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ID. Bilkent University Department of Architecture Arch 402, 2020 Spring, Section 3 Instructors: Yiğit Acar, Buse Demir Students: Alev Nisa Işık, Alper Furkan Hamavioğlu Aslı Seray Uysal Ayfer Şeyda Özel Ceyhun Kınaç Doğukan Çakarsın Elif Ilgın Yapıcı Houssame Eddine Hsain İdil Dursun Kenan Akhverdiev Melek Kaynar Özge Hocalar Rabia Bilge Atabey Şevval Simruy Baygül Design and Editing: Yiğit Acar Cover Page Design: Seray Uysal


The spring semester of 2020 was an unusal one for the whole world. Marked with the Covid-19 pandemic and the on-line education that developed as a response, the semester was full of challenges. I’d like to thank all my students and our assistant Ms. Buse Demir for all their commitment and hardwork in these difficult times. On the other hand the on-line education had its benefits as well. We had the chance to host many guests around Turkey and from other countries. The contribution of our guests is extremely valuable since Arch 402, being the graduation studio, is also a form of initiation into the discipline. Discussing the works publicly with established proffessionals is invaluable to equip our students with a pluralistic understanding of the discipline. We would like to thank to our contributors once again, for their support in this loaded semester. In alphabetical order; Ali Sinan, Aslıhan Günhan, Ayşe Henry, Başak Güçyeter, Baver Barut, Cansu Canaran, Cem Korkmaz, Doğuscan Aladağ, Ensar Temizel, Eren Başak, Ezgi İşbilen, Glenn Terry Kukkola, Irmak Yavuz, Kadri Atabaş, Leyla Etyemez, Neris Parlak, Nesli Naz Aksu, Oktan Nalbantoğlu, Olgu Çalışkan, Onur Özkoç, Pınar Aykaç, Suard Cengu. Thank you for your contributions. Yiğit Acar, Section instructor.

*Day 1 of on-line education unfortunately the only group photo we have.


In 2020 spring semester we moved to a more research based graduation studio model which required the students to formulate their own design/research problem and develop a response to it in one semester. This is mainly the graduation thesis model that has been applied in schools all around the world. We should mention two small differences that are specific to our context. First is that here in Bilkent the program here is a four year program and second unlike the majority of graduation thesis projects the project is done in one semester. We saw this as an opportunity for the senior students to focus on their own points of interest and tailor their own career paths. Many students made their decisions with these precepts. Some took on issues that were related to conservation while some were more focused on urban design challenges, some developed projects with more emphasis on environmental performance. The spring 2020 semester was an unusual one. The whole world was faced with the outbreak of Covid-19 Pandemic. The academic practices were replaced with emergency remote education. We were all faced with many challenges in a variety of aspects of life. Some of us having our families in medical professions were faced with virus in first hand; some of us had to move to other cities, some were struggling with financial issues. The online studio itself was an unusual practice that none of us were used to, this added both technical and pedagogical challenges. Furthermore the future is less clear than ever. We don’t know what type of a world we’ll return to when everything is over. This adds to the psychological load of things. Even before the outbreak while the project topics were being proposed by our students, we were already facing many different crises. The war in Syria and migration, the earthquake in Elazığ, the treat of an upcoming earthquake in Istanbul and the global environmental crisis were already in the agenda. Hence the title of the book was set as “Letters from the Frontier” early in the semester before the pandemic. With the pandemic it only became more relevant. As section III we had fourteen projects. The projects appear in the book in alphabetical order of the names of the authors.

CONTENTS 00 Preface 01. Alev Nisa Işık A Zest to Zorrozaurre 02. Alper Furkan Hamavioğlu Agriculture Center in Harran Plain 03. Aslı Seray Uysal Maritime Passenger Terminal 04. Ayfer Şeyda Özel Revival in Izmir Port 05. Ceyhun Kınaç Başkent Stadium and Sports Complex 06. Doğukan Çakarsın Back to the Flow of Life After Trauma 07. Elif Ilgın Yapıcı Floating Reencarnation 08. Houssame Eddine Hsain Tazenakht: Using Sand to Combat Desertification 09. İdil Dursun Disaster Prevention and Education Center 10. Kenan Akhverdiev Bakü Public Service Hall and Trasport Hub. 11. Melek Kaynar A Life in Ecotone New Urban Form 12. Özge Hocalar Eco-Hybrid 13. Rabia Bilge Atabey Not a Boundary 14. Şevval Simruy Baygül Ghost Town Refugee

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A Zest to Zorrozaurre ALEV NİSA IŞIK

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A Zest to Zorrozaurre ALEV NİSA IŞIK

The project focuses on formerly industrial peninsula of Zorrozaurre in Bilbao, Spain. The project program includes of Brownfields Soil Remediation proposal with interventions to the topography while simultaneously revising the existing masterplan. The new masterplan studies refurbishment, adaptive reuse and addition of new buildings to the site which also covers the project’s main study of an ‘International Design School’ and ‘Spanish Design Museum’ with conceptual interpretations of incidents, intentions, inclusions and events.

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ZORROZAURRE The project focuses on a more efficient and contemporary use of Zorrozaurre. A preliminary selection criteria decides which of the existing buildings should be demolished and which of them to stay. If a building coincides with an unsafe zone (see Brownfields Remediaton Diagram) then the building is eliminated for safeguarding constraints; another elimination occurs if the building is not suitable for further use. Other industrial buildings are subjected to adaptive reuse programme where design based, small scaled, technological and clean production units are located. Other residential buildings in the peninsula are to be used as residentials after maintenance and refurbishment on the buildings are completed. After observing the new texture, addition of new residential or commercial buildings are planned. Although there is no distinct zoning in the peninsula, southern half majorly consists of production units while northern part is mostly about residential units

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BROWNFIELDS NATURAL SOIL REMEDIATION Zorrozaurre, a peninsula in city of Bilbao used to accommodate industrial activities after a few zoning changes, is now in obsolescence of that function. After city has been through many new zoning and economic model regulations it is now adapting to a service based plan not a production based one and the continuing production units are becoming to be planted in rural parts. In the following phases of that change, the industrial base now is almost abandoned, old factory buildings are now facilitating indoor sports activities.

The former industrial activities leave soil infertile and inhabitable. By using the laminar flow of river in the site, a natural cleansing and remediation of the soil is planned. Minor and major cavities excavated from the peninsula determines the remediation areas. In those areas plant based filtration of the soil is achieved where the planned floods bring contaminated soil to the recreational zone. This zoning of cavities, remediation and planting also shapes the new suggested masterplan. The cavities are located where it is safe to allow small floods and where a building density control is required. In advance, obsolete industrial buildings which -envisioned to be a part of adaptive reuse program- if have the potential to become communal buildings and where this zone becomes a part of urban environment, the cavities are not located nearby for public safety.

Soil contamination is common in urban areas and poses both a physical and economic problem for city planning and development. Soil contamination is the result of various human activities, including but not limited to construction, personal care products in sewage sludge, lead from traffic and highway runoff. A site with significant soil contamination is classified as a brownfield.1 Heinegg, A., Maragos, P., Mason, E., Rabinowicz, J., Straccini, G. and Walsh, H. (2000) Urban Agriculture and Soil Contamination, retrieved February 23 from http:// alivebynature.com/pub/Louisville_UrbanAg_Soil_Contamination.pdf

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adaptive reuse implementation on production units

refurbishment for residentials

generic public buildings added for health and educative needs

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The analysis on existing building strategies follows on four different implementations. First of all any type of building in bad condition are eliminated. The ones with relatably good condition and formerly was in industrial use are subjected to adaptive reuse implementation. Recently there are three buildings in use after adaptive refunctioning, they are used for indoor sports facilities. The rest are decided to be used again in production however with clean production mechanisms like 3D printers and as headquarters for start-ups. Residential buildings on the peninsula are in good conditions, their refurbishment and further use in the same function is encouraged. Finally some generic buildings are to be added over time to serve the needs of the peninsula habitants.


¡Hijo de la pu**! ...IN BILBAO

OH DIOS MIO! professor’s gonna murder me this time





haha! well you are kinda wrong i’m a fashion design student there. I’m an art critic that’s why i’m here. What are you doing here? you don’t seem..into.... arts?





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LEARN HERE Internation Design School Of Bilbao covers several disciplines working on the design field as fashion design and furniture and product design. The school facility offers students comfortable study, leisure and production areas where interdisciplinary interactions and encounters are welcomed. Besides classrooms the complex facilitates spaces for public interest of learning, designing and socializing.

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SHOW HERE As the final stop of cultural route in Bilbao, Museum of Spaniard Design is to be located on the south corner of the peninsula. The route starts with Guggenheim Museum, passes through Naval Museum and Athletic Bilbao Sports Museum and ends in the Zorrozaurre. The museum covers the design history of Spain as well as Spaniard designers.

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The conceptual interpretation starts with looking into features of typical and atypical plans and into user psychology and experience on spaces with different functions. The interpretation suggest that ‘museums’ can be seen as typical plans because they lack incident, event and inclusion. By nature they tend to be exclusive because the user experience is limited to the artefact on the show, or the experience is already decided by the curator himself which eventually leaves the spectator unconsciously determined with the collections. The visitor cannot host an event there, this pre-determined experience gives no chance for incidents. However schools are designed coherently with the educative values. The belief in spatial learning and allowing positive incidents to happen encourage unexpected learning and production outcomes. Schools designed in the light of this features tend to be classified as ‘atypical plan’-inclusive of both user and activites. This user and function diversity makes the space open for events so that spontaneous incidents can occur. The plan scheme and mass articulation is designed based on actualizing these positive features the school naturally gives. Mixing spaces of different functions and different user types allowes these incidents. Although no strong feeling of inclusion can be given to museum user, their contribution to the circulation paths of daily school users reduce the sense of exclusion. Since the school user is meant to visit the complex almost everyday, their belonging to the space organically occurs. Leaning main circulatory ramps to the walls of the collections’ spaces leaves no option but to also take part in the exhibition for the school user as well.

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The structural system consists of mainly cartesian gridded steel column and beam frames. This system selection is coherent with the industrial identity of the peninsula. The frames in three dimensional perspective gives the opportunity to locate masses or carve holes in the main frame to create complex circulation patterns required by happy accidents to happen. In more complex forms like the collections’ parts, these masses have their own steel rib structure cladded with various materials. The northern facades are cladded with transparent fiber concrete plates to allow controlled daylight infiltration. Southern facades are cladded with interactive digital blocks where various visual artistic installations to be projected on. This kind of structural system not only acts as a civil engineering element but allows social and other artistic installations and activities to be held on.

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The steel grid penetrates into mainland and inside of the peninsula. The structure of the building complex works together with the pedestrian bridge which connects mainland and the peninsula. Inside the peninsula, grid emerges when possible, especially at landscape zones and used as urban furnitures; as a canopy or/and as playground.

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For inclusive, exclusive, intended and incidential qualities to be backed up the building allows two different entries. The main entrance from 9.00m elevated platform gives the sense of exclusion to the museum user. A secondary minor entrance from 00.00 level is available to school users to enhance the chance of encounters. The museum’s branches consist of temporary and special collections. Special collections are elevated in 9.00 meter level to align with main entrance level. This elevation allows school user to pass beneath the mass and reach to secondary entrance on 00.00 level. The school part is designed to allow the students to be present when they pass by the atrium almost forcing them to observe and learn through the hustle of the atrium space. The diagram on the left shows the difference in the movements of the two types of users. It is clear that the circulation is planned where a museum visitor can easily wander between collections almost like a ghost to other museum visitors however it is nearly impossible for a school user to not to recognize this particular person because he/she needs to pass that particular person to reach to their desired destination.

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The project offers an agriculture center with modern agricultural methods. Besides that it has social and educational facilities on agriculture and drones. The project also envisages the establishment of a facility that can serve both rural and urban, using its existing aviation and agricultural infrastructure, taking into consideration its location.

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The Area: Old Şanlıurfa Airport

The area is abondoned airport since 2007. The airport was built in 1988 and domestic flights were made from Şanlıurfa Airport over the years. However, after GAP (South-East Anatolia Project) a new airport was built in 2007, it was aimed to make bigger airport for abroad flights and transporting agricultural products. Then this airport was doomed. Now, it is a place for goats and sheeps. The area has unique location for the project’s aim. The area is located on 7 km south from city center on the Şanlıurfa-Syria Road. Its location can be defined a gate to open Harran Plain from the city. The location is quite suitable for hosting many different functions. Its proximity to the city allows it to have a cultural and social potential, while the presence of agricultural lands around it allows agricultural and rural elements to stand out.

Because of this location, this area has been asked to be used for different purposes many times. In the 13 years (2007-2020), there were some attempts from Şanlıurfa Municipality and Turkish Aviation Association; Şanlıurfa Municipality offered to utilize from this area by growing plants for city but after last local election, the project put aside. Turkish Aviation Association also offered to use airport for educating airmans from local young people. However, this project was also not being implemented. It can be said that the project that I propose include these two project at some point. what this project has to offer is a modern agriculture center where social and cultural facilities are integrated using the existing aviation infrastructure as well.

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https://www.sanliurfagazetesi.com/eski-urfa-havaalani-imara-acilmayacak/73145/ http://www.urfahaber24.com/sanliurfa/eski-havaalani-fidanlik-oluyor-h24804.html

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At the north of the area Şanlıurfa City Center is located. The city center’s population is above 1,000,000. Main source of income in city center is also agriculture like the other center Akçakale and Harran on the Harran Plain. However, tourism, trade and industry have also important place for income of city’s people. The city center is 7 km far away from the old airport but expansion of city is on south-north axis. Therefore, the area is almost in the city today.

Building Analysis

At the west of the area, there is Şanlıurfa-Akçakale-Syria Road. This road was more important before Syrian Civil War. But after 2011, it lose its importance because importation and exportation decreased and ended in time. Although effects of war, this road is still important for the city because Harran Plain has good agricultural potential and most of the transportation are provided from this road. In addition to this, the railway station is located in Akçakale, to reach it people who live in Şanlıurfa use this road. Beyond the Şanlıurfa-Akçakale Road, there are some small and medium scaled factories that are related to agriculture. Also, some commercial buildings (gas station, market etc.) are on the road. There are several small villages towards to the western hills.

Sun-Wind Analysis

At the south and east of the old airport, Harran Plain starts and continues to Turkey- Syrian Border. On the Plain, there are 2 township. Akçakale is located on the Syrian Border and population of the Akçakale is 115,000. Main income of Akçakale is agriculture. Harran is other township on the plain, its population is 80,000 and people are engaged with agriculture. In addition to this, tourism is another main income source. When we consider the natural and climatic conditions, The number of sunny days across the city and the plain is around 250. snowfall almost does not happen, rain lasts for 7-8 months except summer, but not enough to cause floods or to meet agricultural needs alone. The wind blows from the north-northeast direction and cools the air in winters, while in the summers it blows from the south, making the weather almost as hot and dry as the desert air. In the existing site, there are runway, airport terminal and hangars but these are not well conditioned. in the immediate vicinity of the area, there is an irrigation channel that comes from north goes to south down into plain. Apart from a few village settlements nearby, large and small agricultural fields continues along the plain.

Field Analysis


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AGRICULTURE IN HARRAN PLAIN AND NEW METHODS IN AGRICULTURE Agriculture in Harran Plain Harran Plain is one of the most fertile plain in Turkey. Before the irrigation, the productibility was decreased and product range was low. The population in Harran and Akçakale was low because people immigrate to Şanlıurfa or other cities on the South of Turkey such as Gaziantep, Adana and Mersin to find a job. However, thanks to GAP (South-East Anatolia Project) after irrigation (1994), the productibilty was increased, new agroproducts (corn, cotton etc.) became productable so employment provided and population was increased again.

However, some agricultural and social problems in Harran Plain is continuing. Insensibleness of farmers can cause some disinformation on the land. For example, because of surplus irrigation, brackishness is seen south village on the plain. In addition to these, burning stubble is a real problem for ecology, many animals and vegatation are burned. Last but not least, agriculture in Harran Plain is generally money-minded so vegetable agriculture is not common in today. With the presence of a hot water source in the plain, vegetables began to be produced in greenhouses. In fact these product are exporting to abroad.

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In addition to these, the biggest reason that the yield does not exceed a certain level is the low level of education of the farmers who are farming in the plain. Although these people have been doing agriculture in this land for generations, they are not sufficiently equipped about agriculture. In addition, although the machines that bring the modern age are now widely used, the plain is still far behind Europe and America when it comes to the use of new technologies in agriculture. To solve all these problems, agricultural research and implementation center can be a good start for Harran.

Irrigation Channels on the Plain

Roads on the Plain

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Hydroponics and Aquaponics Systems

Drones for Agriculture

Hydroponics and aquaponics are both types of Considering what can be done to improve agriculture, hydroculture gardening techniques. It is a method of which is the main purpose of the project, by using the farming without soil. Hydroponics method; plants are aviation infrastructure in the area, it is envisaged to grown in other medias such as water, gravel or sand. use small aircraft and drones to provide improvements Nutrients are supplied through fertilizers added in the in agriculture. watering process. There are examples of this especially abroad in recent In aquaponics means, plans are also grown without years. It seems to be very applicable for Harran plain soil, primarily in water. It is a sustainable cycle, where as it is suitable for both weather conditions and geonutrients are supplied from the by-prodcuts of fish, graphical formations. and the plants reciprocate the favor by filtering the water. https://www.greenandvibrant.com/hydroponic-gardening

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BUILDING CHARACTERISTIC OF ŞANLIURFA AND HARRAN Şanlıurfa House Şanlıurfa has hosted many civilizations throughout the history, and the climate has had a major impact on the street views created by houses and houses in terms of material selection and plan implementation. With the use of thick walls made of limestone and earthen roofs covered with vaults, the streets were narrowed up to 45-47 degrees in the shade of the summer months, and the streets were narrow, and the walls were high enough to walk in the sun almost at any hour of the day. The climate that is effective in shaping Şanlıurfa houses is in the region. With the influence of the dominant building material and the extended family lifestyle community life with an emphasis on privacy, a wide range of homes from open, semi-open and closed spaces lined around the courtyard caused it to occur. Urfa houses have emerged as a need for the privacy of family life in Islam, to be built with “haremlik” and “selamlık” and to be hidden by the street by high walls without windows. There is no window to face outside in a classical Urfa House, all windows are faced to “hayat” -courtyard-. Houses have generally 2 floors and around 7,5 meters. Urfa Houses has 3 main parts; open, semi-open and closed parts. Open parts: Courtyard and housetap(dam) Semi-open parts: Eyvan (summery, wintery) Closed parts: Toilet, rooms, bath, storage (zerzembe) The plans of typical Urfa house are U or O shape.

