Table of Contents
The Milwaukee County Zoo will be a zoo of renown with a reputation as a leader in animal management, conservation, research and education within a wholesome recreational environment enjoying the admiration of the citizens of Milwaukee County as well as all zoo guests and other zoos of the world.
Address from the County Executive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Mission Statement The Milwaukee County Zoo will inspire public understanding, support and participation in global conservation of animal species and their environment by creating a unifying bond between our visitors and the living earth and provide an environment for personal renewal and enjoyment for our guests by: • Contributing to world wide animal management, conservation and research efforts; • Fostering sound physical, psychological and social development for the animal groups in our care • Sharing our knowledge with the intent to reinforce the human-animal-earth bond; • Improving the quality of our professional development, administration and operating environment; • Striving for the financial self-sufficiency of the organization; • Continuing the public-private partnership with the Zoological Society of Milwaukee County.
Fennec fox kits
Letter from the Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Milwaukee County Zoo History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Special Exhibits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Animal Management and Health Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Administration and Finance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Public Affairs and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Operating Expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 The Milwaukee County Zoo and the Zoological Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 County Executive and Board of Supervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
There were a variety of highlights for the Zoo in 2011, from significant animal exhibits and births, to the presentation of a live animal special exhibit during the summer months. Because of these and other noteworthy events, our Zoo continues to be regarded as one of the finest in the country.
I thank the staff of the Milwaukee County Zoo for their continued dedication and hard work. It is because of your efforts the Zoo is regarded as such a fine zoological institution. Lastly, the dedication of the the Zoo and the Zoological Society to improving the future of the Zoo holds great promise. This public-private partnership has the potential to strengthen the Zoo’s projects and overall initiatives.
Chris Abele Milwaukee County Executive (April 2011)
During the summer, the Zoo displayed a live butterfly exhibit entitled Butterflies! In Living Color, sponsored by Sendik’s Food Markets. Running May 28 through September 25, the exhibit featured more than 500 native North American butterflies, free flying in a tropical greenhouse. Not only was the exhibit visually appealing, but it encouraged visitors to learn more about the importance of these insects in our natural world. The Zoo’s animal collection received recognition with the exciting arrival of three African lion cubs in July. This litter, the first born here since 1974, demonstrates our commitment to conservation efforts and raises awareness to the plight these animals now face in the wild. Early in the summer, the Zoo opened a new outdoor Bonobo Exhibit, visible to the public. This huge expanse of elevated passageways was designed to make these animals, a highly endangered species of primate, feel closer to their natural habitat in Africa. New graphics and interactive displays also were added to the existing indoor exhibit. The future of the Zoo looks promising, as new animals, through births and acquisitions, are continually added to the collection, and new projects and exhibits are slated for the future.
Butterflies! In Living Color
Letter from the Director In 2011, the Zoo was a showcase for significant animal additions, a new outdoor public addition to the Bonobo Exhibit and an intriguing live animal exhibit displayed during the summer. In June, the Zoo was proud to unveil a new outdoor Bonobo Exhibit, allowing these highly endangered great apes to enjoy lofted areas in the forest, re-creating their lives in the wild. This outdoor public area features 500 feet of elevated passageways for the animals. The outdoor exhibit was one of three major upgrades to the bonobo area, and was made possible by Milwaukee County and an anonymous grant to the Zoological Society.
In July, we welcomed three African lion cubs, born to mother Sanura, and father, Themba. The very active litter made their public debut in October, much to the delight of our visitors. The birth was significant in that it marked the first lion cubs born here since 1974. We’re grateful for the donation from BMO Harris Bank, as the title sponsor for the cub naming contest. During the summer, the Zoo displayed a live animal special exhibit–Butterflies! In Living Color, sponsored by Sendik’s Food Markets. The exhibit featured more than 500 butterflies, fluttering in a tropical greenhouse habitat, and educated patrons about these dynamic insects. We partnered with PGAV Destinations for the initial phase of a new master plan for the Zoo. This national company is considered a leader in planning and design for a large number of zoos and aquariums across the United States.
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Also in 2011, the Zoo was in the national spotlight, as our primate keepers were featured for their work with our orangutans and iPads. Part of the orangutansâ€™ ongoing enrichment at the Zoo involves interaction with the latest technologies offered by the iPad. Many national and international media covered the subject, as we were the first Zoo to initiate such a project.
We recognize a number of employees who retired during 2011, and wish them the best as they start a new chapter in their lives. With these retirements, we welcomed new faces to our Zoo family, and look toward the future with fresh insights. We once again extend a thank you to the County Executive, the County Board and the Zoological Society and their partners for their continued support. A number of our initiatives, renovations and special exhibits are possible because of their assistance. Please read on as each Division shares highlights from the year.
Charles Wikenhauser Director Polar bears; Charles Wikenhauser
The Milwaukee County Zoo Home to more than 2,500 mammals, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles, we are proud our zoological park continues to be recognized as one of the finest in the country. Our history at a glance: 1892 The Milwaukee County Zoo (MCZ) started as a miniature mammal and bird display in Milwaukeeâ€™s downtown Washington Park Mid-1890s The Zoological Society was founded, lending financial support to the Zoo; Society helps to promote MCZ by capital fundraising campaigns for building renovations and other new exhibits The mission of the Society is to support the Zoo, educate visitors on the importance of wildlife and the environment and to conserve endangered species 1902 MCZ expanded to 23 acres; now home to 800 animals 1934 MCZ became an entity of the Milwaukee County Park Commission, which helped provide resources to expand the Zoo 1958 MCZ moved to its present location on 200 acres of park land Late 1960s Completion of: the Primate Building, Monkey Island, Winter Quarters, Polar and Brown Bear Dens and the Feline, Pachyderm, Giraffe, Bird, Small Mammal, Aquarium & Reptile and Australian Buildings 1970s MCZ added the Childrenâ€™s Zoo, Train Shed and Zoo Hospital The Dall Sheep Exhibit, the Gift Shop and Zoo Pride also were established 1980s Initiated MCZ Master Plan Completion of: Wolf Woods, underwater viewing in the Polar Bear and Sea Lion Exhibits, Oceans of Fun, the Dairy Complex, Humboldt Penguins and the Peck Welcome Center
Early 1990s An extensive renovation of the Aviary and the construction of the new Apes of Africa and the renovation of the Primates of the World 1995 Renovation of the Aquarium & Reptile Center; renamed the Aquatic & Reptile Center 1998 Remodeling of the Small Mammals Building 1999 Initiated a $28 million capital improvement plan Represents a significant partnership venture between the Zoo, Milwaukee County and the Zoological Society 2002 Renovation and modernization of Lakeview Place restaurant Redesign of the Ice Cream Palace and Karibu Gift Shop Groundbreaking for the new Animal Health Center Major renovation (both indoor and outdoor quarters) to our landmark exhibit, Monkey Island; re-named Macaque Island 2003 Completion of Animal Health Center Initiated design phase of renovation to the Feline Building; animals relocated Began initial renovations to the Stackner Heritage Farm and construction of the Karen Peck Katz Conservation Education Center 2004 Completion of the Karen Peck Katz Conservation Education Center Began demolition and finalized designs for Northwestern Mutual Family Farm Continued construction of the new $7.2 million Florence Mila Borchert Big Cat Country 2005 Completion of the Florence Mila Borchert Big Cat Country Completion of the Northwestern Mutual Family Farm Completion of the redesign and renovtion of the Safari Train Station
Began initial design and renovation phase of the Giraffe Exhibit; groundbreaking occurred in summer of 2005 2006 Completion of the MillerCoors Giraffe Experience
2009 Completion of the Dohmen Family Foundation Hippo Home Completion of the planning for the Underwater Hippo Viewing Exhibit
Began initial design phase of new U.S. Bank Gathering Place; scheduled to open in 2008
Completed renovation of the Taylor Family Humboldt Penguin Exhibit
Began design of a new Flamingo Exhibit
Began upgrades for storm water management program
2007 Began construction for the new U.S. Bank Gathering Place; opening in 2008 Broke ground and began construction of the Idabel Wilmot Borchert Flamingo Exhibit and Overlook; opening in 2008 2008 Completion of the U.S. Bank Gathering Place Completion of the Idabel Wilmot Borchert Flamingo Exhibit and Overlook Began conceptual design for new Hippo Exhibit and service areas Received accreditation by the AZA’s independent Accreditation Commission; hosted the 2008 Annual Conference
Hosted the 8th Annual Great Lakes Bat Festival 2010 Began construction of outdoor Bonobo Exhibit Installed solar panels at admission gates Installed permanent exhibit, “The Language of Conservation” throughout Zoo 2011 Completion of the new outdoor Bonobo Exhibit Installed new interpretive graphics and interactive displays to the indoor Bonobo Exhibit Presented new permanent visitor activities with Sky Trail® Wisconsin Adventure Zone Added Kohl’s Wild Theater programming to offerings at Zoo’s Family Farm, made possible by donation to the Zoological Society
Sky Trail® Wisconsin Adventure Zone; Bonobo Exhibit
2011 Highlights The major highlights of 2011 included: the opening of a new permanent outdoor Bonobo Exhibit; the addition of new interpretive components to the indoor Bonobo Exhibit; the installation of three new visitor “adventures” through Sky Trail® Wisconsin Adventure Zone; and the birth of three new African lion cubs, a “first” for the Zoo since 1974. In addition, our Zoo, along with Polar Bears International, hosted the “Paw of Approval Award” presentation to one of our longtime community partners. Listed here are some of these highlights and accomplishments in greater detail: Outdoor Bonobo Exhibit In June, the Zoo was proud to unveil a new outdoor Bonobo Exhibit, thanks to an anonymous grant to the Zoological Society. This extensive configuration of elevated mesh passageways was carefully constructed within a forest of large trees and forest undergrowth. The exhibit provides a natural setting for the display of our highly endangered bonobo troop. The 500 feet of elevated passages allows the public to view the bonobos at eye level, with the visitors standing on a large observation deck at the edge of the forest. Now, bonobos can play in lofts and towers constructed high up into the trees, both in and out of the public view. This simulates how these animals would appear to us in their natural habitat in Africa. Interactive graphics and kiosks also were installed adjacent to the indoor Bonobo Exhibit, including a museum-style diorama exhibit featuring the work of Dr. Gay E. Reinartz, Zoological Conservation Coordinator. Sky Trail® Wisconsin Adventure Zone
She has spent the past 13 years studying bonobos and their habitat, helping people who share this land, in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In addition, the bonobos’ indoor exhibit was renovated with new climbing trees and “vines,” which will give the animals more climbing space. Behind-the-scenes access areas for the zookeepers and researchers also were upgraded. Sky Trail® Wisconsin Adventure Zone In August, the Zoo presented three new “adventures” to visitors in the popular forms of 500 feet of zipping line, a three level, 24-element ropes course measuring 25 feet by 50 feet and a 32-foot climbing wall. (The first two elements opened in the summer, and the climbing wall opened afterward.) The construction of this course at the Zoo offered another option for families to enjoy during their visit, in addition to the other rides, attractions and permanent animal collection. Similar attractions are becoming more popular with familyoriented venues. SkyTrail® has installed its products in amusement parks, family fun centers, cruise ships, malls, zoos and campgrounds. Some of these venues include: John Ball Zoo in Michigan, Louisville Zoo in Kentucky and Edinburgh Zoo in Scotland. The zip line ropes course and climbing wall are all connected in one structure, but the courses have different entrances. The zip line launches guests along a 250-foot, round trip excursion (500 feet total) beginning at the Humboldt Penguin Exhibit. Zip Line participants wear a seat and chest harness that attaches to the course. The adventures proved to be extremely popular with visitors as Sky Trail® set a national record at our Zoo when it opened for the busiest zip line and ropes course.
