjypfwif&rnfjzpfonf? okd‹ESifhyif ol‹ jymrsm;rSm tcrf;tem;uif;rJhvsuf teD;tem;&Sd jrpftwGif;okd‹ ypfcsccH &hJ onf[k ,k-H unf&ayonf? ok‹djzifh ol‹jymrsm;rSm ywf0ef;usin f pfnrf;r+jzpf apaom tr+u d o f ±ku d jf zpfomG ;awmhonf? tm%m&SifrSm aemufqkH; usqkH;aysmufuG,foGm;cJh_yD? oef;a&$/ armifat;/ cif!eG ‹f ok;H OD;tkypf k (±kyq f ;dk rsm;) rSm olw. ‹dk taz}uD; usq;Hk cef;ukd vif;wrsm;uJo h ‹dk acsmif;ajrmif;aecJh-u_yD; olwkd‹rSm tºuGif;rJhtm%m&Sifrsm;tjzpf jrifhjrifhrm;rm; &yfwnfvsuf&Sd-uonf? olwkda‹ cgif;aqmif}uD; r[kwfrw&m; ±l;wl;wl;vkyfor# cHc-hJ u&aom puf±yk o f ¿mefppfwyfrmS ,ckawmh olv ‹ ufrS vGwcf ahJ v_y?D jrefrmEkid if H tay: ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm tav;wrl«ycJh-uolrsm;taejzifh tm%m&SifaoqkH;r+u 'Dru dk a&pDudk toufjyefoiG ;f Ekid rf nf[k taumif;jrifrj+ zifh pdwrf &SnEf idk pf mG xifjrifchJ -uonf? Ekid if t H aejzifh pdwrf csr;f ajrzh , G f ESpaf ygif;&Sn-f umEGeH pfurBm tdyrf ufq;dk oHo&m rS xGufvkqJqJwGif ae0if;ukd rSefrSefuefuef oduQmcs qefu ‹ sifzkd‹ vkdtyfayonf?

qkH;±+H;cJhor# jyefvnftpm;xkd;Ekdif_yD; trsKd;om;jyefvnfoihfjrwfa&;ESifh qufvuf azmfaqmif&rnfh tcGifhtvrf;um; aemufqkH;a&muf&SdvmcJhyg_yD? _idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh om,m0ajyma&;ukd used ;f aoayguf tmrcHcsuaf y;Ekid o f nfh ppfreS o f nfh 'Dru dk a&pDo‹dk qufvufcsDwuf&rnfjzpfonf? EkdifiHwumu jrifhjrifhrm;rm; *k%f«ycHxm;&onfh urBmt h qifrh yD *k Kd~ vfjzpf_yD; Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;.orD;jzpfou l pdw"f mwfa&;&mt& tm;ay;r+«yxm;onfh vlxkt¯uduf a&G;cs,fcHxm;&onfh tpkd;&w&yfuvnf; tpOfoif&h EdS iS _hf yD;jzpfonf? aoewfajymif;eJ‹ tm%mukid x f m;olrsm;u bmvkycf -hJ u ygovJ? vlreS pf w d rf eS o f rl sm;eJ‹ wu,fu h dk ajymif;jyefygyJ? olw. ‹dk aoqk;H oGm;cJ_h yjD zpf wJh acgif;aqmif}uD;&JŒajc&mukd qufeif;_yD; olwkdt ‹ m%mukd qefu ‹ sifolrSefor#ukd &Sif;vif;z,f&Sm;paw;ypfzkd‹ olwkd‹ qkH;jzwfcJh-uonf? tcGifhta&;aumif;}uD;um; qkH;±+H;cJhav_yD?24 Akv d cf sKyfr;ª }uD;oef;a&$uawmh olq ‹ &m tm%m&Sif rif;qk;d uG,af ysmufomG ; onfhtcsdefupI ol‹ukd,fol o&zl,laqmif;_yD; bk&ifht&m bdodwfcHvkdufawmh dk a&pDtzGŒJcsKyfrS ta&G;cs,cf jH ynfov ‹l w $ af wmfu, dk pf m;vS,f onf?25 trsK;d om;'Dru tcsKE‹d iS hf olw. ‹dk vufaxmuftulrsm;yg0ifaom t"du twku d t f cHygwDtzGŒJ0ifrsm; ukd Ekdb,fvfqk&SifESifh taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;jzpfol a':atmifqef;pk-unfESifh 'k=OuU@ ol&OD;wifO;D wku ‹d OD;aqmifvsuf txufjrefrmjynfo‹dk pnf;±k;H a&;c&D;pOf tjzpf armfawmfum;wef;jzifh oGm;-uonf? Tc&D;pOfrSm etz. w&m;0ifcGifh «ycsuf tjynfhtpkH&&Sd_yD;jzpfonf? okd‹aomfvnf; olwkd‹oGm;av&mae&mwkdif;rS vlwidk ;f u tzGŒJ csKyfudk arwWmv$r;f °cHvsuf axmufcrH t + jynfh awmufav#mufay;cJh -uonft h wGuf etzrSm odoo d mom pdwt f aESmiht f ,Sujf zpfco hJ nf? 2003 ckEpS f ar (30) &uf n (8) em&D arSmifpysK;d csed f aemufwae&ma&muf&ef aemufusaecsed w f iG f armfawmfum;wef;rSm us&D mG ESihf 'Dy, J if;°rdŒt-um; (2) ae&mwGif °cHcw kd u dk cf u dk cf cH -hJ u&onf? wku d cf u dk cf o hJ rl sm;rSm tiftm; (5˜000) ausmf (etzu aemifwGif «yvkyfaom owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJwGifay;aom ta&twGufjzpf_yD; olwkd‹tqkdt& tzGJŒcsKyfukd uef‹uGufqENjyolrsm;) &Sd_yD; etzzGJŒpnf;ay;xm;aom }uHc› idk af &;ESizhf ŒHG °zd;a&;toif;om;rsm;u trmcHyg0if_y;D axmifrsm;rS pkpnf;vmaom &mZ0wfom;rsm;/ t_rw J rf;ppfom;rsm;ESihf ,leaD zmif;0wfrxm;aom jynfo&‹l rJ sm;yg yg0ifonf? etzu t"dupDrHcsufcs_yD; vufeufukdifppft&m&Sdrsm; uGyfuJaom vkH°cHa&;wyfzGJŒ0ifrsm;/ tcpm;v+HŒaqmfa&;orm;rsm;u ¯udwif}uHpnf_yD; tao taus °cHcw dk u dk cf u dk jf cif;jzpfonfrmS oHo,jzpfp&mr&Sad cs? qENjyolrsm;qko d l trsm;

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

pkrmS oHacsmif;rsm;/ oHc|efrsm;/ 0g;c|efrsm;/ "m;rsm;ESihf tjcm;aoapEkid af vmufaom vufeufrsm; ukdifaqmifxm;_yD; t-urf;rzufa&;vrf;pOfukd vkH;0O\kHpGJukdifxm; -u_yD; vkH;0vufeufr&Sdaom jyefvnfckcHjcif;r&Sdaom tzGJŒcsKyftzGJŒ0if a,musfm; rdef;r tm;vkH;wkd‹ukd &ufpuf±kdif;pkdif;pGm wkdufckdufcJhjcif;jzpfonf? trsm;tjym;rSm &uf&ufpufpuf towfc&H olc&H / '%f&m&ol&-uonft h jyif ,mOfrsm;/ ykid q f idk rf + ypPnf;rsm;rSm tzsufpD;cH& tvkt,uf cH-u&onf? uHaumif;axmufrpGmjzifh a':atmifqef;pk-unfESifh OD;wifOD;wkdr‹ Sm '%f&mtemw&&cJh_yD; axmifwGif;tykdc‹ H cJh&onf? a':atmifqef;pk-unfukd yxr xdef;odrf;xm;cJh_yD; pufwifbmvwGif &efuek o f ‹dk jyefac:cJu h m tdrw f iG ;f tusO;f csxm;cJo h nf? OD;wifO;D ukv d nf; axmifwiG ;f twef-umxm;cJ_h y;D aemifwiG f tdrw f iG ;f tus,cf sKyfjyefxm;cJo h nf? &Supf &maumif; vS_yD; tn‡mtwmuif;rJv h o S nfh Ttcsi;f jzpfymG ;r+onf jrefrmhorkid ;f wGif “'Dy, J if; owfjzwfr}+ uD;” [k rSww f rf;0ifco hJ nft h jyif ae0if;vGeaf cwf ok;H OD;tkypf . k aoewf wGif yxrqkH; aoG;at;at;jzifh tpkvkduft°yHvkduf vlowfr+tjzpf tOD;qkH; trSwftom; &&SdoGm;apcJhonf?26 xka‹d emuf wESpt f wGi;f -o*kwv f (25) &ufae‹wiG f 0ef}uD;tzGŒJ tajymif;tvJ vkyf&mwGif etzOuU@/ wyfrawmfumuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf/ umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;ESifh }uHz› ŒHGOuU@jzpfol Akv d cf sKyfr;ª }uD;oef;a&$u trsK;d om;axmufvS r;f a&;wyfzŒJG. !¸ef -um;a&;rª;csKyftopf Adv k cf sKyf}uD;cif!eG t ‹f m; ol. 0ef}uD;csKyf&mxl;ukd v$aJ jymif; ay;&ef qk;H jzwfco hJ nf? oka‹d omfvnf; Akv d cf if!eG t ‹f aejzifh ol. etztwGi;f a&;rª; (1) &mxl;ukd pGef‹v$wfay;vkduf&onf? ol‹ukdqufcHol 'k=AdkvfcsKyf}uD;pkd;0if;rSm twGi;f a&;rª; (2) &mxl;rS jrifw h ufvmoljzpf_yD; }uHz› ŒHGtoif;. tvGew f ufºuGaom tvkyftr+aqmifwOD;jzpfonfhtjyif oufaoouUm,r&Sdaomfvnf; 'DyJ,if;vl owfr}+ uD;ukd pDrcH o hJ [ l q k o dk nf? pk;d 0if;/ Adv k cf sKyf}uD; ol&a&$ref; (yl;wGpJ pfO;D pD;csKyf/ umuG,af &;Xme) ESihf Adv k cf sKyfausm0f if; (ppfaxmufvSr;f a&; 'k=t}uD;tuJ) wkr‹d mS Adv k cf sKyfr;ª }uD;oef;a&$. bufom;rsm;jzpf-uonf? 0ef}uD;csKyf Akv d cf sKyf}uD;cif!eG r‹f mS 2004 ckEpS f atmufwb dk mv (19) &ufae‹ wGif &mxl;rS txkwfty,fcHcJh&onf? w&m;0iftm;jzifh ppftkyfpktrdef‹remcHr+/ tusifyh sufvmbfpm;r+EiS hf olw ‹ m0efrsm;ukd ausyGeaf tmif rxrf;aqmifEidk rf + ponfh ykefuefr+pGJcsufrsm;jzifh ol‹ukd t_idrf;pm;,lcGifh«yvkdufjcif;jzpfonf? tdrfwGif;csKyf xm;cJh_yD; 2005 ckESpf Zlvkdif (22) &ufwGif txl;w&m;±kH;jzifhppfaq;um tjypf&Sd onf[k awGŒ&Sdojzifh olonf qkdif;iHhaxmif'%f (44) ESpf&&SdcJhonf? tapmykdif;wGif

olEiS q hf ufo, G rf &+ o dS l axmufvSr;f a&;t&m&Sd (38) OD;wkr‹d mS axmif'%f tESpf (20) rS tESpf (100) ausmftxd uscH_yD;jzpfonf? ae0if;. opPmawmfcrH mS (tpGr;f xuf vSaom olt ‹ zGŒJ tpnf;ausmaxmufaemufcjH zif)h a-umufcref;vdvd tm%mwuf vmonft h wGuf olEiS o hf . l aemufvu dk rf sm;jzifh zGŒJ pnf;xm;aom tqdyt f awmuf taqmufttkHwckvkH;ukd z,f&Sm;ypfcJhjcif;jzpfonf? xkdaemuf (2) a,mufom usefcJhawmhonf?27 u|efawmf.,cifpmtkyfwGif &nf!e¸ f;a&;om;cJhaom twWorm;ae0if;u ol&‹ mxl;wnf_rJa&;twGuf olv ‹ rf;a-umif;wav#muf awGŒor# tppftrSejf zpfap/ olxifjrifonfjzpfap olu ‹ dk °ydio f rl eS o f r# z,f&mS ;ypfonfh okwo f ifa&;vrf;pOfonf tpGr;f xufvo S nft h wGuf ykrd _dk ird ;f csr;f vk°H cH&m wkid ;f jynfrsm;ok‹d OD;aESmuf,pdk ;D r+jzpf_y;D wkdif;jynfwGif wDxGif}uHqEkdifol twwfynm&Sifrsm; uif;rJhoGm;apcJhonf? tqifh edro hf nft h jyif r-umc%jywfawmif;jywfawmif;jzpfaeaom ynma&;pepfuvnf; wkdif;jynftwGuf ykdrkdepfemqkwf,kwfapavonf? xkt d‹ jyif rjynfhpkHaom EkdifiHa&; prf;oyfrr+ sm;uvnf; pD;yGm;a&;ukd qufvufzsupf ;D cJ&h m Ekid if . H aiGa-u;rSm wefz;dk rJh onftxd a&mufomG ;cJ_h y;D w&m;r0ifaomtpk;d &rSm a'0gvDc&H avonf? ppfwyfwiG f tjrifhqkH;&mxl;rsm;ukd zufwG,fxm;ol rlvblw vufa&G;pifrsm;om ,ae‹tcsdef wGif rxdrcku d f qufvuf&yfwnfEidk -f uaomfvnf; wkid ;f jynf. trsm;pkvx l }k uD;. aemifa&;rSm vk;H 0ar#mv f ifch suu f if;rJv h su&f o dS nf? tenf;i,f[al om taumif;jrif ukd ¯udwifrSef;qEkdifaomfvnf; atmufwGifazmfjyxm;aom t&nftcsif;jynfh q&m0efwa,muf. pdwfykdif;qkdif&m okH;oyfcsufu pdwf0ifpm;p&maumif; oavmuf ausmcsrf;zG,fvnf; aumif;vSonf? u|eaf wmf. vkyaf zmfuidk zf ufwOD;jzpfol qpf'eD-rd› (-opa-w;vs) rS pdwaf &m *gtxl;ukq&m0ef a'gufwmwifha0u “oufOD;qHykdif tm%m&Sifpepfatmufu vlrb + 0tajctaersm;/ pdwyf idk ;f qkid &f m ±+axmift h jrifw&yf” acgif;pOfjzifh pdwyf idk ;f qkdif&m ykdif;jcm;a0zefqef;ppfr+ pmwrf;wapmifukd a&;om;cJh&m -opa-w;vsESifh e,l;ZDvef pdwyf idk ;f qkid &f m ukor+toif;}uD;u xkwaf 0onfh 2003 ckEpS f ESpyf wfvnf *sme,f. 'kw, d xkwpf mapmifwiG f ykEH ydS af zmfjyjcif;cH&onf? olu ,if;pmwrf;wGif AdkvfcsKyfae0if; 1962 ckESpf tm%m&_yD; EkdifiHtpkd;& yg0ifpDrHonfh t-urf;zufr+ (State Terrorism) ukd jrefrmEkdifiHwGif oGwfoGif;cH&_yD; jzpfay:vmonfh a&&Snu f iG ;f quf jzpfay:r+rsm;ukd t"duxm; &nf!e¸ ;f uk;d um;_yD; tm%m&SiftkyfpkwpkatmufwGif aexkdif&onfh tusKd;qufrsm;ukd aqG;aEG;wifjy

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

xm;onf? ‚if;pmwrf;. t"duwifjyr+rsm;ukd atmufwGif ukd;um;azmfjyvkduf ygonf? “xkt d csderf pS I urBmu h v k or*~vt ‹l cGit hf a&;aumfr&Sif tygt0if vlt ‹ cGihf ta&;tkyfpkrsm;u jrefrmtpkd;&tm; twkduftcHtiftm;pkrsm;tay: pepfwus ta&;,lzrf;qD;ESyd u f yG rf r+ sm;twGuf pGcJ surf sm;wifvsu&f o dS nf? tqkyd g pGcJ surf sm; txJwGif tm%m&Sifpepftm; pGJpGJ_rJ_rJ tefwkaeonfh twkduftcHacgif;aqmif a': atmifqef;pk-unftm; tzefwvJvJ zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f xm;r+EiS hf olr. axmufco H l rsm;tm; Ekid if t H pk;d &uk, d w f idk f tm;ay;axmufyrhH j+ zifh tpkvu dk t f -yHvu dk f owfjzwf aer+rsm; yg0ifygonf?” ‹d m; a'gufwmwifah 0u qufvufI a&mfbifEiS hf ykp‹d f (Robins and Post) wkt uk;d um;um ‚if;wk. ‹d 1997 ckEpS x f w k f “Ekid if aH &; ,krH mS ;vGeaf 0'em/þrke;f wD;em-unf; r+. tajccH” trnf&Sd pmtkyfrS atmufygtcsufrsm;ukd wifjycJhonf? “tm%m&Sifrsm;jzpfol ykdaygh (Pol Pot)/ tD'Dtmrif (Idi Amin) ESifh ‹d dk avhvmr+wck«y&mwGif ykad ygh. uarBm'D;,m; *sK;d qufpwmvif (Josef Stalin) wku Ekid if o H nf wenf;wzkt H m;jzifh jrefrmEkid if . H tajctaeESihf E+id ;f ,SOEf idk o f nft h csurf sm; &Sda-umif; a0zefr+«ycJhonf? pma&;olrsm;taejzifh tm%m&Sifrsm;tm;vkH;wGif a,bk,s wlnDr+rsm;&Sda-umif; awGŒ&SdcJhonf? ,if;wkdr‹ Smæ tm%mESifhywfoufI ,krH mS ;vGepf w d af 0'em cHpm;&r+/ vlrsKd;jcm;rsm;tm; em-unf;a&Smif-uOfr/+ wkid ;f &if; om; vlenf;pkrsm;tay: rvkdrkef;wD;r+ESifh rdrdtrsKd;tEG,fukd txl;pif-u,foefp‹ if apvkrd + ponfw‹dk jzpfonf? tm%m&Siaf cgif;aqmif. Ekid if aH &;pDrt H rdea‹f y;r+rsm;ukd ol. vufaxmufrsm;u pdwt f m;xufoefpmG taumiftxnfazmfwwf-uonf? a&mfbifEiS hf ykp‹d w f . ‹dk avhvmawGŒ&cdS sufrsm;txJwiG f ,krH mS ;vGeaf 0'em (Paranoid) &So d rl sm; pkaygif;zGŒJpnf;xm;onfh acgif;aqmifro + nfvnf; “yg&mEGKd uf” acgif;aqmif wOD;wnf;uJo h y‹dk if &ufpuf-urf;ñuwfI ysufp;D apEkid o f nfomjzpfa-umif; yg0ifchJ onf? u|eaf wmf. wwd,t}udrx f w k f pmtkyef *d ;Hk csKyftjzpf Ekid if jH cm;e,fcsŒJtiftm; }uD; (2) OD;ukd atmifjrifco hJ l u|eaf wmfw. ‹dk (20) &mpk trsK;d om;ol&aJ umif; Akv d cf sKyf atmifqef;. *k%o f u d mQ jrifrh m;vSonfh orD;jzpfol a':atmifqef;pk-unftwGuf om aemufq;Hk tydwpf um; ae&moD;oef‹ xm;cJch siyf gonf? Ekid if jH cm;rS usL;ausmo f l rsm;xuf ykdrkdqkd;0g;vSonfh 1962 ckrSpcJhaom rdrdajray:wGifyif aygufzGm;cJhonfh tqufqufaom ppftm%m&Siw f . ‹dk raumif;qk;d 0g;tiftm;rsm;ukd z,f&mS ;ypf_yD;

(21) &mpk ,cktcsdeyf idk ;f wGif Ekid if . H vGwv f yfa&;ESihf *k%o f u d mQ ukd jyeftpm;xk;d Ekid f &ef olr.acgif;aqmifr+ukd olrtm; ae&mrSef ay;tyfjcif;cH&v#if atmifjrifrnf jzpfonf? wcsed w f nf;wGif t&Snt f -umcHpm;a&aom jrefrmEkid if o H m;rsm;ESihf vlt ‹ cGihf ta&;ESihf 'Dru dk a&pDqw d o f ek ;f cH&_y;D jyefvnfawmif;wae-uaom tjcm;tjcm;aom vly*k Kd~ vftm;vk;H olr. atmufygpum;ajym-um;csufrsm;wGif pdwt f m;wufp&m ar#mfvifch sufrsm;ukd awGŒ jrif&ayvdrrhf nf? Ak'0< g'w&m;oabmonf "rRu, dk u f sifw h &m;aumif;rGerf t + ay:wGif tajccH onf? tumtuG,frJh jynfoltay:wGif rajymif;rvJjyif;xefaom pnf;rsOf;rsm; csrSwEf idk o f nfh tiftm;tay:Y rwnfacs? pepfwck. rSeu f efru + dk tiftm;tenf; qkH;olrsm;tm; twdtusumuG,fay;Ekdifonfh yrm%jzifh tppftrSef wkdif;wmEkdif onf? w&m;r#wr+r&Sdaomae&mwGif vkH°cHpdwfcs&aom _idrf;csrf;r+ r&SdEkdifacs? tm%m&Sifpkd;rkd;r+ESifh zdESdyfr+ukd qefu ‹ sifI wGef;vSefr+ukd aemufqkH;tm;ukd;&mtjzpf vlom;taejzifh twGi;f tusy«f yvkycf iG rhf &Ekid v f #if vlt ‹ cGit hf a&;rsm;ukd Oya'pk;d rk;d r+ jzifh umuG,&f rnf[I l Ekid if w H umvlt ‹ cGit hf a&;a-unmcsupf mwef;u todtrSwf «yxm;onf? xkdw&m;r#waom Oya'rsm;onf vl‹tcGifhta&;rsm;ukd ukdifpGJxm; onfh _idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf vkdtyfaom tkyfjrpfjzpfonf? twkduftcHtm;vkH;ukd E+wfqdwfapjcif;ukd _idrf;csrf;a&;[l Ivnf;aumif; olwkd‹.tm%m tmrcHcsuf &Sjd cif;ukd vk°H cHa&;[lIvnf;aumif; t"dym` ,faumuf,x l m;onfh tod^m%fro hJ rl sm; 29 uom vlom;rsm;. vkH°cHpdwfcs&r+ukd jiif;y,f-uonf?

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272

Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô

272


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

pmwGJ vky}f uHrE+ iS fh ±H;k wifw&m;pGq J rkd w + ‹kd ESifh ywfoufaom a-u;eef;pmtcsKŒd (Selected telegrams Concerning the Assassination and Trial)

qm[l;bwf&ef‹rS avmhyufopfavm&ihx f o H ‹kd a-u;eef;pm/ tkid t f t kd m= trf§4§2504 (Sir Hubert Rance to Lord Pethick-Lawrence. Telegram, IOR: M/4/2504)

csufcsif;tjzpfq;kH ?

&efuek /f 1946/ pufwifbmv (21) &uf/ (23;00)em&D vufc&H &S/d pufwifbmv (21) &uf/ (21;50) em&D

eHygwf (121)/ bk&ifcHxHrS udk,fykdifa-u;eef;? ? (1) tpd;k &tdraf wmfrS xGucf mG _y;D r-umrD ,ae‹ ae‹v,fyikd ;f wGif OD;apm (xyfrH OD;apm) .toufudk &ef&Smr+jzpfay:cJhygonf? OD;apmu &Jt&m&Sdudk Todak‹ jymqdk onfrSm rdrdtpdk;&tdrfawmfrS jyefoGm;_yD; olonf ol‹ owif;pmwkduf (ol&d,) odk‹ oGm;_yD;aemuf ol‹XmecsKyfoo ‹kd mG ;I tpnf;ta0; ðyvkyyf gonf? (16;30) em&DwiG f tdrfodk‹ jyef&mY ol‹aemufum;xJrS ol‹vlESpfa,muf vdkufygvm-uygonf? tpdk;& tdrfawmfrS rdkif0ufcefw ‹ Gif&Sdaom jynfvrf;ay:&Sd ajreDukef;t0dkif;odkt ‹ a&mufwGif olonf ola‹ emufrS um;vdkufygvmjcif;&Sdr&Sd vSnfh-unfh&m/ xdktcsdefwGif *spfum; wpD;udk owdxm;rd_yD; t0kdif;. wbufodk‹ tauGŒtwufwGif olu ‹ m;onf t&Sdef avsmhoGm;&m/ xdktcsdefY jyefvSnfh-unfhjyef&m ol‹um;ESihf,SOfvsuf *spfum;udk awGŒrdygonf? ‚if;*spfum;xJwGif jynfol‹&Jabmf (xyfrH=jynfol‹&Jabmf) ,leD azmif;0wf (4) a,mufEiS fh aoewfajymif;wck olu ‹ m;bufcsed x f m;onfukd awGŒ&_y;D / aoewfwcsuf vS rf;ypfvdkufI/ olu ‹ m; jywif;aygufESpfckvHk; azmufxGufoGm;yg onf? xdk‹aemuf ‚if;*spfum;armif;xGufajy;oGm;_yD;/ ol‹um;udk &yfypfvdkuf&m/ OD;apmudk aoewfusnfqefrrSefaomfvnf; ol‹rsufvHk;w0dkuf rSefuGJprsm;jzihf uGJ&SoGm;_yD;/ rsufvHk;wvHk;rSm pdk;&drf&aom tajctaerSm &Sdygonf? xdktcsdefwGif tem;rS jzwfomG ;aom Oa&myvlrsK;d (2) OD;u olu ‹ kd aq;±Ho k ‹kd vdu k yf v ‹ kd u kd -f uygonf? OD;apm. twGif;a&;rª;u ‚if;tjzpftysufudk a,bk,stm;jzifh rSefuefa-umif; twnfðyajymqdyk gonf? olEiS fh vdu k yf gvmcJah om rsK;d cspyf gwD0ifrsm;tm; ppfaq;ar; jref;&mwGif &Jt&m&Sdrsm; ar#mfvifhouJhodk‹ ygwDcsif;wdkufyGJ.tp[k xGufqdk-u 273 273

ygonf? vGefcJhonfhESpf&ufu OD;apmu ol‹owif;pmrSaeI zqyvtzGJŒcsKyfudk jyif;jyif;xefxefpdefac:cJhygonf? qufvufpHkprf;ppfaq;r+rsm; ðyvkyfvsuf&Sd&m oihx f H tqufrjywf owif;ay;yda‹k eygrnf? 2? ,l*ef'gwGif &Sad om *smrefvrl sK;d / OD;apm. r,m;qdo k u l pd EP iS fh ywfoufI OD;apm. ZeD;onfu olESihf uGm&Sif;vdkpdwf jyif;jyaea-umif;vnf; pDtkdif'Du tpD&ifcyH gonf? 3? OD;atmifqef;/ OD;ay:xGe;f / a'gufwmbarmf/ OD;apmESihf OD;Apdew f u ‹kd kd usaemf ,ae‹awGŒqHkcJhygonf? OD;atmifqef;u ol‹tr+aqmiftzGJŒudk tpD&ifcH&rnfjzpfI reufjzef/ odr‹k [kwf we*FaEGae‹ ae‹v,fcif;/ odr‹k [kwf wevFmae‹ eHeufwiG f olu ‹ kd 1 u|efawmfxyfraH wGŒygrnf? 4? oydwftaetxm;t& tm;&p&mraumif; (xyfrH=raumif;) yg? tpnf;ta0;_y;D þtpnf;ta0;ESiþfh ,if;tpnf;ta0;rsm;wGiþf tpD&ifcpH mrsm;om wae‹v;kH -um;emae&ygonf?þreufjzefþwe*FaEGae‹/þae‹v,fwiG þf pt D ,fvaf tþ(CLA) aumfrDwD. vuf&Sd tzGJŒ0ifr[kwfawmhaom tzGJŒ0if (3) OD;udk u|efawmf awGŒyg onf? xko d rl sm;xJwiG f t&mxrf;/ tr+xrf;aygif;pHt k zGŒJcsKyf. OuU@vnf; yg&Syd grnf? qm[l;bwf&ef‹xHrS tm;vfatmhzv f pfw0kd (J vf) (Earl of Listowel) xHo‹kd a-u;eef;pm/ tkid t f t kd m= trf§4§2714 csufcsif; tjzpfq;kH ? &efuek /f 1947 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v f (19) &uf/ (12;00) em&D vufcH&&Sd? Zlvdkifv (19) &uf/ (08;40)em&D eHygwf 281/ bk&ifcx H rH S ud, k yf ikd af -u;eef;= ,ae‹eHeuf (10) em&DcGJwGif pwif;*ef;aoewfudkif ArmoHk;OD;u tr+aqmif tzGŒJ ukd tpnf;ta0;xkid af epOf wku d cf u dk rf ð+ yvky-f u&mwGif xdcu kd af oqH;k olrsm;æ aoqHk;= OD;&mZwf/ OD;bcsKd/ ocifjr/ OD;b0if;/ ref;bckdif '%f&m&olrsm;=OD;atmifqef;(&ifbwfaygufxu G 'f %f&m&)/þrdik ;f yGeaf pmfbmG ;/ 2 xyfrHI tjynfhtpHk tpDt&ifcHygrnf? tm'AvsL'Dazmifvm (R.W.D. Fowler) (bk&ifc. H acwWtwGi;f 0ef) xHrS qm*Dbwfvw d 0f w d f (Sir Gilbert Laithwaite) xHo‹kd a-u;eef;pm= tkid t f t kd m= trf§4§2714 csufcsif;tjzpfq;kH ? &efuek /f 1947 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v f (19) &uf/ (16;25) em&D 274 274


275

pmwGJ

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

vufcH&&Sd? Zlvdkifv (19) &uf/ (15;45) em&D eHygwf=282/ azmifvmrS vdw0f w d x f o H ‹kd / bk&ifc. H ud, k yf ikd af -u;eef;pm 281/ 1? tao;pdwt f csut f vufrsm;udk u|eaf wmfþ,ckay;Ekid yf g_y?D tr+aqmiftzGŒJ tpnf;ta0;ðyvkyaf epOf/ ,ae‹ eHeuf (10) em&Dcw JG iG f trSwf (12) ppfwyftrSwf tom;rsm;yg&Sad om *spu f m;wpD;onf t0ifwcH g;r}uD;Y xk;d &yfvmcJo h nf? *spu f m; xJwGif vlwa,mufusef&pfcJhonf? pwif;*ef;aoewfrsm;ESifh ±kdifz,faoewf (2) vufudkifaqmifxm;-uaom vl (5) a,mufonf tr+aqmiftzGJŒ tpnf;ta0; cef;rod‹k avSum;rS wufomG ;-uonf? cef;rwHcg;0tjyifbufY apmif-h uyfaeaom vufeufudkif jynfol‹&JabmfwOD;u olwdk‹udk wm;qD;&ef óud;pm;pOf aoewfjzifh typfcHvdkuf&onf? olu vufeufudkifaqmifvmolrsm;udk trSwf (4) Armh±kdif z,fwyfzGJŒ0ifrsm; jzpfonf[k ajymqdkcJhonf? olonf qkd;qkd;&Gm;&Gm; '%f&m&&SdcJh onfhtwGuf tao;pdwftcsuftvufrsm; ray;EkdifcJhyg? pwif;*ef;aoewfudkif vlo;kH a,mufonf tr+aqmiftzGŒJcef;rtwGi;f od‹k 0ifa&muf-u_y;D txJ&o dS rl sm;tm; olwa‹kd oewfrsm;jzifh w&-urf; ar$Œ&rf;ypfcwfc-hJ uonf? 2? atmufygxdcu kd af oqH;k olrsm;tm; twnfðyEkid yf g_yD? aoqH;k ol OD;atmif qef;/ OD;b0if;/ OD;tAŠ'&l mZwf/ ref;bcdik /f ocifjrESifh OD;tke;f armif (tr+aqmiftzGŒJ tpnf;ta0;wGif &Sad ecJah om yda‹k qmifa&;ESifh qufo, G af &;Xme= 'kw, d twGi;f 0ef)/ '%f&m&ol= 'D;'kwOf ;D bcsKd (pd;k &dr&f aom tajctaewGif &So d nf)/ rdik ;f yGeaf pmfbmG ; (tajctaeaumif;onf) ESihf udkaxG; (OD;tAŠ'l&mZwf. oufawmfapmihf)? 3? aysmfbG,fOD;jr/ OD;b*srf;/ OD;atmifZHa0ESihf OD;a&$abmf (tr+aqmiftzGJŒ. twGi;f 0ef) wdr‹k mS xdcu kd rf r+ &S?d apmpHz;kd oifonf c&D;xGuaf e_y;D ocifEo k nf tpnf; ta0;wGif &Srd aecJ?h 4? xdcdkufaoqHk;olrsm;tm; aESmihfaES;jcif;r&SdbJ aq;±Hk}uD;odk‹ ydk‹cJhonf? &JwyfzŒJGtaejzifh tajctaeudk oGuv f ufxufjrufpmG udik w f , G af qmif&u G Ef idk cf yhJ &kH ygonf? 5? ,cktjzpftysufonf taxGaxGtHkºuGr+}uD;. tpdwftydkif;w&yf jzpfrjzpf jyo onfh t&dyfta,mifwpHkw&m r&Sdao;yg? tvHeDuGefjrLepfrsm;u Twdu k cf u kd rf + tpDtpOfukd odaecJo h nfh t&dyt f a,mifrsm;&So d nf? vuf&t dS pd;k &u olwdk‹tay: jyif;jyif;xefxef ta&;,laqmif&Guf&ef pOf;pm;vdrfhrnfudk tjcm; twdu k t f cHygwDrsm;u a-umufvefa‹ ea-umif; ,H-k unf&onf? Tonfu twku d f tcHygwDtm;vHk;u ,ckwdkufcdkufr+tpDtpOfudk xdefcsefv#KdŒ0Sufxm;cJhyHk&a-umif;

jyqdkvsuf&Sd aomfvnf; taxmuftxm;r&Sdyg? 6? bk&ifcHtaejzifh AkdvfcsKyf b&pf (*f)/ AkdvfcsKyfaomrwf (pf)/ &JwyfzGJŒ ppfaq;a&; t&m&Scd sKyftjyif jynfwiG ;f vHòk cHa&;ESifh ywfoufaom tjcm;yk*Kd~ vfrsm;ESifh ,ae‹eeH uf awGŒqakH qG;aEG;r+rsm; ðyvkycf o hJ nf? ArmhppfXmecsKyftaejzifh aemifjzpf vmrnfhjy\emrsm;twGuf óudwifjyifqifr+rsm; ðyvkyfvsuf&Sdonf? 7? bk&ifcHtaejzifh avmavmq,fwGif ocifEk/ OD;atmifZHa0/ aysmfbG,f OD;jrwdk‹ESihf wdkifyif!SdE+dif;vsuf&Sdonf? tr+aqmiftzGJŒopfzGJŒpnf;a&; tqdkðycsuf owif;rsm;ESit fh wl aemufxyfa-u;eef;pmudk ,if;wkid yf if!EdS id+ ;f r+ _yD;_yD;csif; xyfrH ay;ydy‹k grnf?

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276

qm[l;bwf&ef‹xHrS tm;vfatmhzv f pfw0kd J (vf)xHo‹kd a-u;eef;pm/ tkid t f t dk m= trf§4§2714 csufcsif;tjzpfq;kH ? &efuek /f 1947 ckEpS /f Zlvidk v f (20) &uf/ (10;15) em&D vufcH&&Sd? Zlvdkif (20) &uf/ (08;00) em&D eHygwf 287/ bk&ifc. H ud, k yf ikd af -u;eef;/ u|Ekyf af y;yd‹k aom a-u;eef;pm trSwf (281) ESihf qufwu kd af y;yd‹k aom a-u;eef;pmrsm;? OD;apmtay:wGif oHo,jzpfr+ A[dðk yvsu&f o dS nf? ,refae‹ eHeuf (11) em&D xd;k _yD;_yD;csif; pGyu f s,ftusôrsm; 0wfxm;aom vl (5) OD;vku d yf gvmvsuf *spfum; wpD; OD;apmaetdro f ‹kd a&muf&v dS mcJo h nf? ,refae‹/ ae‹v,fyikd ;f wGif OD;apm.tdru f kd &Jrsm;u 0ifa&mufp;D eif;cJ_h yD; OD;apmESifh vl (10) OD;tm; óudwifumuG,o f nft h ae jzihf xdef;odrf;cJhonf? ±kdifz,f (18) vufESihf pwif;*ef;wvuf awGŒ&SdcJhonf? _cH0if;twGi;f &Sd *spu f m;wGif aemufbufY eHygwfjym;r&Syd g? eHeufcif;wGif 0ifa&muf pD;eif;wkdufckdufcJholrsm; toHk;ðyaom *spfum;wGifvnf; aemufbufY eHygwfjym; r&S[ d k ,H-k unf&ygonf? qm[l;bwf&ef‹xHrS tm;vfatmhzv f pfw0kd J (vf) xHo‹kd a-u;eef;pm/ tkid t f t kd m=trf§4§2715 csufcsif;tjzpfq;kH ? &efuek /f 1947 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v f (21) &uf/ (16;25) em&D vufcH&&Sd? Zlvdkifv (21) &uf/ (15;00) em&D eHygwf 294/ bk&ifc. H ud, k yf ikd af -u;eef;/

276


277

pmwGJ

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

1? jrefrmowif;pmtcsKdŒu _Adwdo#qefu ‹ sifonfh vrf;a-umif;udk ,ae‹ wGif wdwdususcsrSwfvmcJhonf? jrefrmEkdifiHudk bk&ifhtifydkif,mtwGif;wGif qufvuf xde;f odr;f xm;&Sv d akd om bk&ift h pd;k &. rl0g'ESifh vdu k af vsmnDaxGjzpfrnfh tpd;k &w&yf zGŒJ pnf;Ekid af &;twGuf _Adwo d #wdu ‹k twku d t f cHukd vufeufrsm; xkwf ay;cJh_yD; tr+aqmiftzGJŒudk wdkufcdkufcJhjcif;jzpfonf[k aumv[vrsm; ysHŒEHSŒvsuf &So d nf? u|Eyfk t f aejzihf vGecf o hJ nfh (10) &uftwGi;f OD;apmESifh a'gufwmbarmfwu ‹ kd kd awGŒqckH _hJ yD; tu,fI zqyv usomG ;cJv h #if tpd;k &zGŒJ Eidk af &;twGuf óudwifjyifqif xm;&ef ajym-um;cJah -umif; owif;a&;om;ay;ydr‹k r+ sm;vnf; ysŒHEŒHSvsu&f o dS nf? u|Eykf f onf ocifEEk iS fh ,ckyifawGŒc_hJ y;D ‚if;aumvm[vrsm;. vH;k 0rSm;,Gi;f r+EiS fh tu,f I ,ae‹vuf&Sd owif;pmwdk‹.rludk qufvufv$wfay;xm;ygu jzpfay:vmrnfh a-umufrufzG,fqdk;usKd;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI txl;ðyajymqdkcJhonf? tu,fI jzpf Ekdifv#if ,ae‹yif owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJw&yf ac:,lusif;y&efESifh tpdk;&taejzihf a&'D,rdk S toHvi$ x fh w k af -unmay;&ef OD;Ekukd u|Eyfk af jymqdck o hJ nf? OD;Eku oabm wlcyhJ gonf? 2? b&if;*ef;aoewfrsm;ESifh cJ,rf;rD;ausmuf tajrmuftjrm; aysmufqHk;r+ onf t}uD;tus,fpdwfv+yf&Sm;zG,fjzpfcJhonfrSm oHo,jzpfzG,fr&Sdyg? ‚if;tjyif _Aw d o d #t&m&Srd sm;þyg0ifywfoufaeyH&k aomfvnf; ,ckxw d ikd f wdwu d susþtaxmuf txm; r&Sdao;yg? Ttr+udk ppfaq;&ef txl;cHk±Hk;zGJŒ&ef OD;Ekuvdkvm;_yD; Todk‹ aqmif&u G jf cif;jzifh jynfov l x l k at;aq;_ird o f ufomG ;vdrrhf nf[k olu awG;ygonf? ppfwyf. pdk;&drfr+abmiftwGif;rS u|Ekfyftaejzihf ,if;odk‹aom cHk±Hk;. Oya'±+ axmifhrsm;ESihf ywfoufI raocsm ra&&mvSyg? odk‹ jzpfI oif.t}uHay;r+udk vdkvm;vsuf&Sdygonf? *sDtkdpDESihf wkdifyifaqG;aEG;&ef ruf*GdKif,mudk u|Ekfyfapv$wf vdu k yf gonf?

