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INTRO SOCIE ISBN 978-961-06-0057-2

V knjigi so predstavljene temeljne značilnosti družbe in kulture Združenih držav Amerike, poznavanje katerih je nujno za uspešno medjezikovno in medkulturno posredovanje med ameriško angleščino in slovenščino. Sestavljajo jo štirje tematski sklopi: geografski pregled po regijah, razčlenitev identitete s poudarkom na imigraciji in manjšinah, predstavitev ključnih političnih, pravnih in ekonomskih institucij ter oris vrednostnega sistema skozi pregled izobraževanja, verstev, umetnosti, medijev in športa. Obravnavane so tudi

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izbrane teme iz zgodovine, ki so osrednjega pomena za razumevanje sodobne družbe in kulture ZDA. Delo je namenjeno študentom prevajalstva, zato so ob koncu posameznih tematskih sklopov v obliki vprašanj na kratko izpostavljeni tudi jezikovno-prevajalski problemi pri prenosu ameriških konceptov v slovensko kulturo. Pri prevajanju je poleg odličnega jezikovnega znanja izhodiščnega in ciljnega jezika bistvenega pomena tudi temeljito poznavanje izhodiščne in ciljne kulture, zato knjiga namenja poseben poudarek medkulturnim vidikom.

AGNES PISANSKI PETERLIN je izredna profesorica za prevodoslovje na Oddelku za prevajalstvo Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani. Ukvarja se s primerjavo kulturnih tradicij in diskurznih konvencij v angleškem in slovenskem jeziku in proučuje, kako se medkulturne razlike odražajo v prevodih. Objavila je tudi raziskave, ki se osredotočajo na akademski diskurz, mednarodno angleščino, medkulturne stike v virtualni učilnici in metabesedilnost. Je avtorica monografije o kontrastivni retoriki z naslovom Metabesedilo med dvema kulturama.

AGNES PISANSKI PETERLIN: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SOCIETY AND CULTURE OF THE UNITED STATES

9 789610 600572

AGNES PISANSKI PETERLIN

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SOCIETY AND CULTURE OF THE UNITED STATES A TEXTBOOK FOR SLOVENE STUDENTS OF TRANSLATION

Oddelek za prevajalstvo Ljubljana, 2018

16.4.2018 12:14:32


Agnes Pisanski Peterlin

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SOCIETY AND CULTURE OF THE UNITED STATES A Textbook for Slovene Students of Translation

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AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SOCIETY AND CULTURE OF THE UNITED STATES: A TEXTBOOK FOR SLOVENE STUDENTS OF TRANSLATION Type of publication/Tip publikacije: University textbook/univerzitetni učbenik Author/Avtorica: Agnes Pisanski Peterlin Reviewers/Recenzenta: Lisa Botshon, Nike Kocijančič Pokorn Proofreading/Lektor: Jason Blake Cover photo by/Slika na naslovnici: Primož Peterlin Layout/Prelom: Urška Levstek

© University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, 2018/Univerza v Ljubljani, Filozofska fakulteta, 2018 All rights reserved./Vse pravice pridržane. Published by/Založila: Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani (Ljubljana University Press, Faculty of Arts) Issued by/Izdal: Department of Translation Studies/Oddelek za prevajalstvo For the publisher/Za založbo: Roman Kuhar, the dean of the Faculty of Arts/Roman Kuhar, dekan Filozofske fakultete Head, Editorial department – Textbooks/Vodja Uredništva visokošolskih in drugih učbenikov: Janica Kalin

Printed by/Tisk: Birografika Bori, d. o. o. Ljubljana, 2018 First Edition/Prva izdaja Number of copies printed/Naklada: 300 Price/Cena: 12,90 EUR

CIP - Kataložni zapis o publikaciji Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, Ljubljana 81'25 81'282.8 PISANSKI Peterlin, Agnes An introduction to the society and culture of the United States : a textbook for Slovene students of translation / Agnes Pisanski Peterlin. 1. izd. - Ljubljana : Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete, 2018 ISBN 978-961-06-0057-2 294182912

