GR604 Student Project Kodak—The Strategy Guide

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4 Contents Brand description Timeline Brand Mission and Soul Rebranding Objective Keyword Brand Grids Competitors Brand Attributes Personas 7 9 11 13 14 15 20 27 30

Brand Description

The Eastman Kodak Company is an American public company that produces various products related to its historic basis in analogue photography. The company is headquartered in Rochester, New York, and is incorporated in New Jersey. Kodak provides packaging, functional printing, graphic communications, and professional services for businesses around the world. Its main business segments are Print Systems, Enterprise Inkjet Systems, Micro 3D Printing and Packaging, Software and Solutions, and Consumer and Film. It is best known for photographic film products.

In 2011, despite the turnaround progress, Kodak rapidly used up its cash reserves, stoking fears of bankruptcy; it had $957 million in cash in June 2011, down from $1.6 billion in January 2001. In 2011, Kodak reportedly explored selling off or licensing its vast portfolio of patents to stave off bankruptcy. By January 2012, analysts suggested that the company could enter bankruptcy followed by an auction of its patents, as it was reported to be in talks with Citigroup to provide debtor-inpossession financing.


1888 - The name Kodak is born and the Kodak camera is placed on the market, with the slogan: “You Press The Button - We Do The Rest.”

1900 - Brownie camera is introduced -- sells for $1.

Kodak’s Timeline

1880 - Eastman leases the third floor of a building on State Street in Rochester, New York, and begins to make dry plates for sale.

1896 - The 100,000th Kodak camera is manufactured. The pocket Kodak camera sold for $5.

1929 - Introduces its first motion picture film designed for making movies with sound tracks.


1975 - Invents the world’s first digital camera, a toaster-sized image sensor that captured rough hues of black and white.

2011 - Kodak announces it is shopping around a portion of its digital patent portfolio and is being advised by Lazard.

1999 - Sells digital printer, copier/duplicator and roller assembly operations to Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG HDDG.DE.

2012-Files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection with the U.S. bankruptcy court in Manhattan.


Brand Mission

Our mission is to build an environment for everyone that helps people create, capture preserve memorable moments and share with others. So that they will have the passion for creating new stories.

Brand Soul

Capturing good times, we preserve memories and make them accessible and shareable.


The New Kodak Rebranding Objective

Kodak wants you live a life your will remember. All special moments are worth to keep and share. Kodak will become a more optimist company to help people do so. Kodak cannot work limit on film and camera but by all means to embalm every second your would like to keep.

Kodak can expand the business to all means that can preserve your memory, online, off-line, physical, and digital.

Moments to remember. Preserve: Make it last forever. Capture: Catching great stuff.

TodayThere is no joy in possession without sharing. Without sharing, the memories are less meaningful. Kodak became the name of the old-fashioned camera, conservative style. It is unable to fulfill the new brand soul today.





No road is long with good company. In the future, Kodak will make your story comes alive. Instead of simply taking a photo, we encourage you to create and preserve the best moment. With Kodak, your memory always is with you. Kodak makes your special moment shareable. Kodak will accompany you and let you be the one you want to be.





We listed three categories of competitors to Kodak: current, adjacent, and future. Current competitors make films or alternations to the films. The adjacent and future competitors are companies or brands that can help people to story memory or preserve a moment.


Current Competitors

Considering Kodak is a film manufacturing company, we plot the following competitors. They sell the film or photographic technology.

*List in alphabetical order

Agfa-Gevaert N.V.

It is one of the three biggest film manufacturers. It successfully converts to digital imaging when the film is obsolete.

FILM Ferrania s.r.l.

A company born in WWI, it was a dynamite company. With the production and chemical properties of explosives and early film being very similar, towards the end of the war in 1917, SIPE founded a subsidiary called FILM.

Foma Bohemia

They are mostly known for their line of black and white films and papers but also produce movie film, X-ray films for medicine and industry and personal dosimetry film along with processing chemicals.


Fujifilm is one of the biggest competitors to Kodak. They operate in photography, optics, office and medical electronics, biotechnology, and chemicals.


They are well known for 6 × 6 cm films. Today Hasselblad uses CCD digital back as digital film. The digital back, camera, and lens are separating.



It branded B&W film, papers and chemicals. A comprehensive manual of everything photographic, including the optics, physics and chemistry of photography, along with recipes for many developers.


Producing 35mm film and including film development processors and printing technology. It is one of the biggest competitors to Kodak.


Brand of Filmotec specialising in Movie films. Current manufacture by Inoviscoat, since 2020 under common ownership.


Polaroid Corporation invented and produced the widest range of instant film. Roll film was distributed in two separate negative and positive rolls and developed inside the camera.

Sony Exmar

Sony is the largest CMOS manufacturer. Exmor is the name of a technology Sony implemented on some of their CMOS image sensors. It performs on-chip analog/digital signal conversion and two-step noise reduction in parallel on each column of the CMOS sensor.


Adjacent Competitors

These competitors are not producing the film but can also help customers capture, preserve, and share a moment.