(c) tpdk;&taejzifh Towif;xkwfjyefa-unmcsufudk toHk;ðyvsuf&Sd_yD; vlxt k wGi;f us,jf yefE‹ idk o f r# us,jf yefp‹ mG od&adS p&eftwGuf aqmif&u G &f ef wdik ;f rif; }uD;rsm;ESifh ta&;ydkifrif;rsm;tm;vHk;tm; óud;rJha-u;eef;jzifh today;&ef? owif;xkwjf yefa-unmcsuf “*k%fusufoa&jrifhrm;vSaom OD;atmifqef;ESifh tjcm; tr+aqmif aumifpt D zGŒJ 0ifrsm;tm; r-umao;rDu ol&aJ bmenf;pGm owfjzwfcrhJ w + iG f _Adwo d # bk&ift h pd;k &tzGŒJEiS fh jrefrmEkid if . H bk&ifcw H ‹kd qufpyfaeonf[al om aumvm[v rsm;þjynfov l x l t k wGi;f tcsKŒdae&mXmersm;Y ysŒHEŒSH jzpfay:vsu&f ydS gonf? Taumvm [vrsm;onf vHk;0tajctjrpfr&Sdyga-umif;ESihf _Adwdo# bk&ifhtpdk;&/ bk&ifcHESihf jrefrmtpd;k &wdt ‹k -um; eD;pyfaom em;vnfrr+ sm; &Sad ea-umif; jrefrmtpd;k &taejzifh odaptyfygonf? aESmihfaES;-uef‹ -umr+tenf;qHk;jzihf w&m;cHrsm;tm; ta&;,lEkdif &ef _Adwo d #bk&iht f pd;k &/ bk&ifcEH iS fh jrefrmtpd;k &wdo ‹k nf wufºuGpmG yl;aygif;aqmif &Guv f suf&adS eyga-umif;”

twGi;f a&;/ 0ef}uD;csKyf±;kH cef;/ &efuek /f 1947 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v f (25) &uf Todq ‹k ;kH jzwfvu kd o f nf? (u) *k%fusufoa&ESihf jynfhpHkvSaom OD;atmifqef;ESifh ol. vkyfazmfudkif buftcsKdŒudk ol&Jabmenf;vSpGm owfjzwfcJhr+wGif bk&ifhtpdk;&ESihf jrefrmEkdifiH. bk&ifcw H ‹kd wpHw k &mta&;,laqmif&u G &f ef vdt k yfonfEiS fh ywfoufI oHo,rsm; uif;a0;oGm;ap&ef atmufazmfjyyg owif;a-unmcsuu f kd jrefrm=t*Fvyd Ef pS b f m omjzifh csufcsif;xkwjf yefay;&efEiS fh æ

qm[l;bwf&ef‹xHrS tm;vfatmhzv f pfw0kd J (vf) xHo‹kd a-u;eef;pm/ tkid t f t kd m=trf§4§2715 csufcsif;tjzpfq;kH ? &efuek /f 1947 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v f (28) &uf/ 12;15 em&D v#KdŒ0Suf? vufcH&&Sd/ Zlvikd v f (28) &uf/ (14;30) em&D eHygwf 313/ bk&ifc. H ud, k yf ikd af -u;eef;/ 1? oif. 1689/ Zlvidk v f (26) &uf tjzpftysurf sm;udk tpOftwkid ;f od&adS p &efESifh tu,fI ta&;w}uD;jy\em jrefrmEkdifiHwGif ay:aygufvmygu ppfwyf taejzifh wm0eftcsK;d }uD;}uD;rm;rm;udk rvGrJ aoG vufc&H ,lvrd rhf nfjzpfa-umif;udk 0rf;enf;pGmjzifh jyoEkid &f ef atmufygtwdik ;f u|Efyk f óud;pm;wifjyxm;ygonf? 1? umuG,fa&;Xme/ jrefrmEkdifiHtpdk;&tzGJŒESihf òrd›jy&JwyfzGJŒwdk‹ wufa&muf aom tywfpOfðyvkyfonfh jynfwGif;vHkòcHa&;&m tpnf;ta0;rsm;Y tcsdeftawmf -umuyif òrd›jyt&m&Sdrsm;u vufeufodkavSmif±Hkrsm;rS vufeufrsm; cdk;xkwfr+ jzpfymG ;cJah -umif; tp&So d jzifh pGypf rJG r+ sm; ðyvkycf o hJ nf? umuG,af &;XmerS wm0ef&o dS l rsm;u pHpk rf;ppfaq;r+rsm; pwifðyvkyrf nfjzpfa-umif; tmrcHcsufay;cJ-h uonf? 2? Zlvikd v f (15) &ufae‹wiG f OD;atmifqef;ESifh ,m,DjynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;jzpfol aysmf bG,fOD;jrwdk‹ u|EkfyfESifhvma&mufawGŒqHk_yD; yifrvufeufwdkuf (Base Ord-

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

rod&ol wdv ‹k ufxo J ‹dk oDwif;ywftawmf-um-umuyif v$aJ jymif;ay;cJah -umif; avhvmod&dS &onf[k ajymqdck -hJ uonf? (wu,fjzpfysucf o hJ nfh &ufpt JG wdtusrmS ZGev f (24) &ufjzpfonf)? Tvufeufaysmufq;kH r+/ aysmufq;kH csed Ef iS fh jyefvnfawGŒ&cdS sed t f -um; tcsed f tvGet f rif;uGm[aeonft h wGuf ,if;vufeufrsm; Ekid if t H wGi;f ,cktcsed f wGif jzef‹a0xm;_yD;avmuf jzpfEkdifajc&SdonfhtwGuf OD;atmifqef; tvGeftrif; pdk;&drfvsuf&SdonfrSm obm0usayonf? jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;u tpdk;&taejzifh jrefjrefqefqef vkyfaqmif&rnfjzpf_yD; us,fus,fjyef‹ jyef‹ zrf;qD;&vdrfhrnf[k u|Efkyftm; ajymcJhonf? pHkprf;ppfaq;r+rðyvkyfEkdifrD twdkuftcHacgif;aqmiftm; vHk;ESihf olwdk‹. vufaxmufrsm;udk óudwifumuG,fonfhtaejzifh xdef;odrf;&ef &nf&G,fa-umif; ola‹ jym-um;csufrS u|Ekfyf em;vnfvdkufygonf? 3? xdkae‹rSmyif *sDtdkpD (GOC) udk u|EkfyfawGŒcJh&m bDtdk'D (BOD) taejzifh ,if;udpu P kd ,H-k unfpw d cf spmG aqmif&u G cf jhJ cif;jzpfa-umif; olu u|Eyfk u f kd today;yg onf? òrdj› y&Jrsm;taejzifhom b&if;*ef;tvuf (500) xkwfcGihf&&SdcJh_yD; ,if;xkwf ,lciG rhf S tcsdet f wef-um vufeufrsm;udk xkw, f al ecJyh gonf? ZGev f (24) &ufae‹ wGif &Jrsm;[k ,H-k unf&aom tzGŒJwzGŒJ bDt'kd o D a‹kd &muf&v dS m_y;D vufrw S t f jynft h pHk xk;d xm;aom trSet f uef taxmuftxm; pm&Gupf mwrf;tjynft h pHjk zifh b&if;*ef; aoewfusnfqH r*~Zif;rsm;udk xkwf,loGm;cJhonf? pHkprf;a&;cHk±Hk;. awGŒ&Sdcsufudk u|Efkyftaejzifh rawGŒ&ao;aomfvnf; &Jrsm;udkxkwf,lcGihfðycJhaom b&if;*ef; aoewfta&twGufrSm tvuf (500) r[kwfbJ tvuf (100) omjzpfa-umif; ,Hk-unfygonf? vGefcJhonfh (2) &uf/ (3) &ufcef‹u u|Efkyfa&S›wGifyif jynfxJa&; 0ef}uD;u ,cifu b&if;*ef;aoewfrsm;udk xkwfay;cJhonfrSm (10) vufxuf rydkcJh (xyfrH=rydkcJh) a-umif;/ xkwfay;cGihf rSefuefa-umif;udkvnf; w,fvDzkef;jzifh qufoG,fI twnfðyavh&Sda-umif;/ odk‹aomf ,ckw}udrfwGifrl xkdodk‹ rðyvkyfcJh (xyfrH=rðyvkyfcJh) a-umif;/ &Jum;rsm;. eHygwfrsm;udkvnf; bDtdk'Du t_rJrSwf om;xm;a-umif;/ oda‹k omf ,cktr+wiG rf l xdo k ‹kd rðyvkycf hJ (xyfr=H rðyvkycf )hJ a-umif;/ &Jum;rsm;rSm tvG,fwulyif odomvG,faomfvnf; &J[efaqmiftzGJŒtaejzifh rnfonft h rSwt f om;rS rygaom x&yfum;udk toH;k ðyoGm;cJah -umif; *st D pkd u D kd ajym -um;cJhygonf? pHkprf;a&;cHk±Hk;ESihf rawGŒ&ao;rD jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;. rSwfcsufrsm; rnfr# rSeu f efonfukd u|Efyk t f aejzifh twnfrðyEkid f (xyfr=H rðyEdik )f ao;yg? 4? yifrcJ,rf;rD;ausmufwu dk . f wm0efct H &m&Sjd zpfojl zpf_yD; yifrvufeuf

wdkufESihf qufEG,fvsuf&Sdol ar*smrdk; (Major Moore) rSm pHkprf;ppfaq;r+rsm;t& oHo, t&SdcHae&a-umif; *sDtdkpDu Zlvdkifv (15) &ufae‹wGif pum;ajymaepOf xkwfazmfajymqdkcJhygonf? ar*smrdk;onf ppftwGif;uvnf; tkdifattdkpD (IAOC) . t&mcHAv kd b f 0wGiyf if tdE, dN Y vufeufrw + iG f ywfoufczhJ ;l a-umif; ,H-k unf& ygonf? ‚if;tjyif ppfrjzpfrD jrefrmEkid if YH tdik af ttdpk . D tifpt D kd (NCO) b0Yvnf; olonf òrdj› y&J. oHo,&SdcH&aom pm&if;wGif rSwfom;cHcJh&a-umif; ,Hk-unf&yg onf? OD;apmu t&ufr;l rl;jzifh a&uefxw J iG f jr‡Kyfxm;onfh vufeuftawmfrsm; rsm; olw ‹ iG &f adS -umif;/ olu ‹ kd (ar*smrd;k ud)k ajymcJah -umif; ar*smrd;k u xGuq f ckd o hJ nf [k *st D pdk u D u|Eykf u f kd ajymjyygonf? vufeufaysmufq;kH r+ukd pwifppkH rf;ppfaq;ae onfukd ol odonft h wGuf olt ‹ ay: oHo,r0ifap&ef ar*smrd;k u ,if;odx ‹k u G q f kd cJhjcif;jzpfvdrfhrnf[k olxifa-umif; *sDtdkpDu u|Ekfyfudk ajymjyygao;onf? OD;apm taejzifh xdo k ‹kd xkwaf zmfajymqdjk cif;rSm rjzpfEidk af -umif; *st D pkd u D awG;cJyh gao;onf? ,ck tcsed Yf u|Eyfk t f aejzifh ar*smrd;k . xGuq f ckd sut f jynft h pHu k v kd nf;aumif;/ ,if; xGuq f ckd surf mS pma&;om;xGuq f rkd + jzpfrjzpfuv kd nf;aumif; rodao;yg (atmuf&dS tydk'f 11= udk -unfhyg)? ,if;xGufqdkcsufrSm E+wfjzifh xGufqdkcsufoufoufom jzpfvrd rhf nf[k u|Eyfk x f ifygonf? 5? cspf-unfa&; udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒ. xkwfjyefa-unmcsufESihfywfoufI OD;atmifqef;ESihf ocifEu k kd Zlvidk v f (10) &ufae‹wiG f u|Eyfk af wGŒcyhJ gonf? b&if;*ef; aoewfrsm; aysmufq;kH r+ta-umif;aqG;aEG;&if; pum;pyfrI d OD;apmu aoewfrsm; udk a&uefxw J iG f 0Sux f m;a-umif; aumvm[vjzpfae_yD; ,if;a&uefukd ydu k pf yd f wkduf &Smoihfa-umif; u|Ekfyfu OD;atmifqef;udk t}uHðyajymqdkcJhygonf? 6? aq;±Hkwufaeaom zdvpfeuf (&Sf) (Philip Nash) xH Zlvdkifv (18) &ufae‹wGif u|EkfyfoGm;a&mufcJh&m vufeufrsm;aysmufqHk;r+udk olod&Sdaea-umif; u|EfkyfodcJh&yg onf? _Adwdo#t&m&Sdrsm; (aemifwGif 'Dtufpftdk (DSO) jzpfol [ef‹ (Hunt) jzpfrSef; od&onf) u ntcsdefwGif OD;apm. bef*vdktdrfudk ppfajrjyifoHk; rSefajymif;rsm;jzifh apmihf-unfhaecJh&m/ OD;apmudk vl (4=5) a,mufESihftwl avSwpD;twGif; r-umc%qkdouJhodk‹ rouFmzG,ftajctaersm;wGif awGŒ&SdcJh& a-umif; euf(&Sf) u u|Ekfyfudk xyfrHowif;ay;cJhjyefygonf? OD;apmrSm tpOfojzifh 0wfaumif;pm;vSESihf jzpfojzihf xkdokda‹ pmihf-unhfaeolrsm;u rdef;rr+yifjzpfrnf[k xifc-hJ uygonf? 7? cspf-unfa&; udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒ. xkwfjyefa-unmcsufESihf ywfoufI

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pmwGJ

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

xdkae‹aemufydkif;wGif ocifEkudk u|EkfyfxyfrHawGŒcJhygonf? OD;apm. tdrfab;&Sd a&uefukd ydu k pf yd w f u dk &f mS &ef ocifEu k kd u|Ekyf w f u kd w f eG ;f cJ_h yD;/ nydik ;f apmih-f unho f l rsm;. owif;ay;ydrk‹ +udk olt ‹ m; u|EfkyfajymjycJhygonf? bDtdk'DESihf rdkifrsm;pGma0;_yD; r*Fvm'Hkajrmufbuf&Sd yifrcJ,rf;rD;ausmufwdkuf (AOD) rS cJ,rf;rD;ausmuf tajrmuftjrm; Zlvdkif v (12) &ufu aysmufqHk;cJha-umif; ocifEku u|Ekfyfudk ajymjyygonf? bDtdk'DwGif vkyfaqmifcJhouJhodk‹yif ðyvkyfcJhyHk&_yD; ,if;vdrfvnfr+ rSmvnf; atmifjrifoGm;cJhjyefygonf? ,if;cdk;,lr+jzpfyGm;_yD; wem&Dcef‹t-umwGif ,if;odkavSmif±Hkodk‹ OD;apma&muf&SdvmcJh_yD; vufzuf&nfyif aomufoGm;cJhonf[k ,H-k unf&a-umif; ocifEu k pdwv f y+ &f mS ;zG,o f wif;udk ajymjycJyh gonf? ,if;cd;k ,lr+ udk Zlvikd v f (18) &ufae‹/ ae‹v,fyikd ;f wGif Akv d rf ;ª csKyf euf (&S)f u u|Eyfk u f kd twnf ðyay;cJyh gonf? 8? Zlvikd v f (19) &ufae‹rmS vky}f uHrj+ zpfymG ;onfah e‹ jzpfonf? -urRmiifonfh xkad e‹ u u|Eykf t f aejzifh tpnf;ta0; trsm;tjym;xkid cf &hJ &m wckaom tpnf;ta0; wGif aemuf&ufjzpfonfh Zlvdkifv (20) &ufwGif óudwifumuG,fonfhtaejzihf vl (2˜000) cefu ‹ dk xdef;odrf;&ef pDpOfxm;a-umif; tkdif*sDyD (IGP) u u|Ekfyfudk ajymjy cJo h nf? tr+aqmifaumifpD tpnf;ta0;&Sad ea-umif; vltrsm;odaeonft h wGuf vkyf}uHowfjzwf&ef Zlvdkifv (19) &ufudkyif óudwifowfrSwfcJhjcif; jzpfEkdifonfh tjyif/ t}uHðyxm;onfh &SmazGzrf;qD;rnfh owif;ayguf-um;oGm;onfhtwGuf vky}f uHorl sm;taejzifh csucf si;f vufiif;vkyaf qmifvu dk &f jcif;vnf; jzpfEidk yf gonf? 9? vky}f uHowfjzwforl sm;. pdwx f J awG;xifxm;-uonfrsm;udrk l em;vnf &ef cufcyJ gonf? twku d t f cHbufrS tcsKdŒtiftm;pkrsm;u vufeufrsm;udk ck;d ,lpk aqmif;_yD; vufeufudkif vlxktHkºuGr+udk wpwp jyifqifoGm;jcif;jzifh tm%mudk wkdufcdkuf&,l&ef pDpOfjcif;jzpfvdrfhrnf[k u|Efkyfxifjrifrdygonf? vufeuftenf; i,fukd cd;k xkw&f mY vdrv f nfru + kd rppfaq;rdbJ atmifjrifco hJ nft h wGuf vufeuf tajrmuftjrm; (bDt'kd ED iS fh bDat'Du odak vSmifxm;onfEiS hf ,SOv f #if tenf;i,f r#om) udk cdk;xkwfv#ifvnf; odkavSmif±Hk&Sd t&m&Sdrsm;ESifh rdwfaqGzGJŒEkdifcJhv#if rppf aq;rdbJ vGwaf jrmufEidk o f nf[k twif&h v J myH&k ygonf? _Adwo d # bk&ifw h yfrawmf taejzifh jrefrmjynfwiG f tiftm;tawmftoih&f adS ecJ&h m ,cktcsed w f iG f twdu k t f cH taejzifh tm%modrf;&ef óud;pm;vdrfhrnf[k u|Efkyfr,Hk-unfyg? bk&ihfwyfrawmf xGucf mG oGm;_yD; vtenf;i,f-umonftxd oifah wmfonfh tcsdew f ikd af tmif apmihf qdik ;f jcif;onfom usK;d a-umif;qDavsmo f nfh tpDtpOfjzpfayvdrrhf nf? zqyvacgif;

aqmifrsm;udk vkyf}uHjcif;jzifh ppftpkd;&w&yf zGJŒpnf;&vdrhfrnf[k twkduftcHu ar#mfvifhawmihfwcJhyHk&_yD; acgif;aqmifrsm; qHk;±+H;cJhr+u tcsdef-umvmonfESihftr# zqyvtwGif; t}uD;tus,fuGJ_yJvdrhfrnf[k awG;xifcJhyHk&ygonf? &Sif;&Sif;vif; vif; pOf;pm;a&;qGx J m;aom tem*wftpDtpOfr&Sb d v J suf rif;rJt h ajctaew&yf . tóuded'gef;tjzpf rdrd.yk*~dKvfa&;&efolrsm;udk yxrOD;qHk; vufonfw&m;cH rsm;u pDpOfvyk }f uHowfjzwfr+ jzpfEidk af csudk u|Ekyf w f ‹kd owdrrlrjrifI rjzpfyg? 10? tywfpOfðyvkyfaeusjzpfaom jynfwGif;vkHòcHa&;&m tpnf;ta0;wGif e,fbufqidk &f mESifh umuG,af &;Xmersm;t-um;wGif pdwcf pH m;r+ wpHw k &m twdik ;f twmtxd jzpfay:aea-umif; u|Ekfyftm; tpD&ifcH-uonf? vufeufcdk;,lr+ESifh vky}f uHrw + a‹kd -umihf ppfwyftaejzifh ta&;,laqmif&u G cf rhJ r+ sm;udk e,fbufqidk &f m taejzifh rod&SdcJh&onfhtwGuf e,fbufqkdif&m tm%mydkifrsm;taejzifh apm'u wufvsu&f o dS nf? od‹k jzpfI u|Eyfk o f nf *st D pkd /D bD*st D uf (pf) (BGS)/ jynfxaJ &;0ef }uD;ESifh umuG,fa&;qdkif&m aumifq,fvmwdk‹t-um; tpnf;ta0;w&yfudk u|Ekfyf±Hk;cef;wGif aemufw&ufY pDpOfcJh_yD; ppfwyfrS qufoG,fa&;t&m&SdwOD;udk tpk;d &xHo‹kd ae‹pOfapv$waf y;&ef pDpOfco hJ nf? 11? vkyf}uHr+jzpf_yD;aemuf EkdifiHtEHS‹tjym; a-umufvef‹r+rsm; rif;rlvsuf&Sd onf? vufeufwdkufrsm;rS vufeufrsm; trsm;tjym;tcdk;cHcJh&r+tay: aumvm [vrsm;ESihf xifa-u;ay;r+rsm; xyfaqmif;I jzpfay:vmonfh todw&m;tay: tajccH_yD; _Adwo d #qefu ‹ sifa&;v+a‹H qmfrr+ sm; ay:aygufvmonf? ,if;v+a‹H qmfrr+ mS &uftwef-um trSeyf if wnf&adS ecJo h nf? OD;EkEiS fh tjcm;yk*Kd~ vfrsm;. pGr;f aqmifr+ a-umifh ,if;wif;rmr+rmS vGecf o hJ nfh ESp&f ufo;kH &uftwGi;f wdwyd y ,kwaf vsmo h mG ; cJhonf? ZGefv (26) &ufae‹wGif ppfaq;a&;t&m&SdwOD;tm; ueOD;xGufqdkcJh_yD; Zlvdkifv (5) &ufae‹wGif pmtm;jzihf 'DyDtrf ArmhppfOD;pD;Xmeodk‹ xyfrHa&;om;ay; cJah om rd;k . xGuq f ckd sufryl mG ;wapmifukd *sDtpkd ED iS fh bD*sDtuf (pf) jzpfol Akv d rf ;ª csKyf k‹ Zlvdkifv (25) &ufae‹/ eHeufcif;wGif u|EkfyfxH vma&muf_yD; *sL (cf) (Duke) wdu jyocJ-h uonf? aemufxyfay;yda‹k om a-u;eef;pmwGif xyfrI H oihx f H ðyvkycf ahJ om ‚if;xGufqdkcsufudk *sLŒ (cf) u trSwfrJharhavsmhum pDtkdif'Dtm; jyocJhjcif;r&Sdyg? (xyfr=H r&Syd g)? zD;vfrm&S,af rmif*h rkd m&D. tvnfc&D;pOftwGuf *st D pkd ED iS fh bD*st D uf (pf) (*sLŒc)f wd‹k puFmyloa‹kd &muf&adS epOf ,if;xGuq f cdk sufukd &&Scd jhJ cif;jzpfonf? jyef a&mufvm_yD;aemuf *sLŒ (cf) onf *sDtdkpDtm; jy_yD;aemuf ‚if;xGufqdkcsufpmudk odrf;qnf;xm;vdkufonf? yxr bDtdk'DESihf xdk‹aemuf bDat'DY jzpfyGm;cJhaom

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283

pmwGJ

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

vufeufckd;xkwfr+rsm;udk azmfxkwfawGŒ&Sd_yD;onfhwdkif ‚if;xGufqdkcsufpmESihf pm twGi;f yg ta-umif;t&mrsm;. tvGet f rif; ta&;ygr+ukd *sLŒ(cf) taejzifh trSwf &jcif;r&Sad cs? vky}f uHr}+ uD;jzpfymG ;_yD;rSom *sLŒ (cf) onf trSw&f rdvm_yD; wif;rmr+ rsm; avsmeh nf;vmonfEiS fh ,if;udpu P kd tpD&ifc&H ef qH;k jzwfco hJ nf? *sLŒ (cf) taejzifh udpw P &yfv;kH tay:wGif tvGeyf iG v fh if;_yD; tjypfwifrr+ eS o f r#udk cH,cl o hJ nf? Zlvikd f v (8) &ufae‹wiG f rd;k . xGuq f ckd sufukd olyxrawGŒ&o dS nfEiS fh ta&;,lrð+ y_yD;jzpf _yD; e,fbufqidk &f m tm%mydik rf sm;udv k nf; today;_yD; jzpfrnf[k oHo,r&Sd pOf; pm;rdcJh_yD; ,if;uJhodk‹ jzpfrjzpfudkrl uHta-umif; raumif;vSpGm twnfðycJhjcif;r&Sd [k avsmhayghI qd&k ayvdrrfh nf? 12? pDtdkif'D. ppfaq;r+rS rdk;. xGufqkdcsuf&SdaecJhr+onf usdef;aoeD;yg; ay:aygufayrnf? ,if;owif;om jynfolvlxkod&SdcJhv#if _Adwdo#qef‹usifa&; twGuf cHpm;csuo f nf tpk;d &dr&f qH;k tqiho f ‹kd a&muf&o dS mG ;ayrnf? ,refae‹ nae cif;wGif u|Efyk o f nf ocifE/k aysmfb, G Of ;D jr/ *sDtpkd ED iS fh bD*sDtuf (pf) wku ‹d kd u|Ekyf x f H ac:vdkuf_yD; ta-umif;raumif;onfh ,if;udpPudk jyefvnfajymjycJhonf? jrefrm 0ef}uD;rsm;taejzifh ,if;udpPudk wav;wrlðy-u_yD; ,if;owif; jynfolvlxkod onfESihf jzpfay:vmrnfh tEœ&m,fESihf owif;Xmersm;uvnf; ,if;odk‹odcJhv#if vky}f uHr}+ uD;udk ajymif;vJEidk v f rd rfh nf[k us,u f s,af vmifavmif awmif;qdak &;om; vmrnfhta&;udkvnf; 0efcHajymqdk-uonf? ,if;owif;rayguf-um;a&;rSm txl;cufcaJ -umif; olwe‹kd m;vnfoabmayguf-u_y;D olww ‹kd wfEidk o f r# uln&D efukd vnf; uwdðy-uonf? 13? txufazmfjyyg tjzpftysufrsm;udk oHk;oyf_yD;v#if 0ef}uD;csKyf. ajz&Sif;csufudk u|Ekfyfxuf ta&;aumif;olwOD;uom ydkrdkwwfEdkifvdrfhrnf[k u|Ekfyf0efcH&ayrnf? tpkd;&taejzihf jypfr+ESihf ywfoufonfh owif;tenf; tusO;f udo k m xkwaf y;vsu&f o dS nf? oda‹k omfvnf; vufeufc;kd xkwrf E+ iS hf vky}f uHr+ }uD;. t"duvufonfrmS wOD;wnf;yifjzpfrnf[k olw ‹ o ‹kd o H ,uif;pGm tckid t f rm awGŒ&Sd_yD;jzpf_yD[k u|Ekfyfem;vnfrdonf (OD;apm[k ,lq&onf)? ol‹taejzifh t"duvufonfEiS hf tjcm;}uH&mygrsm; qufE, G rf u + kd awGŒ&adS zmfxw k &f efEiS hf v#KŒd0u S f yl;aygif;}uHpnfr+}uD; wckvHk;udk tptqHk;azmfxkwf&ef óud;pm;vsuf&Sd-uonf? 0ef}uD;csKyftaejzifh vltrsm; od_yD;jzpfonfhtwGuf vufeufcdk;xkwfr+udk udk;um; Ekid o f nf?þoda‹k omfvnf; twdtusta&twGux f uf vufeufEiS fh cJ,rf;rD;ausmuf tajrmuftjrm;[kom ajymoihfonf[k t}uHðyxm;ygonf? rdk;ESihfywfoufI

xyfrHajymqdkr+/ xyfrHukd;um;r+ rðyoihfyg? ppfwyftaejzifh pHkprf;ppfaq;a&; cHk±Hk; rsm;udk csufcsif;pwifcahJ omfvnf; tcsKdŒoufaorsm;udk tvG,w f ul r&&SEd ikd af o; onfhtwGuf tcsdef,l&ayvdrhfrnf? TonfrSm wEkdifiHvHk;udk csufcsif;aomfvnf; aumif;/ r-umrjrihfrDwGifvnf;aumif; rif;rJhtaetxm;a&muf&SdoGm;ap&ef v#KdŒ0u S yf ;l aygif;}uHpnfrj+ zpfonfrmS ,Hrk mS ; oHo,jzpfp&mr&Syd gacs? 14? qufvufjzpfay:wd;k wufrr+ sm;udk qufvufI u|Eyfk t f pD&ifcaH eygrnf? 3 “-urRmqkd;onf wOD;wnf; vmcJonf” [laom '±kdif'if (Dryden) . tqdkudk u|Eyfk o f abmwlryd gonf? Ta-u;eef;pm_yD;aemuf aemufxyf a-u;eef;pmwapmifudk (17;25) em&DwiG f ay;ydc‹k o hJ nf?

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eHygwf= 319/ bk&ifcx H rH S ud, k yf ikd af -u;eef;/ Zlvikd f (28)/ u|Ekyf . f a-u;eef;pmtrSwf (313) rS pmydk'f (3)/ bDtdk'DrS xkwfoGm;cJhaom vufeufta&twGuf twdtusudk twnfðyI &&S_d yD;jzpfI ,if;wdr‹k mS atmufygtwkid ;f jzpfonf? (u) tvufwkdif;wGif ajymif;tydkwckpD yg&Sdaom b&if;*ef;tvuf (200) (c) ajymif;tydk (200) (*) b&if;*ef; r*~Zif; usnfuyf (800) ,if;vufeufrsm;udk ZGefv (24) &ufae‹wGif xkwfoGm;cJhaonf? Zlvdkifv (12) &ufae‹wGif attm'D (ARD) rS cJ,rf;rD;ausmufrsm; xkwfoGm;cJhonf? qm[l;bwf&ef‹ xHrS tm;vfatmhzv f pfw0kd J (vf) xHo‹kd a-u;eef;pm/ tkid t f t kd m= trf§4§2715 csufcsif;tjzpfq;Hk ? &efuek /f 1947 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v f (28) &uf/ (1255) em&D vufcH&&Sd? Zlvdkifv (28) &uf? eHygwf 314/ bk&ifc. H ud, k yf ikd af -u;eef;/ a&SŒucsucf si;f ay;yd‹k cJah om a-u;eef;pm/ 1? ArmhppfOD;pD;XmeY xGufqdkcJhaom rdk; (Moore) xGufqdkcsuf. ta-umif; t&mrSm Tod‹k jzpfonf? tpðy/ 2? &nf!¸ef;csuf trSwf trf§47/ cJ,rf;rD;ausmuf odkavSmif±Hk (jrefrm)

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pmwGJ

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

r*Fvm'Hk yDtkd 5§7§47 rS 'Dyt D rf/ ppfO;D pD; (XmecsKyf) od/‹k ta-umif;t&m=vHòk cHa&;/ d rf ;ª rd;k (Moore) wd‹k ajymqdrk + &nf!e¸ ;f csuf='k=Akv d rf ;ª }uD; a'ghqef (Dobson) ESifh Akv 3? ,ckEpS f ZGev f apmapmydik ;f wGif u|efawmfonf ArmhppfO;D pD; (XmecsKyf) ‘X’ hJ nf? rdrw d E‹kd pS Of ;D vH;k XmecGJ rS Adv k }f uD; (,ck Adv k rf ;ª ) 'de;f (Daine) ESifh rdwaf qGjzpfco pdwf0ifpm;onfh 'Hk;usnfvufeufrsm;ta-umif; aqG;aEG;&ef u|efawmfu ol‹udk ae‹v,f vufzuf&nfaomuf zdwaf c:cJo h nf? 4? ae‹v,fpmpm;_yD; u|efawmfwd. k‹ pum;vrf;a-umif;onf jrefrmEkdifiH. t"du& yk*~dKvfrsm;ta-umif;odk‹ a&muf&SdoGm;_yD; 'def;u u|efawmhfudk OD;apmESifh awGŒcsipf w d f &Srd &Sd ar;cJo h nf? u|eaf wmfu awGŒcsiaf -umif; jyefajymcJo h nf? r-umrD wckaom naecif;wGif 'de;f ESifh OD;apmwdu ‹k csed ;f qdrk u + kd vufccH _hJ y;D cJ,rf;rD;ausmuf odkavSmif±HkrS Adkvf}uD; &SDEGdKif; (Shenoi) ESihf Adkvf[wfcsfaq; (Hujsey) wdk‹ESihfvnf; aumif;/ tmattufzf (RAF) azmufcGJa&;ypPnf;XmerS av,mOfAkdvf}uD;rsm;jzpf ‹ dk -uaom tuf'f0yf (Edwards) ESifh b&dwef (Britten) wdkE‹ Sihfvnf;aumif; olwdku rdwq f ufay;cJo h nf? 5? wem&Dcef‹-um_y;D aemuf 'de;f ESihf OD;apmwd‹k jyefomG ;-uonf? rjyefrD OD;apmu olt ‹ rd o f ‹kd tcsderf a&G;vma&mufI t&ufaomufEidk af -umif; t&m&St d m;vH;k udk zdwf -um;cJo h nf? ‚if;tjyif vmrnfph aeae‹wiG f olZ‹ eD;onfEiS afh wGŒq&kH if; ae‹v,f vuf zuf&nfaomufºuGyg&ef u|efawmfEiS fh u|efawmhZf eD;onftm; xyfrzH w d -f um;oGm; cJo h nf? 6? u|efawmhfZeD;onf twefi,faeraumif;onfhtwGuf (11) ESpft&G,f orD;i,fudkac:I vufzuf&nfyGJ csdef;qdkxm;onfhtwdkif; u|efawmfoGm;cJhonf? ae‹v,f vufzuf&nfy_JG y;D onfEiS fh &efuek òf rdw › iG f abmvH;k yGw J yGo J ‹kd oGm;&ef&o dS nfEiS hf u|eaf wmfxu G v f mcJo h nf? ,if;abmvH;k yG_J y;D v#if olx ‹ jH yefvm_y;D t&ufaomuf&ef olu xyfrzH w d jf yefonf? 7? ae0ifcsdefavmufwGif u|efawmfjyefoGm;cJhonf? (u) _cH*dwf0ESihf bef*vdw k 0du k f csxm;aom vufeufuikd t f apmifrh sm;/ (c) OD;apm. tdycf ef;twGi;f &Sd vufeufi,frsm;twGuf usnfqefrsm;/ vufypfAHk;rsm;ESihf ywfoufI usaemf. ar;jref;r+tay: pum;ajymqdak e&if; OD;apmu Tod‹k jyefvnfajymqdck o hJ nf? (u) vufeufuikd t f apmihrf sm;ESifh vufeufrsm; (olt ‹ cef;twGi;f tp&So d jzif)h onf olv ‹ HkòcHa&;twGuf r&Sdrjzpf vdktyfonf? (c) &efukefòrdt › ajcpdkufwyfrsm;u t&nftwGuf tenf;i,fudk tcsdefra&G; olu ‹ dk axmufyHhaecJhonf? (*) t&m&Sd[k

,lq& ol vlwOD;xHrS avmf&u D m; (5) pD;pm vufeufrsm; r-umcifwiG yf if olt ‹ m; vma&mufay;ydk‹vdrhfrnf[k olar#mfvifhaeonf? xdkol. Adkvfrª;jzpfol aq;±Hk (odk‹r[kwf) aq;cGihfrS jyefvmonfhtcg ‚if;vufeufrsm;udk vma&mufay;ydk‹rnf jzpfonf? (C) tif;pdew f iG f aexkid af eaom t*Fvyd =f jrefrmujym; tjrwfceG f t&m &SdwOD;xHrS ajcmufvHk;jyL;aoewf tajrmuftjrm;udkvnf; olapmihfar#mfvsuf&Sd onf? (i) vufeufrsm;ESifh usnfqrH sm; olyrkd v kd t dk yfvsuf&o dS nf? ,cifu vkyaf e ustwdkif; ,if;wdku ‹ dk avvHkaowWm}uD;rsm;wGifxnfh_yD; olb ‹ ef*vdkrS ESpfzmvHkcef‹ a0;aom 0dwdk&d, a&uefxJwGif ae&mcGJI jr‡Kyfxm;rnfjzpfonf? jrifomonfh t&m0wˆKESpcf u k kd jrK‡ yfxm;onfah e&mrsm; od&EdS idk &f ef trSwt f om;tjzpf ðyvkyx f m; rnfjzpfonf? 8? zkdufcsf (Fytche) vrf;wGif aexkdifaom vDvfESihf ukr`%D (Leele &Co.) rS rpPwm rmvf[dkx&m (Malhotra) a&muf&SdvmonfhtwGuf pum;ajymqdkaer+ jywfomG ;cJ_h yD;aemuf u|efawmftrd jf yefvmcJo h nf? u|efawmfrxGucf mG cif OD;apmESifh ol‹ZeD;tm; aemuf (2) &uf/ (3) &ufavmufwGif vufzuf&nfaomufºuG&ef u|efawmfu zdwfcJhonf? u|efawmfzdwfac:onfhtwdkif; olwdv k‹ mcJh-uaomfvnf; axGaxG&m&mom pum;ajymjzpfc-hJ uonf? 9? ZGefv/ 'kwd,tywftwGif; wckaom naecif;wGif Akdvftuf'f0yf/ Adv k b f &dwefwE‹kd iS t fh wl &efuek òf rdr› S jyefvm&if;/ u|efawmfwo ‹kd nf OD;apm. t&uf aomuf0if&ef zdwfrEœu ðyxm;onfhtwdkif; ol‹tdrfodk‹ 0ifcJh-uonf? _cH*dwf0rS tapmifhrsm;. taotcsm ppfaq;r+rsm;tay: tuf'0yfu rSwfcsufcs&if;/ vufeufrsm;ESihf usnfqefrsm;ta-umif; xyfrHI pum;vrf;a-umif; yGifhcJhonf? t&ufawmfawmfrsm;rsm;aomufjzpf-u_y;D pum;tawmf-umajymjzpfc&hJ m/ ar;onf rsm;udk jyefajz&if;aomfvnf;aumif;/ ol‹bmomolajym&if;aomfvnf;aumif; OD;apmu atmufygwdu ‹k kd ajymjycJo h nf? (u) avmf&Dum; (3) pD;wdkufpm vufeufrsm; uwdðyxm;jcif;ESifh tif;pdefrS vufeufrsm; taumiftxnfazmfvmjcif;r&Sdacs? (c) avmf&Dum; (3) pD;wdkufpm vufeufrsm; uwdðycJhol yk*~dKvfrsm;ESihf vtwef-um aiGtenf;i,fr#jzifh qufqcH jhJ cif;jzpf_yD;/ xkyd *k Kd~ vfrmS bDt'kd rD S t&m&Sd wOD;jzpfonf[k olxifco hJ nf? (8) olord ;f qnf;xm;aom usnfqefawmifrh sm;/ tufpaf tabm (SA ball) ESifh u|eaf wmfwt ‹kd m; erlemjycJah om '\r (455) vufrajcmufv;kH jyL;. trfau

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

(6) usnfqef (Mk jacketed) rsm;rSm bDtdk'DrS &&SdcJhjcif;jzpfonf? (jrefrmEkdifiHudk jyefvnford ;f ydu k _f yD;aemufyikd ;f ‚if;cJ,rf;rD;ausmufrsm;rSm jrefrmEdik if w H iG f r&Sad wmh bJ tdktm'D (ORD) uvnf; xdef;odrf;xm;jcif;r&Sdawmha-umif; OD;apmudkaxmuf jycJah omfvnf; OD;apmu olt ‹ aejzifh ‚if;Xmeuom &&Scd ahJ -umif; ola‹ jymqkcd sufukd xyfrH twnfðyajymqdck o hJ nf)? (C) ol*‹ spu f m;jzifo h mG ;_y;D csed ;f qdx k m;onfah e&mrS ,l_rjJ zpfaomfvnf; wpfcg ESpfcg wGifrl "mwfqDyHk;xJwGifxnfhI ,if;cJ,rf;rD;ausmufrsm;udk olx ‹ H,lvmcJh_yD; ,if;yHk;rsm;udk csufcsif;a&uefxJY xnfhxm;cJhonf? 10? ‚if;wdkp‹ um;ajymqdkr+rSm 'def;a&muf&SdvmI jywfoGm;cJhonf? 'def;onf tjym Eka&mifvHkcsnf/ tjzLa&mif&SyftusôESihf a&$a&mifvufxdk;ajceif; csufyvD (chapplie) udk 0wfqifxm;_yD; olESihftwl rmvf[dkx&m ygvmcJhonf? 'def;om tdrx f 0J ifvmcJh _yD; rmvf[x kd &mrSmrl tjyifbuf*spfum;xJY usefaecJo h nf? olw‹kd -umjrihpf mG rae yg? olw‹kd jyefomG ;onfEiS fh OD;apmu zdwaf c:onfEiS fh erfqif;aysmfyJG pm;±Hk (Nam Sing restaurant) odk‹ ol‹{nfhonfawmfrsm;tjzpf vdkufygoGm;cJh_yD; npmtjzpf w±kwftpm;tpm pm;aomuf-uum udk,fhtdrfudk,fjyefcJh-uygonf? 11? TxGuq f ckd surf sm;udk u|Eyfk w f OD;wnf;udo k m yxrqH;k ajymqdck jhJ cif;jzpfI oufaor&Syd g? aemufw}udrx f u G q f &kd mwGirf l tcef;xJwiG f tuf'0yfEiS fh b&dwef wdE‹k pS Of ;D &Sad e-uaomfvnf; u|efawmfw‹kd ajymqdak er+ukd olw‹kd rnfr#-um;onfurkd l u|eaf wmf twdtus rajymEkid yf g? tuf'0yfxrH S xGuq f ckd suu f kd zdwaf c:xm;ygonf? b&dwefrmS rl jrefrmjynfrS jyefxu G o f mG ;cJyh g_yD? 12? vHkòcHa&;ESihf wdkuf±dkufoufqdkifae_yD; oufaorjyEkdifaom owif;rsm; rdrv d uf0,f&adS er+ukd owdðyrdonft h av#muf wyfraxmufvSr;f a&;t&m&Sd Adv k }f uD; prwf (Smart) udk ,if;owif;rsm;tm; rdrdbmomay;tyfcJhygonf? rdrdtaejzihf oufaoaomfvnf; rjyEkid /f ,if;owif;rsm;udk usrf;usdeI f vnf; ray;Ekid af -umif; k rf ;ª / txl;ðy ajymqdck yhJ gonf? (vufrw S /f Akv d rf ;ª a*s at rd;k ) tdik af ttdpk D (IAOC) Adv 4 tdkpDcJ,rf;rD;ausmuf odkavSmif±Hk (jrefrm) qHk;?

eHygwf 318/ bk&ifcx H rH S ud, k yf ikd af -u;eef;? 1? ,ae‹eHeufwGif OD;wifxGÉfESihf OD;ausmf_idrf;wdk‹udk u|efawmfawGŒygonf? OD;ausmf_idrf;rSm ,l*dkpvm;AD;,m;EkdifiHodk‹ tvnfc&D;oGm;cJhonfjhzpfI ‚if;wdkif;jynf onf teD;uyfxed ;f csKyfcx H m;&aom uGejf rLepfEidk if H wEkid if jH zpfonf[k olem;vnf cJo h nf? urBm'h rD u kd a&pDtay: trsm;vufcx H m;onfh pdw"f mwft&qdv k #if ‚if;Ekid if H onf 'Dru kd a&pDEidk if H yHpk jH zpfrjzpf ar;p&myifrvdyk g[k olxifygonf? 2? pum;ajymqk&d if; jrefrmEkid if w H iG f jzpfysucf ahJ om a-uuGzJ , G t f jzpfq;kd qDo‹kd tvdktavsmuf a&muf&SdoGm;cJhonf? OD;apmtaejzifh aiGa-u;taxmuftyHh &&Scd o hJ nf? olt ‹ jrift& Oa&mypD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;u tultnDay;cJyh &kH onf[k OD;ausmf _ird ;f u ajymvdu k af omtcg u|eaf wmft h aejzihf a-umufvefw ‹ ek v f y+ rf o d nf? jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;uJhodk‹aom wm0ef&Sd &mxl;,lxm;olwOD;taejzihf ,if;uJhodk‹ pGypf rJG ð+ yjcif;twGuf tH-h ordonft h jyif pdwv f nf;ysurf o d nf[k u|eaf wmfu OD;ausmf _idrf;udk ajymvdkufygonf? vkyf}uHr+twGuf u|efawmfonf xdwfvef‹wkefv+yfrdcJh onf? odk‹aomfvnf; ,ckpGyfpGJr+rsKd;udk oufaojyEkdifcJhrnfqdkv#if ydkrdkxdwfvef‹ wkefv+yfrdrnfjzpfa-umif; u|efawmfu jznfhpGufajymcJhonf? ,if;ESihfqufpyfI k cf sufukd u|efawmf Zlvdkifv (28) &ufxkwf ‘Guide Daily’ owif;pmrS aumufEw ud;k um;vdu k yf gonf? “OD;atmifqef; OD;aqmifaom ud, k pf m;vS,t f zGŒJu _y;D cJo h nfh Zefe0g&DvwGif atmifqef;=tufwvDpmcsKyf vufrSwfa&;xkd;&mwGif OD;apmESihf ocifApdefwdk‹ u vufrSwfa&;xkd;&ef jiif;qefcJh-uonf? tjcm;olrsm; jyefoGm;-uaomfvnf; OD;apmonf aeusef&pfcJhonf? u|Efkyfwdk‹ (The Guide Daily) taejzifh OD;apmonf vljzLwd. ‹k tultnDjzifh zqyvudk zsufq;D &ef pDpOfvI kd wrifaemufcsefae&pfchJ a-umif; wkdif;jynfudk today;cJh_yD;jzpfonf? vljzLwdu k‹ ,ckw}udrfwGif OD;apmudk aiG (5) odef;ay;cJhonf? 3? OD;apmt*FvefwiG &f adS epOf olu ‹ kd aiGa-u;tajrmuftjrm; axmufyahH y;cJh olrsm;rSm t*Fvyd t f &if;&Si}f uD;wcsKdŒ jzpfa-umif; u|Ekyf w f ‹kd xyfro H &d &dS onf? ±H;k wif w&m;pGq J rkd p+ wifonfEiS fh ‚if;v#KŒd0u S cf surf sm; ay:aygufvmrnfjzpfI pdw0f ifpm;zG,f aumif;vSonf” 4? ,ae‹ae‹pGJESihf u|Ekfyf. a-u;eef; (313) onfvnf; qufpyfvsuf&Sdyg onf? &mZ0wfr. + w&m;cHEiS fh ywfoufI u|efawmfw‹kd ,ckwikd f &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif; rjzpfao;yg? (xyfr=H rjzpfao;yg)?

qm[l;bwf&ef‹xHrS tm;vfatmhzv f pfw0kd J (vf) xHo‹kd a-u;eef;pm/ tkid t f t dk m trf§4§2714 ta&;}uD;? &efukef1947 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (28) &uf/ (17;25) em&D? vufcH&&Sd? Zlvdkifv (28) &uf/ (21;00) em&D? 287 287

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

qm[l;bwfp&f ef‹xHrS tm;vfatmhzv f pfw0kd J (vf) xHo‹kd a-u;eef;pm/ tkid t f t dk m=trf§4§2714 ta&;}uD;v#KdŒ0Suf? &efuek òf rd/› Zlvikd v f (28) &uf/ (18;35) em&D vufcH&&Sd? Zlvdkifv (28) &uf/ (21;00) em&D eHygwf= 320/ bk&ifc. H ud, k yf ikd af -u;eef;/ atmufazmfjyyg a-u;eef;udk 132 Portland Street, London W 1armif}uD;xHrS u|efawmfvufc&H &Scd o hJ nf? p? u|Ekfyfay;ydka‹ om a-u;eef;rsm;onf rnfonfhta-umif;a-umihfrod&bJ OD;apm. rdom;pkxo H v ‹kd nf;aumif;/ olr‹ w d af qGrsm;xHov ‹kd nf;aumif; a&muf&jdS cif; r&Sdyg? ,ckowif;pum;udk bk&ifcHrif;taejzihf olx ‹ Hyadk‹ qmifay;ygu tudkjzpfol u|Ekfyfonf tvGeftxl;0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omjzpfygrnf? owif;pum;rSm Todk‹ jzpf onf? vuf&SdtajctaerSaeI tjyif;txef jyefvnfwHk‹ jyefr+rsm; jzpfEkdifajc&Sd onfhtwGuf ygvDrefrS rihfrdwfaqGrsm;u ighudk 'DbufrSaeI rif;twGuf tum tuG,fay;&ef jyifqifr+rsm; ðyvkyf&ef t}uHay;-uonf? Todk‹ jrifonfhtwkdif; rif;. vHòk cHa&;udk tvGepf ;kd &dryf yl efro d nft h wGuf bk&ihaf &Sa› e&&Sad &;ESifh rift h wGuf ckcu H muG,af &;twGuf vkt d yfaomjyifqifrr+ sm; ðyvkyaf &;twGuf csucf si;f vdt k yf onfh aygif (300) udk b%ftm; a-u;eef;jzifh v$aJ y;&eftwGuf rif;u !¸e-f um;ay; yg&ef ig tEl;t!Gwfawmif;yefvkdufygonf? b%fodk‹ !¸ef-um;csufydk‹vdkuf&efESihf bk&ifcHrif;rSwqihf ighxH ta-umif;jyefyg&ef/ owif;pum;tqHk;? bk&ifcrH if;tm; Ta-u;eef;udk jrefrmtpd;k &tzGŒJ 0ifrsm;xH v$aJ jymif;ray;&ef awmif;yeftyfygonf? qH;k ? Towif;pum;pmudk OD;apmxH oihfavsmfaom vrf;a-umif;jzifh ay;ydk‹Edkif a&;twGuf jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; wOD;wnf;xH (wOD;wnf;xH) u|efawmf ydk‹vdkufyg onf? armif}uD;. aemufq;kH pmyd'k yf g awmif;yefcsufukd txift&Sm;yif u|efawmf vufrcHEidk yf g? Tarmif}uD;yif [efwifxHvdyfrlI ay;ydk‹aom a-u;eef;pmwGif [efwif taejzihf OD;apm.ZeD;xHrS aygif (300) r&&Sdygu ol&d,owif;pm. tkyfcsKyf a&;rª;rsm;xH csOf;uyf&ef t}uHðya&;om;xm;a-umif; jrefrmjynfawmifyikd ;f ae&m + iG f u|eaf wmf owd rS vwfwavm&&Sad om tkid t f ufpt f ufpf (ISS) owif;ay;ydr‹k w xm;rdco hJ nf? OD;apmtaejzihf ckcu H muG,af &;twGuf y%mrjyifqifrr+ sm;ðyvky&f ef ‚if;aiGvkdtyfa-umif; olu ajymcJhonf?

