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ZBIRKA DIALOGI / COLLECTION DIALOGUES Uredniški odbor zbirke / Collection editorial board: Vid De Gleria, Aljoša Dekleva, Nika Grabar, Ana Kosi, Maruša Zorec ODPRTO – dialogi v sodobni arhitekturi / OPEN – Dialogues in Contemporary Architecture Urednici / Editors: Nika Grabar, Lenka Kavčič Avtorji prispevkov / Authors: Nika Grabar, Lenka Kavčič, Burcu Kütükçüoğlu, Daniel Opazo, Daria Ricchi Izjave obiskovalcev OHS pridobili študenti UL Fakultete za arhitekturo pod mentorstvom Nike Grabar v okviru delavnice Odprto / Statements of the OHS visitors collected by the students of the UL Faculty of Architecture under the mentorship of Nika Grabar during the workshop Open: Ahmed Fetahu, Eva Gusel, Nejc Jelovšek, Janja Šušnjar, Matija Zega Grafike nastale v sodelovanju z / Graphics designed in collaboration with: - UL Fakulteta za arhitekturo pod mentorstvom / UL Faculty of Architecture under the mentorship of: Špela Hudnik, Boris Beja; avtorji / authors: Marin Berović, Tin Komadina, Noemi Milanović - UM Fakulteta za gradbeništvo, prometno inženirstvo in arhitekturo, Oddelek za arhitekturo pod mentorstvom / UM Faculty of Civil Engineering, Transportation Engineering and Architecture, Department of Architecture under the mentorship of: Peter Šenk; avtorji / authors: Tadej Božak, Nik Čančala, Marko Petrović, Vildan Ramusović - UL Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za krajinsko arhitekturo pod mentorstvom / UL Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Landscape Architecture under the mentorship of: Mateja Kregar Tršar, Andrej Bašelj; avtorica / author: Ajda Kogovšek Jezikovni pregled in prevod / Proofreading and translation: Jerca Kos Oblikovanje / Design and layout: Sara Badovinac - Prapesa Avtorji fotografij / Photographs: Miran Kambič, Janez Martinčič, Damir Fabijanić, Žiga Okorn, David Lotrič, Tamara Németh, Tadej Bolta Avtorji fotografij festivala OHS: Tamara Vidmar, Andrej Panker, Iza Šentjur, Nastja Utroša, Maruša Tušar, Kaja Esenko, Saša Prajnc, Karin Čerin, arhiv OHS Založili / Published by: Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za arhitekturo in / University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture and Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani in / Ljubljana University Press, Faculty of Arts and AFRONT, Zavod za prostorsko inovativnost / AFRONT, Institute for spatial innovation Za UL Fakulteto za arhitekturo / For UL Faculty of Architecture: Matej Blenkuš, dekan / Dean Za Znanstveno založbo / For Ljubljana University Press, Faculty of Arts: Roman Kuhar, dekan UL Filozofske fakultete / Dean of the UL Faculty of Arts Za AFRONT, Zavod za prostorsko inovativnost / For AFRONT, Institute for spatial innovation: Lenka Kavčič, direktorica / Director Tisk / Printed by: Tiskarna Ozimek / Ljubljana, 2019 Prva izdaja / First edition Naklada / Number of copies: 500 izvodov Cena / Price: 19,30 € Besedila publikacije so ponujena pod licenco Creative Commons Priznanje avtorstva- Deljenje pod enakimi pogoji 4.0 Mednarodna licenca. / The texts of this publication are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Za fotografije in ostali grafični material, uporabljen v delu, velja / For photographs and other graphic material used in the publication: © AFRONT, 2019. Vse pravice pridržane. / All rights reserved. Publikacija je izšla s podporo / Published with support of: AFRONT, Zavod za prostorsko inovativnost Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za arhitekturo CIP - Kataložni zapis o publikaciji Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, Ljubljana 721(082) ODPRTO : dialogi v sodobni arhitekturi = Open : dialogues in contemporary architecture / [avtorji prispevkov Nika Grabar ... [et al.] ; urednici Nika Grabar, Lenka Kavčič ; prevod Jerca Kos ; avtorji fotografij Miran Kambič ... et al.]. - 1. izd. = 1st ed. - Ljubljana : Fakulteta za arhitekturo : Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakulteta : Afront, zavod za prostorsko inovativnost, 2019 ISBN 978-961-7032-20-8 (Fakulteta za arhitekturo) 1. Vzp. stv. nasl. 2. Grabar, Nika, 1978COBISS.SI-ID 302732544