Harran House One of the most remarkable features of Harran houses is that no trees were used in their domes. Due to the difficulty of finding trees in the desert geography, the use of bricks was preferred in the construction of the domes. The mudbricks and bricks used in the dome of Harran houses are produced abundantly in Harran. These houses, built with 30-40 brick series, have a maximum height of 5 meters. The interior and exterior walls are plastered with mud plaster. These houses, which keep the summers cool and the winters warm, have been taken under protection since 1979. It is forbidden to collect materials, open canals and new construction in the vicinity. The domed houses built by the overlay method are concentrated towards the south of Harran. It is superimposed on a square or near square foundation. Each dome is connected to another dome by means of arches. In this way, the area width is obtained. The domed Harran houses that are left open are therefore very bright during the day. In addition, these openings provide the evacuation of the smoke that may occur inside. Externally, “climbing ledges” have been made for the possible renovation work over time. It is rumored that rose oil was mixed into adobe and bricks used in the construction of domed Harran houses, which are seen as cones side by side in terms of their appearance.

https://webdosya.csb.gov.tr/db/destek/editordosya/ sanliurfa_yoresel.pdf https://www.turktoyu.com/kubbeli-harran-evleri

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We can evaluate master plan ideas under 3 main headings; -Elements to be protected. -Elements to be converted. -New things to do in relation to the environment.


These are; After the runway is repaired, it can be used for demonstration flights with a few additions. The existing road from the main road will be preserved and the main vehicle entrance will be from

Taking out a new canalette from the canal, passing it through the middle of the area and placing the building between this canal and the runway. This channel is used to meet the water needs of aquaonic systems and fields. Considering the general settlements of the villages on the plain, bringing the functions together and using the remaining lands as agricultural land. Two new road suggestions from the main road. (one service road and one pedestrian road) Alper Furkan HamavioÄ&#x;lu | Agriculture Center in Harran Plain | 29


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Ground Floor

First Floor

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Basement Floor Apart from the closed carpark in the basement, there are functions such as praying room, technical rooms, toilet, storages and shelter. In addition to these, there are backstages of auditorium. Elevators and stairs can be used to go upstairs from this floor to the upper floor. Ground Floor This floor, where the general layout of the building is determined, has different functions according to the direction which is approached. There are different functions that work together around a wide courtyard that provides general settlement. In the northern part of the building, where the main entrance is located, there is an information office that welcomes people, as well as shops where they can shop. In the eastern part of the building, there is an exhibition area that runs along a glazed facade. There is an auditorium between this area and the courtyard that can be used for different purposes (education, entertainment, etc.). In the western part of the building where canal passes, there is a semiopen and high ceiling market area, which allows people to shop by watching the fields and gardens where vegetables are picked without leaving life in the courtyard. The southern part of the ground floor functions as a greenhouse where hydroponic and aquaponic farming is done. In addition to this, there is a seed library and workshop area surrounded by water. First Floor In this floor, compared to ground floor, the functions are more separated from each other. The greenhouse, which starts on the ground floor in the southern part, continues, and the laboratories where agricultural researches are conducted are positioned to see these greenhouses and agricultural fields. The western part allows people to see the market from this floor in the form of a gallery space. In the northern part, there are classes and a library for both agriculture and aviation training. The eastern part of this floor has a terrace and a tribune where people are allowed to watch aviation shows and in other times drone training and the plain. Second Floor On the second floor, the greenhouse and labaratories continue, and in the west part of the floor, there are drone ateliers. On the east part, there is a drone control room where drone flights are controlled and managed, seeing the runway and tribune. In the northern part, there are administrative units such as offices and meeting rooms.

Circulation Materials & Structure One of the main elements of the building is its circu- While designing the structure and materials of the lation. This building has a central layout and circula- building, it was tried to combine traditional materition scheme as traditional courtyard type buildings. als and modern techniques. In the material selection, A wide courtyard in the middle and the functions besides mudbrick bricks used in the construction of around it are connected to each other by this court- traditional buildings in the region, modern materials yard. The building has 3 entrances and all of them are such as steel and concrete were also used. connected to the middle courtyard. While the slabs are made of concrete, most of the inteThe connection between the floors can be provided rior walls and facades are made of brick. with the ramp connected to all three floors in the mid- In structure systems, it generally uses steel post and dle of the courtyard, as well as elevators and stairs that beam systems, but in addition, reinforced concrete can easily reach other floors while in any part of the walls are used in some places to provide a wider openbuilding without any further distances. ing. In some places, brick arches are used both as a Form carrier and as a reflection of traditional architecture. The form of the building is inspired by the traditional The structure of the roof consists of steel columns and courtyard building, and it has gained originality by a steel frame independent of the building. While most setting and sizing the functions according to their of the roof is covered, some of it is glazed and makes needs. A roof canopy is designed to protect the court- the courtyard enlightened. There are building integratyard from the sun and other climatic influences, and ed photovoltaic panels (BIPV) in the closed parts of this canopy is being domed in the middle. the roof to take advantage of the long hours of sunshine of the region.

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Courtyard & Roof The courtyard, which forms the main element of the building, provides access to all functions. The courtyard, which covers a large area, has visual access from the upper floors. Thanks to the ramp around a large green area in the middle of the courtyard, access to the upper floors is provided. Apart from these, there are ponds and greenery in the courtyard, there are areas where people can sit, spend time and kiosks where they can buy something. There is a roof on the courtyard that completely covers the building. The parts of the roof that correspond to the courtyard are mostly glazed, thus allowing the courtyard to receive light.

Stands & Pist It is an area that people can use to watch the demonstration flights with the development of the existing runway or to watch the plain or take the air when air conditions are well. In addition to the places to sit, cafes where people can buy food and drinks are located on the first floor. On the second floor, there is a drone control room that provides control of the runway and drone. The roof that covers the building to provide shade also covers this area.

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Hydroponics & Aquaponics Hydroponic and aquaponic systems, which are modern farming techniques, are being tested in this part of the building, in order to obtain maximum efficiency from the sunlight, it is located in south. Vegetables are grown with the participation of people, which is glassed like a typical greenhouse. The area of this place, which has a height of 12 meters, is close to 2000 square meters. In the area with multiple shelves for these systems, there are also small ponds with fish so that aquaponic systems can be applied. Although the sun is many days of the year, LEDs are used when the sun is insufficient. Except for the workshop inside, people have the opportunity to work in the fields just outside this part. In addition, this section includes laboratories for agricultural research.

Food Bazaar & Restaurant These areas in the western part of the building are located right on the canal that separates the building from the fields. In this section, which has a high ceiling, visitors can buy organic vegetables grown in fields or hydroponic systems, and they can taste local food made from organic food in the restaurant, and this part separates from the courtyard with the arches that are traditional architectural elements. From the Food Bazaar, people can go to the restaurant part in front of the glazed facade or over the courtyard. Between the two parts are the kitchen and other service staff.

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İskenderun Maritime Passenger Terminal is a symbol of cultural and functional junction in old city İskenderun. Old shipyard and fishing port functions are conserved and connected with a new introduced facility to city: Maritime terminal. Port is located in the new heart of the city and welcoming public to spend their time all day long. Port offers people to spend their time both in terminal with workshop, sp retail, open museum areas, aquarium and also in fishing market. Terminal aims to meet people by different cultures come to İskenderun in a new district which is on the edge of the historical Feyezan Channel. While adding a new meaning to the city and reshaping, enhancing its surrounding articulation, Maritime Passenger Terminal is a new generation place to go in İskenderun and near by cities.

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İskenderun , historically known as Alexandretta and Scanderoon, is a city and the largest district in Hatay Province on the southest Mediterranean coast of Turkey.e city was founded as Alexandria and named aer Alexander the Great. İskenderun is a busy commercial centre and is one of the largest cities in Hatay Province, similar in size to the provincial seat of Antakya. e city is one of Turkey's largest ports on the Mediterranean and an important industrial centre, home to the İsdemir steelworks, one of Turkey's largest. İskenderun has an active, modern life with good hotels, restaurants and cafes along the palm-lined sea front. ere is a variety of accommodation for visitors. İskenderun is also an important naval training base. vi

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HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ISKENDERUN: Historical development of Iskenderun is an important analysis of this project in order to understand the context. Also this analysis has became the concept originator of the project. According to city archieve discoveries old maps of the city from 1800s showed that city has been reshaped throughout the years. When the city center remains on the same location, unlikely waterfront was filled by people and soil comes from Toros Mountains. Study also indicades that a former proposal for the center of the city was a port area which aims to visit costlines nearby. So this is the starter point of the project concept, to actualize a cultural junction of sealines in that circle. Alexandretta port proposal, 18. century

Alexandretta, 21. century

Old map of Alexandretta

Alexandretta, 18. century

Historical axis of the cit consisted of courthouse, governmental buildings and old residential districts. î ˘e junction of the axis remains as the most historical part of the city today. Today the industrial port is located in the edge of the historical center so terminal is designated to be on the other edge of the waterfront

44 | AslÄą Seray Uysal | Maritime Passenger Terminal


e historical relationship of Iskenderun seashore has been seriously changed by decades. is diagram shows that city was more engaged with the sea before. e waterfront was open to public fishing and public swimming. Likewise the costline has been changed by filling the land gradually and it caused a concrete barrier between the city and the sea. Old photographic collage shows the process of change and also the old life in waterfront which also shaped the thesis project.

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SITE ANALYSIS IN URBAN CONTEXT: Network of the city Sıte analysis starts from smaller scale in order to create a healthy communicated and related target area within the rest of the city. In Iskenderun case every analysis opens up to some common results like city is stil growing towards the west direction. In terms of space availability, green and transportation network inadequacy city has the tendency to expand towards the west, however, te urban studies stay insufficient.

Figure ground of the city Constituent parts of the city are architecture, nature and human. Character of the urban environment varies depending on the proportions and percentage of these parts. Human is a �exible substance that binds together architecture and nature and also forms intensity of the environment forcing the system to work properly. In Iskenderun case, architecture is not predominant likewise nature does not occupy pr sufficient space. Architecture Human density Nature weekday


%60 weekend

resident employed users: Green hierarchy of the city


density of people decreases Green space is not spread homogeneously throughout the city. e most used open space is city park and zones in the waterfront. Towards the west, untouched lands and farming fields are located which is not used mainly local people. parks green walkways

Turkish pine %10 46 | Aslı Seray Uysal | Maritime Passenger Terminal

Palm %13

farming fields and available zones





Transportation network of the city

Main transportation roads always open to seashore in İskenderun because the most frequently used, by vehicular and pedestrian, road is located along the waterfront. Lack of pedestrian paths and pedestrian supported transport is an important issue in İskenderun such a city that has nearby places with pedestrian transportation. main artery vehicular dominant secondary road vehıicular dominant waterfront promenade alleys both vehicular and pedestrian accessed Land use of the city A commercial axis was developed on one of the main and historical roads. e city population concentrated in here during the most days. In the middle of the city is full of residential buildings and underdeveloped in terms of activities and green as well. residential education religious

commercial sports slum

military historical

Facades Historical buildings Residential buildings

Human density in the city Iskenderun has a heterogenous human density graph. is is due to gathering of public activities, commercial axis, in one neighbourhood in the city. Black colored street represents the most dense street during a general day. In order to balance the concentration, Feyezan Channel neighbourhood, blue color, is proposed to be the target area and new helping public district which ta has already potential to be such neighbourhood due to its surroundings and location towards the growth direction: west.

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Urban Studies

Dog bone strategy Maritime Terminal , the riverfront and shopping center located in the waterfront creates a public triangle which enriches circulation quality among city. In masterplan, watersports center, new recreational area in existing university, resource center and library, urban renewal for slum area and maritime terminal facilities are proposed.

MASTERPLAN Rearragenment of water

New green spread

Pedestrianized roads

Proposed tramline and stops

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Feyezan Channel is a historical feature of İskenderun constructed by French in during the French occupation. Existing situation of the channel is dry and not open to its surroundings. River area behaves as a tail of the Ferryboat Terminal which bonds the city and the project. A new promenade along the river is introduced to city with some urban strategies.

Focal zones by local landscape and continuous wood deck

Deck structure

Multi-functional plazas

Water control by moss islands

İskenderun Feyezan Channel Revitalization

50 | Aslı Seray Uysal | Maritime Passenger Terminal

WATERFRONT PROPOSALS: New promenade design:



Walking Skating path


Street art Biking path Dining Installation

New residential development proposal: In existing situation, backland of the design area is full of apartments with different facade languages. is housing area became irrevelant in context and became a barrier in the middle of the relationship of Ferry Terminal and hinterland. Also, more developed residential complex with enough open space for both public and residents provides a better life standard. Terraced housing blocks towards north are aimed to gain maximum sunlight. By underground carpark, project has more open space on foreground and it is used to create a commercial bond for Ferry Terminal and more entertaining life for residents.

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Maritime Passenger Terminal in Alexandrette

Sea routes

Access Winter wind

main pedestrian circulation vehicular circulation

Site Plan: 1

Maritime Passenger Terminal




Public seapools




New Residential Development

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Summer breeze

Maritime Passenger Terminal in Alexandrette

Roof Transformation:

Form Transformation:

Reshaping of the existing land geometry by new facilities nearby.

Volumetric Sepatation according to function.

�pen areas according to wind �ow.

Adjustment to the land.

Determination of circulation paths. arrival exit and departure circulation in the building

Final form by openings and structure

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Maritime Passenger Terminal in Alexandrette

Terminal Hall Open Museum Retails

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Maritime Passenger Terminal in Alexandrette

Ground floor plan

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Maritime Passenger Terminal in Alexandrette

-4.00 oor plan

View from aquarium 56 | AslÄą Seray Uysal | Maritime Passenger Terminal

Maritime Passenger Terminal in Alexandrette

View from terminal hall

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Maritime Passenger Terminal in Alexandrette

West Elevation

South Elevation

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East Elevation

North Elevation

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Maritime Passenger Terminal in Alexandrette

View from first �oor towards terminal hall Roof Structure:

in metal plate cladding

Lattice structural grid

Main structural skeleton

Metal laths

Timber laths Elastic bracing ropes

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Maritime Maritime Passenger Passenger Terminal Terminal in Alexandrette in Alexandrette

View towards waiting lounge

View fowards waiting lounge

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Maritime Passenger Terminal in Alexandrette

62 | AslÄą Seray Uysal | Maritime Passenger Terminal


An industrial zone, İzmir Umurbey, which once have played a very vital role in 1900s, is now a desolate place nowadays as the factories in the site is no longer in use. us, the site bears an important potential to be adaptively reused with socially useful functions in order to make the zone signi�cant again. e site has important connections with the sea in both social and economic way with its port and coastline. e transportation network is highly an developed nearly site with the highway, tram and bus shuttles. e project aims to bring a new identity to the site via conservation of the historical industrial buildings with the perspective of adaptive reuse. e project program offers a general proposal of conservation in the site at �rst and then specialized around the İzmir Power Station. As the site is near to Yaşar University, Architecture Faculty, in this project the site is considered to be the property of Yaşar University. e site is designed in this context and planned to be a community campus to function for both public and students of Yaşar University. İzmir Power Station, located in the very center of the site, is proposed to be the educational center for the community.

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İzmir Port

Power Station

Alsancak Station

Yaşar University Arch. Faculty

Southeast Square

Sümerbank UMURBEY

KültürPark Center

İZMİR, ALSANCAK & UMURBEY İzmir is an very important city of the Turkey since it is the third largest city with the population of 4 million and hosts the second largest port aer İstanbul. Most importantly nearly half of the population of the city is under the age 30 which makes the spirit of the city very lively. It is very developed in terms of transportation. It is rapidly growing city with thousands of students, academicians, artists and etc. Because of its geographical ac conditions the city is very sunny, almost 300 days of a year which means it has a solar potential and similar climatic qualities can be observed in the every part of the province.

İzmir port and the old industrial zone is located in the Umurbey district nearby the Alsancak district. Alsancak carries an important role in the revival of the port and the old industrial zone as it hosts the Alsancak waterfront and all the nearby commercial activities for the public. Umurbey district has a valuable fabric in the sense of township. ere are lots of people living there in their small-scale houses. Rather than that the district is almost sm a dead zone as industrial importance of the zone is lost.

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�oth natural and arti�cial features stated in the diagrams of greenery, water channel, road and transportation network, are showing that all the activities are tend to �ow through sea to south axis of the city. is tendency affects the graphic of the human activity as seen. Port and the coastline are the most important nodes that promotes human activity. However, the existing function and the design of the port prevents public access and activity as well. ough it is a dense zone, there is only business traffic around it. e trasportation in the site is highly developed with the highway, varying road and tram ways. However, like the port, highway prevents the public access and activity around it. ere is only dense car traffic acce making the path only a passage rather than an activity station giving people a reason to stay there. e middle zone between the Alsancak and the water channel behind the port are very underdeveloped area which have need for a revival. us, this zone becomes the focal design site in order to attract people to come here and distribute the population almost equaly with a functioning site proposal.

