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PORTFOLIO Semester 1, 2018

Yichen Cao 900359 Michael Mack + Studio 05

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ABOUT.

424 873 931

I’m Yichen. I’m from Shanghai and currently study Architecture in my second-year of Bachelor of Design. Though having no former background of art or architecture training, I take that as an advantage of think more on users’ sides and treat the relationship of architecture and other subject more closely. I’d like to apply cross-field knowledge to my design, especially for this subject---Digital Design. As the nature of parametric design is algorithms, I made a few attempts in applying the mathematical idea trigonometry function graphs to my M2 design when making the solid. And in my final design, I started the formfinding process with another mathematical idea called minimal surface. However, minimal surface is very tricky to control openings in forming circulation and threshold. I had to shift the idea to Voronoi pattern, which prevails in Biological phenomenon. As more knowledge from different background I get to employ in my design, I started to have a better understanding on seeing architecture as a comprehensive subject that requires collaboration with cross-field knowledge.

yichenc3@student.unimelb.edu.au

Education: 2017 - current 2016 - 2017

Bachelor of Design, University of Melbourne Foundation Studies, Trinity College

Awards / Exhibition: 2017

FOD:R Exhibition, AFLK Gallery

2017

Studio Alpha Exhibition, MSDX

2018

Winter Exhibition, MSDX

Though I’ve taken 3d-modelling and representational skill learnt from FoDR to the study of Digital Design, It was the first time that I was exposed to parametric design, 3d printing and real-time rendering. I improved my Grasshopper skill through workshops and technical help from my tutors. The most inspiring experience from this semester is a workshop run by Fologram, from which I first-time had chance to use Augmented Reality to simplify my design-to-fabrication workflow. Even though this technology is still under development, after seeing its potential in revolutionizing conventional digital fabrication workflow, I believe the future of architecture will be more closely associated with mixed-reality technology.

Skills: Rhino Grasshopper Unreal Photoshop Illustrator

According to the feedback given on each design phase, I improved the models and diagrams presented in this portfolio. By doing so I want to show a consistent documentation of reflection and progress I made in the study of Digital Design.

Indesign Fabrication Photography

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CONTENTS. 02

About Me

04 - 07

M1- Precedent Study

- Toyo Ito Serpentine Pavilion - Threshold 05 - Circulation 06 - Context 07

08 - 23

M2 - Generating Design Through Digital Processes

- Task I. Panels and Waffle

10 - 16

24-45

- Task II. Solid and Void

17 - 23

M3 - Tangling Pavilion

- Real-time Rendering - Perspectives

24 - 26

44 - 45

- 360 Image Output

- Form-finding Iterations - Grasshopper Iterations

30 - 31

- Photographs

32 - 35

- Landscape

36 - 37

- Materials Study

38 - 41

- Tangling Pavilion - Parametric Design

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- Fabrication Process 43 46

Reference Lists

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M1-PRECEDENT STUDY.

2002 Toyo Ito Serpentine Pavilion, photo taken by Sylvain Deleu

Today we are able to create architecture based on the rules in the natural world by using computer technologies. However, we should use these rules not to make forms that imitate nature but instead to create architecture that breathes and is congruous with the environment. ------ Toyo Ito

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THRESHOLD/PERMEABILITY.

Glazing

Aluminum plates

This elegant architecture is one of a series of Serpentine Pavilion in Kensington Gardens. Toyo Ito designed it in collaboration with the structure engineer Cecil Balmond. He redefined the conventional box using an algorithm to rotate and scale a square for multiple times, which generated the distorted skin, directing sunlight coming into the space and forming interesting in-between space. In Module 1, I did all modelling using Rhinoceros. But after this semester learning a plug-in called Grasshopper in Rhino, I realized that this pavilion can be modelled using Anemone to create “loop“ in Grasshopper and combing with sun-analysis plug-in to analyze the permeability of the structure. Therefore, the work-flow can be further simplified with results improved.

Grillage of flat steel bars

In this pavilion, the circulation is guided intentionally by the asymmetrical entries and the ingenious control of openings to guide light, which is perforated through the glazing. Meanwhile, the aluminum panels cast shadow on the ground, leaving occupiable space of different density and main circulation. I’ve also observed that people can occupy the space in-between those steel bars for different uses. The permeability is also achieved through layering different materials with an overall rule on openings’ pattern. With no discrete structure elements---columns, windows or walls, which are all combined as an entity. Floor partition and stairs

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CIRCULATION.

