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Water as an Asset for Peace Atlas of Risks and Opportunities


Published in cooperation with Zoï Environment Network, Châtelaine, Geneva

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FOREWORD We hope that every person on this planet, regardless of where she or he lives, will examine his conscience about sustainable access to water and sanitation. The Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development is founded on the principle that the world shall ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030. This principle is furthermore reinforced by the 2010 United Nations Resolution on the Human Rights to Water and Sanitation. These rights for a sustainable access for all are diminished when the rights of one person are threatened. Today, Switzerland is committed throughout the world to promote a successful implementation of the “water” Agenda 2030 for all. This is not only a technical, legal or normative issue alone. This is not even a political or diplomatic one. We are confronted with a moral issue that is as old as humanity. Switzerland wants to promote a water secure world, in which the populations have the capacity to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities and quality of water for sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, socio-economic development, for ensuring protection against water-borne pollution and water-related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability. Unfortunately, in many places of the world, tensions and conflicts over access to water are becoming more frequent. Water scarcity is growing rapidly and posing a threat to the economic, social and political gains of development. Future water scarcity will be much more permanent than past shortages, and the techniques governments have used in responding to past disturbances may no longer be appropriate. In these places, water is the real wild card for political and social unrest, dominating public debate and government thinking and becoming the true political, social and environmental game-changer. It often adds to the fragility of countries. But there is another underlying reality: in many places of the world, water “connects” people; it is a genuine factor of stability, cooperation and peace.

The entire water community has to deal, to play with this realm: water as a source of tension and a source of cooperation. And to paraphrase an old saying of 1963 by John Fitzgerald Kennedy, we consider water as a daily, a weekly, a monthly process, gradually changing opinions, slowly eroding barriers, quietly building new structures. And however undramatic the pursuit of sustainable water, that pursuit must go on.1 Peace is a daily, a weekly, a monthly process, gradually changing opinions, slowly eroding old barriers, quietly building new structures. And however undramatic the pursuit of peace, that pursuit must go on. In Switzerland’s vision, the case for water cooperation is strong. While it does require political compromise, it also provides enormous gains for all sides. Water cooperation ensures economic prosperity, fosters resilience, creates trust, and enhances stability. We consider the interlinkages between water, development, peace and security to be essential for the well-being of humankind. Switzerland might not have the strongest muscles, but its dedication and determination might just be enough to inspire others to join in and reach out to a promising future for water cooperation. The Atlas of Risks and Opportunities at hand provides an overview of the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation’s (SDC) activities in the complex sphere of water, conflict and peace. The Atlas introduces the reader into the world of water conflicts from global risks to local impacts, underlined by various maps and infographics, and it highlights opportunities for Switzerland and concrete solutions and products consisting of interventions supported by the Global Programme Water, the South Cooperation, the Cooperation with Eastern Europe and the Swiss Humanitarian Aid. It provides a global overview and a series of continental and regional maps of SDC’s water and peace portfolio, and highlights the complexities at various geographical scales. Furthermore, it informs the reader about the support SDC is providing to activities in the areas of diplomacy, policy, economy, finance and technology contributing to the solution of the world’s problems related to water, conflicts and cooperation.

Johan Gély

Head Global Programme Water Division Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) 3


CONTENTS 5

PART I : GLOBAL RISKS – LOCAL IMPACTS

14

PART II: OPPORTUNITIES AND SOLUTIONS

18

PART III: MAPPING SDC INITIATIVES

22

AFRICA

28

MIDDLE EAST

32

EURASIA

36

SOUTHEAST ASIA

38

CENTRAL AMERICA

40

SOUTH AMERICA

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PART I

GLOBAL RISKS – LOCAL IMPACTS Over the past decade, discussions about water have not only featured more prominently in the media and political circles; water has also increasingly become associated with words like stress, crisis, conflict and even war. Grim predictions about looming conflicts, extreme drought and the catastrophic impacts of climate change paint a bleak picture of the future for many regions. But while there is indeed evidence that water can increase tensions and even contribute to conflicts between states and communities, the full story is more nuanced. Water stress alone is a weak predictor of tensions, and can even help cement cooperation when opposing parties have a shared need for water. The structure of conflicts is also changing, with a shift in focus from relatively linear conflicts between states to a more complex picture of intrastate conflicts involving multiple, often non-state, actors. Such conflicts can involve competition between sectors – in which the agricultural, industrial and municipal sectors all vie for the same water resource – or within sectors – in which herders and farmers struggle for control over a single water source. More multi-faceted conflicts pitting local communities against supranational corporations are also becoming increasingly common as globalized production threatens the environmental rights and livelihoods of local communities.2

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This map shows physical water risk based on a World Wildlife Fund (WWF) water risk assessment;3 economic water scarcity based on the World Resources Institute (WRI) Aqueduct Global Maps;4 and fragile countries as defined by Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).5 The location of global water stress hotspots are clearly visible.

MAP 1: Fragile

As in previous years, the World Economic Forum’s Global Risks Report 20176 places water crises – defined as “significant decline[s] in the available quality and quantity of fresh water resulting in harmful effects on human health and/or economic activity” – at the top of the list of long-term global threats (Figure 1). Concretely, such crises can increase local or regional tensions, impact

and vulnerable countries and water stress

N o r w Swe de

ay U n i te d St ate s

C a

U n i t e d

n

a

d

Denmark United Netherlands Ireland Kingdom Germany P Belgium Czech Re Luxembourg Austria Fra n ce Slovenia Switzerland Croatia Bosnia and I t a Portugal S p a i n Herzegovina Monten

a

S t a t e s

A l g e r i a

L

e

M

o

M

ro

c

Tunisia

co

x

Dominican Republic

i

c

Mauritania

Haiti

Senegal Gambia Guinea-Bissau Guinea

Co l o m bi a

G u ya n a

Ve n ez u e l a

M al i

Côte Sierra Leone Liberia d’Ivoire

Suriname French Guiana

N i g e r

Burkina Faso

G han a

Cuba o Belize Jamaica Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua El Salvador Costa Rica Panama

Togo

Nigeria

Benin Cameroon

Equatorial Guinea Gabon

Ecuador

P e

B

r a

z

i

l

Republic of the Congo

r

A

u Bolivia

N

Pa r

agu

ay

C

h Uruguay i

Fragile countries Physical water risk Economic water scarcity

l e

Source: OECD, DAC List of ODA Recipients (www.oecd.org/dac/stats/daclist.htm); OECD, States of Fragility 2015 (www.oecd.org/dac/governance-peace); Aqueduct Global Maps 2.1 Indicators; World Wildlife Fund (http://waterriskfilter.panda.org/en/Maps); Shaded relief by Kenneth Townsend Map produced by Zoï Environment Network, March 2017

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Argentina


and

states that current water management practices

regions. Moreover, the report points out that

also

potentially

between

geographical

must change significantly to avoid growing

we are inadequately equipped to deal with

competition over the resource, as agriculture,

such situations: more than 60% of the world’s

energy, industry and urban centres vie for

transboundary water basins are not governed by

their share of water. Growing water scarcity

any type of cooperative management framework

within countries will cause tensions between

and even where such frameworks are in place,

rural and urban areas, poorer and richer areas,

they do not include all countries in the basin.

en

food availability and drive migration. The report

Finland

R u

s

s

i

a

n

F e

d

e

r a t

i

o

n

M o n go l ia North Korea

C

h

i

n

a

South Korea

Japan

Nepal Bhutan

d i a

Bangladesh Myanmar

Om

an

st

an

Estonia Latvia Lithuania Poland Belarus ep.Slovakia U k r a i n e K a z a k h s t a n Hungary Moldova Romania Serbia Uz b Bulgaria Georgia Kyrgyzstan e ly Kosovo Armenia Azerbaijan Turkmenistankistan T u r k e y Tajikistan negro GF.Y.R.O.M. re e ce Cyprus Albania Syria I r a n Afghanistan Lebanon Israel Iraq Jordan Palestinian United Arab ki territories Kuwait Qatar Emirates Pa i b y a Egypt I n Saudi Arabia

m

al i a

Et h i o p i a

S ou th S u dan

Sri Lanka

nam

Philippines

Brunei Ma l ay s ia

S

o Ke nya Rwanda C o n g o Burundi Tan z a n i a

Timor Leste

Papua New Guinea

Solomon Islands

Malawi

mib

Moz

Na

am

Zimbabwe Botswana

ia

Swaziland S o u t h Lesotho Africa

car

Vanuatu

gas

ue

Zam bia

biq

Angola

I n d o n e s i a

Mada

n

Central African Republic

iet

Chad

V Thailand Cambodia

Eritrea Yemen

S u d a n

La

os

r

A u s t r a l i a

Ne

7

w

a Ze

lan

d


The Global Risks Landscape 2017 FIGURE 1

4.0

The global risks landscape, 2017 Weapons of mass destruction

4.0

Weapons of mass destruction

Extreme weather events

3.8 3.8

Water crises

Natural disasters

Water crises

Natural disasters

Failure of climate-change mitigation and adaptation or FailureUnemployment of climate-change underemployment Food crisesmitigation and adaptation

3.6

Spread of infectious diseases

3.6 3.47 average

Biodiversity and Food loss crises ecosystem collapse

Spread of infectious diseases Failure of financial mechanism or institution Biodiversity loss and ecosystem collapse Profound social instability Failure of financial mechanismFailure or institution of regional or Critical information global governance infrastructure breakdown Profound social instability

3.47 average 3.4 3.4

Unemployment Fiscal crises or underemployment Failure of national governance Fiscal crises

Interstate conflict

Terrorist attacks Large-scale involuntary migration

Cyberattacks Man-made Interstate Terrorist attacks environmental disasters conflict

State collapse or crisis Asset bubbles State collapse or crisis

Energy price shock

3.2

Data fraud or theft

Deflation

3.2

Unmanageable inflation

Data fraud or theft

Deflation

Illicit trade

Unmanageable inflation

Illicit trade

3.0

ImpactImpact

Large-scale involuntary migration

Cyberattacks Man-made environmental disasters Failure of national Asset bubbles governance

price shock or Failure of critical Failure of regionalEnergy Critical information infrastructure global governance infrastructure breakdown Failure of critical infrastructure

Extreme weather events

Failure of urban planning Adverse consequences of technological advances

3.0

Adverse 4.0 consequences of technological advances

Likelihood

4.0

4.5 4.5

Likelihood

Failure of urban planning

5.0 4.92 average 5.0 4.92 average

6.0

5.5

6.0

5.0

Plotted area

5.0

Plotted area

Economic Environmental Economic

5.5

Geopolitical Environmental Social Geopolitical

1.0

7.0

Technological Social

1.0

7.0

Technological Source: World Economic Forum Global Risks Perception Survey 2016 Note: Survey respondents were asked to assess the likelihood of the individual global risk on a scale of 1 to 7, 1 representing a risk that is not likely to happen and 7 a risk that is very likely to occur.Forum They also assess impact on each 2016 global risk on a scale of 1 to 5 (1: minimal impact, 2: minor impact, 3: moderate impact, 4: severe impact Source: World Economic Global Risksthe Perception Survey and 5: catastrophic impact). Note: Survey respondents were asked to assess the likelihood of the individual global risk on a scale of 1 to 7, 1 representing a risk that is not likely to happen and 7 a risk that is very likely to occur. They also assess the impact on each global risk on a scale of 1 to 5 (1: minimal impact, 2: minor impact, 3: moderate impact, 4: severe impact and 5: catastrophic impact).