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SITE CONTEXT & FUNCTIONS e area mostly consists of old historical structures and green/empty areas. e site is connecting with the big green areas in west and north directions. ere are also some historical places that were conserved beforehand with socially useful purposes such as Alsancak Station and İzmir Airgas Cultural Center. According to analysis of functions and photographical evidences the �rst decision towards conservation has been decided. to

CONSERVATION DECISIONS Considering rarity and historical value as well as economic value some industrial historical structures are decided to be conserved where as some structures that are newly added to site with no context relevance or old structures that have no conservational value are determined to be eliminated from the site. ere are already some spaces that are available for new construction are also considered for the new designs. All are shown in relation to site fo contexts.

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CIRCULATION e site with its existing situation is not a penetrable site with the highway and roads. us, the red axis is decided to be redesigned as �only pedestrian� path �owing with the green buffer zone. In this respect, highway path is decided to be revised and leaving only a road of car access for the service to the buildings. For a lively and self-acting site yelow axes are decided to be used as secondary paths going through inside of the site. Moreover, to support the penetrability it is decided to redesing the port with new buildings serving the cultural zone.

Student Campus Green Corridor Industrial Zone Integration Center Community Campus SITE ACTIVITY �er the very �rst conservation decision has been made, the site activity is roughly decided as shown. ere is a huge green corridor decided to be used to both connect the greens which are found in the edges of the site and make a buffer zone between car traffic and the pedestrians.However, some passages are le for free circulation, not to make the buffer zone to be a seperator.e red zone is decided to be designed as se industrial zone where as yellow zone is the community campus, orange zone is the student campus of Yaşar University and the blue zone is the integration center for practical learning. 70 | Ayfer Şeyda Özel | Revival in Izmir Port

“e concept of a historic monument embraces not only the single architectural work but also the urban or rural setting in which is found the evidence of a particular civilization, a signi�cant development or a historic event. is applies not only to great works of art but also to more modest works of the past which have ac�uired cultural signi�cance with the passing of time. ” Venice Charter (1964), Article 1

IN RETROSPECT... e main concern while conserving the building is to protect the experience that the building gives as a factory. e photographs from the past are used as guides for conservation strategies to be followed in the desing process. Façade design, chimney and the building relation, the relation of the building with the sea, the linear design in the landscape are taken into consideration while conserving the building and designing the landcape. co Ayfer Şeyda Özel | Revival in Izmir Port | 71





Movie eater Performance Hall

Accomodation Center

Educational Center Industrial Activities with Public Access

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Town Square


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ArchDaily. 2020. Chocolab Integration Center / MEC Arquitectura. [online] Available at: <https://www.archdaily.com/939193/chocolab-integration-center-mec-arquitectura> [Accessed 14 May 2020].

ArchDaily. 2020. Community Sewing Workshop Amairis / RUTA Arquitectura. [online] Available at: <https://www.archdaily.com/935533/community-sewing-workshop-amairis-ruta-arquitectura> [Accessed 14 May 2020]. 74 | Ayfer Şeyda Özel | Revival in Izmir Port



PRESENT STATE e Power Station at present state is not in a good condition. e landuse is turned into a car park area with no site activity nearby. Access to the building is entirely blocked with the highway and behind building causing the building lacks human contact and communication. e structural integrity is barely standing. One mass at the back is perished as a whole. e roof and façade needs deep care. de ough Power Station is not in a good condition, it allows new interpretation without disturbing its industrial and historical value.

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“By de�ning what is special about places, characterisation can help to inform decisions about how much change (and what type of change) a place can absorb without damaging those things that give it value and signi�cance.” English Heritage (2003) Heritage Counts 2003 “e conservation policy appropriate to a place must �rst be determined by an understanding of its cultural signi�cance and its physical condition.” ICOMOS Australia (1981, 1999 edn) Burra Charter “e conservation of monuments is always facilitated by making use of them for some socially useful purpose. Such use is therefore desirable but it must not change the lay-out or decoration of the building. It is within these limits only that modi�cations demanded by a change of function should be envisaged and may be permitted. ” Venice Charter (1964), Article 5 76 | Ayfer Şeyda Özel | Revival in Izmir Port



BUILDING PROPOSAL İzmir Power Station is planned to be redesigned as an architectural historical heritage to be a living space. It is designed to become the main structure in the community campus, thus has function of community cultural and educational center with museum, library, co-working and gathering areas, workshops etc. �e �rst idea is to use the horizontality and vertically both in interior and landscape design. desi

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BAŞKENT STADIUM AND SPORTS COMPLEX CEYHUN KINAÇ Aer the declaration of Ankara as a capital city, an urban planning competition started. Jansen and many other architects proposed some plans for the new capital city of Turkey. With this new capital city in modern world with new technologies, architects planned according to new vehicles. roads and streets carefully designed. It was seen as an advantage because old cities have serious problems of modern vehicles. Existant roads were not enough for this old cities. us, Ankara has the advantage of the en planning. Ulus was thought as the center of this capital city and AKM land has very important place on this center of the city. Many architects also proposed some plans for this area. is area was divided to the regions. First region was planned as the cultural center of this new capital city. Second region was planned as as the center for sports. ird region was planned as ‘Gençlik Parkı’ and fo fourth region is the location of CSO and Cermodern. Fih region is important with historic buildings. It is the location of many important buildings of the Turkey such as first parliament. Although many important architects and their plans, this area was always a problematic for Ankara because the lack of sources and some careless administrators. is area is also important for being an intersection point of two important areas of Ankara which are AKM and AOÇ. AOÇ lands are also similar to AKM areas in terms of wrong management. e project is located on the second region of this area. e old stadium which is located on this region was demolished because of the squalidity and inability for the cith which has over five million people. us, aim of my project was to provide sufficient stadium for the capital city of Turkey and to make this area the center of the city again as it is planned once. Because of the importance and historicity of the area, it is very important to show some respect the close buildings. With this project, this area can earn the value that deserved.

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BAŞKENT STADIUM AND SPORTS COMPLEX LOCATION Location of the project is Ankara. Which is the capital city of Turkey. Although it is capital city of Turkey., Ankara has a lot of lacking compared to other important capitals of World. One on the important problem is absence of the stadium which satisfy the needs of Ankara. 19 Mayıs Stadium demolished because of limited capacity and opportunities. Also, Ankara has three important football clubs which are Ankaragücü, Gençlerbirliği and Osmanlıspor. is numbers can be a clue for need of the an new and modern stadium for Ankara. 19 Mayıs Stadium was constructed for olympics so the new stadium should be enough for this kind of events to correspond these needs. is location which is called AKM region is very important for Ankara. Because it is located on center of the city and this place is very important for history of Turkey. is area called Ulus has many important buildings such as first parliament of Turkey. 88 | Ceyhun Kınaç | Başkent Stadium and Sports Complex

While thinking about the area AKM we should also consider the area called AOÇ. Because these areas have importance for Ankara. AOÇ was established by Atatürk to farm and show the people that Ankara can be beatiful capital. Also AKM was thought at those time period as the center of the city. ese areas has a physical intersection. However the important thing is actually about aproach. To have beatiful capital city Ankara should use these areas well. Unfortunately aer the death of sh Atatürk AOÇ was abondoned to its destiny. It loses its value and earth day by day because of rant and some careless administrators. Because of the bad administration AOÇ is like a block for the plannig of Ankara. AKM is also same because of the bad administration this area is abandoned to its destiny.

BAŞKENT STADIUM AND SPORTS COMPLEX LOCATION e project site is located on the old center of the city. It is surrounded with many important and historic buildings of Republic of Turkey. Location includes AKM areas. e project site is also located on AKM area which is named as second region. is site has connection with first region which is the place of AKM. is site also has connection with third region which known as “Gençlik Parkı”. Other two side is looking kn towards Rüzgarlı and Ankara Tren Garı. Also this area includes many important buildings such as old parliament ‘TBMM’, Ankara Palas, Taş Bina, Stad Oteli, Merkez Bankası Yönetim Merkezi Binası, 2. Vakıf Apartmanı, Etibank Binası, Osmanlı Binası, Ankara Kalesi, Anıtkabir, Tenis Kulübü and many other important buildings for Republic of Turkey.

is location can change the whole area. Because it is located on the center of all of these important places. is can change and trigger the other adjacent areas. Also, specifically the stadium area includes Tenis Kulübü, Maraton Kulesi, Paraşüt Kulesi and Kore’de Savaşan Türkler Anıtı those are also important datas for my project.

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BAŞKENT STADIUM AND SPORTS COMPLEX ANALYSIS Unfortunately, Ankara known as ‘Bozkır’ it is actually because of the streams which are covered. At different time periods these streams are covered. ese diagrams shows these streams which located on the project site. e project will aim to bring life to those water sources to avoid the gray and boring image of the capital city. e area called AKM has huge potential in terms of water sources. is source can add the excitement to the city. With this important sources this area can be the center of the city again. Ankara is very rich in terms of streams however because of the wrong planning and some ri rant issues Ankara known as gray city today. is affect many things in Ankara. ere is no attraction point of the city from outside. With this new area which includes water and green at the center of the cith can be this attraction point for people. Ankara needs a new face for being attractive from outside. With this area it can attract especially the young people such as students. University students can compare the social life of Ankara with the cities like Istanbul and Izmir.

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BAŞKENT STADIUM AND SPORTS COMPLEX LOCATION e area is surrounded with potential green areas. AKM areas have huge potential for green areas. However, thesse are not well planned so it is not used as green areas today. Also the area includes industrial and trade buildings. Many other important public buildings are also located on near areas. e area called ‘Rüzgarlı’ is one of the oldest trade centers of Ankara. Nowadays, it lose its ce importance. However with the project it can change and earn its value like in old days. eatre is also close to the area. Gençlik Parkı which is an important place for Turkey lose its importance. e area should be planned carefully because of the importance and history to gain its value. İskitler is also important area for Ankara in terms of industrial reasons.

On the north side of the area new MIA was planned it will started and it is planned to complete in 5 years period. Also, at the south side of the site there is a new project called Merkez Ankara it is a project of settlement basically. Area includes CSO and Cermodern which are very important for cultural and artistic purposes of Ankara. Aer the project this area will include both green areas and water element with streams of Ankara. ele

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BAŞKENT STADIUM AND SPORTS COMPLEX PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION On master plan the main aim was to connect whole AKM areas with each other. is connection can be both with physical and in terms of approach. First thing to do is to make these areas valuable and useful. To maket his, I made some analysis and with those analysis I collect some datas about the area. I create and re-designed so some of axis. AKM building is very important in terms of those axis because those axeis based on that building. On the first axis there are Ankara Arena, AKM and MIA. On the second axis there will be Rüzgarlı, Stadium, Gençlik Parkı Bridge and CSO. us, with two parallel axis those important buildings are connected. Between them there will be some other axis which also orthogonal to those axis. Also AOÇ areas and AKM areas will be connected physically with some basic interventions. AKM, Stadium and Gençlik Parkı areas are going to have water element in it to show Ankara is also a city of streams. On stadium area there92are important structures such as Tenis | Ceyhun Kınaç | Başkent Stadium and Sports Complex Akademisi, Paraşüt Kulesi and Güney Kore Anıtı.

BAŞKENT STADIUM AND SPORTS COMPLEX MASTER PLAN On master plan the main aim was to connect whole AKM areas with each other. is connection can be both with physical and in terms of approach. First thing to do is to make these areas valuable and useful. To maket his, I made some analysis and with those analysis I collect some datas about the area. I create and re-designed some of axis. AKM building is very important in terms of those axis because those axeis im based on that building. On the first axis there are Ankara Arena, AKM and MIA. On the second axis there will be Rüzgarlı, Stadium, Gençlik Parkı Bridge and CSO. us, with two parallel axis those important buildings are connected. Between them there will be some other axis which also orthogonal to those axis.

Also AOÇ areas and AKM areas will be connected physically with some basic interventions. AKM, Stadium and Gençlik Parkı areas are going to have water element in it to show Ankara is also a city of streams. On stadium area there are important structures such as Tenis Akademisi, Paraşüt Kulesi and Güney Kore Anıtı.

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Doğukan Çakarsın 21604156


Doğukan Çakarsın


bout the project

106 | Doğukan Çakarsın | Back to the Flow of Life After Trauma

Dogukan Çakarsın



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Site Information There is Hazar Lake in the north of Sivrice. While coming from Elazig, there is a tile factory on the left. The Tile Factory is about 2.2 km from the Caspian Lake. There are cooperative houses around the Caspian lake, which are used in summer. It is thought that these houses will have a negative impact on the selected region. When people who are damaged by the earthquake and their summer residents are in the same place, a psychological conflict may result.

Design Proposal Topics included in my design proposal are as f ollows; The design process consists of 2 stages. Stage 1: To produce designs and structures that respond to the needs of people and the bad trams they experience. Stage 2: is to design spaces with the most useful design ideas by considering the future of the construction stages in the city and town scale. The project includes designs for reconstruction and arrangement due to the post-earthquake damage in Sivrice district. There are two stages in the project; The first step is to quickly solve the current problem and to designate the accommodation and treatment places for the victims. The second stage is to move on to the redesigned and reconstructed buildings and districts after the earthquake. Considering the losses that occurred in these two stages, it is aimed to make designs in line with the opinions and wishes of the current earthquake victims. In short, I would like to consider a treatment-centered city design.


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Areas With High Potential The area at the lower part of the relative is at the point where the earthquake fault line is located. That's why we want to make our region far from this fault line. We also plan not to choose regions where people living in the city will have the same memories. We want the city settlement to continue around the Caspian Lake. Since we thought that using the old factory again would produce an emergency solution, we thought it as a psychological and social treatment center. Since the part with the Old Factory is not very close to the lake, we planned to create a continuous line towards the lake.

Location Reviews We made the selection of the regions by considering the Ecological, Function, Transportation And Economic values. We determined the region with the highest rates as the region where the Old Factory is located. In addition, it will be opened for housing to provide tourism and natural surcharge in the area close to the lake.

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PROGRAMMING Before the Earthquake

We Planned We plan to make new structures in the region in terms of education and health. In addition, we want to enlarge agricultural areas and reduce the buildings used by industry and government.

ANALYSIS I marked the high potential points in the existing area as the areas where the district will be rebuilt. The biggest factor in choosing these regions is the topography and earthquake fault line. The places to be newly established should be chosen away from the earthquake line and at the same time close to the agricultural lands of the people. In a place where fishing is a source of livelihood, areas close to the lake should also be preferred. A place should be designed as if you are living in the same area to experience the traumas as soon as possible and at the same time to minimize the impact of the earthquake. In other words, there should be sections in the created area where they can adapt and perform treatment processes. I think that it is necessary to choose regions that will not interfere with or even make daily work easier in the fast adaptation period. 110 | Doğukan Çakarsın | Back to the Flow of Life After Trauma

Master Plan Development Stages Brick Factory

Greening the site environment

Designing areas near the health center and the factory

Completing the design studies in the specified area. Doğukan Çakarsın | Back to the Flow of Life After Trauma | 111

Master Plan

Factory Designed Plan

We wanted to create social areas that outline the factory environment in the selected area, and we also plan to afforest the greenery of this living center with green forests.

Since the part in the southeast of the factory is designed as a play and entertainment area for children, there are child education classes on the front. Located in the area close to the city, the presence of a multi-purpose room makes it possible for city residents to hold small meetings. At the workshops located near the main entrance; for women, sewing, handicraft, marbling, clothing and production etc. So, it is aimed for women to present their products in the exhibition area. In the conference hall with a capacity of 60 people, seminars will be held after the earthquake to eliminate the psychological effects. In general, this structure wants to offer a platform that children and women learn and apply while having a pleasant time.

We plan to design areas in the old faculty where children, women and the elderly can receive social and psychological education where they can do activities. We also want it to be a social center that the municipality can use, with cafes, restaurants or conference rooms that the public can use. The residential settlement is aimed at reviving the tourism in the lake, and we also aim to minimize the problems caused by housing by combining it with the natural environment. The buildings are located parallel to the topography lines.

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It is allowed to use mass buildings and generally 3-4 storey buildings in the residence areas. There is a calm neighborhood environment and areas dominated by greenery. In certain regions of the city, there are areas where sports activities are carried out in certain regions where government affairs are performed. Since the construction of the city will start from the bazaar, it is projected to grow towards empty lands.

Seismic Wave Preventive Water Tanks Used in Residences.

The roof of the houses is designed with a large water tank that includes rain and snow water. We fill the tank with a lot of water. These water tanks meet the toilet and bath water needs of the building, but show a behavior that reduces the effect of the earthquake. In contrast to the direction in which the seismic waves move the building, it shows inert movement. Thus, by changing the center of gravity of the building, the coefficient of people in the building feeling earthquake decreases.

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Factory-near Diagrams

First we bought the factory in the region.

We have made it useful for children and women.

Then we started the designs of the health center to be used in the surrounding towns.

Finally, we have designed the designs of our health center with the idea of design in the city scale.

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FACTORY DESING Inside the factory, there are activities for women and children. In addition, there are workshops where women are engaged. The works done in these workshops (Ebru, handicrafts, food, etc.) are exhibited and sold for sale in the kermes area. General training seminars are held publicly in the conference hall.

GROUND FLOOR On the ground floor of the health center; There are emergency, lab and examination departments. It is performed here in small operations. The entrance floor, which has a connection with the car park, which is approximately 100m2, is provided with a lift and the exit to the terrace and the upper floor.