Rendered isometric view

Keys: Primary circulation paths

Structure line-drawing

Less occupied space

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DIGITAL MODELLING. CONTEXT.

To better understand how Toyo Ito using design intervention to guide the circulation and form the threshold, I decided to view the pavilion as part of its context----Kensington Gardens. So I extracted the basic ground information from the map and did some research on the surrounding buildings. As can be seen from the digital model I created in Rhinoceros, the entries are located in an asymmetrical relationship. The majority of the entries are set at which are close to the main road and the facilities near the facilities of the museum. This is intended to attract visitors to walk into the pavilion from any directions.

Plan view rendered showing the relationship of the pavilion and its context

As can be seen from this render, sunlight at noon coming into the volume through those irregular polygon-shape glazing, creating dynamic light-shadows effect for multiple experience and leaving space for holding small events. Despite the random shape they looks, they are generated through rationally rotating and scaling a square for multiple times, then used to wrap the box.

Perspective view rendered showing the relationship of the pavilion and its context

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M 2 - Generating Design Through Processes

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M2-DIGITAL MODELLING .

Task I “ Panels and Waffle “

Task II “ Solid and Void “

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Task I “ Panels and Waffle “

Rendered view of panels showing light effect

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WAFFLE

PANELS


Parametric Design Process . Surfaces - Form Finding . The script first constructed a 150 x 150 x 150 mm box. Then it extracted the edges out of the brep, using sliders to extract an exact point out of ten evenly distributed points from that edges. Finally those points were connected into lines and used for lofting surfaces.

1.1

1.2

Lofts

1.1

1.3

1.2

1.4

1.3

Key

1.4

Math

{0, 150, 150} {0, 150, 150}

{0, 150, 150}

Grid

{60, 150, 150}

{-150, 0, 150}

{0, 0, 150}

{30, 0, 150}

{60, 0, 150}

{0, 0, 150}

{0, 150, 0} {-150, 50, 0}

{75, 150, 0}

{0, 0, 0}

{0, 0, 0}

{0, 0, 0}

{90, 0, 0}

Panel cull patterns

I start2.1 wth two surfaces having simple spatial relationship and intersection. After that, I explored2.3how complex the curvature of two surfaces2.4 can be. Then I reached a balance 2.2 where two surfaces intersect at the same point and have curvature towards different direction. Those surfaces enclose a space that have a triangle frame at the top and gradually transit to a quad frame at the bottom, creating interesting volume quality for the waffle structure.

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Parametric Design Process . Panelling Tool - Cull Patterns . The script explored panelling tool in Grasshopper and particularly, the cull pattern component. I started this exploration by trying to apply panel variations as using paneling tool in Rhino. However, I find it struggling with Morph3D. During the drop-in session, I was introduced to use this cull pattern component to realize applying two pattern onto one surface. How the cull pattern works is based on the value True or False you input into the component. When input True, it keep the pattern, Otherwise, it cull the pattern. The order is based on the list order and can be viewed by using a list item or point list. It can also recognize boolean toggle and 0 or 1i n a panel. The key thing I learnt when using this is to remember to turn the input panel into multiline data. One thing I still questioned is how to apply more than two pattern onto the surface using the cull pattern. The highlighted script aims to offset the grid to different heights to create more variation of the panels.

2.1

2.2

2.3

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2.4


Design Matrix 1:5

Surface and Waffle

A transition from a triangluar frame at the top to the quad shape at the bottom creating dynamic space. Solid panels create a definitive boundary between exterior and interior.

Cut out forms create interesting interior experience through light and shadow. Contrast between solid panel and cut out panel creating dynamic effect. Rhythmic arrangement of solid panels and cut out panels direct the light intensionally.

Perforations on the face control the direction in which light can enter the volume.

Panels are smaller at the bottom and increase in size towards the top of the volume.

Since I was fascinated by the light-shadow effect in Toyo Ito’s Serpentine Pavilion which is filtered through those polygon glazing, I decided to create a highly permeable space for people having multiply experience. Also I was inspired by the openings of the reading rooms in Viipuri Library, which are designed to capture natural-light from any direction. So I designed this fan-shaped geometry that has eight faces, which creates appealing light-shadow effect from multiple angle.

This fan-shaped geometry has more faces, allowing more light to access the space.