Polar Bears International President, Robert Buchanan
Polar Bears International/Paw of Approval Award In May, the Zoo embraced the cold by hosting a “Be Cool” event in cooperation with Polar Bears International (PBI), a nonprofit organization dedicated to polar bear conservation. As part of the celebration, PBI’s President, Robert Buchanan, gave a staff and public presentation on polar bears in a warming world in the Zoo’s Peck Welcome Center. He also presented the Zoo with PBI’s inaugural “Champion of Polar Bear Award” in recognition of the Zoo’s excellence in climate awareness programs and polar bear initiatives. Also during his visit, Buchanan launched PBI’s signature “Paw of Approval Award” program, which allowed our Zoo to honor a local business for extraordinary accomplishments in carbon dioxide reductions. The Zoo presented the award to We Energies, a conservation steward and proud partner of ours for many years. We Energies’ projects on behalf of the Zoo focus on the installation of alternative sources of
energy which are proven technologies and actions that show an overall reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. For Robert Buchanan’s visit, the Zoo’s Public Relations Section pitched various media outlets for interviews to raise awareness and bring about change to the global warming issue and ultimately the plight of polar bears. The two-day media tour included interviews with Milwaukee Public Radio, Wisconsin Public Radio, WTMJ Radio, and television stations FOX-6, WISN-TV/ABC and WTMJ-TV/NBC, all Milwaukee affiliates. Zoo Master Planning In 2011, the Zoo contracted with Peckham Guyton Albers & Viets, Inc. (PGAV) for the initial analysis phase of a new comprehensive master plan for the Zoo. This initial phase included analysis of the Zoo’s existing condition, market, audience and brand to establish key growth strategies. Business and operational considerations also were integrated into the development of the Zoo’s master plan through a review and analysis of our current business strategies and structures. These initial findings and observations by PGAV were then submitted to Zoo personnel for review and critique. The next phase of the master plan is slated for early 2012. Lunchtime Lectures As in years past, staff and outside guests presented a series of lectures as part of our continuing education efforts. These free “Lunchtime Lectures” offered varied topics of interest and served as professional enrichment for staff. The Milwaukee Chapter of the American Association of Zookeepers (AAZK) also coordinated and presented several of the lectures. Here are some of the topics presented during the year:
2010 Otter Species Survival Program (SSP) Workshop Bonobo Conservation in the Democratic Republic of Congo, in conjunction with the Zoological Society of Milwaukee Piping Plover Project Horticulture Practices at the Milwaukee County Zoo 2011 International Rhino Keeper Workshop American Association of Zoos & Aquariums (AZA) Animal Training Applications in Zoo and Aquarium Settings Other Highlights The Zoo continued to host temporary exhibits and special events throughout 2011. The year’s events included our summer exhibit, Butterflies! In Living Color, sponsored by Sendik’s Food Markets, and the opening of our new permanent outdoor Bonobo Exhibit, and indoor renovations to the habitat and supplemental exhibit components. The attraction and special event lineup included: MillerCoor’s Oceans of Fun Seal and Sea Lion Show, Penzeys Spices’ Carousel, PNC’s Zoomobile, a 25-minute guided motor vehicle tour, Behind the Scenes Weekend, sponsored by Tri City National Bank, Egg Day sponsored by Welch’s and Pick ’n Save and Senior Celebration sponsored by Wheaton Franciscan Health. Lunchtime Lectures
2011 Special Exhibit Butterflies! In Living Color Sponsored by Sendik’s Food Markets At the end of May, a colorful cast of Tawny Emperors, Tiger Swallowtails and Mourning Cloaks, among a large number of other species, took up residence in a tropical indoor greenhouse as we hosted Butterflies! In Living Color, sponsored by Sendik’s Food Markets. Visitors encountered more than 500 butterflies from North America and the Caribbean as they made their way through the tropical indoor habitat complete with lush foliage and winding pathways. Many of the brightly colored species were native to the Caribbean, including the islands of Grand Cayman, Jamaica and Grenada, where Zoo staff have been doing research on frogs, snakes and iguanas. Some of the species also were native to Wisconsin. Visitors learned more about this research through signage and text near the entryway to the exhibit. The centerpiece of the display featured the intriguing metamorphosis of these insects, as they transformed from tiny pupae into bright, beautiful butterflies! Guests saw firsthand how these creatures begin as one kind of animal and turn into another. A special Butterfly Exhibit Guide allowed visitors to identify the different species within the exhibit, and added to the educational components of the display. The importance of preserving butterfly habitats that are threatened was a central message of the exhibition as well. Butterflies! In Living Color was displayed from May 28 through September 25 in the Zoo’s Otto Borchert Family Special Exhibits Building, and was $2 per person after regular admission.
Butterflies! In Living Color
2011 Animal Management and Health Division Overview The year 2011 included changes and additions to our existing animal collection, the continuation and expansion of our conservation and research initiatives and major renovations and upgrades of animal facilities.
Animal Division Collections Our Zoo is an accredited member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA), the premiere association of zoological institutions in North America with unequaled standards for animal care and management. Many of the transfers and the breeding of animals described below are in accordance with AZA programs including Species Survival Plans® (SSPs) and Taxon Advisory Groups (TAGs). The Animal Division Collections serve to enhance visitors’ knowledge and appreciation of animals, and to contribute to animal species conservation. Our front-line animal care staff devotes more than 100,000 hours each year toward the care of our animals. On December 31, 2011, the Milwaukee County Zoo animal collection on Zoo grounds included 2,583 animals representing 336 species, as listed below:
On Zoo Grounds
The animal collection owned by our Zoo and out on loan to other zoological institutions included 61 animals representing 30 species, as listed below:
Out on Loan
With such a large and diverse animal collection, there are a significant number of births, transfers and deaths every year. In general, due to the level of husbandry and veterinary care, the life expectancy of animals at our Zoo may greatly exceed the life expectancy of animals in the wild. These life expectancies vary dramatically with the species–small rodents and the giant Pacific octopus are old in two years, while swans can live for decades. Female lions are ancient when 20 years of age, but our giant Amazon river turtle may be 100 years old. Animals are subject to the same types of health conditions as humans, which may result in earlier deaths. The animal staff devotes much thought and time toward enriching the lives of the Zoo animals. They provide mental and physical stimulation to the animals by varying their social structure, mixing compatible species together, varying their habitats, offering interesting scents, providing manipulation devices, engaging them in positive reinforcement training, offering food treats for foraging opportunities and supplying toys and problem-solving reward devices.
Aquatic and Reptile Center Long-term conservation programs for rock iguana, Butler’s garter snake, Lake Victoria cichlid and Wisconsin’s endangered starhead topminnow and ornate box turtle continued this year. There were multiple changes in the animal collection this year, with lizards, snakes, turtles, fish and invertebrates coming in and out of the Center. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia, a disease of freshwater fish, has arrived in Wisconsin. In order to prevent its transmission to our fishes in our exhibit, extraordinary procedures must be followed to acquire and quarantine fishes destined for the Lake Wisconsin Exhibit. This exhibit is one of our most popular, as it houses trophy-sized game fishes that stir the imaginations of sport fishermen.
Aviary The Aviary acquired seven new species in 2011, including whitecrested laughing thrush, hooded pitta, pale-mandibled aracari, blue ground dove, scarlet ibis, Mandarin duck and the common moorhen. Grey winged trumpeters returned to the collection, hopefully for future breeding. We also continued to participate in AZA breeding programs with offspring from our white-cheeked bulbuls, Gentoo penguins, Abdim’s storks, Waldrapp ibis and blacksmith lapwings. Offspring that left the
Zoo for new homes in the AZA community included speckled mousebirds, Waldrapp ibis, Micronesian kingfishers, pheasant pigeon and red-billed hornbills. The Aviary continued to support in situ conservation efforts again in 2011 by sending a zookeeper to Michigan to aid in the Great Lakes Piping Plover Recovery Program. The Zoo has participated in this program since 1996.
Large Mammals The Large Mammal Sections of the Zoo include: Big Cat Country, North America/Australia, Pachyderms/Giraffe, Africa/South America Hoofstock and Bactrian Camel. In all of these areas, staff continues to manage an extensive animal collection with a progressive training program using positive reinforcement. Training the animals to cooperate willingly for health exams, sample collections and husbandry procedures allow for an enriching and stress-free environment. Samples collected under these conditions are used to determine normal biological parameters in exotic species, and also to monitor the overall health and reproductive status of our animals.
North America/Australia New acquisitions in North America in 2011 included the arrival of two new female elk, three male black-tailed prairie dogs and a male polar bear, Wilhelm. Wilhelm, or “Willie,” is staying with us for two years while his exhibit is being renovated at the North Carolina Zoo. He and our female bear Snow Lilly are spending time together on public exhibit. In Australia, we had three new red kangaroo joeys born, all of which were out of the pouch by year’s end. We also had a Matschie’s tree kangaroo joey born late in the year; and scheduled to make an appearance in spring 2012.
Dispositions included our older tree kangaroo joey, which went to the San Diego Zoo according to Species Survival Plan breeding recommendations. Three young red kangaroos also moved, two to the St. Louis Zoo and one to Rolling Hills Wildlife Adventure in Salina, Kansas.
Unfortunately, we did have animal losses during the year as well. Trotsie, our oldest mule deer at almost 17 years old, was humanely euthanized due to age-related health complications; the sandhill crane that shared the Elk Exhibit and one of the female elk that arrived in 2010 died of natural causes; and we lost our two oldest red kangaroos, female Meninde and our adult breeding male, Banjo.
Big Cat Country The big news in Big Cats this year was the birth of three African lion cubs in July. These cubs are the first offspring for eight-year-old parents, sire, Themba, and dam, Sanura. More than 100 lion cubs have been born at our Zoo in its 129-year history, but this is the first litter at the Zoo since 1974. Sanura has proven to be an excellent mother, and Themba was reunited with the family when the cubs were about three months old. An online naming contest for two of the cubs was sponsored by BMO Harris Bank. The winning name for the female was Njeri, meaning “warrior’s daughter,” and one of the males was named Kiume, which means “strong.” The second male cub is named Hubert after BMO Harris Bank’s lion mascot. Our jaguar pair, Pat and Stella, continued to gain breeding experience this year and will hopefully be the next successful parents in Big Cat Country next year. Sanura and cub
Boris, our 18-year old snow leopard, was humanely euthanized. At the time of his death, he was the second oldest snow leopard in the AZA population, a testament to the efforts of animal keeper and veterinary staff toward caring for the animals here at the Zoo. Our only other disposition in the area involved sending Grungie, the spotted hyena, back to his birthplace at the Buffalo Zoo to breed with its new group of unrelated females.
Pachyderms/Giraffe The newest additions to the Pachyderm area are two young female bongo from the Jacksonville Zoo. These antelope completed quarantine late in the year and will make their exhibit debut in spring 2012. Our resident bongo, Meru, at 21 years old, is the oldest bongo on record for the Milwaukee County Zoo. Our black rhinos, Brewster and Mimi, continued to breed this year, but endocrinology results do not indicate Mimi is pregnant. On the research front, staff started collecting data for a research project titled Using Science to Understand Zoo Elephant Welfare. This is a comprehensive, nationwide study to determine the environmental and husbandry factors that are most important to elephant welfare, and is sponsored by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services. We also continue to perform in-house endocrinology research on the effectiveness of contraceptives in our two female hippos. The second annual Elephant Awareness Day was a great success, providing visitors with activities and information about elephants, and also raising funds for wild elephant conservation.
