The Youth Employment Magazine - Issue 15

Page 1

Unemployed young disabled persons and young women

Youth Employment Magazine N. 15

Credits: RAISE Youth

NOVEMBER 2021


Youth Employment Magazine

Contents 3

5

7

8

8

10

11

13

14

16

17

19

20

22

24

25

27

27

28

30

31

32

34

34

35

36

36

37

38

38

39

Director’s Editorial

Disabilities and Employment: Ambitious Strategies, but the Struggles Continue

“Stay – on” Project’s Kick – off meeting

Theme of the month: Unemployed young disabled persons and young women

Unemployed young disabled persons and young women - Project FOLM

Young people are the most qualified generation ever in our country

Disability and employment in agriculture - Is it a match?

What is still left to be done?

Approaches to activate female NEETs

Women face gender-specific barriers to entrepreneurship

Ana Grgurić - a young entrepreneur from Gospić, Croatia

(Dis)abled entrepreneurs – mission possible

Unemployed disabled young persons in Extremadura: initiatives for their inclusion in the general job market

RAISE Youth Casarrubuelos Success Story: Lorena Díaz, a young cook apprentice finding a new job

Bianca’s Story

YOUTHShare beneficiaries to find employment verifies its success

News from the Projects

What we delivered, what is missing - Youth Employment PartnerSHIP project status meeting in Bilbao

The main actual gaps in social protection coverage for young people: Policy suggestions derived from the Youth Employment PartnerSHIP study

Do the Public Employment Services reach non-employed youths? A preliminary assessment for Hungary

How to promote youth employment? Dissemination workshop in Hungary - summary

SEPAL Project final Conference?

Approaching the youth in evaluation research – conclusions from Youth Impact project

Conducting impact evaluation in initiatives supporting Youth Employment

The role of digital skills in youth employment

Our semi-annual newsletter is out!

Our project was selected as one of the best practices within the shout project

Young Apprentices and Their First Job in Civil Society Organizations

Civil Society Organizations Festival in Bulgaria

What we are looking forward to...

Call for good practices: Social innovation – the role of civil society organization online conference

!1


Youth Employment Magazine 41

42

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

51

52

53

54

55

57

61

63

65

67

68

69

CODE trainees’ creations confirm the success of the project so far

Game Design training course starts in November

Creative Center Ruse starts a free online course on GAME DESIGN in November

Creative Center Ruse and Ruse High School of Mathematics launched a joint educational initiative

Tartu Art School’s third CODE students group

Game Design training course under CODE project starts on November 10th

Creative Center Ruse will cooperate with the Municipality of Ruse in the application of innovative training methods

CODE Game Design training course have started

Get networked! 3rd international brokerage event – 20.09.2021

International start-up competition - the final round! 20th of September 2021

Hop on the bus and visit the native breed of buffalos! Farm tour in the vicinity of Szob

Two-day international conference in Budapest brought together NEETs and stakeholders - 20-21 September 2021

eNEET Rural online courses

National apprenticeship actions, mobility & mentoring

eNEET Rural Success Stories from Romania

eNEET Rural: Final project event in Bucharest

I am what I want to be

Blue Generation Project news

Employment and transition from climate change: Not an easy task

YOUTHShare featured in CEDEFOP’s toolkits for empowering NEETs

Regional Particularities in Greece: The role of Geography

Credits

!2


Youth Employment Magazine

Director’s Editorial Dear Friends!
 
 Finally here we are: with this November issue, we are closing another year together… us, member of the Youth Employment Family, not forgetting the new entries!
 We had, lately this week, a meeting with them, and it has been something like re-living the steps we did with our “old” Projects. Of course, the term “old” has not a negative meaning. At the opposite: I am sure that, looking at our website and reading all our issues and editions, new members can learn a lot about our Family. Soon the end of the year will come and, as we are all used to do no matter which culture or religion, people usually start thinking about how good they have been during the past months.

How good have we been? : )

I am asking this to you while I already know the answer. I know that there are different levels of participation, but I have to thank you all of you. We, as FO, are happy to see the higher level of engagement generally registered. I am talking not only about the personal participation of our Projects but also about the reach we reached (sounds nice to pronounce, isn’t’ it?).

We are followed! And, to me and my colleagues, this is one of the most important sings, it means that we count, it means that your activities are somehow reflected into someone’s daily life.

It means that this is a great result … but also that we always can do better.

Since we are also used to try every day to do better, I would like to dedicate a special space and some word to the very final activity we have been organising for the Fund of the Youth Employment and his brother, the Regional Cooperation Fund.

We are all fed up with virtual events, while unfortunately it isn’t still the time to drastically go back to “normal” life. That is why we have put all our strengths and ideas and creativity together, in order to organise for our entire Family a virtual event which wants to look like as less virtual as possible. And with “entire” Family I mean that you ALL are invited: with your end-beneficiaries and your friends, external writers that accompanied us, anyone that had a look at our activities and is interested in participating, to see how and with what we decided to close another year together. 
 Our goal is not only to give our Projects an Annual Seminar which worth building together, but also to give our Family the reach it deserves. Then, please, stay tuned in the following days to get all the necessary info to participate at our open and free moments.

Our Annual Seminar week has, for us and the Projects, a fundamental importance. It is an experiment of merging our two Funds, comprehending our Fund for Regional Cooperation “brother”. As you will have the chance to see, the Projects have put together their efforts, not only to present the results achieved, but also to start thinking about possible ways to cooperate, even if they are part of two different Funds. In any case, Donors are the same, and we are all following a unique direction. And we have never organised a joint activity, therefore, while virtually, we are looking forward to seeing which will be the final outcome.

Next year, following this ambitious plan, will be enriched with new steps.

!3


Youth Employment Magazine First, it will be the European Year of Youth: a fundamental opportunity for our Fund for Youth Employment, having the same target at the heart. We are scouting ways and channels and we will brief present to you our strategy to link our activity to this European set of initiatives coming in the next months.

To those activities, the new Projects of Unlocking Youth Potential will be with us. We had, in the past week, the first communication and visibility training for them and they are all ready to be on board. Soon we will be able to present them to our audience.

Last but not least, some of our “older” Projects haven’t finished their path with us yet. I am talking about the “lucky” (since they worked hard for that) which have been refunded. Some of them are still waiting for final confirmation, but this “top in” decision means that they can still contribute to the achievement of our common goals.

In addition to that, and someway linked, I have to say that I am happy that our last YE Magazine this year is ending with a special theme. Special as the target group considered. The main topic for November, indeed, is “Unemployed young disabled persons and unemployed young women”. Who, if not them, can explain how and how important is to work with and for our societies to improve them? Who better than them, who often have to reinvent a role in their specific communities, could set a good example? 
 
 I am sure that our readers will find some answers into the brilliant contributions prepared by our Projects. Into the first pages, particularly, please have a look at our “success story” section. A sort of column we created to give space to real stories that worth to become best practices.

I am sure as well that next year will come suddenly, since time flies, but we will be ready to enrich further our Magazine. For our audience, hoping it will continue to rise, we will have your new stories to share.

Stay tuned, as I already said, to receive the invitation to our Annual Seminar: it is a real opportunity to know us further, to see our results and to know how, and for which purposes, we are working.

Gian Luca Bombarda

The FO Director

!4


Youth Employment Magazine

Disabilities and Employment: Ambitious Strategies, but the Struggles Continue “It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop." – Confucius Multiple studies and surveys arrive at the same conclusion: People with disabilities are less likely to participate in the labour force, experience higher rates of unemployment and lower rates of employment on the whole than people without disabilities. Additionally, they face lower rates of paid employment that provides financial security or social benefits. More disability-friendly policies are clearly needed to support them and promote their involvement in the labour market.

For many people with disabilities, finding and sustaining work is a constant challenge. It has been estimated that in the United States, only one in three (34.9%) individuals with disabilities are employed compared to 76% of their counterparts without disabilities. Similar employment gaps have been observed in other industrialised countries. For instance, the employment rate among working-age Canadians living with a disability is 49%, while it is 79% for those without a disability, and in the European Union, these figures are 47.3 and 66.9%, respectively. While the World Health Organisation shows that employment rates vary across countries, “the bottom line is that, all over the world, a person with a disability is less likely to be employed than a

person without a disability, often much less so.”

% compared to 10.2 % of persons without disabilities.

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in December 2006, establishes, in Article 27 (on work and employment), “the right of persons with disabilities to work, on an equal basis with others”. This means that they should enjoy the same access to employment opportunities, remuneration and labour rights as people without disabilities.

Moreover, women with disabilities, young disabled persons and persons with high support needs are more likely to be discriminated against and excluded from the labour market. Unfortunately, disability is not a marginal phenomenon. According to data collected by Eurofound in its fourth European quality of life survey, 28 % of EU respondents reported living with a chronic (or a longstanding) physical or mental health problem, illness or disability that hampers them in their daily activities.

Similarly, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which was adopted by all United Nations Member States in December 2015, identifies people with disabilities as one of several groups of vulnerable people who must be empowered. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) contained in the 2030 Agenda make explicit reference to disability in a number of labour market-related targets and their associated indicators.

However, at European Union level, only 50 % of persons with disabilities are employed, compared to almost 75 % of persons without disabilities. The unemployment rate of persons with disabilities in the EU, aged 20- 64, is 17.1

In token of its commitment to creating a 'barrier-free Europe', in 2010 the European Commission published its first European disability strategy 2010-2020, laying out an action plan to enable persons with disabilities to enjoy their rights in full and to participate in society and the economy on an equal footing with others. It draws on the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and complements the Europe 2020 strategy and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU.

!5


Youth Employment Magazine In March 2021, the European Commission adopted the ‘Strategy for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2021-2030.

• The Strategy aims to build on the results of the previous European Disability Strategy 2010-2020, which paved the way to a barrierfree Europe and to empower persons with disabilities so they can enjoy their rights and participate fully in society and economy. Despite the progress made in the past decade, persons with disabilities still face considerable barriers and have a higher risk of poverty and social exclusion. The objective of this Strategy is to progress towards ensuring that all persons with disabilities in Europe, regardless of their sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, age or sexual orientation:

• • • • •

enjoy their human rights

have equal opportunities, equal access to participate in society and economy

are able to decide where, how and with whom they live

move freely in the EU regardless of their support needs

and no longer experience discrimination

The new strategy contains an ambitious set of actions and initiatives in various domains and has numerous priorities, such as:

accessibility: being able to move and reside freely but also to participate in the democratic processes

having a decent quality of life: to live independently as it focuses notably on the de-institutionalisation process, social protection and nondiscrimination at work;

equal participation: it aims to effectively protect persons with disabilities from any form of discrimination and violence, to ensure equal opportunities in and access to justice, education, culture, sport and tourism, but also equal access to all health services;

promoting the rights of persons with disabilities globally.

The way forward for the engagement, empowerment and inclusion of people with disabilities in the labour market is often on a tired and tenuous route. Will international institutions’ strategies and politicians’ pledges offer a panacea to their problems? More likely it will fall to civil society, while holding the authorities to account, to assist in the struggles of their disabled peers.

Thomas Mc Grath

Our Irish Journalist

!6


Youth Employment Magazine

“Stay – on” Project’s Kick – off meeting On 14 - 15 October 2021, the “Stay – on” Project’s hybrid Kick – off meeting was successfully conducted on the premises of the Lead Partner Rezos Brands, in Patras, Greece.

The “Stay – on” Project, fully entitled “A community – based and driven project”, funded with the amount of 1.299.741 EUR by Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway through the EEA & Norway Grants Fund for Youth Employment (Unlocking Youth Potential), has as the ultimate objective to create conditions that enable young people to fulfill their potential, ensuring their access to opportunities and jobs and preventing their emigration from rural areas.

The meeting, that marked the initiation of the project’s implementation, attended representatives from all the beneficiary partners:

• • • • • • •

MEATH COMMUNITY RURAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PARTNERSHIP LIMITED, Ireland

CRESAÇOR - regional cooperative of solidarity economy, Portugal

Association Atis, Italy

Regional Government of Sicily - Department of Agriculture, Italy

THE POLISH FARM ADVISORY AND TRAINING CENTRE NOTFOR-PROFIT Sp. z o.o., Poland (Virtually)

BB Consulting, Slovenia

and the expertise partner: ECSF UG, Germany.

Matter of actions, work plan of the project and issues related to the project schedule and budget have been discussed during the meeting.

Project Stay On

!7


Youth Employment Magazine

Theme of the month:
 Unemployed young disabled persons and young women Unemployed young disabled persons and young women Project FOLM The recent data on unemployment of young people in European Union shows (July 2021), that, 2.854 million young persons, under 25, are unemployed in the EU, of whom 2.339 million were in the euro area. Thus, the youth unemployment rate was 16.2% in the EU and 16.5% in the euro area, down from 16.9% and 17.2% respectively in the previous months. * When we look at the unemployment by gender we will - not surprisingly see, that the unemployment rate for women was 7.3% in the EU, while the unemployment rate for men was 6.5%. *

At the same time, it is very difficult to find hard data and analyzes on unemployment of young people with disabilities, what proves that the problem is not of sufficient concern and analysis. Data on persons with disabilities are hard to come by in almost every country. Specific data on their employment situation are even harder to find. Yet persons with disabilities face the same predicament everywhere.

People with disabilities make up 15 % of the global population according to the World Report on Disability published by the World Health Organization and the World Bank in 2011. Yet, they are far from adequately represented in labour markets around the world.

