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HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE THE NEW URBAN VILLAGE - SHENZHEN, CHINA -

08

Project Background: In second term the project will be following the research outcomes from the first term, looking at one specific urban village in Shenzhen, and further develope the project in more depth in terms of urban, architecture and detail scale. Current Situation:

Design Methodology:

Although in official media’s opinion, urban villages are considered as dirty, overcrowded and dangerous places in the city, but they have great significance in today’s Chinese cities such as Shenzhen. Over last several decades, Shenzhen has been developed dramatically thanks to the migrant workers, as the most significant contributor of the city’s development, migrant workers mostly choose to live in the urban villages. Urban village not only offers most low end housing in the market, but also provide a friendly environment for migrants to live in as migrant workers usually prefer to stick with people from their home town.

#1 Use traditional calender and 24 solar terms, to organise the activities throughout the year, and use architectural design to reflect these activities.

The government has been trying to demolish all urban villages to build new developments but this approach has been unsuccessful. On one hand the land price of urban village has become extremely high due to the central location, also removing urban village will break the low end housing market, and will lead to the city development to suffer because of the lacking of cheap labour.

#4 Create new structure system that not only stable, but also incoporate servicing and vernacular aesthetics.

Hypothesis 1:

Design Vision:

In 2050, the manufacture industry will move their factory from Shenzhen to provinces with lower cost and the migrant workers in Shenzhen will cause social instabilities.

#1 To create a community that replaces the current urban village once the factories and manufacturer move out of Shenzhen. And use this community as a seed to explore the potential and knowledge of people who have experiences in both city and rural area.

Hypothesis 2: In 2050, due to the isolation between the migrant worker and the city residence, urban village and surrounding city, it can harm the harmony in the society. Also the social strata divsion would be more extreme, which could cause further impacts between city and rural, rich and poor.

Hypothesis 3: In 2050, the environmental problems in Chinese major cities will get worse, such as pollutions and food safety will greatly harm people’s lives, and to promote the awareness of sustainable living will be crucial.

Hypothesis 4: The modern life style caused many modern man made diseases, and these health threats are the most significant cause of death. The rural wisdom of China such as 24 solar terms encourages people live with nature in harmony, and will be the perfect solution for health problems.

Hypothesis 5: In 2050, there will be a stronger need for the revival of Chinese culture, the younger generation are desperately in seek of traditional value and identity awareness. This is an increasing need for Chinese people and must be addressed.

#2 Combining the industrial construction with vernacular architecture, to create a modern interpretation of the value of traditional architecture. #3 Use analysis software to visualise the problems in the site, and as guidance to enhance the performance of the building design.

#2 To create an opportunity for urban villagers to apply their knowledge to resolve crisis the city is going to face, such as food safety, absence of cultural identity, modern diseases, waste treatment and social strata division. #3 Allow city residents to cross the barrier of urban villages, welcome them to settle there to learn the knowledge. This would become an opportunity for exchange, and urban villagers will be more integrated to the city in return. This process will release the tension between city residents and migrant workers. #4 To improve the current poor conditions in the urban village, such as lack of sunlight, public spaces and infrasture. #5 The education aspect of the new urban village will allow children of city residents and rural migrants to interact more frequently, and the younger generations will both be equipped with modern knowledge and traditional knowledge. #6 The urban villagers would go back to their home town every year, and their link from their rural home town can be brought to the city, providing more direct link of supply for fresh agricultural products.


EDUCATION

The knowledge from both city and rural area gives the urban villagers an unique perspective, they have the potential and responsibility to coporate between the city and rural. The new urban village with act as an unique ‘university‘, to educate people to improve their life and solve pressing crisis in Shenzhen.

URBAN VILLAGE UNIVERSITY

FOOD SAFETY

ABSENCE OF CULTURE IDENTITY

980,000 t

PRODUCTION 32%

41%

480,000 t

50%

33%

310,000 t

27%

140,000 t 2008

2009

2010

above 35

2011

Food safety has become a crucial problem in Chinese cities, from 2008 to 2011 the amount of poisonous food discovered in the market has increased from 140,000 tons to 980,000 tons. The knowledge of the urban villagers can help to identify potential poisonous food.

17% under 25

The absence of cultural identity is one of the consequence of rapid development. For people above age 35, 41% claims desperately in need to bring back traditional value and 27% does not care, but in younger generation under 25, 50% claims cultural revival and only 17% think it is not crucial.

FOOD PRODUCTION MODERN DISEASES

The new urban village will be using the latest technology to produce rice, according to the Guardian each hectare will be able to produce 22.4 tonnes.

RECYCLING

Man made modern disease

Heart attack

Metabolic syndrome

Obesity

Stroke

Diabetes

Hypertension

Cancer

Arthritis

41%

46% 4%

Man made modern disease have become the most common cause of death, the way of life in the new urban village and the 24 solar terms to direct healthy way of living will greatly improve the health of modern people.

9%

= 22.4 tonnes per hectare

60kg rice consumed per person/year = 373 people

heard about recycling never recycled no facility provided regularly recycle

The idea of recycling is not accepted by the general public of China, but burrying and burning waste cannot be a solution. Only 41% of urban population has heard about recycling, and 46% never recycled their waste. The knowledge of urban villagers will educate people the organic ways of waste disposal.