African & South American Hoofstock/Camels
Mid-summer started positively as a female alpaca, Marcella, was born the first week of July and had a uniform brown coat just like her mother, Eleanor. Keepers kept a close watch on her nursing behavior and weight gain for the first couple of weeks, and once it was determined she was doing well, she was successfully released back into the herd. Marcella’s older brother, Enrique, departed the Zoo for a new home just days before she was born.
Also in the summer, Kai Li, a female red panda, arrived here from Calgary and proved to be a lively addition to the Panda Exhibit. Unfortunately, her condition started to deteriorate after a few months and she passed away in September. We are still waiting for test results to determine the cause of her decline. Another addition to the area was a male ground hornbill, Niles, who eventually will be paired with the resident female, Hornrietta, in the Savannah Exhibit. The only other disposition was the loss of our oldest impala, Cinnamon, due to age-related health issues. Training projects continued–and new ones were initiated–with a number of animals in the area including alpacas, camels, red panda and Baird’s tapirs. Research work with our female tapir Eve is ongoing. Staff continues to take blood pressure readings to provide base-line information on tapirs, as well as to monitor Eve’s health.
Apes of Africa and Primates of the World In January, amid heavy snows, the installation of the new bonobo outdoor chute system began in earnest. Wanting to preserve our wonderful wooded area, we planned and developed a system of chutes, approximately 500 feet in total length, winding through the trees. Despite the additional precautions that had to be taken to protect the woods, construction progressed at a steady rate. Finally, toward the end of May, the bonobos were given access to their new area. Despite some initial apprehension, the troop rapidly explored and accepted their new enclosure. Incorporating two towers, which rise to nearly 30 feet above the ground, the new exhibit allows the bonobos to run, climb, exercise and view their surroundings. They also can watch or chase our train as it passes nearby. Most importantly, it allows our guests to see bonobos at various levels in the forest. In conjunction with the new outdoor exhibit, new interactive graphics were installed near the indoor exhibit. These graphics inform our visitors of the latest news regarding bonobos
both in the wilds of the Democratic Republic of Congo and here at our Zoo. Both the outdoor exhibit and the new graphics were made possible by the generosity of an anonymous donor, to whom we are extremely grateful. During 2011, we had two significant increases in our Apes of Africa population. The first was in June with the arrival of an 11-year-old female gorilla named Naku, who is the granddaughter of Linda gorilla. Linda passed away in 2010. Our population of bonobos also increased by one, as we received Elikia bonobo, an 11-year-old female, from the Fort Worth Zoo and on loan to us from the San Diego Zoo. Primates of the World also had a birth of a female Goeldi’s monkey. These small monkeys are listed as vulnerable in the wild and there are only about 400 of them in zoos worldwide. We have two successful breeding groups, one in Primates of the World and the other in the Small Mammal Building. With gains come losses, and we were saddened to lose one of our female macaques on Macaque Island. Her name was Kate, and she was 22 years old. Her passing reduces our macaque population to 11, four males and seven females. Another loss, but on a happier note, was the transfer of our five year old siamang, Lucu. He went to the Dickerson Park Zoo in Springfield, Missouri to be paired with a female for breeding. Also during the year, Primates of the World went digital as our apes started to use and enjoy iPads. We were fortunate to have four iPads donated to us from several individuals, and we’re grateful for their generosity. The orangutans have shown the most interest, and look forward to their iPad sessions, whether it is finger painting or watching video or pictures of themselves and other species. Media outlets from around the world have called and requested more information, along with interviews. The purpose of the iPads, like all enrichment tools, is to enhance the quality of the animals’ lives. Naku Photo by Richard Brodzeller
Our animal care staff members have spent years diligently working with the great apes (bonobos, gorillas and orangutans) at our Zoo using positive reinforcement training techniques. As a result, we’ve become a premier facility for the study of the physiology and behavior of these endangered animals. The apes willingly participate in cognitive behavioral studies, ultrasound studies of the heart and fetal development and medical care procedures. These procedures and studies occur with a safety mesh barrier between the staff and the apes. The apes’ participation is completely voluntary and without restraint. They readily participate, and they can end the training and behavioral study sessions or examinations at any time.
Small Mammals The Small Mammal Building saw some significant changes in its collection in 2011. In February, our fennec fox pair had a litter of kits, the first for both parents. Unfortunately, only one of three kits survived and he had to be hand-reared due to physical abnormalities. Our cotton-top tamarin with one of the twins.
In July, our cotton-top tamarin pair had a set of twins. This small monkey is listed as critically endangered in the wild. Also, just like the pair in Primates of the World, the Goeldi’s monkey pair here had a female offspring in August. Our vampire bat collection grew this year due to seven births in the colony. For the first time in more than 20 years, we have pottos in our collection. The male arrived in January and the female arrived in April. We are currently only one of four zoos in North America to hold this species. The pairing was successful, and in December we had our first ever birth of a potto. The mother did not accept the infant, so he is being hand-reared by Zoo animal care staff. We hope to reintroduce the young potto with his mother. This is a very notable birth in that there are only about 15 pottos in captivity worldwide. Other arrivals included a female three-banded armadillo in January and a female black-footed cat, Josie, in October. The armadillo is here for breeding purposes and the black-footed cat, which is a solitary species in the wild, is here for exhibit and educational purposes. Josie replaces our former black-footed cat, Kalahari, who died due to kidney and heart disease. Finally, our young male fennec fox born in February was sent to the St. Louis Zoo for future breeding with a female. Having been hand-reared, he endeared himself and was a favorite with many of the staff. He will be missed, but it is reassuring that he will receive very good care in his new home.
Northwestern Mutual Family Farm The year 2011 brought us the return of the World Bird Sanctuary’s Bird of Prey show, in addition to a new show in the area, the Kohl’s Wild Theater. In between these engaging and educational presentations, we continue to offer “interactive” opportunities for our guests using our domestic animals that call the Family Farm their home. There’s always something happening “down on the Farm.” During the year, four calves were born: in April, our brown Swiss, Molly, gave birth to a bull calf; in June, Fiona, our red and white Holstein, gave birth to heifer
Munchkin Dairy Farm, donated by Northwestern Mutual Foundation
Ellie; in October, Katie, our Ayrshire, gave birth to heifer Pearl; and in November, our black and white Holstein gave birth to a bull calf. We don’t keep our bull calves at the Farm, as we run a dairy operation, so they live with local farmers when they are old enough to leave the Zoo. We returned the cow and elephant climbing statues to the public area, as they are big hits with the guests. They are now placed where they’re safely enjoyed by everyone. Family Farm upgrades during the year included: a new Munchkin Farm, donated by Northwestern Mutual Foundation, designed for preschoolers, installed in our Octagon Barn; and replacement fencing for the beef cattle, horses and pigs, giving the animals more space to roam while sprucing up the Farm’s appearance. Planning also began for additional changes slated to occur in 2012.
Animal Health Programs The veterinary staff at the Animal Health Center is responsible for the preventive animal health and nutrition programs, and the medical care of the entire collection. The staff includes two full-time staff veterinarians, three veterinary technicians, a hospital supervisor and a medical records secretary. Some of the procedures performed in 2011 included: 407 anesthetic procedures, 502 blood samples collected for a variety of analyses, 1,198 parasite exams run on 610 samples, 2,063 written prescriptions, 266 radiographic procedures including 12 CT scans on various animals, two MRI examinations, and 3,187 medical record entries for 597 individual animals representing 207 species. During 2011, an average of 11 animals per night were housed at the hospital throughout the year, for a total of 3,842 patient-days. Many of these were new animals kept in quarantine before releasing them
to the main zoological collection, including two rhea (a large flightless bird species that has not been in the Zoo collection for nearly a decade) and two young bongo. Other hospital residents were being treated for a variety of illnesses. One memorable clinical case treated in 2011 was Damara the cheetah. Damara spent approximately five months at the hospital for chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and side effects associated with necessary medications. After we successfully treated the side effects, and obtained good control of the IBD, he was returned to Big Cat Country and was back on exhibit.
The Animal Health Center also is a renowned teaching hospital for zoo veterinary medicine. Both the Zoo pathology fellow program and the clinical medicine residency continued in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine. The clinical residency program is a three-year program that provides specialty training in zoo and exotic animal medicine. We currently have two residents, one just completing his third year, and the other in her first year. The clinical residents alternate their time at the Zoo, each spending approximately four months during the year at the Zoo. The pathology program offers specialized training to pathologists interested specifically in zoo and exotic animal pathology, and provides
A large number of veterinary procedures took place in 201 1.
us with information crucial to managing our collection. Our fifth pathology fellow (since the programâ€™s inception in 1997) began in August 2010, and joined our team after having finished a two-year residency in general pathology at the University of Connecticut. The previous resident successfully completed her residency and went on to Washington State University as a Ph.D. candidate. In addition to the three post-graduate veterinary programs, the veterinary staff also conducts a zoo-animal medicine preceptor program for veterinary students. The students spend between four and eight weeks at the Zoo. Our staff veterinarians continued to perform their duties as veterinary advisors to the Humboldt penguin, bonobo, and ring-tailed lemur Species Survival Plans and as adjunct instructors at the UW-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine.
The ARKS information includes primary data such as common and taxonomic name, parents (whether at our Zoo or at another facility), date and place of birth, gender and the circumstances of acquisition such as birth, loan, purchase, or donation. Similar facts are recorded when the animal leaves the Zoo, such as the name of the recipient zoo, the date of transfer and terms of the contract or the circumstances of death. Identifying characteristics or marks, all background information, measurements, behavior, breeding management, enclosure information, behavioral enrichment, training, diet/feeding, development and medical notes and procedures all are data recorded in the animal’s record. Animal medical information also is vital to the care of the animal collection. The Medical Animal Records Keeping System, known as MedARKS, is a database that utilizes information stored in ARKS, creating a detailed medical record for each animal containing clinical notes, prescriptions, treatments, cryopreservation records and necropsy details.
Animal Records Since the Milwaukee County Zoo opened in 1892, records have been kept for the almost 20,000 individual animals that have been managed in the Zoo’s collection. Today, AZA-accredited zoos keep very detailed up-to-date records for each animal, telling its life story from birth to death. In addition, our Zoo archives contain ephemeral material including animal inventories, old log books, Zoo annual reports, published articles, prints, slides, 16mm films and general correspondence. We also maintain unique documents and artifacts from 19th and 20th century zoological institutions from six continents. All of this stored information is available to support research. We maintain up-to-date records on every animal that arrives at the Zoo. Individual animals are each assigned a unique accession number. The animal care staff uses this number to track an individual animal’s records so that significant events or changes in its care can be documented. All of the information that the animal care staff observes is reported daily to the registrar, who records the information electronically in a database called the Animal Records Keeping System (ARKS).
About once a month, the information in the ARKS database is sent to ISIS (International Species Information System), which links the animals’ records as they move between institutions throughout the worldwide zoological community. The merging of these data from each zoo enables ISIS members to share information for management of genetic and demographic programs (such as studbooks or cooperative Species Survival Plans) and their own animal collections. The ISIS central database, located in Minnesota, contains information on 2.3 million animals–almost 15,000 taxa/10,000 species–held in more than 840 institutions in 76 countries, as well as some animals in the wild that are participants in release and relocation projects.
Regulatory Agencies The Milwaukee County Zoo partners with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, the Milwaukee Area Domestic Animal Control and other agencies. We provide these agencies with expertise and assistance toward the conservation and protection of animals in the wild and in captivity.
International treaties and national and state laws regarding animal conservation, management, and health and safety result in regulations and permit requirements. Examples of permits received by the Zoo in 2011 include:
The Zoo Library maintains the largest collection of zoo ephemera in the United States. Ephemeral materials are obtained from zoos and aquariums around the world. The Library also has a number of animal-themed art works, including prints, sculptures, and paintings.