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Table of Contents

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Table of Contents Preface................................................................................................................................................................ 5 1 Cultural Regions...................................................................................................................................... 7 1.1.New England.................................................................................................................................... 7 1.2 .The Mid-Atlantic Region............................................................................................................10 1.3 .The South........................................................................................................................................11 1.4 .The Midwest...................................................................................................................................15 1.5 .The Rocky Mountain Region....................................................................................................17 1.6 .The Southwest...............................................................................................................................18 1.7 .The West Coast..............................................................................................................................19

2 American Identities............................................................................................................................23 2.1 .Immigration....................................................................................................................................23 2.2 .History of immigration...............................................................................................................23 2.3 .Minorities........................................................................................................................................26 2.4 .African Americans........................................................................................................................27 2.5 .Native Americans.........................................................................................................................29 2.6 .Asian Americans...........................................................................................................................30 2.7 .Hispanic Americans ....................................................................................................................31

3 Key Institutions.......................................................................................................................................33 3.1 .Political system ............................................................................................................................33 3.2 .Legal system...................................................................................................................................39 3.3 .Economy..........................................................................................................................................42

4 Beliefs and Values.................................................................................................................................47 4.1 .Education........................................................................................................................................47 4.2 .Religion............................................................................................................................................51 4.3 .The arts.............................................................................................................................................56 4.4 .The media.......................................................................................................................................60 4.5 .Sports................................................................................................................................................61

Bibliography and Further Reading................................................................................................67 Appendixes...................................................................................................................................................71 Declaration of Independence.........................................................................................................73 The Constitution of the United States with Amendments...................................................77

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Preface

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Preface

An Introduction to the Society and Culture of the United States covers a range of topics organized around four main themes that correspond to the textbook’s four sections. The first section centers on the regional geography of the United States, examining the diversity of the nation by looking at its cultural regions. The second section is concerned with the exploration of American identities through the topics of immigration and minorities. The third section provides an overview of the key institutions pertaining to politics, the legal system and the economy in the United States. In the fourth section, the beliefs and values that shape the US society through education, religion, the media, the arts and sports are investigated. The textbook is designed for Slovene students of interlingual mediation and translation. Its objective is to help the students develop competences in cross-cultural communication. In examining the society and culture of the United States, specific attention is given to elements that emerge as potential issues in translation due to cultural differences between the United States and Slovenia. The questions at the end of each of the four sections are intended to help Slovene students reflect on translation-related issues, encouraging them to ponder and debate cross-cultural, cross-linguistic and terminological difficulties in translation. An Introduction to the Society and Culture of the United States is based on the sources listed in the Bibliography and Further Reading section; but it has also benefited from extensive debates and discussions with of a number of people. I am grateful to the many students who, over the years, have participated in my course American Society and Culture and whose questions and comments helped me shape the content of this textbook. I would also like to express my gratitude to colleagues both at home and abroad for discussions on topics addressed in this book. In particular, I wish to thank the two reviewers of this textbook, Professor Lisa Botshon and Professor Nike Kocijančič Pokorn, for their careful reading of the manuscript, their insightful comments and constructive suggestions. I am grateful to Jason Blake for language editing and offering helpful advice, as well as to the staff at the Ljubljana University Press, Faculty of Arts (ZZFF), for their effort with technical editing. Finally, I wish to thank my family and friends for their advice, support and encouragement.