SOCIAL STRATA DIVISION

= 537.6 tonnes for the whole new urban village

extreme

Gini Index 0.6

2011

0.5

2007

0.4 Warning line 0.3

even

0.2 0.1

1975

The Gini index represents the social strata in society, and recently it has raised far above the warning line 0.4 to almost 0.6. This high data will possibly result in unsatisfaction and riot. The new urban village act as an ‘‘university’ that merges the knowledge of urban and rural, explores the value of the poor. And stimulate different parties of the society to coexist instead of collapsing.

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY

60kg rice consumed per person/year = 8960 people

The amount of food production can satisfy 80% of the population in the new urban village. However, apart from self sustainable community, the urban villager will act as an agent between the city and real rural farms, through this link the farms outside the city can keep supplying fresh food into Shenzhen.


THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY


THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY


THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY


The Factory Site: The factory site can be the temporary housing during the regeneration of the new urban village. When the new buildings finished construction the residents can move back.

ite

ys tor fac m 3k ay aw access to HK

HONG KONG

Other Urban Villages:

The Water System:

The New Urban Village:

The Transport Centre:

The development model of the new urban village can provide an idea for other settlements to improve and regenerate their community. This could possibly provide a strategy to bring different members of the society closer.

The new urban village will have a closer integration to the city’s water system. Connected with the inner city canal, the water collected and recycled will benefit the water quality of the city.

The new urban village provide migrant workers with new industries and jobs when the factories move out of Shenzhen. Also it is a place where people from the city can move in to create a more integrated community.

Being close to the transport stations means people can get to and visit the new urban village easily, and also service of goods can be moved via here.

The Government Headquarter: The government headquarter is very close to the new urban village, the government can use the new urban village to promote the cultural heritage and sustainable living. Transforming the urban village from unwanted places to image of the city.

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY

Surrounding Urban Housing: The new urban village is surrounded by urban high-rise housing, it welcomes visitors from outside to the markets and events. The new urban village will be open to the city instead of being closed and isolated, and different industries and events will generate income for the urban villagers.

Close to Hong Kong: The urban village is merely less than 2km away from Hong Kong, it could be a cultural hub that stimulates the communication between Shenzhen and Hong Kong. Although Hong Kong is a part of China but the life style and cutural identity is still different, the urban village can showcase the culture to Hong Kong.


CURRENT SITUATION

X X

X

X X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X Migrant workers Government official City residents

Migrant Workers:

City Residents:

Government Official:

Migrant workers would live in the urban village due to the low rent, they require minimal space to live and urban village is ideal for them.

Urban village is often considered as dirty and dangerous place to live, and also there is nothing in common between the two communities, city residents rarely have any interaction with the urban village community.

The land in the urban village is private land, and the urban planning regulations have no control over urban villages. The urban villages are usually self governed instead of managed by the government.

PROPOSED NEW COMMUNITY

Migrant workers Government official City residents New urban villagers Representatives in government

Migrant Workers:

New Urban Villagers:

City Residents:

When the migrant workers come to the city, they will live in the new urban villages to settle in. It could be a transition community for them to familiarise with their new lives in the city.

The new urban village creates an environment for different community to learn from each other, and experience the lives of each other. It becomes a cultural hub of different groups of people.

People from the city could move to the new urban village to learn agriculture , traditional value and sustainable living. They could either stay there temporarily or purchase living units.

Government Officials: People from the new urban village could take part in the government’s policy making regarding the transformation of urban villages and migrant population. This can improve the government’s understanding to migrant community and make better policy that benefits all parties of the society.

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY

New Urban Villagers: After staying in the new urban villages and familiarised the lives of the city, the new urban villagers can choose to move out and further integrated as a part of the city. They will have the knowledge of both groups and can be better integrated with the city.


Residential land Commercial land Industrial land Storage land Government land

Urban Area Planning Policy:

Diplomatic land

The planning policy for Chinese cities is very straight forward, land is divided by parcels and each piece will be assigned with one specific land use. This approach of urban planning is easy to control in terms of quantity but it would be difficult to create vibrant urban environment as different programs are divided by land use, it would be very difficult to achieve integration within the city.

Farm land Water body

Residential land Commercial land Industrial land Storage land Government land Diplomatic land Farm land Spatial Quality of the Urban Villages:

Water body

Compared to the urban area, the urban village is considered as private land, and due to that reason, the government planning policy does not apply in the urban village. Instead of having land parcels assigned with specific program, the urban village has mixed programes formed organically according to people’s needs. In addition the urban village is developed by different family clans, the relationship of spaces has strong attachments to the people living in there. Compared to the city land, it is more likely for the urban village to have integrated spaces and vibrant way of living, offering a contrasting environment against the homogeneous Chinese city planning.

Different family clans distributed in the Tongxiang urban village.

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY


Existing site condition: The existing site condition of the urban village is unique, the buildings in there are a mix of typologies. In addition the government has regulations regarding the density and height of buildings in the urban village. Thus when considering to rebuild the new urban village, it is important to strategically plan the phasing, to remove illegal buildings and buildings in poor condition. And to consider recycling the materials from demolition process, keeping the whole project more sustainable.

24 BUILDING HEIGHT

24 TYPOLOGY #1

The legal height in urban village according to Shenzhen planning regulation is 3 levels, approximately 10 metres. However there are cases where villagers add extra floors to the existing building, these additions are considered as illegal buildings.

One type of common building in the urban village is similar to the tranditional Chinese architecture. These buildings are normally built before the city expansion, the materials for these buildings are terracotta, brick and timber.