1946þckEpS /f þZlvikd v f þ(17)þ&ufae‹wiG þf armif}uD;uþOD;apmxHþa&;om;cJah om pdw0f ifpm;p&maumif;vSonfh pmrdwLW udk pmwku d rf S u|efawmf ay;ydv ‹k u kd yf gonf? eHygwf 321/ bk&ifc. H ud, k yf ikd af -u;eef; Zlvikd v f (29) &uf/ (12;50) em&D ,ae‹txd jyefvnford ;f qnf;&rdaom b&if;*ef;ta&twGurf mS pkpak ygif; (149) vufjzpfonf? OD;apmtdrfESihf &efukef{&d,mrS tvuf (80)/ jynfrS (12) vufEiS fh om,m0wDrS (57) vufjzpfonf? Tta&twGuf pm&if;Z,m;udk vlxu k kd xkwfjyefjcif;r&Sdyg? odk‹aomfvnf; &efukefòrd›&Sd ppfwyfodkavSmif±HkrS vdrRmyg;eyfpGm ta,mifaqmifxkwfoGm;cJhaom vufeufrsm;rSm r-umrDu &&Sdaom owif;rsm; t& trsm;pkukd jyefvnford ;f qnf;&rd_yjD zpfa-umif; 0ef}uD;csKyftaejzifh ajymI&_y[ D k u|efawmft}uHðyxm;onf? ppfwyftm%mydik rf sm;. yl;aygif;ulnrD j+ zihf &JwyfzŒJGu pHkprf;ppfaq;r+rsm;udk Tcdk;,lr+ESihfywfouf_yD; avmavmq,f tjyif;txef aqmif&u G v f suf&ydS gonf? tajctaerSm _idrfoufvsuf&Sdygonf? wpHkw&mxl;jcm;csuf owif;ay;ydk‹ r+r&Sdyg? vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+ESihf ywfoufI pHkprf;ppfaq;r+rsm;rS &&Sdaom ydkrdkjynfhpHk onfh awGŒ&cdS su&f v'frsm;udk !¸ejf yonfh aemufxyfa-unmcsurf sm;udk tao;pdwf azmfjyoihrf oihf tpk;d &taejzifh pOf;pm;vsuf&ydS gonf? u|Ekyf . f a-u;eef;pm 315/ 28§7 udk &nf!¸ef;ygonf? 0ef}uD;csKyf. a-unmcsuftwGuf oifhxH u|Ekfyf tcsdefrDydkE‹ dkifonf[k ajymEkdif&eftwGuf tvsiftjrefaqmif&GufI &r& ocifEkudk u|efawmf ar;xm;ygonf?

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OD;apmxHrS qm[l;bwf&ef‹xHo‹kd tkid t f t kd m= trf§4§2721 tif;pdef A[dt k usOf;axmif 1947=ckEpS /f Zlvikd v f (29) &uf jrefrmtpk;d &. &JXmerS t&m&Srd sm;onf tm%m&ygwD. jyif;xefpmG zdtm; ay;r+a-umihf &efuek òf rd&› dS twGi;f 0efrsm;±H;k twGi;f r-umcifu jzpfymG ;cJah om aoewf ypfcwfrE+ iS f qufE, G I f u|efawmfw‹kd twdu k t f cHtzGŒJ 0ifrsm;udk enf;vrf;&So d r#jzifh cH±k ;kH wifppfaq;&ef olw. ‹kd &So d r# tcsdeEf iS hf pGr;f tm;wdu ‹k kd tm±Hpk u kd f vkyaf qmifae -uonf[k u|efawmfxifygonf? tzrf;cHtcsKdŒyk*~dKvfrsm;udk olwdk‹ xGufqdkapcsif ovdk xGuaf p&eftwGuf ðyvkyaf eus enf;vrf;rsm;twdik ;f enf;rsKd;pHo k ;kH ESyd pf ufI &Jrsm;u twif;zdtm;ay;vkyfaqmifaeonf[k u|efawmfem;vnfygonf? Todk‹ u|efawmfem;vnfjcif;rSm ta-umif;rJhr[kwfyg[k u|efawmfqdk&ygrnf? tb,f

290


pmwGJ

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

a-umihq f akd omf u|eaf wmfwu ‹kd kd axmifxaJ c:vm_yD; &ufrsm;r-umrDyif tcsKŒd &t J &m &Sdrsm; a&muf&Sdvm_yD; tzrf;cHyk*~dKvftcsKdŒudk pwifppfaq;ygonf? xdkodk‹ tcsKdŒudk ppfaq;_y;D aemuf useyf *k Kd~ vfrsm;udk qufvufppfaq;jcif;rðyawmhyg? xdyk *k Kd~ vfrsm; udk axmifrx S w k o f mG ;_yD; &Jrsm;tvd&k o dS uJo h ‹kd twif;t-uyfxu G q f akd prnfukd u|ef awmf pdk;&drfylyefa-umufvef‹aerdygonf? tr+wr+udk bufrvdkufaom w&m;±Hk; (odkr‹ [kwf) cHk±Hk;wcku ppfaq;rnfqdkonfrSm tvGefaumif;vSaomfvnf; wcsdef wnf;rSmyif ‚if;w&m;±Hk; (odk‹r[kwf) cHk±Hk;onf &Jrsm;uwifjyaom oufaorsm; twdik ;f om ppfaq;oGm;rnfomjzpfonf? w&m;ol}uD;wOD;wa,muf (odr‹k [kw)f w&m;ol}uD;rsm;u &Jrsm;u zefw;D xm;wifjyvmaom oufaotrSm;rsm;udk tao tcsmodvsufESihfyif ±Hk;awmftaejzifh wjcm;enf;vrf;r&SdI ,if;oufaorsm;udk vufccH &hJ onfh om"utr+rsm; trsm;tjym; twdwu f &Scd zhJ ;l ygonf? u|eaf wmfw‹kd udk enf;vrf;pHkoHk;I acsr+ef;&ef tm%m&ygwDtzGJŒ0ifwOD; (odrk‹ [kwf) tzGJŒ0ifrsm; u wdkuf±kdufzdtm;ay;r+atmufwGif &Jt&m&Sdrsm; txift&Sm; a&muf&Sdaeonfh ,cktqifo h nf apmao;aomfvnf; tvGet f a&;}uD;aom tqihjf zpfa-umif; bk&if cHrif;xH u|efawmf axmufjywifjyvd&k if;jzpfygonf? Ttr+wGif;odk‹ ppfaq;&ef &nf&G,fcsufjzifh txl;&Jt&m&Sdrsm;tm; T wdkif;jynfodk‹ apv$wfay;&ef bk&ifhtpdk;&tm; csOf;uyfay;yg&ef bk&ifcHrif;tm; u|efawmf ±kd;om;pGm awmif;yefvdkygonf? w&m;enf;vrf;twkdif; r#r#ww jzpfap&eftwGuf jzpfEidk yf gu toif. axmufccH suEf iS t fh wl u|eaf wmf. ±k;d om;pGm awmif;qdkr+udk bk&ifhtpdk;&xHarSmuf odk‹ bk&ifcHrif;u qufvufwifjyvdrfhrnf[k u|efawmf ar#mfvifh,Hk-unfvsuf&Sdygonf? 5

taejzihf T&mZ0wfr+twGuf uGefjrLepfygwDrsm;rS wa,mufr[kwf/ wa,muf a,muftay: oHo,0ifvdrfhrnf[k OD;apmu awG;qcJhonf[k u|efawmfajym& rnfjzpfygonf?

eHygwf 337/ qm[l;bwf&ef‹xHrS tm;vfatmhzv f pfw0kd J (vf) xHo‹kd &efuek òf rd/› 1947 ckEpS /f -o*kwv f (2) &uf/ (11;45) em&D 2 (c) zqyvtzGJŒcsKyfacgif;aqmifrsm;udk z,f&Sm;_yD;onfESihf bk&ifcHu olu ‹ kd tac:v$wI f tpk;d &zGŒJ cidk ;f vdrrhf nfrmS usde;f aoa-umif; OD;apmu olv ‹ rl sm;udk ajymcJo h nf? Toda‹k jymjcif;rSm r,HEk idk pf &mjzpfonf? Towif;om rSecf yhJ gu OD;apm

ta&SŒawmiftm&Sajrjyifwyfrsm; (South East Asia Land Forces) rS ppf±;kH od‹k ? a-u;eef;pm? tkid t f t kd m= t,fv§f 'AvsLtufp§f 1/ 669 csufcsif;? puFmyl/ 1947 ckEpS /f -o*kwv f (6) &uf/ (12;30) em&D 12804§axmufvSrf;a&;=-o*kwfv(3)&uftxd jrefrmjynf jyefvnftpðy? 1? aphpyfr+rsm; tajcwnfvm_yD; tajctae_idrfouf/ atmufazmfjyyg jzpfEidk af jc rsm;udrk l pOf;pm;&ef? (u) _Adwdo#qefu ‹ sifa&; tHkºuGaygufuGJr+? (c) tpdk;&tm; tiftm;csnfhe&J‹ ef ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD (BCP) rS óud;yrf; tm;xkwfr+rsm;? (*) tpdk;&udk ðzwfcs&ef twdkuftcHygwDrsm;rS óud;yrf;tm;xkwfr+rsm;? (C) ArmjynfueG jf rLepfygwDEiS fh zqyvtzGŒJ csKyfw‹kd !Gea‹f ygif;zGŒJ r?+ (u) . tEœ&m,f avsmhenf;oGm;aomfvnf; _Adwdo# qefu ‹ sifa&; 0g'jzefr‹ + quf vufjzpfay:vsuf&Sdonf? qdk;qdk;0g;0g;wckck jzpfysufygu tvGeftrif; wif;rmr+ESihf tEœ&m,fjzpfay:vmEkdifonf? Tvkyf}uHowfjzwfr+wGif _Adwdo#wdk‹ yg0ifywfoufaeonf[k trsm;xifjrif,Hk-unfaer+ (odk‹r[kwf) _Adwdo#wdk‹. aumif;pGGm ,Hk-unfouf0ifr+tay: us,fus,fjyef‹ jyef‹ oHo,&Sdaer+ (odk‹r[kwf) vlrsK;d a&;jy\em tjzpftysuw f r‹kd mS erlemrsm;jzpfonf? (c)þonf jzpfEidk af jc&So d nf? (*) udk avmavmq,f av#mhwGufI&aomfvnf; vHk;0z,fxm;I r&? Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDtaejzifh tmacsmifvGef;onfhtwGuf (C) onf jzpfEkdifajcr&Sdyg? zqyvtaejzifo h m vGwv f yfa&;&&So d nftxd tpd;k &udk pkpnf;xde;f odr;f xm;&ef use&f adS evdrrfh nfjzpf _y;D twdu k t f cHrsm; wd;k wufvm&efom trsm;qH;k jzpfEidk yf gonf? 2? Armhwyfrawmf? a*:&cg;wyfzGJŒ0iftenf;i,frSvGJI wyfrawmftaejzifh jrefrm tpk;d &tay: qufvufopPmapmiho f _d y;D axmufc&H ef jzpfEidk o f nf? Ekid if aH &;t& tusKd;pD;yGm;rwlaom tjrift& csif;/ ucsifEiS fh u&ifwr‹kd mS rl a¹rGrao/ wkwrf usKd; taetxm;jzpfaeonf? Armhwyfrawmftaejzihf _Adwo d #tusKd;pD;yGm; (odr‹k [kw)f ‚if;tusKd;pD;yGm;wkdu ‹ dk axmufcH&ef wm0ef,lr+twGuf opPmapmihfodvdkpdwfr&Sd[k

291

292

0ef}uD;rsm;aumifp/D yxrtxl;tpnf;ta0;/ rSww f rf;/ tdik t f t kd m=trf§4§2555 wufa&muforl sm;/ ocifEk (obmywd)/ OD;jr (aysmb f , G )f / OD;atmifZaH 0/ OD;b*sr;f / ocifveG ;f abmf/ OD;jr ([oFmw)/ ocifwif/ Akdvfvusfm/ OD;0if;/ Akdvfzdk;uGef;/ OD;azcif/

291

292


293

pmwGJ

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

,lq&rnfjzpfonf? Armhwyfrawmfu xm;&SdEkdifajc&Sdaom oabmxm;tay: us,fus,fjyef‹ jyef‹ a,bk,s-unfjh cif;u (c) (*) (C) wdw ‹k iG f olt ‹ aejzihf wnf_idrf atmif xde;f odr;f &rnfo h jl zpfEidk af jc&Sad -umif; !¸ejf yvsuf&o dS nf? (u) wGirf l ol. wnf_idrfatmif xdef;odrf;rnfh wefzdk;onf vuf&Sdtpdk;&taejzifh _Adwdo#qefu ‹ sif a&; pdwcf pH m;r+tay: rnfr# twdik ;f twmtxd r#a0cH,rl nf (odr‹k [kw)f qefu ‹ sif rnf (odr‹k [kw)f xde;f odr;f uefo ‹ wfvpkd w d &f rdS nftay: rlwnfaeonf? (3) ed*;kH ? ocifEt k aejzihf Ekid if aH cgif;aqmiftjzpf OD;atmifqef;xufomaomf vnf; ol‹ Y vlxkudk qGJaqmifEkdifr+r&Sdacs? topfa&G;cs,fvdkufaom 0ef}uD;Xme tay:Y jynfov l x l u k rwkerf v+yjf zpfaer+ xyfaqmif;vdu k af omtcg &v'ftm;jzifh tpd;k &onf bufaygif;pHrk S twku d t f cHrsm; &Sad eavonf? 4? txufazmfjyyg qufoG,fr+udk rydk‹v$wfrD Zlvdkifv (30) &uf ae‹pGJjzihf qm[l; bwfu tm;vfatmhzv f pfw0kd v J x f H t}uHðyay;ydc‹k ahJ om twGi;f a&;owif; pum;udk owdxm;-unfv h #if pdw0f ifpm;zG,jf zpfonf? ‚if;owif;rSm qm[l;bwf onf &mhzpf wH;k [rf (Ralph Stoneham) ESifh xdak e‹eeH ufu pum;ajymrd&m Twdik ;f jynfwiG f vlcspv f cl iftrsm;qH;k Oa&mywdu k o f m;[k olu trnfwyfxm;aom pwH;k [rfu vkyf}uHr+jzpf_yD;aemuf ol‹ jrefrmrdwfaqGrsm;u ol‹tay: pdwfcHpm;r+ odod omom ajymif;oGm;cJah -umif; qm[l;bwfukd jyefajymjycJo h nf[I l jzpfonf?

4? Zlvdkifv (20) &ufae‹wGif 0ef}uD;rsm;tay: v#KdŒ0Suf}uHpnfrnfhudpPtm; pDtkdif'Du OD;atmifqef;udk today;cJhonf[k em;vnfygonf? odk‹ jzpfI vkyf}uHr+ cH&csdefwGif OD;apmtygt0if trsm;tjym;zrf;qD;&ef OD;atmifqef;onf ol0‹ ef}uD; rsm;ESihf wdik yf ifaejcif;jzpfonf? vky}f uH&mwGif toH;k ðyaom vufeufrsm;rSm · attdk ,l (AOU) rS &&Sdaom vufeufrsm;ESihf trsKd;tpm;uGJvGJaejcif;udk rSwfom;&ef ta&;}uD;ygonf? · (trSm;= attdk'D´) 5? vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+jzpfonfh &ufpGJtrSefrSm Zlvdkifv (19) &ufjzpfonf? *&if;0k'f (Greenwood) xJrS ‚if;trSm;&ufpGJudk u|efawmf&cJhjcif;jzpfonf[k u|efawmfxifygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; u|efawmf (&pfcsD) (Ritchie) onf c&D;oGm; aepOfjzpf_yD; oihfxHrS oif. tcsufjyrdwWL u|efawmhfwGif r&SdonfhtwGuf trSm; trSef rppfaq;Ekid cf yhJ g?

Adv k cf sKyf}uD; qmeD;vf&pfcsD (General Sir Neil Ritchie) u zD;vfrm&S,af rmif*h rkd m&D (Field Marshall Montgomery) xHo‹kd a-u;eef;pm/ tkid t f t kd m= trf§4§2715 csufcsif;tjzpfq;kH ? puFmyl/ -o*kwv f (7) &uf/ (21;47) em&D xdyfwef;v#KdŒ0Suf? 1011§trfat*suif (Jakin)/ &pfcsDxrH S pDtidk *f sD (CIGS) twGuf ud, k yf ikd af -u;eef; ta-umif;t&mrSm jrefrmjynfEiS o hf ufqikd af om xyfrH tao;pdwrf sm; (pmyd'k f 3/ 4/ ESifh 5 udo k m atmufwiG f ud;k um;xm;onf) 3? bk&ifcHESifh pum;ajym/ ,if;Zlvdkifv (15) &ufae‹wGif rdk; (Moore) u TxGuf qdck suu f kd ðyvkycf ahJ -umif; today;cJ_h y;D e,fbufqidk &f mESifh ppfbufqidk &f m vrf; a-umif;rsm;twkdif; pHkprf;ppfaq;r+rsm; ðyvkyfaecJh_yD[k ,lqonfhtwGuf ,if;xGuf qdkcsuftusOf;udk bk&ifcHtm; u|Ekfyfu ay;cJhonf? bk&ifcHu OD;atmifqef;ESihf ocifEw k u ‹kd kd OD;apmonf vufeufrsm;udk olt ‹ rd af b;&Sd uefxw J iG f 0Sux f m;a-umif; ajymjycJo h nf?

qm&J*sDe,f a':refprpfxrH S tm;vfatmhzv f pfw0kd (J vf) xHo‹kd tkid t f t kd m= t,fv§f yDt§kd 9§7 yk*Kd~ vfa&;ESit hf wGi;f a&;v#KdŒ0Su?f pwd'k rfywf˜vpf˜[rf±id+ ;f ,m;? 1947 ckEpS /f -o*kwv f (10) &uf OD;atmifqef;ESihf olv ‹ kyfazmfudkifbufrsm;udk vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+twGuf ±H;k wifppfaq;r+ukd OD;apmtaejzihf &ifqikd &f rnfukd u|eaf wmfjrifryd gonf? OD;apmudk pGJEkdifonfh rnfuJhodk‹aom oufao&Sdaeonfudkvnf;aumif;/ T,kwfrmvSonfh &mZ0wfjypfrw + iG f olonf tjypfro hJ vm;/ tjypf&o dS vm;udv k nf;aumif; u|eaf wmf trSefwu,frodyg? oltouf&Sifa&;twGuf óud;pm;&mwGif olonf tpOfojzifh aumif;rGeaf om rsK;d cspw f OD;tjzpfuv kd nf;aumif;/ OD;atmifqef;/ zqyvwdE‹k iS rfh wl uGJjym;pGm 'Drkdu&ufaumif;wOD;tjzpfudkvnf;aumif; jyoEkdif&eftwGuf OD;apm taejzifh twdwo f rkid ;f tawmfrsm;rsm;udk azmfjyvdpk w d &f EdS idk af jcudk u|efawmfreS ;f q jrifrdygonf? u|efawmhfukd ol‹oufaowOD;tjzpf qifhac:vdkpdwf&Sdrnfudkvnf; u|eaf wmfpOf;pm;I &ygonf? u|efawmft h aejzifh T±H;k wifw&m;pGrJ w + iG f wae&mu yg0if&rnfqv kd #if u|eaf wmfwOD;wnf;twGuo f mru bk&ift h pd;k &twGuyf g pdwt f aESmiht f ,Sujf zpf &r+xuf tenf;i,f ydyk gvdrrhf nf? oda‹k omfvnf; Tod‹kjzpf&vifu h pm; u|eaf wmfu h kd qihaf c:rnfqykd gu u|eaf wmft h aejzifh uln&D ef óud;pm;oiho f nf[ck pH m;rdygonf? 6 OD;apmukd u|efawmfaumif;pGm odonfhtwGuf olt ‹ ay: Y u|efawmfjrifcsif&m jrif

293

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295

pmwGJ

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

jcif; r[kwyf g? olonf yk*Kd~ vfa&;t& rdwaf qGaumif;wOD;omru aumif;rGeaf om t}uH^m%frsm; ay;EkdifolwOD;tjzpfvnf; u|efawmft_rJwapawGŒóuHrdygonf? 1941 ckEpS w f iG f jrefrmEkid if rH S xGucf mG oGm;_y;D aemuf olt ‹ aejzihf qd;k qd;k 0g;0g; ajcvS r;f rSm;rsm; ðyvkyfcJhrdaomfvnf; usL;ausmfr+udk &ifqkdif&eftwGuf jrefrmEkdifiHtm; yHkpHwpHkw&m&&Sdatmif ðyvkyfonfh u|efawmfhóud;yrf;r+rsm;wGif olonf tultnD t}uD;tus,fay;cJyh gonf? olt ‹ wGuf t}uD;tus,fvt kd yfaeaom ,ckvkd tcsdef rsdK;wGif olt ‹ wGuf pum;ajymqdak y;&ef pdwq f ENr&Szd t ‹kd wGuf pOf;pm;&ef u|efawmhf 6 rSm wGeq ‹f w k af erdygonf ? OD;atmifqef;tm; vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+onf u|efawmfhtwGuf ya[Vdo zG,jf zpfaeygonf? OD;apmESifh OD;b&ifukd u|eaf wmfaemufq;kH awGŒ&cdS sed u f olwo ‹kd nf zqyv. zufqpfqefqefðyvkyrf r+ sm;ESifh jrefrmEdik if t H wGuf rSeu f efonfh 'Dru kd a&pD yHo k ¿mefay:xGe;f a&;twGuf vdt k yfrt + a-umif; tawmfajymqdck -hJ uonf? ola‹ rmf awmfum;xJwiG f olt ‹ m; owfjzwf&ef óud;pm;olrsm;rSm zqyvjzpfonf[k OD;apmu ,Hk-unf_yD; a-umufvefa‹ eolwOD;jzpfonf? odka‹ omfvnf; zqyvurl EkdifiHa&; tjrwf&&eftwGuf vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+udk enf;vrf;wcktjzpf oHk;vdrhfrnfr[kwf a-umif;/ jyif;jyif;xefxefajymqdkcJh-uygonf? OD;apmonf &nfrSef;csuf}uD;oljzpf onf? ppfrjzpfrDumvu OD;apm. òydifbufwOD;ESpfOD; ±kwfw&uf qdkouJhodk‹ aooGm;-u&onf[k aumvm[v jzpfay:cJrh eS ;f odygonf? oda‹k omfvnf; vlrsm;udk tpkvdkuftòyHvdkuf owfjzwf&eftwGuf pnf;±Hk;pD&ifvkyfaqmifjcif;rSm OD;apm. tusihpf ±du k Ef iS fh rudu k n f [ D k u|efawmfxifygonf? tu,fI w&m;±Hk;u qihfac:ygu oGm;a&mufI oufaocH&efrSm u|ef awmfw h m0efjzpfonf[k u|efawmfEiS fh oabmwlnrD + &Srd &Sd oifx h rH S od&v dS ykd gonf? qm[l;bwf&ef‹xHrS tm;vfatmhzv f pfw0kd J (vf) xHo‹kd a-u;eef;pm/ tdik t f t kd m= trf§4§2714 csufcsif;tjzpfq;kH ? &efuek òf rd› 1947 ckEpS /f -o*kwv f (25) &uf/ 10; 15 em&D? v#KdŒ0Suf? vufcH&&Sd/ -o*kwv f (25) &uf/ 10; 50 em&D? eHygwf 408/ bk&ifc. H ud, k yf ikd af -u;eef;/ -o*kwv f (23) &uf/ paeae‹ n (9) em&DwiG f jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD; OD;ausmf _idrf;onf u|efawmhftm; ta&;w}uD;vma&mufawGŒqHk_yD; OD;apmu vmbfay;I ol‹twGuf pmay;pm,l«yvkyfcdkif;xm;aom axmift&m&SdwOD;u ‚if;pmrsm;udk

tm%mydik rf sm;tm; jyovsuf&&dS m (OD;apmrod[k ,lq&ygonf) tm%mydik rf sm;xH v$JtyfcJhaom tif;pdefaxmifxJwGif OD;apma&;om;cJhonfh pmESpfapmif. rdwWLrsm; udk u|efawmfhtm; ay;ygonf? 2? ‚if;pmrsm;wGif (22) ESifh (23) &ufae‹pGJrsm; wyfxm;_yD; _Adwdo#aumifpDrS l m;ygonf? ‚if;pmrsm;wGif bif*av. tultnDukd bif*av (Bingley) xH vdyrf x awmif;cHxm;_yD; v#KdŒ0u S o f auFwrsm;[k ,lq&aom xl;qef;onfh pum;pkrsm;udk vnf; toH;k «yxm;onf? ‚if;pmrsm;wGif “(VV)” [k vlwOD;udk &nf!e¸ ;f xm;_y;D ‚if; rSm ADA, D ef; (Vivian) jzpfygonf? pmxJwiG f vGwaf jrmufa&;twGuf ar#mfvifch suf rsm;udkomru jynfwGif;omru EkdifiHwumqkdif&m ±kdufcwfwkefcgr+rsm; jzpfapEkdif onfh xkwaf zmfrr+ sm; ðyvky&f efuv kd nf; _cdr;f ajcmufa&;om;xm;onf? pmay;pm,l ðyvkyfoludkvnf; ,Hk-unfpdwfcs&a-umif; bif*avudk tmrcHa&;om;xm;onf? 3? bif*avtaejzifh ,if;pmrsm;udk vufcH&&Sdjcif;r&Sdyg? pmay;pm,lðy vkyo f u l kd ,if;pmrsm;rS pmwapmifukd ,lomG ;cGiðfh yvku d af omfvnf; olbif*avtdrf a&muf&cdS sed w f iG f aemufwae‹ ,lau (UK) od‹k rxGucf mG rD bDtakd tpD (BOAC) wnf; cdck ef;Y wnwm aexkid &f efomG ;awmhrnfh bif*avu wGe;f xd;k ab;z,fypfco hJ nf? &Jrsm;. tjrifwGif ,if;pmrsm;u bif*avudk “t&yfjrihfjrihfeJ‹ vl}uD;” ESihf qufpyfay;xm;onf[k ,lq-uonf? ADAD,ef;xHa&;aom pmwapmiftyg t0if tjcm;pmrsm;wGiv f nf; OD;apmu axmifxrJ S ,if;&nf!e¸ ;f csufukd a&;om;cJh onf? Tt&mtm;vH;k rSm pdwt f aESmiht f ,Suf t}uD;tus,jf zpfp&mrsm;jzpfonf[k oif awG;xif-unhEf idk yf gonf? bif*avudk v#KŒdv#K0‹d u S 0f u S v f yk rf nfo h [ l k u|eaf wmf rxifEidk yf g? OD;apmESifh qufqcH &hJ mwGif olb ‹ ufrS ±k;d om;tjypfuif;rnfreS af omfvnf; axmifxJrS OD;apma&;om;cJhaom ,ckpmrsm;u ,if;qufqHr+rsm;udk tqdk;0g;qHk; vGrJ mS ;pGm t"dym` ,fjyefqpkd &mjzpfvrd rfh nfrmS xif&mS ;aeayonf? 6? u|efawmfhtwGuf aqmif&Guf&ef wckom&Sdygonf? ‚if;rSm bif*avudk rxGufcGm&ef wm;qD;xm;_yD; ppfaq;ar;jref;&ef jzpfygonf? odk‹ jzpfI rdk;tawmf csKyfrS bDtdkatpDwnf;cdkcef;wGif bif*avudk u|efawmf qufoG,fI&ygonf? olt ‹ m; rxGucf mG ao;&ef u|eaf wmfuajymvdu k _f yD; bDtakd tpDuv kd nf; ola‹ v,mOf vufrw S t f m; c%&yfqidk ;f xm;&ef arwWm&yfcx H m;ygonf? 7? ,refae‹/ we*FaEGae‹u ruf*KdG if;,m; (McGuire) u 'Dtikd *f sD pDtidk 'f D (DIGf ‹kd ac:oGm;cJ_h y;D olu ‹ kd bif*avtm; ar;jref; CID) OD;xGe;f vSatmifukd bif*avtdro &ef xm;ypfco hJ nf?

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pmwGJ

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

8? ,refae‹ naeu ruf*GdKif;,m;u OD;xGef;vSatmifESifh awGŒ&ef oGm;cJh&m OD;xGef;vSatmifESihf OD;ausmf_idrf;wdk‹tr+udpPaqG;aEG;ae-uonfudk awGŒcJha-umif;/ ruf*KdG if;,m;u u|eaf wmfu h kd today;ygonf? bif*avudk (5) em&D-um ar;jref;cJh aomfvnf; &v'frSm pdwfauseyfp&mraumif;a-umif; (xyfrH=raumif;a-umif;)/ oufaojy&ef cufcJaomfvnf; bif*avtaejzifh OD;apmxH pma&;om;&ef óud;pm;rnf[k OD;xGef;vSatmifu rxifa-umif; ruf*GdKif;,m;udk ajymjycJhygonf? 9? OD;ausmf_idrf;u ol‹taejzifh ,ckudpPwckvHk;udk 0ef}uD;tzGJŒa&S›arSmufodk‹ olwif jy&awmhrnfjzpfa-umif; ruf*KdG if;,m;udk ajymjycJo h nf? ,ae‹yif ,if;udpu P kd OD;ausm_f idr;f u ðyvkyrf nfjzpf_yD; ocifEEk iS t hf wl u|eaf wmht f m; ,ae‹ naewGif oGm; a&mufawGŒq&kH ef óud;pm;rnfjzpfa-umif; ruf*KdG if;,m;udk xyfraH jymqdck yhJ gonf? 10?þ,ckavmavmq,fwiG þf Tudpt P m;vH;k udþk twwfEidk q f ;kH þvltenf;qH;k om today;xm;ygonf? odk‹aomfvnf; xHk;pHtwdkif; rnfonfhowif;ayguf-um;_yD;/ rnfov ‹kd rJG mS ;pGmþt"dym` ,fjyefq-kd urnfukd u|eaf wmfþtvGet f rif;pd;k &drv f su&f ydS gonf? 11? bif*avudk ,ae‹eeH uf u|eaf wmfawGŒygrnf? ,cknaewGif OD;ausm_f ird ;f / ocifEkwdk‹ESifh pum;ajymqdk_yD;aemuf ,ckudpP&yfudk ydkrdk&Sif;vif;pGm oHk;oyfEkdif&ef twGuf tao;pdwt f csut f vufrsm; ydrk &kd &Sv d rd rfh nf[k u|eaf wmfar#mv f ifyh gonf? d #aumifpo D ‹kd owd 12? bif*avae&mqufco H l *sifuif (Jenkins) u _Adwo xm; a&;om;xm;aom a-u;eef;pmwapmif ay;ydck‹ Jhygonf? qm[l;bwf&ef‹xHrS tm;vfatmhzv f pfw0kd J (vf) xHo‹kd a-u;eef;pm/ tkid t f t kd m= trf§4§2714 csufcsif;tjzpfq;kH ? &efuek òf rd/› 1947 ckEpS /f -o*kwv f (27) &uf/ (09;30) em&D v#KdŒ0Suf ? vufc&H &S/d -o*kwv f (27) &uf/ (00;45) em&DeyH gwf 419/ bk&ifc. H ud, k yf ikd af -u;eef;/ u|Ekyf . f a-u;eef;pmrsm; 408/ 410ESihf 412/ bif*av u|eaf wmf ,ae‹eeH ufcif;wGif ocifEEk iS hf OD;ausm_f ird ;f udk awGŒygonf? tjcm; udpP&yfrsm;-um;wGif bif*avudpPudk u|efawmfwdk‹ aqG;aEG;-uygonf? 2? 0ef}uD;rsm;taejzifh bif*avudk tvGet f rif; ouFmruif;jzpfaeonfrmS oHo,jzpfp&mr&Syd g? ,if;ouFmruif;jzpfaer+rsm; &Si;f vif;oGm;onfw h ikd f bif*av taejzifh Tae&mwGif qufvufae&ef vdktyfyHk&ygonf? ,ae‹ OD;ausmf_idrf; xkwfazmfajymjyaom tcsufrsm;ESifh ,cka-u;eef;rwdkifrD a-u;eef;pmrsm;wGif u|efawmf tpD &if rcHcJhaom tcsufrsm;rSm atmufygtwdkif;jzpfygonf?

3? OD;apmu t}uD;tus,fvmbfxdk;xm;aom ol‹axmif. axmifydkif}uD; onf tjyifbuf&dS rdwaf qGrsm;ud/k bk&ifcu H kd (axmif.) &&So d r# owif;rsm; tpD&if cHvsuf&_dS yD; OD;apma&;or# owif;pum;/ pmrSeo f r#udk ay;tyfvsuf&ydS gonf? 4? axmifxaJ &mufcgp apmapmydik ;f &ufrsm;wGif olEiS fh waxmifx&J adS eaom twl pGypf cJG &H olrsm;tm; qufo, G I f olb ‹ ufwiG f bk&ifcaH [mif;oH;k OD;ESifh t*Fvef&dS 0ef}uD;a[mif; trsm;tjym;&Sad eonft h wGuf pd;k &drpf &mr&Sad -umif; ajymqdck o hJ nf? aemufyikd ;f wGif -oZmwdurU tvGe&f _dS yD; olwt ‹kd ay: 'kurQ a&mufatmif -unf±h r+ nfh jrefrmjynf&Sd t&yfjrifhjrifhESihf rdwfaqGta-umif; OD;apmu azmfjyvmcJhonf? ol. pmwapmifwGif ADAD,ef;tm; ‚if;t&yfjrifhjrihfrdwfaqGta-umif; azmfjycJhonf? ADAD ,ef;u ‚if;.jyefpmwGif avmavmq,fY ,if;t&yfjrifhjrihfESihf rdwfaqGtm; tr+ xJ qGJroGif;&ef (xyfrH= roGif;&ef) t}uHay;cJhonf[k qkdygonf? 5? &ufrsm;ukev f eG v f monfEiS t fh r# OD;apmonf pdwyf yl efvm_y;D t&yfjrifjh rifh ESifh rdwaf qGEiS yfh wfoufI axmiftjyifbuf&dS rdwaf qGwOD;tm; t}uH^m%fay;&ef awmif;cHco hJ nf? t&yfjrifjh rihEf iS fh rdwaf qG rnforl nf0gjzpfonfEiS fh ywfoufI ±+yf axG;r+jzpfvmaom tpdk;&taejzifh yg0ifywfoufvm&awmhonf? OD;apm. rdwf aqGu a&;om;yH&k _yD; t&yfcyfjrifjh rihEf iS hf rdwaf qGtm; csufcsif;qufo, G &f ef t}uH ðyxm;aom pmwapmifudk OD;apmvuf0,fodk‹ ydkc‹ Jhonf? xdkvSnfhpm;r+onf atmif jrifco hJ nf? -o*kwv f (25) &uf/ u|Ekyf . f a-u;eef;pm (408) wGif &nf!e¸ ;f cJah om bif*avxHay;ydc‹k ahJ om pmESpaf pmifukd OD;apmu a&;om;cJah wmhonf? 6? bif*avxH a&;om;cJah om 'kw, d pmwGif yg&Scd _hJ y;D 0ef}uD;rsm; pdwx f w J iG f tvGeftrif; ouFmruif;jzpfapcJhaom pmwydk'frSm ‘t}uHay;onfhtwdkif; tvGef pd;k &drpf &maumif;aom pGep‹f m;r+w&yf u|Ekyf ðf yvkycf o hJ nf’ [lI jzpfonf? 7?þ0ef}uD;ESpOf ;D ESiþfh u|eaf wmfajymqdrk r+ þS xu G af y:vmaomtjcm;tcsurf sm;rSmæ (u) _Adwdo#aumifpD (British Council) onf tcsKdŒaxmufvS rf;a&; tzGJŒtpnf;rsm; twGuf ta&òcHxm;jcif;jzpfonf[k ocifEku ,Hk-unfaeonf? TtawG;tac: udk z,f&mS ;&ef u|eaf wmftpGr;f ukeðf yvkycf ahJ omfvnf; bif*avudpP r&Si;f vif;rjcif; ,if;ouFmruif;jzpfr+ qufvuf&adS ernf[k u|eaf wmfxifygonf? (c) bif*av jrefrmEkdifiHrS ododomom ±kwfw&ufxGufcGmoGm;r+twGuf ocifEku ouFmruif;jzpfcJhonf? Tae&mwGif ZlvdkifvtwGif;u vdwf0dwfu u|efawmhfxH ay;ydk‹cJhaom pmwapmifudk wifjyEkdifygonf? _Adwdo#aumifpD tpnf;ta0;wck wuf&eftwGuf bif*avtaejzifh pufwbFmvwGif t*FvefY

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

&Sdae&ef vdktyfa-umif; ,if;pmu azmfjyxm;ygonf? (*)þOD;apmuþolt ‹ &yfjrihjf rifEh iS þfh rdwaf qGta-umif;azmfjycJ&h mwGiþf axmifyikd }f uD; u “ol[m bk&ifcHr[kwfbl;vdk‹ u|efawmfar#mfvifhygw,f” [k jyefajymcJha-umif; OD;ausmf_idr;f u ajymjyygonf? xdt k cg OD;apmu “bk&ifcu H toH;k rusygbl;? olu ‹ kd OD;atmifqef;eJo ‹ cifEkwdu k‹ aiG (12) odef;eJ‹ 0,fxm;_yD;om; jzpfae_yD” [k jyefajz cJo h nf? 8? bif*avonf tajctaet&yf&yf. om;aumifwaumifjzpfaomfvnf; tcsdef uom ,if;udk jyoygvdrfhrnf[k u|efawmfxifygonf?

oHo, &SdcH&onf? tao;pdwftcsuftvufyg&Sdaom u|Ekfyf. -o*kwfv (29) &ufay;yda‹k om 18926 at*sD=3 ud-k unf?h (*) cJ,rf;rD;ausmufrsm; ckd;xkwfcsdefu aq;±HkY&Sdaeaom Akdvfrª;rdk;/ tdkpD/ atat'Donf OD;apmESihf cifrifolwOD;jzpfonf[k od&onf? olonf OD;apmudk ol‹tdrfwGif tenf;qHk; w}udrf vufcHawGŒcJhonf? e,fbuf&Jrsm;u ol‹tr+udk pHkprf;ppfaq;aewkef;jzpf_yD; ,cktcsdeftxd ol‹udk zrf;qD;onfh owif;ay;ydk‹r+ u|efawmfx h H ra&muf&adS o;yg? (C) Adkvfrª;'def; (Daine)/ v#KdŒ0SufoauFw (Cipher) t&m&Sd/ ArmhppfOD;pD; XmecsKyf/ olonf taysmfxrf; vufeufpkaqmif;olwOD;jzpf_yD; ol‹vuf0,fYom omref r[kwaf om vufeufta&twGuf &Sad eonfjzpfI olu ‹ v kd nf; oHo,t0if cHae&onf? OD;apmESihf rdk;wdk‹t-um; jzpfEkdifajc&Sdaom tquftpyfjzpfaejcif; twGuv f nf; oHo,tjzpfcaH e&onf? olt ‹ m;zrf;rxm;yg? 3? txufygtr+rsm;udk e,fbuf&Jrsm;u ppfaq;vsuf&Sdonf? ,ckxd owif;rsm;rSm enf;yg;ao;onf? ppfbufo‹kd &JbufrS ay;yda‹k om aemufxyfowif; rsm;udk oifhtm; qufvufay;ydk‹ today;aeygrnf?

