Page 1

ENGL VERB ISBN 978-961-237-154-8

GAŠPER ILC je izredni profesor

Zbirka vaj English Verbs in Use I je namenjena študentom angleškega jezika in vsem drugim študentom, ki jih zanima specifičnost angleškega glagolskega sistema. Gradivo pokriva področja oblikoslovja (glagolska morfematika in glagolske kategorije), skladnje (glagolska besedna zveza, stavek, poved) in besediloslovja (raba glagolskih oblik v besedilu).

English Verbs in Use I _NASLOVNICA_PONATIS 2016.indd 1

Poseben poudarek je na tistih področjih angleškega glagola, ki so zahtevnejše za slovenske govorce angleškega jezika (npr. glagolski vid in glagolski časi).

za področje angleškega jezika na Oddelku za anglistiko in amerikanistiko Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani. Ukvarja se z modernim angleškim jezikom in sodobnim angleškim jezikoslovjem. Proučuje področje angleškega glagola (oblikoslovne, skladenjske in pomenoslovne značilnosti in zakonitosti), kar predstavlja tudi jedro njegovega pedagoškega dela. Predava predmeta Angleški glagol I in II ter različne jezikoslovne seminarje.

GAŠPER ILC: ENGLISH VERBS IN USE I: EXERCISES FOR STUDENTS

9 789612 371548

GAŠPER ILC

ENGLISH VERBS IN USE I EXERCISES FOR STUDENTS Oddelek za anglistiko in amerikanistiko Ljubljana, 2016

31.8.2016 12:19:21


Gašper Ilc

ENGLISH VERBS IN USE I Exercises for Students

Ljubljana 2016 1


ENGLISH VERBS IN USE I Exercises for Students Avtor: Gašper Ilc Recenzentki: Smiljana Komar, Irena Kovačič © Univerza v Ljubljani, Filozofska fakulteta, 2016. Vse pravice pridržane. Založila: Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani Izdal: Oddelek za anglistiko in amerikanistiko Za založbo: Branka Kalenić Ramšak, dekanja Filozofske fakultete Vodja Uredništva visokošolskih in drugih učbenikov: Janica Kalin Oblikovanje, prelom in tisk: Birografika Bori, d. o. o. Tretji natis Ljubljana, 2016 Naklada: 500 izvodov Cena: 9,63 EUR

CIP - Kataložni zapis o publikaciji Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, Ljubljana 811.111'367.625(075.3)(076.1) ILC, Gašper English verbs in use I : exercises for students / Gašper Ilc. - 3. natis. - Ljubljana : Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete, 2016 ISBN 978-961-237-154-8 286177024

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................... 5 Verbal Phrase .................................................................................................................9 Irregular Verbs ..............................................................................................................11 Spelling Changes ......................................................................................................... 14 Semantic Roles............................................................................................................. 19 Verb as a Clause Predicator......................................................................................... 21 Multi-Word Verbs ........................................................................................................ 24 Aspect........................................................................................................................... 30 Mood ............................................................................................................................ 36 Revision I ..................................................................................................................... 39 Time & Tense .............................................................................................................. 40 The Present Time Sphere ............................................................................................ 41 The Present Indefinite & Progressive Tenses....................................................................................41 The Present Perfect Tenses...............................................................................................................52 The Past Time Sphere ................................................................................................. 62 The Past Perfect Tenses...................................................................................................................67 The Future Time Sphere ............................................................................................. 75 Mixed Analysis & Final Revision ................................................................................ 83 Sources ......................................................................................................................... 99


PREFACE This collection of various exercises and texts is intended to help students of English develop their understanding of the complex nature of the English verb system. English Verbs in Use I has been specifically devised to offer ample material to be used for productive practice and analysis during the English Verb seminar classes. The exercises have been purposefully designed in such a way that they gradually introduce new linguistic concepts that are essential to any future professional in this field of work. It has also been my intention to include exercises that would stimulate students’ independent work and research. In most cases, an exercise can be profitably discussed in class only when students make an attempt at completing it beforehand. Therefore, students may find exercises over-challenging without prior study. A user of English Verbs in Use I may observe that there is no accompanying key. The reason for not including the key is twofold. First, in most cases there is no simple right or wrong answer, since the fundamental aim of the exercises is to motivate discussion on different possible solutions. Second, it is my personal experience that keys too often render a meaningful exercise into a copying activity, which definitely has a demotivating effect on seminar work. It should be emphasized that English Verbs in Use I should only be considered as a complement to other exercise books which handle the same subject from different perspectives and in a greater detail. I wish to thank Dr. Smiljana Komar, Head of the English Department, for her support. I am most grateful to Dr. Irena Kovačič for reading through the material and for her invaluable suggestions which improved the exercises greatly. Special thanks to my colleague Jason Blake, MA, for painstaking proofreading. Needless to say, I am fully responsible for all mistakes in English Verbs in Use I. My warmest thanks are due to Vesna, Maša and Marko. Without them, everything would be meaningless.