People with disabilities are less likely to participate in the labour force, experience higher rates of unemployment and lower rates of employment on the whole than people without disabilities. Additionally, they face lower rates of paid employment that provides financial security or social benefits. More disability-friendly policies are clearly needed to support them and promote their involvement in the labour market.**

Globally, in developing countries, 80% to 90% of persons with disabilities of working age are unemployed, whereas in industrialized countries the figure is between 50% and 70%. In European Union there are

approximately 40 million persons with disabilities, and of these 43% to 54% were of working age. Persons with disabilities are two to three times more likely to be unemployed than others.***

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in December 2006, establishes, in Article 27 (on work and employment), “the right of persons with disabilities to work, on an equal basis with others”. This means that they should enjoy the same access to employment opportunities, remuneration and labour rights as people without disabilities.

Meanwhile, people with disabilities face higher barriers to education than the general population. It’s a fact, that the average level of education of employed people with disabilities is lower than that of those without: they were two times more likely to have less than primary education. The same pattern could be observed for all other levels of education. These findings do reflect how people with disabilities generally face a number of barriers, including barriers to education at an early stage of their lives. This is particularly true of those who are born with their disabilities or who acquire them in childhood.

Failure to make appropriate provisions to include young people with disabilities in mainstream education, along with other obstacles, has a significant impact on their subsequent labour market outcomes. Women with disabilities face a double disadvantage in the labour market based on both their gender and their disability status. ****

!8


Youth Employment Magazine Young people follow trainings in essential soft and hard skills, such as career counselling, life skills, and work and technical skills. Meanwhile, in fact there is a problem of the mismatch between the skills they have and the skills they need to find a job. From the employers side - they are simply looking to increase effects, so they often fail to see the potential within people with disabilities due to their lack of understanding about disability or even outright prejudice towards people with disabilities. Here again: young people with disabilities have greater chances on the labour market than older people. Despite the problems with access to education - which translates into the lack of professional qualifications to take up a job young people naturally have higher digital competences, more enthusiasm and better health, which translates into professional availability and efficacy.

Another social group struggling with the problem of unemployment are young women. It seems that their situation on the labour market is not the most difficult, compared to older women. Young, well educated, if careeroriented, not family-oriented, they can easily find a job. The situation becomes more complicated later, due to starting a family, and the desire to return to the labour market after giving birth to a child or children. In addition, there are also inequalities related to equal access to jobs with men and the amount of remuneration. Contrary to the situation of people with disabilities, however, it can be felt that the situation of young women in the labour markets is improving, thanks to making the society aware of the problem, educational campaigns, activists' struggle for equality, involvement of employers, CSR activities etc., and their professional absence is often a choice and not - as in the case of people with disabilities - an imposed situation.

**** https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/resources/factsheet-on-persons-withdisabilities/disability-and-employment.html

Project FOLM

*https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/2995521/11563247/3-01092021-AP-EN.pdf/ e045fa11-8a9e-6e60-6967-19088d96af8a

** https://ilostat.ilo.org/international-day-of-persons-with-disabilities-how-disability-affectslabour-market-outcomes/

*** ‘Disabled still face hurdles in job market’, The Washington Times, 5 December 2005

!9


Youth Employment Magazine

Young people are the most qualified generation ever in our country Unemployment represents one of the biggest social problems in the modern world. The labor market is constantly fluctuating either by the volatility of financial markets or by the dynamism of each country's economy. However, it should be noted that, although the unemployment rate is similar in different countries of the European Union, this does not necessarily mean that living conditions are the same, even on the contrary. In Portugal, unemployment continues to be a difficult problem to solve, especially when it comes to youth unemployment, and even more so when unemployment is associated with young people with disabilities or young women. Although young people are the most qualified generation ever in our country, young Portuguese people are the most affected by unemployment. According to the Regional Statistics Service of the Azores, the active population estimated in the second quarter of 2021 was 118,400 individuals, an increase of 1.5% compared to the same quarter and also an increase of 0.9% compared to the previous quarter. In the quarterly comparison, the largest increase was in the age group from 25 to 34 years, with a value of 5.8%. In fact, in recent years, the Azores have seen an increase in its youth unemployment rate, currently at 24.2%. This is therefore a very worrying reality, especially because it affects not only low-skilled young people, but also thousands of graduates, thus constituting an economic, political and social problem that is difficult to solve. In terms of gender, women have higher levels of education, although they continue to be discriminated against in terms of pay compared to their male colleagues. Women with higher education, regardless of age group, have higher employment levels than men: in 15-24 years, respectively, 43.5% compared to 34.5%; in the 25-29 years, 84.5% compared to 74.8%. At other qualification levels, men continue to reveal higher levels of employment. With regard to young people with disabilities, according to the report "People with Disabilities in Portugal – Human Rights Indicators 2020", in

the first half of 2020 there were 13,270 people with disabilities enrolled in employment centers. Young people with disabilities are at a disadvantage compared to their peers, as certain situations or contexts prevent young people from having effective access to formal and non-formal education, mobility and transnational participation, active citizenship, autonomy and integration into society as a whole. These disadvantages gain even greater revellery when they are analysed in terms of job supply and demand. Most of these young people are excluded from employment opportunities, partly because of the employer's lack of sensitivity or simply because of difficulties in accessibility and transport networks. Ana Silva Cresaçor Project Stay On

!10


Youth Employment Magazine

Disability and employment in agriculture - Is it a match? This brief article will examine the inclusion of young disabled people in the world of work and, more specifically, their employment in agriculture. I intend to describe the economic and social benefits of employing persons with disabilities and a few practices for effective management of a disabled workforce.

not only include disabled people in their staff, but they build most of the farming activities around their physical and mental benefits.

On the macroeconomic level, various studies have sought to investigate and calculate the value of the economic losses arising from the exclusion of disabled people from the labor market. In 2009, in a study conducted for the International Labour Office, Buckup calculated the cost of exclusion using a formula that takes into account the following three elements: the gap between actual and potential productivity of people with impairments due to a disabling environment, the high unemployment rate of disabled people compared to people without disabilities, and the long term inactivity on the labor market that characterizes people with disabilities. 1 All the countries analyzed in the study showed economic losses derived from excluding disabled people from the labor market or from an inappropriate work environment that resulted in reduced productivity.

On the microeconomic level, the benefits of employing young disabled people in agriculture go in two directions. On the one hand, employers can intensely benefit from including disabled people in their workforce. According to a recent systematic review, organizations gain profitability, competitive advantage, inclusive work culture, and ability awareness. 2 On the other hand, disabled people can benefit from employment in the agricultural sector because of the elements that horticultural activities bring to the individual: action as physical exercise when cultivating plants, interaction as a social exchange with the other coworkers and reaction as an innate response of human beings to nature. More specifically, according to Relf’s model of horticultural therapy 3 shown below, disabled people can benefit from farming on different levels: emotional, social, physical, and intellectual. 4 Combining farm activities and care for people with impairments is indeed becoming more popular in Europe. Care farms

Image: Relf’s model of horticultural therapy

Misconceptions about disability are deeply-rooted in our society and can also settle in disabled people themselves. Therefore, companies and organizations should actively promote jobs among young people with disabilities because it can be harder for them to break the barriers of society. 5 But how to manage a disabled workforce? Employers should eliminate any manager bias and disability misconception. Secondly, they should provide staff training to current employees to avoid perceptions of unfairness by nondisabled. 6 Also, managers should find an agency able to recruit young qualified disabled people for the open positions in the company and guarantee a fair recruitment process. Finally, employers and staff should organize a non-disabling workplace accommodation. 7

!11


Youth Employment Magazine The inclusion of young people with disabilities into the world of work requires a joint effort. Quota schemes and government policies should not be the main reasons behind hiring disabled people. The substantial economic and social advantages and the cost of exclusion teach us how the employment of people with impairments comes down to individual responsibility, social identity and good business sense.

Notes: 1 Buckup, S. (2009). The price of exclusion: the economic consequences of excluding people with disabilities from the world of work (Employment working paper; no.43). Retrieved from International Labour Organization website: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/ groups/public/---ed_emp/--- ifp_skills/documents/publication/wcms_119305.pdf

2 Lindsay, S., Cagliostro, E., Albarico, M., Mortaji, N., Karon, L. (2018). A systematic review of the benefits of hiring people with disabilities. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 28.

3 Relf, P.D., 1973. Horticulture: a therapeutic tool. Journal of Rehabilitation, 39 (1), 27-29.

4 Hassink, J., & Van Dijk, M. (2006). Theoretical models for research and program development in agriculture and health care. In Farming for health: green-care farming across Europe and the United States of America (2006 ed., p. 2).

5 World Health Organization. World Bank. (2011). World report on disability (Vol. 377(9782)), Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

6 Colella, A. (2001). Coworker distributive fairness judgments of the workplace accommodation of employees with disabilities. The Academy of Management Review, 26(1), 100-116.

7 Bruyere, S. M., Erickson, W. A., & VanLooy, S. (2000). HR's role in managing disability in the workplace. Employment relations today, 27(3), 47-66.

Giulia Parola, European Center for Social Finance

Project Stay On

!12


Youth Employment Magazine

What is still left to be done? The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was adopted in 2006 and has been signed by 164 signatories.

Back in 2010, we have been involved in setting up a measurement system for the implementation of the Convention. Some of the key questions include:

• Are public transport systems adequately equipped for persons with disabilities?

• Is the justice system accessible for persons with disabilities?

• Has the schooling system inclusive practices for persons with disabilities?

It was an interesting work, and it raised the personal awareness for problems persons with disabilities face. Justitia is often portrayed blindfolded holding a balance. But it still makes headlines if a judge is blind.

Next time you take the public transport system, check how accessible subways, buses and trams are. It is not only important for wheelchair users but also for parents with buggies. You will also notice how disabled persons disappear from public life in countries with low scores. It starts with minor details such as sidewalks which are sometimes better described as obstacle courses.

Access to public transport, education or justice is of course important, but employment remains central to the life of individuals. Not without reason, one of the first questions after meeting someone for the first time is usually “What do you do for a living?”. Creating and enabling employment for persons with disabilities is thus an important aspect.

-

-

-

There is a law in Spain which states that 2% of public jobs should be reserved for persons with intellectual disabilities. Madrid-based Plena inclusión España is working with public administrations to make the recruitment process accessible.

The Trinity Centre for People with Intellectual Disabilities (TCPID) offers a higher education program for people with intellectual disabilities. It is an interesting program and receives funding from various philanthropic institutions. Zero Project has described how they have set up an internship program with a company resulting in four permanent positions.

myAbility is an Austrian social enterprise which offers advice to companies on how to improve the inclusion of persons with disabilities. “myAbility Talent Programme” helps participants with individual career coaching and workshops among others. They are also trying to match the talents with companies. So far, out of 130 participants, 52 have received offers from participating companies.

There is still a lot left to be done. When it comes to employment opportunities for young persons with disabilities, it seems that the key market failure is the matching of supply and demand. It would also be important to support companies in creating inclusive employment practices.

Wolfgang Spiess-Knafl, Munich Business School

Project YES!

The Zero Project is mapping employment projects and practices for persons with disabilities. The European examples below show the diversity of interventions to improve the labor market prospects for persons with disabilities.

!13


Youth Employment Magazine

Approaches to activate female NEETs In all EU countries young woman are at higher risk than their male counterparts of becoming a NEET, a young person neither in education, employment or training. This short thinking space focusses on female needs that are particularly far from the labour market and aims to share experience of KIZ. Before any effort can be made to integrate these female NEETs successfully into the labour market, they need to go through a wellstructured and closely followed activation programme.

Young people neither in education, employment or training (NEETs) are a heterogeneous group. They differ by country, gender, age, state of activity, education attainment level and place of living. This short thinking space paper focusses on female NEETs who are very distant from the labour market. According to experiences of KIZ in Germany these female NEETs need to go through a well- structured and closely followed activation programme before any effort can be made to integrate them successfully into the labour market.

In 2018 more than one fifth (20,9%) of young women in the EU between 20-34 were NEETS (the corresponding share for young men was 8,7%). In all EU countries young woman are at higher risk than their male counterparts of becoming a NEET. 1 Eurostat attributes this gender difference partly to social conventions and pressures, carrier advice to a narrow range of occupations and labour market issues such an employment bias towards young men, difficulties of returning to the labour market after childbirth and a larger percentage having low-paid jobs.2 In addition “a higher proportion of young (aged 20–34) female NEETs in the EU were economically inactive (not actively seeking work) compared with young male NEETs of the same age, who were predominantly unemployed.”3 The table below shows NEETs differentiated by status and gender in the four target countries of the YES project and the EU average for comparison. Inactivity of young women is particularly high in Italy and Poland, while the number of unemployed female NEETs in Greece is with 20,4 % especially high. Inactivity can be due to family obligations, discouragement, sickness, disability or other reasons.4

In the case of female NEETs who are unemployed or inactive and have low levels of education and no concrete career prospects, personal defeats and failures in the education system have left visible traces. Cultural differences, language and school deficits as well as a gender-specific socialization make the (professional) integration process more difficult. Occupational activity often plays no role in the self-image and value system of these young women. In addition, participants with a migration background oscillate between the traditional values of their family system and the values of modern society. Self-esteem and the belief in finding a self-determined model of life have been forgotten and infused by doubts.

