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DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI / THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA Andrej Gaspari

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DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA Andrej Gaspari

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Andrej Gaspari, DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. Å T. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI /

THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA

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Andrej Gaspari, DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI /

THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA

Avtor: Andrej Gaspari

Author: Andrej Gaspari

s prispevki: Irene Šinkovec, Davida Badovinca, Ronalda Bockiusa, Katarine Čufar, Mateja Drakslerja, Katje Kavkler, Maksa Merele, Tatjane Tomazo-Ravnik in Tomaža Verbiča Naslov knjige: DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI ŠTUDIJA O LADJAH IN ČOLNIH PREDRIMSKEGA IN RIMSKEGA NAVPORTA Z ORISOM PLOVBE NA LJUBLJANSKEM BARJU MED PRAZGODOVINO IN NOVIM VEKOM

with contributions: Irena Šinkovec, David Badovinac, Ronald Bockius, Katarina Čufar, Matej Draksler, Katja Kavkler, Maks Merela, Tatjana Tomazo-Ravnik and Tomaž Verbič Title: THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA STUDY ON THE SHIPS AND BOATS OF PREROMAN AND ROMAN NAUPORTUS WITH THE OUTLINE OF THE NAVIGATION ON THE LJUBLJANA MARSHES BETWEEN PREHISTORY AND THE EARLY MODERN PERIOD

Izdajatelja in založnika: Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete ter Muzej in galerije mesta Ljubljane Zanj: Branka Kalenić Ramšak (UL FF) in Blaž Peršin (MGML) Jezikovni pregled: Katja Paladin (slovensko besedilo), Tine Verbič (angleško besedilo) Prevod: Polona Maver Prelom: Taja Dežman, Peter Bulovec (Zavod NaNovo) Tisk: Tisk Žnidarič d.o.o., Kranj Naklada: 300 Cena: 28 €

Published by: Ljubljana University Press, Faculty of Arts and Museum & Galleries of Ljubljana Represented by: Branka Kalenić Ramšak (UL FF) and Blaž Peršin (MGML) Language editing: Katja Paladin (Slovenian), Tine Verbič (English) Translated by: Polona Maver Print layout: Taja Dežman, Peter Bulovec (Zavod NaNovo) Printed by: Tisk Žnidarič d.o.o., Kranj Number of copies printed: 300 Price: 28 €

Ljubljana, maj 2017

Ljubljana, May 2017

ISBN: 978-961-237-929-2

ISBN: 978-961-237-929-2

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DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA Študija o ladjah in čolnih predrimskega in rimskega Navporta z orisom plovbe na Ljubljanskem barju med prazgodovino in novim vekom Study on the Ships and Boats of Preroman and Roman Nauportus with the Outline of the Navigation on the Ljubljana Marshes between Prehistory and the Early Modern Period Andrej Gaspari

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Andrej Gaspari, DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI /

THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA

CIP - Kataložni zapis o publikaciji Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, Ljubljana 903”63”(497.4-19) GASPARI, Andrej         Deblak s konca 2. stoletja pr. n. št. iz Ljubljanice na Vrhniki : študija o ladjah in čolnih predrimskega in rimskega Navporta z orisom plovbe na Ljubljanskem barju med prazgodovino in novim vekom / [avtor Andrej Gaspari ; s prispevki Irene Šinkovec ... [et al.] ; prevod Polona Maver] = The late 2nd century B. C. logboat from the Ljubljanica river at Vrhnika : study on the ships and boats of Preroman and Roman nauportus with the outline of the navigation on the Ljubljana marshes between prehistory and the early modern period / [author Andrej Gaspari ; with contributions Irene Šinkovec ... [et al.] ; translated by Polona Maver]. - Ljubljana : Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete : Muzej in galerije mesta Ljubljane = University Press, Faculty of Arts : Museum & Galleries of Ljubljana, 2017  ISBN 978-961-237-929-2 (Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete)  1. Gl. stv. nasl. 2. Vzp. stv. nasl.  290301184

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Andrej Gaspari, DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI /

THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA

Kazalo 7

Predgovor

Table of contents 7

I. Šinkovec 10

Uvod

I. Šinkovec 10

A. Gaspari 13

Zgodovina raziskav Metodologija ter potek raziskave in dviga

13

21 23

27

19

27

Methodology and the course of research and lift D. Badovinac, M. Draksler

Metodologija Potek raziskave Dvig

Terenski razvid

The history of research A. Gaspari

D. Badovinac, M. Draksler 19

Introduction A. Gaspari

A. Gaspari 19

Preface

19 21 23

27

Najdišče

Field evidence 27

A. Gaspari, D. Badovinac 31

Methodology The course of research The lift The site A. Gaspari, D. Badovinac

Stratigrafija 31 Pred odložitvijo deblaka

31

Stratigraphy 31 Before the deposition of the logboat

T. Verbič 32

T. Verbič

Ekskurz: ostanki človeškega skeleta v sedimentu pod deblakom

32

D. Badovinac, T. Tomazo-Ravnik, A. Gaspari 34

D. Badovinac, T. Tomazo-Ravnik, A. Gaspari

Po odložitvi deblaka

34

D. Badovinac, A. Gaspari 41

Povzetek rezultatov geoloških in arheobotaničnih raziskav sedimentov desnega brega ter komentar k najdiščnim okoliščinam

Deblak 49

Ohranjenost Oblika in dimenzije

49

The logboat 49

Podrobnosti zgradbe Poškodbe in popravila Tkanina Hidrostatika in zmogljivost Datacija Neopredeljeni kosi D. Badovinac, A. Gaspari

Hydrostatics and performance R. Bockius, A. Gaspari, D. Badovinac

81

A. Gaspari, K. Čufar, M. Merela 83

Textile K. Kavkler

75

R. Bockius, A. Gaspari, D. Badovinac 80

Damage and repairs D. Badovinac, A. Gaspari

73

K. Kavkler 75

Structural details D. Badovinac, A. Gaspari

62

D. Badovinac, A. Gaspari 73

Shape and dimensions D. Badovinac, A. Gaspari

60

D. Badovinac, A. Gaspari 62

The state of preservation D. Badovinac, A. Gaspari

53

D. Badovinac, A. Gaspari 60

Summary of the results of the geological and archaeobotanical research of the right bank sediments and comments on the find circumstances A. Gaspari, T. Verbič

D. Badovinac, A. Gaspari 53

After the deposition of the logboat D. Badovinac, A. Gaspari

41

A. Gaspari, T. Verbič 49

Excursus: the remains of a human skeleton in the sediment under the logboat

Dating A. Gaspari, K. Čufar, M. Merela

83

Indeterminate pieces D. Badovinac, A. Gaspari

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THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA

85

Preliminarni opis vidnih delov razbitine šivane ladje in njena datacija

87

D. Badovinac, A. Gaspari

Preliminary description of the visible parts of the sewn ship’s wreck and its dating D. Badovinac, A. Gaspari

89

Značilnosti vrhniškega deblaka in njegovo mesto v ladjedelniških tradicijah poznoprazgodovinske in rimske Evrope

89

A. Gaspari 89 91

Features of the logboat from Vrhnika and its place in the shipbuilding traditions of late prehistoric and Roman Europe A. Gaspari

K poznoprazgodovinskim čolnom in ladjam celinske in Atlantske Evrope Primerjalna analiza 91 Izbira lesa

89

91

A. Gaspari, M. Merela, K. Čufar

Oblika Premec 99 Tesnilo 101 Odprtine v dnu 103 Merilne prevrtine 106 Železne spojke/objemke 109 Stik/popravilo na pero in utor 114 Pogon Ekskurz: deblaka iz Zakotka in okolice Zelenega hriba Dimenzije in zmogljivost deblaka ter njegova namembnost