*List in alphabetical order


In some situations photographing is not allowed, such as museums, lectures, and court then drawing is an alternating way. Facetune

Facetune is a photo editing application used to edit, enhance, and retouch photos on a user’s iOS or Android device created by Lightricks. The app is often used for portrait and selfie editing.


Procreate is a raster graphics editor app for digital painting developed and published by Savage Interactive for iOS and iPad OS. Designed in response to the artistic possibilities of the iPad, it was launched on the App Store (iOS) in 2011.


A leading printer brand. Memory and story can be printed in image base, text base, or both.


Instagram is an American photo and video sharing social networking service founded in 2010 by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, and later acquired by American company Facebook Inc.


Library of Congress

It is the most extensive library in the U.S. Memory and story can be preserved via different media. It is an example of a giant physical database.

Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City, colloquially “the Met,” is the largest art museum in the Americas. The museum is where we store and display memory of human beings.


Twitch is an American video live streaming service that focuses on video game live streaming, including broadcasts of esports competitions, in addition to offering music broadcasts, creative content, and “in real life” streams.

Western Digital

WD is an American computer hard disk drive manufacturer and data storage company. It is an indirect competitor to Kodak.

Avery Dennison

Avery Dennison Corporation is a multinational manufacturer and distributor of E-ink. E-ink are display devices that mimic the appearance of ordinary ink on paper.


Future Competitors

The future competitors are similar to an adjacent competitors, but they are more dynamic. They are not necessarily to preserve and share the story via image base.

*List in alphabetical order


Amazon Web Services, Inc. A cloud computing service. One of their unique services is using a semi-truck to transfer data. Each cargo can store 100PB of data which takes years to share using the Internet.

Blurb, Inc.

Blurb is an American self-publishing platform that allows users to create, self-publish, promote, share, and sell their own print and e-books. It also offers digital software for laying out books.


Disney is an American multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate. The same us Kodak, providing great moment of time to customers.


Dropbox is a file hosting service operated by the American company Dropbox offers cloud storage, file synchronization, personal cloud, and client software.

NetEase Cloud Music

It’s a music app that features social media. You can add a comment or story on the streaming music. It is a place where people share emotions while listening to music.



It is a virtual reality equipment brand from Meta, a great example that can make your story comes alive. It is a modern edition of the stereoscope.

Party City

An American publicly traded retail chain of party stores. The same us Kodak, providing great moment of time to customers.


It is an image-sharing website that has numerous user freedom. Users can grade and vote for photos and toward a reward.


It is a brand that goes against our brand soul; they destroy memory. However, it is a counter way to encourage people to maintain memory by keep sharing and communicating with friends.


TikTok is a short-form video hosting service. It hosts a variety of short-form user 15-second videos. It has a unique function that repairing, coloring, and adding motions to an old portrait image.

29 Brand Attributes POSITIVE Freedom Realistic Dynamic Compatibility Renewable NEGATIVE Old-fashioned Conservative Unaffordable Censorship Stubborn
30 Overkill Private Massive Plentiful All-Digital Efficient Affordable Flexible Diversity Passionate NEUTRAL EXPECTED (We would like our brand become:)

Yijun Zhong | Module 2


The Nature of Identity


Kodak is human-oriented; customers’ need is our priority. Target audiences’ traits guide Kodak’s branding. Personas can represent our company’s identities and well identify potential customers. Presenting these seven personas can help Kodak’s branding be more effective for marketing strategy.

We will define each persona with Seven Brand-appropriate ethnographic traits connected to the following concern:

[A] Some moment we don’t want to forget

[B] Some memory lost

[C] Some visual we want to share and present


[A] Christian loves adventure because deep wild nature sight is god-given.

[A] Christian collects flight, train, and park tickets because these make him recall each remarkable trip easily.

[B] Christian buys a 1TB cellphone but doesn’t want to pay for cloud storage service monthly.

[B] He had an impressive starling image in Yosemite, but he could not present it because he accidentally dropped his camera down the cliff.

[B] He collected travel and magazine because he published an article, but that is his only copy. He lost the original composition.

[C] He likes to invent his friend for road trips because he can share the fun immediately.

[C] Christian uses the location sharing mobile app because it can record the track where he has been and share it with his friend.

Name: Christian Magaña

Age: 42 Gender: Male

Occupation: Journalist Location: Alhambra, CA Language: Spanish, English

Travel Enthusiast

[A] Some moment we don’t want to forget

[B] Some memory lost

[C] Some visual we want to share and present

Fan 1

Name: Emily Gunter

Age: 25

Gender: Female

Occupation: Gamming Bloger

Location: White Plain, NY

Language: English

Internet Celebrity

[A] Emily has a gaming log because she can save the remarkable moments in the game.

[A] Emily has a lot of bad habits in life, such as smoking and drinking be she doesn’t care because she believes living life will be remembered more meaningful than a long life.

[A] [C] Emily cosplays the heroes in the games and attends the CG expo because she enjoys the time with other participant cosplayers.

[B] In some events, public photographers took photos for her, but she couldn’t obtain the pictures after because she lost the photographers’ contacts.

[B] Emily uses screen recording because the in-game recording is unreliable, slow, and has a lot of internet censorship.