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In 2015, an assessment of the performance of international water cooperation institutions by the Strategic Foresight Group7 (SFG) found that there was a direct correlation between neighbourly relations and the level of water cooperation. The survey of the state of peace and stability around the world found that countries which scored high on water cooperation initiatives generally had a low incidence of war and conflict. It concluded that when two countries are actively working together on water, they will not go to war for other reasons. Research by Aaron Wolf,8 one of the leading scholars of international water and conflict, shows that even if water can act as an irritant in the relationship between countries, no wars over water have been recorded in modern times (the only known war over water was fought between two city states in the Euphrates-Tigris Basin in 2500 BC). Thus history and current research suggest that conflict as a means of water management and dispute resolution is rather unlikely. Overall, shared interests, human creativity and institutional capacity along a waterway seem to reduce the risk of conflict over water. Furthermore, once cooperative water frameworks are established through treaties, they prove to be impressively resilient, even when other tensions divide riparian neighbours and conflict erupts over other issues. This suggests that instead of being a source of conflict, shared water may be conducive to cooperation, with violent disputes occurring only in exceptional circumstances. Still, Wolf cautions that while there are no records of actual water wars in recent times, there is plenty of evidence that serious political instability has resulted from the lack of clean fresh water, which has occasionally spiralled into violent conflict. Regional stability can thus be directly affected by the progressive reduction in quality and quantity of available water resources (Map 2). One of the interesting findings of Wolf’s research is that most water conflict is caused by very rapid changes – either to institutional structures or physical conditions – that outpace the institutional capacity to deal with such change. Thus, according to Wolf, “the likelihood and intensity of dispute rise as the rate of change within a basin exceeds the institutional capacity to absorb that

change”. He concludes that the most common measures of water stress should therefore not be considered indicators of future conflicts in and of themselves. An unprecedented number of people lack access to safe, reliable water supplies today. Moreover, as water from rivers and easily accessible groundwater are being used more intensively around the world, Wolf notes two major shifts: in many places, low water quality poses a greater threat than scarcity today, and users are increa­ singly turning to unconventional water sources that are not regulated by traditional governance frameworks. For example water drawn from deep fossil aquifers, the reuse of treated waste­ water or inter-basin transfers are rarely subject to comprehensive management structures, which increases the potential for conflict, particularly if the resources are transboundary. The nature of water conflict is also changing: it is less tradi­ tional and more often sparked by internal and local pressures, or less tangible issues such as poverty, inequality and stability. Together with the physical changes to water resources, this suggests that “tomorrow’s water disputes may look very different from today’s”. Indeed, water-related violence can look more like riots than wars, partly due to the shift from public to private financing of water infrastructure. The Earth Security Index 2016,9 a report by the Earth Security Group (ESG), points to the growing risk of corporate-community water conflicts, with strong evidence that social groups in water-scarce areas are offering increased resistance to industrial projects. Around 70% of the operations of the world’s six largest mining companies is concentrated in countries threatened by water scarcity. Popular opposition to mining activities has increased dramatically in water-insecure regions over recent years and such conflicts are likely to be further exacerbated as water, land and food security decline. A concrete example is Peru, where three mining projects with a total value of USD 7 billion have been blocked due to water-related conflicts with local communities. Moreover, companies withdrawing surface or groundwater in water-stressed regions may be perceived as a threat to local communities, even when they uphold stringent water-use efficiency

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standards. For example, in 2014-15 Coca Cola reportedly abandoned two major bottling-plant projects in India worth a total of USD 106 million following protests by farmers worried about the degradation and depletion of local groundwater sources. ESG foresees greater potential for conflicts between communities and agribusiness as competition over water increases, food selfsufficiency declines and unemployment in local communities grows. Moreover, it notes that the global groundwater crisis, while hidden from corporate view, is already affecting companies in

MAP 2: Conflict

the food and agriculture, power and water infrastructure, and extractives sectors. A 2014 Adelphi Research report10 on the rise of hydro-diplomacy examines how foreign policy can be strengthened to support transboundary cooperation. Besides valuable insights and recommendations by leading global scholars, the analysis includes many examples and case studies that strongly resonate with the experiences of the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) discussed in the second part of

and cooperation in transboundary basins

Yu ko n Nass Nelson-Saskatchewan

Scheldt

Elbe Rhine

Columbia

S a in t Law re n ce

Minho

Rhone

Cetina D

Lima Colorado Tijuana

Ode

M i ssi ss i p p i

Guadiana

Rio Grande

Senegal

Grisalva

N i g e r

L C

Volta Orinoco

Total number of interactions from 1990 to 2008 International exchanges – both conflicts and alliances – over shared water resources 127+ 41 – 126 16 – 40 4 – 15 1–3 None

A m a z o n Cunene

L a

Number of hostile events

46+

16 – 45

7 – 15

3–6

1–2

Source: Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database, Department of Geosciences (www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/database), Oregon State University; Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) in the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Germany (http://grdc.bafg.de); Katie Peek (www.popsci.com/article/science/where-will-worlds-water-conflicts-erupt-infographic); Shaded relief by Kenneth Townsend Map produced by Zoï Environment Network, March 2017

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P l a t a


this publication. The report stresses that while there may be little historical evidence of formal water wars, this does not mean conflicts at other levels should be overlooked. Conflicts may not centre on water, and politics or other issues may dominate, but water can nonetheless be one of the elements that drive conflict.

“Water can create tensions and is an issue in intergovernmental negotiations, but it is primarily an opportunity for cooperation and rapprochement between countries with transboundary water resources.� Peter Maurer, president of the International Committee of the Red Cross

This map shows conflicts and alliances in transboundary river basins. It is based on water seismograph data from the Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database at Oregon State University,11 and is inspired by a Katie Peek map published in Popular Science.12

er

Ye n i se y

Narva Neman

O

V o l g a Dnieper

b

Don

A m u r

Danub e

Dniester a Evros Drin Struma Aoos Vardar Orontes

Aras

Aral Sea

Ili Ta ri m

Han

Tejen

Jordan Euphrates-Tigris

Helmand

Indus

Pearl

a k e h a d

Gangel-BrahmaputraKaladan Mghna Irrawaddy Salween

N i l e

Mekong

Awash

Jubba

Co n g o

Zambezi Okavango Orange

Limpopo Komati

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Zooming in to the national scale, the Adelphi report

change. Findings from Adelphi Research14 from 2016

finds that within countries a broad range of sectors –

suggest that in transboundary river basins, climate

from agricultural production and rural livelihoods to

change is likely to negatively affect interstate relations

municipal water supply and sanitation, power gener-

and contribute to conflict. Furthermore, existing water

ation and public health – can be negatively affected

institutions that fail to adapt to the changing condi-

by insufficient and irregular access to water, which

tions could be destabilized by the impacts of climate

in turn creates security risks at the subnational level.

change. As a result, emerging disputes in transbound-

Sharing the costs of climate change across society may

ary basins – most of which have no formal agreements

prove challenging in some affected countries, trigger-

or River Basin Organizations in place – are increasingly

ing protests from certain groups and damaging the

likely to require diplomatic and foreign policy support.

government’s perceived legitimacy. Climatic changes may for example force pastoralists in the Horn of Africa – who are often armed – to seek new grazing lands for their herds, while drought may force impoverished Afghan farmers to abandon their land and move to the capital Kabul. Such situations could further damage social and political stability and heighten the risk of violent conflict. The report concludes that such situations can only be tackled by resilient institutions that are forward looking and “politically wise”. Climate change introduces new uncertainty in an already unpredictable situation, undermining the stability of cooperation and further complicating the management of the rapid physical changes discussed above. Already in 2008, the German Advisory Council on Global Change reviewed13 major global climatesecurity hotspots. In most places, water stress or deteriorating water quality were determining factors. Many basin-level institutions lack flexibility and do not have the resilience to face the impacts of climate

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This atlas uses the work of Aaron Wolf to develop a simple conceptual diagram that presents water conflicts along two axes: changing physical conditions versus shifts in the state of water governance. Rather than focusing on the general state of water availability and governance indicators – as some current research and analyses do – this atlas concentrates on the dynamics, examining whether conditions along both axes are deteriorating or improving and at what rate. The model combines quantitative analysis with a qualitative assessment and aims to stimulate discussion among experts, stakeholders and the general public. The model can be used at different levels, showing the situation in water basins from the broad regional to a very local scale. The pixilation is a visual reminder that such models inevitably always contain a certain degree of uncertainty and subjective judgment.