24 DEMOLITION

24 TYPOLOGY #2

To regenerate the urban village, it is important to proceed in phases, and the materials from the demolished buildings such as concrete and brick can be recycled. These material can be used for ground work and foundations of the new buildings in the new urban village.

Another type of architecture in the urban villages is concrete frame building, these type of construction was popular after the World War II. The concrete frame buildings are normally built after the city expansion, to accommondate the increasing population in the urban village.

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY


Ancient China ( - 1912):

Communist China (1949 - 1979):

Modern China (1979 - now):

24 HIGHER SOCIAL CLASS

24 HIGHER SOCIAL CLASS

24 HIGHER SOCIAL CLASS

- The Royals -

- The Communist Party -

- The Government -

The emperor and his blood relatives have the highest class in traditional Chinese society.

The communist party was the centre of society, in charge of policy and decision making.

The people in the government will be in policy making, and benefited the most from the resources.

- The Management - The Ministers -

The people in management of large enterprises, with high level education and influence.

The ministers that serve the emperor has higher social status than citizens, both in terms of class and income.

The Farmers (with worker and soldiers): Farmers were very high in the class system, along with workers and soldiers.

- The Soldiers -

- The Professionals People with knowledge in specific areas, they represent productivity and advanced culture.

Soldiers in ancient China has direct connection with the central government, and had higher status than normal citizens.

- The Entrepreneurs They benefited the most during the Chinese economic reform, including trade, finance etc.

- The Service Industry - The Farmers -

- The Intellectuals -

Farmers were in charge of the most important productions, they were in the middle of the social structure,

People received higher education or professionals were considered as capitalists, whom had lower social status.

People who work in service industry but non-professionals or non-physical labour. Such as education, sports, entertainment etc.

- The Workers People who works in manufacture, construction and other physical labour, with certain knowledge in specific areas.

- The Workers Workers were in charge of handcraft and construction, they were lower class than farmer.

- The Wealthy -

- The Farmers -

Wealthy people were considered as negative class who exploit the people, they suffered during the redistribution of resources in Communist era.

People in agricultural productions, their social status significantly lowered in modern China.

- The Slaves -

- The Capitalists -

- The Unemployed -

The slaves has no right of property, often trade as goods.

The capitalists were criticised as they were considered as the opposite of the communists.

People have no jobs has the lowest social status and they suffer due to low social welfare at the moment.

24 LOWER SOCIAL CLASS

24 LOWER SOCIAL CLASS

24 LOWER SOCIAL CLASS

- The Merchants Merchants were considered as lower status in the society, although they were relatively wealthy.

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY


Street farmers market

Narrow building distances

Cheap street food

Utilising roof space

Sunlight rarely hit the ground

The public activities:

Roof space for farming

Living space open to street

The urban village has many facilities to sustain people’s life, such as street food stalls, farmer markets. Also the living rooms of houses are open to the street to merge with the public domain.

Narrow alley as threshold

Roof space for leisure

Fabric making for locals

Paper making and printing

The inbetween spaces:

Due to lack of regulations, the building distance is very narrow. It is so called ‘hand shake houses‘.

Local small workshops

The production activities:

The urban village has many industries, these production activities used the knowledge of handcraft, such as fabric making, paper making and workshops.

Roof space for celebration

The roof spaces:

Roof spaces are maximised since the high density and lack of public spaces. It is used for production, socialising and leisure.

The life in urban village: The urban village as informal settlements has very unique features.

The community in urban village: The urban village’s community include migrant workers as well as other roles.

Dragon dancers and musicians

Neighbourhood committee

Neighbourhood security

The Community:

Young generation of workers

Health clinics

Cleaners and maintenance

Service workers

Shop owners / service industry

Food and beverage industry

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY

As informal settlements, the government has less control in the urban village. The committee inside the urban village is in charge of the management. Apart from migrant workers, the urban village functions as a self sustained community, with amenities, productions and services. Thus there is a diversity in the community, although seems chaotic and in poor condition, different roles in the community make sure the urban village funtions by itself, and it is important to maintain the structure of the society in the regeneration process.


Problems in Current Urban Village: Since the urban villages were managed by the urban villagers committee rather than city planning departments, the constructions in the urban village were lacking in regulation and control. One of the most severe issue is the building distances are so narrow that it does not allow much day light into the public spaces. These buildings are called ‘hand shake houses‘ because the distance is so narrow that people can actually touch each other from one building to another through windows. The urban villagers were forced to adapt to live in this kind of lightless environment, and the ground level become unsuitable for human activities.

The urban villagers had to adapt to the dense pattern of buildings, and shift the public spaces from the ground to roof spaces etc.

Since there is no light on the street, people maximised the roof space with different functions, including growing, leisure spaces and foe public activities. A lot of these activities maintained the traditions and habbits from there home town and had strong agricultural and cultural influences.

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY

The streets in the urban village are taking advantages of the population and approximity to run programs such as markets, shops and food stalls etc. However these spaces becomes more populated in the night due to the lack of natural light in the day time.