The outline of the late prehistoric boats and ships of continental and Atlantic Europe Comparative analysis 91 The choice of wood A. Gaspari, M. Merela, K. Čufar

93 97

117 119

127

97

117 120

127 Navigation on the Ljubljanica River in the Plovba po Ljubljanici v mlajši železni dobi in rimskem obdobju Late Iron Age and in the Roman era A. Gaspari 127 144

148

157

158

A. Gaspari

Zgodovinski in arheološki oris Pomen vodnega transporta čez Ljubljansko barje in posegi za izboljšanje plovnosti Ljubljanice Plovnost Ljubljanice na območju Ljubljanskega polja in plovba na srednji Savi Oris arheoloških najdb plovil kot kulturnega fenomena in kazalnika okoljskih sprememb na Ljubljanskem barju med prazgodovino in novim vekom (Ekskurz: deblak s človeško lobanjo in dvema vesloma)

127 144

148

157

158

179

Shape Bow 99 Caulking 101 Holes in the bottom 104 Thickness gauges 106 Iron clamps/fittings 111 Mortise and tenon joint/repair 115 Propulsion Excursus: logboats from Zakotek and the surroundings of Zeleni hrib Dimensions and capability of the logboat and its purpose 94

Sklep. Ladjedelništvo pozno­ prazgodovinskega in zgodnjerimskega Navporta

179

Historical and archaeological outline The significance of water transport across the Ljubljana Marshes and interventions for improving the navigability The navigability of the Ljubljanica River in the area of the Ljubljana Plain (Ljubljansko polje) and navigation on the Middle Sava River The outline of the archaeological finds of vessels as a cultural phenomenon and an indicator of environmental changes on the Ljubljana Marshes between prehistory and the modern period (Excursus: a logboat featuring a human skull and two paddles)

Conclusion. Shipbuilding of the late prehistoric and early Roman Nauportus A. Gaspari

A. Gaspari 187

Literatura

187

Literature

203

Seznam avtorjev

203

List of authors

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THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA

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Predgovor

Preface

(I. Šinkovec)

(I. Šinkovec)

Reka Ljubljanica, ki z obsežnim kraškim in barjanskim porečjem ter številnimi in kakovostnimi arheološkimi najdbami pomeni eno od svetovnih znamenitosti, je v zadnjem obdobju z varovalnimi ukrepi, sistematičnimi raziskavami, prezentacijami in razvojnimi projekti začela dobivati zasluženo pozornost strokovne in širše javnosti. Eno najbogatejših in hkrati najbolj ogroženih arheoloških najdišč, ki je znano že od prvih intenzivnejših regulacij struge v 19. stoletju, je bilo leta 2003 od Vrhnike do razvodja Ljubljanice in Gruberjevega kanala na Špici v Ljubljani razglašeno za kulturni spomenik državnega pomena. Z namenom pravne in praktične zaščite potopljenih arheoloških ostalin na dnu svetovnih oceanov, morij in celinskih voda ter za spodbujanje raziskovanja tega segmenta kulturne dediščine in uskladitev standardov dela na mednarodni ravni je bila na sedežu Unesca v Parizu leta 2001 sprejeta Konvencija o varovanju podvodne kulturne dediščine, h kateri je z ratifikacijo leta 2008 pristopila tudi Republika Slovenija. Istega leta je Ministrstvo za kulturo RS na podlagi novega področnega zakona objavilo Poziv k prijavi arheoloških najdb v zasebni hrambi, na podlagi katerega so v okviru pooblaščenih muzejev javnosti postali dostopni tudi predmeti iz struge Ljubljanice, med njimi obsežna zbirka družine Potočnik. Podvodne arheološke raziskave so bile primarno usmerjene k zavarovanju spomenika na območjih nestabilnih brežin na lokacijah mlajšeželeznodobnega deblaka na Vrhniki in rimske ladje pri Sinji Gorici. Večje pozornosti javnosti sta bila deležna odkritje okoli 40.000 let stare lesene konice v neposredni bližini ladje in obsežna razstava Ljubljanica, kulturna dediščina reke, ki jo je leta 2009 pripravil Narodni muzej Slovenije. V luči širjenja prepoznavnosti in dostopnosti dediščine smo leta 2013 na pobudo Muzeja in galerij mesta Ljubljane in v sodelovanju z Občino Vrhnika zasnovali celovit projekt revitalizacije kulturne in naravne dediščine Vrhnike v kontekstu širšega porečja Ljubljanice, ki služi kot podlaga za

The Ljubljanica River, one of the world’s attractions with its extensive karstic and marshy river basin and numerous and quality archaeological finds, recently started to draw some well-deserved attention of the expert and wider public as a result of protection measures, systematic research, presentations and development projects. Since 2003, one of the richest and, at the same time, most endangered archaeological sites, known already since the first more intensive riverbed regulations in the 19th century, has been declared a cultural monument of national importance from Vrhnika to the Ljubljanica and Gruber Canal watershed at Špica, Ljubljana. In 2001, the Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage was adopted at the UNESCO seat in Paris with the purpose of providing legal and practical protection of the submerged archaeological remains on the bottom of the world’s oceans, seas and continental waters, and encouraging the research of that segment of cultural heritage and coordinating work standards on the international level; in 2008, the Republic of Slovenia acceded to the Convention by ratification. Provided by a new sector-specific law, the Ministry of Culture issued the public Call to report archaeological finds in private possession that same year; consequently, objects from the Ljubljanica riverbed, including the extensive collection of the Potočnik family, were made accessible to the public through the authorised museum. Underwater archaeological research was primarily directed towards the protection of the monument in the areas featuring unstable riverbanks at the locations of the Late Iron Age logboat in Vrhnika and the Roman ship near Sinja Gorica. More public attention was given to the discovery of the approximately 40,000-year-old wooden point in the immediate proximity of the ship and the comprehensive exhibition “The Ljubljanica – Cultural Heritage of the River”, prepared in 2009 by the National Museum of Slovenia. In 2013, upon the initiative of the Museum and Galleries of Ljubljana,

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THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA

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pripravo faznih projektov zaščite in prezentacije spomenika. Projekt Doživljajsko razstavišče Ljubljanica, ki je bil izbran na razpisu Programa finančnega mehanizma EGP 2009–2014, je s cilji zaščite najbolj ogroženih delov spomenika in povečanja dostopnosti dediščine obsegal prvo fazo celovitega projekta. Projektne dejavnosti za zaščito in ohranjanje spomenika, ki so poleg dviga deblaka obsegale še dolgoročno zaščito rimske ladje in situ s sočasno sanacijo brežine Ljubljanice na območju Verda in batigrafsko izmero dela rečnega dna, je vodil in koordiniral Andrej Gaspari, ki je zaslužen tudi za obsežno znanstveno raziskavo in ažurno pripravo znanstvene objave, za kar se mu iskreno zahvaljujemo. Posebno zahvalo namenjamo članom terenske raziskovalne skupine Zavoda za podvodno arheologijo in Skupine Stik (Davidu Badovincu, Sari Čorković, Mateju Drakslerju, Saši Koren, Urošu Koširju, Reneju Masaryku, Daši Pavlovič, Mateju Školcu, Alešu Tiranu), vodji potapljanja Gašperju Koširju (CPA, d. o. o.), konservatorsko-restavratorski ekipi Muzeja in galerij mesta Ljubljane (Katarini Toman Kracina, Mojci Zver) in Restavratorskega centra ZVKDS (Nuši Saje), za uspešen dvig in prevoz deblaka podjetju Dvig, d. o. o., ter za izdelavo kadi za konservacijo podjetju RPS, d. o. o. K izdaji publikacije so s posredovanjem podatkov in slikovnega gradiva in z nasveti pripomogli Maja Bahar (Radiotelevizija Slovenija), Luka Bekić (Međunarodni centar za podvodnu arheologiju u Zadru – ICUA), Iris Bekljanov Zidanšek (Arhej, d. o. o.), Polona Bitenc (Narodni muzej Slovenije), Giulia Boetto (Aix Marseille Université, Centre national de la recherche scientifique in Centre Camille Jullian), Matija Črešnar (Univerza v Ljubljani, Filozofska fakulteta, Oddelek za arheologijo, ZVKDS – Center za preventivno arheologijo), Loïc Damelet (CNRS, CCJ), Miran Erič (Zavod za varstvo kulturne dediščine Slovenije, Služba za kulturno dediščino), red. prof. ddr. Mitja Guštin, emeritus, Jože Hanc, Arne Hodalič, Katja Hölzl (Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut für Archäologie), Maja Kac (RTVS), Tomo Kajfež (NMS),