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Nika Grabar, Lenka Kavčič

ODPRTO

Dialogi v sodobni arhitekturi

Publikacija je nastala na pobudo festivala Odprte hiše Slovenije v sodelovanju s Fakulteto za arhitekturo Univerze v Ljubljani.

OPEN

Dialogues in Contemporary Architecture The publication was initiated by the Open House Slovenia festival in cooperation with the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Ljubljana.

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Nika Grabar • Predgovor Lenka Kavčič • Pogled čez ramo Nika Grabar • Sodobnost Odprtih hiš  Burcu Kütükçüoğlu • Stare fotografije novih stavb Daria Ricchi • Brezčasnost kraja Daniel Opazo • Arhitekti kot učenci

06 17 29 61 77 91

Razumeti arhitekturo 105 Literatura in fotografije 109 • Zahvale 110 • Življenjepisi 111 Izjave obiskovalcev 25, 28, 57, 60, 73, 76, 87, 90, 101, 104

Nika Grabar • Foreword Lenka Kavčič • Over My Shoulder Nika Grabar • Contemporaneity of Open House Burcu Kütükçüoğlu • Old Photographs of New Buildings Daria Ricchi • Timelessness of a Place Daniel Opazo • Architects as Learners

06 17 29 61 77 91

Understanding Architecture 105 Literature, photographs 109 • Acknowledgements 110 • Biographies 111 Visitors’ Statements 25, 28, 57, 60, 73, 76, 87, 90, 101, 104

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“V nasprotju z arhivom, ki označuje sistem odnosov med neizrečenim in izrečenim, opisujemo pričevanje kot sistem odnosov med tistim, kar je zunaj in znotraj jezika – se pravi, med potencialnim in obstoječim, med mogočim in nemogočim govorom.” 1 Giorgio Agamben, Arhiv in pričevanje Giorgio Agamben, “The Archive and Testimony,” v The Archive, ur. Charles Merewether (Cambridge, London: The MIT Press, 2006), 39. 1

Agamben arhiv označi kot sistem odnosov med neizrečenim in izrečenim. Pričevanje po drugi strani označi drugače – kot sistem odnosov, ki so znotraj ali zunaj jezika. Uporabniki arhitekture smo lahko pričevalci njene izkušnje in s tem damo priložnost misli, da ji najdemo novo mesto v jeziku današnjosti. Arhiv Odprtih hiš Slovenije (OHS) je živi arhiv, ki se nenehoma dograjuje, spreminja in lahko tudi reorganizira, s čimer vedno znova določa sistem odnosov med neizrečenim in izrečenim. Arhitektura po drugi strani ostaja del grajenega, ki ga lahko vedno znova 'beremo'. Med arhiviranim, grajenim in izrečenim obstaja torej povezava, ki jo osmišljamo skozi dialog. Ta je ključnega pomena, da najdemo refleksiji mesto v sodobni družbi. Preden določeno delo namreč postane del zgodovine, si mora svojo prisotnost izboriti na več različnih načinov. In to je osrednja dilema, ki jo izpostavlja publikacija Odprto – kako misliti sodobnost arhitekture v njeni zgodovinskosti, na kakšen način se soočati z grajenim, da bi to v naslednjem koraku odpiralo vrata prihodnosti skozi dosežke neposredne preteklosti? V založništvu Fakultete za arhitekturo (FA-ZA) s tem vprašanjem zastavljamo tudi smer nove zbirke Dialogi, katere vodilo je sprožanje premisleka ter odpiranje dialoga o problemih sodobne arhitekture in urbanizma. Zato je namenjena predvsem krajšim študijam in zapisom o arhitekturi in umetnosti, v kolikor se dotikajo vprašanj prostora in prebivanja. Upamo, da bodo v njenem okviru našli svoj prostor intervjuji, kritični eseji, zapisi predavanj in drugačna, inovativna besedila, ki zasledujejo in na takšen ali drugačen način beležijo večplastnosti prostora-časa.

