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tpรถvmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

tpรถvmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay: txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk &Sif;vif;csufpmwrf; (tusOf;)

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

2013ckESpf? {NyDv 22 &uf Nidrf;csrf;rIwnfaqmufa&;uGef&uf Peace Cultivation Network (PCN)

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a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

yHkESdyfrSwfwrf;

yHkESdyfjcif; - yxrtBudrf

{NyDv? 2013

rsufESmzHk; - Blue River

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- e'Djymjym (0973031367) - a':jzLjym0if;&J (,m,D-1537)

21 &mpkuGef&ufpmay

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trSwf-24? wm0wรฐomvrf;? ykZGefawmifNrdKUe,f

tkyfa& - 1000

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- 400 usyf

a'gufwmjrifhodef; tpรถvmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay: txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk &Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)^a'gufwmjrifhodef;-&efukef 21&mpk uGef&ufpmay? 2013 60-pm? 14 pifwD_20 pifwD/ (1)tpรถvmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay: txiftjrifvGJrSm;rI rsm;udk &Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

rmwdum pOf taMumif;t&m

pmrsufESm

1/ Nidrf;csrf;rIwnfaqmufa&;uGef&ufrl0g'a&;&m aumfrwD\ trSmpm 1 2/ EdkifiHawmfoHCr[mem,utzGJUodkY&Sif;vif;avQmufxm;jcif; 3 3/ EdkifiHawmfor®wxHodkY&Sif;vif;wifjyjcif; 7 4/ ed'gef; (jrefrmEdkifiHrS 2013 aEG&moDtMurf;zufrIrsm;) 14 5/ 786 oauFw\ t"dyÜm,frSefrSmtb,fenf; 16 - 786 [laomoauFwonf 21 &mpkwGif jrefrmEdkifiHudkodrf;ydkuf&ef vrf;ñTefcsufr[kwfyg/ 18 - 786 [laom oauFwonf rGwfpvifrftcsif;csif;udk tm;ay;apí rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolrsm;ESihf vlrIpD;yGm;a&; rqufqH&ef ñTefMum;csuf jzpfygoavm 19 6/ *sd[m'f[lonf rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolrsm;udk okwfoif &Sif;vif;jcif;jzpfygoavm/ 23 - Nidrf;csrf;pGmjyK&aom *sd[m'f 24 - vufeufpGJudkif&aom *sd[m'f 25 - bmomjcm;wkdYtm; jzm;a,mif;jcif;? "m;rkd;jcif;? okwfoifjcif;r&Sd 27 7/ tpövmrffwGif omoemjyKvrf;ñTef rnfodkY&Sdoenf; 29 - tpövmrfwGif t"r®pepfr&Sd 29 - todÓmPfESihf,SOfí ckdifvkHaom oufaoom"utay: tajccHí zdwfac:&rnf 29 - vlwkdif;vGwfvyfpGm a&G;cs,fusihfokH;cGihf&Sdonf 30 - Nidrf;csrf;pGmtwl,SOfwGJaexdkifa&;rludk tpövmrfu jy|mef;NyD;jzpfonf 30


a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

- w&m;rQwrItNrJapmihfxdef;&ef 8/ tpövmrfu tjcm;omoemrsm;tay:oabmxm; - rGwfpvifrfEkdifiHrsm;wGif rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolrsm;onf ZifrDac: tapmihfa&SmufcH jynfh0aomEkdifiHom;rsm; jzpfMuonf/ 9/ tpövmrfwGif r,m; (4)OD;,lí om;azmuf omoem jyKjcif;udk ñTefMum;xm;ygoavm/ - tpövmrfwGifZeD;wpfOD;xufydk,lcGifhtb,faMumifh cGifhjyKxm;ygoenf;/ 10/ jrefrmjynfwGif rGwfpvifrfwkdYu Ak'¨bmomtrsdK;orD;udk &atmif ,lEdkifygu trsdK;orD;\ vlrIa&; tqihftwef; tvdkuf AvDrS qkaiGrsm;xkwfay;aeonfqkdjcif;rSmrSefygovm; 11/ AvD ac: tpövmrf0wfausmif;awmfrsm;onf Nidrf;csrf;a&;pifwmrsm; jzpfMuonf/ - utfA[f ac: urÇmOD;ausmif;awmf - r'De[fNrdKUrS wrefawmfjrwf\0wfausmif;awmf - urÇmay:&Sd tjcm;AvD0wfausmif;awmfrsm; - AvD[lonf ppfpcef;r[kwf? 'Drdkua&pD azmfaqmif&mae&mrsm;jzpf 12/ jrefrmrGwfpvifrfvlYtpkta0;onf jrefrmEdkifiH\ arG;&myg EdkifiHom;rsm; jzpfMuonf 13/ ed*kH; usrf;udk;pm&if;