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in cooperation with the Municipality of Vrhnika, and in the light of spreading the recognisability and accessibility of the heritage, we designed a comprehensive project of revitalising the cultural and natural heritage of Vrhnika in the context of a wider area of the Ljubljanica river basin, which serves as a base for the preparation of phased projects for the protection and presentation of the monument. The Ljubljanica River Experience and Exhibition Site project, which was chosen in the tender opened by the EEA Financial Mechanism Programme 2009–2014, comprised the first stage of the comprehensive project and aimed to protect the most endangered parts of the monument and to increase the accessibility of the heritage. Project activities for the protection and preservation of the monument, which in addition to the lifting of the logboat also comprised a long-term in situ protection of the Roman ship, the accompanying rehabilitation of the Ljubljanica banks in the area of Verd and the sonar examination of a part of the river bottom, were headed and coordinated by Andrej Gaspari, who can also take credit for the extensive scientific research and the prompt preparation of a scientific publication, for which we are sincerely thankful. Our special thanks go to the members of the field research group of the Institute for Underwater Archaeology and the Stik Group (David Badovinac, Sara Čorković, Matej Draksler, Saša Koren, Uroš Košir, Rene Masaryk, Daša Pavlovič, Matej Školc, Aleš Tiran), the head of the diving team, Gašper Košir (company CPA, d. o. o.), the conservation-restoration team of the Museum & Galleries of Ljubljana (Katarina Toman Kracina, Mojca Zver) and the Restoration Centre of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia (Nuša Saje), the company Dvig, d. o. o. for the successful lift and transport of the logboat, and to the company RPS, d. o. o. for building the tanks for conservation. The following contributed to the issue of the publication by providing information, image material and advice: Maja Bahar (Radio-Televison of Slovenia), Luka Bekić (International Centre for Underwater

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Andrej Gaspari, DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI /

THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA

Tone Kompare (župnija Trnovo), Ida Koncani Uhač (Arheološki muzej Istre), Boštjan Laharnar (NMS), Nuša Logar, Darija Mavrič (NMS), Dimitrij Mlekuž (Univerza v Ljubljani, Filozofska fakulteta, Oddelek za arheologijo, ZVKDS CPA), Miha Murko in Barbara Nadbath (ZVKDS CPA), Nuša Saje (Restavratorski center ZVKDS), Valter Suban (Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za pomorstvo in promet), družina Suhadolnik, Miloš Toni (stareslike.cerknica.org), Mija Topličanec (ZVKDS – Območna enota Ljubljana), Petra Vojaković (Arhej, d. o. o.), Krunoslav Zubčić (Hrvatski restauratorski centar, Odjel za podvodnu arheologiju) in Ergyn Žječi (Ezfly aerial). Jezikovni pregled sta opravila Katja Paladin (slovensko besedilo) in Tine Verbič (angleško besedilo), prevod Polona Maver, oblikovanje knjige pa Zavod NaNovo. Tisk sta omogočila Občina Vrhnika in Muzej in galerije mesta Ljubljane. Obema se najlepše zahvaljujemo. Širjenju dostopnosti do kulturne in naravne dediščine Ljubljanice se poleg pomembnih znanstvenih rezultatov, ki so predstavljeni v tej publikaciji, pridružuje še nova stalna razstava Moja Ljubljanica v Kulturnem centru Vrhnika, kjer bo po zaključenem konservatorskem posegu, predvidoma od leta 2019 dalje, na ogled tudi deblak.

Archaeology in Zadar - ICUA), Iris Bekljanov Zidanšek (company Arhej, d. o. o.), Polona Bitenc (National Museum of Slovenia), Giulia Boetto (Aix Marseille Université, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Centre Camille Jullian), Matija Črešnar (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Department for Archaeology, IPCHS - Centre for Preventive Archaeology), Loïc Damelet (CNRS, CCJ), Miran Erič (IPCHS - Cultural Heritage Service), prof. Mitja Guštin, emeritus, Jože Hanc, Arne Hodalič, Katja Hölzl (Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut für Archäologie), Janka Istenič (NMS), Maja Kac (RTVS), Tomo Kajfež (NMS), Tone Kompare (Trnovo Presbytery), Ida Koncani Uhač (Archaeological Museum of Istria), Boštjan Laharnar (NMS), Nuša Logar, Darija Mavrič (NMS), Dimitrij Mlekuž (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Department for Archaeology, IPCHS CPA), Miha Murko and Barbara Nadbath (IPCHS CPA), Nuša Saje (IPCHS - Restoration Centre), Valter Suban (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport), Suhadolnik family, Miloš Toni (stareslike.cerknica.org), Mija Topličanec (IPCHS, Ljubljana Regional Unit), Petra Vojaković (company Arhej, d. o. o.), Krunoslav Zubčić (Croatian Conservation Institute, Department for Underwater Archaeology), Ergyn Žječi (Ezfly aerial). Language editing was provided by Katja Paladin (Slovenian) and Tine Verbič (English), and translation by Polona Maver. The book was designed by the NaNovo Institute. Printing was enabled by the Municipality of Vrhnika and the Museum and Galleries of Ljubljana. We would also like to express our gratitude to both of them. In addition to the important scientific results presented in this publication, the spreading of accessibility of the cultural and natural heritage of the Ljubljanica is also accompanied by the new permanent exhibition The Ljubljanica River at the Vrhnika Cultural Centre; after the completed conservation procedure, probably from 2019 onwards, the logboat will also be put on display as part of the exhibition.

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Andrej Gaspari, DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI /

THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA

Uvod

Introduction

(A. Gaspari)

(A. Gaspari)

Čolni deblaki, za katere se v slovenščini uporabljajo tudi izrazi drevak, izdolbenec, redkeje brunik, celak, dolbenka in enodrevni čoln (arh.) ter tujka monoksil, so skozi prazgodovino, antiko in večji del srednjega veka najštevilneje dokumentirano plovilo za prevoz po rekah in jezerih, zaradi preproste in robustne zgradbe pa so bili marsikje po Evropi kontinuirano v rabi vse do predmodernega obdobja,1 in kot v primeru čupe – iz jelke (hoje) ali bora izdolbenega deblaka s podaljšanima nosilcema za vesla, ki se je na slovenski etnični obali med Trstom in izvirom Timave uporabljal zlasti v lovu na tune – pa celo do sredine 20. stoletja.2 Možnosti uporabe deblakov so bile široke in segajo od prevoza blaga in potnikov prek ribolova do vojaških podvigov, arheološko in etnografsko pa je izpričana tudi njihova sekundarna uporaba v pogrebnem obredju. Izvotljena debla niso bila v rabi samo kot samostojna plovila, temveč tudi kot pari plovcev, povezanih s prečnimi elementi ali pritrjenih drug ob drugega z namenom izdelave plovil večje nosilnosti in stabilnosti, kot npr. brodov, pontonov ali plavajočih mlinov, značilnih za srednji in novi vek.3 Od mezolitika naprej izpričani deblaki preprostih ali sestavljenih oblik in sočasna vesla so posebej zaznamovali vedenje o najstarejšem vodnem transportu celinske in atlantske Evrope, saj ostala zgodnja plovna sredstva iz starejše prazgodovine, kot so različni plovci, splavi iz debel ali snopov trsa, čolni z ogrodjem in prevleko iz kože ali lubja ter morda tudi prve ladje z leseno oplato, katerih uporabo predvidevajo teoretične študije o celinski in morski plovbi tega prostora, arheološko še niso bila zanesljivo dokazana,4 literarna evidenca o preprostih plovilih pri