FIRST FLOOR On the first floor of the health center; There are general polyclinics and dormitories. There are cafes at the entrance gate and terrace section facing the bazaar. There are internal green areas where the structure system can be easily observed. It is also in the area that receives sun from the Xceiling. Doğukan Çakarsın | Back to the Flow of Life After Trauma | 117




The health center consists of 3 rotated masses. These masses have been placed with reference to the factory, main road and market. It is a health center with the capacity to serve the surrounding towns and villages. An earthquake resistant 'V' shape column system is used on the facade. In this health center, psychological counseling and treatment applications are also carried out. 118 | Doğukan Çakarsın | Back to the Flow of Life After Trauma



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FLOATING VILLAGES OF TONLE SAP-CAMBODIA ELIF ILGIN YAPICI e projects �rstly aims to investigate and understend �oating rural settlements by compering them with normal urban settlements near by. while doing this literature review focus on the human changings in history. Aer understanging the potentials, advantages an disadvantages of �oating settlements the needs of the village are listed. e aim of the project is meeting with the needs of villagers by proposing inovative and sustainable solutions. e project values the unique aspects of the particular settlement and aims to protect them and include to design.Making villages self-sufficient, better dealing with water tide and environmentally friendly is a priority. It is aimed to add public space to the village as well

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CAMBODIA-SIEM REAP PROVINCE TONLE SAP LAKE Cambodia is on the Indochinese mainland of Southeast Asia. Cambodia is largely a land of plains and great rivers and lies amid important overland and river trade routes linking China to India and Southeast Asia. e capital is Phnom Penh, one of a handful of urban centres in the largely rural country. SETTLEMENT PATTERNS Cambodia has always been overwhelmingly a land of villages. Only a fraction of the total population has ever lived in a town of more than 10,000 inhabitants. Since the 1920s most of these urban dwellers have been concentrated in Phnom Penh, which is situated at the con�uence of the Mekong, �assac, and Sab rivers. Some four-��hs of the population still live in rural areas, the remainder being classi�ed as urban.

CLIMATE Cambodia’s climate is governed by the monsoon winds, which de�ne two major seasons. From mid-May to early October, the strong prevailing winds of the southwest monsoon bring heavy rains and high humidity. From early November to mid-March, the lighter and drier winds of the northeast monsoon bring variable cloudiness, infrequent precipitation, and lower humidity. e weather between these seasons is transitional. PRECIPITATION AMOUNTS


RURAL 76.6%

ECONOMY Even before 1975, Cambodia’s economy was one of the least-developed in Southeast Asia. It depended heavily on two major products—rice and rubber—and consequently was vulnerable to annual �uctuations caused by vagaries in the weather and world market prices. Agriculture dominated the economy, with most rural families engaged in rice cultivation and �shing.

SERVICES e most important service activity in Cambodia is associated with tourism, which is one of the major sources of overseas investment and the fastest-growing segment of the economy. Tourism has become an important source of revenue. Much of service invesment goes to turism services such as hotels, transportation facilities around Angkor Wat Temples yet the local people are lake of elec tricity, internet and clean water especially in rural areaFossil fuels are the only source of energy and causing environmental problems. Since the country is lacking in terms of energy systems, it is a chance to inject renewable energies and sustainable systems from scratc


1. 3. 4.


e old city center is developed accourding to tonle sap river. Main and secondary roads are located along and accourding to the river. Public spaces are located there in the over all city planning.


e recently developed areas have a gridal development. Mass-void ratio is higher than the other areas. Main and secondary road nets facilitate public services. e public spaces are more readable.


e area is an agriculture area. Buildings are placed accourding to land owners. e main development strategy is access to service. at is why aer settlement roads are done to reach those buildings.


e area is an agriculture area too. But in this new part of the city urban development strategy is different. In this part �rst the planning is done and roads are constructed. Buildings are placed accourding to a plan later on. 128 | Elif Ilgın Yapıcı | Floating Reencarnation

TONLE SAP (GREAT) LAKE Tonle Sap Lake is a large freshwater lake in Cambodia's Siem Reap Province. e lake is attached to the 120-km long Tonle Sap River connecting it to Mekong River. By surface area (approx 2700 km2) it is ranked Southeast Asia's largest freshwater lake. When inundated seasonally (during the annual monsoon rains) lake's surface area reaches approx 16000 km2 , max-depth 10 m.

DRAINAGE e two dominant hydrological features of Cambodia are the Mekong River and the Tonle Sap. Rising in the Plateau of Tibet and emptying into the South China Sea, the Mekong enters Cambodia from Laos at the Khone Falls and �ows generally southward to the border with �ietnam, a distance within Cambodia of approximately 315 miles (510 km). e Mekong is connected to the Tonle Sap by the Sab River. During the rainy season (mid-May Sa to early October), the Mekong’s enormous volume of water backs up into the Sab and �ows up into the Tonle Sap 65 miles (105 km) to the northwest, expanding the lake’s surface area from a dry-season minimum of 3,100 square km to a rainy-season maximum of more than 7,800 square km. As the water level of the Mekong falls during the dry season, the process is reversed: water drains from the Tonle Sap back down into the Mekong, switching the direction of its �ow. As a result of this annual phenomenon, the Tonle Sap is one of the world’s richest sources of freshwater �sh. �t is also known with the �oating villages on it. e survival of the vilages depends on to be in harmony with the water tides and water level changes ther

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DRY SEASON �hong �hneas is the biggest �oating village of Tonle Sap. �anin income source is �shing. �ublic services such as schools and marketplaces are mostly located in this village. For this reason, Tonle Sap is the most active village of commercial events. Floating buildings in the dry season are located on the shallowest islands. Fish is less this season; people mostly deal with tourism activities. Food and fresh water are problematic as the water becomes shallow and muddy and this time the number of �sh decreases. 1.CHONG KHNEAS

FLOATED SEASON �n �oating season the population of the village is increasing due to the people coming from other villages. e farmers whose farms are under water in this season comes to this village to get bene�t of �sh and to get closer to public services. Relation between residential units and access to the public services get more problematic since the residentials spread around to �sh and population is much more than its capacity.


DRY SEASON Kampong Phlunk village has more relation with the main land. People utulize the muddy shallow areas to grow rice.In dry season moveble residential units creats a row along the edge of the water. For public services people go to main land or to Chong Khneas.


DRY SEASON In dry seasons, commercial areas and local economic life are more active due to rice harvest. Rice production �uctuates from year to year depending on weather conditions and water level cycle changes.





In �oating season the population of the village decreases. ey move closer to Chong Khneas where is a bigger village and more developed. Rest of the village continues to �shing there.

In dry season dwellings are located in piles to prevent insects. Basically one side of the row of houses is the main water and the other side is the rice �eld.



DRY SEASON Dry seasons are a little calm in Kampong Khleang. People deal with forestry and transport their woods to other villages or main land. Fishing stops in this season.

FLOATED SEASON In �oated season people open up axis in Kampong Khleang forrest to locate their dwelings and to ease the transportation of wood on the water.




Kampong Khleang forrest is in danger due to excessive forestry. Unconcious and uneducated people chop down more and more trees every year. �atural �sh nests dissapear.



e originality in the architecture of the existing �oating villages without architects is astonishing. Flexible villages in their settlements that appear random but where everyone settled with respect for each other's personal space without the need for established rules is a unique example of architecture. As it is indicated in Bermard Rudolp’s “Architecture �ithout Architects” people always �nd their own ways to cope with nature, dangers and build their home. One of the ancient settlement strategies of human is �oating settlements.

“Man was born in a hospital, lived in a building that might as well look as a hospital judging from its outlook and died in a hospital.” RAPOPORT is quote from “ House, Form and Culture” makes people to think about the change in life through an architectural point of view. ere is no need to go so far. ere is an existing and functioning system and settlement in Tonle Sap that copes with water tides for many years. e core of any improvement of this settlement is to understand it and to make right acupuncture to improve life conditions there.


A �oating city in China 1447-Bermard Rudolp

LINEAR: along a road or valley or coast line,river (communication line)

Sometimes they prefer this way to protect them self from the dangers thay might come from the land. However sometimes as in the Tonle Sap Lake they are not forced to live on water by outher forces yet they prefer this life due to its advantages such as �shing.

NUCLEATED: clustered around a water supply, or crossroads etc.

Maintaining authentic settlements and lifestyles, such as �oating villages, are crucial for cultural and architectural heritage. In order to do that it is a must to understand their logic. Accourdig to Amos Rapoport’s “Human Aspects of Urban Form” there is a list of aspects that should be understood in a settlement to see the logic of their architecture;

DISPERSED: isolated farms, oen in areas of steep relief or wetlands

1.Perceptual Context: people’s understanding of enviroment 2.Expressive Context: the effect of shapes,colors on people 3.Aesthetic Context 4.Adaptive Context: the application and repetition of ideas 5.Integrative Context: social group behavior 6.Instrumental Context: tools and enviroment(materials) 7.General ecological interrelationship of all these Considering all these context of a settlement is signi�cant when any kind of intervention, rearrangement and improvement is planed.

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PLANNED: square, grid, found in new towns PLAZA COURTH ROOMS



SUSTAINABILITY WATER FILTERING FLOATING GREEN HOUSE As the global population surges to almost 10 billion in the next four decades, we’ll have to grow as much as 70% more food at the same time that many places are running out of both arable land and water.�elly�sh Barge �oats in bays or rivers. And instead of using valuable freshwater, it �lters the polluted water it’s sitting on. e whole system uses no external energy and no soil.Because the greenhouse uses a hydroponic system, which takes 70% less water than regular agriculture, only a small water supply is necessary. A solar distillation system sucks damp air into the �oating drums below the greenhouse, where the moisture condenses into distilled water. As much as 150 liters of water can be collected in a single day, and then it is mixed with a small amount of seawater if needed. Highly polluted water goes through a second step of �ltration. e barge is designed to feed about two families, but it can easily expand.

AQUAPONIC SYSTEMS A complex aquaponic systems mostly have �ve main elements: Fish tank Plant bed Settling basin for solid waste Bio-�lter for nitri�cation Water pumps for circulating water e large surfaces under the region’s main crop - rice and rice puddles had made a good foundation for aquaponic development.

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TIDAL ENERGY SYSTEMS Tidal energy is a form of hydropower, using water to create energy. Tidal energy converts the energy obtained from tidal movement into electric power using tidal generators.Tidal stream generators use the kinetic energy of moving tidal water to power turbines, like wind powering wind turbines. tidal energy is a clean renewable resource which is more efficient than wind energy due to the density of water and more efficient than solar energy due to its high ~80% conversion efficiency. Tides are also more predictable than wind energy and solar energy, therefore more reliable. Tidal energy is effective at low tidal speeds, which means that the turbines can tu turn more slowly, minimizing impacts to local ecosystems. It can be a less costly resource, both in terms of construction and maintenance costs, compared to other renewable energy sources. Tidal energy produces no carbon dioxide, greenhouse gases, or waste.

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FORM STUDIES- BIOMIMICRY Biomimicry offers an empathetic, interconnected understanding of how life works and ultimately where we �t in. It is a practice that learns from and mimics the strategies used by species alive today. e goal is to create products, processes, and policies — new ways of living — that solve our greatest design challenges sustainably and in solidarity with all life on earth. We can use biomimicry to not only learn from nature’s wisdom, but also heal ourselves — and le this planet — in the process by adopting it to our designs.

ACORN BARNACLES Once an acorn barnacle attaches as an adult, it surrounds itself with a strong shell that provides it protection from predation and allows it to trap some water during low tide. Acorn barnacles live in the intertidal zone (the area between the high tide and low tide levels) and therefore needs to be able to survive long periods outside of the water. e shell can be closed tightly in order to prevent it from drying out. Aer they attach and build their little fr houses, acorn barnacles �lter feed small plankton and other particles from the water using their modi�ed legs. e second thing thay they do is mating and creating clusters inorder to be attached better to the surface. ey prefer rough surfaces such as rocks or trees. e life cycle and the things that Acorn Barnacles do to survive in water tide areas is a great inspriation. e people of Tonle Sap also have to adopt their lives as cycles accourding to water level changes. is can be re�ected on architectural solutions more.

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-Life cycle of Acorn Barnacles: Moveble and �xed periods Different usages of shells in different water levels and times.

-e shape selection is based on ; Buoyancy Most efficent clustering Minimum material usage Easy and fast production

-Shell: Keeping water for dry seasons. Water tide pools.

-New modules can work with the platforms that are proposed for clustring the existing resşdentials as well.

-Rock: Creating a ��ed ground for attachment. Referance points in settlements.

-ey can be used for transportation of goods as containers.

-Clusters: For better attachment and and circulation of nutritions (service) among them. Multi-use: e shells are not only for their own kind but also aer they le their shell other species use the shells.

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-In public buildings the same units can be used for creating the frame of the building.

RESIDENTIAL SOLUTIONS EXISTING In terms of sustainability, existing residential units should either be recycled or integrated into the new design. -Clustering the existing residential units. ey can be grouped according to their functions or the degree of relativity of their hosts.ere can be platforms to connect existing units in different numbers and ways. While these platforms bring the units together, they create their common areas as well.

CLUSTERED UNITS: ey can be free on the water or attached to the ��ed shells.

Empty platforms can be used for different purposes such as boat decks.

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REFERANCES 1.“On Growth and Form” Harry Eugene Stanley FORM STUDIES 2.“Architectur Without Architecture” Bemard Rudolp LITERATURE REVIEW 3.“Human Aspects of Urban Form” Amos Rapoport LITERATURE REVIEW 4.“House, Form and Culture” Amos Rapoport LITERATURE REVIEW 5.http://www.designcoding.net/a-basic-design-exercise/ 6.https://biomimicry.org/what-is-biomimicry/ BIOMIMICRY 7.https://www.wri.org/- WORLD RESOURCES INSTITUTE 8.https://www.power-technology.com/ ZERO CARBON 9. 9.https://www.smart-hydro.de/renewable-energy-systems/hydrokinetic-turbines-river-canal/ WATER TIDE SYSTEM 10.https://www.alamy.com/ BARNACLE PHOTOS-DRONE PHOTOS 11.https://www.britannica.com/ CAMBODIA INFO 12.https://oceana.org/ ACORN BARNACLE INFO 13.https://www.meteoblue.com/en/weather/week/phnom-penh_cambodia_1821306 RAIN TABLE 14.https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/4270855 SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS

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TAZENAKHT USING SAND TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION HOUSSAME EDDINE HSAIN As desertiication reduces the amount of fertile land in the Anti Atlas, the region becomes more vulnerable both socially and economically since it relies heavily on agriculture for its stability and economic growth. e Anti Atlas region stays rich in its culture and resources with a considerable potential of growth. However, it has to ght desertiication at all costs in order to survive. erefore, I am proposing an anti-desertiication structure, attached to cluster settlements inspired from indigenous settlements in the region, with use of local materials to lower the carbon footprint of the project. e proposal includes also a market for all the villagers around Taznakht and as a farming and production hub for the promising Saffron business in the region to achieve social and economic sustainability as well.

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IN THE ANTI ATLAS FACING THE SAHARA When one descends from the High Atlas range in southern Morocco into the pre-Sahara, one has the sensation of leaving behind the Mediterranean world and of entering Africa proper. e damp valleys of the mountains with their frigid cascades, terraced elds, and small, rubble dwellings give way gradually to rolling foothills, sparse vegeta tion, and villages of mud. e air be becomes warmer, sweeter, dryer. e desert itself is a place of majestic scale and bold polychrome streaks blending black int, bands of amethyst, so sand, gray wadis, and ochre tints of clay. On a clear day the dark rim of the Jebel Saghro is just visible to the south; aer that the way is open to the full Sahara.

Only a few wiry tus of grass push through the stonecrop. In summer these dry up, and the heat is unbearable. In winter water rushes off the slopes, sweeping away bridges, and night tempera tures drop to freezing. It is not a landscape hos pitable to man. But running through the desert is a network of rivers with their sources in the mountains, and the valleys they water remain rem lush the whole year around.

CURTIS, WILLIAM J. R. ‘Type and Variation: Berber Collective Dwellings of the Northwestern Sahara’

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THE FORM AND SETTING OF THE TYPICAL KSAR A ksar k is a fortiied farming village made almost entirely of mud. It is usually rectangular in plan and enclosed by walls between twenty and y feet high, buttressed along their length and at the corners by taller towers of a distinctive tapering form. e narrow streets with in are canyonlike and laid out to conform loosely to orthogonal directions. Dwellings are densely packed together and are usually variations on a courtyard type, two or three us stories high with a usable at roof. Public institutions such as the mosque and the bathhouse are situated close to the single gate which oen (but not always) faces east. ere is very little open ground-level space inside the ksar. e site is used as economically as possible to gain high densities, a defensible perim eter, and the climatic beneets of a low surface to volume ratio. Space, light, and views are abun dantly available from the individual roof terraces which constitute a sort of patchwork of raised platforms thirty feet or more above the level of the terrain.

CURTIS, WILLIAM J. R. ‘Type and Variation: Berber Collective Dwellings of the Northwestern Sahara’

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Recovered Agricultural land for Saffran cultivation

Water treatment and storage plant

Greenhouse cultivation

Market located on the N10 road

Anti desertiication wall

Cluster Settlement

Recreational park at a central location

MASTERPLAN Tazenakht is a town of approximately 10000 habitants, it plays a central role for the numerous villages around it that count on it to get their supplies. Tazenakht is directly connected to major cities in Morocco such as Ouarzazate to the north by the N10 national road that splits the town in half. All the major commercial buildings in Tazenakht are located along that road. Hence, I choose to locate the new ne market of Tazenakht along the N10, which will serve as a gate as well to an agricultural complex between the Assif ’n’Tagdalt river and the urban west side of the town. e complex will be created on recovered agricultural lands thanks to the anti desertiication structure, and will host a new mixed-use settlement on each side of the river. e structure will also collect, lter and store water during winter when this valuable resource is available, and deliver it during Tazenakht’s hot and unbearable summers for both domestic and agricultural uses. Houssame Eddine Hsain | Tazenakht: Using Sand to Combat Desertification | 151

SETTLEMENT PATTERNS Settlement layouts follow the rivers along the Atlas plateau for those rivers are the only source of life for these agricultural settlements. e buildings are condensed in a small surface area as a cluster to beneet from passive cooling and heating through out the year, in an area that accounts for very hot and dry summers and winters with freezing temperatues. e settlements are usually located on the heighest ground for protection and more importantly to preserve to the maximum fertile agricultural lands. CURTIS, WILLIAM J. R. ‘Type and Variation: Berber Collective Dwellings of the Northwestern Sahara’

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Layers of Protection Green Belt + ArtiďŹ cial Sand-Stone Wall

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Bricks grown from bacteria A unique biotechnology start-up company called BioMason have developed a method of growing bricks from nothing more than bacterial natural cement and the naturally abundant material sand. î ˘e sand blocks could be 3D printed and manufactured to any shape within a few days in-site. î ˘erefore, the carbon footprint of the building would be low, due to the abundance of sand around Taznakht. Houssame Eddine Hsain | Tazenakht: Using Sand to Combat Desertification | 157

Anti-Atlas Cluster Settlement Resilient to DesertiďŹ cation

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Ventilation and climate Strategies Tazenakht recieves cool breezes from the North and hot wind from the Sahara desert to the South. e wall and the green belt block and cool the hot air coming from the Sahara. e other green belt between the wall and the cluster act as a chimnee to remove warm air that is replaced with cool air from the North through cross-ventilation in the interiors and thanks to the shas and courtyards. e green belts also improve the air quality, making that area between the cluster and the wall a comfortable area to be in and enjoy the cool weather and entertainment activities with family, friends and neighbors in a town known by it’s arid and extremely hot climate. Houssame Eddine Hsain | Tazenakht: Using Sand to Combat Desertification | 159

BERBER COLLECTIVE DWELLINGS Courtyard in the middle of the house that functions as a ventilation chimney. Very few openings on the outer facade, rather most of the openings of all the rooms are towards the central courtyard. e outer walls are thick, made of rammed earth or mud bricks, serve as a thermal mass to store heat in the morning and deliver it during the cold nights in Tazenakht.