FIGURE 2

Conceptual model: The world of water conflicts

Governance & Institutions Institutions are deteriorating

Slow or no institutional change

Institutions are improving

Physical conditions

Physical conditions are improving

Slow or no physical change

Physical conditions are deteriorating

Likelihood / intensity of conflicts or tensions under water stress (local, intrastate / intersectoral, interstate): High --- Very high Moderate --- High Low --- Moderate None --- Low

Actions Contain the fast change in physical and institutional conditions Replace / restore damaged or deteriorating institutions Boost institutional adaptation Direct institutional adaptation Maintain status quo, encourage improving and sustain institutions

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PART II

OPPORTUNITIES AND SOLUTIONS The Swiss water and security toolbox Switzerland attaches great importance to promoting peace, human rights, economic growth and environmental sustainability around the world. As the water tower of Europe, Switzerland strives to be an exemplary upstream country, devoting great effort to delivering adequate quantities of good quality water to its neighbours, and to help absorb flood shocks to avoid major disasters downstream. Yet because of its high living standards, Switzerland’s water footprint is much larger than the world average. As a result of water-intensive imports, such as food items, 82% of Switzerland’s water footprint – the total volume of precipitation, surface and groundwater used globally for the production of goods and services consumed in Switzerland – are generated outside the country, often in regions where water resources are less abundant or even scarce.15 This underlines the relevance of Switzerland’s engagement in and sense of responsibility towards the resolution of global water issues – not just out of international solidarity, but also because its own development depends on it.

14


18%

82%

Internal water footprint

External water footprint

15% Agriculture 2% Domestic 1% Industry

66% Agriculture 16% Industry

FIGURE 3

Swiss water footprint of consumption

“The water crisis is a global challenge, which is why we need global solutions. The actions of one country alone cannot solve a problem of this complexity. Switzerland recognises the need to seek global commitment, to ensure swifter action is taken and to coordinate solutions.”

hope of building strong relationships and thus preventing future conflicts, including those related to water management. As the water tower of Europe and an experienced diplomatic broker with solid technical, scientific and political expertise, Switzerland works closely with its network of

Didier Burkhalter, Swiss Federal Councellor

partners to build a more secure future.

Water is a new shared challenge that brings

This atlas focuses on concrete SDC solutions and

people and governments together to seek inno-

products, consisting of interventions support-

vative solutions. Policy-makers are increasingly

ed by the Global Programme Water (GPW), the

prepared to discuss transparent, coherent and

South Cooperation, the Cooperation with East-

cost-efficient policies, laws and institutional res-

ern Europe and the Swiss Humanitarian Aid (SHA)

ponsibilities, including regulation and compliance

unit. The pillars of the Swiss toolbox for water and

mechanisms for sustainable water resource ma­­

security, which form the conceptual base of SDC’s

nagement at local, national and regional levels.

work, are described below (Figure 3).

Tackling water risks is not just an imperative, but

The SDC portfolio is built on the principles of

also an opportunity to lay the basis for a wa-

sharing social, economic, environmental and

ter-secure world where people have the capa-

political benefits. SDC’s new global engage-

city to safeguard sustainable access to adequate

ment transcends traditional models of develop-

quantities of acceptable-quality water and ade-

ment cooperation to combine the promotion of

quate and equitable sanitation to sustain liveli-

peace with the sustainable management of wa-

hoods, human well-being and socio-economic

ter resources. The Blue Peace framework, which

development; can protect themselves against

Switzerland launched in 2009 with its partners,

waterborne pollution and diseases and water-

allows SDC to partner with political leaders

related disasters; can preserve ecosystems in a cli-

worldwide to address the critical challenges of

mate of peace and political stability; and where

water security by developing joint solutions for

water is a catalyst for cooperation rather than

sustainable regional water management. The

a source of conflict. Switzerland played an ins-

same principles apply to other initiatives that

trumental role in the definition and adoption of

SDC supports, such as Building River Dialogue

United Nations Sustainable Development Goal

and Governance (BRIDGE), implemented by

(SDG) 6: to ensure availability and sustainable ma-

IUCN, Governance of Groundwater Resources in

SDC

Transboundary Aquifers (GGRETA), implement-

interventions are designed to help resolve protrac-

ed by UNESCO, the UNECE Water Convention

ted water conflicts. However, they also strive to

and others, which are described in more detail

foster trust beyond the domain of water in the

in Part III.

nagement of water and sanitation for all.

16

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SWISS TOOLBOX PILLAR 1: Engaging the network for political dialogue Switzerland has an innovative approach to engaging political leaders, officials, as well as the general public, parliament, civil society, the academic sector and the media in order to harness and manage collaborative solutions for sustainable regional and basin water management. The approach lays the foundations for the development of a regional political and diplomatic community and creates new opportunities for the resolution of protracted water-related conflicts. It allows for issues related to regional water management to be negotiated at a higher level. It introduces a new form of collaboration at basin level, based on mutual understanding between politicians, water experts, users and local communities, and creates new opportunities for basin-wide learning. An important subset of this work is capacity building to develop a common understanding of governance principles and to engage local populations in water management processes. At the request of riparian countries, the initiative is examining present and future water security issues in specific river basins and regions, and exploring ways to implement innovative short-, medium- and long-term recommendations to catalyse improved water management.

SWISS TOOLBOX PILLAR 2: Implementing tangible joint strategic operations The SDC initiatives apply recommendations through concrete, realistic, consensual and innovative joint initiatives that catalyse improvements to water management in the basins in which SDC operates. Water diplomacy and policy dialogue benefit from joint hydrological modelling and monitoring, and SDC supports common standards for the quantification, management and exchange of water data in various basins. Furthermore, SDC contributes to the development of transboundary master plans, basin legal frameworks and management institutions that balance the needs of agriculture, industry, households and ecosystems.

SWISS TOOLBOX PILLAR 3: Communication and advocacy The first two pillars enable concrete steps forward, and the results obtained at basin level are used within existing or newly created regional mechanisms and dialogue platforms. This mobilizes various advocacy networks, which in turn engage with the media and communicate through formal and informal channels to policy, political and diplomatic processes. This means support for enhanced water management is collectively expressed, thus strengthening the basis of the principles of water cooperation.

SWISS TOOLBOX PILLAR 4: Humanitarian interventions in conflicts and disasters A fourth pillar of activities is the humanitarian assistance provided in the context of conflicts and disasters. These actions are designed to provide sustainable access to water and sanitation, and are usually implemented by humanitarian organizations, United Nations agencies and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Part of these interventions are aimed at risk prevention to minimize the impacts of conflicts and disasters such as floods and droughts.

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FIGURE 4

Swiss water and security toolbox

Engaging the Network for Political Dialogue

Communication and Advocacy

Policy and diplomatic dialogue, region or workshops, capacity building for basin population and stakeholders

issues and solutions

Tangible Joint Strategic Operations

Advocacy, mass communication, inputs to formal and informal policy, political and diplomatic processes

Joint hydrological monitoring, modelling, management and exchange of water data

Transboundary basin management plans, legal frameworks and institutions

Providing sustainable access to water and sanitation services

Note: While there is no hierarchy between the various tools – all of them are equally relevant – it is important to apply the right mix. The icons designate specific areas of activity and are used in the legends of the maps in Part III.

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PART III

MAPPING SDC INITIATIVES This section provides a global overview of SDC’s portfolio in the realm of water and peace. It features a series of continental and regional maps that highlight the following elements: • The transboundary basins in the different regions • The basins in relation to the dynamics of the physical conditions and institutional frameworks (Figure 2) • The different types of SDC interventions (Figure 4) The maps were designed to enable easy reading and understanding by non-specialists. They are accompanied by short texts that highlight key project features as well as quotes from beneficiaries where available. The atlas gives readers an insight into the complexity of the water, conflict and cooperation issues in the various regions of the world, but also shows how SDC contributes to finding solutions. The aim is to create greater awareness and stimulate further engagement among readers.

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TABLE 1

Initiatives and Instruments of the Global Programme Water PROGRAMME

ACTIVITIES AND PURPOSES

Blue Peace Global; Global High-Level Panel on Water and Peace; Geneva Water Hub

Strengthening the global architecture to prevent and resolve water-related conflicts; facilitating the use of water as an important factor in peace building Leveraging resources available within the international organizations based in Geneva to develop the hydro-politics agenda

Global

Developing a reliable base of hydrological data to foster evidence-based policy-making and decision-making and to support conflict resolution in water resources management

Global

Developing and deploying low-cost, decentralized and peoplecentred hydrological data systems for decision-making in water resources management

Eastern and Southern Africa, Central Asia

Bringing simplicity to the various resource pressures undermining sustainable development Providing leaders in government, the private sector and civil society with a data-driven visual synthesis of country priorities

Global

Supporting the implementation of the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes by promoting its adoption outside the UNECE region and by providing tools and guidance

Global

Developing capacity to implement effective water governance through training, empowering champions and advising on institutional and legal frameworks

Africa, Central America, South America and Southeast Asia

Generating data and information on the physical and socio-economic characteristics of transboundary groundwater resources to support the establishment of joint governance mechanisms between countries

Central America, Central Asia and Southern Africa

Improving the generation, use and dissemination of data and information on hydrology, meteorology and land management to inform water and land policies and decision-making

Ethiopia and Kenya

Blue Peace Middle East

Contributing to peace building and strengthening cooperation on sustainable management of shared water resources through combined political and technical dialogues, which are substantiated in concrete regional projects and direct impact activities on the ground

Middle East

Blue Peace Central Asia

Catalysing and facilitating high-level political dialogue on transboundary water management Supporting diplomacy with concrete activities on data sharing, adoption of water quality norms and shared management of investments and infrastructure

Central Asia

Geneva Water Hub genevawaterhub.org Strategic Foresight Group strategicforesight.com HydroHub (Global Hydrometry Support Facility and Innovation Hub)

SCOPE

WMO www.wmo.int Innovative Monitoring and Modelling of Water Resources (iMoMo) iMoMo Consortium www.imomohub.org Earth Security Index Earth Security Group www.earthsecuritygroup.com UNECE Water Convention UNECE unece.org/env/water.html Building River Dialogue and Governance (BRIDGE) IUCN www.iucn.org/theme/water/our-work/bridge Governance of Groundwater Resources in Transboundary Aquifers (GGRETA) UNESCO www.groundwatercop.iwlearn.net/ggreta Water and Land Resource Centres (WLRCs) CDE, University of Bern www.cde.unibe.ch


This global overview map highlights initiatives and projects supported by the SDC Global Programme Water.