Logboats, also referred to as dugout canoes or monoxylons, are the most frequently documented vessels for river and lake transport throughout prehistory, antiquity, and a large part of the Middle Ages. In many places in Europe, they were continuously used up to the pre-modern period due to their simple and robust structure1 and, in the case of the čupa – a logboat carved out of a fir or pine tree with extended oar carriers, which was used on the Slovenian ethnic coast between Trieste and the spring of the Timavo River especially for tuna fishing – even until the mid-20th century. 2 There were many possibilities of using logboats – from transporting goods and passengers, through fishing to military exploits, while there is also archaeological and ethnographic evidence of their secondary use in funeral rituals. Hollowed trunks were not only used as independent vessels, but also as pairs of floats, connected with transverse elements or attached next to each other in order to construct vessels of larger load-bearing capabilities, e.g. ferries, pontoon bridges or ship mills, typical of the Middle Ages and the modern period.3 Simple or extended logboats and their contemporary paddles, attested from the Mesolithic onwards, have especially influenced the knowledge of the oldest water transport of continental and Atlantic Europe, as there is no reliable archaeological evidence of other vessels from early prehistory, such as different floats, log-rafts or bundle-rafts, boats with the frame and coating made of skin or bark, and maybe also the first plank-ships that were used according to the theoretical studies of continental and sea navigation of this area,4 while the literary evidence of

1    Glej Paret 1930, 111. 2    Volpi Lisjak 2005; Vuga 2005. 3    Glej npr. Arnold 1995–1996; McGrail 1998, str. 56–87; Medas 2003a; Ossowski 2010, 27–29; Kröger 2011.

10

4    McGrail 2001, 10–11; morda najstarejši dokaz za preprosta plovila je domnevno v pozni paleolitik (12 ky) datiran kos jelenjega rogovja iz Husuma (Schleswig-Holstein/D), ki se interpretira kot ostanek rebra manjšega čolna s prevleko iz brezovega lubja ali sešite kože oziroma usnja in z vezmi iz živalskih kit, namenjenega prevozu ene osebe na mirni vodi (glej Baales 2012, 28, z nadaljnjo literaturo).

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1    See Paret 1930, 111. 2    Volpi Lisjak 2005; Vuga 2005. 3    See e.g. Arnold 1995–1996; McGrail 1998, p. 56–87; Medas 2003a; Ossowski 2010, 27–29; Kröger 2011. 4    McGrail 2001, 10–11; perhaps the oldest evidence of simple vessels is a piece of antler from Husum (Schleswig-Holstein/D), presumably dated to the Late Paleolithic (12 ky) and interpreted as the remain of a rib of a smaller boat with a coating made of birch bark or sewn skin or leather and with bindings made of animal tendons, intended for the transfer of one person on still water (see Baales 2012, 28, with further literature).

25. 05. 2017 11:10:55


Uvod / Introduction

ljudstvih severnega obrobja sredozemskega sveta in severozahodne Evrope pa se nanaša šele na iztekajočo se staro ero.5 Geografski položaj območja Ljubljanskega barja na osi prometno najugodnejše povezave Apeninskega polotoka in obal zgornjega Jadrana kot najsevernejšega zaliva Sredozemskega morja s srednjim Podonavem in severno ležečimi predeli celinske Evrope vzdolž t. i. jantarne poti, zlasti pa plovna Ljubljanica, ki je kot del črnomorskega povodja pomenila naravno os komunikacije in izmenjave z dolvodno ležečimi kraji ob Savi in Donavi, dajeta ob ugodnih naravnih pogojih za ohranitev večine materialov, kakršni vladajo v z vodo prepojenih močvirskih sedimentih in v počasi tekočih vodah glavne barjanske reke s pritoki, temu prostoru tudi značaj nadregionalno pomembnega rezervoarja arheoloških podatkov o razvoju prevoznih sredstev skozi arheološka obdobja. Na poplavnem svetu Ljubljanskega barja s skupno površino okoli 110 km2 je bilo v močvirskih sedimentih in v strugi Ljubljanice doslej odkritih okoli 60 deblakov, kar ga uvršča med območja z največjim številom dokumentiranih najdb tovrstnih plovil v Evropi. 6 Datirani primerki časovno segajo od bakrene dobe do 17. stoletja,7 posredna arheološka evidenca, zlasti ribolovu namenjene eno- in dvoredne koščene in rogovinaste harpune iz struge Ljubljanice8 ter najstarejši deblaki iz drugih regij Evrope in

5    Npr. čolni z ogrodjem iz gibljivih palic, prekritim z napetimi živalskimi kožami, ki so jih uporabljali Veneti na močvirjih Padske nižine (Lucan, Pharsalia 4, 130–131), pod imenom carabus pa so na istem območju izpričani še pet stoletij pozneje (Isid., Etymologiae 19, 1, 25–26) in celo v predmodernem času (Medas 2013, 117). Raba tovrstnih plovil se za 1. stol. pr. n. št. omenja tudi za sever Iberskega polotoka (Strabon, Geographica 3, 3, 7) in Britanijo (Lucan, Pharsalia 4, 130–135; za našteta in druga območja glej tudi Bockius 2007, 255, sl. 2). 6    Npr.: s 33 km2 velikega območja barja Federseeried na zgornjem Švabskem, ki je bilo obljudeno v različnih obdobjih med poznim mezolitikom in železno dobo, je bilo leta 1998 znanih čez 40 deblakov (Schlichtherle 1998). Izven Evrope velja za eno največjih koncentracij najdb deblakov v vodnih okoljih Newnans Lake (30,4 km2) na severu Floride, kjer je bilo v jezerskih sedimentih doslej odkritih več kot 100 deblakov iz časa med 500 in 5000 let pred sedanjostjo, največ pa jih izvira iz obdobja 3500–4500 BP (glej Menotti 2012, 171–172). 7    Pregledi pri Melik 1946; Erič 2008; id. 2009; Velušček, Veranič, Čufar 2009; Erič, Gaspari, Kavur 2012; Veranič 2016. 8    Turk et al. 2009, 198–199, kat. št. 5.