A hollow waffle structure allows for the creation of an interior volume.

Exploded Axonometric 1:1 0

20

60mm

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DESIGN MATRIX.

Lofts

1.1

1.2

1.3

Key

1.4

Math Function Graph

{0, 150, 150} {0, 150, 150}

{0, 150, 150}

Grid Points

{60, 150, 150}

{-150, 0, 150}

{0, 0, 150}

{30, 0, 150}

{60, 0, 150}

{0, 0, 150}

{0, 150, 0} {-150, 50, 0}

{75, 150, 0}

{0, 0, 0}

{0, 0, 0}

{90, 0, 0}

{0, 0, 0}

Panel cull patterns

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

Paneling

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

For task 1 I want to study how does perforation affect light and shadow in the inner space. I explored how to apply multiple panels onto one surfaces using Grasshopper cull pattern component. It creates rhythmic contrast with solid geometry versus geometry that has various openings. For the panels I tested from simple pyramids to geometry that has more faces, allowing more openings to direct the light entering the space.

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TASK I. FABRICATION. LASERCUTTING .

Through FoDR’s study I feel more confident in digital fabrication. Even have a few attempts of lasercutting my models before, However, I still met quite a lot issues when making these models. The first issue I encountered was serious overlapping in my digital file due to the mesh is too complex. The I fix the problem by creating a simple mesh in rhino first, then refer it to Grasshopper. Problem solved! Another thing coming across is to put the edges in different etch and cut layer. This process is so time-consuming, but the result proved to be worth it. Panels and waffle fabricated using laser-cutting techniques

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From the panel nesting image can be seen I’ve tested more geometry than I have put on the surfaces, that’s because I want to test whether the laser cutter will burn out the place where multiple lines intersecting at on point. This gave me confidence of fabricating some complex geometry that has many faces or openings in the later study.


TASK I. FABRICATION.APPENDIX.

I added figures at 1:100 to see the lighting experience inside the volume.

On one side of the surface I explored the dramatic contrast caused by the rhythmic patterns of the monolithic panels and perforation on panels.

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Task II . S O L I D AND V O I D .

Rendered view showing occupiable space and dynamic interior.

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S O L I D AND V O I D . ITERATIONS.

{0; 1}

{0; 2}

{0; 3}

{0; 4}

{0; 5}

{0; 6}

{0; 5; 0; 0}

{0; 5; 1; 0 }

{0; 5; 2; 0}

{0; 5; 3; 0}

{0; 5; 4; 0}

{0; 5; 5; 0}

{0; 5; 0}

{0; 5; 1}

{0; 5; 2}

{0; 5; 3}

{0; 5; 4}

{0; 5; 5}

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Parametric Design Process . Boolean Difference .

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

For task two I used the aggregate of modules of blocks to boolean the 150 x 150 x 150 mm box. The first iteration have blocks that are of same height. It gave a rigid look. So I offset the blocks to a series of height and shift the direction, which making a space has space with stairs. Then I further develop the complexity using sine and cosine function to give the space a wavy, organic dynamic. Instead of using graph mapper or random component, I wish to have more control using this in my script.

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Solid an Void

With the geometry booleaned, some openings are left upside for creating connection to the outside. The place of these openings direct how the light coming through the inner space.

Where some solids are culled leaving structure elements as columns to support the surface envelop.

This organic form is to mimic the sonic wave using the graph of the math function sine and cosine, which adds ryhthm to the solid.

The solids left behind can be interpreted either as stairs or space for people to occupy. This almost intersecting space left interesting in-between space for people to interact with.

Task 2 was driven by my ambition to create a complex space with multifunction which can be achieved through the growth of one simple module. It can be seen as an attempt to mimic the logic behind cellular automata without knowing the background. Now I realized how redundant my script were, but I value this practice for introducing me to the beauty of the parametric design.

Axonometric 1:1 Solid boolean using 3.2 morph itteration. 0

20

60mm

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DESIGN MATRIX.

Grid Distribution Function Graph and Extrusions

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

Boolean Outcomes

Key

1.1

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

1.2

1.3

Math Function Graph Grid Points

For task 2 I want to see to what extent a complexity can be reached using a simple geometry to boolean a box. I see each geometry as a module and a series of input variables to control the overall effect. Then I want to further explore how can I make the form more complex, yet still with great control over it. Therefore I introduced trigonometric function graphs into my script. Since the function graph has a periodic phenomena, I used it to create rhythmic effect that looks like sonic wave, which forming a space with dynamic land condition and interesting perforation.