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Cultural Regions

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1 Cultural Regions

The United States of America is composed of 50 states, 49 of which are located on the North American continent. According to their position in relation to other states, they can be divided into two categories: contiguous (those that border another state or other states) and non-contiguous (those that do not border any other US state). Only two states are non-contiguous, Alaska and Hawaii. In addition to the 50 states, the United States also govern a number of territories in the Pacific Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, as well as the District of Columbia (the federal capital district, which is located on the banks of the Potomac River between Virginia and Maryland, is not part of any of the states). According to the US Census Bureau, the land area of the United States is 3,796,742 square miles or 9,833,517 square kilometers (according to the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, the land area of Slovenia is 20,273 square kilometers). The 2010 US census estimated the population of the United States at 308,745,538 (the 2002 census estimate for the population of Slovenia was 1,964,036). The 48 contiguous states, sometimes also referred to as the Continental United States (although this term is not entirely accurate, since Alaska is also part of the North American continent) can be grouped into different geographical regions. In this book, the contiguous US is divided into seven regions: New England, the Mid-Atlantic, the South, the Midwest, the Rocky Mountain Region, the Southwest and the Pacific Coast. 1.1 New England New England is located in the northeastern part of the United States. It is a well-defined region, encompassing the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut. Parts of New England are relatively industrial and urban, while fields, woods and small towns dominate the rural areas in the region. The proximity of the Atlantic Ocean impacts the climate of the region. The economy of New England is quite diverse. The region is renowned for various food products, such as lobster, codfish, maple syrup, blueberries, and cranberries, specialized industrial products, for instance, electronic equipment and computers, and the service industry, including tourism and education. Traditionally, New England was associated with technological and cultural progress and was seen by the rest of the United States as a region of urban ­sophistication and culture. The cultural dominance of New England prevailed in the United States until the Second World War.

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8

An Introduction to the Society and Culture of the United States

Today, the population of New England is quite diverse; many New Englanders are descendants of immigrants from the British Isles and other parts of Europe, but in certain areas there are significant numbers of Asian Americans, African Americans and Hispanic Americans. New England is also home to various Native American tribes. A large part of the population is Roman Catholic; most of the Catholics are descendants of 19th- and early-20th-century immigrants from Canada (primarily Quebec), Ireland, Italy, France and Portugal. Many of them started very low on the socio-economic scale, but some eventually managed to rise to the top. John F. Kennedy, a New England-born politician of Irish descent, became the first (and to this point the only) Catholic president of the United States. Descendants of the earliest Puritan immigrants from England are ­traditionally referred to as Yankees. In the American South the expression Yankee generally means a Northerner, and the use of the term is often derogatory. Outside the ­United States, Yankee is a colloquial (and often derogatory) term for an American. New England is home to some of the oldest and most prestigious colleges and universities in the United States. Four Ivy League schools – namely, Harvard University (Cambridge, MA), Yale University (New Haven, CT), Brown University (Providence, RI) and Dartmouth College (Hanover, NH) – are located in New England. Harvard University (formerly Harvard College), founded in 1636, is the oldest higher education institution in the United States. New England is also home to other top educational and research institutions, such as Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The American Revolution The American Revolution or the War of Independence started as a revolt of the thirteen colonies against British rule. The colonies won the war and became an independent nation called the United States of America. In the second half of the 18th century, following the French and Indian War (1754–1763), conflict arose between the colonies and Great Britain. The physical distance of 3000 miles between the colonies and Great Britain contributed to growing cultural, social and ideological differences between the two regions. The colonists were against the new taxes imposed by Great Britain and to the fact that they had no representation in the British Parliament. Great Britain, meanwhile, was in debt after a series of wars, among them, the French and Indian War, and the taxes paid by the colonies were an important source of income. Britain was now displeased with the widespread practice of smuggling goods into the colonies – an action it had tolerated in the past – and began implementing a set of policies to put an end to this practice which significantly reduced its revenue. This change of policies outraged the settlers and rioting began in the mid-1760s, after the Stamp Act, which required all legal documents in the colonies to carry a tax stamp, had been passed by the