Akv d cf sKyf}uD; qmeD;vf&pfcsDxrH S qm[ife&D ruf*;D (Sir Henry MacGeagh) xHo‹kd a-u;eef;pm/ tkid t f t dk m = trf§4§2715 csufcsif;tjzpfq;kH ? puFmyl/ 1947 ckEpS /f -o*kwv f (29) &uf/ (19;20)em&D xdyw f ef;v#KdŒ0Suf eHygwf 18927§at*sD=3/ k yf ikd af -u;eef;? &pfcsDxrH S a*sat*sD (JAG) xHo‹kd ud, u|Ekfyf.þ-o*kwfvþ(25) &uf/þa-u;eef;trSwf 18778 at*sD=3 ESihf -o*kwf v (29) &uf/ a-u;eef;trSwf 18927 at*sD=3 wdk‹udk qufvufvsuf oifhtm; tajctaewckv;kH od&adS eap&ef 226 (AOD)jrefrmESihf (AAD) 7 jrefrmwdr‹k þS vufeuf rsm;þcd;k ,lrE+ iS hf r-umcifujzpfymG ;cJah om vky}f uHowfjzwfru + kd e,fbufqidk &f m pHpk rf; ppfaq;r+rsm;ESiyfh wfoufI u|Efyk o f o d r# tajctaeudk tusOf;±H;k wifjyygonf? 1? _Aw d o d # pHpk rf;a&;ppfc±kH ;kH u vufeufrsm;ESifh cJ,rf;rD;ausmufrsm; cd;k ,lru + kd ppf aq;I _y;D pD;oGm;_y;D ,if;udk oifx h H t&m&Sw d OD;u vufxv d ufa&muf ay;tyfchJ onf? (-o*kwv f (26) &uf/ *st D yd cf su f sL. tcsujf y (GHQ Signal) 18802 at*s=D 3 udk-unfh)? ,if;pHkprf;ppfaq;r+rsm;. &v'frsm;udk a&;om;_yD; u|Ekfyf. -o*kwf v (25) &ufa-u;eef;trSwf 10511 at*sD= 3 wGif ay;_yD;jzpfonf? 2? vky}f uHowfjzwfru + kd e,fbufppkH rf;ppfaq;r+rsm;ESifh ywfoufI atmufyg t&m &Srd sm; yg0ifywfoufaeyH&k ygonf? (u) &efukef&Jodk‹ v$Jajymif;ay;cJhaom tdENd,ppfwyfrS Adkvf}uD;ADAD,ef;udk e,fbuf &Jrsm;u zrf;qD;cJhonf? olonf usdef;aoeD;yg; OD;apmESihf ywfoufcJh_yD; vufeufrsm;ESihf cJ,rf;rD;ausmufrsm; ckd;,l&ef tay;t,lvkyfcJhyHk&onf? (c) tkdiftD;trftD; (IEME) rS Adkvfrª;,ef; (Young) udk e,fbuf&JrS zrf;qD;cJo h nf (-o*kwv f 24 &ufae‹wiG )f ? OD;apmudk vufeufrsm; a&mif;csonf[k 299 299

E+wq f ufjcif; jrefrmjynfrSxGufcGm&ef (2) &uftvkdwGif &efukef°rdŒ&Sd a&$wd*kHapwDawmfokd‹ oGm;a&mufzl;ar#mfcJhonfh aemufqkH;_Adwdo#. bk&ifcHqm[l;bwf&ef‹ (Sir Hubert Rance) u atmufwGifazmfjyxm;onfhtwkdif; {nfhonfrSwfwrf;pmtkyfwGif E+wq f ufrmS wrf; a&;oGm;cJo h nf? a&$w*d b Hk &k m;/ &efuek °f rdŒ 1948 ckEpS f Zefe0g&Dv (2) &uf? “apwDawmf. vSywifw h ,frr+ mS puQKyom' jrwfE;dk p&maywnf;? T_idr;f csrf;onf0h ef;usifudk t"Ge&‹f n S af tmif xde;f odr;f Ekid yf gap[k u|Ekyf af r#mfvifch sifyg.? ,ae‹trSwfonmonf u|Ekfyfpdwftm±kHwGif t_rJwnfaeayvdrfhrnf? u|Ekfyftm; txl;tcGifhta&;tjzpf txufypP,HwGif vrf;av#mufcGifh a*gyuvl}uD;rsm;u -uifemr+jzifh ay;cJhonfhtwGuf aus;Zl;wif&Sdygonf? TonfrSm jrefrmEkdifiHokd‹ aemufq;Hk u|Ekyf . f rSm-um;csufjzpfygonf? jrefrmEkdifiHESifh *&duf_AdwdefEkdifiHwkd‹t-um; _idrf;csrf;r+ESifh cspf-unf&if;ESD;r+ tpOft_rx J ed ;f odr;f Ekid yf gap? vmrnfEh pS rf sm;twGi;f u|Eyfk . f tultnDvt kd yfcyhJ gv#if TEkid if &H dS rdwaf qGrsm;u u|Eyfk t f m; rysurf uGuf today;-uvdrrhf nf[k u|Eyfk af r#mf 300 300


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

pmwGJ

vifrh yd g.?”8 _Adwo d #oHtrwfrS trft;D 'efeif (M.E.DENNING Esq.) EkdifiHjcm;a&;Xme vef'ef ay;pm˜ 1169§12§48 _Adwo d #oH±;Hk / &efuek f 1948 ckEpS f arv (8) &uf twGi;f a&; u|Ekyf . f cspfvpS mG aom 'efeif OD;apm.tr+wGif xl;jcm;aom jzpfay:r+ rae‹u jzpfcJhonf? twGifa&;ajym qk&d mwGif ±kww f &uf ajymcsvu dk o f nf? 'Dvyk }f uHr}+ uD;rSm _Adwo d #awG&ŒJ yl;aygif;}uH pnfr&+ w dS ,fv‹dk u|eaf wmfw‹dk wu,f,-Hk unfaew,f? qm&,f*seD ,fa':refprpfu jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if . H orRw}uD;xH OD;apmtm; oem;n‡mwmr+ay;&ef avmavm q,farwWm&yfcrH u + _Aw d o d #w‹dk wenf;r[kww f enf; yg0ifywfoufaew,fqo dk nfh oHo,ukd tawmf}uD; tm;aumif;apcJhonf? bif*avESifh OD;apm tquftqef &Sjd cif;/ OD;apm. ZeD;onfu bk&ifc. H twGi;f 0efEiS hf xdpyfr&+ &ef ¯ud;yrf;r+ ponfh om"ursm;. E+d;qGr+uvnf; tOD;tp &SdaecJhonf? 2? ,cktr+rSm _Adwdo#wkdt ‹ ay: oHo,&SdaewJh tajccHtcsufawGu tm;r aumif;vSwJhtwGuf a':refprpf&JŒ arwWm&yfcHr+u t}uD;tus,f xdckdufaprSm r[kwfyg? “_Adwdo#awG yg0ifywfoufr+ oufaoouUm, u|efawmf&cJh&ifawmh u|efawmhf&mxl;ukd tokH;«y_yD; w&m;0ifvlxkukd today;zkd‹ u|efawmf 0efav;rSm r[kwfygbl;” vkd‹ olajymayr,fh 'DvkdeJ‹ vlwa,mufu tHh-op&maumif;vSwJh pGypf cJG suaf wGudk wu,f,-Hk unfvrd rhf ,fv‹kd u|eaf wmf r,k-H unfygbl;? olwu,fudk qkdvkd&if;r&Sdbl;qkd&if olbma-umifh 'Dvkdajym&w,fqkdwm em;vnfzckd‹ ufygw,f? jzpfEidk af csawGuawmh &mxl;wk;d ay;wJu h pd rP mS qma':refprpftay:rSm ol&‹ ŒJ yk*Kd~ vfa&; tmCmw&Sdr+/ jrefrmEkdifiH&JŒ ta&;udpPrSm bk&ifcHa[mif;wa,mufu 0ifa&muf pGufzufykH&r+tay:rSm ol&JŒ ESvkH;rom r+ (qm[l;bwf&ef&‹ JŒ xkwfjyefa-unmcsuf tay:rSm ol pdwt f aESmiht f ,Sujf zpf&r+udk olu azmfjycJah o;onf) ESihf ,ae‹reufu OD;apmtay: csrw S cf ahJ om ao'%fjypfcsut f ay: rSeu f efa-umif; pdwrf oufromeJ‹ jyocsirf w + ‹dk jzpfygvdrrhf nf? 'D[mu trsm;}uD; jzpfEidk yf &Hk wmuawmhæ? ppfrjzpfcifu olu OD;apm&JŒ aemufvu dk w f a,mufv‹dk em;vnfayr,fh OD;apmukd ¯ud;pifta&muf yka‹d y;wmrSm t"dutcef;u olyg0ifcw hJ m oHo,&Spd &mrvkyd gbl;? 'gvJ vkyx f ;Hk vkyf enf;rsm;t& uGi;f pbm&Dpnf;rsOf;awGe‹J vk;H 0vku d af vsmnDaxGr+ r&Scd yhJ gbl;? 301 301

3? 'DudpPukd taotcsm pOf;pm;_yD;wJhtcg 'Dtjzpftysufukd vspfvsL±+zkd‹eJ‹ 0ef}uD;csKyfeJ‹ EkdifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;XmeawGukd razmf jyzkdu ‹ taumif;qkH;jzpfr,fvkd‹ u|efawmfqkH;jzwfvkdufygw,f? 'DtqifhrSm u|efawmfwkd‹bufu rvkdtyfwJh xdckdufvG,fr+eJ‹ pdwf0if pm;r+awGu tajctaeawGukd ykdqkd;0g;oGm;apygvdrfhr,f? bma-umifhvJqkdawmh yl;aygif;aqmif&GufvkdqJ&SdykH&wJhætaeeJ‹ 0ef}uD;tzGJŒu olxw k af zmfajymcJw h mod&if 'kuaQ &mufrmS jzpfygw,f? 4? 'Dvkyf}uHowfjzwfr+awG&JŒ aemufuG,frSm _Adwdo#awG&Sdaew,fqkdwJh ajymqkcd suaf wGu wu,fawmh uGejf rLepfawGvyk af eus 0g'jzefr‹ w + ckygyJ? vky}f uH owfjzwfra+ wG _y;D _y;D csi;f olu ‹ adk c:_y;D 0ef}uD;tzGŒJ zGŒJcidk ;f wmukd -unf_h y;D ocifEt k aeeJ‹ 'Doo H , awGudk axmufcEH idk w f ,fv‹dk u|efawmfrxifygbl;? OD;Ek&ŒJ vuf&EdS idk if aH &; twGi;f 0ef OD;tket f aeeJ‹ _y;D cJw h hJ Zlvidk v f twGi;f u v$waf wmfcef;rtwGi;f &Sad ecsed rf mS dk f v$waf wmftwGi;f rSm rpPwm wGe'f &Db*f (Mr. Tom Driberg) qk;d 0g;vSwhJ oG,0f u ajymqkcd suaf wGu zqyvtzGŒJcsKyf t0ef;t0kid ;f twGi;f rSm &Sad eEkid w f hJ oHo,awGudk ykrd t dk m;aumif;oGm;apcJyh gw,f? 'Dtjzpftysuu f dk r-umcifu jrefrmhtvif;owif; pmrSm qma':refprpf&ŒJ oem;n‡mwmr+ay;yk‹d arwWm&yfccH suu f dk &nf!e¸ ;f _y;D jyefvnf azmfjyoGm;cJyh gw,f? owif;pmyg tusO;f csKyf&ŒJ oufqidk w f hJ aumufEw k cf suaf wGudk 9 xnfhay;vkdufygw,f? trft;D 'efeif;˜tD;tufpu f sL/ pDtrf*sD/ tkb d t D ;D Ekid if jH cm;a&;±k;H / vef'ef/ tufpf'AvsL=wpf Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô

302 302


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

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t*Fvyd pf mtkypf mwrf;rsm;

jrefrmpmtkypf mwrf;rsm; Akdvfrª;csKyfausmfaZm

303

“trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;wkdufyGJrsm;” vif;xifjzef‹csda&; &efukefòrdŒ1961? Adkvfrª; baomif; (armifokw)“ArmawmfvSefa&;orkdif;” &efukef/ 1972? cifarmif!dk “tn-wppfonfwOD;. rSwfwrf;” &efukef/ 1969? a=u;rkH OD;aomif; “OD;ae0if;ESifhvufr±GHŒtm%mom;rsm;”/ Rego Park,NY USA 1990? “Adkvfae0if;. ppf"m;jyvrf;pOf” vGwfajrmufe,fajr rme,fy avm/ 1964? “Akdvfae0if; Zmwfvrf;±+yfor#” (ukd,fwkdifxkwf) Tamarac, Florida,USA 2001? “OD;ae0if;. jymwqkyf”/ (ukd,fwkdifxkwf) Tamarac, Florida, USA 2004? =uif[dk;§Ekdif0if; (a'gufwm) “AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifhjrefrmhtmZmenfrsm;vkyf}uHr+}uD; twGif;a&;rsm;” udk,fwdkifxkwf Fort Lauderdale, Florida 1992? armifjynfol “pDtm'DbD (odk‹r[kwf) jynfajy;wausmhjyef” jyef-um;a&; 0ef}uD;Xme/ &efukef/ 1990? jra'gif;!dk “&JabmfokH;usdyf” &efukef/ 1994? a&$uavmif “acwftvdkufowif;pmrsm; avhvmokH;oyf-unfh&m0,f” yxrwGJ/ jyef-um;a&;0ef}uD;@me/ &efukef/ 1992? vlxkOD;vS “axmifeJ‹vlom;”þvlxkykHESdyfwkdufþ(ukd,fwkdifxkwf)þrEœav;/ 1957 ckESpf? “ppf/ tcspfeJ‹axmif” OD;wifarmif0if; “EkdifiHa&;orm;ESifhEkdifiHa&;”þpDpOfxkwfa0olþa':cifrsKd;at; ‘acwf-ydif’ *sme,f/ befaumuf/ 2000 ckESpf? atmifoef; “atmifoef;.atmifqef;” yk*HykHESdyfwkduf/ &efukef 1965? odef;azjrifh “olwkd‹acwf/ olwkd‹twdwf/ olwkd‹t&dyf” wkdif;vif;pmay/ &efukef/ 2000 ckESpf? pmrsufESm 206=208? “rsKd;cspfa,mifaqmif *VKeftwk OD;apm” aqmif;yg;/ Adkvf waxmifowif;pm/ 1966 ckESpf Zlvkdifv 19 &uf? wuUokdvfae0if; (AkdvfxGef;vS) “atmifqef;OD;wkd‹ taz” ca&zl;pmpOf/ &efukef/ 1967 ckESpf? “jynfaxmifpkAdokumþAdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;”þpDpOfolþwif&Sdef? OD;jroef;þtokdif;t0kdif;pmay/þ&efukef-rdŒrSxkwfa0/þ1997þckESpf arv? “wyfrawmfordkif;” (1945=48)/þwwd,wJG/þppfordkif;jywdkufESifhþwyfrawmfarmf uGef; wdkufrª;±kH;/ &efukef/ 1995? “wyfrawmfa&$&wk” jyef-um;a&;0ef}uD;@me/ &efukef/ 1995?

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ÔÔÔÔÔ

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

vlxkOD;vS= “axmifeJ‹vlom;” =vlxkpmykHESdyfwkduf/ rEœav; 1957? ‚if;pma&;olrmS emrnfausmx f w k af 0olEiS hf owif;pmq&mwOD;jzpf_yD; 1953 ckEpS rf S 1956 ESpfukeftxd EkdifiHa&;r+rsm;jzifh &efukefaxmifwGif; axmifuscJhonf? axmif wGif;okH;ESpfausmfumvtwGif; axmifusbufrsm;ukd ar;jref;_yD; pdwf0ifpm;zG,f tr+rsm;ukd a&;rSwfxm;cJhonf? xkda‹ emuf ‚if;wkdu ‹ kd pmtkyf (9) tkyfjzifh xkwfa0cJh onf? wcsdefwGif vlxkOD;vSonf taqmif (5) wGif cifarmif&if/ okcwkEd‹ Sifh wcef; xJuscJhonf? armifeDrSm wjcm;cef;wGifjzpfonf? ‚if;wkrd‹ Sm EkdifiHawmfvkyf}uHr+wGif yg0ifywfoufcJholrsm;jzpf-uonf? okcZmwfa-umif;jyefcJhonfrsm;rS oufqkdif&m aumufEw k cf sufrsm;ukd TrSwcf sufrsm;wGif azmfjyygrnf? pmrsufESm 100=102? -urRmiifonfhae‹ 1947 ckESpf/ Zlvkdifv (19) &uf eHeufapmapmykid ;f wGif OD;apmu olpw d ¯f uduf a&G;cs,fxm;olrsm;ukd owfrw S x f m; onfhvkyfief; taumiftxnfazmf&eftwGuf xGufcGm&ef tqifoifhjyifzkd‹ qifhac: vku d o f nf? b%ftEk-urf;pD;&ef avhusifx h m;olrsm;twGuf ppfwyf,el aD zmif;rsm; ukd ukd,fESifhwkdif;_yD; jyifxm;_yD;jzpfonfhtwGuf tjcm;olrsm;u ,if;wkd‹ukd OD;apm tcef;wGi;f rS t0wfy}Hk uD;rSvnf;aumif;/ OD;xkyrf sm;ukd um;*kad 'gifxrJ v S nf;aumif; oGm;a&muf,lay;&onf? okad‹ omf olwt kd‹ wGuf ppfwyfokH; bGwfzdeyfrsm;r&Sdonfh twGuf olwt kd‹ aejzifh olwu kd‹ kd,fykdif &mbmatmufcH t!kda&mifuif;bwf±SL;rsm;

uko d m 0wfc-hJ u&onf? rk;d zGzJ &JG mG aeonft h wGuf okcavSum;rStqif; ajcacsmfus oGm;onf? ol‹wifyg;emoGm;rnfhtpm; ol‹vufusKd;oGm;&if aumif;rSm[k olqkawmif;rdonf? 'grS ol‹taejzifh *spfum;ukd armif;&rSmr[kwfawmh[k olu OD;vSudk ajymjycJo h nf? 2 ‘The Burman’ - (1947=ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv 22 &uf) txl;r+cif; w&m;±kH;/ w&m;vdkjyoufaorsm;udk ppfaq;jcif;= ±Hk;vkvifaomif;pdefu 1947=ckEpS /f Zlvikd v f (19) &ufwiG f tr+aqmifaumifpcD ef;rwHcg;0Y olonf wm0ef uscJh_yD; eHeuf(10)em&DrSpI ola‹ cG;ajcxdkifcHkay:wGif xdkifaecJha-umif;/ p}uFefvrf; wGif vrf;ovm;aeaom a[mif;EGrf;aeonfh t0wftpm; 0wfxm;aom vlw a,muf (r+ef}uD;) udk olowdxm;rda-umif;/ ,leDazmif;0wfvl (4) OD;a&mufvm _yD;/ wHcg;&Sd&modk‹ OD;wnfoGm;&mwGif tcGifhr&SdbJ twif;0ifcGifhr&Sda-umif;udk xdkol rsm;udk oluajymcJha-umif;/ OD;&mZwf. tdENd,vlrsKd; ±Hk;vkvifuvnf;xdktcsdef u tem;wGif&SdaeI txJr0if&ef xdkolrsm;udk ajymcJha-umif; xGufqdkcJhonf? 3 ‘The Burman’ (txufygowif;pm) w&m;vdkjyoufao udkoef;u OD;&mZwf. ud, k af &;vufaxmuftcef;wGi;f rS ud, k &f aH wmf udak xG; ajy;xGuv f m onfukd oljrifawGŒcahJ -umif;ESifh &ef}uD;atmifu olu ‹ kd aoewfjzifh ypfcscJah -umif;/ oufaoxGuq f ckd o hJ nf? xda‹k emuf &ef}uD;atmifu udo k ef;udk aoewfjzifh csed v f u kd f &m olu owif;axmufwOD;jzpfa-umif; atmfajymvdu k o f jzihf olu ‹ kd rypfcahJ -umif; xGuq f ckd o hJ nf? 4 ‘The Burman’ (txufygowif;pm) w&m;vdjk youfao OD;zd;k pdef (pDti kd 'f rD )S CID u tkwe f &H rH sm; °yduso-H um;&onft h csed w f iG f olonf twGi;f 0efrsm;±H;k twGi;f &Sd ol‹±Hk;cef;wGif&Sdaea-umif; oufaoxGufqdkcJhonf? pHkprf;&ef taemufbuf taqmifo‹kd olxu G v f mcJo h nf/ vufaxmuf&rJ if;}uD; ACP rpPwm bwfpf (Busk) xdkae&modk‹ a&mufESihfae_yD; OD;zdk;pdefu vufaxmuf&Jrif;}uD;. ¯ud;rJha-u;eef; um;rSwqifh &efukef°rd›twGif;&Sd &Jpcef;tm;vHk;odk‹ a&'D,dkpufjzihf owif;ay;ydk‹cJh onf? olonf tcif;jzpfyGm;&modk‹ qufvufxGufoGm;cJh&m udkaxG;udk '%f&m jyif;xefpGm&&Sdvsuf -urf;jyifay:wGifvJaeonfudk awGŒ&onf? udkaxG;rSm pum; tenf;i,fajymEdkifao;&m ‘u|efawmfhudk bmta-umif;rS r&SdbJ ypfcwfoGm;cJh-u w,f’ [k olu ‹ akd jymcJo h nf? OD;zd;k pdeo f nf Adv k cf sKyf.tcef;ok‹d xyfro H mG ;cJ&h m p}uFef vrf;xdwdkifatmif aoG;rsm;pD;qif;aeonfudk awGŒcJh&onf? 5 OD;Ek. “OD;Ek=wmawpaeom;” (Saturday’s Son) = (a,;wuUodkvf

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rSwcf surf sm; Zmwfvrf;0ify*k Kd~ vfrsm;? vlowform;rsm;ESihf Oya'qdkif&myk*~dKvfrsm;? 1? tmZmenfyk*d~Kvfrsm;/ vlowform;rsm;ESifh Oya'qdkif&myk*~dKvfrsm; pm&if;wGiyf g&Sad om trnfemrrsm;onf jrefrmhenf;vrf;t& &mxl; tqift h wef; 0gpOftvdu k Ef iS hf ta&;ygr+rsm;tay:wGif rlwnf_yD; pDpOfxm;jcif;jzpfonf?

tcef; (1) Akv d cf sKyfvyk }f uHc&H jcif; 1

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rSwcf surf sm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

yHkESdyfwdkuf/ e,l;a[AifESihf vef'ef 1975) pmrsufESm 133/ ‘ocifEk[m bdvyf&J‹ tat;'%furkd cHEikd b f ;l / bdvyfrmS w}udrzf sm;w,f/ Zlvikd v f v,favmuf &efuek f jyefa&mufwJhtcgrSmvnf; xyfzsm;aeao;w,f/ tJ'ga-umifh Zlvdkifv (18) &uf nbufrmS Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;[m ocifEt k rd u f kd a&mufvmw,f? Adv k cf sKyfatmif qef;udk tvkyt f r+aqmiftzGŒJ &‹J 'kw, d em,utjzpfu 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpfo‹kd ajymif; zdt ‹k wGuf _Adwo d #tpd;k &wdu ‹k pDpOfaewJt h a-umi;f/ 0ef}uD;csKyf tufwvD rSmvdu k f wJt h wdik ;f ocifEu k Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;ud ak jymjyw,f? wem&Davmuf-umwJt h cg Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef; xjyefomG ;w,f? Ak'w < &m;awmftvdt k &ajymr,fq&kd if olw‹kd ESpfa,muf&JŒa&puf[m 'Db0rSm 'Dr#yJygw,f? aemufwae‹reuf (11) em&D avmuf&SdwJhtcg AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;eJ‹ 0ef}uD;wcsKd‹ usqHk;oGm;wJhta-umif;udk jrefrmhtvif; OD;wifu w,fvDzkef;eJ‹ vS rf;_yD;ajymwm ocifEk-um;vdkuf&w,f? ocifEv k J twGi;f 0efrsm;±H;k udk csucf si;f vdu k o f mG ;w,f? aq;±H}k uD;udk tavmif;awG ,loGm;_yDqdkwmeJ‹ aq;±Hk}uD;udk ocifEkvdkufjyefw,f? AdkvfcsKyftavmif;udk-unfh &if; rae‹ nuyJ pum;ajymae-uao;wmudk ajy;jrif_yD; ocifEk[m ±d+uf}uD;wiif idak ew,f’ 6 r[moD&dok"rR a':cif-unf (16²4²12=27²12²88)? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. ZeD;/ ajrmif;jrwGif arG;zGm;/ OD;zkd;n‡if; a':zGm;pkwkd‹. om;orD; (10) OD;teuf (8) a,mufajrmuf? ausmif;_yD;aemuf q&mjzpfoifESifh olem«yq&mroifwef;rsm; atmifjrif_yD; ausmif;q&mtjzpf acwWr#vyk u f idk _f yD; olem«yq&mrtjzpf qufvuf vkyfukdifcJhonf? *syef0ifodrf;ykduf_yD; tapmykdif;umvwGif °rdŒawmfwGif yxrqkH; aq;±kHxlaxmif&mY yg0ifcJhonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; vlemtjzpfwufa&mufpOf olem«yt}uD;tuJjzpfol a':cif-unfukd AkdvfcsKyftm; -unfh±+apmifha&Smuf&ef uHw&m;. wku d q f idk rf [ + q k &dk rnfvm;rod wm0efay;tyfjcif;cH&onf? odyrf -umrD 1942 ckESpf pufwifbmv (6) &ufae‹wGif olwkd‹ vufxyfcJh-uonf? (5) ESpf-um aysmfaysmf&$if&$ifaygif;oif;cJh_yD; olrtaejzifh cifyGef;onfukd qkH;±+H;cJh&avonf? Adv k cf sKyf. rJqENe,f &efuek °f rdŒ vrf;rawmf. trwfae&mukd olrtm; qGaJ qmif,l apcJhonf? olronf vlr+zlvkHa&;Xme !¸ef-um;a&;rª;wm0ef,l&eftwGuf trwf tjzpfrS Ekwx f u G cf o hJ nf? aemufwiG f jynfaxmifpk vlrz+ v l aHk &;aumifpu D dk OD;aqmif cJhonf? 1960 ckESpf ZlvkdifvwGif tdENd,EkdifiHESifh eDaygEkdifiHwkd‹okd‹ oHtrwftjzpf cef‹tyfcHcJh&_yD; (7) ESpfr# wm0efxrf;aqmifcJh_yD; jrefrmEkdifiHokd‹ jyefvm_yD; tem;,lcJhonf? tif;,m;uefabmifab;wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf; olraetdrfwGif

olr.b0rSm aysmf&$ifat;_idrf;vSonf? 1988 ckESpf 'DZifbmv (27) &ufae‹wGif olr.touf (77) ESpftwGif; olruG,fvGefcJhonf? 7 at;&Sm;0d(cf) (Asia Week)/ 1993 ckESpf/ rwfv (3) &uf/ aqmif;yg;. tqk;H ykid ;f / urBmay:&Sd t}uD;qk;H tmCmw/ “ol (ae0if;) . Akv d cf sKyfatmifqef;ay: xm;&Sdaom rkef;wD;r+onf jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;ol&Jaumif;. (ouf&Sdxif&Sm; &Sdaeaom) om;orD; (2) OD;wkd‹tay:xd qufvuf&Sdaeao;ygovm;/ a':atmif qef;pk-unf b,frmS &Sad eonfudk u|eaf wmfwt ‹dk m;vk;H od-uygonf? Adv k cf sKyfatmif qef;wGif atmifqef;OD;[kac:aom om;wOD;&Sdygao;onf? olonf ava-umif; qkdif&m tif*sifeD,mwOD;jzpf_yD; tar&duefjynfaxmifpkY aexkdifvsuf&Sdonf? atmufygtjzpftysufrSm t*FvefwGif vGefcJhaom tESpfESpfq,fcef‹u ausmif; om;av;wOD;r#omjzpfaom atmifqef;OD;ok‹d jzpfysucf jhJ cif;jzpfonf? xkt d csed o f nf S v f il ,fonf vef'ef&dS jrefrmoH±;Hk 0k'pf awmh (Woodstock) wka‹d cwfjzpfonf? qH&n Y &SdaepOf OD;ae0if;u xkdae&mokd‹ a&mufoGm;cJhonf? ppfoHrª;u xkdvli,fonf rnfoljzpfa-umif; OD;ae0if;ukd today;vkdufonf? OD;ae0if;onf a'gotkd; aygufux JG u G _f yD; ‘'DacG;rom;’ ukd oH±;Hk 0if;xJu tckcsufcsif; uefxw k yf pfvu dk [ f k trdef‹ay;cJhonf? ppfoHrª; &JxGef;tm; teD;uyfqkH;av,mOfysHjzifh &efukefjyefykd‹ vku d o f nf?” 8 touf (7) ESpfom&Sdao;aom atmifqef;vif;onf &efukef°rd›/ wm0g vde;f vrf; aetdr_f cH0if;twGi;f &$ŒH EpS rf sm;ygaom a&tdik w f iG f a&epf_yD;aoqH;k cJo h nf? 9 0ifa&mufpD;eif;aomtzGJŒudk &J0efaxmuf (Police Superintendent) tuf (pf) 'D *syf (S.D.. Jupp) uOD;aqmifco hJ nf? 1928 ckEpS /f 'DZbFmvwGif rpPwm*syf udk Armjynf&w J yfzŒJGo‹kd ceft ‹ yfco hJ nf? 10 The Burman (1947 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (23) &uf/ w&m;vdkjy oufaojzpfol Armhvufeufudkif wdkufcdkufa&;&JwyfzGJŒrS acgif;aqmif &Jwyf-uyf (Head Constable) rif;Edkifonf 0ifa&mufpD;eif;onfhtzGJŒwGif yg0ifcJh_yD; ol‹udk aoewfESihfcsdef&G,f_yD; ypf&ef ðyrlcJhonfhtwGuf ol. typfcH&olrSm r+ef}uD;jzpf a-umif; ±Hk;awmfwGif twnfðyajymqdkcJhonf? 1947 ckEpS /f atmufwb dk mv (9) &ufae‹xw k f ‘jrefrmhtvif;’ owif;pmwGif vkyf}uHr+}uD; pwifppfaq;onfh ,cifae‹ta-umif; aqmif;yg;Y a&;om;xm; onfrSmr+ vlowform;/ }uH&mygol tpGyfpGJcH&ol w&m;cH (7) OD;tm; vufeuf ukdifykvdyfrsm;u vufxdwfcwfapmifha&Smufxm;um ±kH;cef;wGif;okd‹ 0ifvmcsdefwGif

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rSwcf surf sm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

r+ef}uD;tm; “vusfmbuf vufwykdif;jywfaeol” [k azmfjyxm;ygonf? 11 1989 ckESpfwGif u|efawmfonf tdyfcsfatpwkdem (H.A. Stonor) ESifh pma&;om;qufoG,fcJh&m 1997 ckESpf Zlvkdifv (19) &ufwGif bDbDpD (2) ±kyfjrifoH -um;tpDtpOfu EkdifiHawmfvkyf}uHr+ taxmuftxm;±kyf&Sifukd jyo_yD;aemuf _Adwdefjrefrmtoif;. ukd,fykdifuGefysLwm uGef,ufae&mwGif olwifjycJhaom tcsufukdyif olu xyfrHtxl;«ya&;ygonf? b,fvkdyJjzpfjzpf tm;vkH;xJrSm ykHrSefr[kwfbJ xl;jcm;aewmu OD;apmukd,fwkdif&JŒ v+yf&Sm;r+awGyJ? eef;&if;0ef a[mif;wa,muftaeeJ‹ OD;apmrSm Ekid if aH &;&nfreS ;f csuaf wG &Sad eao;wm oHo, 0ifp&m rvkdygbl;? 'gayr,fh tJ'DtcsdefrSm ol‹&JŒt«ytrlawGuawmh tm%m&zkd‹ r[mpDrHudef;}uD; csufcsif;}uHpnfaewJh vlwa,mufykHrsKd;awmh ray:ygbl;? wu,fwrf;u OD;apmtaeeJ‹ vkH;0bmrS rvkyfcJhbJ tzrf;cH&wJhtxd ol‹tdrfxJ xkid af ecJw h myJ? rpPwm tdycf sfatpwked monf vky}f uHrj+ zpfpOfu jrefrmjynftwGi;f tajcpkdufxm;aom 0Jvfcsf&J*sDrifhrS ti,fwef;t&m&Sdjzpfonf? olonf aemufykdif;wGif vef'ef&Sd “jrefrmawmifwef;om;rsm;. rdwfaqGrsm;tzGJŒ” ukd 0ifa&mufco hJ nf? 12 vlxkOD;vS/ ‘axmifeJ‹vlom;’ (okcZmwfa-umif;jyef) pmrsufESm 107? OD;apm. _cH0if;twGif;wGif usef;rm}u›Hckdifaom a,musfm;OD;a& (30) ausmf aexkdifvsuf&Sd_yD; olwkd‹tm;vkH;ukd 1947 ckESpf Zlvkdifv (19) &ufae‹wGif tif;pdeaf xmifo‹dk ac:aqmifomG ;cJo h nf? 13 txl;ckH±kH;. pD&ifqkH;jzwfcsuf (1947 ckESpf w&m;qkdifjcif;trSwf=1) rS w&m;±kH;a&;om;csuf? “,cktcg OD;apmESifh tvGefrsm;jym;aom ol‹tdrfom;pk tzGJŒ0ifrsm;ukd &mZ0wfr+jzpf_yD; em&Dykdif;twGif; zrf;qD;Ekdifjcif;rSm rpPwmcef; (w&m;vkdjyoufao=39) u twGif;0efcsKyfESifh ol‹±kH;cef;wGif pnf;a0;aeaom OD;xGef;vSatmif (w&m;vkdjyoufao=38) xH olukd,fwkdif oGm;a&mufay;yko d‹ nfh

0uf (b)/ qpfeDESifh bd&ufw&pf(p)= (Webb,Sidney & Beatrice) “1911=12 c&D;oGm;ae‹pOfrSwfwrf;” (The 1911-12 Travel Diary) rdwfqufI

wnf;jzwfol ygarmuQ a*smh/ zDbm (Prof. George Feaver), Macmillan, 1922,p.193 “Ak'b < momuvsm%,k0toif; (YMBA) tm; pwifzŒJG pnf;cJo h nfh t"dut a-umif;rsm;rSm tar&duefbufwpf(p) omoem«ytzGJŒ (American Baptist Mission) . tm;¯ud;rmefwufenf;rsm;jzifh c&pf,mefbmomok‹d oGwo f iG ;f aejcif;rsm;ukd ckHcH&efjzpfonf? EkdifiHtESH‹tjym;wGif toif;0if (4˜000) &Sdonfh rsm;jym;aom toif;cGJrsm;&Sd_yD; rSefrSefwkd;wufvsuf&Sdonf? olwkd‹rSm pm-unfhcef;rsm;zGifhum pm-unfhwkdufrsm; pwifcgpjzpfvsuf jrefrmpmukd trª;xm;onf? vpOf*sme,fukd vnf; xkwaf 0onf? Ttoif;onf jrefrmhtavhtx "avhx;Hk pHrsm;ukd xde;f odr;f xm;_yD; jrefrmht,ltqrsm;ukd a,bk,stm;jzifh azmfjy&eftwGufrsm;ukd vkyfukdif vmEkid rf nfh toif;ok‹d wk;d wufEidk zf , G &f o dS nf?” 2 a':jrar (c) rpPpf trf/ trf vSatmif MBE ( 1853=1943) onf &efuek °f rd› wGif Apfw;kd &D;,m;bk&ifrtxdr;f trSwf Ak'b < momrde;f uav;ausmif;ESihf Ak'b < mom a,musfm;av;ausmif;wdu k‹ dk pwifwnfaxmifcJh&m ,if;wdu k‹ dk aemifwGif Apfwdk;&D; ,m;bk&ifr txdrf;trSwf rdef;uav;ausmif;tjzpf ajymif;vJypfcJhonf? 'vESihf armfv°rdifwdk‹rS ppfuJ}uD; (ppfwyfzGJŒwzGJŒ. 'k=wyfrª;) armifaxmfav;. ti,f qH;k orD;ESihf ppfu}J uD; armifcidk . f wlrjzpfonf? olr.cifyeG ;f jzpfol OD;vSatmifrmS tdENd,b¾mwdkufrsm;udk xdef;csKyfuGyfuJol ( Controller of Indian Treasuries) rif;}uD;jzpfI olwo ‹kd nf umvuwWm; (Calcutta)/ r'&yfp/f bkaH b/ yef*syf ponfah e &mrsm;wGif ESpaf ygif;rsm;pGm aexdik cf -hJ uonf? rdrw d ikd ;f jynf jyefa&mufvmaomtcg olronf wufºuGI -oZmwduUr&Sdaom ynmjzef‹a0olESifh vlr+a&;vkyfief;vkyf aqmifol jzpfvmcJhonf? tpdk;&u olr. jynfolvlxktwGuf vkyfaqmifr+rsm; tm; todtrSwfðyonfhtaejzifh (_Adwdo#tifydkif,m. tzGJŒ0if) trfbDtD; (MBE) bGŒJ jzihf csD;jr‡ichf o hJ nf? u|Ekyf . f tbd;k jzpfol OD;aratmifonf OD;vSatmif.wlawmf _yD; OD;vSatmifu olt ‹ m;ynm oif-um;ay;cJhum }uD;jyif;atmif apmifha&Smufay; cJo h nf? 3 w&m;ol}uD; qm/ armifcif (KCIE, FA, LlB., bm;=tuf=avm (1872=1924)? oluG,fvGefcsdefwGif owif;pmxJwGif EdkufbGJŒ (Knight) jzifh ol aumif;ðycH&oltjzpf ol‹yHkudkazmfjycJh_yD; ,if;yHkatmufwGif A[dkw&m;±Hk;. yxr qHk; jrefrmw&m;ol}uD;rif;/ bk&ifcHtr+aqmifaumifpDtzGJŒ0if/ jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; tp&Sdojzihf jzpfonfhtm;avsmfpGm t&m&mwGif yxrpGJol[k tr$ef;wifazmfjy cJo h nf? ppfu}J uD;armifaxmfav;.ajr;jzpfol a':oef;ar (av'Dcif) udk vufxyf

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owif;a-umifjh zpfonf?”

tcef; (2) t"duacgif;aqmifrsm; 1

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rSwcf surf sm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

cJo h nf? om;orD;rsm;rSm OD;rsKd;cifEiS hf cifcif{jzpfonf? 4 w&m;ol}uD;OD;aratmif (MA, LlM., bm;=tuf=avm) (1880=1926)/ A[dkw&m;±Hk;. w&m;ol}uD;rif;/ bk&ifcHtr+aqmifaumifpD/ jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; qm=armifcifae&mudkqufcHcJhonf? 0dkiftrfbDat (YMBA) . OuU@ (1919) / Oya'ynm&yfqikd &f mygarmuQEiS fh &efuek w f uUov kd . f ynm&Sit f zGŒJ 0if/ Ak'b < mom xH;k wrf;Oya'ESiyfh wfoufI xdyw f ef;ynm&Si/f ppfu}J uD; armifaxmfav;. aemuf xyfajr;wOD;jzpfol a':odef;jrudk vufxyfcJhonf? om;orD;rsm;rSm owdk;atmif/ xGe;f vSatmifEiS fh rjrpdew f ‹kd jzpfonf? aemifwiG f ,m,Db&k ifcjH zpfvmol qma*sat armif}uD;u ‚if;. jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;t±dkuft&mudk qufcHcJhonf? 5 armifarmif (Adkvfrª;csKyfa[mif;) “oHCmrS omrefvlokd‹” jrefrmEkdifiH. trsK;d om;a&;v+y&f mS ;r+rsm; 1920=1940/ 1980 ykEH ydS /f pmrsuEf mS 258 rSwcf suf (16)? “t*Fvdyf=jrefrmujym; c±kdif&J0efaxmuf aZAD;,m; (Xavier) taejzifh vlacgif; rsm;ukd w&m;0if"mwfykH±kdufEkdifa&;twGufom pm;yGJay:wifcJhjcif;twGuf tjypf ajymp&mjzpfco hJ nf? rnfoq ‹dk adk p vltyk }f uD;pkrv d m_yD; owif;pmorm;rsm;uvnf; "mwfykHrsm;±kdufEkdifcJh-uonf?” (aemufqufwGJjzpfay:vmaom vlxk. tvefw ‹ -um;uef‹uGufatmf[pfr+rsm;a-umifh jynf-rd›&Sd ppfwyftaejzifh aemufykdif;wGif xkwfjyefcJh&aom tjzpftysuf ta-umif;t&mrS aumufEkwfcsuf) 6 xdkaqmif;yg;rSm aemifaomtcg ‘tdk;a0’ owif;pmydkif&SifESihf t,f'Dwm jzpfvmrnfh OD;ndKjr.vuf&mjzpfygonf? 7 tzrf;tqD;cH&olrsm;wGif aemifwcsdew f iG f 0ef}uD;rsm;jzpfvmrnfh udAk aqG ESihf udkA[def; ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpf-uygonf? 8 wuUodkvfrS udkvSa&$/ *syfqifaumvdyfrS udkatmifausmfESifh (°rdr› )oef;wdk‹ OD;aqmifaom ausmif;om;trsm;tjym;u eef;&if;0ef a'gufwmbarmfOD;aqmif onfh twGi;f 0efrsm;±H;k od‹k oGm;a&mufqENjy-uygonf? 9 rnfoluaygufvdkufonfrod/ ‘ol&d,’wdkufa&S› Am'HyifatmufrS jrif;pD; ykvdyf a*:&mqm*sifwOD; bdvyf&nfykvif;rSef_yD; jrif;ay:rStus/ jrif;pD;ykvdyfrsm; u pka0;ae-uaom vlrsm;tm; eHygwfwkwfrsm;ESihf ±dkuf-uygawmhonf? 10 xdktcg yxrurBmppf(1914=1918) jyef ocifbdk;vS}uD; OD;aqmifxm; onfh vl (6˜000) tiftm;&Sdonfh vlxkcsDwuf-uygonf? 11 ‘atmifqef;udk b,fow l u,fowfovJ’ ordik ;f taxmuftxm; ±kyjf rif oH-um; rSww f rf;±ky&f iS Ef iS yfh wfoufI _Aw d o d #toHvi$ ahf umfyakd &;&Si;f (2) wDADG BBC

(2) TV / bmrif[ef°rd› (Birmingham) &Sd tm&StpDtpOfXmerS xkwfvkyfolrsm;u

ywfoufol yk*Kd~ vftawmfrsm;rsm;udk awGŒqakH r;jref;cJo h nf? u|eaf wmfuykd g zdwaf c:I 1996 ESpu f ek yf ikd ;f wGif t*Fvefjynfo‹kd oGm;a&mufcyhJ gonf? Edik if aH wmf vky}f uHr+ ESpf (50) jynfh txdr;f trSwt f jzpf 1997 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v f (19) &ufae‹wiG f *&dwf _Adwed f (Great Britain) . xkwv f i$ rhf Y+ aumufEw k cf suftwdrk sm;udk a&G;cs,f jyocJo h nf? a&G;Ekwx f m;aom ud;k um;csurf sm;udk TrSwcf surf sm;atmufwiG f azmfjyoGm;ygrnf? vlawGŒar;jref;cH&ol ‘tJ&pf/ bufwmpbD’ (bk&ifcH. udk,f&Hawmf=1942/ Eric Battersby, ADC) uæ “ol (a':refprpf/ Dorman- Smith) uawmh ol‹udk azsmfajzwJh vlawGeJ‹ &$ifjrL;apEkdifwJh vl&Sdor#eJ‹ txufpD;qufqHEkdifwJh olwkdif;udk ESpo f ufw,f? txufuvlawGuakd wmh olróudub f ;l ? olu ‹ kd {nfch H pojzihf vkyEf idk f wJh atmufcv H al wGuakd wmh oabmusw,f? u|eaf wmfajymcsiw f mu wjcm;vlrsm; awGukd b,fvv kd rl sKd;vJqw kd m cefr‹ eS ;f -unfw h ahJ e&mrSm u|efawmft h xift& ol[m t}udrfrsm;pGm vHk;vHk;rSm;,Gif;cJhw,f? OD;apmeef;&if;0efjzpfpOfu bk&ifcu H Ekid if u H kd oluwqihf tkycf sKyfcw hJ ,f? a':refprpf&JŒ owW0gr[kwf&if olvufrcHEkdifbl;? OD;apmu ol‹owW0gjzpf w,f? oloabmuswJv h jl zpfcw hJ ,f” [k ajymqdck o hJ nf? 12 aemifwGif Adkvf&efatmif[k xif&Sm;vmoljzpfonf? 1948 ckuGefjrLepf (CPB) ykeu f efrw + iG yf g0ifomG ;_yD;/ 1997 ckEpS w f iG f (CPB) ygwDuyif uGyrf sufvu kd f onf? 13 Adv k rf ;ª }uD; qlZu l ;D (c) rDemrD rql,dk (c) Adv k rf ;dk ¯ud; (bDtidk af t Adv k cf sKyf}uD; rDemrD)? owWd&Sdaom w±kwfjynf ppfqifa&; ppfjyef/ ol txl;pdwf0ifpm;onfrSm ta&SŒawmiftm&Sjzpf_yD; Armvrf;r}uD; jyefvnfzGifhvSpfonfESifh r[mAsL[m t& ta&;ygvmaom jrefrmEkid if t H ay:ESihf Oa&mywGif ppfyrJG mS ra&Smifrv$o J mjzpf vmonft h csdew f iG f *syefb&k ifw h yfrawmf. r[mpDru H ed ;f rsm;wGif tm±kpH ;l pku d v f m cJhonf? jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif;okd‹ *syefwt kd‹ aejzifh ykdrkd_yD; vG,fvG,f0ifEkdifzkd‹ vkdouJhokd‹ tm&Swkdufom;csif; r[mrdwf«yEkdifonfh tajymif;tvJ tcGifhta&;ay;jcif;jzihf w±kwu f eG jf rLepfrsm;bufo‹dk olw. ‹dk vuf0, J rd ;f aer+ ukd wefjyefEidk zf ‹dk vkt d yfonf? xkdokd‹ «yvkyfEkdif&ef jrefrmrsKd;cspfrsm;t-um;wGif _Adwdo#qefu ‹ sifa&;tiftm;pkrsm; tm;aumif;aumif;ESihf &Sad erSjzpfayrnf? Tokd‹ jzifh Adkvfrª;}uD; qlZluD;onf 1939 ckESpf apmapmuyif ppfOD;pD;XmerS vkyfief;w&yf taumiftxnfazmf&ef wm0eftay;cH&onf? ol‹taejzifh (6)