The social structure is based on the family blood line

Family as the most important bond between people

Family is less important than the communist ideal Everyone is considered as equal in the family

Settlements and architectural environment addressed by family Professions are continued as the father teaches the son

Properties are public, incomes and resources are equal

FAMILY

FAMILY

Land and property are private, instead of state own

Everyone works and lives together as community

WORK

People work together as community, the production linked with living

WORK Responsibility in works are equal, there is less hierarchy

TRADITIONAL VALUE The society has clear hierarchy, elders in charge of the management

COMMUNIST VALUE

SOCIAL

SOCIAL

The farmers are considered as the ‘owner’ of the society

VALUE OF URBAN VILLAGERS The class system is strong, as people usually born in certain class

The class systems are fixed from the family people were born

MARKET ECONOMY VALUE

SOCIAL

FAMILY Families are far away, the bond become less strong

Class system is more dominated by wealth and knowledge

WORK

Younger generation becomes more dominant as stronger workforce

Both husband and wife are working the children are less taken care of

Difficult to fit into the urban lifestyle, considered as ‘weak group’ in society More productivitiy equals more income

Physical works becomes less significant and cheap

Agricultural knowledge become less important

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY


The worship of Sun god: The ancient Chinese culture had the worship for the sun god, as the sun pattern dictates the agricultural activities. In ancient Chinese myth, the sun god was represented as a raven with 3 legs. And in the ‘tree of life’ relic, it used ancient symbolism to represent the sun movement pattern througout the year by placing the birds and different locations.

Winter Commences 07 - 09/Nov

Autumn Equinox 22 - 24/Sept

Cold Dew 08 - 09/Oct

Frost 23 - 24/Oct

Tree of Life relic, from 2000 years ago

White Dew 07 - 09/Sept End of Heat 22 - 24/Aug Autumn Commences 07 - 09/Aug

Light Snow 22 - 23/Nov Heavy Snow 06 - 08/Dec

240°

210°

225°

195°

Great Heat 22 - 24/July

165°

180°

150°

Moderate Heat 06 - 08/July

135° 120°

Autumn

255°

105° 270°

Winter Solstice 21 - 23/Dec

90°

Winter

Summer Solstice 21 - 22/June

Summer

285° Moderate Cold 05 - 07/Jan

75°

300°

Spring

315° 330°

Servere Cold 20 - 21/Jan

345°

60° 0°

15°

Spring Commences 03 - 05/Feb Spring Showers 18 - 20/Feb

Insects Waken 05 - 07/Mar

Bright and Clear 04 - 06/Apr

Corn on Ear 05 - 07/June

45°

30°

Corn Rain 19 - 21/Apr

Summer Commences 05 - 06/May

Corn Forms 20 - 22/May

Spring Equinox 20 - 22/Mar

North Star

The Sun Movement and 24 Terms: The 24 solar terms is essentially a record of the sun movements through the year. It is divided by every 15 degrees, and each term represents an anchor point of the year to carry out agricultural activities.

North Pole

66.34°

The Equator

The traditional Chinese Calendar is based on both the sun and moon movements, however the solar terms are independent from the calendar because it is only based according the the sun. The earth’s rotation and revolution around the sun have different circles, and the 2 path are not parallel. So when the earth moves, countries to the north of the equator have longer days in the summer and shorter days in the winter.

26.26° Sun Movement Plane

South Pole

The 24 solar terms use the sun movement as a pattern, and there are more factors that temperature and sunlight, such as climate and biology. Also when it is combined with cultural and social activities, the 24 terms is the crucial rule in Chinese people’s lives.

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY


315°

330°

SPRING COMMENCES

345°

SPRING SHOWERS

INSECTS WAKEN

SPRING EQUINOX

SPRING FARMING PREPARATION SPRING WATER COLLECTION

START PLANTING ANIMALS REVIVED

15°

30°

BRIGHT AND CLEAR

45°

CORN RAIN

60°

SUMMER COMMENCES

SPRING

CORN FORMS

SUMMER START PLANTING NURTURING CROPS

PEST CONTROL

FESTIVAL CELEBRATION TEA DRINKING

RAIN SEASON

75°

90°

CORN ON EAR

105°

SUMMER SOLSTICE

120°

MODERATE HEAT

GREAT HEAT

SUMMER NURTURING CROPS FIRST HARVEST PREVENT OVER HEATING RAIN SEASON

135°

150°

AUTUMN COMMENCES

165°

END OF HEAT

180°

WHITE DEW

AUTUMNAL EQUINOX

AUTUMN WATER PRESERVATION IN FIELDS GREAT HARVEST HARVEST CELEBRATION

195°

210°

COLD DEW

225°

FROST

240°

WINTER COMMENCES

AUTUMN

LIGHT SNOW

WINNTER

COVER UP FIELDS FOR PROTECTION CROPS TO STORAGE

SOUP DRINKING

CHANGE TO WINTER DIET

255°

HEAVY SNOW

270°

285°

WINTER SOLSTICE

MODERATE COLD

300°

SEVERE COLD

WINNTER PROTECT THE FIELDS AND GROW WINTER PLANTS ANIMAL MIGRANTING AWAY ELDERLY DAY

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY

INCREASE INDOOR INSULATION


30%

30% of the

70%

old urban village demolished

People staying in the urban village

People move to temporary accommondation: 3,250

Original population of Tongxiang urban village: 10,834

People temporarily moved out

The new urban village typology will provide housing space for:

6,000 people = 3,250

original residents that were moved out during the regeneration + 2,750 new residents from the city

45% Original urban villagers in the new typology New residents from the city

migrant workers 2014

As the manufacture industry in Shenzhen is declining, and more migrant workers are moving to cities with cheaper living cost, the new urban village will gradually be occupied by middle class population in the city. The new urban village will

middle class city residents

city residents

migrant workers

2050

2014

provide them with more sustain-

2050

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY

able living and educate their children more of the traditional cultural value.

