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9th WCCEE May15-20, 2004, Tokyo Japan

GLOBAL AND LOCAL REQUIREMENTS FOR AN OBJECTIVE EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR ARCHITECTURAL COMPETENCE: THE CASE OF KUWAIT Dr. Yasser Mahgoub Kuwait University, Kuwait


Introduction 

Global and local requirements

An objective evaluation system for architecture.

The case of Kuwait

Proposes a framework

EDUCATION Global Requirements

CEE Local Requirements

EXAMINATION

EXPERIENCE


Introduction 

Globalization: • Opportunities for work in a worldwide business environment. • Third World countries seek expertise of developed countries to improve the living conditions of their citizens.

Gulf countries • Witnessed rapid growth and development on the hands of many foreign engineers and architects.

Continuous need to utilize engineering expertise from around the world while adhering to local needs and understandings.


Opposing Views of Globalization

Globalization An evil trend towards dehumanization and politicaleconomic domination.

A multifaceted phenomenon that pauses challenges and offers new opportunities.


Globalization and Architectural Practice With the new opportunities come new challenges in the areas of: • • • •

cultural understanding, business practices, technical knowledge, and professional standards.


Globalization and Architectural Practice 

Globalization has created: • a challenge of interaction and working in other cultures • the exchange of knowledge, materials, systems and expertise.

Professional competence is becoming an important issue since all countries are interested in guarantying the competency of engineers working in their countries.

Methods of competency evaluation are being developed.


The Union of International Architects 

The UIA established the Professional Practice Commission and approved its program in 1994.

The Commission has developed the "UIA Accord on Recommended International Standards of Professionalism in Architectural Practice" (UIA Accord, 1999) and nine related Accord policy guidelines.

These documents were presented to the triennial UIA Congress and Assembly in Beijing, China in July 1999.


The European Community ď Ž

In August 1985, a group of European countries came together to set down the fundamental knowledge and abilities of an architect: 1. ability to create architectural designs that satisfy both

aesthetic and technical requirements, and which aim to be environmentally sustainable; 2. adequate knowledge of the history and theories of

architecture and related arts, technologies, and human sciences; 3. knowledge of the fine arts as an influence on the quality of

architectural design; 4. adequate knowledge of urban design, planning, and the skills involved in the planning process;


The European Community 5. understanding of the relationship between people and

buildings and between buildings and their environments, and of the need to relate buildings and the spaces between them to human needs and scale;

6. an adequate knowledge of the means of achieving environmentally sustainable design; 7. understanding of the profession of architecture and the role of architects in society; 8.understanding of the methods of investigation and preparation of the brief for a design project; 9. understanding of the structural design, construction, and engineering problems associated with building design;


The European Community 10. adequate knowledge of physical problems and technologies and of the function of buildings conditions of comfort and protection against climate;

11. necessary design skills to meet building users’ requirements within the constraints imposed by cost factors and building regulations;

12. adequate knowledge of the industries, organizations, regulations, and procedures; and 13. adequate knowledge of project financing, project

management, and cost control.


Globalization and Architectural Practice The AIA recognized that: 

 

We have actively entered into the era of the global market. The economies of the world are interdependent. Architects in the US have domestic projects with international clients, investors and financing. Architects, large and small, are exporting their expertise and undertaking new international projects. Work in the international market offers new opportunities to diversify markets and seek new venues for the talents and experience of the U.S. architect.


The American Institute of Architects 

The AIA International Committee Professional Interest Area identified the following information as “the basic information required for an architect to enter into an agreement to provide services abroad”: 1. General: Political/Social, Geographic, Infrastructure, Economic/Business. 2. Cultural: Cultural Assumptions, Social and Business Customs, Establishment of Business Relationships, Cultural Aspects of Business and Legal Issues.

