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Regional Architecture and Identity in the Age of Globalization CSAAR 2007 The International Conference of The Center for the Study of Architecture in the Arab Region In Collaboration with National School of Architecture and Urbanism

Tunis, Tunisia, 13-15 November, 2006 Session 2A: Architecture of the South: Colonial & Post Colonial Impacts

Impact of Globalization On The Built-Environment Identity In The Arabian Gulf Region Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Department of Architecture Kuwait University, Kuwait


Thank you

First, I would like to thank the organizers of the CSAAR2007. I especially would like to thank Samer Taweel for his dedication and sincere cooperation in answering my “endless” emails and requests. 


Argument  This

paper argues that the world regions, according to their traditional definitions as isolated distinctive entities, do not exist any more.

 Globalization

has created “a virtual region” that is influencing the life of the individual more than the physical geographic regions.


Introduction ď Ž This

paper investigates how the process of globalization has taken place in the Arabian Gulf region since the middle of the 20th century and its impact on the formation of contemporary built environment identity.


Phase

Introduction  It

traces the origins of globalization and investigates its current “tides” at the beginning of the 21st century.

Period

Manifestations

Pre-oil Period

Before 1950

-Poor economy

and lack of resources -Traditional nomadic/Bedouin societies -Traditional/Vernacular Architecture

First Wave

1950 to 1973

-Discovery of

Second Wave

1973 to 1990

-1973 ME War

Third Wave

1991 to 2001

-1990 Iraqi invasion to

Fourth Wave

2001 to Date

-2001 9/11 events

oil and wealth -Modernization: planning, construction systems, materials -Urban development plans -Modern/International style architecture and the rise of oil prices -1980s First Gulf War between Iraq and Iran -Rapid urban development, post-modern and high-tech architecture Kuwait -1991 Second Gulf War -Rapid economic and urbanization development of Gulf countries -Globalization: Economic – Political – Communication – Cultural - … -Identity crisis and revival of traditional style architecture -2003 Third Gulf

war -Post-Globalization: Economic – Political – Communication – Cultural .. -Architecture of Globalization


Theoretical Model ď Ž The

paper adopts the theoretical model which considers that the construction of identities is fundamental to the dynamic of societies and that cultural identity is the process by which social actors build their own meaning according to cultural attributes.


Case Study ď Ž This

paper focuses on the case of Kuwait as an example of the globalization process currently taking place in the Gulf region. ď Ž The case of Kuwait illustrates the impact of globalization on the formation of other cities around the world, especially other Gulf cities that are going through similar transformations.


Case Study ď Ž The

city-state of Kuwait is located at the northern tip of the Arabian Gulf, occupying 17,818 square kilometers. ď Ž It is bordered by Iraq to the north and Saudi Arabia to the south.


Case Study ď Ž The

2003 Gulf War

1991 Liberation

1990 Invasion

1982 Stock Market crash

1973 Middle East War

Post-oil-period

1967 Middle East War

1952 1st Master Plan

Pre-oil-period

1961 Independence

1940’s discovery of oil

city-state of Kuwait has evolved during the second half of the 20th century under influences of economic, international and global changes.


The Pre-Oil Ear Before 1950


The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The Pre-Oil Ear: Before 1950 ď Ž Before

the discovery of oil during the 1930s, Kuwait was an isolated traditional settlement beside a small creek, overlooking the Arabian Gulf.


The First Wave 1950 to 1973


The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The First Wave: 1952 to 1973 ď Ž The

process of globalization started to occur in Kuwait since 1950s.

ď Ž The

British firm Minoprio, Spencely and Macfarlane was invited to develop the First Master Plan for the city of Kuwait in 1952.


The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The First Wave: 1952 to 1973 ď Ž The

First Kuwait Master Plan of the 1952 called for the demolition of the old city and replace it by a modern city based on standard city planning of post-war Europe. ď Ž It

tore down old houses and walls and replaced them with modern buildings and structures.


The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The First Wave: 1952 to 1973 ď Ž The

city center, once a place where families lived, shopped, worked and played, was foreordained a commercial district.


The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The First Wave: 1952 to 1973 ď Ž

Residents were shifted to Western-style family villas and apartments in the new neighborhoods that replaces their traditional courtyard houses.


The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The First Wave: 1952 to 1973 ď Ž The

planning of new neighborhoods was influenced by models and strategies of urban planning and architecture borrowed from other cultures and introduced through master plans and design schemes.