55%


Problem #1: lack of sunlight due to high density and narrow streets

Problem #2: infrastructure in poor conditions, exposed pipes and cables potentially dangerous

Problem #3: poor water system, which will result in significant water waste and pollution

Problem #4: considered as bad image for the city, the government usually cover the urban village for people to see

The new urban village aims to address the existing problems of the current conditions, improving natural light access, infrastructure, water system and the integration with surrounding context. The new urban village will not only improve the comfort for residents, but also become more attractive for more people to move in.

migrant workers are living collectively, requiring small living space, and use shared facilities such as toilets, shower and kitchen.

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY

The new typology will continue this type of living condition, but with better infrastructure and comfort. Each person will have a small module for them to sleep in, and service units (toilet, kitchen, shower etc) will be shared. The waste from these service units will be recycled via central service core.


A lot of children were brought to Shenzhen by their parents, they will be educated in the city and newer generations will have more sense of belonging in the city.

As the urban villagers stopped working in factories, they will be working in new industries and start to break the barrier between communities by welcoming city residents.

The urban village committee was established for management and servicing since urban village is self governed.

A lot of agricultural activities were maintained in the urban village now, such as using roof top to grow crops. Such activities will be encouraged in the new urban village.

Children of the local Shenzhen residents can learn the charm of agriculture and traditional value, also create closer connections between different communities for the younger generation.

As the urban village regenerates, it will not be the ‘tumours‘ of the city, it will attract people from the city to live here and experiencing rural lifes and cultural heritage.

The urban village committee will act as the agent to connect urban village with their rural home, creating a more direct chain of fresh and safe food supply.

The urban village will have markets for city residents to buy fresh and organic food. This offers better quality product and the cultural connection via food.

Administration

Market

Children

Adults

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY


THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY


02

02

01

07 12

03

08 04

09 13

13

05

05

06

10

11

01. green house 02. solar chimney 03. domestic service units 04. living area 05. rice wine brewery 06. anaerobic digesters 07. spring plant nursery 08. summer temple 09. autumn silo 10. winter animal house 11. animal outdoor area 12. access ramp 13. service/structural core

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY


Stage 1

Stage 2

Evolution of the Structural System: The structural system of the new urban village has evolved in three stages, at the beginning it used conventional column and beam system and then it used increased column size and by doing that it allows service system to run in the void of the columns and increase free floor area. Finally the horizontal structure follows the direction of the cantilever, also used the tree branch like structure to further increase the strength. The aim is to use structural principle to also achieve rational but organic beauty.

1

2

3

4

1. The Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption 2. Palazzetto dello sport by Pier Luigi Nervi 3. Palazzo del Lavoro 4. Lanificio Gatti, 1951-53 Roma.

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY

Stage 3


Structure Type #1

Structure Type #2

The structural testing model, showing the hollow core column, tree branch beam and floor build up. This structural model will be tested with load bearing capacity against weight, and especially on the cantilever part of the structure.

The structural testing model type 2, added with tension reinforcements, the aim is to enhance the performance at the cantilever. This structural model will be tested with load bearing capacity against weight, and especially on the cantilever part of the structure, the results will be compared with the design with no tension reinforcements.

Structure Type #1 with added weight

Structure Type #2 with added weight

Structure Type #1 bending angle test

Structure Type #1 bending angle test

The structural testing model, with 104 pieces of 20 grams weights on both ends. The weights were places on two ends because they are the weak points in the structure and most likely to bend. With the weight load, the bending angle is approximately 10 degrees.

The structural testing model, with 104 pieces of 20 grams weights on both ends. The weights were places on two ends because they are the weak points in the structure and most likely to bend. With the tension reinforcements, the performance of the structure is greatly improved, the bending angle is less than half compared to the structure without the cables.

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY


Vertical Structure 2.5 metre compact column with service running in the central void

‘tree branch‘ beams length vary according to the size of the floor plate

Floor Plate m

12

m

14

10m

15m Type #1

Type #2

m

11

m

15

Type #3

10

m

8m

Type #4

Due to the variations in the design the location for the column may vary. Thus the outside ring of the floor plate and the inside beams should made separately and welded together later.

There are several types of the floor plates in the building, these 4 different sizes are standards that repeat in the whole building

Facade Panels

Type #1

Type #2

Type #3

Angle towards outside

Angle towards inside

straight piece

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY

The facade pieces vary in angle according to the form of the building, for each angle there is normal piececs and corner pieces. The width of the panels are standardised as 2.0m, 2.4m and 2.8m


PRIMARY STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

SECONDARY STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

The horizontal structure combined with ‘vertical trees‘ to form the primary structural system

Points where the cantilever is holding more force that need to be strengthened,

The secondary structure are strings to create additional tension force to reinforce the stability.

The strings at the critical points are stronger to hold the cantilever and make the structure stronger.

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY


TYPE #1

TYPE #2

TYPE #3

TYPE #4

TYPE #5

TYPE #6

LATTICE FACADE DESIGN Apart from the aesthetics and shading functions, the lattice in Chinese traditional architecture is also based on mathematic methodologies to design the patterns. The length and geometry of the lines are proportional to each other to achieve a harmony. It is visible that how lattice patterns can be broken down to small components. It is believed that these rationales in Chinese lattice design translated the functionality and symbolic beautify into rules that can be followed, and craftsmen would pass these knowledge more comprehensively to later generations To design the shading devices, it is important to test their performance in the specific condition of Tongxiang village in Shenzhen, not just looking at its pattern and geometry. Thus using Ecotect, six different types of lattices that are distinctive and from different eras of traditional Chinese architecture were tested. The criteria are the pattern, the shading effectiveness and the shadow they create to the interior.

THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY


Facade design based on analysis: The facade pattern was formed with the results from the solar gain analysis, and the interpretation of the traditional lattice design.

ALL YEAR OVERALL

SHADOW RANGE

SPRING

SUMMER

ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

AUTUMN

WINTER

A volumetric model of the housing units were created in Ecotect as the sun light access of the homes will be the focus of testing, also it is most important to get appropriate amount of natural light in domestic conditions. The shadow range created by the new typology, according to the Chinese building regulation, it is important to make sure in the domestic environment, each room must receive at least two hours of direct sunlight every day. This solar test on the facade is based on the weather data of Shenzhen on 2013, also it is an average data of the whole year, if the weather data is taken from different part of the year, the result can vary. For example, the diagrams represent the solar access to the facade to four seasons respectively.

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Lattice facade

Vertical core

The double layer facade system: The combinition of lattice facade and fabric facade to enhance living comfort. The lattice facade is based on the research of traditional pattern, and the inner fabric facade is based on the spatial arrangement of the courtyard design, to suit the local climate condition to its best.

Fabric inner facade

Service unit

Horizontal structure

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Comfort definition in Shenzhen, according to Ecotect analysis

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6

Different types of courtyard design, number 5 and 6 most suitable for the subtropical climate in Shenzhen


New Urban Village Master Plan 1:5000

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Urban Scale Perspectives

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THE HOUSE FOR THE FUTURE FARMER WORKERS AND URBAN VILLAGE COMMUNITY


P1

P2

M 3K

Phase 1: Original state of the Tongxiang urban village.

P3

Phase 2: Move and accommodate part residents to nearby factory as temporary housing.

P4

Phase 3: Start to demolish illegal buildings at strategic locations to improve living quality and let sunlight in.

P5

Phase 4: Start to build new urban village houses and infrastructure and residents start to move back.

P6

Phase 5: construction of another layer of infrastructural platform to improve public space and start to grow crops.

Phase 6: Continue construction of new urban village, to accommodate all residents to live and work here.

P7

Phase 7: Finished construction, introducing market, oyster farm/water filter and orchards for city residents. As well as the facilities for festival celebration, education and other social activities/interactions.

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The Green House: One of the design language for the new urban village is to look at the green house design such as the Crystal Palace and the Kew Gardens, which they combine the new technology in construction such as steel and glass with vernacular architectural language and forms. The combination of these two elements created an unique architecture with both structural potential and beauty.

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1. Drawing for the Crystal Palace from the outside 2. Interior photo of the Crystal Palace 3. Photo of the roof and structure of the main green house of Kew Gardens 4. Interior view of the Kew Gardens staircase

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The Solar Chimney: The solar chimney would be a part of the design in the urban village, this is a part of building intervention both in traditional vernacular architecture and modern architecture. It uses solar energy to heat the air and stimulate the air movement and achieve better ventilation.

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1. PS10 and PS20 solar tower in Seville 2. Interior photo of a modern solar chimney 3. Wind catching tower in Iran traditional architecture, providing ventilation in hot and dry climate 4. Wind catching tower in Iran traditional architecture

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New Vernacular Architecture in China: It has been brought to attention that the contemporary architects are focusing on the value of vernacular in modern architecture, for example the Ningbo Art Acedemy campus by Wang Shu used traditional material and construction techniques with a modern interpretation.

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The Industrial + Agriculture: The aesthetics of industrial architecture and agricultural architecture is unique, by combining the machinary and process of organic products it offers a design language that can be applied in the new urban village.

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1. Production plant photographed by Hilla Becher 2. Refinary in Texas 3. Fishermen’s shed photographed by Eric de Mare 4. Water tower in Texas photographed by Kasia Burke

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Industrial Architecture Photography: These are collection of industrial/agricultural architecture photography by Bernd and Hilla Becher. Showing water towers, winding towers, grain lifts and cooling towers.

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ITERATION #1: 24 SOLAR TERMS

ITERATION #2: FOUR SEASON HOUSES

ITERATION #3: NEW URBAN VILLAGE

ITERATION #4: NEW URBAN VILLAGE 2.0

ITERATION #5: NEW URBAN VILLAGE 3.0

ITERATION #6: NEW URBAN VILLAGE 4.0

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Permeable facade:

Vernacular roof:

Service system:

The permeable facade creates solar shading, filter air pollution, also provide facility for fabric and paper making.

The form of the roof not only symbolises the cultural heritage, but also collect rain water and dew water.

The service system is combined with the structure, provide ventilation, transfer heat/energy and absorb air pollution for algae to filter.

Amenities:

Four season houses:

The amenities such as collective kitchen, paper making studio or animal house is connected with the servicing system, where the heat and gas can be recycled by residential units above.

The houses are made of prefabricated elements, light weight and fixed to the main structure. These can accommondate changes as self build elements for residents.

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Roof structure: The construction of the roof is taking from the vernacular Chinese architecture, which collect water very well and provide roof space for infrastructure. Instead of tiles, the roof will be covered in oyster shell, and it has great dew water collecting ability also has 300% more surface area.

Algae tanks: The roof space will be used as algae farming, it will be feed by air pollutions collected by the service system. This process is 150-200 times more effective than trees, it will not only provide cleaner air, the algae will later be feed to oysters as food.