MAP 3: Water

as an Asset for Peace - Projects of the Global Programme Water

Global projects The interventions of the GPW at the global scale (not represented on the map): Contribution to the Earth Security Group Support to UNECE Water Convention activities HydroHub WMO

Projects [number of intervention countries] * Project also intervenes on a global scale

Coatan Basin

Goascoran Basin Ocotepeque-Citala Aquifer and Sumpul Basin

Sixaola Basin

Blue Peace Global [1]* Zarumilla Basin Catamayo-Chira Basin Blue Peace Central Asia [5] Blue Peace Middle East [7] Bridge (Building River Dialogue and Governance) IUCN [30]* Governance of Groundwater Resources in Transboundary Aquifers UNESCO [8]* Water and Land Resource Centres CDE [2] Innovative Monitoring and Modelling (iMoMo) [6]

Mano Basin

Lake Titicaca Basins/Aquifers

Kalahari-Karoo (Stampriet) Aquifer

Low income countries Least developed countries Other low income countries Lower middle income countries Upper middle income countries Fragile countries Source: OECD, DAC List of ODA Recipients (www.oecd.org/dac/stats/daclist.htm); OECD, States of Fragility 2015 (www.oecd.org/dac/governance-peace); Shaded relief by Kenneth Townsend Map produced by ZoĂŻ Environment Network, June 2017

20


r

Pretashkent Aquifer

Tigris Basin

Yarmouk Basin

Sesan, Sre Pok and Sekong Basins

Lake Chad

I G A D-Regi on

Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa

Pungwe, Save and Buzi Basins

21


AFRICA Water, conflict and cooperation issues in Africa are highly complex and diverse. In some regions – the Horn of Africa, the Maghreb and Southern Africa – physical water scarcity is prevalent, while other parts of Africa experience economic water scarcity and inadequate access to water due to poverty, poorly functioning institutions and conflicts. SDC’s engagement in Africa covers a wide range of instruments:

MAP 4: Africa S p ain

Portugal

Italy

c

Syria Lebanon Palestinian territories I r a q Israel Jordan Cyprus

Tu n i s i a

o

T u r k e y

Greece

c

I

o

r

b y a

d

E g y p t

o

i

i

Qatar

M

a

l i a

m

a

Jub b

go e Con

pu

o ng o

IGAD

Tanzania

i

Malaw

Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa

i

Zambezi

b

b

i

m Z a

M o z a m

Z imba bwe

Stampriet Aquifer 9

B ot swa na o op Li m

so b

p

Comores

Pungwe 8 Basin Buzi Basin 8

Save Basin 8

M a d a g a s c a r

a

A n g o l a

Save

improving

Ewaso Ngiro Basin 6

s

Physical conditions

S

No

9

5 6

2

Ewaso Ngiro

Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa 7

M olo

8

n

Lake Tanganyika

Kas a

go van

1

Sheb elle

Lake Victoria

C o n g o Burundi

b i a m i N a

improving

Et h i o pi a

Rwanda

Oka

Bridge (Building River Dialogue and Governance) IUCN Governance of Groundwater Resources in Transboundary Aquifers UNESCO Water and sanitation intervention in conflict zones Water and Land Resource Centres CDE Innovative Monitoring and Modelling (iMoMo) Water Experts for Humanitarian Missions

a

Ke nya

C

Shared Basin or Aquifer Shared Basin or Aquifer with SDC focus

e

m Y e Djibouti

Uganda

go

of th

Gabon

tre

Sio-MalabaMalakisi Basin 5

ngi Co n

Eri

o

N il e

at U ba

n

S o u t h S u d a n

Central African Republic

Came roon

Re

deteriorating

Aweil 4

Ouham

ue

r

S al

B ah

blic

São Tomé and Príncipe

7

a

White

N i g e r i a B en

am

Ch

Nig er

ta Vol

L

a Ghan

a

Benin

Yobe

Togo

Governance & institutions

d

Lake Chad

Equatorial Guinea

deteriorating

u

il e

in

S

C h a d

B lue N

B

Lake Chad 3

so a Fa

i a

r

ari

urk

Côte d ’Ivo ire

ria

e

Dosso region 2

M

l

Mano Basin 1

g

Maradi region 2

i q u e

i

l eg

a

Sierra Leone

b

N il e

N i

Ni

ger

S en

al

eg a Gambia Guinea- G ui ne Bissau

ra

n

United Arab Emirates

u S a

L

A

ibe

a

Kuwait

A l g e r i a

Mauritania

Sen

r

po

Swaziland l Vaa

Lesotho S o u t h O ra n ge A f r i c a

O ra nge

3

4 The numbers on the diagram correspond to specific locations identified on the map.

The numbers on the diagram correspond to specific locations identified on the map.

22

Shaded relief by Kenneth Townsend Map produced by Zoï Environment Network, June 2017


• BRIDGE in five basins accross the African continent

Lake Chad Basin

3

• WLRCs in Ethiopia and Kenya • GGRETA in the Stampriet Aquifer • Hydrometry support (iMoMo) in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania • Various humanitarian interventions in Niger, South Sudan and Sudan

Support to the Lake Chad Basin Commission The Lake Chad Basin, a region endowed with rich agricultural and pasture land, has recently turned into an environmental hotspot. Over-exploitation

In addition to the continental overview Map 4,

of water resources and the impacts of climate

Maps 5 and 6 respectively zoom into the Intergo-

change have caused the lake’s surface to shrink

vernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and

from 25,000 km2 in the 1960s to 4,800 km2 today.

the Southern African Development Community

Rapid population growth places further pressure on

(SADC) regions to show the complexity of trans-

the water resources in the basin, which is shared

boundary basins in Africa.

by Cameroon, Chad, the Central African Republic,

WEST AFRICA:

Lake Chad, Niger and South Sudan Mano River Basin

1

Libya, Niger and Nigeria. These countries are also members of the Lake Chad Basin Commission, which was set up in 1964 by the countries bordering the lake (Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria). In the Lake Chad Basin, BRIDGE mainly supports existing initiatives and strengthens institutional arrangements already in place, in particular the

Shared vision and institutional framework

Basin Commission. Priorities include facilitating In-

The Mano River originates in the Guinea Highlands,

producing and distributing thematic basin maps

forming the border between Liberia and Sierra Leone

and supporting the countries in the ratification of

further downstream. Despite a wealth of natural re-

the Lake Chad Basin Water Charter.

tegrated Water Resources Management (IWRM),

sources, the region has a high level of poverty due to conflict.

South Sudan (Aweil)

4

In the Mano River Basin, BRIDGE prioritizes support for the establishment of legal and institutional frameworks

Local water supply

for water governance reform. The project will initial-

In addition to suffering from larger-scale conflicts,

ly focus on facilitating a shared vision for the Mano,

villagers and nomads in South Sudan’s Aweil region

supported by an action plan for sustainable develop-

frequently clash over issues related to water use.

ment as a starting point for potential development of a

The SHA unit supports a project that provides a

basin-wide water charter.

stable water supply to more than 100,000 people. The rehabilitation of infrastructure helps reduce the

Western Niger 2 (Maradi and Dosso districts)

incidence of local conflicts.

Water infrastructure and management In the Sahel, water sharing between farmers and pastoralists can be highly problematic and conflictual. About 180,000 people benefit from the innovative Swiss engagement in the Programme d’Hydraulique Rurale et d’Appui au Secteur de l’Eau et Assainissement (PHRASEA) project, supporting water infrastructure development and management in Niger’s Dosso and Maradi districts.

23


IGAD REGION African Great Lakes, Horn of Africa and Nile Valley The IGAD region extends over 5.2 million km2, covering Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda (Map 5). Transboundary water and security issues in this region are of global geopolitical significance, but ongoing conflicts in Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan make cooperation difficult at times. BRIDGE delivers general support to the IGAD Secretariat to coordinate their efforts in the water sector, build capacity and facilitate dialogue.

Ethiopia, Kenya Water and Land Resource Centres Switzerland has a long-standing engagement in

due to agricultural practices and exploitation of

the region. The WLRC in Kenya was established

resources – such as the removal of sand from the

in 2002, building on research projects that were

riverbanks – are issues of concern. Around 85%

launched in the 1970s. The WLRC in Ethiopia

of the basin’s 4 million inhabitants is employed in

opened in 2011. These two centres contribute to

agriculture.

sustainability research, shared information bases and the promotion of best practices, which are all

In 2016, the Sio-Malaba-Malakisi Basin was se-

vital for decision-making in water and land resourc-

lected as a BRIDGE demonstration project, with

es management.

an initial focus on assessing the benefits of transboundary water cooperation and the launch of a

Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda

participatory process to develop future scenarios.

Ewaso Ngiro Basin

6

Innovative Monitoring and Modelling (iMoMo)

Knowledge base

The SDC-supported iMoMo activities in Kenya, Tan-

The Ewaso Ngiro River originates in the Mount

zania and Uganda have injected new impetus for in-

Kenya region of Kenya and flows west into an in-

novation, with the promotion of new technologies

creasingly arid landscape to join the Jubba River in

for monitoring, modelling and managing water.

Somalia. The river ecosystem is crucial to sustaining the growing number of people living in the basin,

Sio-Malaba-Malakisi Basin

5

but unsustainable agricultural practices upstream are increasingly threatening the sustainability of downstream livelihoods. Climate change exacer-

Strengthening transboundary water governance and cooperation

bates the situation by increasing negative impacts on the ecosystem.

The Sio-Malaba-Malakisi sub-basin of the Nile is shared by Kenya (upstream) and Uganda (down-

Long-term SDC-supported research led by WLRC

stream). The basin is rich in natural endowments

has tremendously increased the knowledge and

and has a high potential for development. How-

information base on water- and land-use regimes

ever, catchment and water-quality degradation

and practices in the Ewaso Ngiro Basin.