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Parliament. The Stamp Act was subsequently repealed, but soon new taxes on everyday goods were imposed through the Townshend Acts of 1767. As a result of the imposition of the new taxes, British goods in the colonies were boycotted and there was a riot in Boston in 1768. As a result, British troops were sent to Boston. In March 1770, a conflict between the people of Boston and British soldiers resulted in the Boston Massacre; throwing stones and pushing forward, a mob provoked the troops into firing their muskets. Five civilians died as a result. After the troops were withdrawn from the center of Boston and the soldiers were tried for the Boston Massacre, the settlers calmed down – even though the soldiers were eventually acquitted. The Tea Act of 1773 allowed the British East India Company to sell tea at a lower price than any colonial merchant, because it exempted the Company from paying the colonial tax. This angered the colonial merchants, and in December 1773, a group of colonists disguised as “Indians” boarded British ships loaded with tea and threw cargo into the Boston harbor. This act of protest is known as the Boston Tea Party. In response, the British government passed a number of laws known as Intolerable Acts, which relieved Massachusetts of the right to self-government and closed the port of Boston. In consequence, a meeting of the representatives of twelve of the thirteen colonies, known as the First Continental Congress, was held in 1774 in Philadelphia. In addition, militia training was organized. The Revolution began in April of 1775, with the Battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts. The Battles were fought between the British troops, whose orders were to confiscate colonial military supplies in Concord, and the colonists who were protecting these supplies. A month after the outbreak of war, the Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia. The Congress created the Continental Army and appointed George Washington its commander-in-chief. On July 4, 1776, the Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, which proclaimed the independence of the thirteen colonies from Great Britain. The turning point of the war was the Battle of Saratoga in the fall of 1777. After this strategically crucial victory of the colonial forces, the French, persuaded by Benjamin Franklin, officially joined the war on the side of the colonists. Later, the Spanish and the Dutch also joined as allies. The international alliance was of great importance to the eventual victory of the colonists. The decisive victory at the Battle of Yorktown resulted in the surrender of the British General Cornwallis to General Washington in in 1781. The Treaty of Paris, a formal peace agreement between the two sides, was signed in 1783, recognizing the independence of the United States of America. The Constitution of the United States was drafted at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1778 and ratified by the states in 1788. In 1789 George Washington was elected President. In the same year, the Bill of Rights was submitted to the States; the Bill of Rights was ratified in 1791.

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An Introduction to the Society and Culture of the United States

1.2 The Mid-Atlantic Region The Mid-Atlantic region is located on the East Coast of the United States, south of New England and north of the American South. It is not as precisely defined as New England, but generally the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland and the District of Columbia are considered to be part of the region. West Virginia and Virginia are sometimes included in the Mid-Atlantic region, although they are more commonly perceived to be Southern states. Historically, Delaware, Maryland and Virginia (including the counties that were to become West Virginia) were slave states and as such formed part of the Southern United States. The Mid-Atlantic region is far more diverse than New England. Its diversity is reflected in the variations in population density and economic activities, resulting from geographical and historical differences among various parts of the region. A significant portion of the Mid-Atlantic is very urban; the most notable examples of large urban areas include the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, New York City and Philadelphia. During and after the War of Independence, Philadelphia (one of the oldest cities in the United States) played an important role. Two key documents in the political history of the United States – the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States – were drafted and signed there. Most of the big cities in the region grew in size and importance as commercial harbors, and traditionally much US heavy industry was located in this area. The urban part of the region is densely populated and remains highly industrial. Other parts of the Mid-Atlantic are rural and sparsely populated: there are large tracts of farmland in the western part of Pennsylvania, for example. In colonial times, different European nations (Scandinavians, Germans and the Dutch) established colonies in this area and the Mid-Atlantic region has always been characterized by ethnic diversity. A number of key historical figures are associated with the Mid-Atlantic ­region, among them Benjamin Franklin. Although born in New England, Franklin, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, a politician, inventor, ­publisher, author and scientist, lived and worked in Philadelphia. Some of the top-ranked universities in the United States are located in this area, among them four Ivy League schools: Cornell (Ithaca, NY), Columbia (New York, NY), Princeton (Princeton, NJ), and the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA).