30 31

34 35 37

39 40 40 41 42 44 45 52 55


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

5

Nidrf;csrf;rIwnfaqmufa&;uGef&uf Peace Cultivation Network (PCN)

rl0g'a&;&maumfrwD\ trSmpm þpmwrf;udk jyKpkwifjyol a'gufwmjrifhodef;onf tpövmrfomoem taMumif;udk jynfaxmifpkzGm; jrefrmEdkifiHom; tpövmrfbmom0ifrsm;om ru tjcm;vlrsKd;? bmom0ifrsm;yg vG,fulpGmod&SdavhvmEdkif&ef pmtkyf pmwrf;rsm;a&;om;cJhol pma&;q&ma'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)jzpfyg onf/ a'gufwmjrifhodef;u tpövmrfomoemonf Nidrf;csrf;a&;omoem jzpfaMumif; tpövmrfomoemESifh pdrf;olrsm;? tpövmrfomoemtaMumif; rodolrsm;udk zGifhqdk&Sif;jycJholjzpfygonf/ jynfaxmifpkom;tcsif;csif; vlrsKd; bmomrcGJjcm;bJ Nidrf;csrf;pGm twl,SOfwGJaexdkifjcif;jzifh trdjrefrmEdkifiHawmf BuD; Nidrf;csrf;om,ma&;twGuf pdwfapwemtjynfhjzifh BudK;yrf;aqmif&Guf aeoljzpfygonf/ jynfaxmifpkzGm; wdkif;&if;om;? vlrsKd;aygif;pHk? bmomaygif;pHk Nidrf;csrf; pGm twl,SOfwGJaexdkifjcif;jzifh Nidrf;csrf;a&;? w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;ESifh wnfNidrf at;csrf;a&;wdkYtwGuf Nidrf;csrf;rIwnfaqmufa&;uGef&uf(Peace Cultivation Network(PCN))udk zGJUpnf;aqmif&Gufvsuf&Sdygonf/ a'gufwm jrifhodef;onf Nidrf;csrf;rIwnfaqmufa&; uGef&uf (PCN)\ rl0g'a&;&m aumfrwD0ifwpfOD;vnf;jzpfygonf/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; tpövmrfomoemtay: txifrSm;? tjrifrSm;jzpfap&ef wvGJajymqdk0g'jzefYjcif;? tpövmrfhqefYusifa&;pdwfrsm; 0ifNyD; oHo,pdwfrsm;jzpfay:ap&ef rodem;rvnf½dk;om;onfh tjcm;bmom 0ifrsm;tMum; vIYHaqmf0g'jzefYvsuf&SdNyD; udk,fxd vufa&muf wdkufcdkufrIrsm; yif&SdcJhygonf/ usrf;jrwfuk&ftmefvm tpövmrfomoem\ trdefYynwfrsm; tay:ar;cGef;tcsKdUxkwfNyD; tjcm;bmom0ifrsm; t[kwfxifum wdkif;&if; om; pnf;vHk;nDnGwfrINydKuGJaprnfh tEÅ&m,fudk zdwfac:&ma&mufaeygonf/ jynfaxmifpktwGif; twlaexdkifcJhMuaom EdkifiHom; nDtpfudk armif ESrrsm;twGif; oHo,pdwfaysmufNyD; trSefudkod&Sdum Nidrf;csrf;pGm qufvuf


2

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

twl,SOfwGJ aexdkifoGm;Edkifa&;twGuf a'gufwmjrifhodef;u trsm;jynfol wdkYtMum; ay:xGufaeaom ar;cGef;rsm;udk usrf;udk;usrf;um; cdkifvHkpGmjzifh &Sif;vif;a&;om;wifjyxm;ygonf/ Nidrf;csrf;a&;udk trSefwu,fvdkvm;onfh jynfaxmifpkom; tm;vHk; þpmwrf;udk tao;pdwf avhvmzwf½Ijcif;jzifh &Sif;vif;aom tjrif? Munfvifaompdwfjzifh em;vnfoabmaygufvmrnf[k tav;teuf ,HkMunfaomaMumifh Nidrf;csrf;rIwnfaqmufa&;uGef&uf(PCN)\ rlydkiftjzpf jzefYcsdxkwfa0jcif;jzpfygonf/ jrefrmjynfoljynfom;tm;vHk; Nidrf;csrf;Muygap/ OD;tkef;armif rl0g'a&;&maumfrwD Nidrf;csrf;rIwnfaqmufa&;uGef&uf (PCN) 2013ckESpf? {NyDv 25 &uf