CURTIS, WILLIAM J. R. ‘Type and Variation: Berber Collective Dwellings of the Northwestern Sahara’

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Cluster Residential units 3 Different units are available

Unit A Derived from indeginous Anti-Atlas Settlements’ free standing houses. Footprint: 144 m2 Count: 7 houses Incorporates a corridor in its ground oor to help connect all the units within the cluster.

Unit B It’s a duplex at Footprint: 81 m2 Count: 5 ats

Unit C A studio at to provide some diversity of housing options, especially for the new employed population in the commercial and agricultural activity. Footprint: 72 m2 Count: 8 studio ats

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Cluster Settlement and Anti-DesertiďŹ cation wall Exploded Diagram Anti-Desertiication Sand stone wall

Pathways connecting public greenroofs on the cluster

Second oor cluster

First oor cluster

Vertical circulation cores and corridors

Green Belt as a rst preventive measure against desertiication

Commercial zone

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DesertiďŹ cation Projections Long term solution with immediate socio-economic beneďŹ ts

After Construction

Couple of Decades Later

Some more Decades Later

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REFERENCES Rippmann, Matthias. Funicular Shell Design: Geometric approaches to form nding and fabrication of discrete funicular structures. https://block.arch.ethz.ch/brg//les/Final_PhD_rippmann-2_1468394847.pdf. ETH Zurich, 2016. Oval, Robin, Olivier Baverel, and Romain Mesnil. Rule based topology nding of patterns towards multi objective structural design. https://block.arch.ethz.ch/brg//les/OVAL_2019_IASS_Rule-based-topology--nding-of-patterns-towards-multi-object ive-structural-design_1572804908.pdf. Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, October 2019. Mele, Tom Van. Block Research Group. Accessed February 5, 2020. https://block.arch.ethz.ch/brg/research. “Institute for Computational Design and Construction: University of Stuttgart.” Institute for Computational Design and Construction | University of Stuttgart. Accessed February 5, 2020. https://www.icd.uni-stuttgart.de/. Taylor-Foster, James. “Bricks Grown From Bacteria.” ArchDaily, February 1, 2014. https://www.archdaily.com/472905/bricks-grown-from-bacteria. “Moroccan City Deees Desertiication by Harnessing Solar Power and Treated Wastewater.” UNEP - UN Environment Programme. Accessed February 5, 2020. https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/press-release/moroccan-city-deees-desertiication-harnessing-sola r-power-and. “Dune Anti-Desertiication Architecture.” EARTH ARCHITECTURE, October 24, 2009. http://eartharchitecture.org/?p=552. Mele, Tom Van. “Topology Finding of Patterns.” Block Research Group. Accessed February 5, 2020. https://block.arch.ethz.ch/brg/research/topology--nding-patterns. CURTIS, WILLIAM J. R. “Type and Variation: Berber Collective Dwellings of the Northwestern Sahara” ,1983.

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The main focus of the project is natural disasters that are affecting İstanbul province and providing solutions that would minimize the damage afterwards. The selected area is Bakırköy, which is a high hazard earthquake zone, is also in danger of flooding of Ayamama Creek passing through the district. To achieve public consciousness about natural disasters, what to do at the time of a phenomenon and the outcomes, a Disaster Prevention and Education Center is going to be located in between the Ayamama Creek and Atatürk Airport. In the center, people will be able to experience certain simulations or participate in seminars on the natural disasters. In an urban scale, the project aims to rejuvenate Ayamama Creek by landscaping and offer strategic solutions for possible disaster scenarios.


THE SITE Bakırköy is a district on the European side of İstanbul. The province has a residential character and highly populated, mostly inhabited by upper middle class. Bakırköy is a large municipality that also includes neighbourhoods such as Yeşilköy, Ataköy and Yeşilyurt. Bakırköy is easy to reach with both public and private transportation. One of the most important circulations roads of İstanbul, the E-5 highway is also located on the area. The district has a coast to the Sea of Marmara. The ferry boats are available from the coast, that takes passengers to the Asian side of the city: Kadıköy and Bostancı. It is also possible to take a ferry to the Adalar (Islands). Along with the water transportation, the district is on the line of a suburban railway between Halkalı and Sirkeci. Moreover, there is a subway line from the old Atatürk Airport zone to Aksaray is present on the province and a metrobus stop (Yenibosna).

İstanbul’s largest mental hospital “Bakırköy Ruh ve Sinir Hastalıkları Hastanesi” is located in Bakırköy, also has the most green space in the zone. Bakırköy is also known to be an important commercial zone that includes many cafés, bars, cinemas, streets full of stores that leads to public squares. Because of the old Atatürk Airport site located in the district, many airline companies has their headquarters in Bakırköy. Bakırköy has become a popular residential zone in the late 19th century and still a prefered distrtict among upper middle-class. Ataköy was one of Turkey’s first planned residential developments. The tidiness of the planning in the zone can be seen in the satellite images and it is possible to distinguish the different urban fabric of the area from the upper district, Bahçelievler. Ataköy also contains a yatch marina and Galleria shopping center, which are important social interaction zones. The Bakırköy province has places of interests such as Istanbul Atatürk Airport, World Trade Center Istanbul, CNR Expo, Bakirkoy Synagogue, Carousel Shopping Center, Ataköy Athletics Arena, Sinan Erdem Dome, etc.

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NATURAL FACTORS: SEISMIC ACTIVITY One of the most deadly seismic activities occured in 1509 with a magnitude of 7,7. The earthquake caused a tsunami that broke the city walls. The events killed approximately 13,000 people overall. Another devastating earthquake was in August 1999, near Kocaeli. The event lasted for 37 seconds and killed 18,373 people, also generated a tsunami which was 2,5 meters high that killed 155 people, and overall left at least 250,000 people homeless.

İstanbul is raising the devastation risk after a disaster. Despite the popularity of the subject by the warnings of authorities, people are not thoroughly ready for the phenomenon. The chosen location for the project is Bakırköy, which is next to Avcılar district mentioned before. The area is a high hazard earthquake zone because of its proximity to the fault lines.

The most destructed district in İstanbul was Avcılar, since it is built on a weak ground, mainly “poorly consolidated Cenozoic sedimentary rocks”. This situation makes the area unsafe in an event of earthquake. According to the seismologists, İstanbul is under the risk of an earthquake with a magnitude of at least 7,6 before the year of 2030 with a possibility rate more than %60. However, the incremental increase of the population in

“Istanbul”. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 23 Oct. 2005. Wikimedia Foundation. 23 Oct. 2005 <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istanbul>.


NATURAL FACTORS: AYAMAMA CREEK Ayamama is a creek on the European side of İstanbul, starting from a stream source in Başakşehir, passing through İkitelli, Güneşli, Yenibosna and Ataköy. Until the recent past, Ayamama Creek was remarkably important for the district. Ayamama used to have branches on its way from the source through the sea. The grounds where the creek is located were fertile lands that were gardens, orchards and farms. After 1950s, İstanbul’s population highly increased due to massive migrations. This situation caused illegal housing around the neighbourhood. In a similar manner, many industrial facilities and factories had been constructed nearby the stream which distrupted the richness of the creek and lead to high amounts of pollution. Today, the pollution causes not only smell but also certain diseases that puts the health of the people in the neighbourhood under risk because of certain types of bacterias.

Because of both major highways (E-5 and TEM) passing through the zone and the illegally constructed areas becoming today’s known neighbourhoods in the province, several interventions had been done to the stream bed. The stream bed had been narrowed down by leaving most of the stream underground. Because of this interventions to the stream bed, the creek is occasionally flooding. The floods are causing serious financial damage to the area. Aside from the financial loss, in some cases, the floods take lifes and injure many people in the neighbourhood. In 2009 due to heavy rains, the creek flooded and 35 people lost their lives. The creek is under the risk of flooding at anytime today when there is heavy rain.

“Istanbul”. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 23 Oct. 2005. Wikimedia Foundation. 23 Oct. 2005 <https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayamama_Deresi>.

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“Bakırköy’s climate is considered to be Csa (Mediterranean Climate) according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. The average temperature in is 14.0 °C throughout the year. In a year, the rainfall is 701 mm. The driest month is July, with 22 mm of rain. The greatest amount of precipitation occurs in December, with an average of 116 mm. July is the warmest month of the year. The temperature in July averages 23.3 °C. The lowest average temperatures in the year occur in February, when it is around 5.6 °C”

Climate-Data.org <https://en.climate-data.org/asya/tuerkiye/istanbul bak%C4%B1rkoey-7417/>


Yandex Maps. <https://mapeditor.yandex.com.tr/#!/?z=18&ll=28.841422%2C4 0.983493&l=nk%23sat>

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GATHERING ZONES, TEMPORAL SHELTERS AND GREENERY DIAGRAM In the diagram, official existing gathering zones shown in yellow, open temporal shelter zones shown in red and green areas can be seen (taken from İstanbul Municipality’s map).

Most of the zones are nearby grounds to the Ayamama Creek. Since the stream is under the risk of flooding depending on rains, without interventions, the selected zones would be dangerous for people to dwell even for a short period of time. Yet, in all the times, the stream line should be rejuvenated to prevent flooding.

According to the municipality’s statement, the emergency planning model is based on scientific datas and research. The model has been done considering the areas’ ease of transportation, reachability, relationship with the environment, functionality, infrastructure and natural features. The specified locations are mainly open spaces such as parks, green zones with no specified function, parking lots, etc. Since the areas are selected by the authorities to be a gathering zone in an natural disaster occasion, this may prove that the areas are easy to reach by the people in emergency. 174|İdilDursunİdilDursunDisasterPreventionandEducationDisasterPreventionandEducationCenter

column widths are 9 cm

column widths are 9 cm

“İBB Toplanma ve Geçici Barınma Alanları’nı Belirledi” <https://www.ibb.istanbul/News/Detail/36384>

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DESIGN STUDIES: IN AN URBAN SCALE In a natural disaster, properly developed logistics strategies is important. In this case, on an event of an earthquake, land transportation would be most likely inavailable. Especially in the more dense neighbourhoods, the time would be essencial to save lives. On this matter, air and water transportation would be critical. To solve this issue, several nodes had been selected on the province: Gardens, parks, excavation sites, parking lots, school gardens, stadiums, open-air sports facilities, etc. In an emergency situations, aircrafts could land on these areas. Also, its 500-600 meters diameter is shown on the diagram which is the approximate cover area of the in possible reachness. Also, 3 harbours has been marked for the ferrys or boats to reach to the province.

Aside from the common nodes that can be used as an “emergency heliport zone”, 3 control center points had been selected to run the operations during and afterwards of a natural disaster occasion. Control Center 1: CNR Fair Center and its parking lot. The fair center has an enormous space to be used as a storage, health center and temporal shelter in necessary situations. The parking lot is in proper sizes for a aircraft to land. Control Center 2: Havacılık Müzesi and the Existing Heliport. The museum itself again has a big space to control the operations, and it already has a heliport in front of it. Control Center 3: Bahçelievler Community Health Center and its Park. The center has a good potential to be converted into an emergency hospital in an event of a disaster.

“İstanbul İçin Deprem Master Planı”, İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi Planlama ve İmar Dairesizemin ve Deprem İnceleme Müdürlüğü, 7 TEMMUZ 2003.

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DESIGN STUDIES: IN AN URBAN SCALE Since the Atatürk Airport is moved to another location, the old buildings with strong infrastructure would be proper for this project to be used by changing the function. Considering the potential of the Ayamama Creek and possibility to use the old airport buildings as shelters, a site location had been chosen in between the airport and the stream for the Disaster Prevention and Education Center. The selected site is also next to an open temporary shelter zone, which had been proven to be easily accessable by the municipality while deciding on shelter zones. In that matter, the site location is proven to be easily accessable in an natural disaster situation. In relation with the suggested air and water transportation web, a circulation strategy had been developed to the area. In this scenario, the ferrys that landed on the harbour would use the runway of the airport for land transportation as well as the aircrafts that landed nearby. The runway would be still functional in an earthquake event since the infrastructure is strong.

The runway will be planned as a public green axis that will have branches (existing paths to be rearranged as green fingers) that provide connection between important nodes. For instance, a branch of it is passing through the AFAD* (Provincial Disaster and Emergency Directorate) building that would help the authorities to easily reach the zone in times of need. As well as the circulation interventions, the stream line will be rejuvenated by landscape interventions throughout its way. According to “İstanbul Deprem Master Planı”, the zones next to 20 m proximity to a stream would be greeneries. It is essencial to have no buildings just next to the stream beds because of the loose ground. The recreation of the stream line will also include waste water treatment to clean the creek. Living machine system can be used in order to clean the water that would increase biological diversity of plants and animals, and inhibit diseases caused by bacterias. The implementations will consider further flood occurance on the creek and take precautions.

“İstanbul İçin Deprem Master Planı”, İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi Planlama ve İmar Dairesizemin ve Deprem İnceleme Müdürlüğü, 7 TEMMUZ 2003. “The Analyses of the Physical Effect of Land Use Decisions on Stream Systems and its Reflection on Urban Life: The Risk Evaluation of Flood and Overflow in İstanbul”, Hülya Dinç


DESIGN STUDIES: IN AN URBAN SCALE The project aims to strenghten the Ayamama Creek axis by providing sustainable solutions for flood and polution problems. Therefore, with the new landscape design proposal, the site of selection and its nearby environment will draw people’s attention to become a social attraction zone which lead them to be aware of natural disasters and prevention techniques.

In the Master Plan, the Disaster Prevention and Education Center is marked with yellow circle, located at the end of the old airport runway. The vertical runway on the left had been left as it is to be used in necessary situations. Several bridge structures had been proposed in critical locations for pedestrian transportation to the site. Inside this bridge structures, urban agriculture activities will be held. By this way, even when there is no emergency, the bridges can be used as urban agriculture zones as well along with the green fingers.

With the ease of access and possibility to have a clean river in front of it, the site is a potential zone for social interaction, education and even urban agriculture. The disaster center location is marked with yellow circle. The stream becomes more playful and natural here, around the urban agriculture and aquaponics zone. According to “İstanbul Deprem Master Planı”, the surrounding area of the Ayamama Creek is vegetated. Five bridge structures had been proposed in certain locations that provides pedestrian transportation to the site. İdilDursunİdilDursunDisasterPreventionandEducationDisasterPreventionandEducationCenter |179

On the runway, there are aquaponics for urban agriculture. After harvesting, fresh foods can be sold or bought from the market place next to the aquaponics zone. This strategy provides fresh food to the zone in an event of a disaster. The area in front of existing AFAD building is a shelter area for people to stay in long terms. Similarly, both new and existing masses in front of the health center (used to be airport shipment building) are converted to be a quarentine zone. In normal conditions, these buildings can be regularly used as health units and storage.


In this diagram, the yellow lines are showing vehicular transportation paths with sidewalks while the red lines are showing only the pedestrian paths. The bridges are strategically important pedestrian circulation elements that are landing in gathering zones or important nodes, and brings people from the surrounding. There is an uninterrupted circulation web in the area to make use in the emergency situations.

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The area between the health center, Disaster Education and Prevention Center and AFAD/shelter zone is a social interaction zone for pedestrians. There is vehicular transportation between important zones that eventually connects with existing highways. The bridges are taking pedestrians from across the highway and the creek, passing them through the site.

There are several parking lots included in the area in front of important nodes. Also, it is possible to access the site from several points from the existing highway in front of it, mainly letting people access everywhere in the site with ease without letting them have to circulate inside the site.


+0.00 Floor Plan

+4.80 Floor Plan

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The diagram shows the vertical circulation elements within the complex as well as possible circulation routes according to users’ needs. The yellow lines are showing the usage of the bridge structure as a pedestrian transportation element to or from the site passing through the creek and the highway. People who are going to use the bridge only for a circulation element can use the vertical circulation elements before entering the center and reach the site.

Inside the bridges, urban agriculture activities will be held with systems such as hydroponics. By this way, when there is no emergency, the bridges will be acting as urban agriculture zones along with the green finger extensions. Within the center, there are 2 ticketing points that leads people to the orientation stage afterwards. After that, the dressing rooms and the simulation rooms begin.


South façade structure detail.

The base isolated bearing system is allowing the slab to shake without pushing the walls apart, therefore in an event of an earthquake, the structure doesn’t collapse. The base isolated bearing system is one of the main principles of bridge structures. This strategy lead the structures next to the stream to be bridges since because of the flood risk and the weakness of the soil there, and organizing the center itself where the strong infrastructure of the runway begins.

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Transportation Hub Project is located in the capital city of Azerbaijan, Baku. e site is more than 50.000 m2, where government was going to built new shopping malls, located at the end of the old boulevard and at the start of the newly developing Baku White City Boulevard on the Nobel avenue. e site was selected based on many criterias, such as the location, the traffic density present in the surrounding, social and environmental problems, also the historical value of the area.