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1.3 The South The South (also known as the American South or the Southern United States) is a large region that is also one of the most distinctive regions in the USA. It covers the southeastern part of the United States, encompassing the states of West Virginia, Virginia (as noted, these are sometimes considered to be Mid-Atlantic states), North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas. Although Delaware and Maryland were also slave states, they are often included in the Mid-Atlantic region. The distinctive character of the South is closely connected to its history and it is still tangible in the culture of the region. Due to the size of the region, it is not surprising that the climate varies from temperate to tropical; still, in most parts of the South the climate is warm. The soil in much of the region is fertile and the South has traditionally been an ­agricultural region. Among the main crops grown in this part of the United States were cotton, rice, sugar and tobacco. Some of the earliest European settlements on the North American continent were established in the American South. The first British colonies on the North American continent were founded there (Sir Walter Raleigh’s colony on Roanoke Island in 1585, North Carolina and the first permanent British settlement in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607). The first English settlers were Protestants who came to the region looking for gold. However, most settlers eventually turned to agriculture. Historically, the economy of the South was a plantation economy. This means that it relied on agriculture and was based on mass production of a limited number of crops grown for export. The crops were grown on plantations. A plantation economy often relies on a cheap labor force: the economy of the Southern United States was based on slavery. Before the Civil War (1861–1865), the South was rural. There were few urban centers in the region, the most important one among them being New Orleans. The economy and society of the South changed after the end of the Civil War. Slavery was abolished, former slaves became citizens of the United States, and former male slaves were given the right to vote with the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments to the US Constitution. Segregation of black and white people, however, continued and it was not until the 1960s and the efforts of the Civil Rights Movement that official segregation ended. Race relations remain a sensitive issue in the region and in the nation as a whole.

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The Civil War The Civil War (1861–1865) was the war fought between the Union or the Northern United States and the eleven Southern states that had seceded and proclaimed themselves the Confederate States of America. It was a very costly war with a high number of casualties. Almost a million people died from injuries, diseases and other consequences of the war. The two most significant results of the war were the abolition of slavery in the United States and the preservation of the Union. The causes of the war can be found in the historical differences between the Northern and Southern United States. Before the Civil War, the United States of America was a country with two very different social and economic systems and two distinct cultural identities. The economy of the North was based on industry and commerce. Slavery was gradually abolished in all the Northern states after the American Revolution. In the North, slavery was increasingly seen as undesirable, and abolitionists, a small but growing and uncompromising minority, were demanding that slavery should be ­eliminated for moral reasons. The South, in contrast, relied on a plantation economy based on slave labor. Many white Southerners felt threatened by the views of the Northerners and by the rapid growth of the Northern economy. At the same time, many Northerners resented the political influence of the wealthy plantation owners from the South. The Missouri Compromise of 1820, designed to keep the number of free states and slaves states equal, confined slavery to the South, but after the Mexican–American War, which resulted in a territorial expansion, the question of slavery in the newly acquired territories became a major point of contention. The Compromise of 1850 was an attempt to settle this problem, and it was under its terms that California was admitted to the Union as a free state; however, slavery in the western territories was not prohibited. Among other provisions, the Compromise also outlawed slave trade in Washington D.C. and introduced the new Fugitive Slave Act. The publication of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin, in 1852, which depicted the horrors of slavery, had an important impact on the society of the time. The book was widely read in the North and contributed to the spread of abolitionist views. In the South, the book was received with indignation. In 1854 the Republican Party was established with the main goal to stop the spread of slavery beyond the Southern states. Tension escalated in the late 1850s. Violence and hostility broke out over whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or a slave state. A radical abolitionist by the name of John Brown attempted to start a slave revolt in Virginia in 1859, hoping that this would eventually lead to the end of slavery. He was captured, tried and