24


az Hej

MAP 5: Africa IGAD Aswan

E

g

y

Riyadh Medina

Region: African Great Lakes, Horn of Africa and Nile Valley

Lake Nasser

p

t

S

a u d i A r a b i a

L i bya

R d

N

e

ile

S

a

i

t

n

r

e

Y

Wa

n

e

m

e a

Lake Tana

lla Gha

Djibouti

Wa

l di e

Sudan

d

r

a

u

le White Ni

S

E

Baraka

ilk i el M Wad

ara Atb

Ch ad

e

r owa di H

S o u t h S u d a n

Ako

bo

a

p i a Ethiopia

Lake Abaya

Shebe lle

Pibor

g

Tu

Lake Albert Uganda

o

Lowa

Kagera

Sio-MalabaLake Malakisi Basin 5 Victoria

O

Tan

IGAD

Sankur u

Burundi a

si Malagara

T a n z a n i a Tanzania

ni

ga

Lake Tanganyika

Sabaki

Lake Eyasi Pan

Lua lab

I n

d

Rwanda

o

K e n y a

i Ath

Lake Kivu

S

Lagh Bor Ewaso N giro

a

i am Lom

Lake Edward

Kenya

n

n

Ewaso Ngiro 6 Basin

Lake Kyoga

Ugan da ia Victore Nil

o

Lake Turkana

i a

Aruwimi

el rkw

Jubba

m

S

Kyog Nile a

Congo

Tshu apa

i o

o Om

Uele

C

h

i

Baro

ue

ou Mbom

Ubangi

E t

t

u Wa

Ce nt ral Af ric an Repu blic

Sob a

Sudd

l

Jur

a

Aweil to Kot

Awash

Blue N ile

Bah r el Ara b

Shared Basin or Aquifer Shared Basin or Aquifer with SDC focus Bridge (Building River Dialogue and Governance) IUCN Water and Land Resource Centres CDE Innovative Monitoring and Modelling (iMoMo) Water Experts for Humanitarian Missions

Shaded relief by Kenneth Townsend Map produced by ZoĂŻ Environment Network, June 2017

25

c

e

a

n


SADC REGION Southern Africa The SADC region comprises 15 member states: Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe (Map 6). Water and peace issues are as complex as the region itself, with areas of distinct water scarcity in the south, while further north, areas of relative water abundance still experience water insecurity because poverty and conflicts complicate access.

MAP 6: Africa

26

h

e u

i

m

a

z

o

i f

Orange

ish Great F

Gourits

u

Gre

a S a ve

a

c Sak

A

r

Cale don

Fish

O range

Lurio

q

Luapu la

o

a

l Vaa

t

oop

s

i

Komati

M olo p o

S o

Save

Li m p

Olifants

Stampriet Aquifer 9

ob

Lug e

a ngw

Loma m oxo

ant

N

O lif

b

Au

i Buz

Qu

i ob

lo

Pungwe Basin 8

Ts

Buzi Basin 8 Save Basin 8

M a n g ok

M

m

B o t s w a n a oss

ss a

e

a

de

vu e

Re

N

Run

O k wa

Pung w

Z i m b a b w e

Eiseb

Me

i

i

va n g o

Okavango Delta

ezi

Shire

Za

mb

ya t

S an

Zambe zi

C

ne

Cahora Bassa

Lake Kariba

nda

w

m

a

Lake Malawi/ Niassa/Nyasa

a

u

uan do

L

b

Ka f u e

o Cuit

O ka

Ruvu m a

l

Lung web ung

Z e Cu n

i esh mb

Cha

a

Rufiji Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa 7

Lake Bangweulu

ua

l

a uah at R

Lake Mweru Wantipa

Zam be

o

Lake Rukwa

a

g

zi

i

T a n z a n i a

M

n

Lake Mweru

Lufira

A

Lake Tanganyika

Luv u

i

Luala ba

Kasai

ng

C u a n za

Uga ll

a

Cua

o

Lukuga

o

b

g

i

n Sankuru

o

gan

C

a

C

ba ala

Angola

Pa n

Lu

o ngo

SADC Region

Lesotho

Swaziland M a pu to

Tugela

O nilyhy


Lake Malawi/Niassa/Nyasa

BRIDGE addresses some of the riparian countries’ cooperation needs. Furthermore, it prioritizes dia-

Ecosystem approaches to Integrated Water Resources Management

logue and consensus building, along with technical

The Lake Malawi region, also known as Lago Nias-

sion operational and establish other stakeholder

sa in Mozambique and Lake Nyasa in Tanzania, is

frameworks.

an extraordinarily rich ecosystem in a region with considerable development potential. In addition to

support to make the bilateral Joint Water Commis-

Stampriet Aquifer

9

long-standing and continuing disputes about their national borders, Malawi and Tanzania have transboundary conflict and cooperation issues in the ba-

The Stampriet Aquifer is shared by Botswana, Na-

sin. Water resource exploitation already affects the

mibia and South Africa and lies within the Orange

level of the lake, and the fisheries and agriculture

River Basin. As the main source of water in the

sectors face potential competition from the emer-

area, the aquifer is used for drinking water pur-

ging mineral, oil and gas exploration sector.

poses and in the agricultural sector – for irrigation and to water livestock. The aquifer is currently not

BRIDGE activities, implemented in cooperation with

threatened by over-exploitation or pollution, but

the Zambezi Watercourse Commission, focus on

this could change rapidly as the basin population

training and capacity building, in which ecosystem

grows.

approaches are linked to the implementation of The three countries already cooperate through

IWRM.

regional bodies such as the Orange-Senqu River

Pungwe, Buzi, Save Basins

8

Commission and the SADC, but there is no specific legal instrument for the management of the Stam-

r

priet Aquifer. The countries have already agreed

c

a

iboka Bets

s

I ko p a

M a d

a

g

a

siribihin a

ky

7

Support to the bilateral water commission

on the designation, delineation and the conceptual

The Pungwe, Buzi and Save Basins are shared

hydrogeological model of the aquifer. The UNES-

by

Mozambique

CO GGRETA activities focus on bridging the gaps

(downstream). The three basins are mostly rural:

in data, monitoring and information systems, with

agriculture is the main economic activity and the

the aim of eventually having the countries share

main water user. Most of the pollution originates

responsibility and management of the resource.

Zimbabwe

(upstream)

and

from agriculture, human settlements and limited artisanal mining activities. Joint water commissions are key instruments for cooperation.

y

Shared Basin or Aquifer Shared Basin or Aquifer with SDC focus Bridge (Building River Dialogue and Governance) IUCN Governance of Groundwater Resources in Transboundary Aquifers UNESCO

Shaded relief by Kenneth Townsend Map produced by Zoï Environment Network, June 2017

27


MIDDLE EAST The Middle East is one of the world’s water and security hotspots. Its water scarcity is exacerbated by climate change and a volatile geopolitical situation, with ongoing conflicts in Iraq, Palestine, Syria and Yemen. SDC’s engagement in the region involves water diplomacy interventions in close coordination with humanitarian assistance, mainly through the Blue Peace Middle East Initiative and comprehensive humanitarian assistance for water supply and sanitation in Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey (Map 7).

Lake Sevan Ku ra

s Euphrate

Azerb.

k

r

k

Turkey

e

han

Botan

Cey

Euphra

Lake Urmia

te s

ud

han

Zar r

su

r

i

Lita ni ou

k

Wa

Ya r m

Jordan

West Bank

ran aw di H l-Ghadaf Wadi a

I

5 Azraq

Lake Milh

r

Iraq

a

q

Karun

n

K

n aru K

Jordan

tt a

y

J o

S ha

g

r

n

Lake Tharthar

d

a

a

her

E

Dead Sea

r

Dez

4 Yarmouk Basin 5 Zaatari

te s

I

Karkheh

I s r a e l

Lake Qadisiyah

7

B a s i n

ra

Gaza

ur

Syria

E u p h r a t e s - T i g r i s 2

h Eup

IsraelPalestine 3

a

s Tigri

Me di terranean S ea Lebanon

S y

Zab Lesser

ala

es

7

7 Syria (regions)

h

D iy

Cyprus

Oron t

Mosul 6 Khab

Lake Assad

in e

Gre ate rZ

ab

Blue Peace 1 Middle East

Caspian Sea

A ra s

Lake Van

Tigris

Sey G ok

y

d-R

u

Murat

Sefi

T

Keban Res.

Ja r ahi

Lake Tuz

East

A z e r b a i j a n

Armenia Kizil irm a

MAP 7: Middle

Zohre h

l-A r ab

p

Kuwait

G u lf

of Aq ab

t

a

Persian Gulf

S a u d i

A r a b i a

Map produced by Zoï Environment Network, June 2017

The numbers on the diagram correspond to specific locations identified on the map. improving

improving deteriorating

Blue Peace Middle East Water and sanitation intervention in conflict zones Water Experts for Humanitarian Missions

Governance & institutions

deteriorating

Physical conditions

Shared Basin or Aquifer Shared Basin or Aquifer with SDC focus

2 1

5

4

6

3

7

The numbers on the diagram correspond to specific locations identified on the map.

28

H e ll e h


Blue Peace Middle East

1

2

3

The Blue Peace Middle East Initiative aims to promote and implement consensual collaborative regional solutions and concrete actions to foster sustainable water management and strengthen the broader underpinning for peace in the region. The Blue Peace Community was created in 2011 and today constitutes a network of more than 200 opinionand policy-makers in the Middle East. Over the past six years, a period during which the Middle East has seen

“The risks and opportunities related to transboundary basins raise the question of what the international and regional community should do to prevent conflict and highlight water’s potential to reap greater collective benefits. A response to this question is becoming increasingly urgent as pressures on water resources grow. As if the ageold transboundary water management problem in the Middle East was not enough, violent newcomers on the scene are now taking hold of strategic basins such as the Euphrates-Tigris Basin. The Blue Peace Initiative has put these risks and ways of managing and resolving them in the spotlight.”

violent conflicts and multiple crises of governance, it has been the only sustained mechanism for regional dialogue on water. Blue Peace is moving towards im-

Ms. Marwa Osman, media leader and political analyst, Lebanon in Modern Diplomacy, June 201517

plementing concrete confidence-building water management measures that will improve general living conditions. It is also helping to establish a cooperation

Safeguarding Applied Management of Water Resources in Kurdistan (SAMoWaR)

council for the post-conflict era. Tangible results since 2011 include: In light of the steadily growing water demand that is • At a time when the Middle East has been caught

exacerbated by a substantial influx of refugees, the

up in crisis, the Blue Peace community has emerged

Iraqi water sector must urgently find an appropriate

as the only soft infrastructure for dialogue that

response to the crisis through effective actions and

brings together governmental, academic, techni-

recommendations. The project intends to generate

cal, civil society and media representatives.

and provide the required information and reliable data to improve sustainable water management in the tri-

• The process has led to the creation of a political umbrella which has facilitated progress on opera-

angular border region between Iraq, Syria and Turkey in the midst of a humanitarian crisis.

tional projects, such as the sharing of hydrological and meteorological data and preparations for the