deblak 13-5-KONCNO2.indd 11

simple vessels used by the people inhabiting the northern edge of the Mediterranean world and north-western Europe only refers to the expiring ancient era.5 The fact that the Ljubljana Marshes lie on the axis of the most favourable transport connection of the Apennine Peninsula and the coasts of the upper Adriatic (the northernmost bay of the Mediterranean Sea) with the Middle Danube region and the northern lying areas of continental Europe along the so-called Amber Route, and the navigability of the Ljubljanica River, which is a part of the Black Sea drainage basin and presented a natural axis of communications and exchange between the places situated downstream the Sava and Danube Rivers, give this area the character of a supra-regionally important reservoir of archaeological data on the development of the means of transport through individual archaeological periods due to the favourable natural conditions for the preservation of the majority of materials in the water-saturated swamp sediments and the slowly flowing waters of the river and its tributaries running across the marshes. In the flood area of the Ljubljana Marshes, with the total surface of around 110 km2, around 60 logboats were found to this day in the water-saturated marsh sediments and in the Ljubljanica riverbed, which ranks it among the areas with the largest number of documented finds of such vessels in Europe.6 The dated examples cronologically extend from the Copper Age to the 17th century7 while the indirect archaeological evidence, 5    E.g. boats with a frame of flexible poles, covered with tightened animal skins, which were used by the Veneti on the Po Plain marshes (Lucan, Pharsalia 4, 130–131); they were attested under the name carabus in the same area also five centuries later (Isid., Etymologiae 19, 1, 25–26) and even in the pre-modern time (Medas 2013, 117). There are mentions of such vessels being used in the 1st century BC also in the north of the Iberian Peninsula (Strabon, Geographica 3, 3, 7) and in Britain (Lucan, Pharsalia 4, 130–135; for the listed and other areas see also Bockius 2007, 255, fig. 2). 6    E.g. up until 1998, more than 40 logboats were discovered in the 33-km2 area of the Federseeried marsh in Upper Swabia, which was inhabited in different periods between the Late Mesolithic and the Iron Age (Schlichtherle 1998). Outside Europe, one of the largest concentrations of finds of logboats in water environments is Newnans Lake (30.4 km2) in the north of Florida, where more than 100 logboats from the period between 500 and 5000 years before present time have been discovered up until now and most of them originate from the period 3500–4500 BP (see Menotti 2012, 171–172). 7    Reviewed in Melik 1946; Erič 2008; id. 2009; Velušček, Veranič, Čufar 2009; Erič, Gaspari, Kavur 2012; Veranič 2016.

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Andrej Gaspari, DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI /

THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA

Sl. 1 / Fig. 1 Središče Vrhnike s Staro pošto in reko Ljubljanico na območju najdišča deblaka. Pogled proti jugu (foto: D. Badovinac) The centre of Vrhnika with Stara pošta and the Ljubljanica River in the area of the logboat’s site. View towards the south (photo by: D. Badovinac)

ostalega sveta,9 pa nakazuje možno uporabo teh in drugih zgodnjih oblik plovil na območju Ljubljanskega barja že vsaj v srednji kameni dobi. Prvi dokumentiran deblak z območja močvirne ravnine med Ljubljano, Igom in Vrhniko je bil odkrit pri kopanju kanala Spodnji Galjevec v bližini ustja Gruberjevega kanala med letoma 1826 in 1828.10

particularly single- and double-sided barbed bone and antler fishing harpoons found in the Ljubljanica bed8 and the oldest logboats from other European and world regions9 indicates a potential use of these and other early forms of vessels in the area of the Ljubljana Marshes at least in the middle Stone Age. The first documented logboat from the area of the marshy plain between Ljubljana, Ig and Vrhnika was discovered during the excavation of the Spodnji Galjevec canal near the mouth of the Gruber Canal between 1826 and 1828.10

8    Turk et al. 2009, 198–199, cat. no. 5.

12

9    Najstarejši evropski deblak in obenem najstarejša najdba tovrstnega plovila na svetu izvira iz nizozemskega kraja Pesse (d. 3 m; š. 0,45 m; 8760 ± 145 BP), nekaj mlajša pa sta najstarejši afriški deblak iz bližine vasi Dufuna (d. 8,4 m; š. 0,45 m; 7264 ± 55 BP) v Nigeriji in najstarejši azijski deblak z najdišča Kuahuqiao (d. 5,6 m; š. 0,52 m; 7070 ± 155 BP) na vzhodnem Kitajskem.

9    The oldest European logboat and at the same time the oldest find of such a vessel in the world originates from the Dutch village of Pesse (l. 3 m; w. 0.45 m; 8760 ± 145 BP); the oldest African logboat from the surroundings of the village Dufuna (l. 8.4 m; w. 0.45 m; 7264 ± 55 BP) in Nigeria and the oldest Asian logboat from the site Kuahuqiao (l. 5.6 m; w. 0.52 m; 7070 ± 155 BP) in eastern China are from a more recent period.

10   Hochenwart 1838, 3. zvezek, 79, 81.

10   Hochenwart 1838, Volume 3, 79, 81.

deblak 13-5-KONCNO2.indd 12

25. 05. 2017 11:10:56


Uvod / Introduction

Zgodovina raziskav

The history of research of the logboat

(A. Gaspari)

(A. Gaspari)

Deblak iz reke Ljubljanice na Vrhniki (SI60),11 ki je do dviga ležal na vznožju desne brežine struge 105 metrov pod cestnim mostom proti Verdu (sl. 1), je v začetku devetdesetih let prejšnjega stoletja odkril potapljač, policist in nekdanji pripadnik zaščitne enote milice republiškega sekretariata za notranje zadeve Miro Potočnik. Predhodno dokumentiranje deblaka, ki je bil več kot do polovice zasut z rečnimi sedimenti in odpadki ter prelomljen na dva dela, so po prejemu obvestila o obstoju plovila s strani imenovanega poznavalca Ljubljanice opravili sodelavci Oddelka za arheologijo Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani in člani Skupine za podvodno arheologijo julija 2001 v okviru raziskovalnega projekta, ki ga je financirala Mestna občina Ljubljana (sl. 2–5).12 Po končanem dokumentiranju, ki je obsegalo georeferencirano ročno risbo tlorisa in presekov čolna ter detajla odprtine, fotografiranje in geodetsko umestitev, so bili odlomljeni deli nameščeni v notranjost deblaka, vse skupaj pa je bilo obloženo in zavarovano z vrečami peska. Ob izvedbi konservatorskega nadzora stanja deblaka leta 2008 je bilo to ocenjeno kot nespremenjeno oziroma sprejemljivo, sam deblak pa je bil zaraščen z vodnim rastlinjem. Od leta 2011 naprej so odločitve v zvezi z varstvom in ohranjanjem deblaka, ki leži na območju kulturnega spomenika državnega pomena,13 zaznamovali napredujoče spodjedanje desne brežine neposredno nad najdiščem in negotovost glede njene stabilnosti ter z njima povezana problematika vodnogospodarskega urejanja struge in sanacije celotne zajede v desni brežini dolvodno od mostu proti Verdu. V konkretni situaciji sta bili celovita raziskava in prestavitev deblaka,

Before it was lifted, the logboat from the Ljubljanica River in Vrhnika (SI-60) 11 was situated in the channel at the foot of the right riverbank, 105 metres below the road bridge towards Verd (fig. 1). It was discovered at the beginning of the 1990s by Miro Potočnik, a diver, policeman and former member of the Police Protection Unit of the Republic Secretariat for Internal Affairs. After being informed of the vessel’s existence by the aforementioned expert on the Ljubljanica, the preliminary documentation of the logboat, which was more than half buried in fluvial sediments and waste and broken into two pieces, was carried out in July 2001 by staff members of the Department of Archaeology of the Faculty of Arts of the University of Ljubljana and the members of the Group for Underwater Archaeology as part of the research project financed by the Municipality of Ljubljana (fig. 2–5).12 After completing the documentation, comprising a georeferenced manual drawing of the boat’s ground plan, cross sections and the hole’s detail, photography and geodetic survey, the broken parts were placed into the logboat’s interior and all of it was covered and protected with sandbags. Conservation control in 2008 evaluated the logboat’s condition as unchanged or acceptable, while the logboat itself was overgrown with water plantsFrom 2011 onwards, the decisions related to the protection and preservation of the logboat situated in the area of a cultural monument of national importance13 have been marked by the progressive erosion of the right bank directly above the site and by the uncertainty with regard to its stability and the related issue of water management of the riverbed and the rehabilitation of the

11    Gaspari, Erič 2002; Erič 2008, 18–19, sl. 18; id. 2009, 156; Erič, Gaspari, Kavur 2012, 398–399, sl. 3. 12    Gaspari 2012a, 37, sl. 58. 13    Odlok o razglasitvi struge reke Ljubljanice ter njenega pritoka Ljubije, vključno z bregovi, in območja stare struge Ljubljanice za kulturni spomenik državnega pomena, Uradni list RS, št. 115/03 in 103/05.

deblak 13-5-KONCNO2.indd 13

11    Gaspari, Erič 2002; Erič 2008, 18–19, fig. 18; id. 2009, 156; Erič, Gaspari, Kavur 2012, 398–399, fig. 3. 12    Gaspari 2012a, 37, fig. 58. 13    Ordinance declaring the riverbeds of the Ljubljanica River and its tributary Ljubija, including the banks and the areas of the old riverbed of the Ljubljanica, a cultural monument of national importance, Official Gazette of RS, nos. 115/03 and 103/05.