According to experience of KIZ, these women who are far from the labour market, need meaningful impulses, structure and role models, which lure them out of their comfort zone and create a willing- ness to break away from their usual life model in the longer-term. Since many years, KIZ offers measures and coaching exclusively for women. The target group-specific orientation offers the participants a protected framework. Experience shows that women among themselves interact more openly and open up more than in gender-mixed groups.

When activating inactive female NEETs, the non-subject related activation modules focus on obstacles to successful labour market integration. For these participants KIZ uses various tools5 to mobilise them, integrate them in the group and create responsibility with meaningful incentives for an alter- native life model. Through daily attendance and support within the measure, a stabilization of the living situation as well as the habituation to responsibilities can be achieved.

!14


Youth Employment Magazine At the same time, the willingness and courage to take care of oneself must be developed in order to be able to define and implement one's own life plan. This activation and assistance are prerequisites or the basis for the connection to sustainable integration into the labour and training market. A key success factor of the activation programme is the high personal commitment of the coaches, who provide the young women with individual and need-based support.

Depending on the situation of the individual women, training or initial qualification programmes are introduced6, which aim to raise awareness for professional perspectives and strengthen the individual.

Notes: 1 https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics- explained/index.php? title=File:Young_people_(aged_20%E2%80%9334)_neither_in_employment_nor_in_edu cation_and_ training,_by_sex,_2018_(%25).png#file 
 2 Eurostat, 2019, Statistics on young people neither in employment nor in education or training, data extracted : April 2019, pp.5-6, online at: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ statistics-explained/pdfscache/44911.pdf 
 3 Eurostat (2019), NEETs analysis by status, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php

Statistics_on_young_people_neither_in_employment_nor_in_education_or_training
 4 European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2012, NEETs – Young people not in employ- ment, education or training: Characteristics, costs and policy responses in Europe, Luxembourg, p.33 , https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/sites/default/files/ef_publication/field_ef_document/ef1254en.pdf.

5 E.g. the “Zimmergarten”: The participants plan and organize their own small garden in the rooms where the measure takes place. They decide together which plants are purchased and / or planted. Also, kitchen herbs can be organized or sown for the action day. The participants have to deal with the seasons, create an organizational plan and distribute tasks.

6 E.g. the professional carrousel: The goal is for the young women to get to know three different occupational fields within three weeks (weekly change). The participants work in each company for one week to get to know several occupational fields.

Sylvie Feindt, Jörg Schoolmann, Dunja Buchhaupt, KIZ Sinnova, October 2019

Project YES!

!15


Youth Employment Magazine

Women face gender-specific barriers to entrepreneurship While the COVID-19 pandemic has left no one unaffected, when it comes to labour market participation and prospects, some groups have been impacted more than others. Including women, who historically have always been hit harder by recessions than men. To halt rising inequality, it is crucial that we invest in young women now.

Even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, women’s participation in the labour market has been 26% lower than that of men globally. This figure is likely to have been exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic for a number of reasons. Women are more likely to work in sectors that have been hit particularly hard by the pandemic, such as hospitality and retail as well as the informal sector, which often excludes them from social protections. And in the UK alone, women have been twice as likely as men to take time off work to take care of children following school closures. Alarmingly, UN Women estimates that this fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic will result in 11 million more women than men living in poverty by 2030.

Entrepreneurship offers a way out of poverty and a long-term answer to female unemployment but is not equally accessible to everyone. Only one in three small, medium and large businesses globally are owned by women and there are many gender-specific barriers to entrepreneurship, including:

Gender norms, cultural and religious expectations: In most countries around the world, women are still expected to be the primary caretakers of children and do more unpaid housework than men, giving them less time to pursue a business. In many cultures, mothers who choose to participate in the labour market are frowned upon or even shamed. Lack of access to finance: On average, women tend to earn less, save less and hold less secure jobs; giving them a smaller financial safety net for business failures or economic shocks such as COVID-19. In addition, only 2% of venture capital funding currently goes to women-led startups. Lack of confidence and skills: Countless studies have shown that women are generally less confident in their capabilities and skills than men. Many feel they don’t have sufficient knowledge or skills

to start their own business, which results in fear of failure and further erodes confidence. Lack of access to networks and mentors: Women tend to have less access to business networks and mentors, for reasons such as being unemployed, spending the majority of their time at home looking after children and the household, or being faced with sexist and discriminatory attitudes. This means they are missing out on opportunities to find business partners and funding opportunities as well as building confidence and knowledge. Lack of access to resources and the internet: The digital gendegap holds many women back from accessing resources and entrepreneurship support online. According to the World Wide Web Foundation and the Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI), men are 21% more likely to be online than women, rising to 52% in the least developed countries. Lack of female role models: An online survey by YouGov showed that 1 in 5 young people have a business idea but almost half (46%) of young women do not believe they could be a successful female business leader. Estimates suggest that closing the entrepreneurial gender gap could boost the global economy by up to USD $5 trillion. But this is not the only reason for supporting women into entrepreneurship. To truly build back better for a more equal and inclusive world, we need diverse business leaders representing all groups in society.

This is why Youth Business International (YBI) works with a global network of expert organisations in youth entrepreneurship to empower young women around the world to become successful entrepreneurs. Since April 2020, our COVID-19 Rapid Response and Recovery programme, supported by Google.org, provided intensive support to 67,895 underserved entrepreneurs, including women, migrants, refugees and young people. Read more about YBI’s work here: https:// www.youthbusiness.org/.

Project YES! !16


Youth Employment Magazine

Ana Grgurić - a young entrepreneur from Gospić, Croatia door for Ana in the world of fashion and brought her many offers and business collaborations.

At that time, Ana was convinced that she would stay to live and work in Zagreb. The last year of college has come and she realized that the pace of life in Zagreb was choking her. She loved Zagreb, which gave her a lot, but she still couldn't live there. With her degree in fashion design, she decided to return to Gospić and applied to the Croatian Employment Service, and the first job she was offered through the Bureau was a job in a butcher's shop. Ana, who is a vegetarian, did not accept it. She decided not to give up on her dreams and to fight to do what she does the best.

RAISE Youth team is proud to have met Ana, a young ambitious woman, on her way of starting a new business. RAISE Youth project, implemented in rural areas of Croatia, Bulgaria, Romania and Spain gives unemployed young people like Ana the opportunity to master necessary skills and knowledge to be able to ensure sustainable and quality (self) employment. The focus of the project is in Lika-Senj County, as this county has the largest unemployment rate, and a RAISE Center has been opened in Gospić.

Credit: https://www.facebook.com/An-Chic-by-Ana-Grguri%C4%87-115476093329907

Ana Grgurić is a young entrepreneur who, after graduating from the Faculty of Textile and Technology in Zagreb, decided to return to her hometown of Gospić and start her own business there. The young women from Lika, a rural and underdeveloped region of Croatia, discovered her interest in fashion and creative work from an early age.

Once she decided to turn her hobby into a business, she realized Instagram is the best place to promote her work. On social media she got noticed by several famous figures in Croatian fashion which opened a big

Finally, Ana took the big step and opened a business named AnChic. She can do her job wherever she wants, and she wants to do it in Gospić. She did not plan to go abroad, but she is interested in foreign cooperation. The message Ana gives to everyone is that you should never give up on your dreams especially when you are young. If there is passion, there will be resources and we should always keep our family and people around us who believe in us.

!17


Youth Employment Magazine

Credit: https://www.facebook.com/An-Chic-by-Ana-Grguri%C4%87-115476093329907

Project RAISE Youth

!18


Youth Employment Magazine

(Dis)abled entrepreneurs – mission possible Bulgaria. We tell you their story of business projects whose main purpose is to provide a solution to an existing problem and not necessarily to earn big profits.

They themselves say that they do not want to be seen as people with some type of health problems, but as capable and active young people who should be given a chance, because it was the difficulties they encountered that made them do not give up.

"We were worried that the trainers wouldn't like our ideas because they didn't have an innovative or technological element, but we just wanted to meet people's needs! It's not all about money, when you help someone, the emotional reward is larger.“

The two dream in time to have more like-minded people and to have mobile bookstores in every city in Bulgaria and a pharmacy in every village with a telephone for home delivery of medicines. For them, this is a mission because they want to show that the need is not a problem, but a solution.

She is 26 years old and dreams of renovating an old building by turning it into a bookstore. The most important thing for her is to make deliveries to each home through the bookstore, as she herself has motor disabilities and has more than once had difficulty getting her textbooks for school on time when she has to engage someone else in their delivery.

He is only 24 and wants to build a pharmacy on the small piece of land he owns in a village near Gotse Delchev. He himself has health problems that require quick and easy access to medicines, so he wants to help the elderly people in the village, whose orders for medicines he already fulfills.

Nevse Ar naud and Shaban Boshnak are participants in an entrepreneurship course organized by the RAISE DEMO Center in Breznik,

"I went to the labor office more than once to apply for a job. When they see me, they say that there are no jobs for such people and I should follow the website, but not to place high hopes. I am ready to work 3 or 6 months without pay, just to see that I have potential. Let me be hired for a probationary period, I just want to show what I can do! ”, Nevse is categorical.

According to her and her friend Shaban, people with disabilities do not need help, but decent working conditions and a chance to show what they are capable of. "We have learned to live a more responsible life," they added. "We are not less people, and when we are given a task, we do our best to fulfill it!"

Project RAISE Youth !19


Youth Employment Magazine

Unemployed disabled young persons in Extremadura: initiatives for their inclusion in the general job market its acronym in Spanish, even though the number of employed disabled people has gone from 1491 people in the second trimester of 2020 to 2220 people by the end of the second trimester of 2021, so has done the number of unemployed disabled people, going from 2977 to 3065 people by the end of June 2021. These are not bad figures after all, there is a great increase of the number of disabled people that got hired in comparison with the same period of 2020, when the pandemic and subsequent quarantine started in Spain. The problem comes when disaggregated and compared between one another, as we can see that there is a big gap between the number of men (995) and women (493) with disabilities hired during this period; and between the number of contracts made to people under 25, with only 141, in comparison with those done to people over 45, with 1128 contracts made.

Once covered the situation of the young immigrants in Extremadura, as done on the article published on the July issue of the Youth Employment Magazine, it is time to focus on the employment situation of young disabled people in the region. Even though during the second trimester of 2021 the general hiring rate of women in the region increased up to a 59.90% while the hiring rate for men went up to 23.93%, and the hiring rate for people under 30 increased in comparison with the hiring rate of people over 45 (46.96% vs 30.48%), the general unemployment rate of Extremadura was of 19.15%, higher than the national average of 15.26%.

Diving into the situation of young disabled people in the region, according to the data provided by the National Public Employment Service, SEPE by

In order to tackle this inequality and to promote the inclusion in the job market of young disabled people in Extremadura, there are several initiatives and project being currently implemented in the region. Some of them are being implemented by public institutions and civil societies, such as the incentives for hiring people with disabilities in the labor market promoted by the regional government of Extremadura, or the initiatives “Emplea Tu Talento” and “Transforma Tu Talento” (roughly translated into English as “Use Your Talent” and “Transform Your Talent” respectively) of Inserta Empleo and Fundación ONCE.

These two initiatives from Fundación ONCE aim to create a network of young disabled people and companies interested into hiring them and motivate these people from the network to actively get formal training while being mentored by specialists in the field of employment and entrepreneurship. The ultimate goal of these initiatives is to improve the hiring rate of young disabled people either by helping them create their own business and becoming self-employing or by helping them get hired by various companies in the territories.

!20


Youth Employment Magazine These initiatives have proven successful when working directly with disabled people, but there are also some efforts being made to improve their integration and the quality of their work in public and private entities. Things like the INSERTA programme, mainly focused on private companies, try to implement more inclusive policies based on the idea of Social Corporate Responsibility. By developing strategic projects and policies, the companies participating in the INSERTA programme have improved their services, making them more accessible and inclusive towards disabled people and, in general, improving their inclusion in the job market.

From FUNDECYT-PCTEX we have noticed that even though there are considerable efforts being made towards the total inclusion of disabled people in the job market, few of the policies analyzed for the writing this article are aimed specifically towards young disabled people. The is a dire need of transversal inclusive policies that have a very defined genderbased approach. In recent times there has been a shift of the immediate needs of our societies, as inequality grew uncontrollable and the poverty soared. It is crucial that we do not steer away from the inclusion of minorities that are getting more and more vulnerable and fragile in the global situation that we are currently facing. And this is an effort that we must do together.

Project RAISE Youth

!21


Youth Employment Magazine

RAISE Youth Casarrubuelos Success Story: Lorena Díaz, a young cook apprentice finding a new job In that moment, Lorena shared with his training classmates and teachers her desire to create a bakery with polyvalent spaces for doing some workshops related with bakery and easy cooking, mainly conceived for groups of children or disability children and adults, trying to show them how fun cooking can be, how healthy and needed is having good eating habits and also show attendances what a good chefs they can be.

Lorena in one of the Youths taking part in RAISE Youth Casarrubuelos entrepreneurship programmes, joining as well our mentoring and support programme for young people. RAISE Youth Casarrubuelos begun its process of training and mentoring to Lorena when she signed up to the RAISE Youth Social Service Jam in Casarrubuelos: an entrepreneurship event to generate ideas and business proposals by NEETs participants, event that took place virtually in different work sessions from 7th to 21st November 2020.