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T A S K II . F A B R I C A T I O N . 3D PRINTING .

We should remember however that “it is poetry that makes you live”, and that life is lived not only in hermetically sealed boxes made for small parallel lives, … And an object may be an adventure in space, or an object of worship and veneration, and become a shining intersection point of relationship. ----Superstudio

The idea of module comes from my experience playing Minecraft, but later I did some research and realized it was widely used in Architecture. BIG’s Serpentine pavilion also incorporated the idea of module. But it is more frequently used in collective housing / high rises. For example, Habitat 67 by Moshe Safide and Nagakin capsule building by Kisho Kurokawa, which are associated with the metabolism movement.

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T A S K II . F A B R I C A T I O N . 3D PRINTING .

After I designed this I saw the lecture theater and realized.. Ha-ha what a coincidence!

The 3D Printing went quite smoothly overall. Unlike my studio experience using 3D printing to print a fluid form, this model is in regular geometric form so merely a thing can go wrong. The only problem is some corners are too small to use a pliers to get rid of the supports.

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Those modules are arranged in a rhythmic / or random pattern to achieve the best acoustic/ lighting / or purely visual effect based on my guess.


T A N G L I NG P A V I L I O N

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TANGLING PAVILION . My concept for this project is to create a high sense of transparency and permeability with distorting the inside and outside space, which eventually leads to a pavilion that is breathing and congruous with the environment. Like Toyo Ito has described his National Taichung Theatre --- “are in some ways inside and in some ways outside the body� I started form-finding with the idea Minimal surface, and later shifted to Voronoi pattern to mimic the spatial quality yet with more control. The landscape is elevated to celebrate the sculpture-like pavilion, so that visitors can enjoy its beauty even from a far distance. Considering the circulation, I divided the visitors into two types---one is the life-time visitor, for whom I want to ensure them get full experience of the pavilion. So there is a circular pathway designed no matter entering from any entry. The other is the local visitors, a spread-out circulation is designed for them to enter and exit based on their interest. The landscape is also sharing the same concept, with an overall radial shape and extended space for lingering on.

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M3 - Tangling Pavilion

Keys:

DIAGRAM.

Occupied space

Spread-out circulation

Radius Circulation

Module Structure Detail 1:25

Stainless steel mesh enhances the high sense of transparency and permeability, allowing light to access the space. This gives the pavilion a sense of heaviness when stepping inside but transparency when viewing from outside.

The structure is generated using Voronoi 3d. The distortion is achieved through parametric design tool Grasshopper using point attractors.

Yichen Cao - 900359

The threshold and circulation of the pavilion are generated through culling points inside the voids I formed.

The step-down creates space for lingering on, allowing people to view the sculpture-like pavilion from outside as well as enjoying the performances held inside the pavilion.

27 The hollow space forms a transitional space as well as distorting people’s perception of interior and exterior when approaching the pavilion.

The steps elevated creates a threshold helping to differentiate the landscape from the pavilion itself.


PROGRESSION PERSPECTIVE. UNREAL ENGINE 4 .

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DESIGN ITERATIONS .

Design Iteration

I first came up with a waffle structure that is booleaned out to form circulation and seats.

Then I created a script to grow semi-enclosed surface from curves I draw.

However I want to challenge myself how far I can go with parametric design tool.

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I made the surface mor this wavy effect, which c However circulation and are very ambiguous.


re complex by adding creates dynamic space. d threshold in this space

I continued exploring how can I take what I learnt from Toyo Ito’s pavilion---permeability and redefining architectural elements until I found the idea of Minimal Surface. This is a Gyroid Surface I made in Grasshopper using plug-in Millipede.

I came up with this wavy envelop in which some of the slope extends to the ground and became support structure.

I simplified the space by extracting its smallest unit. I attempted to control the openings using a plug-in called Kangaroo. However, it’s still very difficult to rationalize the distinct structure to form ideal circulation for pavilion.

This shows the 31 exploration I made in designing the perforation of the skin, using Weaverbird.

I attempted to mimic the materiality of steel mesh, by changing the thickness using Weaverbird.


TANGLING PAVILION. PHOTOGRAPHS.

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LANDSCAPE .