Nidrf;csrf;rIwnfaqmufa&;uGef&uf (PCN) Peace Cultivation Network trSwf(2)? yxrxyf? 119 vrf;? a&wGif;ukef;&yfuGuf? r*FvmawmifnGefYNrdKUe,f? &efukefwdkif;a'oBuD;/ zkef;-01 8619372 1/ OD;tkef;armif 0973037585 2/ OD;jrifhodef; 095134487 3/ OD;0if;atmif 095016608 4/ OD;xGef;Munf 1949255024 5/ OD;abmfeDOD; 095125688 6/ OD;atmifaZmfjrifh 095126108 7/ OD;wifrdk; 095146829 Email: pcnmm.net@gmail.com Website: www.pcnmm.net Facebook: www.facebook.com\peace.cultivation.network


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

7

odkY (1) Ouú|q&mawmf EdkifiHawmfoHCmhr[mem,utzGJU (2) tusdK;awmfaqmifq&mawmf EdkifiHawmfoHCmhr[mem,utzGJU &efukefNrdKU/ &ufpGJ / / 1375 ckESpf? wefcl;vqef;(12)&uf 2013 ckESpf? {NyDv(22)&uf taMumif;t&m/ rrSefruef 0g'jzefYcsdrIrsm;aMumihf tpövmrfomoemESihf jrefrmrGwfpvifrw f t Y d k ay: txiftjrif vGrJ mS ;aerIuk d &Si;f vif; avQmufxm;jcif;ESihf arwåmw&m;a&SUxm;um vdktyfaom ulnDapmihfa&SmufrIrsm;ay;yg&ef avQmufxm;jcif;/ MunfndKav;pm;tyfygaom q&mawmfBuD;rsm;xH *g&0w&m;a&SUxm;vsuf ½dkaopGmavQmufxm;tyfygonf/ txufyg taMumif;t&mESihf pyfvsOf;í EkdifiHawmfor®wBuD;xH ay;ydkY aom 22-4-2013 aeYpGJygpmrdwåLESihf tpövmrfESihf jrefrmrGwfpvifrf wkdY tay: txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk &Sif;vif;wifjycsufpmwrf;udk yl;wGJay;ydkY tyfygonf/ &Sif;vif;csuf yl;wGJyg ]]tpövmrfESihf jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwkdYtay: txiftjrifvGJrSm;rI rsm;udk &Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)}}wGif em;vnfvGJrSm;apaonfh tcsuf tcsdKUudk &Sif;vif;wifjyxm;ygonf/ ,if;wkdYrSm… 1/ 786 [lonf 21-&mpk[kvnf;aumif;? rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolwkdYESihf vlrIpD;yGm;rqufqH&[kvnf;aumif; t"dyÜm,froufa&mufbJ vlrsdK; bmomra&G;? a0ae,stm;vkH;tay: u½kPmxm;&ef oauFw jzpfygonf/