International: Convention on Trade in Endangered Species import permit
The Archive preserves materials that are crucial to the 120-year history of the Milwaukee County Zoo. This collection includes photos, slides, DVDs, VHS cassettes, 16mm films, historic postcards, veterinary records, and Milwaukee County Zoo historical records on paper and microfiche. These materials are housed in a climate-controlled environment for preservation purposes.
National: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Captive Bred Wildlife permit Migratory Bird Special Purpose permit Depredation permit Native Endangered Species Recovery permit U.S. Department of Agriculture Exhibitor Permit Plant Pests, Noxious Weed, Soil Movement permit U.S. Department of Interior Marine Mammal Protection Act permit State of Wisconsin DNR Depredation permit DATCP Johneâ€™s Disease-Free Herd classification DATCP Chronic Wasting Disease-Free Herd classification
Library and Archive The Milwaukee County Zoo Library and Archive, located in the Administration Annex in the Northwestern Mutual Family Farm, is a research library that provides information resources to staff of the Milwaukee County Zoo, the Zoological Society of Milwaukee, Zoo Pride volunteers and the public. The Milwaukee County Zoo Library collection includes books and academic/science periodicals in the following subject areas: zoological science; animal husbandry; management of animals in captivity; animal behavior; animal nutrition; veterinary medicine; wildlife conservation; birds; fishes; invertebrates; mammals; reptiles and amphibians; aquarium management; aquatic life; horticulture; zoological gardens; history of zoological science; zoo administration; and zoo, aquarium and museum exhibits.
The staff of the Library includes one part-time paid professional Librarian who provides reference services, assists in research, maintains the catalog and manages both the Library and Archives collections. The Librarian also works for the Zoological Society as the Information Specialist, managing the Societyâ€™s photo database and researching information for exhibit signage and publications. In addition, 10 Zoo Pride volunteers assist with Library and Archive projects and staff this area. The Milwaukee County Zoo Library
Conservation and Research Programs In 2011, the Zoo managed an ambitious and diverse conservation and research program at local, regional, national and international levels. The Senior Animal Staff, including specialty Curators, staff Veterinarians and the Deputy Zoo Director, develop, implement and manage these programs. Front-line animal care staff actively participates in many of these programs. Collaborative efforts with other conservation-oriented institutions and agencies are essential to the effectiveness of these efforts. In addition to the commitment of Zoo resources and the resources of collaborating institutions, significant funding came from Zoo trust funds and the Zoological Society of Milwaukee. Public and private grants also contributed to the support.
Conservation and Research Program Collaborative Support The Zoo provides funding and/or staff support to selected conservation initiatives and research projects. Highlights for support in 2011 include: IUCN Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (global) Zoological Information Management System Development (global) Turtle Survival Program (global) Polar Bears International (pan-Arctic) International Elephant Foundation (Africa and Asia) International Rhino Foundation (Africa and Asia) Phoenix Fund Amur Tiger Project (Russia) International Snow Leopard Trust (Nepal) Tree Kangaroo Conservation Program (Papua New Guinea) Orangutan Outreach (Sumatra) Thailand Hornbill Project (Thailand) GRASP–Gorilla Conservation Project (Africa) Fennec Fox Conservation Project (North Africa) Bonobo and Congo Biodiversity Initiative (Democratic Republic of Congo) Lola Ya Bonobo–bonobo sanctuary (Democratic Republic of Congo) Tarangire Elephant Project (Tanzania) Kibale Community Firewood Project (Uganda) Berggorilla and Regenwald Direkthilfe Gorilla Project (Rwanda)
Adopt an Ostrich Program/Sahara Conservation Fund (Niger) Madagascar Fauna Group (Madagascar) Humboldt Penguin Artificial Burrow Project (Chile) Humboldt Penguin Education Program (Chile) Humboldt Penguin Guano Harvest Monitoring (Peru) Grenada Frog Study (Grenada) Grenada Bank Treeboa Study (Grenada) Grenada Reef Monitoring (Grenada) Rock Iguana Conservation (Jamaica) Rock Iguana Conservation (Grand Cayman) Whooping Crane Recovery Project (U.S.A.) Great Ape Cardiopathology Research (national) AZA Elephant Welfare Project (national) Piping Plover Recovery Project (Great Lakes) Ornate Box Turtle Headstart Program (Wisconsin) Butler’s Garter Snake Ecology (Wisconsin) Migratory and Resident Avifauna Study (Zoo) Hippopotamus Reproductive Hormone Study (Zoo) Starhead Minnow Spawning Research (Zoo) Migratory and Resident Avifauna Study (Zoo) Elephant Reproductive Hormone Study (Zoo) Ape Cognition Study (Zoo) Great Ape Cardiovascular Health Study (Zoo) Great Ape Ultrasound Studies (Zoo) Bonobo Semen Freezing Project (Zoo) Bonobo Cardiac Database (Zoo)
The Zoo also provided funding for many collaborative conservation and research initiatives including: Avian Scientific Advisory Group Penguin Taxon Advisory Group Great Apes Taxon Advisory Group International Species Inventory System Puerto Rican Crested Toad Species Survival Plan AZA Wildlife Contraception Center Wisconsin Bureau of Endangered Species Herp Fund
Species Survival Plans Our Zoo cooperates with all major zoos and aquariums in North America to enhance the survival of endangered species in our collections and in the wild. This is done through Species Survival Plans® of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Groups of zoo scientists and collaborating experts develop breeding plans to help protect the genetic variations of each of these species. Collaborative programs also are developed with range countries to assist in conservation of these animals and their habitats in the wild. The Zoo’s scientific staff also are members of specialist groups devoted to the conservation and management of groups of species. These are called Taxon Advisory Groups (TAGs). The Milwaukee County Zoo participates in all Species Survival Plans and Taxon Advisory Groups that exist for the species in our collection, including: Amphibian TAG Aquatic Invertebrate TAG Chelonian TAG Crocodilian TAG Freshwater Fishes TAG Lizard TAG Marine Fishes TAG Snake TAG Alligator, Chinese SSP Piceata (LV Cichlid) SSP Iguana, Rock SSP Rattlesnake, Aruba Island SSP Rattlesnake, Eastern Massasauga SSP Toad, Puerto Rican Crested SSP Lip, Two Stripe White (LV Cichlid) SSP Ishmaeli (LV Cichlid) SSP Melanopterus (LV Cichlid) SSP Degeni (LV Cichlid) SSP Perrieri (LV Cichlid) SSP Argens (LV Cichlid) SSP Ape TAG Bat TAG Marsupial and Monotreme TAG New World Primate TAG Old World Monkey TAG Pangolin, Aardvark, Xenarthra TAG Prosimian TAG Rodent, Insectivore, Lagomorph TAG Small Carnivore TAG Mandrill SSP Bear, Polar SSP Bonobo SSP Cat, Black-Footed SSP Colobus, Angolan SSP Lemur, Mongoose SSP Fox, Fennec SSP Siamang SSP
Gorilla, Western SSP Monkey, DeBrazza’s SSP Lemur, Ring-Tailed SSP Lemur, Red Ruffed SSP Macaque, Lion-Tailed SSP Callimico SSP Spider Monkey, Robust Black SSP Orangutan, Sumatran SSP Tamarin, Cotton-Top SSP Tamarin, Golden Lion SSP Tamarin, Golden-Headed Lion SSP Tree Kangaroo, Matschie’s SSP Gibbon, Lar (White-Handed) SSP Gibbon, White-Cheeked SSP Orangutan, Bornean SSP Spider Monkey, Central American SSP Lemur, Black and White Ruffed SSP Colobus, Guereza SSP Monkey, Patas SSP Macaque, Japanese SSP Penguin, Humboldt SSP Charadriiformes TAG Ciconiiformes/ Phoenicopteriformes TAG Columbiformes TAG Coraciiformes TAG Galliformes TAG PACCT TAG (Passerines) Parrot TAG Piciformes TAG Raptor TAG Ratite and Tinamiformes TAG Turaco and Cuckoo TAG Vulture, King SSP Vulture, King SSP Hornbill, Rhinoceros SSP Kingfisher, Micronesian SSP Mynah, Bali SSP
Rail, Guam SSP Antelope and Giraffe TAG Bear TAG Bison, Buffalo, Cattle TAG Canid and Hyaenid TAG Caprinae TAG Deer (Cervid/Tragulid) TAG Elephant TAG Equid TAG Felid TAG Marine Mammal TAG Marsupial and Monotreme TAG Rhinoceros TAG Tapir TAG Wild Pig, Peccary and Hippo TAG Eland, Common and Cape SSP Giraffe, Reticulated and Rothschild SSP Hyena, Spotted SSP Kangaroo, Red SSP Kudu, Greater SSP Sea Lion, California SSP Seal, Harbor SSP Warthog SSP Zebra, Plains SSP Bear, Polar SSP Bongo, Eastern SSP Cheetah SSP Elephant SSP Hippopotamus SSP Jaguar SSP Leopard, Snow SSP Lion SSP Panda, Red SSP Rhinoceros, Eastern Black SSP Tiger, Amur SSP Tree Kangaroo, Matschie’s SSP
Individual conservation and Research Projects Piping Plover The Milwaukee County Zoo continues to support the efforts of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) biologists in Michigan, sending staff to help with the monitoring of nests, collecting of abandoned or threatened eggs and the incubation and rearing of chicks. Eggs and chicks are brought to the University of Michigan Biological Field Station and are hatched and raised for re-release into the wild. These activities support the long-term commitment by our Zoo concerning the conservation of the piping plover. The Great Lakes population of the piping plover was listed as endangered in 1986 with only 17 nesting pairs. Its decline is attributed to habitat loss and degradation due to the encroachment of humans on its nesting environment, which includes beaches, inland lakes, and rivers. Nest disturbance and predation, largely due to the presence of humans, also Whooping has contributed crane to the populationâ€™s steady decline. Zoo staff has participated in the development of captive husbandry protocols and designated research projects designed to benefit wild populations of piping plovers. In 2011, there were 55 nesting pairs of plovers that produced 71 fledging chicks, and an additional 16 chicks were captive-reared and released.
The Milwaukee County Zoo has a long and storied history with the conservation of Humboldt penguins in their native range, which is restricted to the coasts of Peru and Chile. In 1994, the Zoo initiated a long-term research program to study a breeding colony of Humboldt penguins in Algarrobo, Chile.
Part of this study continues today with the installation of artificial burrows to provide more sturdy nests that can better resist flooding and destruction than the natural dirt burrows. In 2009 and 2010, 35 artificial burrows were placed on the island. The artificial burrows were placed in areas where the natural burrows have disappeared, and were monitored to see if the penguins would use them. In 2010, the first breeding pair with eggs was observed, and in 2011, the first successful hatching and fledging of chicks was observed. This is a very significant and encouraging event. Also in 2011, the Zoo contributed funding to support the upcoming Guano Harvest Monitoring Project taking place in Punta San Juan (PSJ), Peru in 2012. Volunteers from our Zoo and around the world are heading to PSJ to monitor and mitigate the amount of disturbance created by the miners who harvest the seabird guano for use as commercial fertilizer. Through the efforts of the volunteers, the impact of harvesting is minimized. The program also includes an educational program for the miners and local population about sustainable practices regarding the use and harvesting of the guano, helping to ensure successfully nesting penguins in the future.