190 | Kenan Akhverdiev | Bakü Public Service Hall and Trasport Hub.

Train ready for departure in Baku. Ludvig Nobel constructed the tank cars, and had them produced in Riga, Russia. Photo: Asbrink Collection

Baku Petroleum Industry (Land of Fire) Located on the Caspian Sea in the South Caucasus region, Azerbaijan is known as “the land of fire” because of its rich reserves of oil and gas, which the government estimates total nearly three trillion cubic metres today. Baku is the oldest and most developed city in the Caucasus Region, as it was very famous for its precious oil, during the rule of Russian Empire, it was called ‘black gold’. Evidence of petroleum being used in trade as early as the 3rd and 4th centuriesan be found in the manuscripts of most Arabic and Persian authors. I. Haji Kasimbey Mansurbekov, in 1803 for the first time in the world, begins sea-oil extraction in Bibi-Heybat bay. Aerwards, in 1806, the Russian Empire occupied Baku Khanate and took monopolistic control of oil production. Consequently, all oil sources of Absheron, Guba and Salyan belonging to Baku Khanate are requisitioned and declared state assets of Russia. Baku attracted many petrol industries including famous Rotshichlds, Nobel Brothers for being great oppurtunity against worldwide kerosene monopoly of Rockfellers. Alfred Nobel’s older brother, Robert, first came to Azerbaijan in 1873.Another brother, Ludwig, had sent Robert over from Russia to find walnut trees that could be used to build the rifles the family was manufacturing for the

Russian tsar’s army at the time, “instead of trees they found precious oil in the world”, according to a New York Times report. Alongside the Nobel brothers, the Rothschild brothers’ Caspian-Black Sea Company became one of the leading oil companies in the Russian oil business in the late 1880s. Development of oil industry divided Baku into two parts known as historical “Old Baku” and industrial region which was called Black City. is ironic name given to that area represented how smokes and fumes affected the overall look of the industrial part of the city, which covered buildings with black soot. Produced oil and petroleum were transported in various ways. Oil and petroleum were first stored and later on either were transported by train which was connected from the black city to the main railway station or by port and pierces located at the seashore. In fact, e first railroad construction and subsequent development in Azerbaijan was due to the direct transportation of oil. As mentioned. Baku oil has been used for a long time in a systematic manner and has been used for illumination and treatment mainly in Azerbaijan, its Middle East and Central Asia, Russia and India. Kenan Akhverdiev | Bakü Public Service Hall and Trasport Hub. | 191

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Rail-Transport Development (Impact on Urban Dynamics) Transport is regarded as a basic factor fostering development of urban regions. e “triumph of the city” will not be possible without an efficient transportation system, urbanisation, although in some regions it is not as dynamic as it used to be in the demographic aspect, it is still progressing in the economic, social, and spatial dimension. A new turn in the transport - development of the railway system is observed at the end of the 20th century. In many countries large investments are made to improve the quality of railway systems, in particular the construction of high-speed rail connections (Vickerman 1996; Haynes 1997).

Baku General Plan by M.Q.Hacinski. 1911-1918. Photo: Azerbaijan National Archieve

e first high speed railway line in Azerbaijan was belonging to was laid in 1878 and was opened in 1880 within the suburban range of Baku, which led from Sabunçu to Suraxanı, today situated within the city of Baku. In freight traffic, the exportation of oil from the oil wells from Baku at the Caspian Sea to the Georgian port of Batumi at the Black Sea forms an important share of the rail transport in Azerbaijan. Proposed new high speed rail network will enhance former industrial area and improve the urban quality in underdeveloped quarters of Baku.

Baku General Plan by A.P.Ivaniskiy. 1924-1927. Photo: SCRSS Soviet Collections: Library and Archive

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Baku General Plan by L.A.Ilyin. 1934-1937. Photo: SCRSS Soviet Collections: Library and Archive

Urban growth of Baku Photo: Azerbaijan National Archives

Baku Emprical Development plan. 1899-1902. Photo: Russian Empire - Romanov Dynasty Archieve

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Urban Context & Baku White City Baku seashore and boulevard is a synthesis of compilation of many old and even ancient buildings such as Old Cıty Walls, Maiden Tower, House of Hacinski and etc and newly built by famous architects modern buildings such as Crystal Hall, Port Baku, Haydar Aliyev Center and etc. Late oil boom provided Azerbaijan with large amount of income, which was used to create new business and commercial areas. And development of city started rapidly increasing speed. Since 2014, Baku municipality started to re-evaluate and to clean up the former industrial areas, process of which was called ‘Whitening’. With partnership of ‘Atkins Global’ new master plan was designed. As lead consultant, global engineering and architectural design firm Atkins (UK) performed masterplanning and detailed planning activities for the project. Along with specialists from Azerbaijan, Fosters and Partners (UK), and F+A Architects, with their globally renowned experience in the design of retail projects, were also involved.

e new master plan is located at the end of the boulevard. roughout the boulevard many shopping malls are located. On the new masterplan the area of junction old Baku White city and Baku, new shopping mall was proposed to be built, which feels like it was proposed just to cover the empty area. My project scope is to cover the area between the Baku City and newly developing Baku White City, by designing ‘Transportation Hub’ and ‘Public Service Hall’ and in the intermediate area between Baku and Baku White City. By designing ‘Public Service Hall’, which will be a headquarter which compiles many governmental and semi-governmental institutions serving the citizens in `and everyday communal services, its aimed to decrease the corruption rates which is one of the biggest social problems in Baku.

Site location, size, topography, zoning, traffic conditions and climate were examined, also considered for any future developments, or changes to the sites surroundings, s, changing cultural patterns and etc. To encounter with various problems, environmental simulation used for sustainability goals. Although analog tools, guidelines and design recommendations provide with some support for designing sustainably, simulation was an essential part of my design for predict the performance of design options related to urban spaces and buildings forms. program, materials and technologies. e temperature regime and its distribution throughout Azerbaijan is regular, and depends on the features of air masses entering the country, the regional landscape, and proximity to the Caspian Sea Solar radiation chart represents the annual average solar radiations and solar angles throughout a year.

Wind is one of the things Baku is famous for, even the name Baku means ‘Windy City’ from translation from old language. Wind is strong throughout all year. Most strongest wind streams are from north-west and southwest from the sea.

Gentrification is being increasingly discussed as a driver of urban change globally, including in the former Soviet Union. Baku has a continious grenery axises. ese axises are connect either physically or visually. Even though some connection of these axises were disrepted during 2000th. Municipality started many projects to reconnect and to establish new green city.

Old Baku Collage. 1710-1920. Photos: Russian Empire - Romanov Archieve

Transportation Infastructure As Baku City is the capital and near to half of population of country lives here, all Azerbaijan regions and cities, even foreign contries related to Baku. e connections are variable, there are many ways used to create logistic and touristic routes to and inside of Baku city. Subway system is one of the most popular public transportation in Baku, with population of 5 million citizens. 2 million people are using Baku Subway everyday. e subway system is divided into 2 routes : red and green routes. ey both travel to furthest parts of tyhe city and intersect at the İcerisheher station, which is locate at the central part of “Old Baku”. e existing routes became insufficient throughout many years and due to large amount of population increase. By municipality it was decided to establish one more subway railway system which was shown violet in the graph. e construction of the new subways system is ongoing now. Baku boulevard aer Baku White City extensıon became too long of the boulevard park, so new boulevard tramway is proposed by the municiplaıty. On graph shown as blue. ere are also sea connections, which Baku seashore is compiled with many pierces and ports connecting other Baku ports and other countries, such as Russian Federation, İran, Turkmenistan and several islands.

Road Hieararchy Baku is very dense in terms of population city, and roads can create very big problem in terms of intercirculation within the city. To decrease the chance of traffic problems, road hierarchy is established. ere are four (4) degrees of the road in Baku.

• • • •

1st degree Roads- Main roads connecting Parliament and Old City with the aiırport. Also known as presidential road, on the graph shown as Yellow. 2nd degree Roads- ere are main roads connecting regions and main dşstricts of Baku city in the gridal system. On the graph shown as Dark Blue. 3rd degree Roads- ey are the intermediate roads which help the 2nd degree and 1st degree roads to decrease the traffic rate. 4th degree Roads- ey are the roads within the regions and districts of the Baku City. Giving circulation path inside the districts. On the graph shown as in Black.

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Building Program

Transportation Hub proggramme at first seems easy to put together. ere are no many function and many spaces. Nevertheless the amount of area that will the Transportation Hub cover is going to be large. Transportation Hub consists from 5 portion, which are Main Platforms, Maintenance areas, Public use areas, Administration Offices an Retail and Entertainment areas.

Space Requirement

is charts not only represent which area coverage does every space require, but also gives understanding of what kind of hierarchy will the space have according to public and privacy issues.

As mentioned before the Transportation Hub wii cover large amount of area with having the least amount of spaces. In Transportation Hub most of the area wii be required by the circulation 30 percent, parking and of course concourse. e places where the people will wait and spend their time befopre arrival. Kenan Akhverdiev | Bakü Public Service Hall and Trasport Hub. | 199

Schematic Planning & Conceptual Mass

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Floor Plans

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North Elevation

East Elevation

South Elevation

West Elevation

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Rendered Pespectives

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A single paragraph text on what the project is all about. Written with Minion Pro 11 PT. In the center.

The project has been developed as a statement towards how an infrastructure can be transformed into an urban space. Rapid urbanization brought a vast number of challenges such as “disruption of urban fabric and urban segregation”. In this project, by redefining the infrastructure arteries in the city, the crisis between natural systems and new urban developments will be studied. This is a projection towards infrastructure’s new role in the near future against the contradictions today we faced because of road-based urbanism. As the cities grow, new layers of city emerge. In my vision, infrastructure is an edge, not only divides two parts of it, but also has the potential of bringing, directing, combining diversities on both side. These edges will be next layer to the city that alternatively solve the disruptions and reveals “new form of urbanism”.

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PROBLEM DEFINITION Body text: Minion Pro 11 PT. As a result of irregular city planning and urban approaches, the infrastructure arteries “disrupt the physical and social fabric” of the city. Large scaled infrastructure need for accessibility is not integrated with surrounding and does not create social/cultural/physical interactions with the neighborhoods. In that manner, highways and infrastructures may be defined as non-places, which does not engage people/social life. When the city is examined on a larger scale, it was seen that the coastal promenade could not perform its function due to the urban development of the city based on largescale traffic systems, and these arteries interrupted the pedestrian transportation. There is no continuity both on the coast and between the regions. There are no activating activities / functions along the promenade.

The biggest reason for this is the non-integrated transportation network. Although the transportation arteries show continuity within themselves, they work as separative elements for the city; so they work as an “edge”. As an antithesis, the concept of “edge effect” will examine what potentials these separative elements actually have in diversity. Considering the transformation of the city, Bayraklı is an area with high renewal speed and high buildings are now taking place. According to my projection, Bayraklı will become the new center of the city, in the near future. There is a high tension between the Manda stream and the roads, between the urban pressure created by tall buildings and the delta natural system, between the delta and the roads in the chosen location. In this area, an urban acupuncture will be made that will relieve this tension and solve the absence of continuity detected at the beginning. A binding urban element will be produced to remove the gap between natural and artificial. Melek Kaynar | A Life in Ecotone New Urban Form | 211

ANATOMIZING THE CITY | IZMIR Body text: Minion Pro 11 PT. 1_Turan industrial area and military area have a huge potential of being a recreational activity center between the continuous band of coast starting from Alsancak and Karşıyaka. 2_Behind the coastal area, Smyrna Antique city is subjected to archaeological excavations. Being important in terms of city history of İzmir, Smyrna city and coastal band should have a relation. 3_Bayraklı is where the city is established. In order to emphasize the historical development of the city, Bayraklı has to have relation with coastal area both physically, visually and functionally. Nowadays, the neighborhoods behind the Altınyol cannot reach coast physically because of the block of Altınyol. Between Altınyol and Anadolu Streets, there is a high speed of renewal, the construction of high-rise buildings functioning as business center. 212 | Melek Kaynar | A Life in Ecotone New Urban Form

4_Bayraklı-Alsancak harbor part is rich in terms of having streams and rivers that is connected to bay although the beds of rivers are filled with concrete. Manda stream is one of those connected to bay. 5_Halkapınar and Atatürk Stadium neighborhood is the generator of the city that is the node for bus terminal, metro station, sport complexes, botanic garden. That area should have continuation of the coastal band. 6_Salhane is supposed to be the new city center of İzmir in the near future. With governmental buildings, public buildings, new business buildings. This zone is recognized as the new city center for business and administration in 1/5000 scaled land use plan. 7_Alsancak harbor’s back part includes Alsancak station and historical buildings. Some of the buildings are already subjected to adaptive re-use projects. Instead of new constructions, there should be rehabilitation for cultural uses such as museums, libraries, education units. Those cultural zone should be connected to Fuar Center physically and functionally. The harbor should function as well, because it reflects the harbor identity of the city. In addition to this, there should be cultural and entertainment activities.

Body text: OF Minion LAYERS CITYPro 11 PT. İzmir is one of the most populated cities in Turkey. It is located in Aegean Region. The climatic position is Mediterranean climate, which implies hot-dry summers and mild-rainy winters. Todays’ antique city, the old settlement on the city is Smyrna. Smyrna was the first settlement. The shoreline was surrounding the old Bayraklı. Today, it is on further west. İzmir has a strategic position with placing around the gulf. Also, its port is the primary port of Turkey for export of goods. Green diagram shows that there is a green axis along the shoreline, which is supposed to be continuous. In the end, it meets with the delta green. This axis compose the main open public space of the city. Other than linear green zone, there are “İzmir Fuar Alanı”, “İzmir Atatürk Stadyumu” and “Symrna Antik Kenti”. The dominant wind direction is Northeast direction. That demonstrates that the planning along shoreline should allow the wind to penetrate into the city, into the back neighborhoods. Designs should support the natural infiltration and natural ventilation on the bigger scale. Also, the longitudinal part of shoreline elongated towards North-South direction. The routes diagram shows that there is a huge pressure over the city because of the large-scaled, road-based transportation system. Especially the road surrounding the shoreline (Altınyol Street) is a border that divides the city and shoreline connection completely. The pedestrian access is not integrated to the transportation system. Zoning map shows that around Bayraklı, Salhane and Liman Arkası zones, there is a density of commercial, industrial and mixed-use uses. Behind those, there starts the density of residential. Those districts become a block for the residential zones behind them. The distribution of the uses is separated from the shoreline to the inner parts. That is why; new uses around those districts should have serve everyone that uses the shoreline, in order to serve for social justice.

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Wenche E. Dramstad, James D. Olson and Richard T.T. Forman, Movement diagrams: Patches, Edges, Corridors, Mosaics, from Landscape Ecology Principles in Landscape Architecture and Land-Use Planning, 1996.

ECOTONE AND EDGE EFFECT Body text: Minion Pro 11 PT. The crisis between infrastructure and water/green systems will be solved by integrated urbanism methods. Infrastructures have huge potentials to direct people, creating axis within the city, provide mobility, connect different zones although they are considered as non-spaces most of the time. This thesis will be formulated by an ecological term, what is called “edge effect”. “The edge effect is an ecological concept that describes how there is a greater diversity of life in the region where the edges two adjacent ecosystems overlap, such as land/water, or forest/ grassland.” The life that occurs on those borders is called “ecotone”. Similar to the border between two different ecosystems, edge effect applies to all the transitional spaces philosophically. If an integrative ecosystem could be created between two systems, there happens a life, which is quite rich and diverse. 214 | Melek Kaynar | A Life in Ecotone New Urban Form

Musician Cristina Pato states that “edge effect where the most new life forms are created.” This concept is now applied for different disciplines’ collaborative works. “The same richness found when biomes converge is present in the vibrant collaboration that happens when people of different backgrounds and experiences ideate together.” That shows that edge effect is not only an ecologic phenomenon but also applicable to any type of transition case. Longitudinal and transversal connections and interaction points over the highway. The continuation of green shoreline should be provided. Perpendicular axis to that main axis should transfer people from inner part of the city to the shoreline. The design should be pedestrian friendly and should allow people to use the shoreline on a daily basis with necessary functions around them. Those people now alienated from the Bayraklı district both financially and socially because the new development compose a social difference. Those districts are like barriers before going to the shoreline. -Mark Garrison, CIO

General view towards İzmir Köfkezi , Source: EAA

General view from sea , Source: EAA

General view from delta , Source: İzmir Bld.

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MASTER PLAN Body text: Minion Pro 11 PT. On the smaller scale, the site is on a location where, delta (natural system), river (natural system), a part of Anadolu and Altınyol Streets (road system) and high-rise buildings (new developments) coincides, in Salhane district. There is a tension between natural and manmade systems, which cause a disintegration. This place also, socially implies a threshold; neighborhoods behind the new developments cannot make use of the shoreline. Ege Perla, Mistralizmir, some governmental buildings and some offices are situated around the selected site. While road networks ensures the continuity of the vehicles flow, pedestrian flow is usually under thought, in İzmir case, even impossible. In fact, the presence of road systems connects the zones if it is well planned integrated into city planning. In this project, it is aimed to make the 216 | Melek Kaynar | A Life in Ecotone New Urban Form

buildings work as a link between unattainable zones and revive the “public places” over the unused spaces. “Relation between architecture and infrastructure in the contemporary city can be represented by the interaction between high-speed transport network and inter-modal stations with new public equipment.” A project should provide, therefore, “mobility, leisure, work and experiences”. “The role of the architecture is to produce new situations and intensity; otherwise mobility infrastructure will lack vitality and urbanity.” The project will integrate two different need of the area. It should provide pedestrian, cycle flow of people, provide public plazas and new programs that help to “order the existing context”. For Salhane’s high speed of growth, instead of single functional buildings, multi-functional projects should be applied to decrease social injustice of citizens, rather than just providing mobility. Commercials, offices, communal services should be included into the program as the project serve as an “intermodal”.