From the very first moment, Lorena was one of the most active participants in this creative event that had the aim to motivate and impulse youths to think in Entrepreneurship as a real option to get a job and have a professional career.

In that creative session, we were also discussing in group alternatives and possibilities of developing for the business project idea of Lorena.

From that first meeting moment, RAISE Youth Casarrubuelos has been accompanying and mentoring Lorena in her professional and training issues, encouraging her to fight for her business idea by giving little steps to get every time closer to come it true: we support Lorena in her choosing process of official studies in cooking and in her job searching to get some valuable experience in her professional sector as well.

!22


Youth Employment Magazine Lorena has also been supported in the correct preparation of her Curriculum Vitae, in order to have a better chance of overcoming the first filters of a recruitment process. Besides, she was mentoring as well in the preparation of the job interviews to be carried out, in order to be able to face them with the best chances of getting the job offered in each case, highlighting her strengths, minimizing her possible weaknesses and showing herself as a suitable candidate to cover the requirements of the position in the different job offers.

Best of luck Lorena in these important projects in your professional life! We are very happy that your effort and sacrifice is paying off! Keep up the good work, it will get easier and easier and you will be closer to achieving your dream of having your own bakery and giving cooking workshops to the little ones and the most special ones in the house!

Project RAISE Youth

Finally, once again, effort has its reward: thanks to her determination, good work, perseverance and desire to move forward, Lorena is currently doing an official degree in cooking and has found a job in a prestigious restaurant in the city of Madrid.

!23


Youth Employment Magazine

Bianca’s Story As I normally spend the majority of my days at home, taking care of my children, with the little free time that I find, I undertake subsistence agricultural activities such as cultivating vegetables and raising bees, pigs ... activities aimed at our own home consumption. After the training and the mentoring received as a RAISE Youth participant, now I dare to believe that one day I could set up my own sustainable farming business raising pigs and cultivating myself their food. As a part of the Vrancea County Demo Center, at the moment i am learning and practicing how to cultivate organic lucerne and hoping that these new skills will help me, in the near future, to manage my own agro business.

My name is Bianca and I live in Buda village, Vrancea County. I have graduated a local high school, but I am currently not employed. Also I am not formally married, but I have a long term relationship and my partner is currently working in Germany, in order to ensure a decent subsistence for us. I have three little girls and as I am not employed, I support myself and the family financially, with the help of the social assistance benefits my children are entitled to. Registering to the RAISE Youth project was for me a great opportunity, a new chance to a better future. So, what I did was, to register to the project and this way I had the chance to participate and graduate from the Eco Farming Certified Training program. I must say that I felt very proud to be a part of this group of your people.

Project RAISE Youth

!24


Youth Employment Magazine

YOUTHShare beneficiaries to find employment verifies 
 its success significant, bearing in mind the ever-changing circumstances the project has been running under -pandemic creating restrictions in moving, for example.

Μany regions in the Mediterranean area, especially during the pandemic, have been experiencing serious problems in integrating the workforce in the labour market, resulting in the rise of unemployment rates. YOUTHShare’s field intervention is twofold: On the one hand it provides NEET women and refugee/migrants with training on niche sectors and by that it expands their skillset, whereas, on the other hand, the project actively supports them with career consultancy, soft skills development, psycho-social support, CV enhancement and finally with job matching in view of their integration to the labour market.

During a researchers’ and managers’ meeting, among the many in the YOUTHShare project. A concern has been raised by a colleague. A significant number of former NEET interns have abandoned their internships. That, otherwise worrying development, called for further investigation which lead to a “happy failure”: internships abandoned because hosting employers would turn the internship contracts into formal employment agreements.

YOUTHShare project has been implemented during challenging times but managed to overcome the barriers and provide a successful outcome: Fifty (50) people so far have been employed with the help of the project’s training programs, which in other words means that these beneficiaries were able to either get integrated into the workplace they had been receiving their training at or in a different employer. The number is indeed

The transnational dimension of the YOUTHShare methodology allows for the active search of internships and job opportunities not only in close proximity of their area of residence but in other regions and countries too. A crucial prerequisite of this international perspective is the development of NEETs’ social skills. They were able to meet, interact, form work relationships with each other, and most importantly, in some cases keep in touch even after the completion of the training and internship. This has been one of the most positive outcomes possible, because YOUTHShare acted as a medium for the participants’ social empowerment too. Also, in a broader aspect and effect, by expanding their knowledge and getting familiarised with resilient sectors, has inspired some beneficiaries to plan the establishment of their own enterprises. An additional positive outcome, which, despite the actual implementation or not, shows the long-term impact YOUTHShare.

!25


Youth Employment Magazine In conclusion, YOUTHShare has been overall successful in relieving the stress off of participants, by offering them the chance to either build new skillsets or advance existing ones, as well as to search for new opportunities trans-locally. As the pandemic has affected insular and other regions that depend on vulnerable to external circumstances sectors, like tourism, the focus of young NEETs, after YOUTHShare, was also diverted into seeking employment in more resielients sectors and areas. The project’s effectiveness, in that respect, is confirmed by the outcome. Project YOUTHShare

!26


Youth Employment Magazine

News from the Projects What we delivered, what is missing - Youth Employment PartnerSHIP project status meeting in Bilbao Although the remote collaboration during the pandemic was a great challenge, we managed to continue with the research and deliver the outcomes as planned. Nevertheless, all partners were really excited about the first in-person event after nearly two years since the launch of the project. The meeting in Bilbao was organised by one of the project partners, FEDEA, and took place on October, 7-8th.

At the beginning of the meeting, Iga Magda discussed the project status. After the coffee break, all partners presented the results of the experiments intended to assess the effectiveness of PES support offered to NEETs. We

also discussed our ideas for the final conference and decided that it will take place in June 2022. Apart from that, we shared our thoughts regarding the plausibility of extending the project. It's tough to overestimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on youth unemployment and still more research is needed. The extension of the Youth Employment PartnerSHIP project may add great value to understanding the ongoing processes and help to find the most effective tools of the support offered by the public employment services.

Project Youth employment partnership !27


Youth Employment Magazine

The main actual gaps in social protection coverage for young people: Policy suggestions derived from the Youth Employment PartnerSHIP study Researchers taking part in the Youth Employment PartnerSHIP project analyse the situation of young people on the labour markets in four countries: Hungary, Italy, Spain and Poland, to identify areas where young people should be supported more effectively, including their social needs. The main actual gaps in social protection coverage for young people are mostly due to the existence of duality in the labour market between precarious workers and standard workers. High youth unemployment, low activity and employment rates, diffusion of precarious jobs represent the main determinants of future low pension entitlements.

The above elements represent structural phenomena in the Italian economy since the 80s. In addition, Italy has an above average incidence of self-employment, although decreasing in recent years, particularly among young women. Long term trends show also an ageing population accompanied by institutional change in the pension system, on one hand, and youth cohorts’ longer participation in education system and postponed entrance in labour market on the other.

What are the most important gaps we need to cover in pensions schemes based on non-financial defined contribution system? For any pension scheme where benefits are based on formal labour market attachment, as it is the case in Italy, it is important that youths are aware that fragmented labour market careers can lead to poor pension level outcomes, as future pensions depend on lifetime labour income. This is particularly important for young women, as in EU pensions of women are lower than those of men by 27% on average and by more than 40% in some European countries. In Italy the gender pension gap is about 35%.

Another important suggestion in this respect comes from the Hungarian evaluation study. It concluded that disadvantaged young unemployed

persons have much less chance to participate in programmes of the Youth Guarantee than their peers with better labour market prospects. It appears that the most employable unemployed young people were selected into the programmes. One potential explanation is that the programme results are assessed (by the PES) based on the raw employment probability 6 months after the programme, instead of their impact, and better educated are more probable to find a job after the programme. This gives an incentive to select jobseekers with a better labour market position, although the comparison of the impact of the job trial programme reveals that the job trial can achieve a comparable improvement for participants who have worse prospects before the programme. The incentive to include disadvantaged groups could be enhanced by defining separate outcome indicators for subgroups of participants, ie. for those with low/high level of education, or those living in low/high unemployment regions.

Regarding the case of Spain, from the industrial reconversion in the 80s to the hangover of the Great Recession of 2008, its labour market has suffered fundamentally from two anomalies: on the one hand, the high and persistent levels of unemployment, which reach 25% in recessive times and does not fall below 8% in times of great economic boom; on the other, the contractual duality, which causes the existence of relatively well protected against unemployment workers due to the fact that their contracts are indefinite with high dismissal costs - the insiders - compared to another group - the outsiders - who are characterized by having temporary contracts, of short duration, which progressively make their employment situation more precarious. This job instability mainly affects young people, women and immigrants. In addition, the unemployment rate in Spain is not just high, it is volatile. While unemployment rates tend to be countercyclical, the patterns in Spain are exceptionally unstable.

!28


Youth Employment Magazine This high degree of volatility is particularly acute for young workers. At the peak of the last recession, the unemployment rate reached 43% for young workers (27% on average), whereas for workers aged 45 and older, the rate was only half as high. In response to the labour market precariousness that young individuals in Spain have faced for the last 25 years, the Spanish government developed the internship contract (IC), which is directed at highly educated young workers. The evidence shows that the use made of the IC is contrary to the spirit of the law. First, employment under the IC reduces the probability of being retained by the firm; second, for those who stay in the firm after the IC, their probability of signing an indefinite contract is significantly lower than that for those who sign another temporary contract. However, for those who move to another firm, the probability of signing an indefinite contract is higher if they come from an IC. These results suggest that firms do not use IC as an instrument for investing in training young people, but rather as an instrument for reducing labour costs and/or increasing contractual flexibility.

Young people in Poland are also much more likely to work under temporary job contracts than older workers, with less job and social protection. Despite an overall good labor market situation more and more young people work under (often bogus) self-employment, where they pay lowest social security contributions, which will translate into low pension entitlements under the Defined Contribution pension system operating in Poland. This concerns mainly women, who additionally have longer child care related career breaks. It is estimated that in 2040, over 70% of women will be entitled to minimum pension only. Increase in youth employment rates and higher coverage of social contributions are policy directions that could improve future youth labour market outcomes.

because they change the rational expectation and consequently the choices of the employers and may spur moral hazard. Employers’ strategic behaviour has to be accounted for during the policy design stage. A generalised measure can be effective on specific groups but may not solve the causes of the targeted problems, such as the disadvantages that young individuals and women experience in the labour market in many Eastern and Southern European countries.

Project Youth employment partnership

To overcomes actual gaps in social protection coverage for young people, structural reforms are needed. According to the lessons learned within the Youth Employment PartnerSHIP project 1 the policy design should target a specific population and include the expected results. Policy announcements are part of the policy implementation and require attention 1 See the “Policy lessons from the evaluation of youth employment policies in Spain, Hungary, Italy and Poland” http://yepartnership.ibs.org.pl/p/policy-lessons-from-the-evaluation-of-youth-employmentpolicies-in-spain-hungary-italy-and-poland !29


Youth Employment Magazine

Do the Public Employment Services reach non-employed youths? A preliminary assessment for Hungary One of the prime objectives of the Youth Guarantee is to convince young persons not in education or employment to register as jobseekers. This is done such that they can benefit from the services that the YG provides, which is especially important for those with a vulnerable background. However, as we show in this report based on Labour Force Survey data, the Public Employment Services in Hungary have not been particularly successful in raising registration rates, and this is only partly due to having to work with young persons who are less motivated to search for a job. What is more, we show, based on matched administrative, as well as large- sample survey data, that there were large regional differences in registration rates of NEETs. This is especially salient when looking at registration rates at the level of local PES offices. While youth in more developed areas seem to need the services of the PES less, thanks to better labour market, there is considerable variation in the propensity to register as jobseeker across micro- regions. Relying on a survey of local PES offices, we also find that outreach efforts seem to be modest, and that commitment towards getting NEETs from a vulnerable background to register as jobseeker is mixed. In particular, building active links to a variety of local stakeholders working with youth is restricted, and a considerable portion of local PES do not think that it is their role to attract these youngsters. This is compounded by the lack of time and well-trained personnel in local PES offices.

Read the full report here.

Márton Csillag, Tamás Molnár and Ágota Scharle

Project Youth employment partnership

!30


Youth Employment Magazine

How to promote youth employment? Dissemination workshop in Hungary - summary The evaluation of programmes targeting young jobseekers and other incentives for increasing youth employment were also discussed at the "Labour Economics Research 2021" Hungarian conference in Szirák on November 6.

The session organized by Budapest Institute within the "Labour Economics Research 2021" conference - after participation in several renowned international conferences - was a good opportunity to present our recent results of the Youth Employment PartnerSHIP (YEP) project to Hungarian labour market experts. The hybrid format of this year's conference (in addition to in-person participation, the presentations were also available online) allowed us to invite relevant policy makers to this academic event, who could learn first-hand about the results that could be useful for policy action.

In the first presentation of the session, "The Impact of Payroll Tax Subsidies: Theory and Evidence", Anikó Bíró (Centre of Economic and Regional Studies, Institute of Economics, CERS-IE), presented the extent to which the employer contribution reductions introduced in Hungary under the Job Protection Action Plan have increased youth employment, especially in low-wage (and low-productivity) firms.