Yarmouk River Basin 4

development of a coordinated and sustainable management framework in the Orontes Basin. Hydro-political baseline study • In the framework of the Blue Peace media net-

The Yarmouk River, shared by Israel, Jordan and

work, more than 500 articles, media reports and

Syria, is the largest tributary of the Jordan River. Un-

television programmes have highlighted impor-

like in other basins in the region, there is inadequate

tant water issues in the region.

collective knowledge of the hydrology and politics of the Yarmouk River. The project’s objective is to pro-

With regard to specific actions on the ground, the initi-

vide rigorous hydrological and political analysis that

ative focuses on closing the knowledge gap by helping

will serve as a baseline for effective transboundary

to gather reliable data about surface and groundwater

water resources management and hydro-diplomacy

resources and ensuring efficient water management

programming by Jordan, Syria and the international

and effective capacity building.

community. 29


Water Start-Up Programme and Innovation Training for Humanitarian WASH in the Middle East

The capacity-building programme will strengthen the

Since the beginning of the Syria crisis in March

local capacity of water and sanitation actors, particu-

2011, Switzerland has allocated more than CHF

larly with regards to humanitarian responses in Iraq,

315 million to assist affected populations. Half

Jordan and Lebanon. This will be done through a se-

of the funds have been allocated for the support

ries of trainings, innovative workshops and Arabic-lan-

of people in need in Syria itself, while the other

guage capacity development materials. Furthermore,

half has gone towards supporting neighbouring

dedicated water start-up training programmes, partly

countries – Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey – in

focusing on Syrian refugees in the region, will support

hosting refugees and vulnerable host community

water and sanitation entrepreneurs to market their

members.

ideas. The programme aims to increase employment opportunities and strengthen the role of the private

Syria

7

sector in sustainable water management in the region. In Syria, the population continues to suffer from

Communications and Media Training on Water

the serious consequences of incessant armed conflict and violations of human rights and IHL. They struggle to access clean water, food and basic healthcare. Over 4.6 million people in need of hu-

Another capacity building programme focuses on

manitarian aid are currently located in areas that

communication and media around water issues in

are hard to reach or besieged and receive aid only

the Middle East. It aims to sustain awareness of wa-

intermittently.

ter-related issues among the general public and media professionals in the region. The Blue Peace media net-

Faced with the gravity of the humanitarian crisis in

work will expand to provide a new generation of jour-

Syria and the region, SDC’s activities are built on

nalists, opinion makers and media professionals with

three pillars: providing humanitarian aid to affect-

the knowledge, skills and tools to communicate key

ed communities and strengthening their resilience;

aspects of water issues in the region more effectively.

helping to find a political solution to the conflict; and working to ensure compliance with interna-

Swiss Cooperation Programme in the Middle East

tional law and fighting impunity. SDC’s interventions aim to improve the situation of conflict-affected and vulnerable people according

Switzerland aims to save lives, reduce vulnerability

to humanitarian needs and principles. To this end,

and strengthen the resilience of affected popula-

SDC is working with its partners to support the

tions by improving their access to basic needs. It

most vulnerable persons, including targeting aid

seeks to strengthen respect for international hu-

to locations and persons with the greatest needs

manitarian law (IHL) and human rights, and directs

in accessible areas (e.g. areas of massive displace-

its efforts towards conflict transformation and the

ments) and to advocate for unimpeded human­

creation of a protective environment for vulnerable

itarian access to people in hard-to-reach and be-

populations, including internally displaced persons

sieged locations.

(IDPs), refugees and migrants. It also aims to improve access to clean water and sanitation and to promote efficient, sustainable and conflict-sensitive water management.

30


Jordan

5

Iraq

6

Jordan hosts more than 2 million Palestine refugees

Since 2014, more than 3 million Iraqis have been dis-

registered with the United Nations Relief and Works

placed due to conflict, and more than 930,000 have

Agency for Palestine Refugees. Of the Palestine ref-

fled to Iraqi Kurdistan. The country currently has the

ugees in Jordan, 18% live in 13 camps across the

third-largest internally displaced population in the

country, while the remaining 82% are integrated into

world.

Jordanian cities. In addition, Jordan currently hosts more than 650,000 Syrian refugees, which represents

In addition to financial support of bilateral and mul-

about 10% of the country’s population.

tilateral partners, SDC deploys experts from the SHA unit to the United Nations to strengthen the human-

The situation of these refugees is precarious: while

itarian response.

18% live in camps, the vast majority are so-called urban refugees, scattered across villages and towns,

In Mosul, SDC supports partner agencies to provide

seeking shelter wherever available. Scarce resources

safe drinking water to IDPs. In south and central Iraq,

and pressure on public services are fuelling tensions

SDC supports partners focusing on WASH interven-

between the refugees and host communities. An es-

tions.

timated 80,000 asylum seekers are currently stranded at the informal north-eastern border between Jordan and Syria with extremely limited access to humanitarian aid. In the domain of water, SDC seeks to enhance resilient, sustainable and conflict-sensitive water management. The interventions aim to increase access to safe WASH; improve water-use efficiency for food production; strengthen the basis for IWRM; and mitigate water-related disaster risks.

31


i Yen

sei

ry water management in Central Asia are of geopolitical significance for the security of the five republics in the region – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan – and indirectly impact the region’s neighbours Afghanistan and China (Map 8). Within SDC, projects implemented by the GPW and the Cooperation with Eastern Europe focus on Central Asia; the SHA unit supports WASH projects in the conflict zones in eastern Ukraine and on the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan; and the South ra Pecho

NORWAY

Cooperation in Pakistan supports projects within the Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus.

White Sea Ob

MAP 8: Eurasia

Neman

U k r a i n e

Blue Peace 1 Central Asia

Donetsk 7

a

z

h

k

Aral Sea

a

Pretashkent Aqu

Ay

C

Danube

s i a

s vro

Georgia

Azr.

y

S y r i a

Lebanon Israel

Shaded relief by Ellen Kuzdro Map produced by Zoï Environment Network, June 2017

I Jordan

The numbers on the diagram correspond to specific locations identified on the map.

32

Pa

I

es

Me di te rra ne a n S e a

ris Tig

Eup hra t

Cyprus

Lake Urmia

Lake Van

Greece

Can.

r

rga

e

Atrek

Tejen

k

a

Mu

r K i z ilir m a k

Karaku m

a S e

c e e e G r

u

ar y

Tur km e n i s t a n

n Azerbaijan

Armenia

T

uD

Am

S e a

p

E

B l a c k

Uzbeki

Sarygamysh Lake

a

Bulgaria

A

a

K

ldov

Siret

R o m a n i a

D on

Dnie per

Ukraine

Ural

Volg a

Desn a

Pripyat

e s te r

Ishim

R

B e l a r u s

D ni

Belaya

u Dnieper

Poland

s

Vol ga

a

B

Dau gav

ma

s

Rybinsk Res.

Ka

S e a

l t i c

Lake Peipus

Latvia Lithuania

a

i

Neva

Estonia

tka Vya

Rus.

Lake Onega

Lake Ladoga

Tobol

Finland

Sweden

Mo

D A

The Eurasian region comprises the countries of the former Soviet Union. Water security and transbounda-

a

P.

EURASIA

a

q

r

a

n


1

nga ra

Blue Peace Central Asia A

Following an initial meeting held in Basel in 2014, the high-level political dialogue of the Blue Peace Central Asia Initiative focuses on the development of a shared regional vision and concrete recommendations for shared water resources management in consultation with other regional initiatives supported by Germany, the United Nations and the isei

Yen

World Bank. Activities on data sharing, adoption of water-quality norms and shared management of investments and infrastructure will be implemented in

Ob

parallel.

Pretashkent Aquifer

2

Ir t y s h

Governance of groundwater resources in transboundary aquifers

Zaysan Res.

The Pretashkent Aquifer is shared by Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The UNESCO-led initiative aims to im-

Sa

t

s

prove knowledge of hydrogeological, socio-econo-

a

n

a

Balkhash Lake

mic, legal and institutional aspects of managing this vital resource. UNESCO published a comprehensive

n

u r ys

Ili

assessment report in 2016, and is now following up by identifying priority issues for joint implementation.

i

Tarim Ch

u

Ysik-Kol

h Yark and

n

deteriorating

Governance & institutions

improving

improving

sta

C

a

z Kyrg y

an

s

Syr D ary

Hot

Chu-Talas Basin 3 Tala

stan

5

Vakh sh

Ta ji k i sta n

6

Pa n j

Zaravshan

10

Laspur and Yarkhun valleys

Indus

nab

luj

I n d i a

an

d

H el m

Sat

Pakistan-Afghanistan 8 border region

9 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and the Federal Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan

P a k i s t Ind u a n s

Afghanistan

2 7

8

4 1

6

3 5

11 10 9

Ch e

Jhe

lu m

ab

Chail Valley, Swat District, and 11 the Federal Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan Kabul

deteriorating

ydar Lake

Physical conditions

4 Ferghana Valley

uifer 2

The numbers on the diagram correspond to specific locations identified on the map.

Shared Basin or Aquifer Shared Basin or Aquifer with SDC focus Blue Peace Central Asia Governance of Groundwater Resources in Transboundary Aquifers UNESCO Innovative Monitoring and Modelling (iMoMo) Water and sanitation intervention in conflict zones Water Experts for Humanitarian Missions

33


Chu and Talas

Uzbekistan

3

5

Innovative Monitoring and Modelling (iMoMo)

National Water Resources Management

Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan share the waters of the

be strengthened. Therefore, SDC supports the Min-

transboundary Chu and Talas Rivers, which provide

istry of Agriculture and Water Resources by building

essential resources for the irrigation of vast agricul-

capacities at local and central levels, by improving the

tural areas in both countries, as well as opportunities

management of water-related data within the coun-

for hydropower generation. The two countries signed

try and by supporting the establishment of strategic

a water management agreement in 2000, which led

and legislative framework conditions for the develop-

to the establishment of the bilateral Chu-Talas Com-

ment of the water sector. To improve the prevention

mission in 2006. The iMoMo approach for generat-

of flood-related disasters and the preparedness of

ing, managing and exchanging data was launched in

the authorities and the population, a pilot project is

2014. The project is aiming at introducing a modern

carried out on a small river shared by Kyrgyzstan and

management information system in transboundary

Uzbekistan.