Whooping Crane Recovery The Zoo assists the International Crane Foundation (ICF) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service with whooping crane recovery by acting as a medical care location for injured whooping cranes that were part of the release program. In 2006, a juvenile whooping crane, Torch, was received with a broken wing. This injury prevented the bird from ever being released into the wild. In 2008, we received a female, Tiki, who will hopefully serve as a mate for Torch, once they establish the bond necessary for reproductive success. The Whooping Crane Recovery Program is responsible for bringing back the number of wild cranes from a low of 16 individuals in the 1940s to more than 430 individuals currently in the wild. The International Crane Foundation uses donated funds to aid in the captive-rearing, release and management of wild cranes and to develop new release techniques to bolster the existing population. In addition, the organization provides outreach programs to educate the public about the plight of the cranes.
Migratory and Resident Avifauna Study/Collision Abatement Zoo staff and volunteers are mist-netting and banding wild birds on Zoo grounds to determine the numbers and species that use our grounds as a stopover site during migration. Since its inception in 2001, this project has identified 172 species of native migratory birds. Of these identified species, 27 are listed as rare, threatened, or of special concern in Wisconsin, and 42 have been identified as nesting on Zoo grounds. Because of these remarkable findings, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources has designated the Milwaukee County Zoo as a recognized migratory bird stopover habitat. In addition, bird-banding demonstrations are conducted each year during the Zooâ€™s special Earth Day event, Party for the Planet. Visitors have the opportunity to observe the banding process and release birds. Our Zoo staff and volunteers also are involved with minimizing the amount of injury and mortality associated with bird and window collisions by actively modifying existing structures to mitigate strikes. By applying stencils, striping, silhouettes and decals, as well as using netting and better planting practices, we are reducing the amount of bird-related mortality as a result of window collisions. The Milwaukee County Zoo also is committed to educating the community about migratory birds by placing several different types of feeders throughout the Zoo, planting native species of plants that provide cover and food for migratory birds and providing viewing at our Birds Without Borders boardwalk.
Grenada Frog The Grenada frog was once widespread on the island nation of Grenada. During the late 1880s, a related frog species, Johnstoneâ€™s frog, was introduced. Since that time, Johnstoneâ€™s frog has spread throughout the island and the Grenada frog has retreated to small isolated pockets (seven square miles) in the mountain rainforests. In 2004, our Zoo, the Milwaukee Public Museum, and the Grenada Forestry and National Parks Department initiated a field-study to determine if these two species can successfully coexist. In 2009, the Racine Zoo joined our efforts. In February of 2009, we noted the numbers of frogs observed had dropped for a third consecutive year. As a result, frogs were sampled to determine if they were carrying the deadly frog-killing fungus called chytrid. Unfortunately, the fungus was found at all of the sampling sites. Chytrid could lead to the extinction of the Grenada frog. The Milwaukee County Zoo and our collaborators began to develop a Conservation Action Plan for the frog in 2010. In 2011, it appeared that the frog populations in Grenada had stabilized. Continued monitoring will be necessary to verify this observation.
Ornate box turtle
Ornate Box Turtle This year, the Zoo raised 24 endangered ornate box turtles to be released into a wild prairie remnant in south central Wisconsin. In 1996 and 1997, the Zoo developed raise-and-release procedures for this highly successful program of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. During a single winter at the Zoo, these turtles may grow from a one-third ounce hatchling to as much as five ounces. In the wild, it may take as long as seven years to reach this size, at which time they are practically predator-proof. The Racine Zoo also participates in this program, and the Nature Conservancy has adopted its protocols to help increase ornate box turtle populations in its Wisconsin reserves. As of June 2011, more than 1,000 turtles were released. Of these, our Zoo raised 312 turtles.
Grenada Bank Treeboa The Grenada Bank treeboa is only found on the islands in the Grenada Bank. Although widespread, populations seem to be decreasing on the island of Grenada. Our Zoo and the Racine Zoo have been cooperating with the Milwaukee Public Museum to conduct research on this treeboa. The Zoo is collaborating with Dr. Marie Rush of St. George’s University (Grenada) in a study to determine the snake’s normal blood parameters and identify the blood parasites of this species.
Coral Reef Monitoring in Grenada In 2009, our research efforts in the Caribbean expanded to the surrounding ocean, as we joined the Wisconsin Lutheran College’s reef monitoring program in Grenada. In 2010, the Racine Zoo joined our efforts. The purpose of this project is to compare the long-term health of the coral reefs found in Grenada’s marine protected areas with other areas that receive no protection. We hope to demonstrate the economic benefits of protected areas to the tourist industry and fishing communities of Grenada. In May of 2011, data from the first three years of this project were presented at the meeting of the Association of Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean. The response from the audience was enthusiastic, as there are very few data-intensive, long-term studies of Caribbean reefs.
Rock Iguanas Our Zoo has been a longtime supporter of rock iguana conservation in the genus Cyclura. Since 2003, this support has increased with the addition of fieldwork studies of the Grand Cayman blue iguana and Jamaican iguana. Blue iguanas are one of the most endangered lizard species in the world. A 2003 census indicated there might have been as few as 12 Grand Cayman blue iguanas in the wild. Because of the efforts of several zoos, including ours, the population is now estimated to number more than 200. The Jamaican iguana was once thought to be extinct in the wild, and is still very much in peril. Our Zoo has participated in the fieldwork for these collaborative efforts, resulting in successful releases of captive-hatched, raised-and-released iguanas back into the wilds of Grand Cayman
and Jamaica. Also, through observations and radio tracking, data has been collected for the first time on the habits of these rare species from both raised-and-released iguanas and free-ranging wild individuals. In 2011, the Zoo sent a zookeeper to Grand Cayman to cut trails and position artificial iguana burrows in a recently acquired natural area (Colliers Reserve) in order to prepare the reserve for the release of 92 head-started Grand Cayman blue iguanas. Additionally, a veterinary technician was sent to assist in the health screening of the iguanas intended for the release. More fieldwork is scheduled, and our Zoo will be sending additional staff to assist fieldworkers with protection of nest sites, nest monitoring, health screenings, and radio tracking. They also assist with the maintenance of iguana raise-and-release facilities.
Butler’s Garter Snakes The Butler’s garter snake is an endangered species restricted to southeastern Wisconsin. In 2007, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources brought together developers, land owners, our Zoo and other conservation organizations to develop a management plan for this species. This plan identified numerous gaps in our knowledge that were crucial to the development of a successful plan. As a result, the Zoo joined hands with the Urban Ecology Center at Riverside Park to seek answers to several questions. What is the dispersal distance of the snakes? What is the population density of the snakes in Riverside Park? How fast do they grow? These studies involve radio tracking, finding and capturing snakes and marking them for individual identification. Hundreds of hours were spent on this research during the year, and several additional seasons of work will be needed to adequately address these issues.
Starhead Topminnows Starhead topminnows are an endangered fish species in Wisconsin. Although there have been a few cases of successful captive reproduction in the private sector, there are no reports of breeding in zoos or aquariums. Several pairs were collected in July 2007 with the intent of developing spawning techniques that could be used by the Wisconsin DNR should a captive breeding program become a necessity. One or two pairs have been collected each year since, in
order to maintain the genetic diversity of the captive population held at the Zoo. Fishes from this program have been sent to the Urban Ecology Centers in Milwaukee and other aquariums or nature centers for display purposes.
Great Ape Ultrasound Studies For more than 15 years, Zoo staff and volunteer medical professionals have performed ultrasound studies on our great apes. As a result of extensive positive reinforcement training by our staff, the great apes voluntarily participate in these painless studies–without restraints, sedation or anesthesia. The animals look forward to these procedures and willingly cooperate. The ultrasound studies include heart studies of bonobos, gorillas and orangutans and fetal development studies of bonobos. Our Zoo has been the first in the world to do these types of studies with the great apes.
Great Ape Cardiovascular Health Research In 2011, our Zoo continued the comprehensive study of great ape cardiovascular health, initiated by a national workshop our Zoo hosted in 2009. The Great Ape Heart Project was funded by a start-up grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Sciences. The workshop launched a concerted effort to identify the causes, and to enhance our ability to prevent and treat these diseases. Zoo staff, in conjunction with medical consultants and a graduate conservation student, has developed the Bonobo Cardiovascular Database, archiving and analyzing ultrasound studies performed on bonobos at zoos throughout North America.
Other Studies and Research The Zoo staff participates in many other scientific studies and collaborative research projects. A few examples from 2011 that have been or are intended to be published include: treatment of epilepsy in great apes; reproductive hormones in elephants, rhinoceros and hippopotamus; fecal markers for nutritional studies; identification of a disease agent in a brown bear; fetal development in bonobos; blood group types in bonobos; hypertension in bonobos; cognitive studies of bonobos; corticosteroids in rhinoceros; and obstructive jaundice in macaques.
Program Management Zoo staff members hold management positions in national and international programs through the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and other conservation entities. These management positions include: • Veterinary Advisor: Bonobo SSP, Ring-tailed Lemur SSP, Humboldt Penguin SSP, Ape TAG • Chairperson: Humboldt Penguin SSP • Vice-chair: Humboldt Penguin SSP • AZA Delegate: Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species • AZA Accreditation Team Members • Steering Committee: Ape TAG, Sphenisciformes TAG, Humboldt Penguin SSP, Institutional Data Management Advisory Group, Veterinary Advisor Group, Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake SSP, Great Ape Heart Project • SSP Manager/Studbook Keeper: Yellow-backed Duiker, Red Kangaroo, Rockhopper Penguin • Management Group: Bonobo SSP, Rhinoceros Hornbill SSP, Humboldt Penguin SSP • American Association of Zoo Veterinarians: Treasurer • Academy of Veterinary Zoological Medicine Technicians: President • Scientific Advisor–Urban Ecology Center
Presentations/Publications The Animal Division staff delivers more than 1,000 formal presentations and innumerable informal presentations to the visiting public every year. In addition, Zoo staff develop programs, publish articles and research papers and deliver presentations locally, regionally and internationally to contribute to conservation efforts.
Facilities and Improvements In addition to the exhibit improvements described previously, a considerable number of infrastructure projects were planned or completed in 2011. Most of these are not noticed by the public, but are critical for the continued operation of the Zoo. The projects included: animal life support systems, heating, ventilating, electrical and plumbing upgrades, roof replacements and other renovations.
Administration and Finance Background and 2011 Review This Section oversees the following: Cash Management, Financial and Capital Project Planning, Accounts Payable and Receivable, Personnel and Payroll, General Office Services (including coordination of security, emergency medical support, reception and switchboard, radio dispatch and clerical support), Information Technology, Employee Safety and Training and oversight of the Zoo’s Green Committee. The Section also completed and submitted the 2011 year-end financials. The Zoo ended the year with a tax levy deficit of $1,924,622 and had an increase of $163,011 in the Zoo trust funds.
Cash Management This area’s responsibilities include reconciliation of cash receipts to our point-of-sale system, preparation of the bank deposits, preparation of cash register starting banks and daily support of the cashiers for change and deposits of funds, processing of contract ride revenues and improved monitoring of cashier discrepancies. At the end of 2011, the Cash Room’s currency counter and cash counting software were replaced since the former equipment and software could no longer be supported.
Financial and Capital Project Planning and Control This Section involves coordination of the budget process. Balancing the budget is challenging when support is reduced, while service, as well as entertainment values are expected to be maintained, and new revenue sources are explored and priorities re-evaluated. New ride venue contracts were negotiated during the year. Financial reporting and analysis continued to be performed on a daily, monthly and annual basis, with comparisons to the budget as well as to the previous year. Revenue sharing contracts were improved to enhance vendor accountability.