In her presentation „Can a short-term job trial programme kick-start young jobseekers’ careers?”, Judit Krekó, BI Senior Researcher, described the purpose and background of the YEP project, namely that researchers from four partner countries conduct counterfactual impact evaluations based on administrative data to evaluate the effectiveness of the programmes targeting the young unemployed. She elaborated on the lessons learned from the 90-day job trial programme introduced in Hungary. The most important is that, although the programme has been shown to have a positive impact on youth employment, its targeting needs to be fine-tuned to increase the participation of disadvantaged young people who are most in need. 
 In the discussion following the presentation, two suggestions were put forward by experts. Firstly, it could be important to examine whether Roma young people have been included in the program and to what extent the

job trial has been able to mitigate discrimination against young people of Roma background. Second, the role of selection on the basis of unobservable characteristics in the selection process should be further elaborated.

In the third and final presentation titled, "Young people in the labour market and in registered unemployment during the COVID-19 crisis in Hungary", Márton Csillag, BI Senior Researcher, first pointed out that the decline in youth employment was substantial, and not only during the first wave of the pandemic. The impact of the pandemic did not disappear without leaving scars, as the proportion of young women who were not in education or employment was still significantly higher in the second quarter of 2021 than two years earlier. Then, looking at unemployment register data, he found that the losers from COVID-19 appear to be young people entering registered unemployment during the winter of 2019-2020, as their exit rates were hit hardest by the first wave. Those who lost their jobs during the first wave had no worse chances of exiting, due to the much more favourable composition of the group, as shown by the fact that more than two-thirds of them were eligible for jobseeker's allowance.

The presentations of the session "How to promote youth employment?" are also available on the CERS-IE website. 26 participants attended the conference in person and 36 online.

The conference session on youth employment was organized within the framework of the international project "Youth Employment PartnerSHIP", co-financed by Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, under the EEA Youth Employment Fund and the Norwegian Funds. One of the objectives of the research project, which started at the end of 2018, is to measure the effectiveness of labour market programmes for young people in Poland, Hungary, Italy and Spain. Project Youth employment partnership !31


Youth Employment Magazine

SEPAL Project final Conference? On this occasion, at the end of the three years of implementation of the project, Bucovina Institute Association hosted a large event, which was attended by over 100 people from 15 countries in Europe (Austria, Bulgaria, Belgium, France, Greece, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Republic of Moldova, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom), including online, through the Zoom platform, focusing on NEETs on the labor market through apprenticeship stages and employment support services.

Bucovina Institute, Lead Partner within the 058 - Supporting Employment Platform through Apprenticeship Learning, organized the SEPAL Project Final Conference on the 20th of October 2021 in Gura Humorului, Suceava, Romania.

The SEPAL Project period of implementation was between October 2018 and September 2021, being funded by Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway through the EEA and Norway Grants Fund for Youth Employment, and implemented by Bucovina Institute in partnership with four other European organizations: Pere Closa (Spain), ZISPB (Lithuania), KoiSPE “Diadromes” (Greece) and Collegium Balticum (Poland).

Among the participants, we can mention the partners within the SEPAL project, representatives of the EEA and Norway Grants Fund for Youth Employment, local, regional, national and European authorities, NEETs, members of Social Firms Europe CEFEC, Erasmus+ project partners, volunteers and long-term collaborators.

In the opening of the event, Petru-Vasile Gafiuc, the president of the association and also the project manager, together with Valentina-Alina Adomnicăi, coordinator of the communication department, opened the conference, addressing a few words to the participants, presenting the event agenda and guests.

Concerning the local and regional authorities, we enjoyed the presence of the mayor of the host city, Gura Humorului (Suceava, Romania), Marius Ursaciuc, of the subprefect of the Institution of the Suceava County's Prefect, Daniel Prorociuc, as well as of the Angela Zarojanu, councilor at Suceava City Hall, who received the participants with welcome messages, emphasizing, at the same time, the importance of organizing such events.

Four representatives from the EEA and Norway Grants Fund for Youth Employment, namely Grethe Haugøy, Gian Luca Bombarda, Małgorzata Nowak and Katarzyna Kacprzak joined the Final Conference online, having a short intervention and marking the main steps of the collaboration with beneficiary organizations and congratulating the hosts for achieving the objectives and for the results obtained during the three years.

!32


Youth Employment Magazine One of the results of the SEPAL project is the research conducted by Claudiu Ivan, Romanian sociologist, with the support of the partners from the five European organizations, being presented during the final conference, along with several recommendations and conclusions on supporting young NEETs by offering employment support services in each of the five countries.

On behalf of the European Commission, through the Zoom platform, Kjerstin Torpmann-Hagen, national expert in the Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion (DG EMPL), emphasized the role of the European Alliance for Apprenticeships, while Guillem Salvans, Senior Project Development Manager at the Berteslmann Foundation in Spain, discussed the main challenges of the apprenticeships at European level.

A particularly important intervention during the conference was that of the Secretary of State from the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection - Peter Makkai, who spoke about the possibility of developing on-the-job learning programs in social economy structures for people with disabilities.

FONSS (Federation of Non-Governmental Organizations for Social Services), one of the association's collaborators, which supported the smooth running of the SEPAL project, was represented by Diana Chiriacescu, national director, who, in her speech, emphasized the role of social service providers in inclusion of young NEETs in the labor market.

Among the online interventions was Mirela Adomnicai, a member of the Chamber of Deputies of the Romanian Parliament, who was involved from the beginning in the SEPAL project, participating with interest in the events of the association, offered to the participants recommendations concerning the support of the apprenticeships and learning on the job stages.

Cerasela Bănică, president of CADO - Center for Advocacy and Human Rights, partner in numerous projects carried out by the Bucovina Institute, spoke about the employability of Roma NEETs, one of the target groups of the project, implicitly about the challenges they face in this regard.

Felicitas Kresimon, president of Social Firms Europe CEFEC, the European network in which the Bucovina Institute Association holds the secretariat, presented the role of social enterprises in the development of

apprenticeships at work, and Anne Perrault, France's representative in the Erasmus + M-Learn project, a model of partnership regarding the mentoring for social change and lifelong learning.

During our Final Conference, we had the chance to show to our participants our results in each country, namely the supported NEETs, including success stories from each partner country, but also the challenges that we faced during three years of implementation. Our team became stronger day by day, and we keep working to support the employment of young vulnerable NEETs even if in this project we take the final steps!

Project SEPAL

!33


Youth Employment Magazine

Approaching the youth in evaluation research – conclusions from Youth Impact project This study concerns evaluation of projects addressed to the youth (aged 15–24) – a group of special interest in many public policies, especially those related to transition between a phase of education and a phase of work.

Its main goal is to find ways of reaching and involving the beneficiaries of the youth projects as well as to support the development of the youth and increase quality of the evaluation of these projects.

Using the expertise of the Youth Impact project cooperation partners and literature review the author considers major specificities of the youth living conditions (dominance of education, minor role of work and underemployment, increased mobility, superiority in information and mobile technologies, submergence in social media) and particular requirements of approaching the minors (17 y.o. and younger).

The complexities of reaching the youth group (especially the NEETs – youth not in employment, education or training) as well as satisfying their psychological needs are treated not only as problems to deal with but also as opportunities, which can be used to increase the quality of evaluation, to make it more adequate, effective and participatory.

The starting point of multidimensional dependency, vulnerability and accompanying protection measures can be transformed into more active, entrepreneurial attitude supported by the new skills and empowering experience gained not only in the youth project itself but also by means of the participatory evaluation.

The complete text of the study is available HERE.

Project Youth Impact

Conducting impact evaluation in initiatives supporting Youth Employment Persons with various experiences in evaluation can understand the term “impact evaluation” in different ways. This article presents an explanation of “impact” in reference to the Logical Framework Matrix, evaluation criteria, and causality. Then, various designs of impact evaluation are described, such as experimental and quasi-experimental, theory-based, ruling out alternative explanations, case-based, and participatory ones. Regardless of the given approach, one of the crucial issues for measuring impact are organizational aspects, including planning and necessary resources. Although impact evaluation seems to be one of

the most requiring, it brings valuable evidence on the attribution of a given intervention.

Full report is available HERE.

Author: Monika Bartosiewicz-Niziołek, Polish Evaluation Society and the Jerzy Regulski Foundation in Support of Local Democracy, Warsaw, Poland (monika.bartosiewicz@frdl.org.pl)

Project Youth Impact !34


Youth Employment Magazine

The role of digital skills in youth employment As the past 2 years of COVID-19 pandemic has shown us — computer skills are essential in the modern world. Our daily activities, such as education, work, shopping or even going to the cinema or theatre etc. had to move to a remote level.

So what are digital skills? According to UNESCO digital skills are a range of abilities to use digital devices, communication applications, and networks to access and manage information. They give people access to create and share digital content, communicate and collaborate, and solve problems for effective and creative self-fulfilment in life, learning, work, and social activities at large. Digitals skills are also included in the European Commission’s Recommendation on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning, which identifies eight key competences among knowledge, employability, social inclusion, active citizenship, healthy and sustainable lifestyle . According to the 2017 European Digital Skills Survey more than 90% of jobs require digital skills which goes far beyond traditional office work.

Schools play an important role in youth’s digital skills education. COVID crisis provided opportunities for digitalisation of education, which was also a big challenge for teachers, students and their parents. Lack of digital skills affected not only the quality of remote education, but also communication between school and students, as well as access to information and computer platforms.

According to the European Commission women in Poland, especially those aged 55+ are the group most exposed to lack of digital competences, resulting in exclusion from access to the ICT services sector (Information and Communication Technologies). In the 25–54 and 55+ age groups, both women and men in Poland use the Internet much less frequently than women and men from the EU. These are worrying numbers, as the scale of schools and universities closure all around the globe has revealed the uneven distribution of the digital skills and technological devices needed to make remote education possible; both regionally, as in less urbanized areas, the internet may not be fast enough to allow video classes and people may share one laptop for whole family, as well as generationally, as parents may lack ICT skills to help their children with online school, teachers may lack digital skills which would

allow them to organize interesting online classes, and youth which may be fluent in using social media, may be lacking skills like information literacy online.

The generation gap of digital competences has shown us that there are still a lot of challenges for the governments to work on many levels – one of them being making sure that all citizens have equal access to effective digital skills education.

If you’re interested in assessing your digital skills, there is a Digital Competence Framework for Citizens, also known by its acronym DigComp, that was first published in 2013 by the European Commission. Its aim was to create a tool to improve citizens’ digital competences, help policy makers formulate policies, and plan education and training initiatives to improve digital competences. DigComp also provides a common language to identify and describe key areas of digital skills and identifies key components of digital competence in 5 areas, which are information and data literacy, communication and collaboration, digital content creation, safety and problem solving. You can use the Self Assessment Tool, available online both in Polish and English, created in line with DigComp Framework. It gives you the possibility to get a personalised radar chart of your strengths and weaknesses, recommendations on strengthening your digitals skills as well as allows you to compare with other students.

Written by FRDL

Sources:

1. https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/IRB%202020-10%20CL.pdf, accessed at 13.09.2021

2. https://en.unesco.org/news/digital-skills-critical-jobs-and-social-inclusion, accessed 13.09.2021

3. https://ec.europa.eu/education/education-in-the-eu/council-recommendation-on-keycompetences-for-lifelong-learning_en accessed at 13.09.2021

4. https://www.digitalskillsaccelerator.eu/learning-portal/online-self-assessment-tool/

5. https://ec.europa.eu/education/resources-and-tools/coronavirus-online-learningresources_pl

Project Youth Impact !35


Youth Employment Magazine

Our semi-annual newsletter is out! We’ve got news!

In our semi-annual newsletter, we’ve gathered some inspiring activities that we’ve implemented in our last months, as well as those that we’re still looking forward to, as we’re approaching our final year.

You can read about our apprenticeship program, implemented in Croatia, Slovenia and Bulgaria, as well as our Bulgarian team joining a CSO festival in August 2021 and their highlights from the event.

What’s coming? Check it out HERE

Project Social Innovators

Our project was selected as one of the best practices 
 within the shout project We’re happily sharing with you that our project has been selected as one of the best practices within the SHOUT project (Social Sciences and Humanities in intersectoral Outreach for better education and sustainable innovation).

As a result of the project, the SHOUT team has made a video summing up the activities done in our project. You can see the video here. Project Social Innovators

!36


Youth Employment Magazine

Young Apprentices and Their First Job in Civil Society Organizations More than 250 young people from Croatia, Bulgaria, and Slovenia took part in the Apprenticeship program in their countries and some of them are already successfully employed in the NGO sector.

In Slovenia, more than 40 CSOs from all over the country, who took part in a campaign named “Nurturing the world can be a job too”, enabled young people to gain a unique opportunity to participate in the CSO sector. A total of 49 young Slovenes completed their on-the-job training. A quarter of the participants were successfully employed afterward. At the national level, 16 young people took part in the competition, in which a threemember independent expert commission selected the best on-the-job training. Funds for one-year employment were received by Gajbla, an organization in the field of culture and their apprentice has been working there ever since. An analysis of questionnaires completed by young people before and after their on-the-job training is also underway. These will be the basis for the preparation of the final document with recommendations which will also become an advocacy document.

In Croatia, 91 young people got a chance to gain experience in CSOs, and 56 of them already finished their apprenticeships in more than 49 civil society organizations throughout Croatia. Before summer, a contest was organized for one young person who got a chance to work in a CSO called IKS, based in Petrinja, a city that was heavily affected by the earthquake that happened at the end of 2020. More than 20 young people participated in the contest, and the person who was chosen also finished the apprenticeship program in civil society organizations.