3. General Business: Legal System, General Business Regulations, Taxes. 4. Architectural Practice: Professional Practice, Standard of Care, Copyright, Methodologies, Procedures, and Processes, Scope of Architectural Services, Owner/Architect Contract Issues, Permit Processes. 5. Construction: Methodologies, Procedures, and Processes, Code Enforcement


The Case of Kuwait Architectural Professional Practice in Kuwait ď Ž

Kuwait is located on the northern corner of the Gulf and occupies an area of 17,818 square kilometers.


The Case of Kuwait Architectural Professional Practice in Kuwait ď Ž

ď Ž

Kuwait was a vernacular settlement overlooking the Arabian Gulf composed of courtyard houses built using mud brick along narrow alleys. It was surrounded by protective a wall with several gates. The discovery of oil during the 20th century and the rapid modernization produced by its wealth attracted global economic trends towards it.


The Case of Kuwait Architectural Professional Practice in Kuwait ď Ž

ď Ž

After the discovery of oil, the British firm, Monoprio, Spencely and Macfarlene was appointed in 1950 to propose a plan for the development of the city of Kuwait. There were no native architects nor workers to handle this massive amount of work. Many architects and construction workers were brought from different parts of the world.


The Case of Kuwait Architectural Professional Practice in Kuwait ď Ž

The fact that most of the public buildings in Kuwait were designed by foreign architects and firms was the result of absence of qualified local architects and firms that could handle projects of this size.

Kuwait Towers Sune Lindstrom & Malene Bjorn

Kuwait National Assembly Jorn Utzon


The Case of Kuwait The Professional Engineer Classification System ď Ž

Kuwait Society of Engineers is the only formal association representing engineers and architects in Kuwait. It was established in 20 November, 1962.

ď Ž

In 1996 the KSE initiated the process of developing a formal evaluation process for engineers and architects wishing to practice the profession in the country.


The Case of Kuwait The Professional Engineer Classification System ď Ž

The goals were: 1. to identify the engineers based on professional experience and competence and,

2. to upgrade the engineering profession by encouraging engineers to obtain professional license through continuing learning and research.


The Case of Kuwait The Professional Engineer Classification System ď Ž

This process is of great importance especially that more than 2/3 of the engineers in Kuwait are coming from foreign countries. 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

783

330

Kuwaiti

Non-Kuwaiti

Number of registered architects in Kuwait. (According to KSE records in December 2003.)


The Case of Kuwait The Professional Engineer Classification System The standards for the professional engineer in the field of architecture was based on the “Recommended Guidelines for the UIA International Standards of Professionalism in Architectural Practice, Policy on Registration/Licensing/Certification of the Practice of Architecture” which states that: “Registration/licensing/certification is the official legal recognition of an individual's qualification allowing her or him to practice as an independent architect, associated with regulations preventing unqualified persons from performing certain functions.” (UIA Accord, 1999, p. 2)


The Case of Kuwait The Professional Engineer Classification System 

The Regulations for the Classification of Engineers was adopted by KSE in June 2002.

It classifies the engineers as follows: • An Engineer is a candidate holding a Bachelor in Engineering or Architecture from a recognized university.

• A Professional Engineer is a candidate that passes the required examinations and satisfies one of the following requirements:  Four years (4) of documented practical experience after graduation.  A Masters or Doctoral degree in Engineering followed by at least one (1) year of documented professional experience.


The Case of Kuwait The Professional Engineer Classification System • A Consultant Engineer is a candidate that passes an interview with the special committee and satisfies one of the following criteria: 

A Professional Engineer with fifteen (15) years of documented professional experience after graduation.

A Professional Engineer holding a Masters degree in Engineering and ten (10) years of documented professional experience after the degree.

A Professional Engineer holding a Doctoral degree in Engineering and five (5) years of documented professional experience after the degree.


The Case of Kuwait The Professional Engineer Examination - Architecture ď Ž

The establishment of Professional Examination in the field of Architecture in Kuwait was a major step towards evaluating the competency of architects practicing in the country.