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315

rSwcf surf sm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

vwmumvtwGif; jrefrmEkdifiHtajctaeukd avhvm&efESifh tquftoG,frsm; wnfaqmufEkdifa&;twGuf pl;prf;&SmazG&efjzpfonf? ,kdrD,l&Dowif;pm. owif;axmuf rDemrDrql,t dk jzpf Adv k rf ;ª }uD;onf 1940 ckEpS f arvwGif &efuek o f ‹dk a&mufvmcJhonf? OD;apmu olESifhawGŒqkH&ef tpysKd;cJh_yD; *syefu ppftultnD xkESifhxnfESifh ay;Ekdifrnfvm;[kar;cJhonf? qlZluD;u ol‹rSm owif;axmuf wa,mufomjzpfygonf[lI ta-umif;jyum a&SmifxGufcJh&onf? xkd‹aemuf *syef=jrefrm cspf-unfa&;toif;zGJŒonfhtcg qlZluD;u twGif;a&;rª;jzpfvm_yD; xif&Sm;aom jrefrmvlrsKd;wOD;jzpfonfh a'gufwmodrf;armifu jzpfajrmufa&; tusKd;aqmifjzpfvmonf? Adkvfr;ª }uD;taejzifh olu ‹ kd ykdrdkod&Sd&if;ESD;vm_yD; olw. kd‹ vGwv f yfa&;¯ud;yrf;r+wiG f ulnED idk o f nfh olt ‹ &nftcsif;ukv d nf; jrefrmjzpfot l m; txifw}uD;jzpfvmapcJo h nf? qlZu l ;D taejzifh jrefrmEkid if t H wGi;f &Sd v#K0‹d u S t f quf toG,rf sm;ta-umif; avhvmEkid v f mcJ_h yD; bke;f awmf}uD; OD;em*gtdjzifh jrefrmt"du &yk*Kd~ vfrsm;ESihf qufo, G rf r+ sm; ykrd w kd ;dk csJŒEidk cf o hJ nf? 14 tDZlrd,m wufql±kd= rDemrDatmf*ef pmrsufESm (23)? “*syefemrnfrsm;ukd Akv d rf ;ª }uD; qlZu l ;D u pOf;pm;ay;cJjh cif;jzpfonf? jrefrm[l aom pum;vk;H pktwGuf a&;&aom yxrqk;H aom *syefpum;vk;H ukd ESpyf idk ;f cGv J u dk f _yD; vlESpfa,muftwGuf rdom;pkemrnfrsm;tjzpf tokH;«yvkdufonf? atmifqef; twGuf tkdrkd'gESifh vS-rdiftwGuf tDwkd'gjzpfonf? olwkd‹. ukd,fykdifemrnfrsm;ukd a'gufwmodrf;armif.trnfrS &,lcJhonf? odrf;rSm awtDcsD/ armifrSm rGef*sD? Tok‹djzifh rsK;d cspjf refrmESpOf ;D twGuf *syefemrnfrsm;jzpfaom tkrd 'dk grGe*f sED iS hf tDw'dk gaw tDcsDwr‹dk mS arG;zGm;vmcJo h nf? 15 tifemtdk rDZlwmeD (Inao Mitzutani) (*syefaxmufvS rf;a&; 1940) u ‘&efuek Ef iS fh ,leef qufo, G x f m;aom Armvrf;r}uD;udk jzwfawmuf&efrmS rDemrD uDuef (Minami Kikan) . tcef;u¾jzpfonf? ,if;odk‹vkyf&efrSm jrefrmhvGwf vyfa&;v+yf&Sm;r+udk axmufcH&efjzpfonf? ‘tdENd,&Sd _Adwdo#udkarmif;xkwf&ef u|Eyfk w f ‹kd jrefrmjynfwiG f &Sad ecJo h nf? jrefrmvGwv f yfa&;udk ay;&efr[kwyf g? jrefrm Edik if w H iG f vH°k cHaom ajcukypf cef;r&Sb d J u|Ekyf w f p‹kd pfwyftaejzifh tdE, dN oda‹k &muf&dS &ef rjzpfEikd yf g’ [k ajymqdck o hJ nf? rpPwm rDZw l meDonf ,if;toHvi$ x hf w k rf r+ wdik f rD 1997=ckEpS w f iG f uG,v f eG o f mG ;cJo h nf? 16 ukad qmif; (c) Akv d x f ed 0f if;? T&Jabmfo;Hk usdy0f ifta-umif; Ekid if jH cm;om; pma&;q&mrsm;u Tokd‹ azmfjycJh-uonf? olonf tcGifhaumif;tcgaumif;wGif

*syefY ausmif;om;wa,muftjzpf a&muf&SdaecJhjcif;omjzpf_yD; ppfoifwef; rqif;&aomfvnf; ta&;}uD;tvkyw f m0efrsm; aqmif&u G &f onf? olonf vli,f wOD;taejzifh rsKd;cspfpdwf&Sd_yD; *syefukd jzpfEkdifacs&Sdaom r[mrdwftjzpf tav; xm;cJo h nf? *syefo‹dk oGm;a&mufynmoif&ef vkv d m;cJ_h y;D 1938 ckEpS w f iG rf S a'gufwm odrf;armifu xkdokd‹ «yvkyfEkdif&ef pDpOfaqmif&Gufay;cJhonf? olonf -uufaygif ap;vkyfief;wGif t"du pdwf0ifpm;r+&Sdaomfvnf; xl;jcm;vSpGm owif;pmvkyfief;/ ykHESdyfvkyfief;/ owif;pmtwwfynmESifha-umfjimvkyfief;oifwef;rsm;ukd wuf a&mufcJhonf? xkd‹aemuf olonf wkdusKdpufr+ twwfynmoifausmif;ukd wuf a&mufcJh_yD; ykHESdyfvkyfief;ukd qufvufqnf;yl;cJhonf? 1941 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv apmapmykdif;wGif olonf Adkvfr;ª }uD; qlZluD;/ atmifqef;/ vS-rdifwEdk‹ Sifh qufoG,frd onf? rwfvwGif a&a-umif;rS olu ‹ kd befaumufokdy‹ kdv ‹ kduf_yD; csif;rkdifwGif (6) v cef‹ axmufvS rf;a&;vkyfief;rsm; aqmif&Gufaponf? olonf a&a-umif;rSyif *syefokd‹ jyefvmcJhonf? oltjyefc&D;wGif tykdwm0efwck,lcJh&onf? ,if;rSm azmfrq dk mok‹d tjcm;&Jabmfrsm;ESihf yl;aygif;Ekid af &;twGuf oGm;a&muf&ef uke;f vrf; jzifh befaumufoa‹dk &muf&v dS maom ocifoef;wifudk twlapmifah &Smufac:aqmif vmcJh&jcif;jzpfonf? olonf oef;wifukd azmfrkdqmwGifxm;cJh&m oef;wifonf iSufzsm;a&m*gjzifh ,if;ae&mwGif aoqkH;cJhonf? olu *syefokd‹ EkdifiHa&; wm0ef rsm;jzifh qufvufxGufcGmoGm;cJhonf? olonf azmfrkdqmokd‹ jyefvm_yD; ppfoif wef;wGif yg0ifcJhonf? olwkd‹trsm;pkrSm befaumufwGif jyefvnfpkH±kH;rd-uaomf vnf; Adkvfxdef0if;taejzifh trdajrtwGif;okd‹ bDtkdifat. xkd;azmuf0ifa&mufr+ wGif yg0ifEidk jf cif;r&Scd ahJ cs? tb,fa-umifq h adk omf ,k;d ',m;&Sd *syefb&k ifw h yfrawmf . 0g'jzef‹ jzL;a&;Xmeu ol‹ukdvkdtyfaeaoma-umifhjzpfonf? jynfwGif;&Sd vlxk xH olu a&'D,kdtoHv$ifhr+rsm; «yvkyfcJh_yD; av,mOfrS }uJcspmrsm;ukdvnf; olu a&;ay;cJh&onf? _Adwdo#wkd‹ rEœav;ukd odrf;ykduf_yD;aemuf arvwGifrS olonf jrefrmjynfo‹dk jyefvnfa&muf&cdS o hJ nf? 17 ukdxGef;&Sdef (1918=1989)? ausmif;om;b0u olu ‹ kd oHr%dxGef;&Sdef[k vlodrsm;onf? &efukefwuUokdvf ausmif;om;or*~. twGif;a&;rª;jzpfcJhonf? _Adwdo#wyfwkd‹tqkwfwGif bDtkdifat (BIA) ESifh wkdufyGJrsm;jzpf&mY a&$awmif wku d yf w JG iG f &Jabmfo;Hk usdyw f t ‹dk -um; emrnf}uD;vm_yD; Adv k &f efEidk t f jzpf ausmf-um; vmcJhonf? 'kwd,urBmppftwGif; a'gufwmbarmfonf EkdifiHawmf t"dywd t&Sifrif;}uD;tjzpf jrifhwufoGm;&m Adkvf&efEkdifukd ol‹. ppfzufvufaxmufESifh

315

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317

rSwcf surf sm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

tyg;awmf_rJtjzpf a&G;cs,fcJhonf? Akdvf&efEkdifu a'gufwmbarmf.orD;jzpf olþ wifZm (Tinza) ESifh aemufqkH;wGif vufxyfcJhonf? 1970 ckESpfwGif olonf xkdif;EkdifiHY zGJŒpnf;cJhaom OD;Ek. ae0if;qefu ‹ sifa&;wyfzGJŒrsm;wGif yl;aygif;yg0ifcJh onf? 1980 ckESpfwGif vGwf_idrf;csrf;omcGifhtrdet f‹ & jrefrmEkdifiHokd‹ jyefvmcJhonf? 1989 ckEpS w f iG f uG,v f eG o f nf? 18 tDemtkrd ZD w l meD=“iSuaf ysmoD;wwG”J (orkid ;f Xme=&S*D wfum=vpfb&,f tEkynmaumvdyf/ um*kd&SDrmwuUokdvf/ ukd&Drkdwkd/ um*kd&SDrm/ *syef/ 1948 ckESpf) pmrsufEmS 36? “eHeufcif;wckrmS ocifpv H id+ Ef iS hf tjcm; (4) a,mufw[ ‹dk m oabFmaiGpm&if; ukdiftcef;ukda&mufvm_yD; ocifxGef;tkyfu EkdifiHa&;orm;b0cH,lxm;oltaeeJ‹ -unfh_yD; ol‹ukd acgif;aqmiftjzpf owfrSwf&r,fvkd‹ awmif;qkdaea-umif;ESifh 'Dawmif;qkcd suu f dk olwv ‹dk ufrcHEidk af -umif; ajymvmygw,f? 'ga-umifh &JabmfawG tm;vk;H ukd oabFmaiGpm&if;ukid t f cef;ukd ac:vku d yf gw,f? oabFmaiGxed ;f &Sirf if (rpfZlwmeD) u “*syefukdra&mufrcsif; b,fvkdtajctaersKd;rSmrS EkdifiHa&;v+yf &Sm;r+ukd oabFmay:rSm cGifhr«ybl;? 'Dpnf;urf;ukd csKd;azmufwJhol b,foljzpfjzpf 'Dae&muae_yD; uk, d Ehf idk if u H dk a&ul;jyef&r,f” vk‹d olwu ‹dk dk owday;ajymqkv d u dk yf g w,f? ,if;tjzpftysufrSm &efukefrS pifumyltoGm; yifv,fjyifrSm ‘ukd±lrm±l’ oabFmay:wGif jzpfysufcJhjcif;jzpfonf? T (11) a,muf aemufqkH;tokwf ckd;xkwf&mwGif ocifpHv+difESifh (4) a,mufrSm ocifukd,fawmfr+dif;tkyfpkrSjzpf_yD; ocifxGef;tkyf/ ±+armif (ae0if;) ESifh (4) a,mufrSm Apdef=xGef;tkyf tkyfpkrSjzpf -uonf?” 19 jrefrm=*syefqufoG,fr+rSm jrefrmjynfw0S rf; aexkdifvsuf&Sdaom *syefvlrsKd;tcsKd‹rSwqifh aqmif&GufcJh&onf? rpfZlwmeDu ol‹pmtkyf (iSufaysm oD;wwG)J pmrsuEf mS (13) wGif ‚if;ta&twGurf mS (300) cef&‹ o dS nf[k a&;cJo h nf? ‚if;wkd‹rSm oGm;q&m0efrsm;/ "mwfykHq&mrsm;/ tESdyfonfrsm;/ ukefonfrsm;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;ESifh b%fvkyfief;wkd‹rS pD;yGm;a&;ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;jzpf-uonf? q&m0efrsm;/ Ak'<bmombkef;awmf}uD;wyg;/ qHoq&mrsm; (wOD;rSm rEœav;wGif taumif;qkH; qHoqkdifwqkdifzGifhvSpfxm;_yD; u|efawmhfrdom;pkrS a,musfm;jzpfol rsm; ,if;qkdifwGif qHyif!Syf-uonf) ESifh tjcm;toufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyfief; vkyfaqmifolrsm;ukdvnf; csefxm;Ir&ay? xif&Sm;aom q&m0efwOD;rSSm a'guf wmbarmfEiS hf tjcm; Ekid if aH &;orm;rsm; t_rJwrf;ukor+ cH,al eus q&m0ef jzpfol

a'gufwmqlumqmqlZu l ;D jzpfonf? 1938 ckESpfrSpI aexkdifvmcJhol bkef;awmf}uD; OD;em*gtdonf ocifacgif; aqmifyidk ;f ESihf rDemrDuu D eft-um; ul;oef;qufo, G af y;&mY txl;ojzifh tm;oGef cGefpkduf&SdvSonf? t_idrf;pm;a&wyfAdkvf}uD;jzpfcJhol oGm;q&m0ef ukdulbl±+dZkdu ocifatmifoef; (Akv d pf }uFm) . zcifjzpfol OD;jromrSwqifh Apde=f xGe;f tkyf ocif rsm;ESifhvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;oGm;q&m0efwa,mufjzpfol umrkd&SDwmu ol‹vlem jzpfol ocifukd,fawmfr+dif;tkyfpkrS 'k=acgif;aqmifjzpfol ocifjrESifhvnf;aumif; teD;uyfqufo, G rf r+ sm; &Scd -hJ uonf? oGm;q&m0efwOD;jzpfol tkw d mu Aef;armfrS a':oDEiS hf ta-umif;ygcJ_h yD; aemifwiG f a':oDu *syefraS eI toHvi$ 0hf g'jzefc‹ o hJ nf? ukew f u dk pf wk;d pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;&SiEf iS hf y&dabm*ukeo f nf rpPwm [mwmemumu vnf; OD;jromESifh rdwfaqGjzpfcJhonf? *syefukefoG,fr+A[kd. t}uD;tuJ rpPwm tkdbmtaejzifh t_rJaxmufvS rf;apmifh-uyf-unfh±+&onfh vkyfief;wGif yg0if aqmif&GufcJhonf? oH±kH;rS aumifppf0efjzpfol rpPwm [GrRm ESifh ppfwyft&m&Sd jzpfolwkd‹onfvnf; yg0ifywfoufaecJhonf? txufwGif emrnfazmfjycJhol t&yfom;tawmfrsm;rsm;wkd‹onf bk&ifhwyfrawmfESifh jyefvnfvkdufygvmcJh_yD; *syefppftkyfcsKyfa&;wGif ulnDcJh-uonf? (&if;ESD;qJ tultnDay;qJjzpfaom rEœav;rS qHoq&m}uD;yg tygt0ifjzpfonf)? 20 OD;atmifcif=“ae0if;/ EkdifiHa&;±kyfykHv$m”/ tykdif; (1)? {&m0wD pmapmif ygaqmif;yg;/ csif;rkid /f -o*kwv f 2000 ckEpS /f twGJ (8) trSwf (8) pmrsufEmS (22)? “ae0if;onf arG;&mygzsufqD;a&;orm;jzpfonf? tvGefi,fvSaom uav; b0uyif t-urf;zufr+ESifh zsufqD;a&;wkd‹wGif ol‹tpGrf;tpukd jyocJhonf? aygufacgif;&GmwGif olwufaeaom rlvwef;ausmif;ukd rD;±+dŒzsufqD;&ef ¯ud;pm; cJhzl;onf[kqkdonf? tb,fha-umifhqkdaomf olonf qufvufynmroifvkdaom a-umifh[l.? *Eœ0ifajrmuf&aJ bmfo;Hk usdyw f ‹dk 1941 ckEpS w f iG f *syefatmufY ppfynmqnf; yl;ae&aom [kdifeefu|ef;ay: Y ol. tzsufobm0u ay:vGifvmjyefonf? ae0if;«yvky&f aom pGr;f &nfppfaq;r+u olw ‹ iG f tzsut f arSmifv h yk if ef; (Sabotage)/ zsufvkdzsufqD; taESmifht,Sufay;&ef aoG;aqmifEkdifpGrf; (Subversion) ESifh tcuftcJawGŒu wywf±kdufa&Smifwdrf;Ekdifr+ (Subterfuge) wkd‹wGif e*kdrlvt&nf tcsif;&Sad ejcif;ukd jyovsuf&o dS nf?” 21 tDemtkrd pfZw l meD=‘iSuaf ysmoD;wwG’J pmrsufEmS 56=59?

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

“u|efawmfhukd bDtkdifat ppfom;pkaqmif;a&;t&m&Sdtjzpf wm0efay;yg w,f? csif;rkdifteD;w0kdufu &GmawGu av#mufwJholtrsm;pku jrefrmtenf;i,f uvGJvkd‹ &S rf;awG/ _rdKawG/ u&ifawGjzpfygw,f”? “ppfom;topf (230) avmuf pm&if;&_yD;awmh befaumufrSm&SdwJh uDuefXmecsKyfukd &xm;eJ‹ ykd‹vkdufygw,f? olwkd‹awGu xkdif;vkd 'grS r[kwf &S rf;vkdajym-uygw,f? jrefrmvkd vkH;0rajym-u bl;?” “xkdif;ajrmufykdif;buf &uftawmf-um c&D;oGm;_yD; pkaqmif;awmh &S rf;eJ‹ _rdK(300) ausmf pkaqmif;rdw,f? olwkdu ‹ kd ‘zpfqeLvGwf’ uwqifh ‘&[if’ ukd ykv d‹ dkuf&w,f? bma-umifhvJqkdawmh Zefe0g&Dv (11) &ufuyJ jrefrmXmecsKyf u &[ifukd ajymif;oGm;vkd‹ygyJ?” tDZlrD,mwwfql,kd/ rDemrDatmf*ef (&efukef wuUokdvf=1981) pmrsufESm 98 ESifh 99? Adkvfrª;}uD; qlZluD;u eHygwf (15) wyfrawmf&JŒcGifh«ycsufeJ‹ _Adwdo#awGvnfywfaewJh abmfeD,dkukr`%Duae_yD; axmufyHha&;ypPnf;awGawmif;vkduf_yD; 'DZifbmv (17) &ufrSm t_yD;a&$Œvkduf ygw,f? (befaumufwGif bDtkdifatXmecsKyfwnfaqmuf&ef)? befaumufrSm tajccsaewJh jrefrmawG&Sdayr,fh odyfrrsm;ygbl;/ olwkd‹xJu bDtkdifatpkaqmif; r+udk wk‹H jyefr+ tawmftm;aumif;ygw,f? csufcsif;yJ ppfom;opf (200) &ygw,f? bDtkdifatxJ0ifwJh *syefu pkpkaygif; (74) a,muf&Sdygw,f? rlvt&if;cHt&m&Sd awG/ tifpDtkdawG/ rDemrDatmf*ef&JŒ t&yfom;yk*~dKvfawG/ ppfjzpfwmeJ‹ csufcsif; wGJzufcH&wJh t&yfom;yk*~dKvfawG jzpfygw,f? bDtkdifatwyfxJ tvkdtavsmuf 0ifvm-uolrsm;[m ausmufrsuf&wemeJ‹ "mwfowWKwl;azmfa&;vkyfief;/ opf awmvkyfief;/ wd&p>mefarG;jrLa&;vkyfief;/ }uHpkdufa&;vkyfief;eJ‹ a&xGufvkyfief; tp&SdwJh pufr+vkyfief; tvkyform;awGjzpfw,fvkd‹ jrefrmpma&;q&mawGu azmfjya&;om;-uygw,f? 22 1948 ckESpf/ -o*kwfv (1) &ufae‹wGif vGwfvyfaom jrefrmEdkifiHrSa-u nm&mwGif EdkifiHawmftvHtjzpf yHkpHwrsKd;xGifxm;aom ua'gif;udk tv,f xm;onfh 0g/ pdrf;/ eD/ (3) a&mifjc,ftvHudk todtrSwfðycJhygonf? 23 bDbDpD (2) wDAGD/ (txufygtpDtpOf) atmifqef;pk-unf= “vltrsm;u xif-uwmu *syefvlrsKd;awG[m tm&Swkdufom;tcsif;csif;jzpf-uwma-umihf vGwfvyfa&;ay;_yD; udk,fhEkdifiHudk,f tkyfcsKyfEkdif-ur,f? 'gayr,fh wu,fjzpfay: vmwmuawmh *syefppftkyfcsKyfr+[m _Adwdo#udkvdkeDtkyfcsKyfr+xuf trsm;}uD; ydkrdkqdk;0g;wmudk awGŒ jrif-u&ygw,f” 24 armifarmif (Akdvfrª;csKyfa[mif;)/ jrefrmtrsKd;om;a&;v+yf&Sm;r+rsm;

1940=1948 (upfuma';vf ykEH ydS x f w k af 0r+/ paumh wvef 1989) pmrsuEf mS 86=87 “olwkd‹ppfXmewkdif;rsm;rS tusOf;±kH;z,f&Sm;cH-u&aom [kdifeeftkyfpk (&JabmfokH; usdyf0ifrsm;) u AdkvfvusfmxH xkdurSwqifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;xH oGm;cJh-u_yD; Adkvfae0if;ESifh ol‹vufa&G;pift&m&Sdrsm; vufxJwGif ppfwyf}uD;wckvkH;xm;I jzpfvmrnfah b;tEœ&m,ftwGuf owday;ajymqkcd -hJ uonf? atmifqef;uk, d Ef u d+ f uvnf; wkid ;f jynf. wckwnf;aom pkpnf;xm;_yD;/ avhusifx h m;_yD; yk*Kd~ vfrsm;. tpktzGŒJ (wyfrawmf) ukd a0r#ay;&rnft h awG;tac:ukd ESp°f cduv f o S nfr[kwaf cs? xkda-umifh olt ‹ aejzifh ppfqifa&;&mrsm;twGuf umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfukdrxm;bJ ppf0ef}uD;atmufwiG o f m ppfO;D pD;csKyfudk wku d ±f u dk cf efx ‹ m;onfh _Aw d o d #ppf±;Hk pepfudk csrw S cf o hJ nf? ppf0ef}uD;Xmeukd tvGev f sijf refpmG jyefvnfzŒJGpnf;cJ_h y;D rwfvwGif Adv k f ae0if;ukd &efukefppf±kH;okd‹ ppfOD;pD;csKyftjzpf a&$Œvkduf_yD; taxGaxGppfOD;pD;Xmeukd }uD;-uyfapcJo h nf? atmifqef;taejzifh pnf;urf;pepfusapa&;twGuf umuG,f a&;OD;pD;csKyftjzpf qufvuf&adS ecJ_h y;D trdea‹f y;csKyfuidk x f m;onfh _Aw d o d #enf;vrf; rsm;twkid ;f vk;H 0csrSwaf qmif&u G cf o hJ nf?” 25 bDbDpD (2) wDAGD (txufygtpDtpOf)/ vlawGŒar;jref;cH&ol tJ&pfbuf H ud, k &f aH wmf (at'DpD 1942) u ‘ OD;atmifqef; wmpbD (Eric Battersby) bk&ifc. . tpGef;a&muft,ltqrsm; pGef‹v$wfoGm;ap&ef OD;apmu v$rf;rdk;vkyfaqmif Edkifvdrfhrnf[laom ar#mfvifhcsufESihf (qma':refprpfu) u|Ekfyftm; (OD;apmudk jyefac:vm&ef) apv$wfcJhjcif;jzpfygw,f? 'g[m oufoufrJh±l;wmyg/ 'g[m vG,fvG,fav; b,fjzpfEdkifrvJ? OD;apm[m jrefrmEdkifiHrSm -oZmtm%m r&Sd awmhygbl;/ OD;atmifqef;uom csKyfudkifxm;wmyg’ [k ajz-um;ajymqdkcJhonf? 26 bufwmpbD. ajymqkdcsufrsm;rS txufygta-umif;ukdom BBC rS xkwv f yk o f u l wifqufxm;ykrH mS em;vnf&efcufco J nf? bk&ifc. H &nfreS ;f csurf mS OD;apmu OD;atmifqef;. t,ltqrsm;ukd v$rf;rdk;Ekdif&efr[kwfbJ/ _Adwdo# EkdifiHjcm;a&;0ef oabmwl_yD;aom/ AkdvfcsKyftm; txl;tm;jzifh zqyvukd a,bk,stm;jzifh &nf&, G v f suf Ekid if aH &;qefu ‹ sib f ufrsm;. tiftm;jznfq h nf;&ef jzpfygonf? ‚if;&nf&G,fcsufukd &&eftwGuf bufwmpbDukdyif wkdusKd-rd›rS a'gufwmbarmfESifh a'gufwm odrf;armifwkd‹ukdvnf; tac:v$wfao;onf? aemufqkH;jzpfay:vmonfrSm OD;apmu a'gufwmbarmfESifh ocifApdefwkd‹ESifh yl;aygif;um zqyvtzGJŒcsKyftm; 1947 ckESpf {_yDv (9) &uf taxGaxGa&G; aumufyGJwGif twkduftcHtaejzifh qef‹usif&ef EkdifiHa&;r[mrdwfzGJŒ -uonf?

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ok&‹d mwGif zqyvtzGŒJ csKyfonf ,SO-f ydio f w l idk ;f udk v$r;f rk;d _yD; rJta&twGuf &mckid f E+ef; (95²3) &mckdifE+ef;jzifh tjywftowftEkdif&cJhonf? rpPwm bwfwmpbDonf ,if;tpD tpOfxkwfv$ifhr+rwdkifrD 1997 ckESpfwGif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf? 27 _Adwo d #eef;&if;0efEiS fh awGŒqaHk qG;aEG;&ef ud, k pf m;vS,t f zGŒJ ukd OD;aqmifI toGm;wGif Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;onf 1947 ckEpS /f Zefe0g&Dv(3) &ufae‹Y e,l;a'vD (New Delhi) wGif tm&Swu kd w f iG ;f qufqaH &; nDvmcHaumfrwDu ðyvkyo f nfh {nfh cHyw JG iG f rdec‹f eG ;f ajym-um;cJo h nf? xda‹k emuf ðyvkyaf omowif;pm&Si;f vif;yGYJ ‚if;rde‹f cGef;udk tajccHI ar;cGef;rsm;ar;-uonf? “cifAsm;taeeJ‹ t-urf;zufwJhenf;eJ‹ 'grS r[kwf t-urf;rzufwehJ nf;eJ‹ 'grS r[kwf tJ'eD nf;vrf;ESpcf v k ;kH eJ‹ wdu k yf 0JG ifomG ; zdk‹ pOf;pm;xm;ygovm;” [kar;&mwGif “u|Ekfyfwdk‹taeeJ‹ b,fenf;vrf;udkrS uefo ‹ wfrxm;ygbl;” [k oluajz-um;oGm;cJo h nf? ol. ar#mv f ifch suEf iS fh ywfouf I ar;aomar;cGef;udkrl “u|Ekfyfwdk[ ‹ m taumif;qHk;udk ar#mfvifhxm;_yD; tqdk;qHk; twGufvJ jyifqifxm;ygw,f” [k cwfjywfjywfajz-um;oGm;onf? 28 rpPwm bufwmpbDu bDbDpD (2) wDAGDuðyvkyfaom (txufygrSwfpk tcsuf (16) wGif azmfjycJhaom) wckwnf;aom awGŒqHkar;jref;cef;wGifyif ajym -um;cJah om rSwcf surf sm;udk qufpyfI rSwo f m;&efrmS pdw0f ifpm;zG,af umif;ygonf? bDbDpD.toHv$ifholu ‘OD;atmifqef;taejzihf olwdk‹udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJŒ awmif; qdkonfrsm; r&&SdcJhv#if vufeufudkifykefuefxºuG&ef jyifqifxm;cJhonfhtwGuf (_Adwdo# bk&ifhtpdk;&taejzifh tomw-unf wESpftwGif; vGwfvyfa&;ay;&ef tmrcHvu kd o f nft h wGu)f tHt h m;woifh jzpfomG ;cJyh &kH ygonf’ [k ajym-um;cJo h nf? ,if;rSwcf suftay: rpPwm bufwmpbDu “u|Ekyf . f jrefrmrdwaf qGwOD;u tJ'D tpDtpOf&JŒ tpuawmh _Adwdo#t&m&SdawGeJ‹ olwdk‹ZeD;awGudk rsm;Edkifoavmuf rsm;rsm; owfypfzdk‹yJvdk‹ ajymcJhygw,f? tJ'DrdwfaqGu tlv+dufonf;v+duf&,f_yD; f akd jymw,f? u|Eyfk f “iguawmh rif;eJe‹ efpD (Nancy) udk owf&rSmjzpfw,f’ [k u|Eyfk u vJ enf;enf;awmh vefo ‹ mG ;w,f? olu tJ'v D akd jymwmudk aemufajymifajymwmvd‹k ,lqyHk&awmh u|EkfyfvJ 'g aemufajymifusDp,fr+tjzpf owfrSwfzdk‹ pOf;pm;vdkufyg w,f? 'gayr,fh t&ifuvdk ol‹tay: cHpm;vdk‹r&awmhygbl;” [kqufvuf ajymqdck yhJ gonf? 29 a'gufwm tuf(zf) tif/ xa&*g (Dr. F.N. Trager) . ygarmuQ 'D/ *sD tD;/ a[mf(vf) (Prof.D.G.E. Hall's) pmtkyf ‘ta&S›awmiftm&S&mZ0if’ tay:wGif a0zefxm;onfhaqmif;yg; Guardian,Rangoon Vol.3,No.6, {_yDv 1956 ck/

pmrsufESm (27) &nf!e¸ f;I “a[m(vf) qufvuf,Hk-unfaeonfrSm atmifqef; ukd,fwkdifu jrefrmjynftm; _Adwdo# "eo[m, EkdifiHrsm;twGif; aeEkdif&ef ¯ud;yrf;vkyu f idk v f o dk nfh wdusckid rf maom pdw"f mwf&adS -umif;jzpfonf? atmifqef; uG,v f eG o f mG ;av_y/D Tta-umif;t&mrsm;ESiyhf wfoufI pm&Gupf mwrf;rsm;vnf; r&Sd? u|efawmfwOD;wnf; awG;qrdwmuawmh xl;c|efcJhonfh AdkvfcsKyfatmif qef;uyifv#if TuJhokd‹ wcsdefcsdefu vkyfukdifvkdonf&SdcJhaomfjim;vnf; olt ‹ pnf; t±k;H ESihf Ekid if u H ydk g ol‹-oZmanmif;atmif aqmif&u G o f mG ;Ekid cf rhJ nfr[kwyf g? taemuf {u&mZfEidk if rH sm; 0rf;enf;pGm em;vnfrr+ &Scd -hJ uonft h jyif rw&m;qufqcH -hJ uonfh «yusirhf r+ sm;rSm jrefrmjynftm; trsK;d rsK;d t[eft ‹ wm;rsm;ukd 1948 ckEpS f Zefe0g&Dv (4) &ufae‹rpS wifI ausmfvm$ ;Ekid cf o hJ nfh ta-umif;wckwnf;omr[kwb f J t"du ta-umif;jzpfonfh rsKd;cspfpw d "f mwfomv#ifjzpfygonf?”

vlxOk ;D vS=“axmifev ‹J o l m;” (okcZmwfa-umif;jyef) pmrsuEf mS 190=111? txl;ckH±kH;Y w&m;qkdifr+ ponfESifh obmywdw&m;ol}uD;u OD;apmukd ckcHxkacs olrsm;twGuf Oya'ta-umif;t& ukd,fpm;«yol trnfpm&if;ukd wifoGif;&ef awmif;qkd&mwGif ol‹taejzifh bk&ifhtwkdifyifcHwOD;ESifh t*FvefrS 0wfvkHawmf& wOD;ukd iSm;&rf;xm;yga-umif;ESifh tjcm;olrsm;twGuf jrefrmEkdifiHrS a&S›aersm;ukd ceft ‹ yfomG ;rnfjzpfyga-umif; olt ‹ }uHtpnfudk ajymjyavonf? olw. ‹dk t&Sio f cif ukd twdtvif; opPmapmifhodqJjzpfaom armifpkd;ESifh oufESif;wkd‹rSvGJI usefvl ola‹ emufvu dk t f m;vk;H rSm cGjJ cm;r+udk cHpm;rd-u_yD; pdwrf aumif;jzpfvsuf&-dS uonf? Tonfuyif olwkd‹ESifh olwkd‹. q&morm;a[mif;wkd‹t-um; qufqHa&;ukd ykdrdk ysufjym;oGm;apavonf? aemufq;Hk Y armifp;dk / oufEiS ;f / &ef}uD;atmifEiS hf r+e}f uD; wkd‹ukd om,m0wDrS a&S›aeOD;pH0if;ESifh ¯udŒyifaumufrS a&S›ae OD;odef;ausmfwkd‹u uk, d pf m;«y-u_yD; armifped /f okc/ cifarmif&ifEiS hf armifew D ‹dk url olwu ‹dk u dk muG,&f ef a&Sa› ervkda-umif; wifoGif;cJh-uonf? 2 vlxkOD;vS/ (txufygpmtkyf) pmrsufESm 107=108? b!Gef‹rSm azmf aumiftjzpf w&m;0iftodtrSwf«ycH&aomfvnf; wu,fwrf;tm;jzifh 0efcHcsuf tjynft h pku H adk y;olrmS cifarmif&ifjzpfonf? b!Get ‹f aejzifh tk;d onfuek ;f -rd› w&m; ±kH;rsm;wGif ,cifu pma&;vkyfcJhzl;I w&m;a&;&mudpP&yfrsm;wGif tawGŒt¯uH

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tcef; (3) w&m;qkid jf cif; 1

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323

rSwcf surf sm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

tawmftwef&o dS nf? 3 ‘jrefrmhtvif;’ ( 1947 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (9) &uf)/ {nfhonfrsm; twGuf xdkifcHk (100) owfrSwfxm;onf? a':oef;cif (OD;apm.ZeD;)/ orD;jzpfol aroef;apm (abbDapm) ESifh a,muQrjzpfol OD;vluav;wdu ‹k kd {nfo h nfrsm; ae&m wGif awGŒ&onf? trSwf (12) ppfwyfrS Adkvfrª;wOD;udkvnf; xdkae&mwGif rSwfpk vdu k rf w S af eonfukd awGŒ&onf? 4 ‘The Burman’ (1947 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (16) &ufESihf (17) &uf)/ t"duw&m;cHOD;apmonf tjympif;vHkcsnfESihf ydk;wdkufyHkwdk‹ jzifh oyf&yfpGm 0wf pm;qif,ifxm;_yD; tpdrf;a&mifrsufrSefudk wyfqifxm;um vufwGifvnf; tjym a&mifrsufrSefwvufudk udkifxm;onf? 5 uk;d um;csufrsm;rSm txl;ck±H ;Hk awmfp&D ifcsuf (1947/ 'DZifbmv (30) &uf) rS b!Gef‹ESifh cifarmif&ifwkd‹. oufaocHxGufcsufrsm;rS aumuf,lazmfjyxm; jcif;jzpfygonf? 6 txl;ckH±kH;awmfwGif w&m;vkdbuf oufao 'k=&JcsKyf OD;xGef;vSatmiftm; jyefvnfppfaq;jcif;«y&m tajzay;cJh onfrsm;Y Ekid if aH wmfvyk }f uHr+ udpw P &yftm; &JtzGJŒ Xme (3) cku ukdifwG,fcJh&m aemufqkH;wGif &efukef-rd›awmf &JXmeokd‹ v$Jajymif;vkdufygonf? ajymif;vJjcif;r«yrD OD;xGef;vSatmifu xkdtr+ESifh ywfouf onfh &JcsKyf. vlowform;wa,mufpD zrf;qD;jypf'%f pD&ifcH&eftwGuf qkaiG ±ly;D (10˜000) ay;rnfh a-unmpmrl-urf;ukd jrifcahJ -umif;ukv d nf; ajymjycJo h nf? 7 xif&mS ;aom orm;awmf a'gufwmboef;onfþtxl;ck±H ;Hk awmfov ‹dk ma&muf um &Jr+cif;qkdif&mcGJpdwfr+q&m0ef (Police Surgeon) taejzifh &efukefaq;±kH}uD;okd‹ yka‹d qmifvu dk af om vky}f uHrw + iG f aoaus'%f&m&olrsm;tm; ppfaq;cJ_h y;D aoqk;H ol rsm;tm; jzwfawmufcGJpdwfr+«ycJhonfh tao;pdwftcsuftvufrsm; azmfjyxm; aom aq;ynmESihf oufqidk o f nft h a-umif;t&mrsm;ukd tpD&ifccH yhJ gonf? 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;rjzpfrDumvwGif a'gufwmboef;onf (Adkvfrª;}uD; atmifcifESifhtwl) jrefrmvlrsKd;xJwGif FRCS ac: Fellow of Royal College of Surgeons bGŒJx;l ukd &cJo h jl zpfygonf? 1962 ckEpS w f iG f Adv k af e0if;u jynfaxmifpt k pk;d &ukd odrf;qnf;_yD;tcsdefwGif a'gufwmboef;.orD;t}uD; a':cifaroef; (Katie) ESifh xdr;f jrm;vufxyfvu dk o f nf? 8 txl;ckH±kH;Y a&S›aecsKyfu jyefvSefar;cGef;xkwf&mwGif EkdifiHa&;orm; (2) OD;vkH;u olwkd‹taejzifhvnf; {nfhonfrsm; twGuf ‘tdrfwHcg;ukd t_rJzGifhxm;

ouJhokd‹ taetxm;&Sdonf” [k ajym&ygrnf[k jyefajzcJh-uonf? OD;apmtae jzifh EkdifiHa&; -ydifzufrsm;ay:wGif t-urf;zufjcif;/ owfjzwfjcif; «yvkyfrnf[k ,kH -unf&avmufonhf ta-umif;tcsufwpkHw&m pOf;pm;I r&cJhacs? ocifApdefu olonf OD;apmxH ok;H av;}udrcf ef‹ tvnfomG ;zl;_yD; aemufq;Hk w}udrrf mS vky}f uHr+ rjzpfymG ;rDwywfu jzpfonf[q k o dk nf? _c0H if;twGi;f vltajrmuftjrm; aeaeonf ukd owdxm;rdcJhonf? t0ifwHcg;r}uD;wGif *dwfapmifhwOD;csxm;onfhtwGuf OD;apmtoufukd &ef&Sm_yD;onfhaemuf TuJhokd‹ tapmifhcsxm;jcif;jzpfonf[k em;vnfco hJ nf? 9 OD;Ek. wmawpaeom; ‘(Saturday’s Son) = (a,;vfwuUodkvf yHkESdyf wdkuf/ e,l;a[AifESihf vef'ef 1975) pmrsufESm 119/’ “wae‹rSm AdkvfcsKyfatmif qef;&JŒtdrf tay:xyfrSm tvkyftr+aqmiftpnf;ta0;wck usif;yw,f? wem&D avmuf-umwJhtcg AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;&JŒudk,f&Hawmf AdkvfxGef;vS tpnf;ta0; cef;xJu0kd ifvm_y;D OD;apmaoewfypfc&H w,fv‹kd tr+aqmifv}l uD;awGukd ta-umif; -um;w,f? ocifEk[m olt ‹ em;rSm&SdwJh OD;ausmf_idrf;bufudkvSnfh_yD; “a[h=þausmf _ird ;f / b,foyl pfw,fxifovJ” vda‹k r;w,f? OD;ausm_f ird ;f u olrodb;l vda‹k jzw,f? aemufwae‹ nbufusawmh Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;[m OD;apmqDukd owif;oGm;ar; &atmif ocifEkudkvmac:w,f/ ocifEk[m t0wftpm;vJ_yD; tjyifxGufcgeD;rSm “Adv k cf sKyfa& OD;apmudk b,foyl pfw,fxifovJ/ iguawmh uGejf rLepfawGypfw,f xifw,f” vd‹k ajymwJt h cg Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;u olrodb;l vda‹k jymw,f? OD;apm&JŒ rsufESmawGudk t0wfeJy‹ wfxm;wJhtwGuf AdkvfcsKyfeJo ‹ cifEkwdk‹ vmw,fqdkwmudk om olo&d w,f? Adv k cf sKyfwu ‹kd kd rjrif&bl;?” 10 OD;aomif;. ‘ owif;pmorm;wOD;/ Adv k cf sKyf}uD;wOD;ESifh jrefrmjynfwiG ;f &Sd wyfrawmfwck’ (-umjzLyHEk ydS w f u kd /f befaumuf=1995) pmrsuEf mS (11)/ ‘ol±‹ ;kH rS tjyef vrf;wGif um;twGif;pD;vmaeaom OD;apmudk vufajzmifh aoewform; wOD;u vS r;f ypfvu kd o f nf? od&‹k mwGif usnfqefonf olu ‹ rkd rSeb f J um;avumrSef udk oGm;xdreS o f nf? rSeu f pJG wckonf OD;apm.rsupf u d v kd mxdco hJ nf? ‘The Burma Times’ . t,f'Dwmudk vlawGŒar;jref;cGifh OD;apmuay;cJh&m/ u|efawmfhtm; ol‹ ±kyfyHkudk "mwfyHk±dkuf&ef wm0efay;tyfcJhonf? ol‹rsufpdudk ywfwD;pnff;xm;onfh twGuf olt ‹ m; "mwfyrkH ±du k &f ef OD;apmu u|efawmfu h kd awmif;yefco hJ nf? od‹k jzpfI u|eaf wmfonf t,f'w D mu vlawGŒar;jref;r+ ðyvky&f mwGif rSwpf ak &;rSw&f mY tul tnDay;cJo h nf? ‘Ak'b < mom0ifaumif;wOD;taeeJ‹ u|eaf wmf&h efoal wGukd u|eaf wmf

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t_rcJ iG v hf w $ rf ð+ yygw,f/ 'gayr,fh u|eaf wmfrh suv f ;kH '%f&m&awmh rcHr&yfEikd af tmif pl;&Semusiyf gw,f/ u|eaf wmf olwu ‹kd kd cGirhf v$wEf ikd af wmhygbl;/ emusiv f eG ;f tm;}uD; vd‹k u|efawmf rcHEikd af wmhygbl;’[k OD;apmuajymcJo h nf? 11 jynfxJa&;ESifh w&m;a&;0ef}uD;jzpfol OD;ausmfndrf;u ykdrdkwif;usyf aomtpDtrHrsm; «yvkyfvkdonf? axmif0efxrf;rsm;. tusifhoduQmukd olu oHo,0ifvsuf&Sdonf? wcsKd‹taejzifh OD;apm. vSnfhuGufxJ0ifoGm;Ekdifonf r[kwyf gvm;? vk-H cHa&;ukd ykrd w kd if;usyf&efEiS hf txl;ojzifh nzufwiG f ykrd cdk sxm;&ef olu wGef;tm;ay;cJhonf? ta&;}uD;tusOf;usorm;rsm;. tcef;rsm;ukd apmifh -unfhaeol axmif-uyfta&twGufukd wqwkd;ap&ef zqyvtzGJŒcsKyfrS olv ‹ l,kH (4) a,mufuydk g wm0efcsxm;ay;cJo h nf? xkt d zGŒJ xw J iG f xdyw f ef;ygwD0ifwOD;jzpf _yD; ola‹ ,mufzjzpfol ocifyef;-rdiu f ydk g OD;ausmf_idr;f u vku d yf goGm;apcJo h nf? 12 bDbDpD (2) wDAGD (txufygtpDtpOf)/ wifqufolOD;apmESihf ol‹vl (8) a,muf w&m;±Hk;wifonfhtcsdefwGif ‘a':refprpfu olr‹ dwfaqGudk w&m;cHbufrS oufaocH&ef urf;vS rf;cJhaomfvnf; _Adwdo#tpdk;&u t[eft ‹ wm;vkyfcJhonf” OD;apmtm; aopm;aoap tpD&ifay;onfhtcsdefrSmvnf; a':refprpfu xyfrH 0ifpu G jf cif;ðyonfrmS ‘olr‹ w d af qGtwGuf u±k%ma&SŒxm;&ef’ jzpfygonf? 13 0wfvaHk wmf& rpPwm tuf(zf)/ a*s/ pvpfAg&D [aAg(*f) (Mr.F.J. SalisburyHavock) u OD;apm. t,lcH0ifjcif;rsm;ukd ukdifwG,faqmif&GufcJhonf?