In Bulgaria, by the end of August 2021, 116 young Bulgarians completed their training practices in hosting CSOs from all over the country. Causes&Undertakings Community, one of the hosting organizations, shared with great excitement that they presented everything they know about the world of civil society organizations to the two young people they hosted within this program. They have successfully completed their training practices as "Associate Educational Initiatives" in Character.bg project.

Project Social Innovators !37


Youth Employment Magazine

Civil Society Organizations Festival in Bulgaria In August 2021, the Social Innovators team from Bulgaria was part of the CSO Festival that brought together creative activities, workshops, dances, songs, and games related to civic rights and freedom of speech.

They were part of a festive atmosphere and environment of brave and empathetic people who value their freedom, help civic causes, and believe that rights are a value, not a condition. The festival was a place where anyone who has the inner flame and curiosity to be part of an active civil society is able to find friends and supporters. Project Social Innovators

What we are looking forward to... An international conference that will illuminate civil society organizations as pioneers and generators of social innovation will be organized this year in Slovenia, as well as a hackathon
 The second iteration of the Social Innovation Practitioner education program which started in Croatia on the 28th of September and pilots of the same program being launched in Bulgaria and Slovenia

Stay tuned for more information and follow us on Facebook:

Bulgaria: https://www.facebook.com/socialinnovatorsbulgaria

Croatia: https://www.facebook.com/socialinnovatorshr

Slovenia: https://www.facebook.com/socialinnovatorsslo Project Social Innovators !38


Youth Employment Magazine

Call for good practices: Social innovation – the role of civil society organization online conference Recent health crisis, the limits of the market and the state to address important social challenges, using conventional wisdom and traditional approaches, global challenges that are first and foremost threats, the need of traditional business to reconnect with society and to adopt more socially accepted behaviours and transition from an industrial to a knowledge and service-based society, call for a change in the way we act.

The complex issues that organizations and sectors are not able to face on their own are accumulating, thereby increasing the need to develop new roles within and between social sectors.

According to the OECD The Innovation Imperative, new sources of growth are urgently needed to help the world move to a stronger, more inclusive and sustainable growth path. Social innovations have therefore become attractive to policy-makers and are a key element of the European vision for future decades.

Social innovation does not belong to any particular actor or sector. Rather, it can occur in all, and especially in overlapping sectors.

SOCIAL INNOVATION: THE ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATION online conference will focus on the role the civil society organizations have.

WE ARE CALLING FOR YOUR ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT. We invite all that represent or act in the interest of citizens to share your good practices, innovations and actions that address societal challenges and feasible solutions and implement a great variety of social innovations.

!39


Youth Employment Magazine WHO? Activists, associations, non-governmental organizations, social enterprises and foundations from Bulgaria, Croatia and Slovenia.

WHY?

Because there are already so many great actions, solutions and innovations happening in the CSO sector. We would like to highlight that in the LABORATORIES section of the conference.

WHAT?

Actions, solutions, services or products that are social innovations in one of the following areas:

Circular change

• Human rights

• Education

• HOW?

Present your good practice via the online application form. It will be reviewed and evaluated by conference laboratory leaders and Social Innovators project coordinator. Two best practices in each thematic area will be selected and invited to take part in the laboratories (10-minute presentation per best practice).

WHAT ELSE? Selected best practices will be presented in the form of 2-minute animated video, that will be created by professional video makers.

WHEN? In case of selection, present your good practice on Tuesday, 30th of November 2021.
 Interested in the online conference programme? Find out more HERE!

Project Social Innovators

!40


Youth Employment Magazine

CODE trainees’ creations confirm the success of the project so far At the end of September we had another follow-up meeting with graduates from CODE project specialized trainings. Students are happy with their creations and the trainers are quite satisfied with the results of their work! It turned out that the participants in our courses had improved their digital skills and now they are even more inspired. These training courses gave them the unique opportunity to follow their imagination and to transfer their original creative ideas to graphics tablets of the highest class.

The talented and ambitious youngsters have created wonderful work of arts – digital paintings, portraits, heroes, short animation movies, etc. Videos and photos are available on CODE Project YouTube channel https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC0ARn7GvSBqU5_l1i6frpjA/featured, Facebook pages of Creative Center Ruse and CODE Project.

As there is a great interest to these specialized training courses the team of HRDA intends to continue the trainings. Depending on CODID-19 situation the courses could be held at specially equiped Creative Center Ruse or online.

Project CODE

!41


Youth Employment Magazine

Game Design training course starts in November In response to the great interest in the innovative trainings organized by Creative Center Ruse and Human Resources Development Agency Ruse, we are pleased to inform you that in November we start conducting free online Gamе design training course.

and access to quality education, we will give them the chance to learn the secrets of video games development and characters design, and will allow youngsters from countryside and healthy disadvantaged to attend classes, as well as watch the recording at a convenient time on Moodle platform.

The training is intended for ambitious and creative young people from city of Ruse and its region, who are out of social protection facilities and without any support and possibility to continue in high education or enroll for additional out-of-school courses due to financial reasons. As these socially disadvantaged youngsters do not have special licensed software

The course on Game design will last 8 weeks and it is is planned to begin on November, 1st.

Project CODE

Creative Center Ruse starts a free online course 
 on GAME DESIGN in November In response to the great interest to the innovative trainings organized by Creative Center Ruse and Human Resources Development Agency Ruse, they invite all young people aged 13 to 19 to a free online course on GAME DESIGN. The course was developed by ARC Academy, Sofia and is divided into several levels. The best students will be invited to improve their practical skills at Creative Center Ruse. During the training, youngsters will have the opportunity to meet top experts from the GAME industry.

First level starts on November 1, 2021 and will last 8 weeks. The lectures will be conducted online through Zoom. The training materials will be uploaded to a special online training platform Moodle, which will allow trainees to watch them at convenient time for them. Students will have full access to the training materials for an unlimited period of time.

Project CODE !42


Youth Employment Magazine

Creative Center Ruse and Ruse High School of Mathematics launched a joint educational initiative and enter one of the fastest growing industries in the world to get a promising and profitable profession.

The team of Creative Center Ruse aims to motivate young people to live and work in their native place and to promote the development of creative industries. The aim of the close cooperation with the educational institutions in Ruse is to support and expand the educational process in schools, through the application of the latest technologies and innovative methods in the education of young people.

Project CODE

Creative Center Ruse started its joint work with the schools from the Municipality of Ruse, launching online its first joint pilot training with students from Ruse High School of Mathematics.

The aim of the training is to acquaint the students of the 12th grade of the high school with the various opportunities for development in the field of the game industry, to acquire skills for working with the main types of software, as well as to receive useful information for their development in the field. The joint lessons will continue throughout November. The wish of the team and the students is, if the epidemic situation allows, these classes to be held in the hall of the Creative Center Ruse in compliance with the anti-epidemic measures.

The main purpose of the training is to support students in their future career orientation after graduating from high school. Thanks to the information received, they could go to one of the game academies in Sofia !43


Youth Employment Magazine

Tartu Art School’s third CODE 
 students group The third group of CODE students started at Tartu Art School this autumn. What is the best way to turn a group of strangers into a good team? Definitely physical work! A couple of days working together in the fresh air and nature work wonders. By now, the group has already studied several weeks at Tartu Art School, which also include a couple of exciting workshops from alumni of previous CODE groups.

Project CODE

!44


Youth Employment Magazine

Game Design training course under CODE project starts 
 on November 10th The first level of training starts on November 10 and will include 40 participants. The full course in Game Design is expected to last about 12 months. The best students could go to gaming academies in Sofia and enter one of the fastest growing industries in the world to get a promising and profitable profession.

Project CODE

In response to the great interest in the innovative trainings organized by Creative Center Ruse, the online course in Game Design will officially start on November 10th. The training is completely free and is aimed at creative and ambitious young people from the city of Ruse and the region, who due to financial or other reasons do not have the opportunity to continue their education or to participate in specialized training courses.

As they do not have licensed specialized software and do not have access to quality education, we will give them a chance to experience the secrets of developing video games and creating cartoon characters, as well as will allow children from remote regions to visit our online lessons and watch their recordings at a convenient time on Moodle platform.

!45


Youth Employment Magazine

Creative Center Ruse will cooperate with the Municipality of Ruse in the application of innovative training methods

Last week the team of Creative Center Ruse met with representatives of the Municipality of Ruse, where they discussed future partnerships for developing trainings in the field of creative industries and the introduction of innovative teaching methods for students.

The aim of the close cooperation with the educational institutions in Ruse city is to support and expand the educational process in schools through the application of the latest technologies and innovative methods in the education of young people.

Experts and psychologists will assist students in their future career orientation and professional realization in the field of creative industries. Creative Center Ruse aims to motivate youngsters to work and live in Ruse after graduation and to enhance the development of creative industries in the region. Project CODE

!46


Youth Employment Magazine

CODE Game Design training course have started

On November 10, Human Resources Development Agency officially started the first level of the online course in Game Design. The training is completely free and is aimed at creative and ambitious young people from the city of Ruse and the region, who due to financial, health or other reasons do not have the opportunity to continue their education or to participate in specialized training courses. As they do not have licensed specialized software and do not have access to quality education, we will give them a chance to get acquainted with the concept of video game development and the secrets of creating cartoon characters. Besides, we

will allow youngsters from remote regions to visit our online tutorials and watch their recordings at a convenient time on Moodle platform.

The individual evaluation of the participants in the first stage of the training will be carried out through practical assignments at the end of December. The duration of the full training course in Game Design will be 12 months.

Project CODE

!47


Youth Employment Magazine

Get networked!
 3rd international brokerage event – 20.09.2021 The two days International conference of eNEET Rural project held in Budapest, Hungary on 20.09.2021-21.09.2021 brought together NEETs and stakeholders from Bulgaria, Spain, Italy, Slovenia, Romania and Slovakia.

Finally, the possible calls for cooperation (eg. EUROSTARS/EUREKA, ERASMUS+, INTERREG) were introduced and discussed.

The event brought together parties from all consortium countries with the aim to extend networks and establish entry points for further cooperation. Participants had an opportunity to examine mutual interest areas, share ideas and best practices and identify challenges particularly in the agricultural and youth employment sphere.

Discussions were triggered by a few interesting presentations. For example, an organic grower from Bulgaria showed how his bio farm near the Black See works, which provided a good ground for discussions.

The representative of the Hungarian Association for small-scale producers and service providers presented their work in safeguarding the interest of their clients and their results in stimulating short food supply chains.

Project eNEET Rural Project !48


Youth Employment Magazine

International start-up competition - the final round!
 20th of September 2021 After the unforeseen postponements due to the pandemic, we finally gathered to decide who will win the title of the most promising young entrepreneurs.

Entrepreneurship is a force of economy and social development but also a weapon to empower youth. In frame of the eNEET project we invited young minds with passion for launching own businesses to take part in the start-up contest. Through our mentoring scheme we offered support for example on skill development, agro-business specialities, technicalities of setting up a business and business plan development, just to name a few areas.

In the national level contest over 50 unemployed young people participated in Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy Romania, Slovenia and Spain. In total 40 business plans were developed by interested NEETs. In the first round the 3 best star-up idea proposers were selected in each country, to whom customised mentoring was offered on financial planning, pitching and domain specific questions.

At long last the 18 young and ambitious future entrepreneurs delivered their pitches on agro-business ideas in front of the international jury. The audience were delighted to see many impressive presentations with catching activities and business ideas addressing agricultural opportunities and innovative technologies. After the votes and unanimous decision, the Jury selected the three best business plans with ecologic, trendy concepts and promising market potentials. 
 
 You can watch the contest on YOUTUBE:

part I: https://youtu.be/lhkMn2Ql0kA /part II: https://youtu.be/ 0iynzmIPSQc

part III: https://youtu.be/ajlW8NjIGfQ

!49


Youth Employment Magazine

We were happy to announce the winners!
 
 1st place winner: Yumento (Slovenia)

Yumento is a healthy, hypoallergenic dog food, that combines insect protein with plant-based ingredients in a sustainable way. Yumento aims to provides a cost-effective alternative to reduce dog allergies and negative health effects commonly triggered by meat, fish and soy protein as well as the excessive use of antibiotics, salt and additives.

2nd place winner: UrbanFarmer (Bulgaria) The goal of the start-up is to create an innovative modular system (lego based) that will enable people living in cities to grow vegetables, fruits, herbs, flowers, etc. on their private terraces.

3rd place winners: Life Village Holistic Farm (Hungary) Life Village Holistic Farm is the combination of a visiting centre hosting various size gatherings and a bio production site. The unique holistic agriculture approach aims to bring production and processing in harmony with nature.

Project eNEET Rural Project !50


Youth Employment Magazine

Hop on the bus and visit the native breed of buffalos!
 Farm tour in the vicinity of Szob After the excitement of the tournament and passing the 2nd day morning sessions we hopped on the bus to travel to Szob, a town 70 km to the north from Budapest. Here partners, stakeholders and NEETs visited two local farm sites both unique in their own ways. First, we were greeted by Dr. István Fehér, the professor of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences and his colleagues who introduced the microregion and explained the local traditions of fruit and vegetable production before escorting us to the farms.

weddings at the popular tourist centre. After having lunch at Malomkert and tasted specialities with homemade brad we can full heartedly declare that everything they make taste just superb. How one can tell if it is true? If you believe the Irish proverb "Laughter is brightest (or say loudest) where food is best." well…we left no questions open.