Image captured from Google Map

The pavilion is to be located in the Queen Victoria Garden. Through research, I noticed that there are a few water features--- The Yarra River, Ornamental Lake and a small pond. Their sinuous shape inspired me to design the landscape that is congruous with the context. To do so, I researched on ARM’s Elizabeth Quay project, in which they simulated the process of dropping a virtual egg into virtual water, and recorded the water disturbance pattern, using it in the paving. I created the landscape using metaballs in Grasshopper, which formed an overall radial shape and extended space for people to linger on.

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PRECEDENT STUDY . MATERIALS.

The NonLin/Lin pavilion designed by Marc Fornes is made of white Aluminum sheets using CNC cutting and engraving. This gives it a sculptural look and high sense of permeability.

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Felix Raspall + Carlos Baùón installed a 3D-printed mesh pavilion at SUTD university. It was composed of 3D-printed nodes and 10mm diameter aluminum bars.

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PRECEDENT STUDY . MATERIALS.

Sou Fujimoto’s Naoshima pavilion in Kagawa, Japan. It was made of white stainless steel mesh, which gives it high sense of transparency and allow view from any angle.

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Based on the precedents research, my pavilion is made of stainless steel mesh of 10mm diameter. I made the reflective, grey-silver texture in Unreal Engine. Its distinct materiality evokes a connection to the skyscrapers in the city, however also blends into the environment seamlessly.

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Parametric Design Process .

Grasshopper Script showing the control over final pavilion generated from Voronoi pattern

Using point attractor component from Nudibranch to control the angle to which the structure is distorted

Using dispatch to cull the points inside the breps, which forms ideal openings and circulation for the inhabitation.

Through scaling the faces extracted from the voronoi to control the size of the openings. ( f = scaling factor )

f = 0.212

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f = 0.618


FABRICATION PROCESS.

Removing support from 3D printed model

Making waffle structure inside the hollow contour model of the landscape

For the section pavilion, I used 3D printing to fabricate its organic form. Since the support is a big problem, I first remove it with a pliers, then use sand paper to sand the surface. For the landscape, I used 2mm white perspex as the material for lasercutting. Then I spray paint the model after it was glued.

43 Spray paint over white perspex for a clean, matte look


360 IMAGE OUTPUT. For the 360 image I chose a perspective that best show the distortion of space and permeability.

DIGITAL

Semeste

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DESIGN

er 1, 2018

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REFERENCE LISTS.

ARM Architecture, n.d. Elizabeth Quay, viewed 10th June 2018, < http://armarchitecture.com.au/projects/elizabeth-quay/> Cooper, 2015, Sou Fujimoto debuts a white stainless steel pavilion for the 2016 Setouchi International Art Festival in Japan, viewed on 10th June 2018, < https://archpaper. com/2015/04/japanese-architect-sou-fujimoto-debuts-white-stainless-steel-pavilion-2016-setouchi-international-art-festival/> Deleu, 2002, Toyo Ito Serpentine Pavilion, photograph, viewed 10th June 2018, < http://www.serpentinegalleries.org/exhibitions-events/serpentine-gallery-pavilion2002-toyo-ito-and-cecil-balmond-arup> Frearson, 2011, NonLin/Lin Pavilion by Marc Fornes/ and The Very Many, viewed on 10th June 2018, < https://www.dezeen.com/2011/08/02/nonlinlin-pavilion-by-marcfornes-the-very-many/> Gadanho, P. (2016). A Japanese constellation. New York: The Musuem of Modern Art, p.21. Gilardi, 2016, felix raspall + carlos bañón installs 3D-printed fibrous pavilion at SUTD Singapore, viewed on 10th June 2018, < https://www.designboom.com/architecture/ felix-raspall-carlo-banon-vmesh-pavilion-sutd-singapore-open-house-06-21-2016/> Hecht, viewed on 10th June 2018, Sou Fujimoto’s Naoshima Pavilion, photograph, < https://archpaper.com/2015/04/japanese-architect-sou-fujimoto-debuts-whitestainless-steel-pavilion-2016-setouchi-international-art-festival/> MAXXI, 2016, Superstudio 50, viewed 10th June 2018, < http://www.maxxi.art/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/MAXXI_SUPERSTUDIO50_PressKit.pdf>

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Digital Design Portfolio_Yichen Cao  
Digital Design Portfolio_Yichen Cao  
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