Vertical structure: The vertical structure will reduce the number of columns and provide more flexibilities to the plan. Also the system of services will be inside the structure, connecting elements in the building easily.

Horizontal structure: The horizontal structure is the base for prefabricated housing units, they vary in size to accommondate different needs.

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The column structure expand on top to be connected with the roof structure.

Rigid staircases strengthen the structure from wind forces, in diagonal direction.

Expanded column that has diametre of 2.5 metres, allowing larger floor span.

Horizontal structures: The horizontal floor plates are structurally attached to the columns, with secondary structure radial reinforcements. The cantilever parts of the floor will be connected via cables to strengthen the rigidity of the structure. The floor plats vary in sizes and shapes according to the level, the higher levels are more unified because ventilations are stronger and has better view, and the lower levels more scattered to allow more public programs to penetrate. The higher and lower levels has bigger floor area compared to the middle levels, that is because the higher levels and lower levels are more valuable due to view and approximity to amenities. The curves of the floor structure are standardised for easier construction and cost effectiveness.

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24 INTEGRATION OF TWO DIFFERENT CONSTRUCTIONS

24 VERTICAL COLUMNS AND HORIZONTAL FLOOR PLATES

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24 LEVEL TYPE #1

24 LEVEL TYPE #4 R1

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24 LEVEL TYPE #5

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24 LEVEL TYPE #2

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24 LEVEL TYPE #3

24 LEVEL TYPE #6

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24 FLOOR STRUCTURE DIAGRAM Horizontal structures: The horizontal floor plates are structurally attached to the columns, with secondary structure radial reinforcements. The cantilever parts of the floor will be connected via cables to strengthen the rigidity of the structure. The floor plats vary in sizes and shapes according to the level, the higher levels are more unified because ventilations are stronger and has better view, and the lower levels more scattered to allow more public programs to penetrate. The higher and lower levels has bigger floor area compared to the middle levels, that is because the higher levels and lower levels are more valuable due to view and approximity to amenities. The curves of the floor structure are standardised for easier construction and cost effectiveness.

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Oyster shell roof: 24 ROOF

24 OYSTER SHELL

Oyster shell has been an important part of the tranditional southern Chinese architecture. It was orginally used on walls to create insulation and anti-climb purposes. However when used on roof, it not only perserve heat, also the roof can generate and store dew water, due to the heat from the building interior and the increase surface area on the roof.

Algea tank: 24 ALGAE TANK

Algae can live in very tough conditions, it only needs sunlight, water nutrients and CO2. In addition the algae provide excellent food source for oysters. By placing the algae in the roof area, if also helps filtering the air by absorbing CO2. Research shows algea has much larger capacity than trees in terms of reducing CO2.

Bio gas: 24 SERVICING

24 BIO GAS

Since the urban village contains agricultural activities, the by products from crops and animals will be recycled to digestors to create bio fuel. The main structure will also be in charge to distributing these energy into individual houses, using services pipes in the column voids.

Heated beds: 24 HEATING

The current heating strategy in China is that only northern half of the country will get central heating in the winter, and the southern part only rely on air conditioning, which is harmful to the environment. The heated bed is a traditional method to build the bed with thermal perserving material, the void under the bed will be connected to kitchen etc, and use residue heat to keep people warm.

Air filter: 24 FACADE

24 AIR FILTER

This facade system developed by Elegant Embellishments Ltd is capable of absorbing pollutants in the air. This technology has been used in practice in Mexico. Thus the facade not only act as solar shading, but also creates a micro-climate which more suitable for human inhabitation.

Paper making: 24 PAPER MAKING

24 OYSTER FARM

24 WATER FILTER

Paper making is not only an industry that can generate income and tax, but also uses recycled farming waste. The hand made paper has great market in younger generations and will be also used in festival periods as decoration etc.

Water filter: Oyster has great ability to filter the pollutants in water, the project has oyster farms that connects with the city canal system, and the new urban village can contribute to wider community by providing a cleaner water source.

Food: 24 FOOD

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Oyster has always been one of the popular ingredients in the local cusine. Guangdong province where the project site located has the largest oyster consumption in the whole country.


Air pollution: The project assumes by 2050, air pollution will be worse than today, despite the condition currently is already alarming. The building must respond to this situation and provide inhabitable environments for the residents.

Solar shading/air filter:

Fabric making:

Paper making:

The facade act as solar shading also it creates a layer that can filter pollution from the air. The principle is similar to Meerschaum, it aborbs the harmful substances from the air.

Residents living in the building will be producing fabrics, it is a traditional industry in China and also the fabrics will be used during festivals.

Residents living in the building will be producing paper, it is a traditional industry in China and also the paper will be used during festivals.

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Infrastructure + Self build houses: The houses will be connected to the main structure, the services running inside the vertical structure will then connected to the individual service cores in each house. These pipes will transfer water for recycling, provide heating and energy, and stimulate ventilations. Each house will also have a plot to grow plants, these can either be gardening or crops.

24 BIOLOGICAL SOLAR PANELS

Vertical garden + Solar energy generation:

Demonstrative prototype developed by Cambridge University, using moss and Photo Microbial Fuel Cells (Photo-MFCs) to capture and harness the electrical power of plants.

A research by cambridge university shows energy can be generated by plantings due to their photosynthesising process. The vertical gardens in the project will connect the plants with electric circuit to form biological solar panels.