ODPRTO // PREDGOVOR

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Knjižica Odprto je prva iz zbirke Dialogi. Začeti zbirko v sodelovanju s Festivalom OHS, natančneje z odpiranjem arhiva OHS, ima v tem kontekstu prav poseben pomen. Kot pogosta zmota današnjega časa se v arhitekturnem svetu namreč pojavlja misel, da je arhitektura najbolje predstavljena v obliki razstave. Arhitekturna razstava je v tem smislu platforma, predpripravljeno mesto za predstavitev, ki arhitekturo naredi sorodno umetniškim, oblikovalskim ali morda celo gradbeniškim izdelkom. In vendar ima arhitektura povedati še mnogo več, kar se lahko v procesu prilagajanja meril, reprezentacije v fotografiji ali načrtu popolnoma izgubi. Sodobni pristopi kuratorskih praks v arhitekturi zato raziskujejo in izzivajo institucijo arhitekturne galerije v tej ali oni obliki – Festival Odprte hiše sodi mednje. Začel se je leta 1992 kot neprofitna iniciativa za osveščanje javnosti o pomenu kvalitetnega grajenega okolja. Iz Londona se je razširil na vse strani sveta in danes obsega 47 prizorišč. Njegova priljubljenost je očitni pokazatelj dejstva, da je približevanje arhitekture v merilu 1:1 zaželjena oblika 'razstavljanja' v sodobni kulturi, kar lahko razumemo tudi kot spodbudo za področje celotne kulturne produkcije, da se polje eksperimentiranja odpre onkraj ustaljenih galerijskih formatov. Zbirati objekte, da bi bili del muzeja, zbirke umetnosti ali razstave, je na primeru arhitekture vedno neposredno povezano z vprašanjem vsakdanjega življenja. S tem se kuriranje arhitekture sooča na vsakem koraku in to ne nujno v smislu njene reprodukcije kot makete, renderja, tlorisa ali fotografije. Praksa kuriranja arhitekture ima navsezadnje dolgo in vzpostavljeno zgodovino s pričetki v kontekstu prvih svetovnih sejmov konec 18. stoletja, do ustanovitve Oddelka za arhitekturo in oblikovanje v MOMA leta 1932 in do prvega arhitekturnega bienala v Benetkah leta 1980. Ob opisani zgodovini Jade Niklai, neodvisna kustosinja arhitekturnih razstav, opozarja tudi na raznolika prizorišča, kjer se lahko srečamo z arhitekturo.

Kako misliti sodobnost arhitekture v njeni zgodovinskosti, na kakšen način se soočati z grajenim, da bi to v naslednjem koraku odpiralo vrata prihodnosti skozi dosežke neposredne preteklosti?