Master plan is composed of 3 main decisions: First is the opening of Manda River to the city with environmental planning. This river is an axis that connects the bay with the city. This axis, which has become unusable by the inner parts of the city due to plazas and a rapidly developing city pressure, will be treated as a green corridor in the master plan. The river, which is now in a dirty state, does not create any attraction for the city dwellers. In the fiction that is created to connect the inner neighborhoods to waterfront, the river and its surroundings will be the beginning of the story as an urban open space by offering kiosks, dunes, lawns, seating areas, botanical garden and childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s playgrounds. The connection of two sides by the bridge will both ease the bilateral use of river and connect this axis to the lagoon, ensuring a pedestrian friendly circulation integrity. Also, the closure of the road to vehicle traffic at this point will create an urban area open to the public during day and night. Secondly, artificial lagoon that integrates the river axis with the delta. To overcome the segregation by large-scale road systems, pedestrian traffic is taken from the river and directed to the sea wall.

Thanks to this sea wall, an urban space will be created in the gulf and the relationship of the inhabitants with the sea will be increased. Esplanade serves for walking, running and cycling. At some points, tidal rocks, sand dunes, new marshlands, inner lakes, observation points, oyster reefs are created and the bay is reevaluated ecologically, economically and socially. While canoeing and rowing can be made in it, the new marshlands and inner lakes creates new living spaces for sea creatures. Tidal rock pools are activity areas for urbanites. Oyster reefs will provide the clean of sea and also supports both ecological and economic development by marine farming. The third development was made by reshaping the old port platform and establishing a relationship with the seawall. The platform was divided into different bands and transformed into various activity areas. These platforms are separated as docks for small boats and sailing activities are supported in this region. Outdoor activity spaces, -References in Minion Pro 8pt, italic open classroom areas and swimming zone have been created since theProport behind the port is foreseen as a cul-References in Minion 8pt, italic tural + educational zone. It has both physical and visual -References in Minion Pro 8pt, italic relationship with the seawall across these areas. Melek Kaynar | A Life in Ecotone New Urban Form | 217

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column widths are 9 cm The urban concept of building is to connect two sides of the city; Alsancak and Karşıyaka and connect the inner parts of the city to the shoreline by the help of green band. Besides that, whatever the building is, it should solve the problem of public space (kamusal alan), which is lack in this area. Similar to most of the city centers, this area become mono-functional. Therefore, however the building is, the structure should add urban value to area. In sum, the problems encountered are: • The lack of quality public spaces • Urbanism that neglecting the marine identity of İzmir • Lack of accessibility • To become mono-functional My criticism to İzmir is; the tendency towards to engineer infrastructures for only one purpose cause disrupted landscapes. However, this complex is an urban infrastructure presenting itself as an armature for development of urban systems, which promote social, ecological, economic and cultural interaction.

column widths are 9 cm Building works as a part of a bigger fiction. The building is located between seawall and the bridge, between delta and high-rise buildings, between land and sea, between urban density and natural landforms. In this way, it works as a transmitter. On one side, the building is works as a bridge, which is the linear main body. Beside the main body, there added public functions. Those parts are covered with transparent materials, which provides visibility and dialogue with the city. Also, working as a semi-open system building benefits from the breezes coming from South-west. The building’s main orientation is decided as being perpendicular to the dominant wind direction to allow air infiltration to the building. Also, the form compose a kind of pond which works as a moderator of internal climate on master plan scale. In addition, the building is located just at the edge of water to benefit from potential of natural ventilation through water breezes as a passive cooling technique. By this allocation, the green band of shoreline is left as a quality urban space for the citizens who cannot use shoreline because of inaccessibility. Just close to the water edge, this building complex reflect a dialogue with the city and inside out. For the solar control bridge part and some parts of the roof is cladded as providing shading.

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A building complex , representing and offering all the characteristic features of the city , combined with necessities of human life in one area to create a livable and dynamic prototype of the city in the boundries of one lot. The eco-hybrid aims to combine the different aspects of daily life in one area ; live , work and play. The building complex offer these activites at a wide range , from urban scale to building scale. Therefore, this is a place which is alive 24/7. While achieving this living approach , variety of sustainable approaches are used to enhance the quality of the area while contibuting to the city's future at the same time. The eco-hybrid can be described shortly as ; a living piece from the city improved by sustainable systems and ideologies to create an example , compressed and combined in one lot.

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The master plan area is located at the intersection of the highways , one of the underground streams therefore one of the main green axes. And it is also very near to the edge of the city which is the agriculture areas.This area includes all the important features of the city that has been described previously.It has chosen to be studied on, because all these features are included together at one spot.


The area is located along one of the streams in the city center. The most important quality of this stream is , it is partially open. And it is the only stream that some part of it is still open. One part of the area is sharing an edge with the agricultural fields of the city. Finally the highway is passing through the area. As it does the same thing in the whole city, the road is creating a barrier in here too.


The road blocks the continuity of the city from the mountains to the agriculture fields in terms of both pedestrian circulation , green axes circulaton and the existing urban axes created in the below part of the city. The master plan area is located in an intersection point for all these issues. The area is consist of 4 empty zones and each one has a close relationship with these issues that is mentioned above.





agriculture fields stream highway master plan area

These zones are one of the largest lots left in the city center. First three of them is empty and has no use at the moment. Zone-1 is mostly green area and at one part , the electricy terminals are located. Zone -2 was used to be an oil factory but it is abonded at the moment.Zone-3 is just a huge empty lot located between the residential apartments and people put their trashes into it. However Zone 4 was used to be a bus terminal. It was demolished in 2015.They opened up a competition for this area but it was never applied. And now it is being used as an open car park area and a bazaar area. Ă&#x2013;zge Hocalar | Eco-Hybrid | 235



INFRASTRUCTURE 236 | Özge Hocalar | Eco-Hybrid





MANİSA : COLLISION OF NATURE & MAN-MADE One of the most important geographical features of the Manisa is the River Gediz and the river creates lots of fertile lands all over the city. Therofore one of the main economical activities in the city is agriculture.The second most important geographical feature is the Mountain Spil. The city center was started to be settled on the edges of the Mountain. The River has an arm passing through in the city center too. Therefore the main city center settlement is located between the River and the Mountain.


Due to the River 's location , there are fertile agriculture areas at the edge of the city center.The urban development is started from the mountain edges , grew in a perpendicular direction , untill it met these fields.After that point the city started to grew parallel to the agriculture fields and the Mountain.The agriculture fields achieve their irrigation systems from the River Gediz. And there are several underground streams which are born from the Mountain Spil and feeds that river and increase its capacity. These streams also create the main , large green axes in the city center.



From the city center , there are two highways are passing through ; İzmirİstanbul and İzmir-Ankara highway. Because of the crowded characteristic of the road ,especially the İzmir -İstanbul Road , it breaks the city center into two different zones. The existing figure -ground relationships and already created green axes in the below part of the city - the part at the edge of the Mountains-does not continue its characteristics when it passes the road.It is a huge problem beacuse altough these two zones are located in the same city center , they act differently and it blocks the city center for being and acting unified.

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stream green axis STREAM PASSING THE SELECTED AREA 238 | Özge Hocalar | Eco-Hybrid

As previously mentioned , River Gediz has lots of parts spread all around the city . Although it does not born from the city a large amount of it goes through Manisa. It meets with the Agaen Sea in İzmir-Foça. According to the river's distribution ,there are lots of fertile lands around it , suitable for agriculture.Therefore agriculture is one of the most common activities in the city.All these fields provide their irrigations by this river. However in recent years , the most common problem about the river is the pollution and the waste amount.This is both harmful for the lands , products and for the ecological habitats of lots of living creatures. In the city center ,there are lots of streams which are born from the Mountain Spil, pass through the city center and connects with the River. The city has several sub-water channels and a main water channel to collect these streams and then it connects with the river via the main channel.However almost all of these streams are covered in early 90's. Today , there is only one stream which some part of it is still open and visible in the city center. The place where it is born is being used as a park and café area. From where it is born till the İzmir Street , which is one of the main streets in city, the stream bed is open and visible. However after that point the stream has been covered up in order to create empty spaces for car parking area. The path of the stream is clearly defined as a green axis going across the city, starts from the mountains untill the Master Plan Area - Zone 4 which is the old bus terminal. The green axis stops at that point .After that point the stream bed is not even visible as green axis.A large green axis started from the Mountains ends up with an empty lot and then a crowded ,busy higway. The main goal is to create a prototype for the usage of this stream bed .It is aimed to open the stream and offer a set of systems to clean the water and create a continous stream bed also acts as a green axis.The water will be cleaned in its continous path and meets with the River Gediz in a cleaner way.

LITERATURE REVIEW FOR THE STREAM PATH These following literature reviews examines the possible sustainable strategies and solutions for cleaning the stream and enhancing its quality. These strategies can be implemented in different zones on the stream bed according to the characteristics of that spesific area.



Bıoswale systems are a way to harvest and treat the rainwater , water running off from the roofs or roads. Basically , they are ditches planted with spesific vegetations to clean the water and a porous drainage system going under it to collect it. Some bioswales can play a role for ecological connection between spesific zones. It enhances the bıodiversity and life quality of the cities in a nature-friendly way. The system can be implemented on very different areas such as walkways, near the roads or parks in urban areas. The principles of helophyte filter is very similar with the bioswales. It is a sand filter planted with spesific type of plants. The water treatment is achieved by the bacterias living in the roots of these plants. These systems are easily applicable in this situation because there is already a space , a green axis , for this intervention and it will help to connect the two ecosystems in the area

URBAN WETLANDS Wetlands by their nature , are very rich natural areas , occured along the rivers and deltas. These areas are very important in terms of enhancing the bio-diversity of such areas. In recent years it became very popular to create such areas in urban sites. They are capable of cleaning the water in a very efficient way with biological elements such as plants , fish , birds and/or seaweed. It can be used to maintain and improve the quality of surface water. Urban wetlands play an important role to be a protection against river flood. There are different approaches for their applications in urban areas. The system can be implemented in lots of areas from empty lots to inside of buildings.


WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH ALGAES The algae treatment is mainly used in industrial and posindustrial areas. It offers to treat the water while producing bio-fuel and increasing the biodiversity of that area. It creates a totally self sufficient systems in a very clean way. It also absorbs carbon from the atmosphere and pump out fresh oxygen to the air. The system can be implemented in variety of areas : the façades of the buildings , interiors and even in the urban park areas. Özge Hocalar | Eco-Hybrid | 239

LITERATURE REVIEW FOR THE STREAM PATH SUNQIA URBAN AGRICULTURAL DISTRICT BY SASAKI The district is located between the Shanghai’s main airport and the city center. The area housed a 20 years old conventional agriculture production history. The project aims to sustain this history and combines these activites with technological and sustainable techniques. The district offers vertical farming areas , including with scientific research areas. The aim of this project was to include the public participation. Therefore the area is very open to public and offers public engaging activites and areas. It creates an urban agriculture activity area as a living laboratory for public to participate and educate at the same time.


PORT OF PORTLAND : LIVING MACHINE Living machine system basically mimics a coastal wetland area. It treats the water by the help of artificial wetland cells which are filled with micro-ecosystems , tidal cycles , gravels that can be found in actual wetlands. The process consist of a number of those cells and at the end , it results as a very clean water that can even be consumed by human. The most important feature of this technique is , it can be applicable to everywhere. In this example , the plant pots in the lobby area or plant pots in the garden are small artificial wetland cells , contributing the process of water treatment.


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THE TRAM LINE ACTS AS THE CARRIER OF GREEN AXES IN THE CITY ENVIRONMENTAL -FRIENDLY INFRASTRUCTURE PROPOSAL: TRAM LINE As mentioned earlier , the İzmir-İstanbul Road going across the city center creates a barrier for the flow of the pedestrians and the axes that has been created in the old city center. Also the proposal about the green continuity along with the re-opened stream is creating green continuity in the city. This infrastructure proposal for a tram line aims to combine this road issue with the green continuiy approach and make it applicable to the city to create one combined and unified city center regarding this blocking road. Beside the functional benefits of the tram line in terms of public transportation it is a very clean and eco-friendly system in the cities.

Therefore this will create a connection in the city by enhancing the sustainable solutions that is proposed earlier by proposing a useful infrasturcture for the citizens at the same time. The route of the tram is defined by overlaying the unique features and important spatial areas in the city such as ; the underground streams , already existed green areas and axis , education zones etc.. The route will predominantly be created by green surfaces and trees. The proposed route is going to create new green axes and enhance the exiting ones at the same time.And it is breaking the continuity problem caused by the road by going directly through it with green surfaces and spread to the sides from the upper parts. With this route the lack of pedestrian circulation and green contnuity will be solved and the proposed sustainable solutions in the stream area , will be carried and applicable all over the city . Özge Hocalar | Eco-Hybrid | 241


By re-opening the stream , the connection between two eco-systems will be achieved and a green corridor will be created along the stream.The sustainable water treatment systems that has mentioned in the lecture review will be implemented to this area to enhance the water quality. This green corridor will be carried all over the city with the help of the tram line .Therefore the green areas will be distributed evenly in the city center.


The master plan area , is at the end of the previosly mentioned proposals and acts as a treshold for them at the same time.That is why the area has chosen to be studied on too.The busy higway is dividing the zones like it does to the city. The area includes 4 empty zones. These zones are one of the largest lots left in the city center. First three of them is empty and has no use at the moment. Zone-1 is mostly green area and at one part , the electricity terminals are located. Zone -2 was used to be an oil factory but it is abonded at the moment. Zone-3 is just a huge empty lot located between the residential apartments and people put their trashes into it. However Zone 4 was used to be a bus terminal. It was demolished in 2015.They opened up a competition for this area but it was never applied. And now it is being used as an open car park area and a bazaar area.

mountain agriculture fields stream


highway tram line -the new green axes



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There is a consistant pattern in the layout of the lots in the city. Closed inner courtyards are located in each lot and the buildings surround it by creating a boundry. It makes these areas totally close to the interaction with its surrounding roads and/or situations. And this approach is same everywhere. No matter what the surrounding environment is , the layout does not change accordingly.

What is proposed instead of this, is, to create continuity in the city. By creating some empty areas at the edge of the boundries of the lots, the continuity of green areas and/or pedestrian circulation can be achieved. The same attitude can be applied in different surrounding situations in different ways to create a better respond in the future.It will help to create a more unified city.


The master plan proposal aims to break the existing lot usage layout in the city and offers a better way to use the empty lots instead. This master plan is sensitive and responsive to its surroundings and makes use of the unique site advantages of the area.Three main zones in the master plan is connected with a sunken passageway. The green and pedestrian circulation continuity is achieved by creating circulation paths along the green axis and the stream despite the blockage problem of the crowded road. An urban park is located at the end of the stream with wetland cells to create fresh water. The mixed use settlement is shaped considering the continuity of green axes.And the selected site for ecohybrid is the area which all these things combined together in one place; the road , the stream and the green corridor.

CIRCULATION IN THE MASTER PLAN Ă&#x2013;zge Hocalar | Eco-Hybrid | 243

MASS STUDIES Building Site The site is located next to the crowded highway. It causes a seperation between the areas and therefore the city. The road blocks the pedestrian circulation and the green system which is achived in the below part of the road. The site areas are 43.000 m^2 and 12.000 m^2 total of 55.000 m^2. There is a green corridor and re-opened stream in the right corner of the bigger part. And a sunken passageway is located in the upper right part of the bigger site.

Site Objectives With a large green canopy it is aimed to solve the pedestrian and green blocage problem caused by the highway And also to achieve the continuity of the green corridor in the site at the same time. The canopy starts from the ground level and rises and descends in some places. It acts as a ground level in some places and a roof in other places. One of the pedestrian axis is located to connect the lots and the other is connecting with the sunken passageway.

Public Spaces WÄąth the green canopy the site is seperated into two public squares for the sake of a better human scale. The features and the activities that these squares offer is completely different.The pink area is sunken to prevent the noise coming from the highway. It has activity spaces. The qualities of the sunken area is the same between different lots to achieve the continuity. However the purple area is more linear along the water and has more leisure oppurtunities.

Site Forces The masses located on top of the puplic spaces has their references from the surrounding lots and existing circulatiÄąn axis. . Therefore the traces of the city can be seen in the site. The functions are differ between the masses according to their and their surrounding's needs. Since this is a hybrid project there are lots of different activities offered in the site so the funcitons of the masses support that idea too.

Solid-Void Relationship The common mass articulation between the masses and public spaces is achieved by solid-void relationship. The interior courtyards located in the masses for lighting adnd air circulation purposes.The courtyards are mostly acts as green areas inside the buildings. The interior courtyards are a part of the structural elements too. So the framework of the courtyards have also structural role in the building too. 244 | Ă&#x2013;zge Hocalar | Eco-Hybrid


SUNKEN PLAZA bazaar area market spaces gatherings

The building area offers several functions therefore activities that both the residents and the city can use. The variety of the functions derives from the idea of this space being a piece of the city itself. It has spaces for commercial activites located on the edge where there is more commercial activities in the surrounding. The masses are more permeable in that area to create a more welcoming area for both the commercial activities and for the sunken plaza located under it. The sunken plaza is connected with the space under the huge green roof.



cultual purposes concerts gatherings etc.

This area has multi purpose small rooms for different activities such as reading , working , hanging out etc. The space also offers closed spaces for workshops of seminars. There are two different residential masses which offers different living options according to the user's preferance. The one near the water , offers more communal living oppurtunities with some shared spaces and co-working office areaswith smaller apartment units. Whereas the other one has secured inner courtyard , green roof for gathering purposes and larger apartment units more suitable for families. Ă&#x2013;zge Hocalar | Eco-Hybrid | 245


The main difference between the mixed use buildings and hybrid buildings is how to functions are distributed inside the area. Hybrid buildings , have different functions overlapped and engaged with each other rather than being together but seperated. This section shows the variety of functions in the site and in the building and their distribution. Residential areas and working areas connected with each other with a common courtyard space. In addition with shared spaces like courtyard, lounge areas and community kitchen, it is aimed to increase the interaction between the residents. For a resident living in the area the site also offers different activities and spaces too. In addtition to the commercial areas , cultural activities are offered under to green roof with workshop spaces or small library areas. Therefore residents can achieve their live ,work and play aspects of their life on the same area which is the most important aspect of a hybrid building.

