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Migration From Oracle to MySQL

An NPR Case Study By Joanne Garlow

Overview 


Database Architecture

SQL Differences

Concurrency Issues

Useful MySQL Tools

Encoding Gotchas

Background 

NPR (National Public Radio) 

Leading producer and distributor of radio programming

All Things Considered, Morning Edition, Fresh Air, Wait, Wait, Don’t Tell Me, etc.

Broadcasted on over 800 local radio stations nationwide

NPR Digital Media 

Website ( with audio content from radio programs

Web-Only content including blogs, slideshows, editorial columns

About 250 produced podcasts, with over 600 in directory

Mobile apps and sites


High-Level System Architecture

Limitations of the Oracle Architecture 

Reached capacity of single system to support our load

Replication outside our budget

Databases crashes were becoming frequent

Database Architecture Goals 



Load balancing

Separation of concerns

Better security

High-Level System Architecture

Database Architecture Content Mgmt System

Main RO slave

Main Web Servers • Read and updated only by our website InnoDB • Low resource contention Mainby a nightly script • Updated • Small tables or log tables RO slave • Read-only by our Content • Short Transactions Management System • Need fast full text queries AMG STATIONS PUBLIC (replacing Oracle Text) MyISAM InnoDB InnoDB • Large tables • Isolation Updatedbyfrom bya our main Content website Management System • Updated quarterly script • Transaction Read-onlyfrom byOriented our • Read-only ourwebservers website • Horizontally Resource Contention scalable Scripts • Some log type information written Backup • Highly Normalized • Low resource contention RO slave • No transactions

Issues When Converting SQL 

MySQL is case sensitive

Oracle outer join syntax (+) -> OUTER JOIN clause

Oracle returns a zero to indicate zero rows updated –








successfully updated 0 rows 

MySQL sorts null to the top, Oracle sorts null to the bottom Use “order by – colName desc” for sorting asc with nulls at bottom

MySQL has Limit clause – YAY!

Replacing Oracle Sequences 

Initialize a table with a single row:

CREATE TABLE our_seq ( id INT NOT NULL ); INSERT INTO our_seq (id) VALUES (120000000);

Do the following to get the next number in the “sequence”:

UPDATE our_seq SET id=LAST_INSERT_ID(id+1);


Replacing Oracle Sequences 

For updating many rows at once, get the total number of unique IDs you need first:

SELECT @totalRows := COUNT(*) FROM...

Then update npr_seq by that many rows:

UPDATE npr_seq SET id=LAST_INSERT_ID(id+@totalRows);

and store that ID into another variable:


Then use the whole rownum workaround described above to get a unique value for each row:

INSERT INTO my_table (my_primary_id @lastSeqId - (@rownum:=@rownum+1), . @rownum:=-1) r, . . .

. .


Converting Functions   

NVL() -> IFNULL() or COALESCE() DECODE() -> CASE() or IF() Concatenating strings || -> CONCAT()  

 

‘test’ || null returns ‘test’ in Oracle CONCAT(‘test’,null) returns null in MySQL

LTRIM and RTRIM -> TRIM() INSTR() works differently. 

Use LOCATE() for Oracle’s INSTR() with occurrences = 1. SUBSTRING_INDEX() and REVERSE() might also work.

Converting Dates 

sysdate -> now()

Adding or subtracting 

In Oracle “– 1” subtracts a day

In MySQL “- 1” subtracts a milisecond – must use “interval”









Update Differences 

You can't update a table that is used in the WHERE clause for the update (usually in an "EXISTS" or a subselect) in mysql. UPDATE tableA SET tableA.col1 = NULL WHERE tableA.col2 IN (SELECT tableA.col2 FROM tableA A2, tableB WHERE tableB.col3 = A2.col3 AND tableB.col4 = 123456);

You can join tables in an update like this (Much easier!): UPDATE tableA INNER JOIN tableB ON tableB.col3 = tableA.col3 SET tableA.col1 = NULL WHERE tableB.col4 = 123456;


We really found no good MySQL equivalent for these functions

We used GROUP_CONCAT() with an ORDER BY and GROUP BY to get a list in a single column over a window of data

Collation 

You can set collation at the server, database, table or column level.

Changing the collation at a higher level (say on the database) won’t change the collation for preexisting tables or column.

Backups will use the original collation unless you specify all the way down to column level.

Concurrency Issues 

In our first round of concurrency testing, our system ground to a halt!


Slow Queries

MySQL configuration 

sync_binlog = 1 // sync to disk, slow but safe

innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1 // write each

commit 

transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED

Useful MySQL Tools 

MySQL Enterprise Monitor

MySQL GUI Tools Bundle: 

MySQL Query Browser similar to Oracle’s SQL Developer

MySQL Administrator

Innotop and innoDB Status 

innotop 

Helped us identify deadlocks and slow queries (don’t forget the slow query log!)

In mysql, use show engine innodb status\G; 

Useful for contention and locking issues

Query Profiling ď ą

Try the Query Profiler with Explain Plan when debugging slow queries

Concurrency Solution ď ą

Tuning our SQL and our server configuration helped

ď ą

Turns out that the RAID card we were using had no write cache at all. to go live.

Fixing that allowed us

Encoding Gotcha’s 

Switched from ISO-8859-1 to UTF-8

Migration Tool 

Issues with characters that actually were not ISO-8859-1 in our Oracle database

Lack of documentation for the LUA script produced by the migration GUI

Update encoding end to end 

JSPs, scripts (Perl), PHP, tomcat (Java)

Continuing Issues 

Bugs with innodb locking specific records (as opposed to gaps before records) 

Uncommitted but timed out transactions

Use innotop or “show engine innodb status\G; “ and look for threads waiting for a lock but no locks blocking them

Requires MySQL reboot

Questions? 

Joanne Garlow

从 oracle 合并到 mysql npr 实例分析  

从 Oracle 合并到 MySQL - NPR 实例分析 (出处: OSSEZ)

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