First stop: a modern, family-owned apple orchard We were amazed to learn that this adventure is started out as a retirement hobby a few years ago, but by now surely transformed into a business and passion that keeps the whole family busy. Ipoly 2000 Fruct Kft produces several cultivars on ~12 acres including Golden Delicious, Jonagold etc. The 90% of eating apple is sold on the site and they also have storing, and processing facilities. There are many traces of advance technology on the farm. While early spring frost damages (also sun damage) cause a big headache to farmers here the trees and fruits are well protected by hail and ice nets.

Thank you for having us and offering to taste the apple and sea buckthorn juice a speciality of the farm!

Next stop: Malomkert ecoturims center and ecological farm The farm keeps indigenous breed of buffalo livestock and grey cattle a real national symbol of Hungary. Unfortunately, they ran away from us and hid on a far pasture on the ~7 acres of land. Malomkert produces a special selection of buffalo meat and dairy products for example cured ham, salami, sausages, mozzarella, blue cheese, ricotta etc. For fruit and veggie products they use own produce. Besides selling on Saturdays at Nagymaros Farmers’ Market they host guests and cater events such as

Project eNEET Rural Project !51


Youth Employment Magazine

Two-day international conference in Budapest brought together NEETs and stakeholders - 20-21 September 2021 ! SMAPP LAB, an agro-tech start-up, the winner of EIT Food Innovation Prize for developing a digitised trap system that supports farmers with automated pest monitoring for crop protection,

! Bedrock farm that produces chemical-free micro-greens and herbs in an urban cellar farm,

! Goverment Employment Office of Békés-County that is involved in Youth Guarantee implementation and specialist in NEETs opportunities in Hungary

eNEET Project Meeting On the first day of the event series partners gathered for a meeting where thy discussed the indicators achieved during the last 6 months of the eNEET Rural project implementation. They also elaborated and advanced plans for ensuring the sustainability of results and for capitalizing the project.

The long-awaited international start-up competition and 3rd brokerage event took place on the 20th of September 2021 in Hungary, Budapest. The event organised by partner FRUTO brought on the same platform the representatives of the youth target group, policy makers, employment specialists, successful start-up leaders and technology pioneers. The second day program included a country visit where stakeholders and NEETs had the opportunity to study thriving Hungarian farm sites and agro businesses. The event series also included the eNEET Rural project meeting.

Project eNEET Rural Project

The conference was attended by guests and speakers from several relevant domain delivering thought provoking messages on urban and rural farming opportunities, after pandemic labour market changes, youth employment and the new youth guarantee. Presenters included among others the representatives of:

!52


Youth Employment Magazine

eNEET Rural online courses While eNEET Rural on-the-spot trainings are restarting - if you are an unemployed youth why not start with one of our online courses in parallel?

Register today: https://www.eneet-elearning.eu/

Browse through our short trainings to find the best ones available for you in several languagues: Bulgarian, English, Hungarian, Italian, Romanian, Slovenian and Spanish!

Our free online trainings will help you to successfully develop your personal skills from beginner to

advanced level.

Project eNEET Rural Project

!53


Youth Employment Magazine

National apprenticeship actions, mobility & mentoring

Organised by UBBSLA, the programme started on 18 June 2021: The agro-holding company from Varna, GardensLtd., hosted our NEETs interested in farmer’s work and entrepreneurship in the field of agriculture. In addition to the preparation of landscaping projects, production and import of an extremely wide range of garden ornamental plants, the company is also engaged in agricultural production, such as fresh garden salads, herbs, vegetables, etc. grown on the land of the village of Polk.Ivanovo, Dobrich region. During first weeks of the apprenticeship, the young people were introduced to the irrigation systems in vegetable production, seedlings, planting techniques, harvesting seasonal vegetables, etc.

The boys of the eNEET RURAL project Italy were guests at various companies in the area of Lombardy and had the opportunity to experience practical activities related not only to pruning but also related to the operation of various types of farms. After the experience in the Corte Maddalena orchard, in the cellar and in the field thanks to Cantine Caleffi on 04/05/2021, the project guys and NEET RURAL were guests on 11/15/2021 of the TECNOVIVAI company in Canneto sull’Oglio, a territory famous throughout Europe for its thriving nursery tradition. The company offered us a stimulating path through the different techniques of pruning ornamental plants, with a focus on the specificities of the soil and the potential of the innovations introduced in the field (from irrigation techniques, fertilization, potting, etc.)

Project eNEET Rural Project

!54


Youth Employment Magazine

eNEET Rural Success Stories from Romania

Vaslaban Istvan, 28 years old from Balan, Harghita county

Dumitru Alexandra, 20 years old from Bucu, Ialomita county

“Through eNEET Rural project I've got the oportunity to participate in online sessions about entrepreneurship that made me think more and more to become one and put some of my ideas "out on the table" to hear other people's reaction and feedback on them, also after the project Ive become a student in Oradea, in the field of sociology. On my professional developement it had a great impact, since I'm working as a facilitator on Erasmus+ projects I've got a better understanding on entrepreneurhip. The idea that I have is making a camp out of old wood houses that will be taken to parts, restaurated and then put back together on a field where the campo will be. These Houses will provide accomodation for participants and tourists. In this camp we will make team building activities for companies as well as provide activities for turists who will want to have a break of the stressfull life of a big city and/or work”.

“Within the eNEET project I participated in the course for the development of agro-professional skills, after which I obtained a participation certificate. This project had a pretty important impact on my personal development. Thanks to the members of the CPDIS association who were very kind, I managed to develop my ability to speak in public, to support my point of view and to work in a team. Talking about my professional development, I can't say that a lot of things have changed. A very important aspect is that I learned how to draw up a business plan, which is a good start. I found out about this project from the Facebook page of the CPDIS association and it seemed like a good opportunity to develop my entrepreneurial skills and to fulfill my desire to set up my own company. The business idea includes growing raspberries and blackberries, because I noticed that these crops are not present in my area. I decided that the fruits should be 100% organic, because they taste much better and are much healthier. I thought of cultivating them in solar, on an organic fertilized soil, with natural fertilizer from the nearby farms. To hydrate the plants, I will use a drip irrigation system. In the future, I intend to expand my business and open a branch to make finish products, such as jam, syrup and natural juice.”

!55


Youth Employment Magazine The biggest impact from a professional point of view was understanding and creating a business plan “FarmaHoney” as well as the opportunity to develop a business.

I want to thank again to the project team for giving to all the participants this unforgettable experience and for making us to believe more in our dream and helping to making them real”.

Vieriu Diana, 27 years old from Bucharest: “In 2020, I’ve got enrolled in different activities under the eNEET Rural project, organized by CPDIS Association from Romania. I am very happy that I had this opportunity to be part for this amazing project because during this project I received everything that was necessary to embrace my own business, like mentoring and coaching for the development of personal business both at the meetings in Romania and also online and by phone, whenever was necessary. I participated also in agro-professional webinars and software skills development, receiving very useful information and there was always an open communication between participants and organizers. I participated to the International start-up competition in Budapest. When I started this project I had another project idea, because I wanted something more impactful, something newer and more innovative (Suspended cultivation gardens) but not being my field I encountered a lot of technical problems, every time there were new questions (how can i make this real, what are the real costs?, etc). The moment that helped me the most to see the true potential I have in developing an agro business was the meeting in Romania on the Mentoring Service where I met a family who have an agro-tourist boarding house and made only from the things they owned and managed to develop a very beautiful and successful family business. After this meeting I realized that I can also develop a family business with what I already had, more precisely with bee honey.

Bee honey is one of the healthiest foods and is recognized for the many benefits it brings to the body. I had a discussion with my parents who own the hives and they agreed to develop this small business. This project helped me to develop myself in at the personal and professional level.

In terms of my personal development, this project helped me

• • • • •

to meet new people

to increase my confidence

to develop my spirit of initiative

to relate more with the business environment

to develop my civic participation.

Project eNEET Rural Project !56


Youth Employment Magazine

eNEET Rural: Final project event in Bucharest The project partners, national stakeholders and NEETs gathered for the final meeting in Bucharest during the period 31.10.2021-02.11.2021 to celebrate the great success of the eNEET Rural project. The 3-days international event attracted in present about 35 participants from partner’s countries and involved them in several non-formal education activities, workshops, study visits, organized by the Romanian partner (Association CPDIS).

Linked to INDAGRA Exhibition, the most important agricultural fair in Romania, the final event of the project started with a study visit to there. Leaded by CPDIS team, participants visited only the outdoor platforms of the exhibition due to recent covid-restrictions.

The INDAGRA - International Fair of products and equipment in the field of agriculture, viticulture and animal husbandry and INDAGRA FOOD & CARNEXPO - International Fair for the food industry was organized by ROMEXPO in partnership with the Romanian Chambers of Commerce and Industry during the period 27th – 31st of October 2021. The exhibition presented the latest trends in the agricultural, viticultural, horticultural and

zootechnical, available both on the Romanian and the international market. These were the main reasons for the final project conference to be held during the fair and an exhibition stand of the eNEET Rural to present the project and to give an opportunity to partners, national stakeholders to be able to deepen their contacts and network with other specialists of agrosegment, the exhibitors and visitors of INDAGRA.

After the study visit to INDAGRA, the International eNEET Conference was officially opened with welcoming speech by Mrs. Aleksandra Jasinska Senior Consultant, Programme & Project Management – Ecorys. As a representative of the Fund Operator and as the Project Expert, Mrs. Jasinska shared “Having the opportunity to follow project progress from the very beginning I would like to thank the whole project team that was dedicated to supporting the youth in their endeavour to go back to the labour market for great work they have done to decrease youth unemployment in six countries covered by this initiative. It is worth noticing that it was a challenge to reach rural youth who was targeted by the project, hence I am even more impressed by the great project outreach”. !57


Youth Employment Magazine The local presenters of the event covered the wide range of speakers active in agro and youth development including the National Institute of Statistics, President of the Balneoclimateric cities, representatives of the University of Agronomy and the governmental institute of Agriculture and Youth.

so that the effect of the measures is diluted and the share of young people in difficulty does not decrease;

The rural environment in Romania has always been disadvantaged and is in the same situation today; Loss of human capital through internal or external emigration is not likely to support rural communities or Romanian society as a whole.

In the framework of the 4th Brokerage event, conducted on the second day at the National Library of Romania, the stakeholders and NEETs of project partners had the opportunity to collaborate in person, to share experience in job finding, managing a business in rural areas, positive and negative effects of covid, finding opportunities for business during pandemic times, etc. Leaded by the young, but very experience trainer and job mentor, Cosmin Vieriu, participants were involved in many non-formal education activities, games, etc.

Based on the presented information and analysis by the national stakeholders during the International conference some general conclusions in respect to NEETs and rural areas in Romania were summarized:

• Romania has an increased rate of young NEETs. The causes that lead young Romanians in the situation of being NEETs are multiple: some belong to the individual (belonging to a socio-family environment, disadvantaged cultured) others belong to the socioeconomic system, the educational, occupational and social policies of the country;

• The Romanian authorities responsible for young people act in different fields through measures to support this category of population but do not act in an integrated way, through cooperation

!58


Youth Employment Magazine

As part of the Agenda, participants also attend the tailored study visits at various places in Bucharest and in rural areas around:

1. Aha Youth Center – the youth center is a co-working space of some youth organizations from the capital of Romania, including CPDIS. During the study visit, participants were involved in non-formal education activities by representative of the A4action (https://a4action.ro/en/) - a youth NGO from a rural area which support youth from the local community. A4action was born out of the need to give for young people the desire to grow nicely and to develop beautiful things, to learn the best of what others did and to teach others what they know better. A4action vision is that of a better Romania in which young people are valued. That is why, through everything they do, they promote non-formal learning and volunteering as a way of personal development for young people. They adapt the needs of young people. Besides they own projects, they are also involved in the “Together for Ilfov” initiative, whose purpose is to develop Ilfov County through non-formal education programs developed in partnership with the active NGOs in the county. They are also part of the “Youth Affairs Council” conducted by the Ministry of Youth and Sports and the VOLUME Federation.

2. Social incubator – the Association “Social Incubator” (https:// asociatiasocialincubator.org) aims to support young people who have left or are about to leave - the child protection system, (including NEET) aged between 16 and 26, to make the transition (in other very difficult and risky conditions) to adult life in a way that enhances their skills and ensures their independence.

!59


Youth Employment Magazine 3. Casa Seciu (https://casaseciu.ro), located near Boldesti-Scaeni (Prahova County) – it is a family business - restaurant and winery in a rural area near Bucharest.

Project eNEET Rural Project

!60


Youth Employment Magazine

I am what I want to be We all know someone who sure loves his/her work, though. Man and women who go daily to their workplace with enthusiasm, with pleasure; who live intensely every single day of the week; who do not count the hours; who feel fulfilled with what they are doing. They transmit their enthusiasm to their closest people −familiars, friends and colleagues−. They have a positive attitude and tend to achieve their goals. But when the circomstances change and this intensity of living disappears, it is when they search new opportunities and take decisions. Looking for a new job, changing the work position, or the company or industry. Or preparing examinations. Or starting their own business. They are not afraid of the new challenges; on the contrary, they face them with courage, trust and conviction.