[C] Emily is live streaming her game on Twitch and shares the highlight moments on TikTok, which is globally accessible because sharing enhances her fun on the game.

[C] Emily shares her costume and cosmetic procedures on her blog because she wants to share her experience.

34 Fan 2

[A] Bill loves his job as an independent truck driver because he can travel around the U.S. and Canada at working time.

[A] Bill’s favorite route is Rainbow International Bridge because he can glance at Niagara Falls.

[A] Bill buys fridge magnets in every major city he arrives because he wants to remember where he has been.

[B] Bill was sorrowful when he returned home and found his home was burglarized because many of his logs and collections were ruined.

[B] Bill spends little time with his family because he is always on the road.

[C] Bill made new friends on the route countrywide because truck drivers live with no fixed abode; the road is life.

[C] Bill plans to go to Burning Man, an assorted entertainment event in the NV desert, because he has excellent hauling skills, can tail an RV, and then have a great time with his companying.

Name: Bill Willimson

Age: 45 Gender: Male Occupation: Semi-Truck Driver Location: Newark, NJ Language: English

Continent cargo liner

[A] Some moment we don’t want to forget [B] Some memory lost

[C] Some visual we want to share and present

Fan 3

Name: Nancy Chen

Age: 76

Gender: Female Occupation: Empty nester Location: Phoenix, AZ Language: Cantonese

Hearing aid is needed

[A] [C] Nancy was an army paramedic. She wrote a hundred-page autobiography because she wanted her story to be remembered.

[A] Nancy makes a video call with her sons because she misses them.

[B] Nancy is an empty nester because she is a U.S. permanent resident and lives in China, and her sons and daughters are in the U.S.

[B] She may not meet her family in a short period because all flights between the U.S. and China are booked due to Covid-19.

[B] Nancy use hearing aid her because she is partially deaf.

[C] Nancy spends most of the time with her neighbor because she is talkative.

[C] Nancy wishes she could have a pet with her because that makes her feel not so lonely at night.

36 Fan 4

[A] Emma is the most popular kid because she is energetic in class.

[A] Emma’s favorite class is painting because she can assert every whimsicality in her mind.

[B] [C] At home, Emma feeds the puppy before breakfast because the puppy is her family member.

[B] Emma doesn’t have a phone, but she has a cellular watch that links to the family app with her parents in order to stay connected.

[C] Emma invites her friends home for dinner because she wants to show off her mom’s latest recipe cooking.

[C] Emma and her parents go to Tampa weekly to visit her grandparents.

[C] Emma like Tampa better than Orlando because there is Busch Gardens Tampa Bay, and she can say hi to animals closely.

Name: Emma Santos Age: 7 Gender: Female Occupation: Elementary student Location: Orlando, FL Language: English

Smart Kid loves animals

[A] Some moment we don’t want to forget

[B] Some memory lost

[C] Some visual we want to share and present

Fan 5

Name: Michelle Blanchet

Age: 38

Gender: Trans woman Occupatin: Model Location: New Orleans, LA Language: English, French

Pride is for everyone

[A] Michelle was born as male and transgender to a woman because she wants to be the one she feels like to be.

[A] Michelle has a happy family because she has been happily married for seven years.

[B] Michelle had no photo before being transgender because she didn’t want people to see her previous appearance.

[B] Michelle lost some friends because they did not accept her orientation.

[C] Michelle is an excellent model because she shows confidence on stage.

[C] Michelle is also a great fashion designer because she highly accepts teamwork.

[C] Michelle does not hesitate to talk about her orientation to others because she prides herself and wishes to share.

38 Fan 6

[A] Tom speaks four languages because he loves to learn new languages and make his work easier.

[A] Tom is the most rewarded office in his department because he cracked most cases.

[B] Tom set his phone as an unknown caller because he wants privacy for his job.

[B] Tom barely talks about his job because he is working on a narcotics case.

[B] Instead of using his phone to take pictures for work, he uses an old SLR camera because he believes it is more reliable.

[C] Tom is also a baseball player; he has lots of photos nailed on the wall because he has a passion for this sport.

[C] Tom also has a lot of photos of his police force career life, but he hides them because he doesn’t want those to be publicized.

Name: Thomas De Kat Age: 42 Gender: Male Occupation: ASP Detective Location: Little Rock, AR Language: English, Spanish, French, German

Work Secretly

[A] Some moment we don’t want to forget

[B] Some memory lost

[C] Some visual we want to share and present

39 Foe 1

Name: Aashvi Kumbhar

Age: 29

Gender: Female Occupation: Programmer Location: Bellevue, WA Language: English

Workaholic Programmer

[A] Aashvi works days and nights for coding because it takes time to debug.

[A] She collected peripheral products like cups and t-shirts for IT companies because she was proud to be a programmer.

[B] She doesn’t even have time for dating because she works on heavy duty.

[B] Most of the images on her phone are screenshots because she has few activities after work.

[B] Ashvi lost all photos on her last phone because she lost it and erased it remotely.

[C] She shares her codes online because she desires others’ comments.

[C] She uses social media to share her breakfast in the company as proof of her location.

40 Foe 2

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