xm;aomfvnf; twdtustcdik t f rm oufaorjyEdik cf ahJ cs? jrefrmEdik if . H trsK;d om; ol&aJ umif;udk owfjzwfco hJ rl mS _Adwo d #wd‹k jzpfonf[al om pGypf cJG sufrmS jrefrm ppf tm%mydik w f v ‹kd ufxJ a&muf&o dS mG ;cJ_h yD;/ 'Dru kd a&pDa&;ESifh vlt ‹ cGit hf a&;wdt ‹k wGuf olrwlatmifpGrf;aqmifaeol OD;atmifqef;.orD; a':atmifqef;pk-unftm; _Adwdo#vlrsKd;wOD;tm; vufxyfcJhonfhtay: vufvGwfpy,f wdkufcdkufvsuf&Sd -uonf? _Adwdef=jrefrmtoif;Y xkwfvkyfa&;rª;ESihf tacstwifjiif;cHkcJh-u_yD;/ uGefysLwmtifwmeufuGef&ufY tcef;zGifhvSpfum qufvufjzpfay:vsuf&Sdaom tjiif;yGm;r+tay: okawoeðy&ef tcsut f vufrsm; zdwaf c:awmif;cHc&hJ m trsm;u wk‹H jyefchJ -uygonf? 2 bDbDpD (2) wDAGD (txufygtpDtpOf) / awGŒqHkar;jref;cef;Y azmfjycJhaom avmhvpfwdk0J. AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tay:tjrif= “OD;atmifqef;udk tpm;xdk;I r&yg? jrefrmjynfolvlxkudk udk,fpm;ðyEdkifwJh acgif;aqmiftjzpfeJ‹ OD;atmifqef;&JŒ ae&mudk uae‹txd b,forl S r,lEikd af o;ygbl;”? avmhvpfw0kd o J nf ,if;tpDtpOf rxkwv f i$ rhf D 1997 ckEpS w f iG f uG,v f eG cf o hJ nf? 3 rnfonfh aiGa-u;[k twdtus rqdck yhJ g? owif;pmu qdv k o kd nfrmS ‘±ly;D ’ aiG[k ,lq&ygrnf? 4 vef'ef&Sd jynfolvlxkrSwfwrf;XmeY r-umrDu okawoeðyvkyfcJh&mwGif 1947 ckEpS /f -o*kwv f (20) &ufpjJG zihf ArmhppfXmecsKyf tpD&ifcpH m/ PRO WO (ppf±;kH ) zdkiftrSwf= 208§4941 wGifyg&Sdaom jrefrmEdkifiH.tajctaetay: -um;jzwff tpD&ifcHpmudk awGŒ&SdcJhonf? ,if;wGifyg&Sdaom pmykd'f (18) Y ‘'Dtuf (pf) tdk (umuG,af &;Xme vH°k cHa&;t&m&S)d ESifh tcsde-f umjrifph mG pum;ajymqd&k mwGif 'Dtikd f *sD=pDtdkif'D (OD;xGef;vSatmif) u bk&ifhtpdk;& odrk‹ [kwf a,bk,stm;jzihf _Adwdo# wdk‹tay: oHo,jzpfr+rsm;udk z,f&Sm;ypfcJhaomfvnf;/ 'Dtdkif*sD= pDtdkif'Dtaejzihf Oa&mypD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;wck odr‹k [kwf vly*k Kd~ vfwOD;wa,mufu zqyvtzGŒJcsKyf udk qefu ‹ siaf eaom OD;apmudk wcsdecf sed w f iG f aiGa-u;axmufy&hH ef urf;vS r;f cJo h nf [laom oHo,jzpfr+ pG_J rJaeqJjzpfa-umif; 'Dtufpt f rkd mS cHpm;usefae&pfayonf? 5 ‘&efukef ae‹pOf’ owif;pm/ 1947 ckESpf Zlvkdifv (24) &uf? ‘oHr%d’ trnfcH yifwidk af qmif;yg;&Siu f ‘vlt±k;d rsm;awGŒ/ tykyef &‹H ’ [laom xdwfvefz‹ G,facgif;pOfjzifh owif;ay;ykrd‹ +rsm;ukd ukd;um;a&;om;xm;onf? _Adwdef rS paumhwvef,'fpkHaxmuftzGJŒu OD;apm. _cH0if;ukd &SmazG&ef rpPwm *syf(zf) Mr.Juff qkdolukd apv$wftultnDay;vkdufonf? xkdolu owWK&SmazGud&d,mukd

tcef; (4) v#KdŒ0Suq f ef;-u,fjcif; 1

1997 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹wGif bDbDpD (2) wDAGD. txl;tpDtpOf tay:wGif vltrsm;u pdwfysufp&maumif;aom &v'ftjzpfjrifcJh-u_yD; bDbDpD. tm%mydkifrsm;okd‹ w&m;0ifuefu ‹ GufcJh-uonf? ‚if;wDAGDtpDtpOfonf rSm;,Gif;r+ rsm;/ vdkufavsmnDaxGr+ r&Sdjcif;rsm;ESihf vdk&mqGJ rSwfcsufcsjcif;rsm;wdk‹ pkaygif;pyf aygif;xm;jcif;jzpf_yD; taxmuftcH/ taxmuftxm;r&Sad -umif;þwifjyuefu ‹ u G cf hJ -uonf? ,if;tpDtpOfudk rjyorD bDbDpD (2) taejzihf T±kyf&Sifu _Adwdo#wd. k‹ tjypf&Sdr+udk azmfxkwfrnfjzpfa-umif; ¯udwifa-unmcJh_yD;/ _Adwdo#taqmufttHk twGi;f rS t&dyt f a,mifomjrif&aom vly*k Kd~ vfrsm;yg0ifywfoufaeonf[al om ,lqcsut f ay:wGif xkwv f yk af &;rª;rsm;u Ttaxmuftxm;±ky&f iS u f kd tajcwnf 325 325

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327

rSwcf surf sm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

tokH;«y&SmazGcJh&m vlom;t±kd;tykdif;tprsm;ukd awGŒ&Sdwl;azmfEkdifcJhonf? paumh wvef,'frS yk*~dKvftaejzifh qufvuf&SmazGvsuf&Sd&m _cHtwGif;jr‡KyfESHxm;aom tavmif;aumifrsm;. t±kd;rsm;ukd ykdrkdwl;azmfawGŒ&SdEkdifvdrfhrnf[k ,kH-unfvsuf &So d nf? 6 bDbDpD (2) wDAGD (txufygtpDtpOf)/ toHv$ifholu ‘1947 ckESpf/ ZGefv (24) &ufae‹wGif jrefrmEdkifiHY ppfwyf. vufeufcJ,rf;rD;ausmufwdkufrS b&if; *ef; tvuf (200) tcdk;cH&ygw,f? xdktcsdefywf0ef;usifY Adkvfr;ª [l;wGdKif (Hugh Toye) onf OD;apmxH tvnftywfomG ;a&mufc_hJ y;D OD;apmtaejzihf OD;atmifqef;. wefc;kd tm%mtay: pdwq f yl u G v f y+ &f mS ;vsuf&adS -umif; awGŒ&cdS yhJ gw,f’ [k ajymqdk cJhonf? awGŒqHkar;jref;cH&ol Adkvfrª;wGdKifrS ‘ y&d,m,fr&SdbJ vlr+a&;t& yHkysuf yef;ysujf zifh OD;atmifqef;onf txufa&mufaejcif;jzpfonf[k OD;apmu awG;jrif cJ_h y;D olu, kd w f ikd Ef iS hf olu uGjJ ym;jcm;em;xm;vdu k o f nf? olonf tm%mudk wu,f vdkcsifonfrSefaomfvnf; w&m;enf;vrf;wus &EdkifonfhtcgusrSom vdkcsifjcif; jzpfonf[ f k u|efawmfxifjrifcyhJ gonf?’ 7 udk;um;csufrsm;rSm &efukef°rd› txl;w&m;±Hk;/ tif;pdef°rdw › Gif ±Hk;xdkif&m0,f 1947 eHygwf (1) w&m;qdkif&m pD&ifcsufrS aumufE+wfcsufrsm;jzpfonf? 8 (8) bDbDpD (2) wDAGD 1997 ckESpf Zlvkdifv (19) &uf? rpPwmbif*av (Bingley) onf 1979 ckESpfwGif qm&D (Surrey) wGif uG,fvGefcJhonf? jynfolvlxk rSwfwrf;±kH;&Sd _Adwdo#aumifpD. zkdifwGJrsm;rS jynfolvlxk-unfh±+Ekdifaom rSwf wrf;rsm;wGif Ekid if aH wmfvyk }f uHrE+ iS hf qufpyfaom olo ‹ wif;ay;ykr‹d r+ sm;r&Sb d J jzpfae a-umif; awGŒ&Sd&onf? jrefrmEkdifiHwGif bif*avonf &efukef-rd› wuUodkvf&dyfom vrf;wGif aexkdifoGm;cJhonf? xkdtdrfukd aemufykdif;wGif OD;ausmfndrf;u 0,f,lcJh onf[k ,kH-unf&onf? rpPwm bif*av. ukd,fum,rSm xl;xl;jcm;jcm; t&yf &Snjf cif;r&Sad cs? oka‹d omfvnf; rsufEmS &Sn&f n S Ef iS hf ydeyf ed yf g;yg;jzpfonf? 9 bDbDpD (2) wDAGD (txufygtpDtpOf)? wifqufol= “Adkvf}uD;a';Apf ADAD,ef (Capt.David Vivian) onf u&ifhv+yf&Sm;r+wGifvnf;aumif;/ OD;apm. yl;aygif;}uHpnfrw + iG v f nf;aumif; yg0ifywfoufaeol aemufwOD;jzpfonf? 1954 ckESpfwkdifatmif u&ifrsm;ESifhtwl wkdufcdkufcJhaom ae‹&uf[laom ol. ae‹pOf rSwfwrf;ESifh *|efarmf*if (John Morgan) [laomemrnfjzifh taxmuftxm;wk rsm;tok;H «yum 1955 ckEpS w f iG f xkid ;f Ekid if rH S _Adwed o f ‹dk oljyefvmcJjh cif;ukd (bDbpD )D rS okawoe«yolrsm;u &SmazGawGŒ&dScJhonf? Adkvf}uD;ADAD,efESifh ywfoufaom

Ekid if jH cm;a&;±k;H rS zkid w f rJG sm;rSm tzsut f qD;cH&yk&H onf? befaumuf&dS _Aw d o d #o±H ;Hk u olonf jrefrmEkid if w H iG f axmifusc&H r+rS a&Smifajy;vmcJah -umif;od&cdS o hJ nf” [laom tcsufukd t!¸ef;Z,m;wcku jyocJhonf? apmapmykdif;u jrefrmEkdifiHwGif axmifuscJhpOfu “_Adwdefu wpkHwa,mufu u|efawmfhukd z,f&Sm;csifaew,f? pum;ajymcGifhvJ ray;cJhbl;? tcsuftvufawGukd u|efawmfajymvkduf&&if txl;ojzifh _Adwdo#awGeJ‹ jrefrmawGt-um; t}uD;tus,f qlyGufukefvdrfhr,f” [k olu _Adwdo#tm%mykdifrsm;ukd ajymqkdcJhonf? vl;0pft(vf)vif (Louis Allen) u “Akdvf}uD;ADAD,ef. xGufajy;vGwfajrmufr+” jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;twGuf atmufajcrSwfcsufwck ({u&mZfESifh "eo[m, orkdif;*sme,f 1991 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv) wGif ‚if;tjzpftysufukd ykdrdkwduspGm wifjycJhonf? “EkdifiHjcm;a&;ESifh "eo[m,±kH;rS jyef-um;csufu ADAD,eftr+wGif&Sdaom zkdifwGJrsm;ukd zsufqD;cJh_yD;jzpfonf? okda‹ omfvnf; zkdifpm&if;rSwfwrf;rSm usef&Sdae onft h wGuf 1956 ckEpS f zkid pf m&if;u= (1) 1956 ckESpf {_yDvtwGif; okd‹r[kwf rwkdifrD befaumuf&Sd oH±kH;tae jzifh ADAD,efukd ,lauokd‹ twif;jyefykd‹ jcif;ESifh ywfoufI pkHprf;ppfaq;r+wck vufc&H &Scd o hJ nf? (2) &efukef&Sd oH±kH;u “ADAD,eftaejzifh jrefrmEkdifiHwGif axmifus&uf oufwrf;usef&Sdao;onf/ okda‹ omfvnf; jrefrmEkdifiHonf jyefvnfv$Jtyfay;a&; pmcsKyfukd xkdif;EkdifiH (xkdtcsdefu ,kd;',m;EkdifiH) ESifh csKyfqkdxm;jcif;r&Sd” [k tpD&ifccH o hJ nf? (3) Adkvf}uD;ADAD,eftaejzifh befaumufrS tvS rf;uGmaomae&mwGif &SdaeykH&onf? 1956 ckESpf {_yDvukefwGif ol‹ukdjyefykd‹&rnfh tm%mykdifrsm;u befaumuf&SdoH±kH;rSwqifh ol‹twGuf a&a-umif;c&D;r&EkdifonfhtwGuf av a-umif;c&D;ukd ¯udwifppD Ofxm;-uonf? olu aemufEpS yf wft-umrS befaumuf ok‹d a&muf&v dS mcJo h nf? (4) 1956 ckEpS f arv (31) &ufwiG f vef'efo‹dk Adv k }f uD;ADA, D ef a&muf&v dS m onf? trsKd;om;tultnDay;a&;bkwftzGJŒukd aumifppf0efXmeu ol‹taejzifh a&mufonfESifh tultnDvkdrnfjzpfa-umif; ¯udwifowday;xm;cJhonf? okad‹ omf vnf; olu ‚if;bkwftzGJŒukd csOf;uyfcJhykHr&acs? 10 ‘vef'efòrd› xdyo f ;D ae&mrsm;rS yl;aygif;}uHpnfr’+ udpEP iS fh pyfvsO;f I txufyg (1) tcsufudk &nf!e¸ f;vsuf _Adwdef=jrefrmtoif;Y aqG;aEG;a0zefcJh-uolrsm;ESihf

327

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rSwcf surf sm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

uGefysLwmuGef&uf tcef;zGihf&m0,f xnfh0ifa&;om;cJholrsm;teuf atmufyg yk*~dKvfrsm;. t,ltqrsm;rSmæ 1? rpPwm *|efruftife&D (John McEnery) (,cif OD;pD;t&m&Sd jrefrmjynf ppftkyfcsKyfr+XmecsKyf) “tJ'DtpDtpOfuawmh rwduswJh tcsufawGeJ‹ qefcg aygufjzpfaew,f”? 2? rpPwm &S,fvfbDwyfum; (Shelby Tucker) = “tif;pdefaxmiftwGif; wu,fwrf; aoewfypfcw hJ hJ vlEpS af ,mufajym-uwmuawmh olwu ‹kd kd iSm;&rf;ol u OD;ausm_f idr;f jzpfw,f? OD;apmr[kwb f ;l ” (zqyv twGi;f a&; v#KŒd 0u S }f uHpnfr+ &v'f) ? 3? qmepfvmarm (Sir Nick Larmour, GCMG) = “'Dvrf (rf) uif (Lemkin xkwfvkyfol) ±kyf&Sif[m usKyfodoavmufawmh tajccHta-umif;&if; vkH;0rckdif vHkbJ taxmuftxm; oufaooHo,r&SdwJh Zmpfjrpfay:rSm rlwnf_yD; tpDtpOf wrsKd;wifjyum atmifqef;vkyf}uHr+rSm r+ef0g;wJh o¿mef&SdwJh _Adwdo#awG yg0if -uw,fqw kd m jzpfcsijf zpfvrd rhf ,fv‹kd wifjywm bDbpD &D ŒJ yxrt}udrjf zpfw,f” ESifh 4? rpPwm tdwf (csf) atpwHk;em (H.A Stonor) = “usaemfu 'DtzGŒJ (jrefrm jynfawmifwef;om;rsm;. rdwaf qG FBHP) &JŒ toif;om;taeeJ‹ ajym&rSmu 1948 ckESpfusrS wu,fv+yf&Sm;vmwmjzpfw,f? ‘rdwfaqG’ awG pwifzGJŒpnf;vmwmu _Adwdo# ppfr+xrf;a[mif;awG pum;vufqHkajym-uzdk‹om jzpfw,f? 'DtpDtpOf (bDbDpD) u jrefrmjynf bk&ifcHa[mif; qma':refprpf[m FBHP &JŒ ta&;ygqHk; yk*Kd~ vfjzpfcw hJ ,fqw kd m vH;k 0rrSeb f ;l ? t"duv+y&f mS ;oluawmh Adv k rf ;ª }uD; u±drk wD wvfavmuf (Col. Cromarty-Tulloch) jzpfw,f? aemufol (pwH;k em) u ud;k um; _y;D a&;om;vdu k w f mu qm&J*seD ,ftaeeJ‹ apmbOD;}uD; (autJi, f =l acgif;aqmif) aoqH;k _yD;aemuf ‘wdik ;f ’ owif;pm (Times, London) od‹k a&;pmwGif = ‘jrefrmjynf Y t"dua-uuGzJ , G &f m w&yfuawmh acgif;aqmifjzpfEidk pf rG ;f &S-d uwJh vltrsm; tjref tqef qHk;±+H;cJh&jcif;jzpfw,f? atmifqef;/ OD;apm/ apmbOD;}uD;/ OD;wifxGÉfwdk‹ tm;vHk;aysmufuG,foGm;ukef-u_yD’ [k a&;om;vkdufjcif;jzpfonf? 11 bDbDpD (2) wDAGDtaxmuftxm;±kyf&Sifukd 1997 ckESpf Zlvkdifv (19) &ufae‹wGif jyocJh&m ,if;.t"du&nf&G,fcsufrSm Adkvfatmifqef;ukd vkyf}uH &mwGif aemufuG,frS _Adwdo#yk*~dKvftcsKd‹ yg0ifywfoufaeonfukd azmfxkwf&ef jzpfaomfvnf; ,if;rSm jrefrmppftm%m&Sifwkd‹vufwGif wvGJtokH;cscH&um ol.orD;jzpfol a':atmifqef;pk-unfukd y&rf;ywm xkd;ESufwkdufckdufzkd‹ jzpfvm

onf? _Adwdo#EkdifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;. tmqD,H (4) EkdifiH c&D;pOftwGif; olu jrefrmEkdifiH. vuf&Sdjzpfysufaeaom tajctaeESifh ywfoufI a0zefajymqkd&m wGif ppftpkd;&u ‚if;wk. d‹ tif'kdeD;&Sm;oH±kH;rSwqifh &&Sdonfh tcGifhta&;ukd tokH; csum ‚if;taxmuftxm;±kyf&Sifukd jyefvnfukd;um;cJhonf? *smumwmykd‹pf owif;pmwGif ‚if;wkad‹ &;om;aompmukd azmfjycJhonf? ‚if;wku d‹ *g'D;,ef;owif; pmwGif tpDtpOfwifqufol zg*,fuif; (Fergal Keane) u wDAGD±kyf&Sif.t a-umif; a&;om;aom aqmif;yg;ukd &nf!¸ef;jy_yD; a':atmifqef;pk-unfukd ajAmifwkdufckdufcJhonf? u|efyfwkd‹ ol&Jaumif;. orD;jzpfolu t*FvdyfvlrsKd;ukd vufxyfcJh&m olr tm%m&&Sda&;twGuf ZGwftwif; yl;aygif;}uHpnfae-uaom tiftm;pkrsm;&SdaeonfrSm aocsmonf[k olwkd‹u axmufjycJhonf? olrrSm u|Eyfk w f E‹dk iS hf wlyifwjl im;aomfvnf; olr. tonf;ESv;Hk ESihf pdwx f m;rSm wu,fu h dk _Adwdo#jzpfaeay_yD? TonfrSm u|Ekfyfwkd‹. aemufaz;aygufrSaeI ukdvkdeDpepf oGwo f iG ;f &ef ¯ud;yrf;jcif;jzpfonf[k u|Ekyf w f , ‹dk -Hk unfonf pojzifh pGypf cJG o hJ nf? aemufwckrSm ‘oH±kH;rStjrif’ [lI atmfw0g uae'gjynfoH±kH;rS tvm;wl pmwapmifukd bDbDpD taxmuftxm;±kyf&SifESifhomywfoufI tao;pdwfa&; om;cJhonf? EkdifiHukd pkpnf;EkdifpGrf;&Sdaom u|Ekfyfwkd. ‹ tppftrSef trsKd;om;acgif; aqmifukd tiftm;okH;z,f&Sm;cJh_yD; vGwfvyfa&;ray;&ao;rD ‚if;wkd‹. EkdifiHa&; r[mrdwu f dk csufcsif;tpm;xk;d cJ&h ef ukv d edk eD ,fcsJŒtpd;k &u pGuzf uf¯ud;yrf;cJjh cif;ukd jrefrmEkdifiH vGwfvyfa&;&_yD; orkdif;wav#mufvkH; ynm&Siftrsm;u oHo,0ifcJh -uonf? TonfrSm ykdrkdckdifrmonfh taxmuftxm;rsm; (pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm; .tqifhukd xdckdufvG,fonf[k owfrSwfxm;) ukd _Adwdo#wkd‹. ,kH-unfpdwf cs&onfhae&mrS yxrqkH;xGufvmjcif;jzpfonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; aoqkH;jcif; ESifh u&ifepfpwef oabmw&m; (Karenistan concept) ukd axmufcHtm;ay;jzpf ajrmuf&ef ¯ud;pm;ol _Adwdo#aoG;xkd;olrsm; tp&Sdojzifh “jrefrmawmifwef;om; rsm;. rdwfaqGrsm;” ukd bDbDpDu v#Kd0‹ Sufyk*~dKvfrsm;[k rD;armif;xkd;jycJh_yD; Tokd‹ olwkd‹ta-umif;wifjycJhonf? “tu,fIom atmifqef;ukdowf&mY taxmuf txm;rsm;u !¸efjyouJhokd‹ olwkd‹om yg0ifywfoufcJhygu jrefrmEkdifiHorkdif;wGif txdckdufqkH;wckwnf;aom vkyfaqmifr+twGuf olwkd‹rSm wm0ef&Sdayonf? ed*kH;wGifrl ,ae‹umv _Adwdo#rdwfaqGrsm;ESifh 1947 ckESpfrSpI wkdif;&if;om; vlrsKd;rsm;t-um; r,kHouFmrsKd;aphukd csay;cJhonf[k pGyfpGJcH&aom jrefrmEkdifiH awmifwef;om;rsm;. rdwfaqGrsm;wkd‹t-um; E+dif;,SOfjycJhonf? txufygtjrif

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rSwcf surf sm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

ukd bapmcifu u&iftrsKd;om;or*~pmapmifwGif jyefvnf wkH‹ jyefa&;om;cJh_yD; ‚if;ukd qefz&efppPukdwGif ykHESdyfxkwfa0cJhonf? jrefrmEkdifiH awmifwef;om;rsm;. rdwaf qGrsm;tzGŒJ &Scd jhJ cif;ESihf autif,u l dk uln&D ef ¯ud;pm;cJah omfvnf; autif,l taejzifh }uD;}uD;rm;rm; taxmuftyHhr&cJhjcif;rSm jiif;Ir&yg? ‚if;tzGJŒESifh atmifqef; vkyf}uHcH&jcif;wkd‹t-um; qufoG,fr+rSmvnf; xkd‹twljzpfygonf? ‚if;tzGJŒtaejzifh 1947 ckESpf jypfr+ESifh tenf;i,fr#om qufEG,fr+ &Sdaumif;&Sday rnf okd‹r[kwf vkH;0r&Sdvnf; jzpfayvdrhfrnf? tenf;i,fr#aom ¹cGif;csufrsm;rS vGJI avmavmq,ftm;jzifh wjcm;wrsKd;wzkH oufaorjyEkdifygu _Adwdo#wkd‹ taejzifh Tvkyf}uHr+Y yg0ifywfoufr+rSm pGef‹pm;vkdolrsm;tjzpfom owfrSwfzkd‹ aumif;ygonf? tqifhjrifhtm%mykdifrsm;uvnf; rodusKd;u|ef«yaumif;«y rnfjzpfaomfvnf; trSefwu,f oem;-uifemaom pkd;&drfylyefaom ukdvkdeDrsm; xuf avmb&ruf}uD;rm;olrsm;om jzpfayvdrrhf nf? atmfw0goH±;Hk ukd ‘Nemesis’ emrnfjzifh _Adwdef=jrefrm Website wGif jyefvnfa&;om;r+onfvnf; ouf qkdifr+&Sdonf? ‚if;. rSwfcsuftcsKd‹ukd ukd;um;&v#if “u&ifvGwfajrmufa&; v+yf&Sm;r+ukd Tvkyf}uHr+ESifh qufoG,fjy&mY ao;EkyfvSonfh ‘u&ifepfpwef’ Karenistan tokH;tE+ef;ukd tokH;«yjcif;rSm cyfa-umifa-umif pdwful;pdwfoef; tqef;xGifjcif;omjzpfygonf?” “u|efawmfawGŒzl;or# _Adwdo#ESifh tar&duef taxmuftxm;rSwfwrf;rsm;wGif rnfokd‹aom u&ifywfoufr+ wpGef;wpukdrS rawGŒ&acs?” 12 OD;atmifoef;=‘atmifoef;.atmifqef;’ (yk*HykHESdyfwkduf/ &efukef 1965 ckESpf) pma&;olrSm AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. tukdjzpf_yD; _Adwdo#wkd‹ yg0ifywfoufr+ ESifh ywfoufonfh ol‹tjrifrSm &Sif;&Sif;wnfhwnfhjzpfvSonf? pmrsufESm (252)? “_Adwdo#ukdvkdeDe,fcsJŒrsm;taejzifh jrefrmEkdifiHukd vGwfvyfa&;ay;&ef a&Smifv$JI r&rSef;od_yD;onfhaemuf wzufu vGwfvyfa&;ay;&ef oabmwl_yD; wzufu olwdk‹ -oZmv$rf;rkd;Ekdifrnfhtpkd;&rsKd; okd‹r[kwf olwkd‹tusKd;jzpfrnfh ±kyfao;tpkd;& rsKd; tvkd&SdrnfrSm obm0usygonf? awmifwef;a'orsm; csefvSyfxm;Ekdifa&; twGuf enf;rsKd;pko H ;Hk cJjh cif;ukd txufwiG af zmfjycJ_h yD;jzpfygonf? wk;d wufaom Ekid if aH &;tjrif&o dS nfh Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;ukd ukv d edk eD ,fcsŒJwu ‹dk vkdvm;ESpf-cdufjcif; &SdykHr&yg? tu,fI AdkvfcsKyfom qufvuf&Sdaeygu t&if; &Sief ,fcsŒJ wt ‹dk aejzifh vGwv f yfp jrefrmEkid if w H iG f olw. ‹dk aoG;pkyo f nfeh nf;vrf;rsm;

ukd qufvufI usio hf ;Hk Ir&rSe;f olwa‹dk umif;aumif;em;vnfxm;-uonf? ok‹d jzpf I t&if;&Sife,fcsJŒwkd‹. t"duwm0efrSm AdkvfcsKyfukd z,f&Sm;&efjzpfonf? ukdvkdeDe,fcsJŒwkdr‹ Sm ta,mifaqmifvSnfhpm;&mY vdrRmyg;eyf_yD; aumufuspfvGef; &m olwkd‹ukd,fwkdif AdkvfcsKyfukd rz,f&Sm;bJ jrefrmEkdifiHwGif;rS olwkd‹tvkdusvkyf rnfh opPmazmufEkdifiHom;wOD;ukd olwkd‹&SmazGcJh-uonf? okd‹ jzpfonfh tm;avsmf pGm olwo ‹dk nf eef;&if;0efa[mif; OD;apmukd awGŒomG ;cJ-h uonf?” 13 txufwGifazmfjycJhaom bDbDpD (2) wDAGDrSwfwrf;±kyf&Sifu tav; xm;wifjycJhaom ar;cGef;ukd aemufusrS pdwf0ifpm;r+jy_yD; 2000 ckESpf Zlvkdif apmapmykdif;wGif uGefysLwmuGef&ufay:wGif ‘pdefaA'g’ trnfjzifh “AdkvfcsKyf atmifqef;ukd b,folwu,fowfovJ” [laom ar;cGef;ukd wifvmcJh onf? ukb d efxeG ;f u atmufygtwkid ;f csucf si;f tajzay;cJo h nf? r-umrDurS 'DEidk if u H dk 0if vmwJhvl}uD;awGqDu -um;&wmu olwakd‹ jymwJhtwkdif;qkd&if atmifqef;pk-unf eJ‹ ±+armif (ae0if;) &JŒ orD;wa,muf pum;tcsDtcs ajym-u&if; ae0if;orD; u a'gojzpf_yD; *VKefOD;apmukd r&Sif;*ef;awGay;vkdufwm ightazvkd‹ atmf ajymvkdufw,f? ±+armifu AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ukd &Sif;ypfcsifw,f? bma-umifhvJ qkdawmh ysOf;rem;u rdef;rwa,mufukd ±+armifu rk'def;usifhwm atmifqef;u odoGm;awmh ±+armifukd owfypfcsifcJhonf? ae0if;ukd vufonfw&m;cHtjzpf ykHESdyfazmfjy&ef roifhaom pum;vkH;rsm;jzifh pGyfpGJaom tjcm;wkH‹ jyefr+rsm;vnf; &Syd gao;onf?

331 331

tcef; (5) tajzr&ao;aom ar;cGe;f rsm; 1

tdENd,EkdifiH tif;a'gppfwuUokdvf (Indore Military Academy) ausmif; qif;rsm;jzpf-u_yD; t_rJwrf;wyfrawmfwGif 'k=Adkvftjzpf cef‹tyfjcif;cH&aom tjcm;jrefrmrsm;rSm tmomcifarmif/ bzl;ESihf armifat;wk‹djzpf-uonf? urBmppf (2) cktwGi;f wGif tjcm;qifrh sm;rS &mxl;wk;d jr‡ijhf cif;cH&olrsm;wGif 'k= Akv d f tD;cifarmif˜ Adkvfb*srf; (Sappers & Miners) ESifh tjcm;olrsm;yg0if -uonf? 'k=urBmppfwGif Adkvfrª;atmifoif;onf tr+xrf;xl;c|efqk (Distinguished Service Order) csD;jr‡ifh jcif;cH&_yD; Adkvfrª;csKyftqifhokd‹yif wkd;jrifhoGm;cJhonf? _Adwdo#vufeufukdif wyfzGJŒrsm;wGif wufºuGpGm tr+xrf;cJh-uaom t&m&Sdtqifhay;tyfjcif;cH&aom wkdif;&if;om; u&if/ ucsif/ &S rf;ESifh csif;vlrsKd;rsm;pGm&Sd-uonf? ,if;t&m&Sd 332 332


333

rSwcf surf sm;

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

trsm;pkukd wyfrawmforkdif;wGif rSwfwrf;wif todtrSwf«y&ef vkdtyfaeao; onf? ,ckavmavmq,fwGif ppftm%m&Siftkyfpku pdwf"mwfusOf;ajrmif;pGm jzifh rSww f rf;«yxm;onf? 2 1948 ckESpf pufwifbmv (17) &ufn (9) em&DcGJcef‹wGif wyfrif;}uD; wifxËG t f ay: vky}f uHz‹dk ¯ud;pm;wJh 0rf;enf;p&m tjzpftysufonf aemufw&ufY jrefrmowif;pmok;H apmifwiG o f m tenf;i,fazmfjyjcif;cHc&hJ onf? n (9) em&Dausmf v#if vltrsm; tjyifrxGu&f wm;jrpfxm;onfh ppftyk cf sKyfa&;trdea‹f -umifh t"du jzpfvrd rhf nf? Armhacwfowif;pmtygt0if tjcm;ae‹pOfxw k f owif;pmrsm;taejzifh xko d wif;ukd r&&Scd -hJ uacs? OD;aomif; (a-u;rk)H onf Armhacwfowif;axmuftae jzifh wm0eftay;cH&_yD; ol. eHeufapmapmrS rk;d csKyfonftxd pl;prf;axmufvS r;f onfh ¯ud;yrf;r+rsm;u owif;tjynftpHk xkwfvkyfEkdifcJh_yD; pufwifbmv (19) &ufae‹xw k f owif;pmwGif owif;aqmif;yg;taejzifh xifxif&mS ;&Sm; ay:xGuv f m cJo h nf? ‚if;aqmif;yg;rSm taumif;qk;H jzpfc_hJ y;D ,cifowif;rsm;ukd tao;pdwx f yfrH azmfxkwfEkdifcJhonfh ,if;aqmif;yg;. aumufEkwfcsufrsm;ukd atmufwGif azmfjy vku d yf gonf? a-u;rkOH ;D aomif;. “ArmhacwfraS -u;rko H ”‹dk ('kw, d t}udrx f w k f zavmf&'D g tar&duefjynfaxmifpk 2003 ckEpS f jrefrmvk)d pmrsufEmS 61=68? “æjzpfymG ;ykrH mS wyfrif;}uD; OD;wifxËG o f nf e,l;wkid ;f atmhzb f m;rm;owif; pmwku d rf t S jyef pufwifbm (17) &ufae‹ n (9) em&Dct JG csed w f iG f vlowform;wOD; u vufypfAkH;jzifh ypfcwfvkyf}uHoGm;a-umif;? vufypfA;Hk onf um;a&Sc› ef;wGi;f ok‹d 0ifxidk af eol OD;wifxËG . f ajc&if;wGiu f s um aygufuGJ&m OD;wifxGËf. ezl;/ b,fbufar;/ b,fbufaygif/ b,fbuf'l;/ b,fbufajcrsupf /d b,fbufajczsm;/ b,fbufvufzsm;xdy/f aygif;'%f&maygif; (8) ck&um vJoGm;a-umif;? OD;wifxGËfESifh,SOfum nmbufrSxkdifol Armukd,f&Hawmf (xkdpOf trnfukd pkHprf;Ir&cJh?) ESifh um;armif;ol armifatmifazwkw d‹ Gif '%f&mtenf;i,fom&_yD; um;aemufrv S u dk o f l a*:&cg;uk, d &f aH wmf oDb[m'l;ESihf yDb[m'l;wkr‹d mS '%f&mjyif; xefpGm&-ua-umif;/ aygufuGJ_yD;aemuf e,l;wkdif;atmhzfbm;rm;owif;pm vuf axmuft,f'w D mESihf wku d o f m;rsm;xGuv f m_yD; OD;wifxËG f ukd aq;±ko H ‹dk pDpOfya‹dk y;cJh -ua-umif;/ a*:&cg;ESpfOD;ukd rD;owfolem«yum;jzifh aq;±kHokd‹o,f&a-umif;/ a'gufwmboef;csucf si;f vkv d dk a&mufvmaomfvnf; OD;wifxËG o f nf owdvpfomG ;

_yD; OD;boef;tm; rrSwrf ad wmha-umif;? (18) &ufae‹ eHeufwiG f 0ef}uD;csKyf ocifE/k EkdifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; OD;ausmf_idrf;/ w&m;a&;Xme0ef}uD; OD;b*srf;ESifh tjcm;acgif; aqmifrsm; vm-unf-h ua-umif;? OD;wifxËG . f a0'emukd tdE, dN rS q&m0ef}uD;wOD; yifh_yD; ukvkdao;a-umif;ESifh 0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEku qEN&Sdojzifh q&m0efrsm;. cGi«hf ycsuft& 0ef}uD;csKyfonf tdE, dN oHtrwf}uD; a'gufwma&mhzf (Dr.Rauf) xH tultnDawmif;a-umif;? oHtrwf}uD; aq;±kHoakd‹ &mufvm_yD; aqG;aEG;-u&m q&m0ef}uD; a'gufwm ‹d befoef;/ a'gufwmeef'D (Dr.Nandi) ESihf a'gufwm [&D[m&m (Dr.Hariharan) wku ar#mfvifhcsufr&Sdawmh[k ,lqa-umif;ESifh ajymjy-ua-umif;? OD;aomif;onf aq;±kYH qufvufaecJ_h y;D n (7) em&Dausmcf sed w f iG f OD;wifxËG f .orD; rcif!Gef‹&if csKH;yGJcsikdaºuG;_yD; tcef;xJrS xGufvmonfukd awGŒcJh&onf? OD;wifxGËfum; n (7) em&D (35) rdepfwGif uG,fvGefoGm;&SmcJhavonf? 3 ‘pmwGJ’wGif±+/ &efukef°rd›&Sd udkvdkeDtm%mydkifrsm;rS vef'ef°rd›odk‹ydk‹onfh oD;jcm;a&G;cs,fxm;aom a-u;eef;pmrsm;? 4 OD;apm. nDtukdawmfol armifarmif}uD;u ‘The Times’ owif;pmukd pma&;om;&mwGif ol‹emrnfukd M.M.Jee [k okH;cJhonf? 1948 ckESpf rwfvwGif a&;aompmY “cifAsm; OD;apmukd w&m;±kw H ifppfaq;&mY jrefrmEkid if . H w&m;a&;tkyf csKyfrE+ iS yhf wfoufI ta&;}uD;aom ar;cGe;f (2) &yf ay:aygufvmygonf? wckrmS w&m;±kH;wifppfaq;jcif;ESifh ao'%fcsrSwfjcif;rSm Oya'a-umif;t& rSefuefr+ &Sdovm;? aemufwckrSm ol‹tr+r_yD;pD;ao;rD zGJŒpnf;ykHtajccHOya' tajymif; tvJrjzpfygu olt ‹ aejzifh t*Fvef. y&DAaD umifpD (rif;wkid yf iftzGŒJ ) ok‹d toem;cH av#mufxm;cGifh&Sd&m xkdtcGifhta&;qkH;±+H;jcif;rSm rSefuefyg&JŒvm; jzpfygonf? OD;apmukd,fwkdifu xGufqkd&mY (u) ol‹udk yxrtusOf;cs_yD; vaygif; tawmf-umrS w&m;pGJqkdcJhonf? (c) ol‹ukd txl;ckH±kH;u w&m;pD&ifcJh&m w&m; v$wfawmfcsKyf &Sdaevsuf txl;ckH±kH;ceft ‹ yfjcif;onf t-ydifw&m;±kH;jzpfI w&m;r# wjcif;r&Sd? w&m;v$wfawmfcsKyfuomv#if Tokd‹aomtr+rsKd;ukd pD&ifEkdifonfh tm%m&So d nf? (*) olonf y&DAaD umifpo D ‹dk toem;cHpmwifoiG ;f cGihf qk;H ±+;H cJo h nf/ vdyfpmwyfxm;onf trSwf 132/ *&dwfaygh(of)vef; vrf; (vef'ef) 'AvsL0rf;? 5 bDbDpD (2) wDADG (txufygtpDtpOf)/ vlawGŒar;jref;cH&ol pwmvdef qD;*a&Œ (zf) (Sterling Seagrave) (owif;pmq&m[lI o±kyfazmfcJholonf a'gufwm a*:'iftufpfqD;*a&Œ (zf) . om;jzpfonf) = Adkvfp}ufm (ocifatmif

333

334 334


rSwcf surf sm;

335

Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´ 8

oef;=&Jabmfo;kH usdy)f 1969 ckEpS w f iG f befaumufY aoqH;k onf) u u|efawmfu h kd ajymjycJhwmu vef'efòrdw › Gif tvGeft&Sdeft0g}uD;wJh vlwpk&Sdw,f? ppftwGif;u tJ'v D rl sm;u axmufvSr;f a&;eJ‹ ywfoufc-hJ u_y;D jrefrmjynfe‹J oHwrefta&;/ ppfqif a&;eJ‹ v#KŒd0u S af xmufvSr;f a&; (Secret Service) rsm;wGif yg0ifc-hJ uolrsm;jzpfw,f? xkdtcsdefuwnf;u olwdk‹tcsKdŒ[m txufrª;rwfv$wfawmf (House of Lords) odk‹ &mxl;jrihfwufoGm;-uw,f? wcsKdŒuawmh _Adwdo#tpdk;& txufykdif;rsm;wGif tvGef-oZmwduUr&Sdvm-uw,f? 'gayr,fh olwdk‹[m a&S;±kd;pGJrl0g' (Conservative) tpdk;&rS usef&pfcJhwJhvlrsm;omjzpf_yD; ,cktvkyform; (Labour) tpkd;& eJq ‹ akd wmh olwt ‹kd aeeJ‹ _Adwo d #rl0g'tay: -oZmt&Sed t f 0g wdu k ±f u dk ðf yvkyjf cif; r&Sd Ekdif-uawmhbl;aygh? 'ga-umifhrdk‹ olwdku ‹ uG,f&muae oG,f0dkufwJhenf;oHk;-u_yD; atmifqef;tay: vufpm;acscsifwJh pdwftpGJtvrf;}uD;eJ‹ atmifqef;&JŒ jrefrm jynfvGwfvyfa&; atmifyGJcHjcif;udk wm;qD;-uwmjzpfw,f? 6 (6) ESpfeD;yg; aetdrfwGif zrf;qD;cH&jcif;rS 1995 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv(10) &ufae‹wGif v$wfvdkufonf? 7 bmwD; (vf) vifh (w) em (Bertil Lintner) . ‘awmfvSefaewJh Armjynf= 1948 ckESpfrS bdef;ykefuefr+’ (taemufbufrS jrifuGif; pmyHkESdyfwdkuf USA ESihf -um jzL/ befaumuf/ 1994) pmtkyf/ pmrsufESm (84=88) Y jywfom;aom Zmwfvrf; pHkwGif a&;om;xm;onfhta-umif;rsm;rSm= vGwfvyfa&;&_yD; ESpfvt-umwGif S o f w H refwa,muf (atmfvD u&if autif,l (Karen National Union) &JŒ v#KdŒ0u Am boef;) udk vef'efodk‹ apv$wfum olwd&k‹ JŒtr+udk t*Fvdyfvdkvm;wJh u&ifrsm; axmufco H rl sm;tm; wifjytoem;cH&ef vma&mufjcif;udk 0dik ;f 0ef;az;r&ef pk±;kH cJw h hJ pGef‹pm;vdkol _Adwdo#vlenf;pkwpk &Sda-umif;/ 1948 ckESpf/ ZGefv (30) &ufae‹wGif f ‹kd tpnf;ta0;ac:&m vl 'k=Adv k rf ;ª }uD; z&ifh (u)/ td0k if (Frank Owen) &JŒ aetdro (40) cef‹ ay:vm-uonf? olw‹kd ‘jrefrmjynfawmifwef;om;rsm;. rdwaf qGtoif;’ (FBHP) udk zGŒJ pnf;cJ-h u_yD; xdo k w H refrmS vufeufrsm;ay;rnfh uwd&um jyefomG ; onf? toif;om;jzpfol ausm-f um;r+&adS om ppfrx + rf;a[mif; Akv d rf ;ª }uD;*|ef u±krd [D wvfavmuf (Col. John Cromarty-Tulloch) Force 136= 136=wyfzGJŒ ) taejzifh u&ifoyl ek rf sm;twGuf vufeufEiS fh usnfrsm;udk oabFmjzihyf Œdk &ef óud;pm;onfrsm; rSm ratmifjrifcJha-umif;/ apmapmydkif;u t*Fvdyfujym;rsm; tygt0if _Adwdo# ppf r+xrf;a[mif; yk*~dKvftenf;i,fwdk‹onf u&ifrsm;udk ppfajrjyifwGif tultnD ay;onf[k od&ygonf?