Water resources management in Uzbekistan needs to

Chu and Talas Basins to improve water accountability and transparency.

Tajikistan

Ferghana Valley 4 (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan)

National Water Resources Management

6

The Government of Tajikistan requested SDC to address the transformation of its water resources

Rural Water Supply and Sanitation

management. A project in the north of Tajikistan

The densely populated Ferghana Valley is a major

strengthens the capacities of the irrigation water

breadbasket of Central Asia, which makes water a

providers and the local communities in effective wa-

particularly valuable resource. A highly complex net-

ter resource management, in order to support the

work of channels runs through the Fergana Valley

ongoing water sector reform process. Concurrently,

to irrigate the fertile lands of this wheat and cotton

the project supports the rehabilitation of key irriga-

growing area. Water – an increasingly rare resource

tion infrastructure and reduce the impact of natural

– is the cause of many cross-border conflicts. SDC is

disasters to sustain the achievements of the project.

engaged in the Fergana Valley both in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan with the Regional Rural Water Supply and Sanitation project since 2007. Due to difficulties in implementing regional projects in Central Asia, SDC decided in 2012 to develop two separate country projects with a regional view. The overall objective of the project is to improve the rural population’s health and livelihood with sustainable WASH facilities as well as with the development of training for better household hygienic behaviour.

34


Donetsk region, Ukraine

7

Improving drinking water supply and quality

Laspur and Yarkhun Valleys, 10 Chitral District, Pakistan

In Ukraine, the SHA unit has supplied sand and chem-

Water and Energy Security through Microhydels

ical products to improve the drinking water supply of

Given the rugged terrain and remoteness of many parts

3.5 million people. This assistance was linked to an

of Pakistan, there are still places that have no or very little

appeal to the warring parties to respect the Geneva

electricity. SDC supports the construction of mycrohydel

Convention on human rights regarding drinking water

power stations in the Laspur and Yarkhun Valleys, which

supply and distribution.

are not connected to the national power grid. More than 2,200 households benefit from this project, which in ad-

Afghanistan-Pakistan border region

8

dition has also contributed to reducing deforestation and the degradation of natural resources as well as to creating business opportunities such as the establishment of community-based power utility companies.

Water supply and sanitation for refugees In the eastern districts of Pakistan, SDC provides access to drinking water to more than 50,000 Afghan refugees.

Chail Valley, Swat District, 11 and the Federal Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), Pakistan

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) 9 and the Federal Administered Tribal Community-based Disaster Risk Reduction Areas (FATA), Pakistan

To enhance community resilience in regions of Pakistan with high disaster risks, SDC supports a community-based

Water for Livelihoods (W4L)

Disaster Risk Reduction projectin the Chail valley and the

Pakistan has traditionally suffered from water crises going

FATA. Among others, the project supports a highly inno-

in both directions – the country either suffers from too

vative concept providing Cash-for-Work incentives to IDPs

much or too little water. Disasters like the 2010 floods de-

in watershed management and disaster risk manage-

stroyed millions of livelihoods in KP and the FATA, which

ment, or the development of a disaster risk management

the affected population still struggles to rebuild. SDC sup-

plan for the FATA.

ports both the establishment and rehabilitation of irrigation and drinking water supply in the region, also through institutional and legal reforms. About 10,000 households have profited from each of these activities, also preventing water-related conflicts.

35


SOUTHEAST ASIA The Mekong River is one of the major transboundary rivers in Southeast Asia. Originating on the Tibetan Plateau, the river runs through China, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. In 1995, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam established the Mekong River Commission for the shared management and use of the river’s resources. China and Myanmar joined as dialogue partners in 1996. Switzerland has a long-standing commitment to the Mekong River Commission and its water, conflict and cooperation activities focus on supporting the BRIDGE programme on three Mekong tributaries (Map 9).

Sekong, Sesan and Sre Pok

1

2

3

Transboundary dialogue BRIDGE has helped catalyse transboundary dialogue on the three shared tributaries in the Lower Mekong region: Sekong (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam), Sesan (Cambodia, Vietnam) and Sre Pok (Cambodia, Vietnam). The three basins sustain the livelihoods of 3.5 million people. A number of workshops on water diplomacy have been conducted and a network of national champions for water cooperation has been established. In addition, the initiative has developed a shared information platform with interactive downloadable maps. The long-term aim of the initiative is to establish sustainable institutions for transboundary water resources management. This slow, bottom-up diplomacy is being replicated elsewhere in the Mekong, and is facilitating cooperation between Myanmar and Thailand.

“From that meeting came better understanding and a shared vision. One of the major issues that came up was that better coordination between different agencies and better mechanisms for data sharing across countries was needed.” Tek Vannara, deputy executive director, NGO Forum on Cambodia18

36


MAP 9: Southeast

Asia

Yellow

Wei Governance & institutions

deteriorating improving

Yellow

1

Physical conditions

Mekong

deteriorating

Yalon g

d

i

C

a

h

i

n

Yuan

The numbers on the diagram correspond to specific locations identified on the map.

Min

n

Yangtze

u Dad

ee

Yangtze

S al w

I

2 3

Jialin g

n

improving

a

an Nanp

Xun

M e ko

ng

Red

M y a n m a r Irrawaddy

Salwee n

L a

V

i

o e

T h a i l a n d

t

s

Ch

i

Sekong 1

Sek on g

n

hraya Chao P

an Ses

Sesan 2

a

Sre

Me

g

k

on

m

Sre Pok 3

Tonle Sap

Pok

C a m b o d i a

Shared Basin or Aquifer Shared Basin or Aquifer with SDC focus Bridge (Building River Dialogue and Governance) IUCN

Shaded relief by Ellen Kuzdro Map produced by ZoĂŻ Environment Network, June 2017

The numbers on the diagram correspond to specific locations identified on the map.

37


CENTRAL AMERICA

Coatan Basin

1

Few areas in Central America experience physical water scarcity, but economic SDC interventions focus on the BRIDGE programme, with activities in four basins

Transboundary cooperation of micro-watershed councils

– Coatan, Goascaran, Sumpul and Sixaola – and on the GGRETA programme,

The spectacular Tacaná Volcano on the Guatema-

covering the Sumpul Basin and Ocotepeque-Citalá Aquifer.

la-Mexico border is the second-highest peak in

scarcity, poverty and political instability limites access to water in places (Map 10).

Central America. Several watersheds in the border area drain to the Pacific Ocean and support small communities. BRIDGE facilitated the establishment of the Buena Vista micro-watershed committee, and exchanges between micro-watershed councils in Guatemala and Mexico enabled the implemen-

sum

e acin

x

i

tation of action plans on both sides of the border.

c

o

ta

l i z e

MU

America Hon do

MAP 10: Central

r

i

b

P a sio n

Lake Izabal

ta n

G u a t e m a l a

M o n tag

Coa

Aguan

Ulua

ua

H o

n

pul Sum

Ocotepeque-Citala Aquifer 2

vado

r

d

u

s

Coco

Tuma

Shared Basin or Aquifer Shared Basin or Aquifer with SDC focus

G ran

de

N i c a Gr a g u a ran d

Bridge (Building River Dialogue and Governance) IUCN Governance of Groundwater Resources in Transboundary Aquifers UNESCO

Governance & institutions

r a

Goascoran Basin 3

Goascor an

Sal

Lempa

El

a

Humuya

Sumpul Basin 2

Coatan Basin 1

b

Patu c

y hixo

Cuilco

C

Lake Managua

e

Lake Nicaragua

improving

improving

deteriorating

a

B

un ant

Presa de la Angostura

e

Lac

C

P c

3

4 1

c

Sixaola

deteriorating

O The numbers on the diagram correspond to specific locations identified on the map.

Map produced by Zoï Environment Network, June 2017

The numbers on the diagram correspond to specific locations identified on the map.

38

Sixaola Basin 4

R i c a

f

i

2

Jua n

C o s t a

i

Physical conditions

a

San

c

e

a

P

n

a


Ocotepeque-Citalá Aquifer and Sumpul Basin

2

Transboundary cooperation The Trifinio region on the border between El Salva-

countries turned out to be two distinct aquifers. Only

dor, Guatemala and Honduras generally has suffi-

one of these, the Ocotepeque-Citalá Aquifer shared

cient water, but only about 80% of the population

by El Salvador and Honduras, is transboundary. The

is connected to a domestic water supply system.

project’s main objective is to improve groundwater

Groundwater is the main source of domestic water.

governance through multi-actor cooperation, the

Geophysical surveys of the Ocotepeque-Citalá Aqui-

promotion of gender equality and the establishment

fer, which were conducted during the first phase of

of an information management system.

the GGRETA pilot project, yield unexpected results: what was assumed to be one aquifer shared by three

El Salvador and Honduras share the Sumpul River Basin, a tributary of the Rio Lempa. The main issues are

Jamaica

related to water deficits during the dry season and floods caused by deforestation and unsustainable land-use practices in the upper reaches of the basin. The BRIDGE programme sponsored several meetings of champions. These are leaders who aim to increase cooperation in transboundary basins and promote protection and responsible management of the basins.

Goascoran Basin

e

a

3

Establishment of a binational management group

n

The Goascoran River is shared by El Salvador and Honduras. In general, weak institutions and mini-

S

mal transboundary cooperation limit the effectiveness of the response to the main environmental

e

problems in the basin, such as prolonged droughts,

a

infertile soils, pollution by agrochemicals, deforestation and hunting. Under the BRIDGE initiative, the binational basin management group was strengthened through the participation of state institutions, municipal and local economic associations and NGOs. The group has set in motion a strategic plan for the development of the basin.

Sixaola Basin

4

The Sixaola Basin, shared by Costa Rica and Panama, is known for its high biological and cultural diversity. It is home to no fewer than six protected areas and a Pan

six indigenous territories. Some of the issues require

ma

Can a

a

m

a

ue unaq Chuc

n

transboundary attention, and BRIDGE has supported

l

various consultations with government organizations,

“Since we have someone on the com­mission, we know what is going on. We can go to the community and tell them what the commission is doing. And we can take information from the community back to the transboundary commission.”

civil society and indigenous peoples. With the adop-

Tuir a

tion of by-laws for the Sixaola Binational Watershed

Co lo mb ia

Commission, BRIDGE has moved the process forward so that the basin commission is now operational.