ď Ž

The exam is similar in format and content to the Architect Registration Examination (ARE) offered by the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) in the USA.


The Case of Kuwait The Professional Engineer Examination - Architecture ď Ž

The first part currently offered is composed of the following sections: 1) pre-design and programming,

2) professional practice and ethics, 3) general structure and lateral force, 4) materials and building systems, 5) construction documents and services, 6) local building regulations, and 7) practical experience.


The Case of Kuwait The Professional Engineer Examination - Architecture ď Ž

The format of the first part questions is multiple choice questions. The database of questions was compiled from several sources including: text books and references, governmental agencies, academic institutions, private offices, and practicing architects.

ď Ž

A second part will be offered in the near future and will include other sections related to architectural design problems such as: building and space planning, site analysis and planning, and building technology.


The Case of Kuwait The Professional Engineer Examination - Architecture ď Ž

In order to prepare the candidates for the examination, KSE in association with the Office of Consultations and Career Development (OCCD) of the College of Engineering and Petroleum at Kuwait University offer a continuing education courses that introduce the candidate to the purpose and nature of the exam and covers important topics related to the situation of Kuwait.


A Model for Objective Evaluation of Competence for Architecture ď Ž

The model proposed by this paper recognizes that the basic elements of architectural competency are:

Education, Experience, and Examination. ď Ž

It emphasizes the need to understand global and local requirements for evaluating competency of architects to work in other cultures. Education

Local Examination

Experience

Global


A Model for Objective Evaluation of Competence for Architecture 

Global Requirements include: • the ability to work and communicate effectively with professionals in different parts of the world

• understand global trends and conditions that affect the professional practice • awareness of global advances in science and technology in different parts of the world is a basic requirement 

Local Requirements include: • the ability to interact and cooperate locally with other architects consultants • understand specific local culture and social requirements • the application of local building codes and regulations


A Model for Objective Evaluation of Competence for Architecture 

Continuing education has an important role in enabling professionals to be up to date regarding recent advances in: • • • • • •

architectural research construction technology leadership and management skills new technical skills design methods materials


A Model for Objective Evaluation of Competence for Architecture 

Professional practitioners should be able to acquire important knowledge and expertise in both local and global issues through different types of CE in architecture: • conferences, • workshops, • symposia, • short courses, • public lectures, • enrichment programs, and • online courses


A Model for Objective Evaluation of Competence for Architecture EDUCATION Global Requirements

CEE Local Requirements

EXAMINATION

Professional Competency Model

EXPERIENCE


Recommendations ď Ž

Globalization pauses new challenges to the architectural profession. It facilitates architectural professional practice to cross national borders and countries.

ď Ž

Architectural education should recognize this challenge and develop its curriculum to educate architects to work globally. Global and local requirements should be realized in courses and curriculum development.


Recommendations 

An international board for accreditation of architectural programs should be established to ensure the quality of education of architectural programs.

An international architectural competency examination should be established with two main components:

• first, international competency component • second, a local competency component


Recommendations ď Ž

Continuing education has an important role in developing the breadth and depth of the body of knowledge that the profession depends on.

ď Ž

Information and communication technology is instrumental in achieving this goal.


Conclusions ď Ž

This paper proposed a model for developing a competency in the architecture profession.

ď Ž

The model recognizes the basic elements of architecture competency; education, experience, and examination and put emphasis on continuing education as an instrumental tool to realize global and local requirements. EDUCATION Global Requirements

CEE Local Requirements

EXAMINATION

EXPERIENCE


THANK YOU

GLOBAL AND LOCAL REQUIREMENTS FOR AN OBJECTIVE EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR ARCHITECTURAL COMPETENCE  

9th WCCEE May15-20, 2004, Tokyo Japan GLOBAL AND LOCAL REQUIREMENTS FOR AN OBJECTIVE EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR ARCHITECTURAL COMPETENCE: THE...

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