13

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Andrej Gaspari, DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI /

THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA

ki je bila v okviru možnosti za njegovo trajno ohranitev prepoznana kot edina sprejemljiva rešitev, tako v javnem interesu varstva kulturne dediščine kot v interesu varstva ljudi in premoženja. Projekt gradbenih ukrepov za sanacijo omenjene zajede je za upravljavca voda in naročnika, Agencijo RS za okolje (ARSO), izdelal Hidrotehnik, Vodnogospodarsko podjetje, d. d., maja 2011 in ga kot prilogo vlogi za izdajo kulturnovarstvenih pogojev posredoval Zavodu za varstvo kulturne dediščine Slovenije, Območna enota Ljubljana (ZVKDS, OE Ljubljana). Nosilec javnega pooblastila je junija 2011 investitorju izdal dopolnitev kulturnovarstvenih pogojev iz maja istega leta, v katerih je v zvezi z deblakom določil obveznost izvedbe intenzivnega podvodnega arheološkega pregleda struge Ljubljanice v celotni dolžini predvidenega posega, ki ga je v drugi polovici leta 2011 izvedla ekipa Centra za preventivno arheologijo ZVKDS,14 in izdelave konservatorskega načrta za prestavitev deblaka (dokončanega septembra istega leta).15 Pri odločanju med možnostjo prestavitve plovila na varnejše mesto v strugi Ljubljanice in možnostjo dviga, konservacije in predstavitve deblaka v namensko zasnovanem Centru za promocijo naravne in kulturne dediščine na Vrhniki, v katerem so v letih 2014 in 2015 sodelovali Ministrstvo za kulturo (MK), Muzej in galerije mesta Ljubljane (MGML) ter ZVKDS OE Ljubljana, sta naposled pretehtali negotovost v zvezi z (ne)stabilnostjo sekundarnega odlagališča v strugi in zlasti ugotovitev, da bi uresničitev druge možnosti pomenila pomemben prispevek k boljši dostopnosti dediščine za vse družbene skupine in s tem k razvijanju zavesti javnosti o pomenu arheoloških ostalin, kar je skladno s priporočili priročnika k Pravilom v zvezi z dejavnostmi, usmerjenimi na podvodno kulturno dediščino16 iz priloge h Konvenciji UNESCA o varovanju podvodne kulturne dediščine (MKVPKD).17 14    Črešnar, Košir 2012. 15    Izdelan septembra 2011; M. Erič, ZVKDS. 16    Manual – Rules Concerning Activities Directed at Underwater Cultural Heritage.

14

17    Zakon o ratifikaciji Konvencije o varovanju podvodne kulturne dediščine (Uradni list RS – Mednarodne pogodbe, št. 1/08).

deblak 13-5-KONCNO2.indd 14

recess in the right bank downstream from the bridge towards Verd. In this specific situation, the integral research and moving of the logboat, which was recognised as the only acceptable solution for its permanent preservation, was both in the public interest of protecting the cultural heritage and in the interest of protecting people and property. The Hidrotehnik, Vodnogospodarsko podjetje, d. d. company prepared the construction measures project for the rehabilitation of the aforementioned recess in May 2011 for its client, the Slovenian Environment Agency (ARSO), and submitted it to the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Ljubljana Regional Unit as an annex to the application for issuing cultural protection conditions. In June 2011, as part of the agreed compromise between different public interests, the bearer of public authority issued an amendment to the cultural protection conditions from May of the same year to the investor. In relation to the logboat, the amendment determined the obligation to carry out an intensive underwater archaeological survey of the Ljubljanica riverbed in the entire length of the planned intervention, which was carried out by the team of the Preventive Archaeology Centre of IPCHS,14 in the second half of 2011, and to make a conservation plan for moving the logboat, which was completed that same year in September. 15 In deciding between the possibility of moving the vessel to a safer place in the Ljubljanica riverbed and the possibility of lifting, conserving and presenting the logboat in the purpose-designed Centre for the Promotion of Natural and Cultural Heritage in Vrhnika, in which the Ministry of Culture (MK), Museum & Galleries of Ljubljana (MGML), and the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia (IPCHS), Ljubljana Regional Unit participated in 2014 and 2015, the uncertainty in relation to the (in)stability of the secondary place of deposition in the riverbed and, most of all, the conclusion that the realisation of the second option would present an important contribution to improving heritage accessibility for 14    Črešnar, Košir 2012. 15    Prepared in September 2011; M. Erič, IPCHS.

25. 05. 2017 11:10:56


Uvod / Introduction

Sl. 2 / Fig. 2 Pogled na območje najdišča med raziskavami leta 2001 (foto: A. Gaspari) View of the site area during the research in 2001 (photo by: A. Gaspari)

Sl. 3 / Fig. 3 Ob začetku raziskav leta 2001 je krmni del (K1) deblaka ležal obrnjen z dnom navzgor, zataknjen na osrednji del (K2 in K3) (foto: M. Erič) At the beginning of the research in 2001, the logboat’s stern section (K1) was lying with its bottom up, stuck onto the central part (K2 and K3) (photo by: M. Erič)

Sl. 4 / Fig. 4 Dokumentiranje polnila deblaka. Raziskave leta 2001 (foto: J. Hanc) Documenting the logboat’s filling. Research in 2001 (photo by: J. Hanc)

deblak 13-5-KONCNO2.indd 15

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Andrej Gaspari, DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI /

THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA

M1 K1

I1

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Sl. 5 / Fig. 5 Načrt dokumentiranega dela deblaka. Raziskave leta 2001 (risala: M. Erič, A. Gaspari; izdelal: M. Erič) Plan of the logboat’s documented section. Research in 2001 (drawn by: M. Erič, A. Gaspari; prepared by: M. Erič)

Presoji kulturnovarstvene problematike varovanja in ohranjanja deblaka ter odločitvi za njegovo celovito raziskavo in dvig v okviru projekta Doživljajsko razstavišče Ljubljanica, ki so ga financirali Program finančnega mehanizma EGP 2009–2014, Občina Vrhnika, Muzej in galerije mesta Ljubljane ter Biotehniška fakulteta Univerze v Ljubljani,

Sl. 6 / Fig. 6 Stanje deblaka pred začetkom izkopavanja leta 2015. Prelom srednjega v krmni del je bil po koncu raziskav leta 2001 preventivno založen z vrečami s peskom (foto: D. Badovinac) The state of the logboat before the beginning of the excavation in 2015. After the end of the research in 2001, the breakage of the central into the stern section was preventively embedded with sandbags (photo by: D. Badovinac)

all social groups and thus developing public awareness of the significance of archaeological remains, which is in accordance with the recommendations of the Manual on the Rules Concerning Activities Directed at Underwater Cultural Heritage16 from the Annex to the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage,17 finally prevailed. The evaluation of the cultural protection issue of protecting and preserving the logboat and the decision for its integral research and lift within the framework of the Ljubljanica River Experience and Exhibition Site project, funded by the EEA Financial Mechanism Programme 2009–2014, the Municipality of Vrhnika, Museum and Galleries of Ljubljana, and partially the Biotechnical Faculty of the University of Ljubljana, was followed by the creation of the research project plan in accordance with the second chapter of the Annex to the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage,18 the selection of a qualified contractor and the acquisition of relevant consents and permits. The Intervention in Nature Permit No. 351-24/2015-6 (218) from 31 March 16    Manual – Rules Concerning Activities Directed at Underwater Cultural Heritage. 17    Act Ratifying the Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage (Official Gazette of RS – International Treaties, no. 1/08).