Atrato

39

Mrs. Mitzela Dávila, member of the Champions Network


SOUTH AMERICA In South America, physical water stress is mostly limited to the western Andes and southern Argentina, whereas Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru may experience economic water scarcity (Maps 1 and 11). In the Andean region, the focus of SDC’s support is the BRIDGE programme in the Catamayo-Chira and Zarumilla Basins shared by Ecuador and Peru, and in the Lake Titicaca Basin between Bolivia and Peru.

Catamayo-Chira and Zarumilla Basins

1

2

Lake Titicaca Basin

3

Dialogue and data

Pollution is one of the main issues in the Lake Titi-

The Zarumilla River marks part of the border

caca Basin. One problem is erosion and sedimenta-

between Ecuador and Peru, and, in the past, occa-

tion – partly related to mining – and another is pol-

sional changes in the river’s course led to disputes

lution from the human settlements lacking sewage

between the two countries. There are also cross-river

treatment plants. The high variation in the lake’s

issues (as opposed to the more classical upstream-

water level creates another set of problems.

downstream scenario) related to the sharing of irrigation water.

The Binational Autonomous Authority of Lake Titicaca was established in 1993. The SDC-supported

In the Catamayo-Chira Basin, the unprecedented

BRIDGE activities focused on facilitating collabora-

expansion of agriculture over the past decade has

tion between the hydro-meteorological institutes

caused tensions around the sharing of irrigation wa-

of Bolivia and Peru and among the water supply

ter. In addition, problems related to water pollution

companies in the basin. A water information sys-

and erosion in the upstream part of the river contri-

tem was developed and a plan to revise basin orga-

bute to the sedimentation of downstream reservoirs.

nization mandates was carried out.

In 2011, Ecuador and Peru set up the IWRM Binational Commission for the Zarumilla River. In 2012, the two countries signed a joint presidential declaration calling for the establishment of binational commissions on the Catamayo-Chira and Puyango-Tumbes Basins. In the Zarumilla Basin, BRIDGE facilitated the progress of an IWRM plan and supported the establishment of a water information system that resulted in new agreements on basin delineation. These steps in the development of the Zarumilla Commission now serve as a model for water cooperation between Ecuador and Peru . In the Catamayo-Chira Basin, BRIDGE facilitated a series of dialogues over water cooperation, resulting in the development of a basin-wide water information system. The groundwork has also been laid for the establishment of a binational institution mandated by the presidents of the riparian countries.

40

MAP 11: South

America


Cub a

Guatemala

Dominican Republic

Belize Ocotepeque-Citala Aquifer Sumpul Basin

Jamaica

Honduras

Goascoran Basin

Trinidad and Tobago

Nicaragua

Sixaola Basin

Costa Rica

Orinoco

d ale na

El Salvador

Panama

Rio Bra nco

G

The numbers on the diagram correspond to specific locations identified on the map.

French Suriname Guiana

na

iare uav

yo ma utu

P

Rio Am

zon Ama

Neg ro

a zo n

ba

Tap a

jo s

Uca yal i

Zarumilla Basin 1

P

r

a

z

i

l

Ma

e

Tocantins

B

u

d e ir a

Pur

s

Catamayo-Chira Basin 2

Guya

Mag

Venezuela Colombia

Ecuador

3

Parna i

Lempa

1 2

deteriorating

Coatan Basin

improving

Haiti Physical conditions

M e x i c o

Governance & institutions

improving

deteriorating

r Franc is

co

u

S ao

Lake Titicaca

B o l i v i a

Lake Titicaca 3

ra

ua

ara P

g

a yo

Paraguay

Pa

Pil c om

na

Lake Poopo

y

Para n

n

a

Uruguay

n

i

t

l

i

adero Desagu

e

a

Uru gua

y

Chub ut

A

Shared Basin or Aquifer Shared Basin or Aquifer with SDC focus

C

r

g

h

e

Rio Negro

Bridge (Building River Dialogue and Governance) IUCN Governance of Groundwater Resources in Transboundary Aquifers UNESCO

Shaded relief by Herwig G. Schutzler Map produced by ZoĂŻ Environment Network, June 2017

41


42


OUTLOOK “The only alternative to water is water”. Danilo Türk, chairman of the Global High-Level Panel on Water and Peace, former President of the Republic of Slovenia

Imagine water is easily available to everyone and safe to use. Imagine it is shared equitably - benefit sharing is not just a concept but common praxis among riparian countries with plenty of successful examples. Imagine cooperation over water is axiomatic and competition over water a result of proper management leading to its protection and valuation. This naïve but beautiful thought is swiftly destroyed when reading the daily news: Growing political tension between riparians over shared water resources; drying rivers; depleting groundwater resources; the alarming growth of the world population; uncontrolled urbanization; climate change; water stress and pollution; water competition, tensions and conflicts – an endless list. For several years in a row, the World Economic Forum’s Global Risk Reports have ranked water crises among the top global risk in terms of impact to society. It is estimated that by the year 2050, 50% of the world’s population will live in water stress regions, and at least one in four of us will live in a country with chronic water scarcity. At the same time, today more than 80% of the world’s wastewater is being discharged into the environment without any form of treatment. For almost ten years, Switzerland has been engaged in water diplomacy and governance, supporting a number of programmes and initiatives of water cooperation and integrated management as displayed in this Atlas. SDC’s underlying conviction is that, if countries in a given neighbourhood are actively engaged in cooperation for harnessing benefits from water resources and preserving fresh water, rather than merely allocating shares of water resources, they will also lose incentives to go to war. This has been the credo for the past years, as SDC became particularly active in the development of new mechanisms for water-policy negotiations and coordination in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Latin America. SDC’s engagement in water diplomacy relies on the long-standing experience and expertise Switzerland has gained

in transboundary water cooperation, for instance in the Rhine basin, one of the most important cultural and economic axes in Europe. The power of water cooperation has guided Switzerland towards creating a global programme on water within its development agency. It has prompted Switzerland to develop lines of action on “water and security” to provide a compass to the work of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. Last but not least, in Switzerland, water, peace and security has become a top priority of the administration, supported by experts with a vast network in the field, and championed by its leaders. Switzerland plays an important role in bringing together expertise and knowledge from different fields and stakeholders. We believe that using water sustainably – for the benefit of people, nature, agriculture and businesses, which is the aim of SDG 6 – can only be reached through collective action involving all stakeholders on local, national and global levels. We believe that together, we can act in a responsible manner that puts the right infrastructure, methods and water governance in place to effectively source, manage and replenish water around the world, leaving an adequate freshwater supply for future generations. If we together succeed, we will look back to the year 2017 as the year in which the notion of water as an asset for peace has been turned into a widespread diplomacy mechanism. A peace mechanism that encourages forming joint water management bodies, that favours subsidiarity over sovereignty and that engages senior political leaders in the water discourse all over the world. The momentum has been created by the work of the Global High-Level Panel on Water and Peace, launched by Switzerland in November 2015. Now it is time for us to nurture our institutions, set the agendas and roll up our sleeves for a water secure world.

43


ACRONYMS BRIDGE

Building River Dialogue and Governance

CDE

Centre for Development and Environment

ESG

Earth Security Group

FATA

Federal Administered Tribal Areas

GGRETA

Governance of Groundwater Resources in Transboundary Aquifers

GPW

Global Programme Water

IDP

Internally Displaced People

IGAD

Intergovernmental Authority on Development

IHL

International Humanitarian Law

iMoMo

Innovative Monitoring and Modelling

IUCN

International Union for Conservation of Nature

IWRM

Integrated Water Resources Management

KP

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

NGO

Non-governmental Organization

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

SADC

Southern African Development Community

SDC

Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation

SDG

Sustainable Development Goals

SHA

Swiss Humanitarian Aid

UNECE

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

WASH

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

WLRC

Water and Land Resource Centre

WMO

World Meteorological Organization

WRI

World Resources Institute

WWF

World Wildlife Fund

44


FOOTNOTES 1

2

Addressed by John F. Kennedy before the United Nations, September 20, 1963 (source: http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/102477-peace-isa-daily-a-weekly-a-monthly-process-gradually).

The 2010 novel Freedom by the American author Jonathan Franzen vividly illustrates such conflicts.

3

http://waterriskfilter.panda.org/.

4

http://www.wri.org/publication/aqueduct-global-maps-21.

5

http://www.oecd.org/dac/conflict-fragility-resilience/.

6

World Economic Forum. The Global Risks Report 2017, 12th Edition. Geneva, 2017.

7

Strategic Foresight Group. Water Cooperation Quotient. Mumbai, 2015.

8

Wolf, Aaron T., Yoffe, Shira B. and Giordano, Mark. International waters: identifying basins at risk. In: Water Policy 5:1, 2003.

9

The Earth Security Group. Earth Security Index 2016. Business Diplomacy for Sustainable Development. London, 2016.

10

Adelphi Research, The rise of hydro-diplomacy. Strengthening foreign policy for transboundary waters. Berlin, 2014.

11

http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/database/.

12

http://www.popsci.com/article/science/where-will-worlds-waterconflicts-erupt-infographic.

13

German Advisory Council on Global Change. Climate Change as a Security Risk. Earthscan, London and Sterling, VA, 2008.

14

Adelphi Research. Water and Climate Diplomacy. Integrative Approaches for Adaptive Action in Transboundary River Basins. Berlin, 2016.

15

World Wildlife Fund and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, The Swiss Water Footprint Report. A global picture of Swiss water dependence https://www.eda.admin.ch/content/dam/deza/en/documents/ publikationen/Diverses/209748-wasser-fussabdruck-schweiz_EN.pdf

16

http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/water-and-sanitation/.

17

http://moderndiplomacy.eu/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=734:blue-peace-in-the-middle-east&Itemid=566.

18

https://www.iucn.org/theme/water/our-work/bridge.

45


Publisher: Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA) Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) Global Programme Water, 3003 Bern, Switzerland www.sdc.admin.ch Concept & analysis: Zoï Environment Network Maps, infographics and layout: Zoï Environment Network Orders: Information FDFA
 +41 (0)58 462 31 53 E-mail: publikationen@eda.admin.ch Bern, 2017

Water as an Asset for Peace: Atlas of Risks and Opportunities