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executed for treason, but his actions captured the attention of the people in both the North and the South. The direct cause for the outbreak of the Civil War was the presidential election of 1860. The election was won by the Republican Party candidate Abraham Lincoln partly due to the fact that the Democratic Party had split into Northern and Southern factions with two presidential candidates. To most Southerners, Abraham Lincoln was unacceptable as a president, because of his position on slavery. In his speeches, Lincoln made it clear that he considered the institution of slavery evil and wished to prevent it from expanding. Within a month of the election, South Carolina seceded from the Union, and by February 1861, six other Lower South states (Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida) seceded as well. They ­established the Confederate States of America, with Jefferson Davis as a provisional president. In the period between Lincoln’s election in November of 1860 and his inauguration in March of 1861, President Buchanan took no action to stop the secession. In his inaugural address, Lincoln promised that he would not interfere with the institution of slavery where it existed. On the other hand, he made it clear that he would not tolerate secession, as he believed that the Union could not be dissolved and was sworn to uphold the Constitution and maintain possession of federal property. War broke out in April 1861, after the fall of Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, one of the few forts in the Southern territory still under Union control. Immediately afterward, four Upper South states (Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas and Tennessee) seceded and joined the Confederate States of America. The four northernmost slave states, called border states (Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri and Delaware), never joined the Confederacy. There were a number of aspects in which the North had an advantage over the South. The Confederate States of America comprised eleven states, while the Union comprised twenty-three states. The population of the South was nine million people, of whom more than three million were black slaves, who were not considered full citizens, while the population of the North was twenty-two million people. The North was far superior to the South in terms of industrial strength and railroad networks, and had an established political system. However, the South had the strong motivation of fighting for its social and economic order and its independence. Furthermore, many of the battles were fought in the South and the Border States, which meant the terrain was more familiar to the Southerners and their strategy was defensive. Finally, many of the high ranking officers in the US Army before the war were Southerners, which meant that the new Southern army had significant military knowledge and experience.

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INTRO SOCIE ISBN 978-961-06-0057-2

V knjigi so predstavljene temeljne značilnosti družbe in kulture Združenih držav Amerike, poznavanje katerih je nujno za uspešno medjezikovno in medkulturno posredovanje med ameriško angleščino in slovenščino. Sestavljajo jo štirje tematski sklopi: geografski pregled po regijah, razčlenitev identitete s poudarkom na imigraciji in manjšinah, predstavitev ključnih političnih, pravnih in ekonomskih institucij ter oris vrednostnega sistema skozi pregled izobraževanja, verstev, umetnosti, medijev in športa. Obravnavane so tudi

An_Introduction_naslovka_Final.indd 1

izbrane teme iz zgodovine, ki so osrednjega pomena za razumevanje sodobne družbe in kulture ZDA. Delo je namenjeno študentom prevajalstva, zato so ob koncu posameznih tematskih sklopov v obliki vprašanj na kratko izpostavljeni tudi jezikovno-prevajalski problemi pri prenosu ameriških konceptov v slovensko kulturo. Pri prevajanju je poleg odličnega jezikovnega znanja izhodiščnega in ciljnega jezika bistvenega pomena tudi temeljito poznavanje izhodiščne in ciljne kulture, zato knjiga namenja poseben poudarek medkulturnim vidikom.

AGNES PISANSKI PETERLIN je izredna profesorica za prevodoslovje na Oddelku za prevajalstvo Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani. Ukvarja se s primerjavo kulturnih tradicij in diskurznih konvencij v angleškem in slovenskem jeziku in proučuje, kako se medkulturne razlike odražajo v prevodih. Objavila je tudi raziskave, ki se osredotočajo na akademski diskurz, mednarodno angleščino, medkulturne stike v virtualni učilnici in metabesedilnost. Je avtorica monografije o kontrastivni retoriki z naslovom Metabesedilo med dvema kulturama.

AGNES PISANSKI PETERLIN: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SOCIETY AND CULTURE OF THE UNITED STATES

9 789610 600572

AGNES PISANSKI PETERLIN

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SOCIETY AND CULTURE OF THE UNITED STATES A TEXTBOOK FOR SLOVENE STUDENTS OF TRANSLATION

Oddelek za prevajalstvo Ljubljana, 2018

16.4.2018 12:14:32

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An Introduction to the Society and Culture of the United States  

(A Textbook for Slovene Students of Translation) V knjigi so predstavljene temeljne značilnosti družbe in kulture Združenih držav Amerike, p...

An Introduction to the Society and Culture of the United States  

(A Textbook for Slovene Students of Translation) V knjigi so predstavljene temeljne značilnosti družbe in kulture Združenih držav Amerike, p...

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