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18    Prepared in February 2015; professional coordinator of the research A. Gaspari, Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana.

25. 05. 2017 11:10:59


Uvod / Introduction

Sl. 7 / Fig. 7 Območje raziskav leta 2015 (foto: D. Pavlovič) Area of the research in 2015 (photo by: D. Pavlovič)

Sl. 8 / Fig. 8 David Badovinac med dokumentiranjem podrobnosti premčnega dela deblaka (foto: A. Hodalič) David Badovinac documenting the details of the logboat’s bow section (photo by: A. Hodalič)

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Andrej Gaspari, DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI /

THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA

so sledili izdelava projektnega načrta raziskave v skladu z drugim poglavjem Priloge MKVPKD,18 izbira usposobljenega izvajalca ter pridobivanje ustreznih soglasij in dovoljenj. Za zavarovalni arheološki poseg so bila investitorju, Občini Vrhnika, izdana dovoljenje za poseg v naravo št. 351-24/2015-6 (218) z dne 31. 3. 2015 (UE Vrhnika), vodno soglasje št. 35506-1164/2015-3 z dne 20. 2. 2015 (ARSO) in kulturnovarstveno soglasje št. 35102-0332/2015/4 z dne 24. 3. 2015 (ZVKDS OE Ljubljana). Podvodno izkopavanje in dokumentiranje plovila je po naročilu MGML kot pristojnega projektnega partnerja, zadolženega za strokovno koordinacijo arheoloških in konservatorsko-restavratorskih posegov, in v skladu s kulturnovarstvenim soglasjem za raziskavo in odstranitev arheološke ostaline št. 62240-1818/2015/5 (MK; koda raziskave 15119) izvedel Zavod za podvodno arheologijo v sodelovanju z Mednarodnim centrom za podvodno arheologijo iz Zadra (ICUA) – Unescovim centrom II. kategorije in podjetjem CPA, d. o. o., pod vodstvom Mateja Drakslerja, in sicer med 15. 6 in 20. 7. 2015 (sl. 7–8). Po izvedbi obsežnih pripravljalnih del so bili ostanki deblaka v sodelovanju s podjetjem Dvig, d. o. o. dvignjeni iz struge in prepeljani v konservatorsko delavnico Restavratorskega centra Zavoda za varstvo kulturne dediščine Slovenije (ZVKDS RC).19 Terenski del raziskave se je končal z ureditvijo izkopanega območja in utrditvijo brežine s kamnito zložbo, ki jo je izvedlo podjetje Hidrotehnik 22. in 23. 12. 2015.

2015 (Vrhnika Administrative Unit), the Water Consent No. 35506-1164/2015-3 from 20 February 2015 (ARSO) and the Cultural Protection Consent No. 35102-0332/2015/4 from 24 March 2015 (IPCHS, Ljubljana Regional Unit) were issued to the investor, the Municipality of Vrhnika, for the archaeological rescue intervention. Commissioned by the MGML as the competent project partner, responsible for the professional coordination of archaeological and conservation-preservation interventions, and in accordance with the Cultural Protection Consent for Research and Removal of Archaeological Remains No. 62240-1818/2015/5 (Ministry of Culture; research code 15-119), the underwater excavation and documentation of the vessel was carried out by the Institute for Underwater Archaeology in cooperation with the International Centre for Underwater Archaeology from Zadar – UNESCO Category II Centre, and the CPA, d.o.o. company led by Matej Draksler, between 15 June and 20 July 2015 (fig. 7–8). After the execution of extensive preparation work, the remains of the logboat were lifted from the riverbed and transported to the conservation workshop of the Restoration Centre of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia (IPCHS RC) in cooperation with the Dvig, d. o. o. company.19 The fieldwork was concluded with the arrangement of the excavated area and reinforcement of the bank with a stone retaining wall, which was carried out by the Hidrotehnik company on 22 and 23 December 2015.

18    Izdelan februarja 2015; strokovni koordinator raziskave A. Gaspari, OzA FF UL.

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19    Badovinac et al. 2016.

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19    Badovinac et al. 2016.

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Uvod / Introduction

Metodologija ter potek raziskave in dviga

Methodology and the course of research and lift

(D. Badovinac, M. Draksler)

(D. Badovinac, M. Draksler)

Metodologija

Methodology

Prostorsko dokumentiranje raziskave je slonelo na 3D fotogrametriji, tj. izdelavi fotorealističnih 3D-modelov na podlagi serije večperspektivnih fotografij (sl. 9). 3D fotogrametrija se v zadnjih letih uveljavlja kot glavno orodje za dokumentiranje tako podvodnih kot nadvodnih arheoloških najdišč, saj omogoča poustvarjanje digitalnih 3D-odlitkov opazovanih situacij ali objektov z milimetrsko natančnostjo. Poleg tega je izvedba dokumentiranja razmeroma hitra in omogoča tudi snemanje situacij v zelo slabi vidljivosti (>0,5 m). V okviru zadevne raziskave so bile fotogrametrično posnete vse situacije izkopavanj. 3D-modeli so bili nato umeščeni v državni koordinatni sistem (D96/TM) z vpenjanjem na georeferenčne markerje, predhodno izmerjene s tahimetrom. Iz skupno 12 892 posnetih digitalnih fotografij je bilo izdelanih 12 fotogrametričnih ortomozaikov (FG). Interpretirani georeferencirani modeli so bili nato uporabljeni za izris 3D-meritev zunanje linije obsega in višin plasti ter obrise delov deblaka s podrobnostmi. Te meritve so bile nato shranjene v obliki .dwg z ustreznimi metapodatki. Dopolnilno prostorsko dokumentiranje s tahimetrom je zajemalo izmere obrisov, višin in profilov plasti (SE; 6 enot) ter struktur, točkovne izmere najdb (PN; 112 enot) in vzorcev za nadaljnje analize (VZ; 14 enot) ter izmere izkopnega polja in sond. Večji, zanesljivo identificirani kosi deblaka so bili poimenovani s K (1–5), ostali leseni deli, katerih pripadnosti v času podvodne raziskave ni bilo mogoče zanesljivo opredeliti ali pa jih je bilo treba preventivno odstraniti, pa z oznako PN. Posebne oznake so dobili tudi posamični elementi oz. podrobnosti in sicer: S – spojka, M – moznik, L – (umetna) luknja, P – polnilo luknje in R – rebro.

The spatial documentation of the research was based on 3D photogrammetry, i.e. the creation of photorealistic 3D models based on multiview stereo photogrammetry (fig. 9). Over the last years, 3D photogrammetry has been established as the main documentation tool of both underwater and terrestrial archaeological sites as it enables the re-creation of digital 3D casts of observed situations or objects with millimetric accuracy. In addition, the process of documentation is relatively fast and enables the surveying of situations in very poor visibility (<0.5 m). All excavation situations within the relevant research were surveyed photogrammetrically. The 3D models were then placed into the national coordinate system (D96/TM) by fixing them to the georeferenced markers, preliminary measured with a total station. Twelve photogrammetric orthomosaics (FG) were made from the total of 12,892 digital photos taken. The interpreted georeferenced models were then used to draw the 3D measurements of the perimeter of the extent and height of layers and the contours of parts of the logboat with details. These measurements were then saved as .dwg files with the relevant metadata. The complementary spatial documentation performed with a total station comprised the measurements of contours, heights and profiles of layers (SE; 6 units) and structures, point measurements of finds (PN; 112 units) and samples for further analyses (VZ; 14 units), and the measurements of the excavation area and test pits. Larger, definitively identified pieces of the logboat were marked with the letter K (1–5), while other wooden parts, which could not be definitively identified or had to be removed preventively during the underwater research, were marked with PN. Special labels were also given to individual elements or details, 19

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Andrej Gaspari, DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI /

THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA

Vse glavne situacije izkopavanj so bile dokumentirane s pomočjo fotogrametrije. / All the main situations were documented with photogrammetry. 3D model 1005 Situacija po odstranitvi modernih nasutij. / Excavation area after the removal of the modern fills. 3D model 1005 Območje izkopa po odstranitvi prvega sedimenta. Odkriti so bili K2, K3 in delno K4. / Situation after the removal of the first sediment. Uncovered were parts K2 and K3 and partly K4.