Feasibility of Photo Microbial Fuel Cells: For now the prototype can generate 4.5V which could run a radio, however at this stage it is only performing 0.1% of its potential. It is estimated in 20 years, the technology can be commercially viable. If 25% of Londoners charge their mobile 2 hours per day using the energy provided by Photo-MFCs, it could save 42.5 million KWh, which is enough to power a small town, saving 6.81

39,632 Tons of CO2 per year.

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million GBP and


Urban village regeneration: The methodology of urban village regeneration is to combine government policy and effort from the urban villagers. The general guideline and infrastructure will be provided by the government, with subsidisation to help the villagers to start. The housing itself will be build by villagers, using traditional building technique combined with new technology and materials. The self build housing uses prefabricated fibreglass elements, which is a fast way to quickly assemble the house. These houses will be connected to the main structure, which could benefit from its micro climate and infrastructure. These method will not only densify the urban village, but also improve the quality of lives in the community, with better hygenie and infrastructure. Also average space per person will increase from 10 square metres to 20 square metres.

24 EXPLODED DIAGRAM

Fabric facade

Wall partition

Furniture units Cross bracing

Fibreglass frame Joint to fix fabric facade

Heated bed

Entrance

Fibreglass sandwich floor Prefabricated opening

Connector to platform

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Construction principle:

Facade study:

The material for housing units will be fibreglass, looking at ship construction, this material can be flexible, lightweight and sustainable. The user can decide the size of space by changing the number of structural elements.

The facade will be made of fabric materials, and these facade elements can be changable during four seasons to suit different climate conditions.

24 STRUCTURAL FRAME

24 EXTERNAL FABRICS

The structure of the prefabricated houses will be made of fibreglass, a material that usually used in ship making. The material is strong and recyclable, considering the price of common material such as timer will raise.

Woven polyster base cloth, PVC coating: Light weight, translucent and durable, suitable for long term outdoor structures. The S coating provides resistance to aging and pollution. The translucency allows the influx of high levels of natural light while also providing UV resistance therefore interior visual comfort and working conditions.

The principle is similar to the ship hull building, using set of frames to form space that is flexible to expand or reduction.

24 STRUCTURAL JOINTS

24 EXTERNAL FABRICS

Once the space is defined by the structural frames, they need to be strengthened by elements in the perpendicular direction. In ship building this is usually achieved by fixing fibreglass sheets using industrial adhesive.

ePTFE fabric woven fluoropolymer: High light transmission, flexibility and foldability of fabric, unaffected by UV light, saltwater and high temperatures. Fully recyclable.

For the housing unit, the floor also made of fibreglass sandwich panel and cross bracing at places will achieve the same result.

24 INTERIOR

24 EXTERNAL FABRICS

After the construction of the envelope, the interior elements such as furnitures and servicing will not only add functions for the users, but also fixed to the structural elements, to further strengthen the housing unit. The advantage of composite material such as fibreglass is that it does not need joints, elements can be glued together using industrial adhesive, giving even more rigidity.

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Solution dyed woven polyester with acrylic finish: Designed for use in biminis and on boat covers it provides resistance to temperature and weather variation, The acrylic finishing treatment is resistant to water, dirt, soiling, bacterial growth and easy to maintain.


possible private open space for garden etc.

Housing flexibility: Instead of creating housing units that are constraint by the envelope, the structural frame here is able to adjust the living space by controling the number of frames. Also the size of the frame could vary, and creating different room sizes and heights. By rearranging the frames, they create different pockets of spaces, which can result in additional functions for the user, such as gardens or space for pets. The villager will be given guidlines for the spatial arrangment, to ensure each individual has the sufficient amout of space and efficient interior layout.

Regulating the self-built elements: The construction and alteration of the self-built element will be regulated, because a common problem in the urban village currently is illegal building or extension to the existing structures. Each person will be allocated with certain space area, and this number will be significantly increased from the current 10 square metres per person. The guideline will be based on RIBA Case for Space housing space study and regulations from Shenzhen Planning Bureau, also considering some public amenity will be provided, such as public kitchen, which will reduce the necessity to have complete kitchen set for every housing units.

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Service core

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The water from the toilet such as from the sink and flush will be recycled, together with rain water they will be used for crop irragations.

2.

Each house will have a small service core connected to the main service pipes, distributing resources through the houses.

In southern part of the country there is no heating during the winter, thus the heat produced from the animals, amenity and kitchens will be transfered to the bed to improve comfort in winter.

3.

The heat from the kitchen will be collected, also the kitchen will used bio-gas produced from animals and farming waste to cook food.

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Permeable facade:

Vernacular roof:

Service system:

The permeable facade creates solar shading, filter air pollution, also provide facility for fabric and paper making.

The form of the roof not only symbolises the cultural heritage, but also collect rain water and dew water.

The service system is combined with the structure, provide ventilation, transfer heat/energy and absorb air pollution for algae to filter.

Amenities:

Four season houses:

The amenities such as collective kitchen, paper making studio or animal house is connected with the servicing system, where the heat and gas can be recycled by residential units above.

The houses are made of prefabricated elements, light weight and fixed to the main structure. These can accommondate changes as self build elements for residents.

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24 CITY CANAL SYSTEM

24 URBAN VILLAGE

The water system of the new urban village will be integrated with the existing city canal system. The new urban village will not only recycle the water back to city, but also one important element, oyster will be farmed here and it has the ability to clean the pollution from water.

The regeneration process will be phased part by part, the initial step will be demolishing legal buildings and buildings in poor conditions. The new house of the future will be replacing demolished buildings and slot into the existing urban fabric.

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Term 2 - Zhiyu Huang  
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