Accounting (Accounts Payable and Receivable) During 2011, Accounts Payable and Receivable processed contracts, purchasing requisitions and receipts, monitored the credit card system, reviewed sales documentation, prepared invoices, tracked accounts
receivable and entered financial transactions into the general ledger. During the year, significant effort was put toward utilizing the automated purchasing function in the point-of-sale system. The item master was streamlined, and vendor contract information was entered to facilitate ordering of the necessary concessions and catering items. Effective coordination of travel requests and expenditures continues to help the Zoo minimize these costs.
Information Technology Information Technology functions were provided by Zoo staff, Milwaukee County’s Department of Administration–Information Management Services (IMSD) and outside consultants. At the end of 2011, a new position was filled through IMSD to directly support the Zoo. The Zoo has continued to partner with a variety of IMSD technical staff resources to assist primarily with the point-of-sale, inventory and event management systems. The IMSD staff helped control the Zoo’s expenses by troubleshooting most register issues for the system on site, rather than contacting an outside vendor for support. The Zoo continued improving its monitoring of financial information through point-of-sale and Milwaukee County financial systems. Usage of the Internet Supply Store was enhanced for the Commissary, and inventory modifications began for the Stockroom and resale items. Staff attended the point-of-sale conference during the spring, allowing for a greater understanding of the system and networking opportunities.
Green Committee The Milwaukee County Zoo has implemented recycling programs and conservation-minded projects for many years. Recycling efforts include cell phones, printer cartridges, aluminum cans, light bulbs, food and motor oils, scrap metals, restaurant cups, plastic bottles and paper and coffee grinds. The Zoo’s energy savings program of upgraded electrical, natural gas, water and sewer infrastructure continues to produce savings in utilities. The Zoo also has used green-friendly practices in building construction and other projects.
Human Resources The Human Resources Section consists of the Human Resources Coordinator, Administrative Specialist and a seasonal Payroll Assistant. Responsibilities include coordinating and performing a variety of technical and professional personnel-related tasks. General duties performed entail managing the payroll and human resources function to include grievance handling, recruitment, promotion, training, disciplinary actions, transfers, employee benefits and departmental diversity issues. Also, the Human Resources Coordinator represents the Zoo as part of committees; appeal boards, meetings and hearings related to various personnel issues.
Highlights from 2011 include: • Took part in job fairs in Milwaukee County to ensure a diverse work force • Worked together with the Milwaukee County Department of Human Resources to process applications and hire Zoo Workers and Family Farm Attendants • Worked together with the Milwaukee County Department of Human Resources to enable the Zoo to advertise current “hot jobs” on the County Web site • Accomplished most of the 2011 Diversity Committee goals and identified tasks for 2012 • Assisted in the hiring of five individuals for full-time employment with the Zoo Solar panels at Zoo admission booths
â€˘ Worked in cooperation with the Milwaukee County Department of Human Resources to inform, train and provide guidance to Zoo employees regarding Milwaukee Countyâ€™s time and attendance, payroll, benefits and recruitment system
Safety and Training The Safety and Training Section is comprised of the Safety and Training Specialist and a seasonal Training Assistant. This Section is responsible for instructing Zoo employees in regulatory compliance, customer service, security and emergency response programming and training. The Section also is responsible for maintaining first aid kits, fire extinguishers and emergency chemical exposure stations. In addition, assessing workplace hazards, developing safe work practices and assigning proper personal protective equipment are tasks assigned to this Section. This Section also coordinates and provides identification badges and distributes employee uniforms, and conducts annual seasonal orientations, informing Zoo seasonal staff of workplace policies and
The Diversity Committee is a group formed within the parameters of the Human Resources Section with a primary function of providing opportunities for better understanding of civil rights by Zoo personnel. The Diversity Committee consists of seven representatives from various Divisions who annually make recommendations concerning equal opportunities for all employees regardless of race, color, sex, sexual orientation, religion, national origin, age, handicap and other non-merit factors. The committee acts as a resource for all Zoo staff by providing information and addressing particular concerns or complaints. Members attend quarterly training sessions that emphasize diversity-related issues in the workplace. Committee members also provide outreach through activities that promote diversity in the workplace.
procedures. The Section performs routine hazardous waste removal and storage and identification audits to ensure compliance with state and federal regulations. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) management, pesticide usage reports and annual Tier II reports are processed and completed by this Section. The Safety and Training Specialist and the assistant are responsible for accident investigation and on-site security system maintenance along with Zoo Access Control and surveillance programming. State and federal compliance regulations mandate the annual safety training programming conducted by this Section. In addition to required programming, the Safety Section continues to promote the annual Employee Safety and Health Fair, which, this year, included the Parks Department. The following topics were presented at the 2011 Fair: Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Training, Pesticide Exam Review, Forestry American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Review, Safe Food Handling & Preparation, Personal Safety, Live Fire Extinguisher Training, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Training and Automated External Defibrillator (AED) Training.
African elephant, Brittany
Public Affairs and Services 2011 Highlights
Here are a few highlights from the year:
The Public Affairs and Services Division consists of four Sections: Group Sales, Public Relations, Special Events and Special Programs. In addition to these areas, the Division is responsible for the overall marketing, promotion and advertising of the Zoo. The staff includes: a Division Director, four Coordinators, four full-time staff and approximately 50 seasonal Zoo Workers.
Samson Stomp & Romp January 16 Sponsored by Gatorade and Pick ’n Save The year 2011 marked the 31st running of this traditional winter run/walk held throughout the Zoo grounds. Despite a race temperature of 10 degrees, more than 1,800 participants and 20 teams joined in the festivities, which included a new race course and an opportunity to recycle cell phones. Attendance: 1,843
Group Sales During every season of the year, the Zoo is host to hundreds of corporate, non-profit and private events held throughout the Zoo grounds. The Zoo’s Group Sales Section is responsible for contracting and managing these events. In 2011, our most popular rental facilities were renovated, the Peck Welcome Center and the Zoofari Conference Center. Renovations to the Peck Center included new terrazzo flooring and mechanical updates, while the Zoofari Conference Center received a complete update with carpet, paint and new outdoor canopy. A hosted event may include a building rental such as the Peck Welcome Center or Zoofari Conference Center, ideal for the after-hours corporate party or wedding reception. A picnic area can host groups of 50 to 5,000, or an entire Zoo grounds rental is also available, in which an organization has exclusive rights to the park.
Egg Day April 23 Sponsored by Welch’s and Pick ’n Save The day before Easter was “hopping” with activity as our traditional holiday event attracted more than 8,300 visitors. Activities for the kids included an egg hunt along the train tracks, bunny ear making, an Easter parade, basket making and a “bubblologist.” Our popular “Hop-to-it Bunny Scavenger Hunt” drew 4,000 children and the following animals were a part of the day’s events as they received paper mache’ eggs for enrichment: tigers, elephants, and wolves. Attendance: 8,343
The Zoo’s Group Sales Section also is responsible for the Children’s Birthday Parties, Group Tours and Advanced and Consignment Ticket Sales that are sold and distributed throughout Wisconsin. As in past years, Group Sales events and ticket sales continue to have a positive financial impact on the Zoo’s fiscal revenue and attendance budget.
Special Events Each year, the Public Affairs and Services Division coordinates more than 16 special events held on Zoo grounds, drawing more than 167,000 visitors. Egg Day
Family Farm Weekend September 10 and 11 Sponsored by Wisconsin Milk Marketing Board The Zoo’s Northwestern Mutual Family Farm is the highlight of this autumn event. Activities included a farmer’s market (with vegetables, fruit, maple syrup, pumpkins and honey), a mini-tractor pull for children and cooking demonstrations (ice cream making, popcorn off the cob, lemonade and peanut butter). Milking demonstrations with our dairy cows, an appearance by Alice in Dairyland and a bluegrass band rounded out the day’s events. Attendance: 15,557 Boo at the Zoo October 21 and 22 This Halloween-themed event focused on bat conservation, including the important role bats play in our natural world and the importance of bat houses. In a special bat outreach area, visitors learned about white nose syndrome and what they can do to help stop the spread
The MillerCoors Oceans of Fun Seal and Sea Lion Show
of this disease threatening bats. Other activities included a haystack maze, bat origami and at train ride turned “Raven’s Rail” that featured pumpkins carved into the shape of Zoo critters. Attendance: 12,990
Special Programs The Special Programs Section of the Milwaukee County Zoo is responsible for overseeing these areas: MillerCoors Oceans of Fun Seal and Sea Lion Show, our temporary summer special exhibits, audiovisual services, outreach activities and the Peck Welcome Center. In addition, this Section works directly with the Zoological Society, serving as a liaison for all Zoological Society events taking place at the Zoo.
Following are the 2011 highlights: • The MillerCoors Oceans of Fun Seal and Sea Lion Show is a 20-minute presentation sponsored by MillerCoors, which entertains and educates visitors about seals and sea lions through a live animal show. The shows generated more than $120,000 in revenue for the year. • Also during the summer, the Zoo presented a live butterfly exhibit with the exhibition “Butterflies! In Living Color, sponsored by Sendik’s Food Markets. The tropical exhibit was displayed May 28 through September 25, and attracted 149,520 visitors. The Special Programs Section coordinated and supervised staff for the exhibit. • The Special Programs Section continued its partnership with the Zoological Society, serving as a liaison to facilitate all of the Society’s events that took place on Zoo grounds. This partnership serves to strengthen the overall relationship between the Zoo and the Zoological Society. • Finally, Zoo operations were enhanced by the efforts of the Audiovisual Section. Areas served included: the Animal Division, Public Relations, Group Sales and Special Events. Photos, videos and visual presentations were used for newspaper and magazine articles, animal identification, Zoo Web site, marketing and promotional campaigns, collateral pieces and the audiovisual needs for Group Sales clients.
Media Relations In 2011, the Zoo received positive media coverage from broadcast, print and electronic media outlets.
Following are a few media highlights from the year: • Our new permanent Bonobo Exhibit received positive media coverage, both in print and electronic media. The opening was featured in the Journal Sentinel, as well as on WTMJ Radio. Milwaukee Public Radio also featured the new exhibit on their public affairs program, “Lake Effect.” Our community newspaper, WauwatosaNOW, also wrote a feature on the new exhibit and what it represents to our endangered bonobo troop.
The opening of our new Sky Trail® Wisconsin Adventure Zone garnered its own media attention. This popular new attraction was featured in the Wauwatosa community newspaper, WauwatosaNOW, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, and local television stations, WTMJ, WISN, WDJT and FOX-6. Many of these stories featured actual reporters testing their skills on these new Zoo adventures! A sampling of 201 1 media clips
• As previously mentioned, our work with orangutans and iPads as enrichment was covered internationally by a large number of media outlets. The coverage focused on the fact our Zoo was the first zoological institution to use these devices as enrichment for the animals. Stories appeared in the following electronic and print outlets, among others: Science Macleans “BBC News” “Good Morning America” The Japan Times The London Times The Zoo was regularly featured on many of the morning news programs, including “Real Milwaukee” on FOX-6 and “Channel 12 News This Morning.” Topics included the MillerCoors Oceans of Fun Seal and Sea Lion Show, a behind-the-scenes look at the Zoo’s Winter Quarters area and a preview of our largest annual special event, The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel a la Carte. Milwaukee Public Radio’s “Lake Effect,” also highlighted a number of happenings at the Zoo on a regular basis throughout the year. Topics ranged from the current plight of wild polar bears through interviews with Polar Bears International President, Robert Buchanan, to bonobo research taking place at our Zoo with well-known primatologist Dr. Sally Boysen and Associate Professor of Psychology at Agnes Scott College, Dr. William Hopkins.
2011 Highlights The Milwaukee County Zoo’s Operations Department consists of the following Divisions: Visitor Services, Concessions and Catering, Grounds and Horticulture, Maintenance and Trades, Custodial, Merchandising and Warehouse and Time and Material/Major Maintenance/Capital Project Construction Management.