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

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ol.acgif;aqmifukd aemufqkH;txd av;pm;oGm;ykH&onf?” 4 txufygpmtkyf? pmrsufESm 426=429? 1970 ckESpfwGif Adkvf&efEkdif. awmifyidk ;f wkid ;f jzpfaom xkid ;f Ekid if H pefum&mpcef; (Sangkara Camp) Y jr0wD&aJ cgif u pma&;ol/ ukdwifarmif0if;ESifh &Jausmfolwkdu ‹ kd tvGefxl;aom ta-umif;t&m (,cktxd vltrsm; rod&Sdao;) jzpfonfh xkdtcsdef *syefacwfu EkdifiHY eHygwf (1) jzpfaeaom t"dywd a'gufwmbarmfukd vkyf}uHowfjzwf&ef }uHpnfcJhzl;onfht a-umif;t&mrsm;ukd ajymjycJhonf? xkdta-umif;t&mrSm xyfrHazmfjy&efoifhay onf? xkdtcsdefu EkdifiHawmft"dywdt&Sifrif;}uD;.tdrfY wm0efcsxm;aom Adv k &f efEidk f OD;pD;onfh t"dywd uk, d &f aH wmfuif;wyf. wyfzŒJG 0if (117) OD;wGif uk&d J acgifonf wOD;tygt0ifjzpfonf? wyfzGJŒ0if &Jabmfrsm;taejzifh taxGaxGEkdifiH a&;tajctaeukd tenf;i,fr#om od&Sd-u_yD; ppfwyfxkH;pHtwkdif; AdkvfcsKyfatmif qef; wOD;wnf;ukdom ,kH-unfukd;pm;-uonf? ‚if;tjyif a'gufwmbarmfrSm *syeftvkad wmf&w d OD;jzpfonf[k xifjrif_y;D wyfrawmfom; &Jabmfrsm;u r-unf!dk -u±kHru ol‹tm; tacsmiform; EkdifiHa&;pm;zm;opPmazmuf[k awG;q-uonf? xkd‹tjyif ol.orufjzpfol Adkvf&efEkdifESifhywfoufIvnf; tm;vkH;u ESvkH;rom r,mjzpfae-uonf? t"dywdukd teD;uyfapmifh-unfh&ef Adkvf&efEkdiftm; t"dywd uk, d &f aH wmfAv kd rf ;ª tjzpf wm0efcsxm;jcif;jzpfonf[k olwe‹dk m;vnf-uaomfvnf; olo ‹ rD; wifZmarmftm; vufxyfvkdufjcif;jzifh a'gufwmbarmf bufygoGm;_yD[k tm;vkH;uxifae-uonf? EkdifiHawmft"dywdvkyf}uHr+}uD;ukd xkdae‹ nykdif; r[m rdwfwkd‹u ava-umif;rS AkH;}uJonfhtcsdefESifh wkdufqkdifaeojzifh arSmifrJaeaom wnY ava-umif;&ef O-orsm; atmfjrnfvmonf? a'gufwmbarmfESifh rdom;pk vnf; yef;_cHtwGif; wkdufaemufbuf&Sd AkH;ckdusif;twGif;okd‹ rdom;pktm;vkH; uokwfu&ufajy;0if-uonf? xdkae&mrSm uif;wyf. e,fedrdwfxJY&Sdonf? xkdtcsdefwGif OD;ausmfjrifhav; (tm&Svli,ftoif; twGif;a&;rª;/ aemifaomtcg zqyv0ef}uD;jzpfvmrnfhol) ESifh *syefe*g; euftzGJŒ0if (2) OD;wko d‹ nf uif;wyfzGJŒ acgif;aqmif ukd&JacgifESifh vma&mufawGŒqkHwkdifyifaqG;aEG;-u_yD; e*g;eufwkd‹u a'gufwmbarmftaejzifh t*Fvdyftvkdawmf&djzpfI olu ‹ kdpdwfrcs&/ olt ‹ m; avSeH ESpzf uf eif;xm;ol[k jrif-uonf? xka‹d -umifh olu ‹ zdk ,f&mS ;_y;D ol. Ekid if aH cgif;aqmif ae&mukd jynfow l &yfv;Hk ESihf wyfrawmfwckv;Hk u -unf!adk om Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef; tm;v$Jtyf&ef olwkd‹u vkdvm;-uonf? ‚if;tjrifrSm uif;wyfzGJŒ0ifrsm;twGuf vufcHEkdifzG,f&Sdonf? ,ckn olwkd‹a'gufwmbarmftm; vG,fulpGm zrf;qD;ac:

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

aqmifoGm;a&;rSm uif;wyfzGJŒ0ifrsm;. yl;aygif;ulnDr+vkdtyfonf? tcGifhtcg aumif;u qkdufa&mufvmay_yD? ava-umif;&ef tcsufay;O-oqGJxm;csdefY vufeuftjynfhtpkH okdif;-cHwyfqifxm;aom ukd&Jacgif/ OD;ausmfjrifhav;ESifh *syef e*g;euf (2) OD;wkrd‹ Sm AkH;ckdusif;&Sd&mokd‹ jzwfvrf;rS tvsiftjrefoGm; -uonf? av a-umif;&eftm;vkH; uif;&Sif;a-umif; tcsufay;oH r-um;&ao;onfhtwGuf a'gufwmbarmfwt ‹dk m;vk;H Ak;H cku d si;f xJwiG yf ifþ&Sv d rd rhf nf[k olw‹dk awG;xifc-hJ uonf? okad‹ omfvnf; a'gufwmbarmfwkd‹ rdom;pkrSm ava-umif;&ef tcsufay;at;aq; a-umif; O-orqGJrD AkH;ckdusif;rS tdrfokd‹ jyefoGm;-u_yDjzpfI olwkpd‹ dwfysufrd-uonf? olwku d‹ tdrftwGif; twif;0ifa&muf_yD; wkdufckduf&ef ¯ud;pm;aomfvnf; ratmif jrifcahJ cs? w,fvzD ek ;f vkid ;f rsm;ukd jzwfawmufxm;onf[k OD;ausmjf rifah v;u xifchJ aomfvnf; vkdif;rsm;ukdom jzwfvkdufykH&I a'gufwmbarmfu uifaywkdifudk vS r;f ac:Ekid cf o hJ nf? r-umrD uifaywkid w f ‹dk nwGi;f csif; ppfum; (2) pD;jzifh a&muf&dS vm_yD; ausmfjrifhav;ESifh e*g;euf (2) OD; ukd zrf;qD;ac:aqmifoGm;vsuf aemuf w&ufwiG f uk&d aJ cgifEiS hf uif;wyfzŒJG vlaygif; (15) a,muf OD;0dpm&vrf;/ ppf0ef}uD;±k;H csKyfY zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;xm;jcif;ukd cHcJh-u&onf? a'gufwmbarmf. t*Fvdyfbmomjzihf a&;om;cJhonfh “Breakthrough in Burma: Memoirs of a Revolution, 1939-1946” / (e,l;a[bif/ a&(vf) wuUokdvfpmykHESdyfwkduf/ 1968? pmrsufESm 216 ESifh 253) wGif ¹rGuf[cJhonfrSm bDtkdifatppfwyftaejzifh ol‹tm;vkyf}uH&ef }uHpnfjcif;rsm; zGifhvSpfcJhonf[k qkdxm;onf? okd‹aomfvnf; ‚if;pmtkyfwGif us,fus,fjyef‹ jyef‹ azmfjyjcif;r&Sdyg? Tta-umif;ESiyhf wfoufI *syefacwf jrefrmtpk;d & jyef-um;a&;0ef}uD; AE<KvOD;pdef . “u|efyfwkd‹ twGif;a&; ('kwd,wGJ) rSmvnf; yga-umif;od&onf? EkdifiHjcm; pma&;q&mrsm;wGirf u l m; Tjzpf&yftay: pkpH v Hk ifvifa&;cJo h rl mS vl0pf (p) t,fvif (Louis Allen) jzpfonf? olp ‹ mtkyf “Burma: The Longest War 1941-45”, Phoenix Press 2000/ pmrsufESm (568) = (573) wGif ukd;um;a&;om;xm;onfhtwdkcsKyf rSm *syefw ‹ yfrawmfESifh wGJxm;onfh t&yfom;ygarmuQ tpmtd/ wkduktdcsd (Prof. + w l pkwiG f ‚if;.±+;d 0ukeo f , G af &;tzGŒJ Asai Tokuichi) acgif;aqmifonfh vky}f uHrv (Showa Trading Association) rS rdwfaqGwOD;ESifh aemuf *syefwa,muftjyif OD;ausmfjrifhESifh jrefrmwa,mufyg0ifum 1944 ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv (16) &uf nykid ;f wGif a'gufwmbarmfaetdro f ‹dk oGm;cJ-h uonf? wyfrawmfom;tapmifrh sm;ESihf awGŒonfhtcg OD;ausmfjrifhtm; ajymckdif;onfrSm OD;barmfonf _Adwdo#olv#KdjzpfI

ol‹tm;owf&ef vmcJh-ujcif;jzpfa-umif;? 'Dta-umif;ukd AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; odaoma-umifh vwfwavmvkdufvmvdrfhrnf? yxrqkH;uawmh olwkdt ‹ m; vuf eufrsm;tyf&efjzpfa-umif;? xkdpum;rsm;ukd vufcHykH&onfh tapmifhwyfrsm;u ±kdifz,f (10) vuf urf;vkdufonf? xkdtcg avab;O-ooHay:vmI OD;barmf xGufvm_yD; AkH;ckdusif;xJ0ifoGm;aomfvnf; tdrfxJokd‹ jyefoGm;cJhonf? wzef d I f *syefqufo, G af &;t&m&Sd Akv d rf ;ª }uD; [d&tku d (Col. Hiraoka) tm; owday;vku a&mufvm_yD; ppf&Jwyfrsm;vnf; a&mufvm-uonf? tpmtdESifh vlwpktm; ppfaq;um tif;pdef=*syef ppfwyfaxmifokd‹ zrf;qD;oGm;onf? xkdpma&;q&m a&;cJhonfhpmtkyfwGif azmfjyxm;onfh pdwf0ifpm;p&maumif;onfh tcsufrsm;wGif ygonfrmS vky}f uHrr+ prDnwGiyf if tpmtd. ±+;d 0rdwaf qGonf Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;ESihf awGŒ&efomG ;cJah -umif;? aemufapmapmykid ;f u tpmtdtm; pifumylwiG f ocifApdeEf iS hf xGef;tkyfwkd‹u a'gufwmbarmfukd rvkdvm;onfhpum;rsm; em;oGif;cJh-uonf[k azmfjycJo h nf? 5 OD;atmifqef;u 1946 ckESpf tapmydkif;u a':refprpftay: ,Hk-unfr+ ay;tyfcjhJ cif; (pmrsufEmS 182 ok‹d ) onf 0d0g'jzpfcsifp&mjzpfI ,if;udk todw&m; &S&d dS uGu J jJG ym;jym; rvGrJ mS ;atmif &Si;f vif;jyo&ef rjzpfEikd cf ahJ cs? olonf rdro d bm0 u tvdt k avsmufajymvdu k o f nft h wdik ;f rdrcd pH m;rdovdk ajymcJjh cif;jzpfy&kH ygonf? a,bk,stm;jzihf trsKd;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;. uH-urRmESihf txl;0daootm;jzihf jrefrmhordik ;f wGif xif&mS ;olrsm;. uH-urRmudk olo&d x dS m;onft h ay: tajccHajymcJh jcif;jzpfayvdrfhrnf? xdkacgif;aqmiftrsm;pkrSm opPmazmufcH&I vkyf}uHowfjzwf r+a-umifh uG,v f eG o f mG ;-u&onfr[kwyf gvm;? ‘ (18) v’ [lI ol &nf!e¸ ;f ajymqdk oGm;jcif;onf &Sif;vif;jyoI r&Ekdifaom t&mjzpfayawmhonf? odk‹aomfvnf; olonf 1947 ckEpS /f ESpv f ,fwiG f vky}f uHowfjzwfjcif;cHc&hJ onfrmS obm0w&m;. jyuf&,fðyr+jzpfayawmhonf? tjcm;wbufwGifum; olonf [dwf[efvkyf&ef/ *k%x f w k &f efEiS fh rdru d , kd u f kd tumtuG,ðf y&ef vdv k m;olr[kwb f J jynfov l x l . k cspjf cif;arwWm&dy°f rHwiG f vH°k cHaeonf[k ,H-k unfcpH m;aecJo h l jzpfayonf? 6 bmwD;vif(h w)em (Bertil Lintner) . ‘{&m0wDpmapmif’ (-o*kwv f 2000) pmtkyaf 0zefcef;wGif a'gufwmarmifarmifa&; ‘1988 ck jrefrmjynf ykeu f efxºuGr’+ pmtk y f (yk H p H 49/ a&;(vf ) ta&S › a wmif t m&S a vh v ma&;/ e,l ; a[bif / uGeef ufwu D ,f U.S.A) tay: ajzmifrh wfpmG o±kyaf zmfxm;onfrmS = “rsuaf rSmufacwfY tm&Swu dk w f iG f &ufpuf-urf;ñuwfpmG tpkvu dk t f °yHvu dk f

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

owfjzwfrt + }uD;t-u,f tqk;d qk;H rsm;wGif yg0ifonfjh zpf&yfudk xk;H jzLokwaf y;jcif; omjzpfonf?æjrefrmjynf. tkdpma&mufaeonfh tm%m&Siftm; rsufpdrSdwfokwd -obmpm &Gwjf cif;?ær±k;d rom;ajr‡mufyifo h nfh ynm&Si?f ” tqk;H owf&mwGif olt ‹ ajymu=“olt ‹ aeeJ‹ tm&St-uifemrJh tm%m&Sirf sm; ukd auseyf-uap&ef vkyfaqmifqJ«y&mwGif olukd,fwkdifu txktxnf vlowf orm;rsm;wk. ‹d umuG,cf ck o H jl zpfvmcJo h nf? ykdrkdtHhtm;oifhzG,faumif;ykHuawmh *k%foduQm&Sdaom tzGJŒtpnf;jzpfonfh a&;(vf) wuUov dk t f a&Sa› wmiftm&Savhvma&; tpDtpOftaeeJ‹ wnf-unfav; eufpGm rSwfcsufcsjcif; okdr‹ [kwf uefu ‹ Gufjcif;uif;rJhpGm 'Dpmtkyfukd a&G;cs,fykHESdyf jcif;jzpfonf? 7 pmwkdufpma&;b0/ wyfwGif; tapmykdif;umvrsm;wGif avmif;a-u;aiG vkdufvHacs;iSm;aeonfukd r-umc%awGŒ&onf? ol‹ukd xkdokd‹ jyefay;avhr&SdbJ acs;iSm;wwfonfukd owdxm;rd_yD; xkdta-umif; rSwfcsuf«yolrSm anmifa&$r[m a'o0Djzpfonf? olru olu ‹ kd wcgw&H aiGpa-u;p ay;avh&Sdonf? olt ‹ avmif; tpm; tpGEJ iS yhf wfoufI ajymjyol aemufwOD;rSm olr‹ w d af qG Akv d pf }uFm (&Jabmfo;Hk usdyf) jzpfI Akdvfae0if;onf jrif;°ydifyGJeD;v#if ol‹tdrfvm_yD; aiGacs;iSm;jcif;jzifh ol pdwfysufcJh&a-umif; ajymjyonf? olq ‹ Du wpkHw&mr&rcsif; ae0if;onf jyefavh r&Sad cs? xkAd v kd cf sKyfu tm%mxufvmonft h cgE+u d u f m; jrefrmEkid if t H wGi;f avmif; upm;r+tm;vkH;ukd ydwfyifcJhonfrSmum; oa&mfuGufwuGufjzpfcJhonf? w&m;0if jrif;°ydifavmif;upm;onf t"duae&m usKduUqHESifh tjcm;ae&mrsm;ukd usdrf;ao aygufz,f&mS ;_yD;aemuf olt ‹ aeESirhf l ola‹ rG;&mygtpGu J dk t*Fveftufpaf umhY quf vufvkyfaqmifcJhonf[k ,kH-unf&onf? _Adwdef&Sd ol‹rdwfaqGrsm; tultnDjzifh tufpaumhwiG f ol‹ jrif;aZmif;rsm; wnfaqmufxm;cJo h nf? &efuek w f iG rf l olt ‹ pfudk ocifvx S eG ;f / ol‹ niD ,f ode;f !GeE‹f iS hf olZ‹ eD; a':wifwifwu ‹dk avmif;upm;tdr}f uD; (3) ae&mwGif wnfaxmifxm;_yD; Oya'tjyifbufrS tqD;twm;r&Sd qufvuf vkyaf qmifaeqJjzpfonf? 8 Adkvfvufsmtm; &nf!¸ef;I 1969 ckESpfwGif xdkif;EdkifiHY OD;Ek. ygvDref 'Drdkua&pDygwD (PDP) wGif 'k=OuU@taejzihf 0ifa&muf_yD;/ jynfcspfvGwfajrmuf a&;wyfrawmf. ppfaumifpD obmywd Adv k cf sKyf}uD;wm0efukd xrf;aqmifcyhJ gonf? 1978 ckEpS w f iG f u&ifoyl ek rf sm;vufcsufjzifh aoqH;k onf? 9 Akv d rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zm (c) ocifa&$? om,m0wDc±kid f ok;H q,f°rdŒ qkid ;f pk&mG wGif

1919 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;? 1941 ckESpf {_yDvwGif &efukefrSxGufcGmaom *syefukef onfoabFmjzifh ac:xkwo f mG ;cJah om 'kw, d tokwf rsK;d cspf (7) OD;wGif olyg0ifonf? [kid ef efu|e;f *syefppfoifwef;ukd wufa&mufco hJ nfh &Jabmfo;Hk usyd t f zGŒJ 0ifwOD;jzpf onf? 1941 ckEpS f 'DZifbmwGif zGŒJpnf;cJah om Armhvw G v f yfa&;wyfrawmfu trdajr twGi;f atmifjrifpmG csDwufvmonft h cg twlvu dk yf gvmcJo h nf? t_rJwrf;wyfr awmfESifh&SdaecJh_yD; 1950 rS tapmykdif;ESpfrsm;twGif; atmifjrifpGmqifE$JcJhaom autef,laomif;usef;olrsm;ESifh w±kwfjzLusL;ausmfolrsm;tm; awmfvSefwkduf yGJrsm;wGif Adkvfr;ª csKyftjzpf xif&Sm;ausmf-um;cJhonf? wyfrawmf. txl;c|efqkH; tqifhjrifh ppfajrjyift&m&Sdjzpf_yD; -um&SnfpGmvufwGJcJhaom a&mif;&if;tay: Y ae0if;u tjrifr-unfrvifjzpfvmcJo h nf? ol. vufo;Hk okwo f ifa&;vrf;pOfudk tok;H cs_y;D uGejf rLepfygwD Armjynfo‹dk owif;rsm; ayguf-um;onf[k yxrpGypf v JG suf w&m;0if&mxl;csum 1957 ckEpS f ZGev f wGif xkwyf ,fypfco hJ nf? Adv k af usmaf Zmonf ol‹rdom;pkESifh &efukef°rdŒ prf;acsmif;wGif twef-umaexkdifcJhonf? 1976 ckESpf ESpfvnfwGif AdkvfausmfaZmonf Arm=w±kwfe,fpyf yefqef;&Sd uGefjrLepfygwD Armjynftajcpku d pf cef;ok‹d xGuo f mG ;cJ_h yD; uGejf rLepfrsm;ESihf yl;aygif;cJo h nf? 1989 ckESpf {_yDvtwGif; tjcm; pDyDbDacgif;aqmifrsm;ESifhtwl olvnf; w±kwfjynfokd‹ xGufajy;vGwfajrmufcJhonf? olonf ,cktcg ulrif;wGif aexkdifvsuf&Sdonf? bDbDpD (2) ±kyfjrifoH-um;u ol‹ukd w,fvDzkef;jzifh awGŒqkHar;jref;&mwGif _Adwdo# tpd;k &u tmZmenf}uD;rsm;ukd owfjzwf&ef pDpOfcjhJ cif;jzpfa-umif; olu wnfw h nfh }uD; xkwaf zmfajymqkcd o hJ nf? olt ‹ ajymu “atmifqef;ukd trSew f u,fowfou l _Adwdo#tpkd;&yJ? 'g[m olwk&d‹ JŒ qufuGufyJ?” [k jzpfonf? 10 acsmifZefanmifa&$(Chao Tzang Yawnqhwe) (tjcm;trnf ,l*si;f oku d )f ? 1939=2004? Zlvidk f (24) &ufwiG f aoqk;H ? olrwkid rf D olt ‹ ar p0f[efcef‹ anmifa&$ a'0D (uG,v f eG _f yD; ol p0fa&$ou dk /f jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf. yxrqk;H orRw 1948=52 . -uif,mawmf) onf 2003 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv (17) &ufae‹wGif uae'gEkdifiH Aeful;Am;°rdŒ Y touf (86) ESpfwGif uG,fvGefcJhonf? 1962 ckESpfwGif ae0if;tm%modrf;&mwGif p0fa&$okdufrSm xdef;odrf;csKyfaESmifcH&onf? xkdESpf Ek0d ifbmvwGif olaoqk;H oGm;_yDjzpfa-umif; olr‹ o d m;pkudk today;cJo h nf? 11 1976 ckESpfv,fwGif w±kwf=jrefrme,fpyfwGif&Sdaom yefqdkif;&Sd uGefjrL k af e&mod‹k Adv k rf ;ª csKyfausmaf Zmonf oGm;a&muf epfygwD (Armjynf) (CPB) tajcpdu cJ_h yD; uGejf rLepfrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;cJo h nf? 1989 ckEpS /f {_yDvwGif olonf tjcm; pDyb D D

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acgif;aqmifrsm;ESit fh wl w±kwEf ikd if o H ‹kd xGuaf jy;vGwaf jrmufomG ;cJo h nf? olonf ,cktcg ulrif;wGif aexdik v f su&f ydS gonf? bDbpD D (2) wDAu DG 1996 ckEpS w f iG f olu ‹ kd w,fvzD ek ;f jzihf qufo, G af r;jref;cJ&h m olu _Adwo d #tpd;k &u vky}f uHowfjzwfru + kd tuGucf spDrcH jhJ cif;jzpfonf[k wyftyfajymqdck o hJ nf? 12 atmif}uD; (t_idrf;pm;Akdvfrª;csKyf)? ae0if;. nmvuf±kH;? 1963 ckESpf azazmf0g&DvwGif awmfveS af &;aumifprD S aemufq;Hk Ekwx f u G cf &hJ onf? oka‹d omfvnf; ol‹ociftay: Y olu qufvufopPm&SdaecJhonf? ESpfrsm;pGm-um_yD;aemuf ,l.,cif vkyfazmfukdufzuf ppfwyft&m&Sdrsm;ESifh aumifpD0ifrsm;xH 1988 ckESpf arv (9) &uf &efukef[k &ufpGJwyfxm;aom pm&Snf}uD;wapmifukd olu a&;cJh onf? xkpd mrSm jrefrmvkad &;xm;jcif;jzpf_yD; u|efawmfv h ufxJ a&mufvmaomtcg u|efawmfu t*FvdyfbmomjyefqkdI tar&duefEkdifiH 0g&Sifwef'DpD&Sd pDtm'DbD Ekid if w H umqkid &f m XmecsKyfo‹dk qufvufjzefa‹ 0Ekid &f ef pDpOfay;ykc‹d o hJ nf? atmif}uD;. pmwae&mwGif 1962 ckEpS f Zlvidk v f twGi;f u wuUov dk af usmif;om;rsm;ukd &uf&uf pufpufowfjzwfr+ta-umif; olu ajymjyxm;onf? tm%mxdyfacgifcsKyf. vufaxmufjzpfco hJ w l OD;u vlowfuiG ;f rsm;teD; &Sad ecJ_h yD; olt ‹ azmfjycsufrsm;rSm tHph &maumif;avmufatmif xl;jcm;vSonf? “ausmif;om;ta&;tcif; ay:ayguf vmonfhtcg vkH°cHa&;aumifpDatmufwGif ta&;tcif;aumfrwDw&yfukd zGJŒpnf; vkduf_yD; toHv$ifh±kH (jrefrmhtoH) wGif tajcpkdufxm;cJhonf? ,if;aumfrwDukd Adv k rf ;ª }uD;ausmfaZm jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;u OD;aqmif_yD; tjcm;0ef}uD;rsm; trSwf (4) Armhvufeufuidk w f yfrS Adv k pf ed v f iG f (om;owform;) tygt0if ppfwyfEiS hf t&yfzuf &Jt&m&Sd trsm;tjym;yg0ifonf? xkad umf rwDwiG f rnfonfah e&mu olyg0ifonfudk atmif}uD;u razmfjyaomfvnf; 1962 ckEpS f Zlvidk v f (7) &uf aocif;jzpfymG ;onfh ae‹ vnf ausmif;om;rsm;v+yfaqmfr+rsm; pwifonfhtcg ol‹taejzifh jrefrmhtoHwGif &Sdraea-umif;ESifh ypfcwfonfhta-umif; -um; odwJhtcgusrS xkdae&mokd‹ oGm;cJh a-umif; olu ajymqkdcJhonf? xdckdufepfematmif &nf&G,fvkyfaqmifcJhaom orkid ;f 0ifausmif;om;or*~taqmufttkt H m; 'kid ;f rrku d jf zifh °zdcrJG w + iG f olu ‹ , dk w f idk f ypfred a‹f y;cJah -umif; ae0if;azmfjycsuu f dk aemufyidk ;f wGif -um;odc&hJ a-umif;/ ok&‹d mwGif or*~taqmufttkH°zdcsr+. wm0efonf ol‹tay: usa&mufvmcJha-umif; olu tckdiftrm ajymqkdcJhonf? tu,fI ae0if;trdefr‹ ay;cJhv#if tjypfajymcH&rnfhol rSm olomv#ifjzpfonf[k ,lqcJhonfukd olu rnfonfhtcgr# rjiif;cJha-umif; atmif}uD;u qkdcJhonf?

udk;um;= pyf-umqdkif ( Sao Kya Seng) tif*sDqm*sifh (Inge Sargent) . ‘jrefrmjynfay:u qnf;qmtvif;a&mif= u|Ekfyf. &S rf;rif;orD;b0’ ([m0dkif,D wuUov kd =f 1994) wGi±f ?+ pmtkyaf emufausmzH;k wGif pma&;ol (oDayge,f. r[m a'0D) u uH-urRmqdk;. zsufqD;jcif;cH&aom aysmf&$ifr+}uD;w&yf/ jrefrmEdkifiH. tav;pm;cH&qHk;aom wdkif;&if;om; acgif;aqmifwOD;tm; wGef;vSef°zdcsr+ESihf &ufpufvSaom ppfwyf,Eœ&m;tm;qefu ‹ sifaom trsKd;orD;wOD;. oHr%dpdwf "mwfESihf ol&owWdwdk‹udk Zmwfa-umif;jyef a&;om;xm;onf[k twdkcsKyfaumuf csufcs azmfjyxm;onf/þxdktwdkif;yifjzpfcJhonf?þu|Ekfyf.zcifESihfþpyf-umqdkifwrdk‹ Sm rdwfaqG&if;rsm;jzpf-uonf? 'kwd,urBmppfrjzpfrD ESpftwef-umu rEœav;rS rdwˆDvmodk‹ armfawmfum;jzifh c&D;oGm;&mwGif pyf-umqdkifESifhtwloGm;cJh&mrS olu ‹ dk od&cdS jhJ cif;jzpfonf? 14 udk;um;= OD;oef‹/ tif'±l;qJh (Andrew Selth) / ‘ol&Jaumif;wOD; aoqHk;jcif;/ jrefrmjynfrS OD;oef‹ta&;tcif;’ 1974 ckESpf/ 'DZbFm (b&pfbdef;/ *&pfzpfwuUodkvf=-opa-w;vs/ tm&Spmwrf;rsm;trSwf (49) 1989) wGif±+? 15 0ef}uD;csKyf ocifEk/ AdkvfcsKyf. vkyfazmfukdifzufESifh ola‹ e&mqufcHolu 1947 ckEpS f Zlvidk v f (29) &ufae‹wiG f wkid ;f «y jynf«yv$waf wmfY tjcm;t&mrsm;tjyif 0rf;enf;cs;D rGr;f pum; Toka‹d jymqkcd o hJ nf? “ææu|eaf wmfw&‹dk ŒJ ESpaf ygif; 2000 orkid ;f rSm tvGex f if&mS ;wJh acgif;aqmif wOD;&JŒvufatmufrSm EkdifiHawmf&JŒ pnf;±kH;nD!Gwfr+[m (4) }udrfyJ jzpfcJhygw,f? jrefrmEkdifiH[m ppfjzpfaewJh bk&ifhEkdifiHawGeJ‹ &efapmifaewJh aus;&GmawGa-umifh t_rJwrf; tpdwpf w d f t¹r¸m¹r¸mjzpfaecJw h myg? taemf&xm/ bk&ifah emif/ qifjzL&Sief ‹J tavmif;bk&m;wkd[ ‹ m u|efawmfwkdo ‹ rkdif;&JŒ tapmykdif;umvawGrSm wkdif;jynfukd jyefvnfpkpnf;EkdifcJhwJh }uD;us,fwJhbk&ifawG/ acgif;aqmifawG jzpf-uygw,f? u|eaf wmfwt ‹dk csed rf mS awmh Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;u wkid ;f jynfudk jyefvnfppk nf;Ekid cf _hJ y;D vGwv f yfwjhJ ynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmfudk wnfaqmufEidk cf yhJ gw,f? trsKd;om;pnf;vk;H nD!w G af &;onf taotcsmowfrw S x f m;aom e,fjcm; ajrjcm;pnf;rsm;twGif; zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkukd wnfaqmufonfh aemufqkH; tqifrh sm;wGif tcsKyftjcmtm%mukd ra-unmrD r&Srd jzpfvt dk yfonf? ,if;taet xm;ukd (5) OD;ajrmuf xif&Sm;aom orkdif;0ifacgif;aqmif AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;u &,lEidk cf o hJ nf? 16 Adkvf}uD;tkef;ausmfjrifhonf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;ESifh tjcm;EkdifiHawmf

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

acgif;aqmifrsm;ukd vky}f uHowfjzwf&ef }uHpnfol t"duw&m;cHtjzpf tpGypf cJG &H onf? 1977 ckESpf Zlvkdifv (27) &ufwGif tif;pdefaxmifY ol‹ukd ¯ud;ay;uGyf rsufcJhonf? tkef;ausmfjrifhonf xdktcsdefu umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf (-unf;) jzpfol Akv d cf sKyf}uD;ausmx f if. uk, d af &;t&m&Sjd zpfonf? ,if;}uHpnfrw + iG f yg0ifywfouf onf[k oHo,t0ifcH&aom ppfwyfrS ti,fwef;t&m&Sd w'gZifcefr‹ Sm zrf;qD;cH &_yD; axmifcscH&olc&H / t_idr;f pm;tay;cH&olc&H jzpfomG ;-uonf? 17 pdefvGif (t_idrf;pm;Adkvfr;ª csKyf) “om;owform;” [k trkef;cH&ol? ol. ocif tm%m&Sifae0if;ESifh eD;pyfoljzpf_yD; b0wav#mufvkH; ,kH-unfpdwfcs&ol wOD;taejzifh *k%f«ycsD;jr‡ifhcH&aom pG,fpkH&yk*~dKvfwOD;tjzpf opPm&SdpGm tr+awmf xrf;cJhonf? 1943 ckESpfrSpI awmfvSefa&;wGif yg0ifcJh_yD; rsKd;cspfArmhwyfrawmfrS ArmhwyfrawmftopfwiG f t&m&Sjd zpf&ef av#mufxm;cJo h nf? oka‹d omfvnf; t&m&Sd a&G;cs,fa&;tzGJŒu olu ‹ kd ra&G;cs,fcJhacs? pdefvGifu &Jabmftjzpf pm&if;oGif;cJh_yD; trSwf (4) AsL;&pfzf (4th Bur:f) wyf&if;rª;jzpfol Akdvfrª;ae0if;. ukd,fykdiftr+ xrf;tjzpf xrf;aqmifcJhonf[k ,kH-unf&onf? xkad‹ emuf t&m&SdjzpfvmcJhonf? 1951 ckEpS f -o*kwv f wGif yxrqk;H emrnf}uD;zk‹d jzpfvmcJo h nf? xkpd Ofu 'k=Adv k rf ;ª }uD; at;armif. uGyu f rJ a+ tmufwiG f u&ifjynfe,f v+id ;f bGŒJ teD; autif't D pdk cef;ukd 0kid ;f &mwGif olyg0ifc_hJ yD; wku d yf t JG wGi;f u&ifacgif;aqmif apmbOD;}uD;ukd tao&rd onf? xka‹d emuf taz}uD;. opPmawmfcH aemufvu dk Ef iS hf vlowform;tjzpf 1962 ckESpf ZlvkdifvwGif wuUokdvfausmif;om; &maygif;rsm;pGmukd taoypfcscJhaom wyfprk sm;ukd ol uGyu f cJ o hJ nf? orkid ;f 0if ausmif;om;or*~taqmufttku H v dk nf; azmufcGJ°zdcscJhonf? olt ‹ aejzifh aoG;v$rf;r+trsKd;rsKd;twGuf wm0ef&SdcJh_yD; OD;oef‹ psmye ±kyfysufqif;ysufjzpf&r+ESifh &Spfav;vkH; &ufpufr+rsm;u olt ‹ wGuf emrnf tysu&f qk;H rsm;jzpfco hJ nf? ae0if;u olu ‹ dk ol.,kwrf m&ufpufaom vkyaf qmifr+ rsm;twGuf aumif;pGmcs;D jri‡ chf o hJ nf? 2002 ckEpS f rwfvwGif olq ‹ &mocif tdrt f us,f csKyfozG,fcH&_yD;aemuf r-umrDyif olvnf; w&m;r0if&&Sdaeaom cHpm;cGifhrsm;/ -oZmtm%mrsm; qk;H ±+;H cJ_h yD; rjzpfpavmufaom ppfwyfyifpifvpmav;jzifh qif;&J EGrf;yg;pGm &SifoefaecJh&onf? ol. tpmtdrfa&m*gtwGuf pifumylwGif ukor+cH ,l_yD;tjyef 2003 ckESpf {_yDv (9) &ufae‹wGif &efukef°rdŒ Y aoqkH;cJhonf? 18 'kw, d urBmppftwGi;f Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;vufatmuf&dS bDtidk af twyfo‹dk d OuU@ 0ifa&mufcphJ Ofu touf Adv k cf sKyf}uD;a[mif; ol& wifO;D ,ck NLD 'kw, (16) ESpo f m&Sad o;onfh vli,fwOD;jzpfonf? vGwv f yfa&;r&rD Armhwyfrawmfudk

jyefvnfzŒJG pnf;onht f cg olonf t&m&St d qifjh zpfvmcJo h nf? usL;ausmfvmaom ‹d dk jyefvnfwu dk cf u dk &f mY olonf emrnf ulrifwefw±kwjf zLwyf Kuomintang wku ausmw f yf&if;rª;wOD;jzpfco hJ nf? olonf ol&bGŒJ ESpx f yfurG ;f &&Scd o hJ nf? wyfrawmf OD;pD;csKyfEiS hf umuG,af &;0ef}uD;tjzpf 1974 ckEpS w f iG f wk;d jrifo h mG ;cJo h nf? Adv k }f uD; tke;f ausmjf rif. h Adv k cf sKyfae0if;ESihf taygif;ygwcsKt ‹d m; vky}f uHowfjzwf&ef }uHpnfr+ wGif ywfoufonf[al om pGcJ sujf zifh ‚if;.jrifrh m;aom &mxl;}uD;rsm;rS olu ‹ dk 1976 ckESpfwGif xkwfy,fypfcJhonf? owif;xdrfcsefr+jzifh axmif (7) ESpfuscH&_yD; yifpif vnf;r& vkyfoufqk qka-u; cHpm;cGifhrsm;vnf; ray;awmhacs? okda‹ omf olonf ol.¯ud;pm;r+jzifh &efuek w f uUov dk rf S Oya'bGŒJ &&Scd o hJ nf? 1988 ckEpS f pufwifbmv wGif trsKd;om;'Dru dk a&pDtzGŒJ csKyf zGŒJ pnf;onft h cg rsKd;cspf&aJ bmfa[mif;rsm;tzGŒJ . acgif;aqmifykdif;rSaeI yg0ifyl;aygif;cJhonf? atmifqef;pk-unfu taxGaxG twGi;f a&;rª; yxrwGif olu 'kw, d OuU@ jzpfonf? xka‹d emuf OuU@ jzpfvmonf? 1989 ckESpf ZlvkdifvwGif taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJtwGuf pnf;±kH;aepOf olESifh atmifqef;pk-unfwkd‹ ESpfOD;vkH;ukd tdrfwGif;tus,fcsKyfcsxm;jcif;cHcJh&onf? xka‹d emuf ppfc±Hk ;Hk u olu ‹ dk tvky-f urf;ESihf axmif'%f (3) ESpf csrSwcf _hJ yD; 1992 ckEpS f azazmf0g&DvwGif aemufxyf (7) ESpf xyfrw H ;dk jr‡ichf o hJ nf? 19 OD;atmifcif=“ae0if;/ EkdifiHa&;±kyfykHv$m”/ tykdif; (2) {&m0wDpmapmifyg aqmif;yg;/ csif;rkdif twGJ (8) trSwf (9)/ pufwifbmv 2000 ckESpf/ pmrsufESm (28)? “ae0if;[m ol&JŒ vkH;0O\kHjzpfwJhtm%mukd b,fvkdwefzkd;ukdyJ ay;&ay;& ay;_yD; vGefcJhwJh tESpf (40) ausmftwGif; tm%mukd vk,lxdef;odrf;cJhw,f? ol‹&JŒ -ydifzufawGukd xkwfypfcJhw,f? ol&JŒ rdwfaqGawG/ &Jabmf&Jbuf aemufvkdufawG tay:rSmvJ opPmazmufcw hJ ,f? 1977 ckESpf azazmf0g&DvrSm usif;ycJhwJh rqv&JŒ wwd,t}udrf nDvmcH usif;ypOfu v#Kd0‹ u S rf aJ y;wJt h cg ygwDacgif;aqmiftpOfvu dk rf mS ol[m eHygwf (4) ae&mukd tqifhusoGm;cJhw,f? okd‹aomfvJ olwkd‹[m ol‹tay:rSm qkd&S,fvpf'Drkd ua&pDudk ±k;d om;pGm ,k-H unfo&l ,fv‹dk em;rvnfrv + cJG w hJ mjzpf_yD; olu ‹ adk v#mhwu G f cJh-uwmjzpfw,f? tJ'Dtcg ol[m ygwDEkdifiHa&;ukd pdwf0ifpm;ykHrjyayrJh axmuf vS rf;a&;wyf&JŒ tultnDukd&,l_yD; ygwDoef‹pifa&;ta-umif;jycsufeJ‹ ygwD0if (54˜000) ukd xkwyf pfvu dk w f ,f? tJ't D csed u f tpk;d &tvkyrf mS ygwD0ifjzpfa&;[m r&Srd jzpfvt dk yfaeygw,f? tJ'aD emuf olq ‹ ENtwkid ;f [m t&m&mukd csKyfuidk v f myg w,f? okd‹aomfvJ ygwDoef‹pifa&;[m ae0if;tay: }uD;}uD;rm;rm;wefjyef±kduf

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

cwfr+jzpfcJhygw,f? 1978 ckESpfrSm ygwDu xkwfy,fcH&wJh ref;aiGatmif acgif; aqmifwJhtzGJŒ[m ae0if;ukd vkyf}uHowfjzwfzkd‹ ¯ud;pm;cJh-uygw,f? olwkd‹u olt ‹ wGif;pnf;xJu vlawGukdyg z,f&Sm;ypfzkd‹ ¯ud;pm;cJh-uygw,f? 'gayr,fh tJ'D }uHpnfr+[m taumiftxnf razmf&ao;cifrSmbJ ay:aygufoGm;_yD; }uHpnfol rsm;tm;vkH; ao'%ftjypfay;cH-u&w,f? okda‹ omfvJ olwkdu ‹ kd rpD&ifrD vGwf_idrf; csrf;omcGifhtrdef‹ (1980 ckESpf) u ref;aiGatmifukd toufcsrf;om&m &apcJhyg w,f? ref;aiGatmif[m axmifuxGufvm_yD; (2) ESpft-um autif,lu &efukefukdwkdufckduf&mrSm OD;aqmifcJhjyefw,f? okd‹aomfvJ oleJ‹taygif;ygrsm;ukd vsijf refpmG zrf;rdcjhJ yefygw,f?” 20 bDbDpD (2) wDAGD (txufygtpDtpOf)/ a':atmifqef;pk-unf= “usr azazudk jrefrmjynf&J‹ar#mfvifhcsuftjzpf vlawGujyef-unfhaewm[m usr 'Drdk ua&pDv+yf&Sm;r+}uD;xJ yg0ifvm&jcif;&J‹ ta-umif;t&if;jzpfygw,f? tJ'Dawmh usrrSm ulnzD w ‹kd m0ef&adS ew,fv‹kd cHpm;rdygw,f”? 21 þat;&Sm;0dcf (Asia Week)/þ1993þckESpf rwfv (3) &uf/ aqmif;yg;. yxrykdif;= urBmajray:&Sd t}uD;rm;qkH;tmCmw (txufwGif aemufqkH;ykdif;ukd ukd;um;_yD; tcef; (1) eHygwfpOf=6) “aemifwGif &JabmfokH;usdyf” [k ausmf-um; vmrnfholrsm; *syef.vufatmufY ppfoifwef;oif,laepOfuyif jrefrmEkdifiH. vGwfvyfa&;ol&Jaumif;jzpfvmrnfh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tay: ae0if;u rnfr# rkef;wD;a-umif; jrefrmwkdif;od&Sd-uonf? ol.ajymjyIyifroifah om vlra+ &;tusiyhf surf r+ sm;twGuf vltrsm;a&Sw › iG f ol‹udk t&SufuGJapaoma-umifh ae0if;u ol‹xuftouf (3) ESpf i,faomfvnf; ynmtvGefxl;c|ef_yD; rsm;pGm±kkd;om;aom vli,facgif;aqmiftm; rkef;wD;cJhonf? OD;ae0if;onf ‚if;tjzpftysufrsm;tjyif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u ol‹tm; tjcm; usL;vGerf r+ sm;twGuf tqifch scjhJ cif;rsm;ukv d nf; rnfonft h cgr# rarhaysmufcahJ cs? wcgaomf Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;u ae0if;ukd pdwyf suv f eG ;f onft h wGuf 'kw, d urBmppf. rkew f idk ;f qefaomESprf sm;twGi;f *syefrS trdajrokt ‹d jyef a&vrf;c&D;wGif ickH;rwaumifa-umifh wavSvkH;rykyfcif ae0if;ukd z,f&Sm;ypf&efxd olcsdefqawG; awmpdwfY armcJh&a-umif;ukd &JabmfokH;usdyf0if Adkvf&efEkdiftm; ajymjy_yD; wm0ef ay;cJah o;onf[k tqk&d ydS gonf? 22 ukvor*~ pD;yGm;a&;ESihf vlr+a&;aumifpD. vl‹tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sif txl;udk,fpm;vS,f ,dkZdk,dkumwm (Yozo Yokata) u 1993 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv

(17) &ufwGif (49) }udrfajrmuftpnf;ta0;odk‹ wifoGif;aom tpD&ifcHpm tD;§pD tif 4§ 1993§37 / pmrsufESm 19 (u)=armifaomfu (c) OD;baomf/ touf (65) ESpf (trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJŒcsKyf A[dkaumfrwD0if) onf 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvdkif v (23) &ufwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf? ta&;ay:jy@mef;r+ tufOya'. yk'fr 5 (u) ESifh 5 (c) t& 1989 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmvwGif olu ‹ dk tvkyf-urf;ESihf axmif '%fEpS (f 20) tjypf'%fcsrSwcf o hJ nf? olonf aemufausm tm±Hak -umr}uD; a&m*g wckjzpfonfh vnfyif;cdkifa&m*gudk jyif;jyif;xefxef (severe Spondylitis) cHpm;& vsuf&Sd&m 1990 ckESpf/ pufwbFmvtwGif;wGif tif;pdefaxmifxJY tpmiwfcH qENjyaepOf t}uD;tus,ft±du k cf cH &hJ onf? xda‹k -umihf ol. nmbufwjcrf; ao oGm;cJhonf? 1991 ckESpf/ ZGefv (9) &ufwGif uG,fvGefcJhonf? 23 a':atmifqef;pk-unfonf _Adwo d #vlrsKd;jzpfol rdu k u f ,ft&J pf ( Michael Aris) udk 1972 ckESpfwGif vufxyfcJhonf? a'gufwm rdkufu,f ADvefukwf tJ&pf onf wdAufESihf [dr0Eœmavhvmr+ESihf ywfoufaom atmufpfzdk‹'f (Oxford) wuUodkvf. okawoeynm&Sifjzpfonf? atmufpfzdk‹'fwuUodkvf pdef‹tefaxmfeD aumvdyf. ausmif;tkyftjzpf 1998 ckESpfwGif xrf;aqmifaepOf uifqma&m*g zdpD;r+cHcJh&onf? &efukefwGif&Sd ol‹ZeD;onftm; aemufqHk;E+wfquf&ef jrefrm ppftkyfpktm; jynf0ifcGifhADZmay;yg&ef arwWm&yfcHcJhonf? odk‹aomfvnf; ppfAdkvf csKyfrsm;u u±k%mw&m; acgif;yg;pGmjzihf ADZmay;&ef jiif;qefcJhonf? a'gufwm tJ&pfonf 1999 ckEpS /f rwfv (27) &ufae‹/ ol. (53) ESpaf jrmufarG;ae‹wiG f vef'ef &Sd csmcsDaq;±HkwGif uG,fvGefcJhonf? ppftpdk;&onf olwdk‹.om;ESpfOD;jzpfonfh tJvpfZENm; jrifhqef;atmifESihf uif (rf) xdefvif;wdk‹. EdkifiHul;vufrSwfwdk‹ukd ESpt f awmf-umuyif zsuo f rd ;f cJo h nf? olwu ‹kd kd olr‹ cd ifxv H nfywf&ef wcgw&Hro S m cGiðhf ycJo h nf? 24 bDbDpD (2) wDAGD (txufygtpDtpOf)/ rSwfwrf;±kyf&Sifonf AdkvfcsKyf. wOD;wnf;aomorD;jzpfo. l pl;&Sem-unf;zG,af jymqdrk j+ zpfonfh “usr azazom toufxif&Sm;&SdaecJhr,fqdk&if 'Drdkua&pD[m touf0if v+yf&Sm;aecJh rSmjzpf_yD; wnfwahH ecJrh mS jzpfw,f? olu ‹ kd qH;k ±+;H cJ&h wm[m aysm&f i$ zf , G &f m 'Dru kd a&pD jrefrmEdik if H awmfukd wnfaqmufz‹kd tcGit hf a&;udk usrwdq ‹k ;kH ±H;+ cJ&h wm jzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fv h J 'kwd,tcGifhta&;awG[m t_rJvmwwfp_rJrdk‹ usrwdk‹ wwfEdkifwkH; tJ'DtcGifhta&; awGukd t&trd zrf;udik &f rSmjzpfygw,f” [laom pum;&yfrsm;jzihf tqH;k owfxm; avonf?