3D model 1006 Situacija po odstranitvi K3. / Situation after the removal of K3.

3D model 1010 Popolnoma odkrit premčni del K4. / Completely uncovered bow part K4.

Vsi 3D modeli so bili georeferncirani v istem koordinatem okolju s pomočjo geo referenčnih točk. Ker so bile pri dokumentiranju uporabljene vedno iste georeferenčne točke, so bili potrebni le minimalni popravki 1–2 cm. / All the 3D models have been georefrenced in the same coordinate system by geomarkers. Since the samemarkers were used on all the situations documented the needed corrections were minimal (1–2cm). Georeferencirani in popravljeni 3D modeli so bili uvoženi v 3D programsko okolje Autodesk Maya. Nato so bili očiščeni nepotrebni podatki, tako da so preostale le površine delov deblaka in plasti, na katerih so ležali. / Georeferenced and corrected .obj files were imported in Autodesk Maya software. Next, the meshes of unneccasary data were cleaned, there by retaining the shapes of logboat parts and the layer on which they rested. V Mayi so bili izdelani 3D merski izrisi delov deblaka, detajlov, obrisov plasti, višin in volumetrični model odstranjenih plasti. / In Autodesk Maya the necessary drawings of all the parts, details, layer curves, heights and volumetric models of excavated layers were made.

Meritve so bile uvožene v programsko okolje Autodesk Autocad-u, v katerem so bili izdelani tudi načrti situacij. / The measurements were exported into the Autodesk Autocad software, in which the drawings of the situations were plotted.

Z bližinsko fotogrametrijo so bili dokumentirani vsi posamični kosi deblaka, nato pa v virtualnem 3D okolju sestavljeni v celoto. / Using close range photogrammetry all the logboat parts were documented and subsequently assembled together in 3D software environment.

Tako sestavljeni deli so bili nato uporabljeni za izdelavo volumetričnega 3D modela rekonstrukcije deblaka. / Parts, assembled in described manner, were subsequently used as a base for volumetric 3D reconstruction of the logboat.

Sl. 9 / Fig. 9 Infografika poteka dokumentiranja deblaka (izdelal: D. Badovinac) Infographics of the course of documenting the logboat with 3D-photogrammetry (prepared by: D. Badovinac)

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Uvod / Introduction

Podvodno izkopavanje sedimentov je potekalo po stratigrafski metodi z uporabo sesalnih cevi.

namely: S – clamp, M – treenail, L – (artificial) hole, P – hole filling, and R – rib. The underwater excavation of sediments was carried out using the stratigraphic method with water-dredges.

Potek raziskave

The course of research

Dela so potekala od 15. 6. do 20. 7. 2015, z enotedensko prekinitvijo med 24. 6. in 1. 7. zaradi visoke višine vode. V 20 delovnih dneh je bilo skupno raziskanih 57,79 m2 površine struge Ljubljanice. V času raziskave je višina vodne gladine znašala med 285,8 in 286,7 m nm. v. Pred arheološkim posegom sta bila na območju izkopavanj odstranjena vodna vegetacija in obrežno grmovje. Ob začetku del je čez deblak ležalo večje polomljeno drevo, ki se je z vejami zataknilo na delno izpostavljeno stranico (K2). Prvi koraki raziskave so obsegali dokumentiranje izhodiščnega stanja deblaka z okoliškim dnom in nadvodnim delom brežine, čiščenje recentnih naplavin do situacije, dokumentirane leta 2001, in določitev obsega degradacije deblaka v vmesnem obdobju ter vzpostavitev izhodišča za celovito izkopavanje ostalih delov plovila. Odstranitvi recentnega sedimenta v osrednjem delu deblaka (K2 in K3) in vreč, ki so sidrale vanj shranjene odlomljene manjše kose (PN1–4, 6) in krmni del (K1) iz raziskav leta 2001, je sledilo čiščenje notranjosti deblaka in dokumentiranje situacije. V primerjavi s stanjem iz leta 2001 je deblak zaradi pritiska novodobnih nasutij z desne brežine počil po dolžini v osrednjem delu (stik med K2 in K3), pri čemer se je K2 povesil v smeri proti strugi. V vmesnem času je počil tudi krmni del (K1) in sicer po širini na zadnji četrtini dela. V naslednji fazi je bila po celotni širini izkopnega polja odstranjena razmeroma debela plast odpadnega gradbenega materiala, s čimer je bila vzpostavljena izhodiščna situacija za raziskavo originalnih depozitov. Osrednji del deblaka (K2 in K3) je bil skoraj popolnoma izpostavljen v strugi, na njegovem stiku z brežino pa je bil delno že viden rob premčnega dela (K4). Ta je bil v večjem delu popolnoma zapolnjen z različnimi rečnimi sedimenti in prekrit z depoziti, spolzelimi z

The works were carried out from 15 June to 20 July 2015, with a one-week interruption between 24 June and 1 July due to the high water level. A total of 57.79 m2 of the Ljubljanica riverbed surface were explored in 20 working days. During the research, the water level was between 285.8 and 286.7 metres above sea level. Before the archaeological procedure started, water vegetation and riverine bushes had been removed from the excavation area. At the beginning of the works, a larger, broken tree was lying across the logboat, with its branches stuck to the partly exposed side (K2). The first steps of the research included the documentation of the state of the logboat with the surrounding bottom and the bank sections lying above the water, the clearing of recent deposits to the situation documented in 2001, and determining the extent of the logboat’s degradation in the interim period and establishing a starting point for the integral excavation of the other parts of the vessel. The emptying of the recent sediment from the central section of the logboat (K2 and K3) and the removal of bags anchoring the preserved broken stern section K1 and smaller pieces (PN1–4, 6) from the 2001 research to the logboat’s middle section, was followed by the cleaning of the logboat’s interior and the documentation of the situation. Compared to the state from 2001, the logboat ruptured lengthways in its central section (the joint between K2 and K3) due to the pressure of the recent fills from the right bank, making K2 sag towards the riverbed. In the meantime, the last quarter of the stern section (K1) also cracked widthways. In the next stage, a relatively thick layer of construction waste was removed along the entire width of the excavation area, which established the starting point for the research of the original deposits. The logboat’s

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DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI / THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA Andrej Gaspari

28,00 EUR naslovnica koncno.indd 1

DEBLAK S KONCA 2. STOLETJA PR. N. ŠT. IZ LJUBLJANICE NA VRHNIKI THE LATE 2ND CENTURY BC LOGBOAT FROM THE LJUBLJANICA RIVER AT VRHNIKA Andrej Gaspari

25. 05. 2017 09:02:39

Deblak s konca 2. stoletja pr. n. št. iz Ljubljanice na Vrhniki  
Deblak s konca 2. stoletja pr. n. št. iz Ljubljanice na Vrhniki  

Knjiga je temeljna in analitična objava o deblaku iz Ljubljanice na Vrhniki. V njej je predstavljena zgodovina raziskav deblaka, od njegoveg...

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