The Second Wave 1973 to 1990


The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The Second Wave: 1973 to 1990 ď Ž Another

important stage followed the implementation of the first master plan. ď Ž The architecture produced during that era was completely alien.


The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The Second Wave: 1973 to 1990 ď Ž It

required the development of architectural landmarks that attempt to relate architecture to its region. ď Ž A panel of four advisors was formed to find solutions for the emerging problems.


The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The Second Wave: 1973 to 1990  They

invited the “starchitects” of that era to design its landmark buildings. – Jorn Utzon was invited to design the National Assembly building, – Arne Jacobsen to design the Central Bank, – Kenzo Tange to design the International Airport and – Reima Pietila to design the Ministry of Foreign affairs.

 Other

big names also participated in this process including; Marcel Breuer, SOM, I.M.Pei, Egnell and Bjorn and Arthur Erickson.


Kuwait Towers By: Reima Pietila


Kuwait National Assembly By: Jorn Utzon


Kuwait International Airport By: Kenzo Tange


Kuwait Central Bank By: Arne Jacobsen


Banks Complex By: SOM


The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The Second Wave: 1973 to 1990  This

period was followed by other transformations resulting from global economic and political challenges.

 The

stock market crash of the 80’s was followed by the dramatic experience of invasion and liberation during the 90’s.


The Third Wave 1991 to 2001 Post-Modernism


The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The Third Wave: 1991 to 2001 ď Ž This

period witnessed efforts to reconstruct


Down Town View


Souq Sharq


The Scientific Center


Salmiya Palace


Salmiya Palace


Al Zumuruda at Al Bidaa


”The Spanish Villas” at Jabriyah


”Le Notre” Gulf Road


Fourth Wave The 3rd Millennium Contemporary Globalization


The Process of Globalization in Kuwait The Fourth Wave: The 3rd Millennium ď Ž The


Hard Rock Cafe


Hard Rock Cafe


Hard Rock Cafe


Diabetes Hospital


Burj Al Hamam


Downtown Environment


Downtown Towers


Downtown Towers


Downtown Towers


The Future


360째 Shopping Center


The Heritage Village, Revival of Past Memories

A romantic attempt to “rebuild that past” in the form of a “traditional village” is currently under construction.


Future Downtown Towers


The Silk City

At the center of the city stands Burj Mubarak Al Kabir, “the Tower of a Thousand and One Nights� as a symbol that stands as an icon for the world to know.


The Silk City


The New University City

The New University City will have three affiliated campuses, including one for female students, one for male students, and a medical campus.


Conclusions


Downtown Towers


Clash of Styles


Clash of Styles


Clash of Styles


Salmiya Palace: Althahir Wa Albatin


Global and Local Building Types


TYPOLOGY OF HYPERIDENTITY IN KUWAITI ARCHITECTURE ď Ž

Identities of Legitimization

State and governmental institutions are utilizing Islamic and traditional Kuwaiti architecture elements and principles in the design of their buildings. These styles provide them with the required reference and identities of legitimization.

Al Sief Palace

The grand Mosque


TYPOLOGY OF HYPERIDENTITY IN KUWAITI ARCHITECTURE  Identities

of Resistance

Architects who attempt to resist the “invasion” of the modern style are utilizing elements and principles of traditional Kuwaiti architecture in their design.

Al Salmiya Palace

Al Zmuruda Restaurant


TYPOLOGY OF HYPERIDENTITY IN KUWAITI ARCHITECTURE  New

Identities

Introducing “new identities” through the design of buildings that incorporate new functions that did not exist in the past with traditional design principles and elements to satisfy contemporary cultural needs and in completely new ways.

Shopping Center

Office Building


TYPOLOGY OF HYPERIDENTITY IN KUWAITI ARCHITECTURE ď Ž New

Identities

Buildings using a completely different approach, attempt to create a new cultural identity that blends the past and the present in one single entity. It has many references to traditional architecture using modern materials and technology. Users do not detect easily the many references to the past that are provided by the building design and details.

Le Notre Restaurant

Entrance


TYPOLOGY OF HYPERIDENTITY IN KUWAITI ARCHITECTURE ď Ž Individual

Identities

Individual identities are found in villas and houses built by Kuwaiti citizens on lots of lands given by the government as part of plot and loan housing program. The owners hire architects to design their houses and villas according to their specific needs and desires.

Individual Villas


Thank You

Impact of Globalization in Gulf Countries - تأثير العولمة على البيئة العمرانية فى دول الخليج  

Regional Architecture and Identity in the Age of Globalization CSAAR 2007 The International Conference of The Center for the Study of Archit...

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