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

wnf;jzwf/ jzefa‹ 0ol a'gufwmausmf0if;? atm&ifhudk‹ (pf) aumvdyf (OrD ;kd eD;,m; (California, USA) ygarmuQwm0efrS tem; ange Coast College)/ u,fvz ,l_yD; tar&durSmyif aexdkifygonf? 1987 ckESpfwGif pDtm'DbD tjynfjynfqkdif&m (CRDB International) yxr OuU@jzpfcJh_yD; Twm0efudk OD;wifarmif0if;u qufvufxrf;aqmifonf? 1997 ckEpS rf mS a'gufwmausm0f if;u wzef OuU@jzpfjyef d m0efudk um 2003 ckEpS q f ef;wGif OD;bDvmftrf/ &m&Spf (Bilal M. Raschid) u xkw ,lygonf? (bDvmvf&m&SpfrSm OD;Ek/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; ponfh av;pm;tyfaom rsKd;cspfacgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;wGif yg0ifcJhol OD;trf/at/&m&Spf (M.A.Raschid) . om;jzpfonf? 2 bDbDpD (2) wDAGD 1997 ck/ Zlvdkifv (19) &uf (txufygtpDtpOf)/ toHv$ifholu “OD;apmeJ‹cifrif&if;ESD;wJh _Adwdo#t&m&SdawGudk &Ju pwifpHkprf;ppf aq;ygw,f? vky}f uHrj+ zpfymG ;aepOf _Adwo d #axmufvS r;f a&;t&m&Sw d OD;u OD;apm udk wu,fyJ w,fvzD ek ;f qufajymcJyh gw,f” [kajym_y;D aemufwiG f atmufygAdv k rf ;ª [l;wGdKif (ppfaxmufvS rf;a&;=1947) ESihf awGŒqHkar;jref;cef; aumufEkwfcsufudk qufvufvi$ x hf w k af y;cJo h nf? ‘w,fvzD ek ;f a&'D,v kd ikd ;f u wckcck |waf csmo f mG ;wm a-umifh (11) em&DrmS pm;&dyo f mxJa&mufaewJo h al wGtm;vH;k u|eaf wmfwa‹kd jymwm tm;vHk; a&'D,dkuwqifh -um;ukef-uygw,f? aemuf em&D0ufvJ-uma&m olwdk‹ wawG vkyf}uHr+jzpfwm odukef-uawmh OD;apmudk oHo,0if-uygw,f? oHo, t0ifc&H wm aemufwa,muf&ydS gao;w,f? tJ'g u|eaf wmfjzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fh uHaumif;axmufrpGm tJ'D oHo,u aysmufuG,foGm;cJhygw,f? 3 OD;xGef;vSatmif/ w&m;vdkjyoufaotrSwf(38)/ txl;cHk±Hk;a&S›Y usrf; usdefxGufqdkjcif;? 4 1995 ckEpS /f rwfvwGix f w k af 0aom wyfrawmfordik ;f / wwd,wG/J pmrsuf ESm (151=152) u twnfðycsufr&Sdaom owif;pm owif;ay:wGif tajccHxm; onfhol‹tjrifudk a&;om;xm;onfh Adkvfrª;csKyfarmifarmif.pmtkyf/ pmrsufESm (317) ESihf (339) udkvnf; aumufE+wfudk;um;xm;onf? 5 bDbpD D (2) wDADG ±ky&f iS f (1947 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v f 19 &uf) ‚if;wDA±DG yk &f iS t f wGuf qm/ eDudkvyf (epf) varm (Sir Nicholas (Nick) Larmour) (jrefrmyÉdnmOf

cH0efxrf;=1947) ESihf awGŒqHkar;jref;cJh&mrS olESihf ol‹vkyfazmfudkifbufrsm; 1947 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (19) &ufae‹wGif twGif;0efrsm;±Hk;Y&Sdaea-umif; ajym-um;csufudk aumufEw k af zmfjyxm;onf? “aumifpcD ef;reJ‹ tawmfe;D wJh ±H;k cef;xJrmS u|efawmf wdk‹ wckckpm;aomufae-uwkef;/ atmfwdkrufwpf aoewfoH ESpfcsufoHk;csufudk u|eaf wmfw‹kd ±kww f &uf-um;vdu k &f ygw,f” olonf aumifpcD ef;rodþ‹k oGm;a&mufchJ &m Todk‹ jrifcJh&onf? “ae&mwumrSm aoG;awGcsnfhyJ/ tawmhfudkrsm;w,f/ 'DvdkaoG;rsKd; u|efawmf wcgrS rawGŒzl;bl;? bmjzpfvdk‹vJqdkawmh teD;uyf_yD; aoewfawGe‹J ypfcw hJ mr[kwv f m;? aoewf'%fa-umifh pm;yGw J iG ;f u ypPn;f awGe‹J pm;yGJtpdwftydkif;awGvJ wppDusKd;yJhysufpD;ae-uw,f? aoG;tdkifawGxJrSm uefausmufvGifhxGufoGm;wJh zdeyfawG&Sdae-uygw,f”? tqifhjrifh _Adwdo#t&m&Sd trsm;tjym;onf twGif;0efrsm;±Hk;twGif;wGif olw±dk‹ Hk;cef;rsm;&Sdae-uonf? 6 [l;wifum.‘jrefrmEdik if /H þvGwv f yfa&;¯ud;yrf;r+þ1944=48’þpmrsuEf mS þ(872)? 7 qm/ bOD;onf xdktcsdefu w&m;v$wfawmf. w&m;ol}uD;ESihf zGJŒpnf; yHkOya'tzGJŒwGif ta&;ygaomtzGJŒ0ifwOD;jzpfonf? 1952=57 wGif EdkifiHawmf orRwjzpfonf? armifarmif (Adv k rf ;ª csKyfa[mif;) “oHCmrSomrefvo l ”‹dk jrefrmEkid if . H trsKd; om;a&;v+y&f mS ;r+rsm; 1980 ykEH ydS /f pmrsuEf mS (260)/ rSwcf suf (20)? w&m;±k;H csKyfwiG f acwWw&m;ol}uD;wm0ef,lxm;aom OD;bOD;onf txl;w&m;ckH±kH;wGif yg0if_yD; q&mpHukd ppfaq;cJhonf? OD;bOD;tm; pma&;olu o±kyfazmfxm;onfrSm ‘bcif e,fyidk 0f efaxmufonf OD;OwWrtm; yxrjypf'%f pD&ifcsucf sco hJ jl zpfonf?’ 8 z&ef/‹ tif/ xa&*g (Frank N.Trager) jrefrmEkid if H “bk&ifEh idk if rH S orRwEkid if H ok”d‹ (Burma: From Kingdom to Republic) (vef'ef ayg(vf) arm(vf) ykHESdyfwkduf 1966 ckEpS )f pmrsuEf mS 105? “'kw, d urBmppftwGi;f u trSwf (136) _Aw d o d #wyfzŒJG . wyfzŒJG0ifa[mif;rsm;yg0ifaom u&ifrsm;ukd taxmuftyHah y;a&;}uHpnfrw + &yf ukd 1948 ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif azmfxkwfcJhonf?” [l;wifum (Hugh Tinker) “jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkid if þH vGwv f yfa&;yxrESprf sm;ukþd avhvmr+”þ(vef'efþatmuf(pf) zk'‹d w f uUov kd þf pmykEH ydS w f u dk þf 1957þckEpS þf pmrsuEf mS 37)? “umvuwWm;&Sd 'k=Akv d rf ;ª }uD; a*s/pD/wl;avmh(cf)(J.C. Tulloch-M.C.) trf/pD/ ESihf &efuek &f dS a'vDar;(vf)owif;pmrS tvufZENm; uif;bJ(vf) (Alexander Campbell) (ESpfOD;vkH;rSm 136 wyfzGJŒrS jzpfcJh -uonf) wkd‹. v+yf&Sm;r+rsm;ukd jrefrmtpkd;&u &SmazGawGŒ&SdcJh_yD; uif;bJ(vf)ukd &efukefrS xkwfypfjcif;cH&onf?” aemuftr+wckrSm Seventh-Day Adventist

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c&pf,mefbkef;}uD;wOD;jzpfol a*s/ 'AvsL/ abmf(vf)'0if (J.W. Baldwin) . tr+ jzpfonf? vGwv f yfa&;r&ao;rD _Adwo d #wu ‹dk olu ‹ dk jrefrmEkid if rH S jynfEiS 'f %fcwfcH &onf? olonf vef'efwiG f “jrefrmEkid if H awmifwef;om;rsm;. rdwaf qGrsm;tzGŒJ ” tpnf;ta0;rsm;ukd oGm;a&mufwufc_hJ y;D 1949 ckEpS w f iG f autif,o l ‹dk oGm;a&muf yl;aygif;cJo h nf? 1951 ckEpS t f xd olwE‹dk iS t hf wlaexkid cf _hJ y;D tzsm;a&m*gjzifh uG,v f eG f cJhonf? ol‹ocsKõif;tkwf*lay:wGif “Tae&mwGif u&ifvlrsKd;rsm;ukd cspfcifjrwf Ekd;olwOD; vJavsmif;ae onf” [laom pmwrf;a&;xkd;xm;onf? 9 arm&pf/ aumvpf (Maurice Collis) “jrefrmjynfY aemufq;Hk ESihf yxrqk;H ” (1941=1948) azbmESihf azbmvDrw d uf/ vef'ef) pmrsufEmS 25§26? 10 rl&if; jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmudk 1914 ckESpfwGif jrefrmEdkifiHY pwif wnfaxmifcJh_yD; 1969 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (31) &ufae‹wGif ppftkyfpku jynfolydkif odrf;cJhonf? 1998 ckESpf/ ZGefv (15) &ufrSpI befaumufwGif acwfòydif*sme,f pmyHEk ydS w f u kd rf S jyefvnf±u kd Ef ydS x f w k af 0cJo h nf? 11 tdv k AD m *d;k vfprpf (Oliver Goldsmith) . ‘oabmaumif;þa,mufsm;wOD;’ 12 bDbDpD (2) wDAGD (txufygtpDtpOf)/ wifqufol = atmifqef;udk H kd zrf;qD;jcif;rðyEkid rf D 0ef}uD;csKyf uvD;rif/h tufwvD (Clement Altee) u bk&ifcu jyefac:vdkufonf? vlawGŒar;jref;cH&ol tJ&pf/ bufwmpbD= “qma':refprpf uawmh aemifwr&ao;bJ aemufrS rdwfaqGwOD;pD pma&;vdkufwmu= usKyfwdk‹ u atmifqef;&JŒ ola‹ vmufta&;rygwJh vkyaf zmfuikd b f ufawGukd qGóJ ud;cs_y;D om;yJ? 'ga-umihf olu b,fta-umif;a-umihf *sL&Da&Sr› mS tcGit fh vrf; r,lEidk o f vJqw kd m usKyfem;rvnfEkdifbl;? olu ‹ dk aopm;aoap pD&ifcsufcs&if usKyfwdku ‹ oem;u±k %may;zd‹k aocsmrSmaygh? 'gayr,fh tJ'v D kd tajctaeay:rSom ta&;,lEidk rf mS ”? 13 [l;wifum (Hugh Tinker) t,f'w D m “jrefrmEkid if H vGwv f yfa&;¯ud;yrf;r+” vef'ef/ bk&ifr}uD;. pma&;ud&, d m ±k;H cef;/ 1983=84 twGJ (1) pmrsufEmS 543/ tcsuf 563? 14 bDbpD D (2) wDAGD (txufygtpDtpOf)/ atmifqef;pk-unf= “armihb f ufwef (Mountbatten) u em;vnfr+&Sdwmu usrzcif[m jrefrmjynfrSm todtrSwf ðy&r,fh tiftm;jzpfa-umif;eJ‹ olu vufccH w hJ muvJ trSet f wdik ;f r[mrdwaf wGukd Armhwyfrawmfu xl;uJpGm tultnDay;Ekdifa-umif;udk ,Hk-unfw,fqdkwm usr xifygw,f”? 15 'k=Adkvfr;ª }uD;vS rif;/ “jrefrmEkdifiH. EkdifiHa&;tajctaeESifh a'otwGif;

ol‹tcef;u¾” (umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;Xme/ 21 }udrfajrmufxkwfa0jcif;/ 1999) pmrsufEmS 36? “æAdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;pdwful;cJhonfrSm _Adwdo#wkd‹xHrS vGwfvyfa&;&_yD; aemuf jrefrmEkid if . H vkt d yfcsufrsm;ESit hf nD zGŒJ pnf;tkycf sKyfyHk tajccHOya' (1947 ckEpS )f ukd jyefvnfjyifqif&efjzpfonf? uHta-umif;raumif;vSpmG TonfrmS jzpf ay:rvmcJah wmhacs? tb,fa-umifq h adk omf r-umao;cifuyif _Adwo d #owif;Xme rsm;okd‹ xkwfjyefay;cJhaom tvGeftxl;ta&;}uD;aom taxmuftxm;rsm;t& _Adwdeftajcpkduf “jrefrmEkdifiH awmifwef;om;rsm;. rdwfaqGrsm;” tzGJŒu vGwfvyfa&;r&rD AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh 0ef}uD;tzGJŒukd vkyf}uHowfjzwfr+ESifh 1947=48 ckEpS f ywf0ef;usifrsm;wGif u&ifaomif;usef;r+rsm; jzpfymG ;atmif pDr! H e¸ f -um;cJjh cif;jzpf_yD; ‚if;wko ‹d nf _Adwed . f ukv d edk eD ,fcsJŒ “uGeq f maA;wpf” tpk;d &ESihf wdusaom tquft oG,frsm;&SdaecJhonf? 16 a':atmifqef;pk-unf. ‘atmifqef;’ (uGif;pfvef;wuUodkvf=-opa-w vs/ 1984) pmrsufESm=(33) ‘olyGifhyGifhvif;vif;0efcHcJhouJhodk‹ olonf rrSm;r,Gif; Edkifaomol r[kwfyg? odk‹aomf ol.pdwfrSm tpOft_rJ us,fjyef‹vsuf&Sdaom pdwjf zpfum tpOfrjywf zGŒH òzd;wd;k wufEidk af om pGr;f tm;&Sad eonf? 17 w&m;Oya' pdk;rdk;r+ESifh vHkòcHr+wdk‹udk tpm;xdk;Edkif&efESifh 'Drdkua&pD a&G;aumufyGJrsm; usif;yEdkifa&;twGuf óudwifjyifqifr+rsm; ðyvkyfEdkif&ef vkyfydkif cGifhtm%m tyfESif;vsuf tpdk;&w&yfudk OD;aqmifEdkif&eftwGuf 1958 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm vwGif jrefrmEdkifiHawmf jynfolv ‹ $wfawmfu AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;udk emrnfpm&if;wif tqdðk ycJo h nf? ae0if;tm; uefo ‹ wfxm;aom wm0efoufwrf; rSm 1958 ckEpS /f Ek0d ifbmvrS 1960 ckEpS /f azazmf0g&Dvtxdjzpfonf? 18 npmpm;yGw J ckY vl0ifpm;r+ta-umif; ajym-um;r+wckudk wqifch H jyefvnf -um;od&_yD; ,if;rSm &$ifjrL;zG,f[k xif&aomfvnf; ta&;}uD;onfh ykHjyifwyk'f jzpfonft h wGuf xyfcgxyfcgajymjcif;jzifh ykrd adk umif;rGev f mygvdrrhf nf? ol.tkypf ;dk r+ apmapmykdif;wGif tm%m&Sifae0if;onf xkdif;rif;orD;wyg;ukd EkdifiHawmfnpm pm;yGJw&yfjzifh wnfcif;{nfhcHonf? rif;orD;u olronf 1767 ckESpfu jrefrmwkd‹ t,k', < -rdŒawmfudk odr;f yku d pf Ofu olt ‹ ukEd iS t hf wl uGyrf sufjcif; cHc-hJ u&aom rif; orD; jyefvnf0ifpm;cJjh cif;jzpfonf[k ae0if;ukd ajymjyonf? tu,fI aemufb0 rsm;wGif tcsed -f um&Snpf mG uGu J mG cJ&h aom olt ‹ ukEd iS hf jyefvnf qkq H nf;&ef ar#mv f ifch hJ _yD; olwE‹dk pS Of ;D yl;aygif;I jrefrmEkid if u H dk zsuq f ;D vufpm;acs &ef olrraorD used q f cdk hJ

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a-u;rkOH ;D aomif;/ xif&mS ;ausm-f um;aom owif;pmq&mESihf pma&;q&m? tar&duefEidk if H zavmf&'D ge,fwiG f ,cktcg aexkid v f su&f _dS y;D ±+armif (c) ae0if;. b0jzpfpOfrsm;ukd taumif;qk;H ykaH zmf Ekid o f jl zpfonf? olonf pmtkyw f apmifwzGŒJ jzpf atmif atmufygukd,fa&;twˆKy`wWdrsm;ukd taumif;tqkd; r¹cGif;rcsefa&;om;cJh onf? (1) “Adv k af e0if; ppf"m;jyvrf;pOf”/ 1944 ckEpS f Zlvidk v f wGif a&'D,b dk m;rm;/ rme,fyavmu ykEH ydS x f w k af 0onf? (2) “owif;pmq&mwOD;/ Adv k cf sKyf}uD;wOD;ESihf jrefrmjynf&dS ppfwyfwwyf”/ 1995 ckEpS w f iG f 0+u d v f ;dk wyfp/f befaumufEiS hf csiferD mS ykEH ydS x f w k af 0cJo h nf? (3) “Adv k af e0if;Zmwfvrf;±+yo f r#” (Akv d af e0if;. ±+yaf xG;ayGvD Zmwfvrf; tjynft h pk)H 2001 ckEpS w f iG f uk, d w f idk x f w k af 0 _yD; “OD;ae0if;. jymwqky”f / 2004 ckEpS w f iG f uk, d w f idk x f w k af 0? trSwf (2) rSvI JG uset f m;vk;H jrefrmbmomjzifjh zpfonf? Ekid if &H yf jcm;a&muf jrefrmpma&;q&mrsm;onf ae0if;ESiyhf wfoufI aqmif;yg;rsm; ykHrSefa&;avh&Sd-u&m tcsKd‹rSm ol.oDva-umifh tusifhysufr+rsm;tajctae/ bufvu dk rf r+ sm;ESihf tawG;tac:vGaJ csmaf er+rsm;tay: txl;«yxm;-uonf? tvm;

wl t"dutcsufrsm;tay: tajccHaom u|efawmfwkd. ‹ tufaq;rsm;ESifh tawG; tjrifrsm;onf “at;&Sm;0dcf” r*~Zif;wGif 2003 ckESpf Ekd0ifbmvwGif “b0&Sifrif; w&m;ae0if;” ESifh 1993 ckESpf ZlvkdifvwGif “ol&Jaumif;wOD;.t&dyf” tjzpf azmfjycH&_y;D befaumufrS xkwaf 0aom “acwf°ydi”f *sme,fwiG f &Spaf v;vk;H ESpyf wf vnftxdr;f trSwpf mapmiftwGuf “ae0if;.0Suv f uf” tp&So d nfh aqmif;yg;rsm; azmfjycHc&hJ onf? ,if;oka‹d om aqmif;yg;rsm;ukd u|efawmf vkyaf zmfuidk zf ufrsm;ESihf u|eaf wmfu, dk w f idk f pDtm'DbD “owif;rsm;ESihf tjrifrsm;” pmapmifwiG f a&;om;xkwf a0cJo h nf? 22 ae0if;ESifhtwl ol‹orD; cifpENm0if; (owif;rsm;wGif ol.q&m0eftjzpf azmfjy-uonf)/ olr. cifyeG ;f at;aZmf0if;ESihf ajr; ausmaf e0if;wk‹d vku d yf gcJ-h uonf? _yD;cJhaom tESpf (20) twGif; tusifhysufqkH; urBmhacgif;aqmif (10) OD;pm&if;wGif ql[m wkt d aejzifh xdyq f ;Hk tqift h jzpf Ekid if w H umjrifomxifomtzGŒJrS xkwaf 0aom urBmvk;H qkid &f m tusiyfh surf t + pD&ifcpH mu 2004 ckEpS f rwfvwGif tqifo h wfrw S cf H &onfrmS pdw0f ifpm;zG,jf zpfonf? 23 ±+armifonf ti,fwef;pma&;av;tjzpf tvkyfvkyfzuf a':wifwifukd 1930 ckEpS v f nfwiG f vufxyfc_hJ yD; om; (2) OD; xGe;f um;cJo h nf? olwu ‹dk _JG yD;aemuf Adv k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;tjzpf rpPpaf uwDawmif}uD; (c) auwDboef; (c) cifaroef;ukd 1950 ckEpS t f apmykid ;f wGif vufxyfco hJ nf? olrwGif orD;ok;H OD;yg&Sv d mcJ_h y;D ae0if;ESihf orD; (2) a,muf/ om; (1) a,muf &&Scd o hJ nf? olronf 1972 ckEpS w f iG f uG,v f eG cf hJ onf? 1970 ckEpS v f nfwiG f a':-umqef[ak c:aom &ckid t f rsK;d orD;wOD;ukd ZeD;r,m; «ycJhonf[k aumvm[vjzpfcJhonf? ukef;abmifrif;qufrS bk&ifrif;wkef;rif;. jrpfawmfol *|e±f p‹dk f b,fvmrD (June Rose Bellamy) (c) &wemewfr,fudk 1975§76 ckESpfwGif w&m;0ifvufxyfcJhjyefonf? ,if;tdrfaxmifrSmvnf; acwWr#omcH_yD; tdrw f iG ;f &efjzpfrt + wGi;f aq;vdyjf ymzefcu G jf zifh ypfaygufrj+ zifh tqk;H owfomG ;cJo h nf? rnfou l pypfaygufonfEiS yhf wfoufI owif;jyefy‹ mG ;r+twGi;f 0d0g'uGv J rJG r+ sm;&Scd hJ onf? aemufqkH;od&Sd&onfh vufxyfxdrf;jrm;r+rSm &efukefwuUokdvforkdif;XmerS okawoe uxdu a':eDejD rifEh iS jhf zpfonf? olrESiu hf _JG y;D jyefvnfvufxyfjyefonft h wGuf ,if;ukd ESpf}udrf[kwGufv#if pkpkaygif; (6) }udrf&Sdonf? 24 Tpmyk'd Ef iS yhf wfoufI u|eaf wmf t*Fvyd b f momjzifh a&;cJo h nfh pmtkyw f iG f ±+dwfpyD;,m; (William Shakespeare: 23.4.1564-23.4.1616: in ‘Julies Caesar’) a&;om;csufrsm;rS jrefrmjynf. vuf&SduH-urRmESifh oufqkdif&m pum;rsm;ukd

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a-umif; olru ajymjyjyefygonf? ae0if;u olrbuf tenf;i,f,drf;vkduf_yD; olrem;em;uyfum wk;d wk;d av;ajymygonf? “igu rift h ukyd ?J -unfah v? ig jrefrm jynfukd bmvkyfxm;ovJ? at;æ'gtpyJ&Sdao; w,f” [l.? 19 a'gufwmwifah 0 BA, MBBS (Rgn), MRACMA, MM (Psychotherapy) (Sydney), FRANZCP onf Westmead aq;±kHwGif pdwfa&m*g txl;ukq&m0ef (Staff Specialist Psychiatrist) wa,mufjzpf_yD;/ jyifyukd,fykdifaq;ukcef;wGif pdwaf 0'em cGjJ crf;pdwjf zmukx;Hk jzifh ukool q&m0ef (Psychotherapist) wa,muf jzpfonf ? ‚if;pdwfyg0ifpm;onfh bmom&yfrsm;xJwGif tºuGif;rJhtm%m&Sifpepf vufatmuf aexkid &f jcif;. tusK;d quf&v'frsm;ESihf tqkyd g&v'frsm;. om;pOf ajr;qufwidk f qk;d usK;d oufa&mufapr+rsm;/ ppfajy;'kuo Q nfrsm;ESihf n‡O;f yef;ESyd pf ufc/H "m;pmcHrsm;twGuf pdwaf 0'em ukx;Hk rsm; ponfwy‹dk g0ifonf? 20 Tae&mwGif u|eaf wmf t*Fvyd b f momjzifh a&;cJo h nfph mtkyw f iG f ',fe&D ,f f efonfh atmufyga&;om; (vf)'Dz;dk (Danicl Defoe:1661-1731) . pmayrS avsmu csufukd ukd;um;jyxm;ygonf? The best of men cannot suspend their fate: The good die early, the bad die late. 21

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

atmufygtwkdif; ukd;um;cJhonf? “There is a tide in the affairs of men, - Which taken at the flood, leads on to fortune; - Omitted all the voyage of their life - Is bound in shallows, and in miseries.” 25

t,f'w D mxHay;pm= “{&m0wDpmapmif” csif;rkid /f xkid ;f Ekid if H = 2003 ckEpS f {_yDvwGif ykHESdyfxkwfa0? pmrsufESm (6)/ acgif;pOf “&mZyv†ifokd‹trSm;” a&;ol cifatmif/ -opa-w;vs? “oif. 2003 ckEpS f Zefe0g&D=azazmf0g&Dxw k pf mapmif (twGJ 11/ trSwf 1) rsufESmzkH;wGif AdkvfcsKyfr;ª }uD;oef;a&$ukd a&S;±kd;pOfvm jrefrmbk&ifrsm;. taqmif ta,mif0wfpjHk zifh azmfjycJjh cif;rSm olt ‹ yd rf ufpw d u f ;l tjrifjzpfEidk af omfvnf; u|eaf wmf wkt ‹d wGurf mS ajcmuftyd rf ufozG,jf zpfaeonf? yef;csq D &mu bk&ifrif;wke;f rif;ukd ykaH zmfonfEiS þhf qefu ‹ sizf uf b,fbufo‹dk olu ‹ dk ,dr;f aeatmif yef;csu D rSerf eS u f efuef ykaH zmfEidk yf gonf? wHqyd t f jynfEh iS hf ppf0wfpt Hk wGi;f rSmxuf olu yk-d unfah umif;ae ygonf? 1990 ckESpf Ekd0ifbmvxkwf at;&Sm;0dcfpmapmifyg “bk&ifrif;w&m;}uD; ae0if;” ykHukd u|efawmhftm; jyefvnfowd&apygonf? ,if;aqmif;yg;wGif rukdËf o&zlaqmif;bk&ifjzpfcsiaf om ae0if;. b0&nfreS ;f csuu f dk cefr‹ eS ;f wGuq f a&;om; cJhonf? ae0if;taejzifh AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; OD;aqmifcJhaom &JabmfokH;usdyf trsK;d om;ol&aJ umif;rsm;. taiGŒtoufudk ¯uduo f nfjzpfap/ r¯uduo f nfjzpfap qifjref;xm;cJo h nf? ae0if;u Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;. txl;av;pm;cH&aom acgif; aqmifr+ukd tarGqufcHcJh&onf[k aºuG;a-umfcJhonf? okad‹ omfvnf; vkyf}uHowf jzwfr+ yl;aygif;}uHpnfr+}uD;wGif ol yg0ifywfoufaeonfrSm xifomjrifom &SdvS onf? vGeaf v_y;D aom aemifww&m; &roGm;&Smonfh ae0if;taejzifh aumufuspf ,kwrf mapumrl wpkw H &m pGaJ qmifr&+ _dS yD; ±kyo f iG t f & -unfah ysmf±a+ ysmf aysmf&adS o; onf? eef;yv†ifrS wpufrS ra&$Œol vuf&Sd ppftm%m&SifrSmrl csD;rGrf;p&mqkdI wuGufrS r&Sdacs? &ufpuf,kwfoGrf; vl&rf;um; tm%m&Sifrsm;. jycef;aqmif twGi;f ^m%fynmESihf ±ky&f nftm;jzifh teD;pyfq;Hk wlorl mS ,l*ef'grS Adv k cf sKyf bD't D rif jzpfonf? olwE‹dk pS Of ;D rSm ±kyw f rl sm;jzpf-u_y;D tqifoif&h EdS iS _hf y;D ±kyaf jymifumwGe;f rsm;u oufaojyESi_hf yD;jzpfonf? olwE‹dk pS Of ;D vk;H uk, d pf w D iG f olw. ‹dk tao;pm;av;awGEiS hf &Hvsuf&Sd_yD;jzpfonf? ,l*ef'gtm%m&Siftaejzifh xkdufwefonfhjypf'%fukd vGwf ajrmufaeapumrl w&m;Oya'ukd pD&if&ef Ekid if w H um w&m;±k;H rsm; tqifoif&h adS e av_y?D ” 26 ta0;a&mufow H refwOD;. = “°rdŒawmfjyefx;D a[mif;avmif;rif;w&m;” 357 357

acwf°ydi*f sme,f 2006 ckEpS f Zefe0g&Dv pmrsuf ESm (5)? &efuek af jrmufbuf (244) rkdiftuGm&Sd ysOf;rem;°rdŒ -uufajy;&yfokd‹ etzu °rdŒawmfajymif;a&$onfESifh ywfoufaom aqmif;yg;? oHwrefa[mif;wOD;jzpfol pma&;q&mu vuf&Sd tm%m&SiEf pS Of ;D jzpfonfh Adv k cf sKyfr;ª }uD;oef;a&$EiS hf 'k=Adv k cf sKyfr;ª }uD; armif;at;wku ‹ d dk “i±l;” ESihf “irl;” [lI trnfwyfvu dk o f nf? trSew f u,ftm;jzifh jrefrmtrsm;pkrmS cefr‹ Sef;csufukd em;vnfoabmayguf_yD;jzpfI olwkt d‹ ay: rauseyfr+ukd vGwfvyf aomurBmwGif tcGifh&wkdif; vGwfvyfpGmajymqkdvsuf&Sd-uonf? 27 atmifqef;pk-unf “a-umuf&GHŒ jcif;rS uif;vGwfa&;” yif*Gufpmtkyfwkduf t*Fvef 1991/ 'Drkdua&pD&SmykHawmf pmwrf;rsm;/ pmrsuf 177?

pmwGJ vky}f uHrE+ iS hf ±k;H wifw&m;pGq J rdk E+ iS hf ywfoufaom a-u;eef;pmtcsK‹d 1

aemufwae‹wGif &ef‹ (Rance) u yufopfavm&ifh (Pethick-Lawrence) udk ud, k yf ikd af -u;eef;eHygwf 122/ (20;15) em&DwiG f ta-umif;-um;jcif;rSm olt ‹ ae jzifh atmifqef;tm; xyfrHawGŒqHkjyD; tr+aqmiftzGJŒwGifcef‹&ef trnfrsm; wdkifyif -uygonf? pum;vufqHkjcif;rSm cifrifpGm&Sda-umif;udkyg aygif;xnfhvdkufonf? oydwaf rSmufacgif;aqmifrsm;ESiahf wGŒqI kH olwu ‹kd aemufq;kH wGif aphpyfjcif; jyefvnf zGiv hf pS &f ef oabmwl-ua-umif;udv k nf;ygonf? OD;apm.toufay:wGif }uHpnf jcif;rSm atmifqef;u uG,f&mwGif yg0ifcJhonf[k axmufjyjcif; vHk;0r&Sdyg? 2 xifjrif&onfrSm Ta-u;eef;udk bk&ifcHu vkyf}uHr+ESifhywfoufonfh owif;-um;-um;csif; tvsifpvdk ydkv ‹ dkufygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;rSm yGJcsif;_yD; aoqH;k onf? 3 *|ef'±dkif'if (John Dryden) = ‘rpPwm uGef*&dxH ay;pmrsm;’ (Epistles to Mr. Congreve). 4

&ef‹uvpfwdk0J (vf) (Listowel) udk a-u;eef;eHygwf 371/ -o*kwfv (14) 358 358


Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

359

&uf/ (15;00) em&D/ aemufxyfta-umif;-um;jcif;rSm rdk;. xGufqdkcsuftm; us,fjyefp‹ mG jzefa‹ 0jcif;r&Sd (aemufxyf=r&S)d I xdyw f ef;v#KdŒ0u S t f qihf qufvuf xm;rnfukd ar#mfvifyh gonf? 5 Tpmudk &efu ‹ jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;vufoa‹kd y;cJ&h m 0ef}uD;u pmjyef&efrvdk a-umif; rSwcf sufcsygonf? 6 arm&pf/ aumfvpf “jrefrmjynfY aemufq;Hk ESihf yxrqk;H ” (1941= 1948) azbmESihf azbmvDrw d uf/ vef'ef pmrsufEmS 22=24? “a':refprpf jrefrmjynfo‹dk a&mufvmonft h csed 0f ,f (1941/ arv) OD;apmrSm 0ef}uD;csKyfjzpfaeonf? olwEkd‹ SpfOD; awGŒqkH-uonfhtcgwGif uHaumif;axmufrI oifhoifhjrwfjrwf&Sd-uonf? a':refprpfu OD;apm. vlqkd;vlaw p±kdufukdyif cifrifEpS v f zdk , G af umif;aom Oy"d±yk f wpkw H &mwck[k xifjrifco hJ nf? 0ef}uD;csKyfu olu ‹ , dk o f l pdwt f m±kw H iG f jrefrmvlrsK;d tm; vGwaf jrmufa&; atmifjrifpmG vkyaf qmif ay;Ekid rf nfh acgif;aqmifjzpfa-umif; xifaejcif;rSm b0ifcu dk af ponf? oka‹d omfvnf; TuJo h a‹dk qmif&u G af epOfþolt ‹ w d u f yfuydk gþtjynfjh znfo h mG ;rnfuadk wmhaocsmonf? aumufuspv f rd n f maom pdwEf iS hf t-urf;zufrv + yk af omfjim;vnf; olr‹ mS ESpv f zdk , G f t&nftaoG;&Sdoljzpfonf? olonf [moajrmufI a,musfm;yDooljzpf_yD; v+dufvSJysLiSmpGm vl‹obm0ESifh jynfhpkHoljzpfonf? a':refprpfu olESifhtqif ajyEkid rf nf[k ,k-H unfonf? OD;apmbufrq S v dk #if bk&ifco H nf azmfa&Gaom trlt&m jyvsuf e*ko d bm0aumif;yk&H I bk&ifct H m; cifrif&efyif&o dS nf? 7 azmfjy_yD;pmtkyf? pmrsufESm 25=26? bk&ifcH a':refprpfu pma&;olukd ajymjycJhonfh ajymqkdr+? qm&,f*sDe,fu OD;apmukd “aeygOD;? rEœav;u tvkyw f ckcefw ‹ mrSm cifAsm;u aiGwaomif; awmif;w,fv‹dk owif;jzpfaew,f?” OD;apmu rcef‹w&ef‹ rsufESmvkyfvkduf_yD; “bk&ifcHrif;/ u|efawmfu tvkyfawG a&mif;pm;w,fv‹dk qkv d w dk mvm;” “r[kwyf gbl;/ 'Dtvkyw f cktwGuf aiGwaomif; cifAsm;awmif;w,fv‹dk u|efawmfow d myg?” “u|efawmfrvkyyf gbl;” [k OD;apmu t°yH;av;wpjzifh ajymvku d f onf? “'gqk&d if cifAsm; b,favmufawmif;aeovJ” OD;apmrsuEf mS rSm tm;&yg;&t°yH;ok‹d oufoufomom ajymif;oGm;onf? “waomif; ig;axmifyg? aemif u|efawmf rvkyfawmhygbl;?” 8 attdk'D (AOD) atat'D (AAD) &efukefòrdt › wGif;&Sd yifrvufeufwdkuf ESihf yifr cJ,rf;rD;ausmufwdkufudk qdkvdkonf? 9 jrefrmEkid if q H idk &f m _Aw d ed o f t H rwfrS trft;D 'efeif;/ tD;tufusL Ekid if jH cm;a&;

±kH;/ vef'ef? twGif;a&;pm (1169/ 12/ 48) &ufpGJ &efukef 1948 ckESpf arv (8) &uf? txufygpmukd qifqmwnf;jzwf_yD; ykHpHjzifh tufzftkd 371§69472 tjzpf 1966 ckEpS f atmufwb dk mv (7) &ufae‹wiG f jynfor‹l w S w f rf;±k;H ok‹d xkwaf y;cJo h nf? Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;vky}f uHc&H onfh tESpf (50) ajrmuftjzpf ,lauwGif xkwv f i$ hf jyocJhaom “atmifqef;ukd trSefwu,fb,folowfovJ” rSwfwrf;±kyf&Sifukd ±kduful;cJhaom bDbDpD (2)/ wDAGD'g±kdufwm/ xkwfvkyfolwkd‹. okawoetzGJŒu ‚if;pmukd xkwf,lcJhonf? oufaotaxmuftxm;topfrsm;ukd xkwfjyEkdifaom rdepf (50) -um xkwv f i$ rhf . + aemufq;Hk tykid ;f wGif ar;cGe;f jzpfaeonfh Tpmukd Zmwfa-umif;jyefol u atmufygtwkid ;f azmfjycJo h nf? “1948 ckEpS f arvtwGi;f ¯ud;ay;wJah e‹u &efuek rf mS &Sw d hJ _Adwed o f t H rwfu 0+u d af [mok‹d v#K0‹d u S af -u;eef;pmwapmif a&;cJyh gw,f? tJ'D a-u;eef;pm[m ESpaf ygif; (50) cef‹ rayguf-um;oifo h nfph mtjzpf xde;f odr;f xm;cHc&hJ ygw,f? vtenf;i,ft -umrSm EkdifiHjcm;a&;±kH;u 'DtpDtpOf&JŒ okawoerª;xH ‚if;pmtm; xkwfay;&ef qk;H jzwfcyhJ gw,f? ,if;a-u;eef;f pmu &Jt}uD;tuJ u oHtrwfudk ajymjycsut f m; xkwaf zmfxm;ygw,f? u|efawmf uk;d um;jyygr,f? “vky}f uHowfjzwfrr+ mS _Adwo d # wkd‹ yl;aygif;}uHpnfr+ &Sdw,fqkdwm u|efawmfwkd‹ wu,fhukd ,kH-unfaea-umif;? &Jt}uD;tuJu qm&,f*seD ,fa':refprpfudk oHo,&So d t l jzpf axmufjycJah -umif;? -um;twGif; v+yf&Sm;olrSm &efukef&Sd _Adwdo#aumifpDrS bif*av (Bingley) [k ac:onfh vljzpfonf[k ol ,kH-unfa-umif;?” ‚if;pmukd &efuek &f dS _Adwo d #oHtrwfrS 0+u d af [mok‹d ay;ykc‹d o hJ nfh xdyw f ef;v#Kd‹ 0Surf w S w f rf;tjzpf xde;f xm;cJo h nf? oHtrwf rpPwm Adu k mxH owif;ay;ykc‹d o hJ . l emrnfudk rl&if;pm. (ok;H ae&mwGi)f zsux f m;cJ_h y;D jzpfaomfvnf; u|eaf wmf.bcif u xkdokd‹ bGif;bGif;}uD;ajymcJhjcif;omjzpfa-umif; xkwfjyefcJhonf? (±+= yl;wGt J oHvi$ Zhf mwfa-umif;jyefo. l tcsKyfajymjycsufEiS hf pmzwforl sm; E+id ;f ,SOEf idk &f ef tqkyd g xdyw f ef;v#K0‹d u S rf w S w f rf; . yxrpmrsuEf mS ukd jyefvnfazmfjy vku d yf gonf) vef'ef&Sd _Adwdef=jrefrmtoif;u tifwmeuf0ufbfqkd'fzGihf_yD; bDbDpD taxmuftxm;±kyf&SifESifhywfoufI a0zefcsufrsm;ay;&ef urf;vS rf;onfhtcg u|eaf wmfu 1998 ckEpS f arv (24) &ufae‹wiG f tD;arvfwapmifyv ‹ dk u dk _f y;D oufqidk f

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Adv k cf sKyfatmifqef;udk b,folowfovJ ´

&m pmykd'fwykd'fukd atmufygtwkdif; ukd;um;ay;cJhygonf? “bDbpD u D tus,zf iG jhf yocJah om wckwnf;aom taxmuftxm;topfrmS r-umrDurS tjyifo‹dk xkwaf y;cJah om 1948 ckEpS f arv (8) &ufae‹ pGw J yfxm;onfh vef'ef&Sd rpPwm trftD;'efeif;xH _Adwdo#oHtrwfu ay;ykd‹aompmjzpfonf? u|eaf wmfbcifrmS xkt d csed u f tprf;cef‹ &JcsKyfjzpf_y;D aumhaw;ygwDpum;0kid ;f rSmuJo h ‹ dk oHtrwfukd pdwfaygufovkd t,kHoGif;ajymrnfh jrefrmwOD;r[kwfonfrSm aocsm vSonf? “u|efawmf. bcifukd oHtrwfu aumif;pGmodcJh_yD; “ppfrjzpfcifu OD;apm. aemufvkdufwOD;” [k pmwGif a&;om;cJhouJhokd‹ olu &nf!e¸ f;vdrfhrnf r[kwfacs? qifqmwnf;jzwfxm;onfhpmtjzpf oufqkdif&m tufzftkd &nf!e¸ f; r+wiG f u|eaf wmhb f cifemrnfudk tok;H «yxm;vdrrhf nf[k u|eaf wmf em;vnfryd gw,f? &JcsKyfvnf; “u|eaf wmfw‹dk wu,fu h dk ,kaH e_y”D [laom oD0&D ukid pf x JG m;olwOD;jzpf onf[k ajymcJrh o d l tjypf&o dS l ta&;}uD;Ekid if aH &;orm;wOD;tm; zk;H uG,&f eftwGuf xku d o hJ ‹dk «yvkycf jhJ cif;jzpfayvdrrhf nf? rnfoq ‹dk adk p/ vky}f uHowfjzwfra+ e‹&ufrsm;txd jyefvnfomG ;cJv h #if taxGaxGaom pGypf cJG sufrsm;rSm topftqef;r[kwaf cs?” rSwfcsuf? trft;D 'efeif;? Ekid if jH cm;a&;±k;H ESihf avmh'v f ;l 0pfarmifb h ufwef (r[mrdww f yf aygif;pk.aoemywd) . Ekid if aH &;t}uHay;t&m&Sd csKyf? aemifwiG f qmtufpv f m'ef eif;/ aupDtrf*sD/ tdyfcsftrf *syefEkdifiHqkdif&moHtrwf}uD;?

Ô Ô Ô Ô Ô

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Hho killed Gen Aung San  

U Aung Khin.Who killed Gen Aung San

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