Following are the 2011 highlights from the Operations Division: Visitor Services
This Section greets guests entering the Zoo providing them with essential information for their visit. In 2011, the Visitor Services staff admitted more than 1.2 million visitors to the Zoo. This Section’s responsibilities include: collecting fees for admission, parking, operating the miniature train, carousel and zoomobile rides and assisting individuals with lost family members or misplaced vehicles. Groups with special needs also are accommodated through various discounted rates for admission, rides and attractions. This Section also operates stroller rentals, dog kennels, camel and pony rides and the mold-a-rama machines. The Visitor Services Division is comprised of two full-time Managers, two full-time Train Engineers and as many as 60 seasonal employees. Zoomobile
• Generated more than 45% of the Milwaukee County Zoo’s total revenue for the year • Worked with Creative Employment Opportunities, Inc., which is designed to assist individuals with special needs to enter the workplace and increase their level of self-esteem and independence • Provided staff support for all events that occurred during regular Zoo hours or after-hours events in conjunction with the Group Sales, Public Affairs, Education and Zoological Society Divisions The Merchandise Section at the Zoo employs one full-time Manager and approximately 45 seasonal Zoo Workers. The Section is responsible for all aspects of the merchandise operation. This includes purchasing, pricing, displaying and selling of all merchandise. Currently, we have nine seasonal locations and two year-round gift shops on Zoo grounds. The economy of 2011 created new challenges for Merchandising, as visitors were looking for more value for their money. We saw a shift in sales from plush and toys to books and T-shirts. Due to the integrity and responsibility of seasonal Zoo Workers, we were able to generate just under $1.6 million in sales which made our profit just under $1 million. Although this was not our biggest sales year, it was our most profitable by percentage of costs to sales. In August, the Zoo saw the addition of the Skytrail® Wisconsin Adventure Zone, which consists of a ropes course, zip line and climbing wall. When it opened, Skytrail® set a national record at our venue as the busiest zip line and ropes course. Additional revenue sources also set record profits in face painting, temporary tattoos, entrance photos, and medallion machines. Supervisors in our Group Sales Section also helped generate record gift sales selling to picnics, birthday parties, and other group events. Next summer, we look forward to generating additional revenue with the addition of a photo booth, non-food vending machines, updated medallion machines, and our Dinosaur Exhibit. A new garden gift shop and a larger store at the Dinosaur Exhibit with a fossil mining area also will help to generate revenue.
We have also continued to work with area schools and partners to hire transitional employees who have a range of cognitive disabilities. The program has been two-fold by giving the employees work experience, and the staff also gives encouragement to their co-workers by their kindness and ambition to work. This program is slated to continue into the future.
Every year, the Horticultural section plants tens of thousands of plants and flowers.
Grounds and Horticulture The Horticultural Section is part of the Buildings and Grounds Section. Comprised of two full-time staff employees and nine seasonal employees, they help to make the Zoo grounds colorful and attractive for our visitors. Our pleasing grounds were accomplished in many ways, but the overall goal is to maintain our 200 acres of landscape.
2011 Horticultural Highlights • Transplanted 100 trees and shrubs, 150 perennials, 35,000 annual plants, from spring pansies to summer annuals and fall mums • Created a large expanse of new turf space from areas once infested with buckthorn or eroded due to lack of vegetation • Identified and helped distribute browse to supplement animal diets • Watered, fertilized and maintained six topiaries, 40 flower beds, 55 perennial areas, 60 shrub areas, 280 containers, 5,000 square feet of greenhouse space and nearly 10 acres of turf space • Decorated 15 Christmas trees for the holiday season and redesigned decorative themes to suit upgraded interior design of Peck Welcome Center and Zoofari Conference Center rental spaces • Helped in the preparation of Halloween special event displays and helped carve 300 pumpkins • Performed annual trimming work in the Aviary and Primate Building in order to maintain tropical plants at sustainable indoor growing conditions • Helped create the temporary Butterfly Exhibit involving construction of wall paneling, stone block planting spaces and upkeep of a combination of 1,500 artificial plants, live tropical foliage plants and pesticide-free greenhouse-grown nectar plants • Assisted in the selection of plants to incorporate into storm-water recapture/filtration planning beds at drive-in gate, Aviary pond and Wolf Woods Exhibit
• Planted sample plots of a new type of forage grass with enhanced nutritional qualities for outdoor Moose and Reindeer Yards • Nurtured spare bare-root saplings remaining from our Party for the Planet special event for future use in native area restoration
Maintenance A considerable amount of infrastructure work is completed each year. Most projects are not noticed by the public, but are critical in the day-to-day operations of the Zoo. Maintaining the buildings, grounds, exhibits and public areas are vital to daily operations. Behind-the-scenes electrical, plumbing and general maintenance include operation of HVAC and Metasys interface computer boards, repairing animal exhibits, hanging event banners for special events and maintaining lighting, which includes eco-friendly lamps to help reduce the impact on the environment and reduce utility costs. Also, this Section handles emergency calls on a 24-hour, 7-day-a-week schedule, sets up general events and handles landscaping and construction project management.
2011 Construction Project Highlights: • Replacement of fencing in Family Farm • Installation of rain gardens • Electrical upgrade at the Animal Health Center • Zoofari Conference Center interior remodel • Construction of Butterfly Exhibit featuring a customized indoor greenhouse at Special Exhibits Building • Numerous compressor replacements • Repainted exterior at the Animal Health Center • Manhole repair/replacements throughout the park • Roof replacement work at Family Farm Annex Building • Hot water heater, pumps and motor replacements • Installation of concrete permeable pavers throughout park • Zoo Terrace renovation • Peck Welcome Center floor replacement • Peck Welcome Center rooftop HVAC equipment replacement • Primate Building roof replacement
Stockroom Operations The year 2011 was a transitional one for the Stockroom; this came with the hiring of a new supervisor. The operation consists of one full-time Supervisor and eight seasonal employees. The Stockroom’s main responsibility is to support all of the revenue-generating areas. The nine employees from the warehouse are pivotal in generating the $19 million in revenue. Their functions include: ordering, rotating, delivering, tracking and controlling millions of dollars in inventory for the restaurants, catering services and Group Sales events at the Zoo. For the Merchandising Section, the Stockroom controls hundreds of thousands of dollars in inventory. The staff is responsible for all of the receiving, pricing, slotting and delivery of the merchandise. The employees work closely with all departments within the Zoo, including the Zoological Society. All FedEx, UPS or semi-truck packages are received here and delivered throughout the Zoo. The Stockroom also bags and delivers ice for all restaurants and events in the Zoo. Being a food distribution facility, the staff also ensures that all health codes are followed and maintains a clean safe work environment.
Custodial The Custodial Section is responsible for keeping buildings clean for both our visitors and staff. Custodians also work with vendors and event managers, from small companies to large corporations, along with the Group Sales Section. The Section works to ensure that the event plans and preparation requests are met for each client’s function.
Concessions and Catering The Concessions and Catering Section provides our guests with service, snacks, and food and beverages while visiting the Zoo. The staff consists of 175 diverse, seasonal employees and two full time Food Service Professionals.
Operating Expenses (Financials) Zoological Department (Unaudited) 2011 Adjusted Budget
2011 Actual Year-to-Date
Variance ( ) = Deficit
REVENUES Total Admissions Less Group Sales Net Operational Admissions
$6,484,357 $1,580,207 $4,904,150
$4,366,237 $940,074 $3,426,164
($2,118,120) ($640,133) ($1,477,986)
Concessions Catering Novelties Parking Special Exhibit Admissions Sea Lion Show Vending Machine Commissions Strollers Animal Rides Total Group Sales Carousel SkyRide Society Memberships Donations Other Private Funding Sponsorships Miscellaneous Revenue Performance Contract Escrow Sales Tax
$4,256,353 $150,648 $1,903,675 $2,878,447 $350,704 $195,819 $313,400 $130,000 $60,000 $2,474,811 $221,252 $251,722 $238,771 $206,000 $716,115 $274,500 $681,689 $0 ($525,000)
$3,772,454 $137,163 $1,534,937 $2,604,884 $216,709 $125,335 $226,599 $97,959 $41,443 $1,668,955 $177,333 $139,578 $449,038 $195,728 $716,115 $265,279 $425,582 $0 ($403,345)
($483,899) ($13,485) ($368,738) ($273,563) ($133,996) ($70,485) ($86,801) ($32,041) ($18,557) ($805,856) ($43,920) ($112,144) $210,267 ($10,272) $0 ($9,221) ($256,107) $0 $121,655
$8,223,093 $5,358,750 $5,411,500 $1,598,700 $3,519,803 $0 $598,792 $0 $24,710,638
$7,679,296 $5,326,882 $4,944,248 $1,502,761 $2,846,152 $0 $463,855 $0 $22,763,195
$543,797 $31,868 $467,252 $95,939 $673,651 $0 $134,937 $0 $1,947,443
EXPENDITURES Personnel Services Fringe Benefits Contractural Services Internal Service Charges Commodities Depreciation Capital Outlay Other Expenditures TOTAL EXPENDITURES TAX LEVY ATTENDANCE
Operating Expenses Zoo Trust Fund (Unaudited)â€“Railroad Trust 2011 Adjusted Budget
2011 Actual Year-to-Date
Variance ( ) = Deficit
REVENUES Zoomobile Revenue
Miniature Train Revenue
Earnings on Investments
Donations and Reserve Contribution
EXPENDITURES Personnel Services Fringe Benefits Contractual Services Internal Service Charges
NET INCOME (LOSS)
Fund Balance January 1, 2011
Fund Balance December 31, 2011
Operating Expenses Zoo Trust Fund (Unaudited)â€“Specimen Trust Fund 2011 Adjusted Budget
2011 Actual Year-to-Date
Variance ( ) = Deficit
REVENUES Earnings on Investments
Animal Sales/Milk Sales
Gifts & Donations
Other Miscellaneous Revenue
Internal Service Charges TOTAL EXPENDITURES NET INCOME (LOSS) Fund Balance January 1, 2011 Net Income Fund Balance December 31, 2011
$186,613 $16,092 $202,705
ZOO TRUST FUNDS Total Trust Revenue 2011 Less Total Trust Expenditures 2011 2011 NET INCOME (LOSS)
$857,994 ($694,983) $163,011
Photo by Richard Brodzeller
THe milwaukee county zoo and the Zoological Society of milwaukee A Public-Private Partnership
than three months. Overall, more than 62,000 visitors participated in Kohl’s Wild Theater through mainstage shows, pathway plays or mini-performances during the summer 2011 season. The ZSM also created an outreach program to bring Kohl’s Wild Theater into schools, festivals and community events in the Milwaukee area throughout the year. Said James Mills, director of the ZSM’s Conservation Education Department, “The use of theater is a new way for our department to communicate important messages about wildlife conservation issues, including elements of the important work done by the Zoo on behalf of endangered species.”
The mission of the Zoological Society of Milwaukee is to participate in conserving endangered species, to educate people about the importance of wildlife and the environment, and to support the Milwaukee County Zoo.