Gašper Ilc

Ljubljana 2012


1 Introduction

Introduction 1. State which of the linguistic fields the following descriptions belong to: 1. In traditional terminology, antonyms are words which are opposite in meaning. Simple antonyms display a relation between words such that the positive of one implies the negative of the other. Examples would include: dead/alive; pass/fail; hit/miss. 2. Sentence elements are the subject, the object, the predicator, the complements and the adjuncts. 3. In English, the present participle is formed by adding the inflection -ing to the base form of the verb: work+ing ďƒ working 4. To overcome the problem of unreliable spelling, and to get a better idea of the way in which words are pronounced, we often use transcription. 5. In English finite sentences, the verbal form agrees with the subject in number and person. ex: a) She wants to go. b) *She want to go. 6. Compounding is a word formation process where we add one base to another. ex: tea+pot ďƒ  teapot 7. a) below contradicts b): a) My brother Thomas has just come from Athens. b) My brother Thomas has never been to Athens. 8. English has several consonant pairs of plosives, affricates and most fricatives.

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1 Introduction

2. Match the English expressions in column I with their Slovene equivalents in column II. For each grammatical term find a corresponding underlined example in column III. A: I

II

simple sentence

stavÄ?ni Ä?leni

compound sentence

podredje

complex sentence

glavni stavek

main clause

enostavÄ?na poved

subordinate clause

odvisni stavek

coordinate clause

prislovni odvisnik

sentence elements

priredje

conjunction

prilastkov odvisnik

adverbial clause

veznik

attributive clause

priredni stavek

III a)

Anthony recited passages from The Waste Land to the crowd that was on its way home.

b) At Swindon we turned off the main road and we were soon among dry-stone walls. c) He thought that he was coming with us. d) He was alone when I came. e) I knew Sebastian by sight long before I met him. f)

I knew where he lived.

g) No one knows my father. h) The rain had ceased but the clouds hung low and heavy overhead. i)

We put his teddy-bear between us and drove off.

j)

We were giving a ball.

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1 Introduction

B: I

II

part of speech

velelni nakon

indicative mood

povratni glagol

imperative mood

glagolski naÄ?in

subjunctive mood

prehodni glagol

aspect

povedni naklon

voice

glagolski vid

transitive verb

neprehodni glagol

intransitive verb

Ĺželelni naklon

reflexive verb

besedne vrste

III a)

A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between its object and some other word in the structure.

b) Go away, will you? c) He drank milk. vs. He drank up the milk. vs. He was drinking milk. d) I don’t believe that you have changed at all, Charles. e) I lay in the bath and then dried slowly by the fire. f)

It would choke me.

g) My mother has given orders that no drinks are to be left in any of the rooms. h) She was old enough to absent herself from the dinner table if she chose. i)

The landlady insisted that the rent be paid in advance.

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1 Introduction 3. Have a look at the following text. Try to identify all verbal structures used. Can you name them? The Fletchers had a swimming pool. It was supposed to be a teardrop shape or shaped like a comma. This summer was the first anyone had made much use of the pool. Rufus was sitting on the blue-tiled rim of it with his feet dangling in the water. He was three years older than Adam and though they had been at the same school, Highgate, they had not been friends then. It was Rufus's younger brother Julius who had been in the same form as Adam, a rather dull, pompous boy, a sort of phoney intellectual, and they had never had much to do with one another. Adam and Rufus had met as members of the same squash club. That was what they seemed to have in common, that and Rufus's brother and Adam knowing each other already, but after a while Adam got to see things he admired in Rufus, his toughness, the way he'd got himself organized and in hand, the way he knew where he was going and yet still could be amusing and casual. Rufus was very laid-back and Adam liked that. He also liked Rufus's occasional sensitivity, which didn't seem to go with the other aspects of his personality. And Rufus was wild too, the way medical students had a reputation for being. Adam thought of himself and Rufus as being wild and laid-back at the same time, equally like that, young adventurers with all the world before them and all the time they wanted to do what they liked with. Rufus said, Hi, and come for a swim, so Adam took off his shorts and went into the water in his black nylon underpants. They would have swum naked only Rufus's father had discovered them doing this and made a fuss out of all proportion to the offence, if offence it was. Source 1: 70-71

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2 Verbal Phrase

Verbal Phrase 1. There are two kinds of verbal phrases - simple and complex. Identify the finite verbal phrases in the following sentences. Take each phrase as a whole. Determine the headword (H) and the premodifier(s) (PreM). 1.