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Mednja poleg razstavnih prostorov in Festivala OH sodijo tudi številne nove organizacije, posvečene raziskovanju v arhitekturi, urbanizmu in kulturi nasploh. Omenimo lahko CCA Montreal, Storefront v New Yorku, Architecture Foundation v Londonu, Le Cité de l'architecture et du patrimoine v Parizu ter številne druge. Ne gre pa le za način razstavljanja. Pri kuriranju gre predvsem tudi za vprašanje, kaj razstaviti. Pričujoča publikacija je zvezek refleksij, vezanih na sodobno arhitekturo Slovenije. Nastala je na pobudo Festivala OHS ob desetletnici delovanja z željo, da poskusimo skupaj misliti čas današnjega trenutka. Odprto. V digitalni zbirki OHS, ki se je gradila skozi fizično izkušnjo, je namreč našel svoje mesto raznolik nabor del. Kaj lahko o njih rečemo danes v okviru širših razmislekov, kaj lahko ti pomenijo za polje arhitekture? In nadalje, kako naj ta publikacija v odnosu do arhitekturnih objektov zaokroži razstavo leta 2019 v merilu 1:1? Prvo vprašanje pri projektu je bilo seveda navezano na izbor del. Iz zbirke 705 objektov, toliko se jih je namreč do danes znašlo v arhivu OHS, smo izbrali tiste, ki so najbolj zaznamovali polje sodobne arhitekturne produkcije v Sloveniji. Večina je bila tudi nagrajena ali so bili medijsko precej navzoči. Nekateri pa so na seznamu, ker po naši presoji drugače odpirajo relevantne teme za razmislek sodobnega prostora-časa. Dela so pokazatelj tega, kaj so OHS odpirale kot svet arhitekture v izkušnjo ljudi. V medsebojno razmerje jih vežejo teme tranzicije – tradicije, javnega – zasebnega, grajenega – naravnega, minevanja – večnosti, izobraževanja – reprezentacije in predvsem časa, ki si ga delijo. Vpete so v besedilo o sodobnosti, do katere ima vsak od nas svoj odnos. Pogled smo prevetrili z drugimi perspektivami, saj smo izbor projektov posredovali tujim piscem, da si izberejo svojo temo, ki se dotika vprašanja sodobnega časa, in jo navežejo na izbrana dela iz arhiva. V besedilih Burcu Kütükçüoğlu, Daniela Opaza in Darie Ricchi se pokaže, da lahko arhitekturni festivali skozi predstavitev dosežkov na polju načrtovanja

ODPRTO // PREDGOVOR

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gradnje prostora in njegovega urejanja odpirajo priložnost za poglobljen uvid. Izzivajo nas, da razmislimo o pomenu fotografije v sodobni reprezentaciji, o pomenu brezčasnosti in o tem, da je arhitektura polje, na katerem se vsi, tudi arhitekti, nenehno učimo. Knjiga kot objekt je skozi razmišljanje postala medij za presečišče domačih in tujih refleksij ter grafičnega materiala. A če bi nastala v sodelovanju s katero koli drugo institucijo, bi bila drugačna. V njen kontekst smo se odločili vključiti tudi tiste, zaradi katerih je OHS specifičen – obiskovalce, publiko. Arhitekti sicer res razmišljamo na določen način, o določenih temah. Kako pa ljudje dela dejansko doživijo, vidijo in konec koncev opišejo? V publikacijo so vključene izjave obiskovalcev 10. Festivala OHS, ki se je odvil od 5. do 7. aprila 2019 in ki so jih z intervjujanjem pridobili študentje Fakultete za arhitekturo v okviru delavnice Odprto. Pogledi so drugačni, zanimivi, predvsem pa vredni razmisleka. Študenti so se ukvarjali tudi z drugačno obliko refleksije – z refleksijo v vizualnem smislu. V sodelovanju z mentorji Petrom Šenkom, Špelo Hudnik, Borisom Bejo, Matejo Kregar Tršar in Andrejem Bašljem so na podlagi lastnega izbora iz seznama del grafično reinterpretirali objekte. Ideje so tako našle mesto v besedi in podobi, predvsem pa na križišču večplastnega polja, ki ga knjiga vzpostavlja z namenom odpiranja dialoga v vse smeri – od akademskega okolja do Festivala OHS, od uporabnikov in študentov do arhitektov in investitorjev. Stkati želi vidne vezi in povezave, ki aktivno ustvarjajo svet arhitekture, da bi ga lahko mislili ponovno v nenehno spreminjajočih se pogojih svojega delovanja. Naj bo s to mislijo odprta pot za

Knjiga poskuša stkati vidne vezi in povezave, ki aktivno ustvarjajo svet arhitekture, da bi ga lahko mislili ponovno v nenehno spreminjajočih se pogojih svojega delovanja.

zbirko Dialogi.