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The same spatial variety applied on the open public areas too. 4 different open public spaces are offered. The path near the water offers more leisure activites whereas the sunken plaza connected with the cultural area offers mre active spaces for concerts or diffirent gatherings. The big green roof covering the cultural area offers more natural areas for reading , lounging relaxing whereas the front area of the residential is covered with hardscape elements. The function and mass articulation of the building is quite crowded therefore , the faรงades are very simple and one local cladding material is used all over the faรงades. The connections of the elements are more focused in the faรงade design. The connection between the roof and columns are specified with empty spaces for lighting fixtures to enhance the effects of the columns in the faรงades. The connection between the slabs and walls are differentiated with curved and more smooth connections.


+0.00 level plan

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+7.00 level plan

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DETAILS Circular PV panels


soil & vegetation ayer steel columns insulation layer metal decking

connection beam

space frame roof structure steel columns reinforced concrete core reflection pool

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Type 1 : Self Standing Columns

Type 2: Interior Courtyard

4 different structural typologies has been used in the site. The main idea is to create different user scenerios and spaces from one type of structural element: the columns. Therefore , the different usages of columns has been implemented on the different areas of the design. The first one is the basic self standing columns. In this case , the space around the individual column is going to be used by the users according to their needs and preferences.

The second type is the interior courtyards. The three main masses have interor courtyards for light and air circulation purposes. These courtyard spaces are defined by the structural columns. They form the space and create an outline for this area. Green surfaces and trees are implemented on these spaces to create a fresh semi-open atmosphere for the users.

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Type 3 : Space Between the Columns

Type 4 : Space Inside the Columns

The spaces between the columns are used for the enclosed spaces. However there is a small gap between the surfaces and the columns. So it looks like the mass implemented inside of the columns. The masses in the commercial part is the most visible usage of this type in the project.

In some areas, instead of one big column with a large section , the columns spread around in a circular motion and create spaces inside them with several smaller sectioned columns. This is mostly used in the spaces under the green roof. The spaces can be used as multi purpose rooms , reading rooms or lounge areas according to the user needs.

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green roof

passive ventilation

pv panels

water harvesting & cooling

Several sustainable approaches implemented in the site and buildings.Firstly, the angled roofs facing towards the water , are going to contribute to the water harvesting process which is being done through the path of the stream , by carrying the rainwater on the roofs to the water. The stream also creates a water cooling effect both for the residents and the pathway next to it since the city gets very hot in the summers. The big green roof covering almost half of the site is very beneficial in terms of decreasing the interior temperatures of the spaces under the roof. They decrease the effects of heat island therefore the roof stays cold under the sun and so the areas under it.And the cultural activities located under this roof beacuse of these benefits.

252 | Ă&#x2013;zge Hocalar | Eco-Hybrid

passive ventilation

water cooling

The interior courtyards are located at the center of the masses, increases the passive ventilation and air circulation. The green spaces and trees are implemented to the courtyards to increase the air quality more.Especially with the courtyard in the green roof area combined with the benefits of the green roof is going to create a very fresh air inside the building. The circular PV panels are located at the pop-out glass mass considering the orientation of the sun. The south and west facing surfaces has more panels comparing to the north facing surfaces to achieve an efficient solar harvesting .Finally a reflection pool is located at this area to reflect the sun and collect the rainwater and again to create a cooling effect in the area.


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254 | Rabia Bilge Atabey | Not a Boundary

NOT A BOUNDARY Rabia Bilge ATABEY The Golden Horn region is among the four important and different characters regions and has a transition feature. As a result of transforming the city walls into industrial zones, the coastal shipyards that continue to exist by shaping both themselves and their surroundings have become the places where only maintenance and repair works are performed today. This change over time has made it the finish line of the urban surface rather than being a component of its interior. The continuity of the urban surface has been interrupted with this coastal length, which is physically dead. The purpose of this project is to ensure the continuity of the production phenomenon that forms the identity of the Golden Horn Shipyard and to add the types of programs that will revive this region and save it from being isolated among other regions

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Historical Background Halic is a creek on the southeast on the ebtrance of the Bosporus. Haliç Shipyard is the oldest industrial area built on the Golden Horn coast. There are many different factors around the shipyard. For example, the Pera region has developed in terms of art and culture and financially appeals to the upper people, while the KasÄąmpaĹ&#x;a region has developed on the contrary. The intersection point of these different areas is the Golden Horn coast. In the 19th century, the walls of Istanbul were transformed into an industrial zone with the effect of modernization. As a result of the increase in production in this region, immigration from outer cities started and a settlement unit was formed around the industry. In short, the industry is the reason for the settlement in the coastal region.

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However, in order to meet the surplus production, the industrial areas here have been moved out of the city and the production here has been reduced to a minimum.In this process, the settlements around the Golden Horn continued to take shape within themselves. As a result of moving the industrial zone from this area, this region was adopted as a home by people with insufficient financial status and skewed urbanization started. Each region maintains its unique event-space relationship, and the Golden Horn continues to exist in isolation between these regions.

Rahmi Koc Museum

Taskizak Shipyard Camialti Shipyard Turkish Navy Headquarters

Halic Shipyard

Tarihi Yarımada

Halic was a natural harbour and its entrance was protected by a large chain to prevent opponent ships from entering into the horn. After the qonquer of Istanbul, shipbuilding activities were transferred to Istanbul. The expansion included protective masonry walls against possible fires and to keep unwanted observers. At the end, the site became an industrial complex with admiralaty, shipyards, docks and social facilities. Halic includes Taskizak, Camialtı Shipyard, Northern Sea Area Command. The only working shipyard is Halic Tersanesi.

Old Galata Bridge

Taskizak Shipyard

Camialti Shipyard

Halic Shipyard

Atatürk Bridge

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Details of Golden Horn

Today the relationship between the city and the shipyards is very restricted. In fact this was reduces when the ports were exported from the city center and were moved to urban boundraries. At the beginning the port and the city had a positive relationship. However, with the increasing population and developing technologies, ports were unwanted areas in the city center. They were moved out of sight areas.

In the first, primitive city and port were had a good relationship. However, in time, the port acitivities start to expand beyond the urban boundaries with the development of technology and industry. Then, cities are expanding with increasing population and infrasturcture. On the other hand, ports were also expanding in the opposite direction. At the end the relationship between ports and the city is reduced and the areas left over within the city.

Until the beginning of the twentieth century, Istanbul maintained its historical footprint. However, after WWII migration took place and accelerating uncontrolled changes in the city. With increasing population, industrializations grew rapidly. Istanbulâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first industrial settlement was built on Halic. Every possible needs for a living city working education and religion is included in Halic. Fort his reason, the area has plural characteristics due to different types of neighbourhood and cultures.

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Vehicle Transportation

Sea Connection

The accesibility for cars for Halic is easier than the pedestrians. The continious walking in the Halic shoreline is not possible.

PROTECTED BUILDINGS Halic is a region with many historical layers and it has some structures that need to be preserved. For example, the historical Halic shipyard was established in 1455 and has hosted different layers since then. It is aimed to open these buildings to function in terms of the adaptive reuse.

Historical Buildings Dry Dock Slipways

GREENERY AREAS IN URBAN CONTEXT When viewed at a large scale, there is not much green area in the project area and its surrounding. Some of the existing green areas are used as cemetery, while others are difficult to reach as a result of level difference and interruption caused by roads. In addition to that, there is no green street understanding that spans the city.

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Timeline of Tersane-i Amire 19th19th Century Century BC BC

16th Century BC

In 1821 Second dry dock was built. In 1857 Third dry dock was built.

In 1513 beginning of the construction Tersane-i Amire.

17th Century BC

19231923 - Republic - Republic of Turkey of Turkey

14th Century BC

Golden Horn becomes well-known harbour and maintained its importance until 19th century.



Dar al-sinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;a Arabia

260 | Rabia Bilge Atabey | Not a Boundary

18th Century BC

In 1917 first dry dock was built.

Harbour Darsena Spanish, Greek, Italian


Dock Tersane-i Amire Tersane-i Amire Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire

The Golden Horn region is among the four important and different characters regions and has a transition feature. As a result of transforming the city walls into industrial zones, the coastal shipyards that continue to exist by shaping both themselves and their surroundings have become the places where only maintenance and repair works are performed today. This change over time has made it the finish line of the urban surface rather than being a component of its interior. The continuity of the urban surface has been interrupted with this coastal length, which is physically dead. The purpose of this project is to ensure the continuity of the production phenomenon that forms the identity of the Golden Horn Shipyard and to add the types of programs that will revive this region and save it from being isolated among other regions

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Cultural areas Cultural areas Relaxing

Activities Observation points

The most important point to be considered in the masterplan phase was to ensure that the seashore rejoins human life. However, although the Golden Horn shores have important buildings in terms of history, they need to be preserved. At this stage, it was tried to regain daily life by preserving these historical buildings. In addition, it is aimed to use the estuary view in the most efficient way by creating vista points thanks to a floating deck.

262 | Rabia Bilge Atabey | Not a Boundary

The main purpose of this idea is to create a new dynamic on the shoreline. In another part, the Algerian Hasan Pasha park was expanded and the pre-existing green area was enlarged.In addition, the idea of distributing the green was applied in the streets descending to the shore. These streets are combined with green according to their width.


Although there is access to water around the designated area, there is no area where people can spend time. As a result, dehumanization starts in the area and its surroundings.

There are very few green areas on the area. However, social facilities were built in front of these areas and the human relationship with the sea was cut off.

Looking at the whole of the area, it is observed that most of them belong to the public. However, these areas did not have any activities and became a deserted area.

In addition, some areas belong to the private sector. Some of these areas are at the project stage and some of them left this area.


The most important point in master plan solutions is to unite people and the sea, to enable the dysfunctional areas to function again. To achieve this, human and bicycle users were considered superior to car users and special pathways were created.

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The site plan process has been established from the very beginning to protect the historical texture and put it into functional life. In accordance with this purpose, some of the buildings in the area were restored and brought back to life. In addition, the use of dried docks, which is the biggest challenge of this area, is shaped according to the functions of the surrounding buildings. The memorial museum at the entrance serves as a living museum that allows the works in the area to be displayed. Another building is used for photography exhibition space because it can be raise the attention to the site. And the dock between two buildings is working as a floating stage. Another building which was used as storage is cleaned around extensions and still used as a storage. Another building is includes 3 pieces and they have workshop and atelier functions as before to be work with the second dockyard.

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Ground Floor Plan

Design Ideas for all ages

First Floor Plan


from the maximum capacity to the module elements dance



Second Floor Plan

gallery music


Carrying with trucks and cranes

Third Floor Plan

Raised Floor System Concrete Layer Steel Deck

Fourth Floor Plan Polycarbonate Translucent Panel

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Diagrams Social areas


Viewing Points



For different uses, some extensions were done to the buildings and they create a massy view. In the project, these extensions are taken out and the original building parts were preserved.

Raised Floor System Concrete Layer Steel Deck

Viewing points




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Section AA

Photography Exhibition

Memorial Museum First dry dock Floatiing Stage

Section BB

Second dry dock

Section CC

Workshop and Atelier

Second dry dock Second dry dock as an exhibition area works with workshop and atelier

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Perched on stone pinnacles and clay ridges, Craco is the archetype of the ghost town. It is a city burned up by the sun and severe winters, an assemblage of houses with unsteady bricks clinging to each other. eir arrangement is so expressive and fascinating that looks arti�cial. It is a sculpture of houses with torn-off roofs, interrupted vaults and ruined bell towers; a place that does not belong to the present. is space is trapped among the depths of the pr past. Here, time and abandonment made one of their most indescribable miracles. Every year, thousands of visitors from all over the world look for such miracle in pursuit of intense emotions. ey undertake a journey that is not always easy. ey do so by following the irresistible call of the most outstanding ghost town on the planet. Ghost Town Refuge aims to respond to such call. It invites architects to design a dispersed system of contemporary refuges among the ruins of the ancient Craco. is system will enable visitors to live a sublime experience: living among ruins and falling asleep under the uncovered vaults of a ghost town. Among steep routes and pebbly paths, in the new refuges visitors will have the opportunity to lie down under starry skies hearing the op sound of the benign ghosts of Craco. When the wind blows through empty windows and torn-off roofs the spirits of the hamlet appear. ey are old rusty hinges that creak and whimper at nightfall. ey are the irreverent guardians of the identity of a hamlet that, despite time, does not intend to die.

276 | Şevval Simruy Baygül | Ghost Town Refugee

Located about 25 miles inland from the Gulf of Taranto at the instep of the “boot” of Italy, the medieval village of Craco is typical of the hill towns of the region with mildly undulating shapes and the land surrounding it sown with wheat. Craco was built on a very steep summit, in medieval times for defensive reasons, giving it a stark and striking appearance and distinguishing it from the surrounding lands which are characterized by soft shapes. su The center, built on the highest side of the town, facing a ridge runs steeply to the southwest where newer buildings exist. The town sits atop a 400 meter high cliff that overlooks the Cavone River valley. Throughout the area are unique vegetation-less mounds formed by intensive erosion that are called “calanchi.”

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The document shown on the right, containing land records has a unique depiction of the town and surrounding area. It is described as a original document of colorful water-color on parchment with various access roads and the Salandrella River. The sketch provides additional details about the town and area of 200 years ago. At the top is the Fume Salandrella and as you look clockwise around the edges you will see the notations for cl the directions to Pisticci, Montalbano, Stigliano, & Grassano, along with locations that we don’t immediately recognize today. Significant buildings identified by name on it are the Fontana di S. Lorenzo, the Monastario, the church of S. Maria Orloceto, and the chapel of the Madonna della Stella. Not labeled but visible in the town area are the Tower, Chiesa di San Nicola, and a steeple below it that was probably the chapel of Santa Maria di Monserrato.

1: Depot belonging to Lo Porchio family. During the San Vincenzo and Madonna della Stella celebrations, the bandstand was placed in the open area near this depot. 2: Shop owned by Carmelina Pucci – had the best mortadella, cheese, and olives. 3: Home of the Manghise family of chemists, politicians, and teachers. 4: Craco also had a Cinema, that was operational from the mid 1950s and screened such Italian classics as “Catene”, “Il fornaretto di Venezia”, and “Marcellino, pane e vino”. To the right of the Cinema was a small street with more homes, and a carpentry shop of Antonio Consoli. 5: Home of Anna Spera. 6: Bar belonging to Valerio Santalucia. 7: Home of Giuseppe Lospinoso. 8: Tabacchino shop belonging to Marcello Pantaleo. 9: Home of Angelo L’Episcopia. 10: Sacristy of the Chiesa Madre. 11: Shop belonging to Graziella and Vincenzo Vignola who sold fruits, vegetables, legumes and cereals. 12: Home belonging to Dr. DiRiso. 278 | Şevval Simruy Baygül | Ghost Town Refugee

This map from 1939 shows the relationship of Largo Vittorio Emanuele to other important landmarks in town.

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potential open space main access to the site proposed axis that divides the site

tower as a reference to a passage axis cliff axis secondary accesses

280 | Şevval Simruy Baygül | Ghost Town Refugee

Proposed axis that is shown divides the site into two hypothetical sides. As it can be seen, le side is: • easy to access with the main road next to it • in bad condition • structures have no roofs As a result this side is: • open to experiments for touristic routes Whereas right side is: • hard to access • in good condition • structures have roofs As a result this side is: • potential residential area

Strong cliff axis separates historical side of the land and the steep edges on the other side which is a potential experimental zone for modern moves. e Norman Tower that is shown, is a reference for the passages opening to potential open spaces.


potential open space housing for the outcomers structural framing main access to the site


potential open space main access to the site secondary accesses potential welcoming area


potential open space greenery surrounding the space natural route that leads people



corridor node between potential open spaces

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hotel courtyard


aquaponic farming



local streets

main road




adventure path


art galleries

main access

local street

open-air facilities

282 | Şevval Simruy Baygül | Ghost Town Refugee




Piazza is a public square in Italy, usually surrounded by houses. e Italian Piazza is the hub of civic life and oen includes a bar or café and a church or a town hall. Most Italian towns and cities have lovely central squares with colorful monuments or fountains. e revitalization site, Craco is similar in context to Siena and Bologna with its rich historical texture; thus one of the important design decisions was to keep the potential open spaces as piazzas and connect them in the urban scale. As it can be seen in the diagram above, there are 3 main piazzas and they all serve di�erent user pro�les. �hile the �rst one is primarily for the tourists, second one is privatized for the home owners and the third one on becomes a bigger welcoming piazza serving as a gathering zone for both sides of the site with its bazaar function.

1: Hotel Courtyard

2: Local Square

Piazza del Campo, Siena

Piazza del Maggiore, Bologna

3: Bazaar

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As for the alternative settlement program, target group is the out-comers such as tourists or film sets who need a temporary accommodation. While doing that, improvement of the existing ruins which are comparatively in bad condition is used as well as the creation of the new volume designs for public facilities. The hotel, made of modular suites, is partly perched on the stone and partly set in ruins within a wireframe mesh grid. These apartments meet the needs of all the visitors. They accommodate from 2 to 4 people and offer a luxurious and refined experience. Here, visitors have the opportunity to look at the desert ravines from elegant living rooms or gaze the vault of heaven by enjoying the vapors of a private swimming pool.

284 | Ĺ&#x17E;evval Simruy BaygĂźl | Ghost Town Refugee

ground floor

first floor

second floor

third floor

roof Şevval Simruy Baygül | Ghost Town Refugee | 285

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ID Bilkent University 2020 Graduation Projects | Section III  

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