We were sitting in my room.

2.

It is a most extraordinary thing.

3.

Could you pass the salt, please?

4.

Then I wondered how long I might live.

5.

He said that if they had given him another day he thought he could have put it straight.

6.

We were to learn in the days to come, when it was too late, that George was a miserable impostor, who could evidently have known nothing.

7.

My friend was detained in Liverpool longer than he expected; and three days later, as he hadn’t returned home, his wife called me.

8.

But I did catch that trout!

9.

My friend here and myself would be so much obliged if you would tell us how you caught that trout.

10.

So you think I ought to have accepted it?

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2 Verbal Phrase 2. The postmodifier of the verbal phrase sometimes presents a problem. In the sentences below, try to determine whether the particle following the finite verbal form is part of the verbal phrase or not. Justify your decision. 1.

He arrived at the hotel soon after midnight.

2.

I smiled at the black gentleman.

3.

I called for the taxi.

4.

Five minutes later a third man came in.

5.

The man looked down at his shaking legs.

6.

I heard of the happy news as I was walking into the hospital.

7.

The burglar got into the house easily.

8.

You can get by in any English conversation with a very limited vocabulary.

9.

If you get behind with your reading in your final year, you’ll never catch up.

10.

He was sent down from Trinity College for sexual misdemeanours.

11.

You may pass as a remarkably witty man.

12.

The present negotiations do not relate to disarmament.

13.

Marion, run down the street to the post office.

14.

A car with Frankfurt licence plates had run down a French border patrolman.

15.

He thought of a new name for his new house.

16.

She came with them to sell the silver.

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3 Irregular Verbs

Irregular Verbs 1. Are the forms of the irregular verbs in the following sentences acceptable? Why (not)? 1.

He has born his sufferings manfully.

2.

I don’t like the smell of the mowed grass.

3.

I wondered if it was an animal cought in a trap.

4.

The room was dominated by a sunken bath.

5.

He had laid awake watching her for a long time.

6.

The thief bereft several stores in a single night.

7.

Events over the last year have created a close-knit community.

8.

Heavily laded lorries were passing at a rate of one every three minutes.

9.

The coffee maker’s been busted for weeks.

10.

He hove himself up off his stool.

11.

I like watching a star-lighted sky in May.

12.

She slunk her coat over her desk chair.

13.

His grey jersey and trousers were seethed with the rain.

14.

That was an age shorn of religious and political faith.

15.

He pushed a lever that sped up the car.

16.

They lived in a litter-strewed street.

17.

He was panic-stricken at the thought he might never play again.

18.

The nettles stank their legs.

19.

The cyclist weaved in and out between the cars.

20.

Michelle spun a lovely pullover.

2. Use the following pairs of past participles in sentences. 1. beat/beaten a) _________________________________________________. b) _________________________________________________.

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3 Irregular Verbs 2. bereaved/bereft a) _________________________________________________. b) _________________________________________________. 3. drunk/drunken a) _________________________________________________. b) _________________________________________________. 4. hanged/hung a) _________________________________________________. b) _________________________________________________. 5. broke/broken a) _________________________________________________. b) _________________________________________________. 6. struck/stricken a) _________________________________________________. b) _________________________________________________. 3. Translate the following sentences into English. 1.

Leta 1994 so bile slovenske banke v obupnem položaju.

2.

Njegovo obnašanje je kazalo, da je imenitnega rodu.

3.

Na njenem pohodu je ni mogla ustaviti niti narasla reka.

4.

Zakon ni bil sprejet, ker parlament ni imel zadostne večine.

6.

Ovce, koze in krave imajo preklano kopito.

7.

Prizadet od revščine, je umrl v napol podrti hiški na vrhu hriba.

9.

Ta učena knjiga opisuje težke razmere v Rusiji po oktobrski revoluciji.

10.

Dvojčka sta se rodila z volčjim žrelom.

11.

1996 je bilo prestopno leto.