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“In opposition to the archive, which designates the system of relations between the unsaid and the said, we give the name testimony to the system of relations between the inside and the outside of language – that is, between a potentiality of speech and its existence, between a possibility and an impossibility of speech.” 1 Giorgio Agamben, The Archive and Testimony Giorgio Agamben, “The Archive and Testimony,” in The Archive, ed. Charles Merewether (Cambridge, London: The MIT Press, 2006), 39. 1

Agamben defines the archive as a system of relations between the unsaid and the said. On the other hand, testimony is a system of relations between the inside and the outside of language. The users of architecture can be testimonies to its experience, thus giving a chance to our thoughts to find a new place for architecture in the contemporary language. The archive of Open House Slovenia (OHS) is a living record, which can be continuously upgraded, transformed and reorganized by re-establishing the system of relations between the unsaid and the said. On the other hand, architecture remains a part of the built, which can be ‘re-read’ over and over again. Therefore, there is a connection between the archived, built and said, which can be given a meaning through dialogue. This is crucial in order to find a place for reflection in contemporary society. Before a piece of work can become a part of history, it needs to fight for its place in it. This is the fundamental dilemma presented by Open: how do we think about contemporary aspects of architecture in its historic perspective, how do we face the built environment in order to open the doors of the future through the achievements of immediate past? With this in mind, the publishing department of the Faculty of Architecture (FA-ZA) is initiating a new collection Dialogues, dedicated to thought-provoking reflections on the problems of contemporary architecture and urbanism. It will primarily include short studies and notes on architecture and art, insofar as they touch the issues of space and dwelling. We hope that this framework will also accommodate interviews, critical essays, lecture notes and other innovative texts that pursue and record the multifaceted space-time. The book Open is the first in the collection. The cooperation with the OHS Festival and the opening of its archive are of special importance in this context. It is a common mistake of the contemporary architectural world that architecture is best represented in the form of an exhibition. An architectural exhibition thus becomes a platform, a pre-existing setting for a presentation that makes architecture resemble an artistic, design or perhaps even construction product. And yet, architecture has so much more to say, which can be completely lost in the process of adapting scale, representing architecture in a photograph or drawing a plan. Therefore, contemporary approaches to curatorial practices in architecture explore and challenge the institution of the architectural gallery in one form or another, and the Open House Festival is one of them. It started in 1992 as a non-profit initiative to raise public awareness of the importance of a quality built environment. It spread from London to all parts of the world and now boasts 47 venues. Its popularity is a clear indication of the fact that the approach to architecture on a 1:1 scale is a desirable form of ‘exposition’ in contemporary culture. This can also be understood as an incentive for the