Zoological Society Support of the Milwaukee County Zoo Play was a big theme last year at the Zoo. Whether it was bonobos playing, kids playing or performers presenting live plays–the Zoological Society of Milwaukee (ZSM) helped bring significant additions to the Zoo between Oct. 1, 2010, and Sept. 30, 2011 (the ZSM’s fiscal year). These included: • Kohl’s Wild Theater, presented by the ZSM in partnership with Kohl’s Cares. The ZSM produced seven original, 15-minute plays that were interactive, humorous and fun! And each one had a conservation message. Several of the professional plays were performed five to seven times a day every day at the Zoo for more
Photo by Richard Brodzeller
Kohl’s Wild Theater
• Bonobo exhibits: For the first time the Zoo’s group of endangered bonobos could play in a tree-level exhibit outdoors, running through mesh chutes and climbing towers. The new exhibit was one of three upgrades to the bonobo areas, all thanks to a generous gift from an anonymous donor. An upgrade to the indoor Bonobo Exhibit added more tree trunks and climbing ropes to simulate the vines and trees of their Congo forests. The third upgrade provided dramatic new graphics, videos and interactive displays in the public areas around the indoor Bonobo Exhibit. • Munchkin Dairy Farm: This was yet another play area at the Zoo that was enhanced in 2011 thanks to a grant to the ZSM from Northwestern Mutual Foundation. The ZSM provided $28,800 to completely renovate the Munchkin Dairy Farm in the octagon Dairy Barn. It now includes a hands-on playground with whimsical designs, a child-size barn and truck, and a silo filled with corncobs. “It’s doing a great job of teaching kids about dairy farms,” says Marcia Sinner, the ZSM’s creative director. The Farm has inviting structures for children ages 2 to 6 to climb over, under and in between. Child-friendly signs teach about farm animals and what a farmer does. Nearby, kids can watch live cows being milked. Besides these three major additions to the Zoo, the Zoological Society has helped animals and the Zoo through many ongoing programs such as its Sponsor an Animal program and Annual Appeal. In May
• Conservation and research: The ZSM spent $659,375, including support of the ZSM’s international bonobo-conservation project in Africa, which helps the Zoo to meet its commitment to conservation. As part of the Zoo’s mission and also for accreditation with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, the Milwaukee County Zoo supports conservation efforts in the field to help endangered species. The ZSM supports the Bonobo Species Survival Plan, headed by the ZSM’s conservation coordinator, Dr. Gay Reinartz; that program helps manage the health and breeding success of bonobos in zoos. The ZSM also provided $27,584 to conservation projects proposed by the Zoo, many involving Zoo staff. • Exhibits and buildings: The ZSM gave $859,359 in direct cash support to Zoo exhibits, including $50,000 for the 2011 special summer exhibit: Butterflies!, sponsored by Sendik’s Food Markets. The ZSM helped provide a new outdoor Bonobo Exhibit and major new graphics to the indoor Bonobo Exhibit ($552,702). The ZSM’s annual appeal raised $136,838 to give Belle the Dairy Cow, a fiberglass Holstein cow in the Zoo’s Dairy Barn, a facelift and technical makeover; plus, we created three movies to add to the Dairy Barn theater. Also, the ZSM donated payments for maintenance contracts on various Zoo buildings and some equipment ($136,482). • Publications: The ZSM produced publications (Alive magazine, Wild Things, and Platy Press) and other materials that promoted Zoo events, exhibits and conservation programs. • Signs, videos, interactive displays, Zoo printed materials, special projects: The ZSM’s Creative Department of five artists and a researcher provides graphics and design support to the Zoo as well as to the ZSM.
Photo by Richard Brodzeller
2011, the ZSM and the Zoo jointly created the Center for Bonobo Conservation and Research. This center at the Zoo ties together the bonobo-training efforts and bonobo research at the Zoo with the Bonobo Species Survival Plan and the ZSM’s bonobo researchconservation-education program in Africa. The ZSM’s total Zoo support in 2010-2011 was about $6.4 million (including direct project costs). For a financial summary, see the last page. Here are summaries of various ways the ZSM supported the Zoo.
Kohl’s Wild Theater
• Sponsors & grantors: The ZSM acquires sponsors for most of its own events and for most of the Zoo’s major events and attractions. In 2010-2011 the ZSM’s direct cash sponsorship support to the Zoo was $343,500. Grants to ZSM education programs and conservation projects brought in $593,333. • Veterinary help: The ZSM provided aid to the Zoo’s veterinary staff by paying $39,579 for two veterinary residents from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and $53,055 for a pathology fellow. • Volunteer help: Zoo Pride, the ZSM’s volunteer auxiliary, helped with events, provided Zoo guides, supported conservation and did much more to help the Zoo. Of 587 Zoo Pride volunteers, 423 active members donated 43,590 hours in 2010-2011. • Web sites and social media: The ZSM’s Web site, which averaged 19,782 visits per month in 2010-2011, provided information about the Zoo, its animals and its staff. The ZSM’s Facebook page and its YouTube channel helped promote the Zoo. The ZSM also assisted with maintenance of the Zoo’s Web site. • Additional cash support: The ZSM provided $119,681 to Zoo projects and $575,153 additional cash support to the Zoo.
Besides its Annual Appeal, sponsors and grantors, funding for the ZSM’s mission came from a variety of sources in fiscal year 2010-2011, including: • Membership: The ZSM brought in about $4.8 million in Zoo Pass memberships. • Platypus Society: The ZSM’s annual-giving group donated more than $716,547 in cash or in-kind services to help the Zoo. • Fundraisers run by the ZSM Associate Board: The 28th annual Zoo Ball, sponsored by American Airlines, raised more than $390,000. The 22nd annual MillerCoors Birdies and Eagles Golf Tournament raised $103,452. All other fundraising events run by the Associate Board–ranging from a Zoo campout to a family bike ride–raised $170,069. • The ZSM’s animal sponsorship program raised $157,475 to support the Zoo’s animals.
The Zoological Society’s Education Programs at the Zoo By offering extensive education programs nearly year-round, the ZSM helps the Zoo maintain national accreditation by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). In 2010-2011, the ZSM’s Conservation Education Department created a new live theater program–Kohl’s Wild Theater–in partnership with Kohl’s Cares. This professional theater company produced seven original plays with conservation messages (see page 40) to perform at the Zoo and for community outreach programs. Other ongoing Zoological Society education programs included: Summer Camps: The Zoological Society’s summer camps program is among the three largest zoo- or aquarium-based camp programs in the nation. Our 2011 summer camps drew nearly 11,000 participants: 8,440 children and 2,560 parents in 529 camp sessions. Our summer college-student intern program provided 20 students (including three college-student teaching interns) hands-on job training, thanks, in part, to generous support from the Alice Kadish Foundation, the Antonia Foundation, the Jerome and Dorothy Holz Family Foundation, and the Brady Corporation. September-May Programs: From September through May, the ZSM offers classes for individuals ages 2-14 as well as programs for school
groups that help students with science requirements set by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. We also offer curricula and self-guided tours for all school classes visiting the Zoo. In fiscal year 2010-2011, the ZSM served nearly 12,000 people in individual child or parent-child classes; 24,967 schoolchildren through ZSM-run programs at the Zoo or presented at schools; and an additional 91,020 schoolchildren who used the Zoo as a science laboratory on field trips and had ZSM curriculum available to them during self-directed tours. Programs for schoolchildren were funded in part by gifts from the Ladish Company Foundation; U.S. Bank; Judith Grimes Family Foundation; A.O. Smith Foundation, Inc.; Orth Charitable Lead Trust; and the Posner Foundation. Boy Scouts & Girl Scouts: The ZSM expanded its programs to help children earn badges or patches and served 343 Girl Scouts and Boy Scouts. Programming for Disadvantaged Youth: 1) The Animal Ambassador program teaches schoolchildren about wildlife conservation during a semester, and then they graduate to become ambassadors for animals. Thanks to corporate, foundation or civic-group sponsors for each school, ZSM Animal Ambassador and Continuum programs, which serve schools in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods, reached 712 second-grade students and 542 third-grade students at 12 schools, and 1,325 fourth-grade students at 19 schools. Another 462 students in five schools with smaller classes experienced a modified program. 2) Summer Camps special programs allowed 305 children from five neighborhood and community centers to attend ZSM 2011 camps, thanks to renewed support from U.S. Cellular®, the Evinrude Foundation, the Peters Foundation and the Milwaukee Urban League’s Safe Alternatives for Youth fund. 3) Big Brothers Big Sisters: The Zoological Society began a collaboration with Big Brothers Big Sisters of Metro Milwaukee through its Project Reach program, thanks to funding from U.S. Bank. Twenty children and their paired adults were offered behind-the-scenes Zoo tours, and some also attended a ZSM summer camp on rain forests. In total, ZSM conservation-education programs served more than 225,930 people in fiscal year 2010-’11.
Financial Summary Zoological Society of Milwaukee County (ZSM)â€“Year ending September 30, 2011
SUPPORT & REVENUE
COST OF SUPPORT AND REVENUE
from all Zoological Society and Platypus Society members .................................................................................... $5,445,380
Expense of providing benefits to all Zoological Society and Platypus Society members ..................................... $1,637,899
toward capital projects and specific programs ................................................. $1,157,369
SPECIAL EVENTS PROGRAMS/SPONSORSHIPS
Expense of providing and promoting ZSM special events/programs ............................................................................................ $400,895
including animal sponsorship, Zoo Ball, education, ZSM and Zoo special events, and sponsorships ........................................... $2,229,182
TOTAL COST OF SUPPORT & REVENUE (Support Services) .................................................................................................................. $2,038,794
INTEREST INCOME from contributions toward capital projects and specific programs .................................................................................................................. $54,549
GRANTS .......................................................................................................................................... $593,333
DIRECT PROJECT COSTS
TOTAL SUPPORT & REVENUE................................................................ $9,479,813
Expenses relative to capital projects and specific programs ................................................................................................................ $605,277
RECEIPTS MEMBERSHIP DUES: 57% SPECIAL EVENTS/PROGRAMS: 24%
CONTRIBUTIONS: 13% GRANTS: 6%
Expenses relating to state, national and international programs supporting species preservation ...................................................................................................................................... $659,375
EXPENSES ZOO SUPPORT, CAPITAL & DIRECT PROJECT COSTS: 67% SUPPORT SERVICES: 22%
GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE 22%
RESEARCH/CONSERVATION: 7% GENERAL & ADMINISTRATIVE: 4%
Expense of providing, promoting and supporting education, graphics, and conservation programs, special exhibit projects, and ZSM and Zoo special events; payments to the Zoo for all ZSM events; parking for Zoo Pass Plus; and coupons .............................. $5,791,486
Expenses relating to daily ZSM operations ............................................................. $369,827
TOTAL EXPENSES .......................................................................................................... $7,425,965 TOTAL COST OF SUPPORT AND EXPENSES .............................................................................................................. $9,464,759
2010-2011 ZSM Cash-Flow Summary Cash at start of the year: ............... $1,162,465 Cash at end of the year: .............. $1,213,419 Net increase in cash: .................... $50,954
Butterflies! In Living Color
Milwaukee County Executive Chris Abele
Milwaukee County Board Chairman Lee Holloway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5th District
Vice Chair Michael Mayo, Sr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7th District
Board of Supervisors Eyon Biddle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10th District Mark A. Borkowski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11th District Gerry Broderick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3rd District Paul Cesarz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9th District Lynne De Bruin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15th District Marina Dimitrijevic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4th District John Haas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14th District Nikiya Harris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2nd District Willie Johnson, Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13th District Patricia Jursik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8th District Theo Lipscomb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1st District Joseph A. Rice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6th District Joe Sanfelippo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17th District Jim Schmitt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19th District Johnny Thomas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18th District John F. Weishan, Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16th District Peggy Romo West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12th District The Milwaukee County Zoo offers equal opportunities for employees and visitors alike. 10001 W. Bluemound Road Milwaukee, WI 53226 414.771.3040 www.milwaukeezoo.org Editor: Jennifer Diliberti-Shea Designer: Kevin de Wane Photographer: Michael Nepper