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3 Irregular Verbs 4. A small number of verbs create problems because the Past Tense (and usually the past participle) of one verb has the same spelling as the Present Tense or the infinitive of the other. For each of the verbs listed provide the Past Tense and past participle forms as well as Slovene translation. In addition, try to fill in the gaps in the sentences below with an appropriate verbal form. bind

fell

saw

bound

find

see

cost /relating to price/

found

wind

cost /to calculate costs/

grind

wound

fall

ground

1. Accountants have ________________ a new heating system for the company. The board of directors will have to consider their estimates. 2. All the planes in America were ________________ for three days. 3. The manager was ________________ hand and foot by the thieves. 4. Flats have never ________________ more than they do these days. 5. I suddenly ________________ a strange face at the French window. 6. My uncle ________________ his company in 1975. 7. The rates have ________________ steeply since the attack. 8. Finland is ________________ by Russia, Sweden and Norway. 9. The police opened fire and ________________ three onlookers. 10. The prisoners ________________ through the cell bars and escaped. 11. The barge went too near the coast and was ________________ on rocks. 12. The old train ________________ its way up the hillside. 13. The old oak tree will have to be ________________ because it is diseased. 14. While cleaning out the room, she ________________ some old love letters. 15. The tip can be ________________ to a much sharper edge to cut smoother and faster.

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4 Spelling changes

Spelling Changes 1. In some cases, when an inflectional morpheme is added to the base of a verb, a spelling change occurs. Have a look at the examples below and try to deduce the underlying spelling change rules. Examples with no spelling changes are included so that you can exactly determine in which cases a particular spelling change occurs. A: study  studies, studied try  tries, tried dry  dries, dried play  plays, played B: suppose  supposing live  living give  giving C: dye  dyeing singe  singeing D: panic  panicking, panicked mimic  mimicking, mimicked

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4 Spelling changes

E: fit  fitted

lead  leading

snap  snapped

enter  entered

wrap  wrapping

tow  towing

work  working

vex  vexed play  playing

F: occur  occurring

submit  submitted

rebut  rebutted

enter  entering

abhor  abhorring G: unplug  unplugged

man  undermanned

unwrap  unwrapping

lag  jet-lagged

semi-skim  semi-skimmed

globe-trot  globe-trotting booby-trap  booby-trapped

2. In the two texts below join the infinitive and the inflection. Explain the reasons for the spelling changes you perform and provide Slovene translations for each verb. Text A: Looney handed Ozzie the longest, blackest nightstick ever (use+ed)1 in Ford County. Willard was panic-stricken. Ozzie cocked it and struck the center of the table, sending beer and cans and foam in all directions. Willard bolted upright, (slap+ed)2 his wrists together and thrust them at Looney, who was waiting with the handcuffs. He was (drag+ed)3 outside

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ENGL VERB ISBN 978-961-237-154-8

GAŠPER ILC je izredni profesor

Zbirka vaj English Verbs in Use I je namenjena študentom angleškega jezika in vsem drugim študentom, ki jih zanima specifičnost angleškega glagolskega sistema. Gradivo pokriva področja oblikoslovja (glagolska morfematika in glagolske kategorije), skladnje (glagolska besedna zveza, stavek, poved) in besediloslovja (raba glagolskih oblik v besedilu).

English Verbs in Use I _NASLOVNICA_PONATIS 2016.indd 1

Poseben poudarek je na tistih področjih angleškega glagola, ki so zahtevnejše za slovenske govorce angleškega jezika (npr. glagolski vid in glagolski časi).

za področje angleškega jezika na Oddelku za anglistiko in amerikanistiko Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani. Ukvarja se z modernim angleškim jezikom in sodobnim angleškim jezikoslovjem. Proučuje področje angleškega glagola (oblikoslovne, skladenjske in pomenoslovne značilnosti in zakonitosti), kar predstavlja tudi jedro njegovega pedagoškega dela. Predava predmeta Angleški glagol I in II ter različne jezikoslovne seminarje.

GAŠPER ILC: ENGLISH VERBS IN USE I: EXERCISES FOR STUDENTS

9 789612 371548

GAŠPER ILC

ENGLISH VERBS IN USE I EXERCISES FOR STUDENTS Oddelek za anglistiko in amerikanistiko Ljubljana, 2016

31.8.2016 12:19:21

English Verbs in Use I  

Zbirka vaj English Verbs in Use I je namenjena študentom angleškega jezika in vsem drugim študentom, ki jih zanima specifičnost angleškega g...

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