OPEN // FOREWORD

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entire cultural production, so that the field of experimentation can be opened beyond conventional gallery formats. Collecting objects in order to form a museum collection or an art exhibition is always directly related to everyday life in the case of architecture. This is what curating architecture faces at every step, not necessarily in terms of its reproduction as a model, a render, a layout, or a photograph. The practice of curating architecture has, after all, a long and established history beginning in the context of the first world fairs of the late 18th century, continuing with the establishment of the department of architecture and design at MOMA in 1932 and the first architectural biennial in Venice in 1980. With this history in mind, Jade Niklai, an independent curator of architectural exhibitions, draws attention to a variety of venues where we can meet architecture. In addition to exhibition spaces and the Open House Festival, there are also numerous new organizations dedicated to research in architecture, urban planning and culture in general, such as CCA Montreal, Storefront in New York, Architecture Foundation in London, Le Cité de l’architecture et du patrimoine in Paris and many others. It is not just a question of how to exhibit architecture; curating is also about what to show. This publication is a collection of reflections related to contemporary architecture in Slovenia. It was compiled at the initiative of the OHS Festival on the occasion of its 10th anniversary, with the desire to think together about the present time. In an open fashion. The digital collection of OHS, which was built through the physical experience, is home to a varied set of works. What can we say about them today in the context of wider reflections, what can they mean for the field of architecture? And furthermore, how should this publication, in relation to architectural objects, complete the exhibition in 2019 on a 1:1 scale? The first question was, of course, related to the selection of works. From the collection of 705 buildings included in the archives of OHS we selected the most relevant to the contemporary architectural production in Slovenia. Most of these were award-winning projects, which had been given a considerable amount of media attention. Some of them, however, found their place on our list because according to our judgment they open up relevant topics allowing a reflection on contemporary space-time. These works are an indicator of what OHS has opened up as a world of architecture in the public experience. They are bound together by the issues of transition – tradition, public – private, built – natural, passing – eternity, education – representation and especially the time they share. They are embedded in the text about the contemporaneity to which each of us has a different attitude. To bring in another perspective, we forwarded our selection to several international authors and asked them to choose a topic that would touch on the issue of contemporary times and link it to the selected works. The writings of Burcu Kütükçüoğlu, Daniel Opaz and Daria Ricchi clearly show that architectural festivals can provide an in-depth insight through the presentation of achieve-

How do we think about contemporary aspects of architecture in its historical perspective, how do we face the built environment in order to open the doors of the future through the achievements of immediate past?

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ments in the built space. They challenge us to consider the importance of photography in contemporary representation, the importance of timelessness, and the fact that architecture is a field in which all of us, even architects, are constantly learning. Through all this thinking, the book became an intersection of domestic and foreign reflections, as well as of graphic material. It would not be the same had it been published by another institution. We decided to include those that make OHS specific, namely the visitors. Architects tend to think in a certain way, but how does the public actually experience, see and de-

We strived to establish visible links that actively create the world of architecture, so we can think about it in the constantly changing conditions of our actions.

scribe our work? The book includes visitors’ opinions of the 10th Festival of OHS, which took place from 5th to 7th April 2019. They were collected by the students of the Faculty of Architecture as part of the workshop Open. These views are different, interesting, and above all worthy of reflection. Students also dealt with a different form of reflection – in a visual sense. With the help of their mentors Peter Šenk, Boris Beja, Špela Hudnik, Mateja Kregar Tršar, and Andrej Bašelj they selected several buildings and graphically reinterpreted them. In this way, the ideas were expressed through words and images, and were placed at the intersection of a multilayered field established by our book in order to open a dialogue in all directions – from the academic environment to the OHS Festival, from users and students to architects and investors. We strived to establish visible links that actively create the world of architecture, so we can think about it in the constantly changing conditions of our actions. Let this be a starting point of the Dialogues collection.

OPEN // FOREWORD

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1990

1992

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

OHWW OHS

OH LONDON

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PRIČETEK PROJEKTIRANJA // INITIATION OF DESIGN PROCESS

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PRIČETEK GRADNJE // BEGINNING OF CONSTRUCTION ZAKLJUČEK // COMPLETION

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Profile for Znanstvena zalozba FF

Odprto. Dialogi v sodobni arhitekturi. Open. Dialogues in Contemporary Architecture  

Knjiga raziskuje odnose med arhitekturo in ljudmi, ki jo uporabljajo, ter s vsebino kritično prepleta različne perspektive in poglede na pro...

Odprto. Dialogi v sodobni arhitekturi. Open. Dialogues in Contemporary Architecture  

Knjiga raziskuje odnose med arhitekturo in ljudmi, ki jo uporabljajo, ter s vsebino kritično prepleta različne perspektive in poglede na pro...

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