Have you ever wondered how many hours will you be working in your entire life? Broadly speaking, a person who is actively employed from the time he/she finishes the studies until he/she is retired, works more than 80.000 hours! Something which represents more than 30% of hours in which one is awake in adulthood.

Considering these data, it is clear how difficult is being happy if you are not at work.

Who knows someone who remains bitter because of doing a job reluctantly? This kind of people suffer every Sunday afternoon thinking that they have to return to work on the following day; and, also, on working days since they wake up till they go to bed, thinking about the following day… This misfortune is reproduced in the other areas of their life and it is spread to the closest environment. It usually happens in people who blame their misfortune on others: on the company where they work, on the colleagues, on the team leader, on the family, or on the government. So they are not held responsible. They are not able to turn the situation, to change their professional lives. Often for fear on being uncertain, on losing security; but also for laziness, for lack of trust in themselves.

!61


Youth Employment Magazine So, how do they manage to be happy at work? There is a group of people who have a clear mission; sometimes since the childhood, other times, it appears later at maturity. They are clear on the trade, the job where they put their lives on the line. They are dreamers. They have an objective: they plan it with enthusiasm, constancy and engagement. They do not totally achieve it, but fight constantly which is something that inspires and helps them move forward. Most the successful professional, famous artists and elite sport players respond to this model.

But not everybody has a defined vocation. There is another group of people who doubt at the time of choosing the job or what to study. Even doubting, though, they take decisions, follow their instinct, take advantage of the chances and experience that. And they do it with open mind and optimism. With the desire to learn to love what they are doing. Trying to do their best. Service to others. With pride. Doing their duty. And in lots of cases, like the Steve Jobs’s speech at Stanford, when they look back and connect the diferent points of their career, everything makes sense.

And what do these two groups have in common? Their attitude. We talk about rebel, independent and responsible people working eagerly. With passion. With effort.

Being happy at work only depends on ourselves, and with the appropriate attitude we all can say aloud: ‘I am what I want to be!’ Project YES!

!62


Youth Employment Magazine

Blue Generation Project news Blue Generation Project has developed the Blue Careers Job Platform, an ocean of opportunities! A free platform specialized in the Blue Economy.

Click here WWW.BLUEGENERATION.CAREERS to discover more than 1.000 employment and training offers across all Europe!!!

Below some of the activities of the Blue Generation Project: Sea Teach is now widening the reach of the BlueGeneration Project to new areas on the Spanish Mainland.

The BlueGeneration Project is very well established in the Balearic Islands and has created a multitude of activities, including presentations in form of promotional visits, mentoring sessions, group visits to maritime companies and installations, workshops, and conferences.

This offer will now be also available to interested schools, NGOs, colleges, and other youth organisations. The first big success was an online presentation about opportunities of training and employment in the Blue Economy to 170 youths from Catalunya.

The Fundación Intermedia gathered 11 groups of youth that are being supported to find employment in different parts of Catalunya who all connected to the presentation and had the chance of interacting in form of

chat comments, questions and leaving their email contact for further mentoring.

Militos Consulting S.A has held the 2nd blueTALK on 30th of June on the innovative sector of Marine Biotechnology.

• Bioinformatics Engineer is one of the professions of the future, for processing the huge amount of big data being collected for marine life.

• You can build your career in Marine Biotechnology with a degree in Informatics or Engineering, Physics or Chemistry, all you need is passion for innovation

• Find funding and support for your startup at GSRI and at organizations like SUBMARINER Network that support smart specialization.

• Collaboration with other sectors of Blue Economy, such as Coastal Tourism, Fisheries Aquaculture is the key to success in developing new products and services in Food Supplements, Medical Products, Fertilizers, Cosmetics, Biofuels, Detergents, Ecotourism.

!63


Youth Employment Magazine These are some of the most interesting points highlighted in the 2nd #blueTALK on the employment prospects in Marine Biotechnology, by Dr. Efthalia Arvaniti, Program manager SUBMARINER Network for Blue Growth EEIG, Dr. Antonios Gypakis, Head of Department. Planning & Programming of the General Secretariat for Research and Innovation, Dr. Panos Kalatzis, Regional Aquamanager (Europe) Bluestar Adisseo and Dr. Gerasimos Rodotheatos, specialist in Ocean Governance, Researcher EKEPEK, Panteion University.

Project Blue Generation Project

!64


Youth Employment Magazine

Employment and transition from climate change: 
 Not an easy task Over the last decades, the resulting impact of climate change has become more and more apparent. Phenomena like unusually high temperatures, melting glaciers, rising sea level, amongst others, are becoming more frequent on a global basis; and human intervention has been playing a catalytic - and unfortunately destructive - role. Excessive use of fossil fuels, as well as deforestation for the sake of the expansion of urban areas, are only a couple of reasons why the environment has been facing these dramatic meteorological changes. Nonetheless, climate change has, also apparent impact upon employment.

Anna Goudi, Key Account Manager of the Greek branch of the Transnational Employment Centre, notes the exigencies of path dependent transition towards a green economy. On the one hand, “It is crucial to understand that we live in a place, the Mediterranean Sea, which is one of the most climate-sensitive areas of the world. Here physical risks such as floods and fires, but also chronic events such as rising sea levels are more

prominent. These physical risks have a twofold impact on our economy; they make coastal areas uninhabitable and disastrous for tourism, transport, agricultural production, mountainous areas΄ fauna and flora destroyed by fires and, in parallel, they increase public spending on Disaster risk management and climate change adaptation policies. Bu that they reduce the available funds for other policies, including employment. In addition to the physical risks, the transition risks associated with the transition to a green economy (i.e. green taxation) create an uncertain path of change. Handling all of these risks successfully relates to the resiliency of the local economy and how adapts to those. But local economy is not something vague; it is all of us”.

The transition in question, is indeed a debatable and relatively undefined field. Claudia Caggiano, Key Account Manager of the Italian branch of the Transnational Employment Centre emphasizes the importance of adjusting to climate change and the measures taken towards ecological transition, dividing the latter in four macro areas. First the sustainable agriculture and circular economy followed by renewable energy, hydrogen, and sustainable mobility. The latter should be coupled by energy efficiency and building renovation and the final area should be the protection of land and water resources. As she stresses, the official policy approach in Italy supports “a desirable scenario where companies gradually change their production model, research and development is redirected towards clean technologies, investors are enabled to assess the risks and changes associated with the transition and then change their financial portfolio composition in favour of environmentally sustainable investments.”

In that respect, Mari, Key Account Manager of the Spanish branch of the Transnational Employment Centre, points out the importance of circular economy.

!65


Youth Employment Magazine “A circular economy model’s goal is to use renewable resources efficiently enhancing natural capital and creating the necessary conditions for the regeneration of natural systems to avoid the stock of finite materials.”. She states that the YOUTHShare project “explores NEET’s opportunities in those sectors, enhancing NEET employability by advancing knowledge and skills in resilient sectors and social economy.”

Overall, the tone is given by Anna Michael, Key Account Manager at the Cypriot branch of the Transnational Employment Centre. She refers to the world as a “moving organism” and supports that there’s a tendency to change a current capital-driven system to a more societal one, stating that this shift of needs of the modern world is partly due to climate change. “During our journey at YOUTHShare we had the opportunity to introduce young people to such systems and help them understand that there are other forms of entrepreneurial activities and employment. They have learnt different alternatives to minimise consumption such as hiring, and leasing, upcycling, collaborative consumption etc.”

In conclusion, climate change is a phenomenon that, although is partly unavoidable, on the other hand it could be handled more positively, with the contribution of appropriately trained people. YOUTHShare training program offers to its participants the possibility to explore new ways of handling the effects of these environmental changes, which will be beneficial towards humans as well as the environment. Project YOUTHShare

!66


Youth Employment Magazine

YOUTHShare featured in CEDEFOP’s toolkits for empowering NEETs YOUTHShare training program’s effectiveness in providing young NEETs, especially women and refugees/migrants, with the labour and social skills necessary for their integration into the world of employment, has been recognized by the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP):

verifying that not only it fulfills its objectives, 
 but also speaks to its long-term aspects.

“Here are some success factors of the 
 YOUTHShare e-learning platform: • Educational material tailored 
 to the regional needs of 
 resilient economic sectors of the 
 Mediterranean EEA

• Educational material that caters 
 for both basic and advanced 
 up-skilling and re-skilling • Skills provision with high local impact” At the same time the YOUTHShare Transnational Employment Centre and more specifically its Greek branch features as a Good Practice within CEDEFOP’s VET toolkit for NEETs.

“The YOUTHShare e-learning platform is designed to offer knowledge on Concepts and Tools in Social, Sharing and Resilient Economy in the Mediterranean European Economic Area (MED EEA). More specifically it comprises three learning cycles, with ten courses each, on: • IT skills in sharing and web-based economy

• Skills in Resilient Sectors and

• Skills in Social and Solidarity Economy. The YOUTHShare e-learning platform can accommodate asynchronous learning or effectively support synchronous distance learning.”

Being part of CEDEFOP’s featured VET toolkits for empowering NEETs once again validates YOUTHShare’s purpose, to provide youth with the opportunity to train to integrate into the labour market.

Link:

https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/tools/neets/resources/youthshare-elearning-platform-tool Project YOUTHShare

By including YOUTHShare into their vocational education and training (VET) toolkit for empowering young NEETs, CEDEFOP sets the training program into a prominent position, 
 !67


Youth Employment Magazine

Regional Particularities in Greece: The role of Geography The YOUTHShare project continues its focus articles regarding regional particularities, featuring Greece and its peculiar geography.

Employment has been deeply affected during the pandemic and Greece has been receiving its own share of the damage. Except for the different age groups that have been experiencing major difficulties in job seeking, there is also another factor who plays an important role in this quest: Geography. Mainland and insular areas show inequalities in the employment rates when compared, which brings to light issues that need to be addressed.

Regarding youth (age group 15-19) employment in Greece, figures have decreased significantly since the second quarter of 2020, reaching 2021 with a drop of 13,9% according to the International Labour Office (ILO), with data deriving from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT). Moreover, data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for 2020 show that employment of NEETs in the same age group plummeted 19,9% in total, while the National Institute of Labour and Human Resources (NIHLR) reports that specifically for the age group 25-29 employment decreased by 15% in 2020 and even more in January 2021. The issue of spatial unevenness in the Greek regions was brought up by the 2nd brief report of YOUTHShare ‘Covid-19 Regional Labour’ Research team: “Insular regions of Greece, whose economies are strongly dependent on tourism, have recorded the greatest decline in the number of employed people, while on the contrary, Attiki, the capital region, and Kentriki Makedonia, reported a quarterly positive change in employment between 2020Q1 to 2020Q2 (0.2% and 0.5%, respectively)”. Consequently, urban regions proved to be more resilient to the pandemic crisis in contrast with peripheral and insular ones, that dependent mostly on a, proved to be high-risk, sector: tourism.

YOUTHShare project activities as well as the results of operation by the Greek branch of the Transnational Employment Centre show that more than 65% of 101 YOUTHShare trainees were living in insular, peripheral or mountain regions in the Greek territory. “YOUTHShare was an opportunity for them to be inspired and set new personal goals [..]”, as Anna, a trainee, has stated. Anna comes from a small Greek island and is one of the thousands of women that were severely affected by the pandemic. “Being a graduate didn't allow me to consider my hometown as a place of choice, at first, as the only available jobs were in agriculture or tourism industry. Being a woman was more difficult for me on the island”. Anna was already a graduate, but she needed more digital skills to be able to find employment in her birthplace – something that she managed through the YOUTHShare program.

!68


Youth Employment Magazine Another example is Jwara, a refugee and asylum seeker, who was unable to incorporate to the local society due to language, cultural and social distancing barriers. Although he lived in the mainland, being member of a marginalised group was also a negative factor in his job seeking. Thanks to the YOUTHShare program, he got the skills necessary to find a job and have the opportunity to explore different paths in life.

Throughout the years of operation of the Greek branch of the Transnational Employment Centre, more than 200 NEETs were empowered and more than 100 received career counselling. Especially during these challenging times, its presence seems more necessary and useful than ever.

Project YOUTHShare

!69


Youth Employment Magazine

Contributors & Credits CONTRIBUTORS From the Fund Operators Mateusz Wiśniewski Francesca Bombarda

Sara Barbi

External Contributors Thomas Mc Grath

From the Projects Laura Pacareu Flotats

Patricia Merei

Ioannis Papageorgiou

Darja Oražem

Maria - Evangelia Gretsi

Marzena Dusza

Kristina Barać

Alina Adomnicăi

Zuzanna Kowalik

Kremena Yordanova

Radka Zgarbova

Ana Silva Cresaçor Giulia Parola

Wolfgang Spiess-Knafl

Sylvie Feindt

Jörg Schoolmann

Dunja Buchhaupt

Márton Csillag

Tamás Molnár

Ágota Scharle

Monika Bartosiewicz-Niziołek

Unemployed young disabled persons and young women Projects: 192, 181, 314, 053, 345

DIRECTOR Gian Luca Bombarda

!70


Youth Employment Magazine

Cover image: RAISE Youth Project

The contents of the Magazine are the sole responsibility of the authors and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the Donors.

born with the intention of sharing the results and updates of the projects participating to the Fund to showcase the main achievements of implemented activities.

Follow us: www.youthemploymentmag.net

Contact us: themag@youthemploymentmag.net

Official number: 3380/2019

FUND OPERATED BY:

!71