4

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

2/ tpövmrfbmomwGif om;azmufomoemjyKjcif;vkH;0cGihfrjyK/ bmom rwlolESihf tdrfaxmifjyKcGihfr&Sd (uk&ftmef 2;221)/ Ak'¨bmomrdef;u av;rsm;udk,lEdkifvQif oufqkdif&mvlrIa&;tqihftwef;tvdkuf AvD u qkcsD;jr§ihfjcif;[lonf vkH;0r&Sd/ tpövmrfomoemudk pdwfESvkH; rygbJ vufcHonfqkdoltm; rkemzdufac: ta,mifaqmif[k owfrSwfNyD; i&JwGifyif atmufqkH;tqihfü ae&rnf[k qkdxm;onf/ 3/ tpövmrfwGif ZeD; 4 OD; cGihfjyKjcif;rSm rjyKrae&r[kwf? vlYtzGJUtpnf; wGif trsdK;orD;ta&twGuf rsm;jcif;jzpfap? tjcm; rvTJomra&Smifom udpö&yfrsm;wGifjzpfap vdktyfygu cRif;csufjzifh cGihfjyKcsufomjzpfNyD; wpfvifwpfr,m;pepfudk tm;ay;onf/ xdkYtjyif ESpfOD;oabmwl aygif;jcif;? tajr§mifr,m;xm;jcif;? jynfhwefqmvkyfief;rsm;udk vkH;0 wm;jrpfonf/ xdrf;jrm;jcif;rjyKbJ vdifqufqHygu Budrf'Pf 100 owfrSwfxm;onf/ 4/ tpövmrfomoemwGif;okdY0ifolrsm;onf a&Twd*kHapwDESihf r[mjrwfrked apwDawmfykHrsm;udk ajcESihft&ifeif;NyD;rS 0if&onf[lonfrSm vkyfBuH Zmwfjzpfonf/ uk&ftmef 6;108 t& rGwfpvifrfwkdYonf tjcm; bmomw&m;wkdY\ udk;uG,f&mrsm;udk raumif;rajym&[k jy|mef;xm; &m rnfonfhenf;ESihfrQ apmfum;ydkifcGihfr&Sd/ 5/ *sd[m'f[lonftpövmrfbmomxJr0ifaom bmomjcm;rsm;udo k w k o f if &Sif;vif;jcif; vkH;0r[kwfyg/ Nidrf;csrf;pGmjyK&aom *sd[m'foabmw&m; t& b0wpfavQmufvkH; rdrd\rawmfavmb? a'go? arm[? rme ponfhw&m;rsm;udk csdK;ESdrf&ef tpGrf;ukef BudK;yrf;jcif;jzpfonf/ tu,fí rdrdwkdif;jynfvlrsKd;udk olwpfyg;usL;ausmf apmfum;ygu ckcHppfomjzpfygonf/ &efolu Nidrf;csrf;a&;urf;vSrf;u vufcH&rnf jzpfonf/ xdkYtjyif uk&ftmef 22;40 t& *sd[m'f[lonf bmom w&m;wkdY\ vGwfvyfpGmudk;uG,fusihfokH;cGihfudk tumtuG,fay;jcif;? tMurf;zuf0g'udk qefYusifjcif;omjzpfonf/


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

6/

5

tpövmrfomoemjyKjcif;[lír&SdbJ tpövmrf\ Nidrf;csrf;odrfarGUrIrsm;udk vlwkdYodap&ef wifjyrIom&Sd\/ todÓmPfudk okH;í ,Ofaus;pGmajymqkd &rnf/ tjiif;tckHjyKvmygu vSyaomaqG;aEG;rIjzihfom wkHYjyef&rnf/ jzm;a,mif;jcif;ESihf t"r®pepfr&Sdap&/ rnfolrqdk ,kHMunfvdkygu ,kHMunf? r,kHMunfvdku jiif;y,fjcif;[laom vGwfvyfpGma&G;cs,f usihfokH;cGihf&dSygonf/ rav;&Sm;ESihf tif'kdeD;&Sm;EdkifiHwkdYü rlvu [dE´L? xdkYaemufAk'¨bmom? xdkYaemuftpövmrf ul;ajymif;cJhygonf/ odkYaomf xdkif;ESihf oD&dvuFmEkdifiHwkdYurl Ak'¨bmomtrsm;pkjzpfvsuf &SdaeMu ygonf/

7/ AvD ac: tpövmrf0wfausmif;awmfrsm;[lonf tEdIif;rJhudk;uG,f&mudk emcHOD;cs&mae&m? arwåmydkY&m? ,Ofaus;rI oGefoif&mae&mrsm;om jzpfonf/ ppfpcef;rsm;? vufeufokdavSmif½kHrsm;r[kwfyg/ urÇmhAvD tm;vkH; urÇmOD;ausmif;awmf utfA[f ac: Nidrf;csrf;a&;pifwmodkYvSnfhí wnfaqmufMu&\/ ,if;\ oabmw&m;ESihf oauFwrSm(u) avmucyfodrf;wGif tEdIif;rJhudk;uG,f&m wpfyg;wnf;om&Sdjcif;/ (Unity of God)

(c) urÇmN*dK[fwGif eADwrefawmf ac: vlom;bk&m;rsm;pGmay:xGef; cJhaomfvnf; ¤if;wkdYa[mMum;cJhonfh w&m;rSm wpfckwnf;aom opömw&m;jzpfjcif;/ (*) vlom;wdkYonf rsdK;EG,f? bmompum;? tom;ta&mifuGJjym;Mu aomfvnf; vl[lonf urÇmhtdrfaxmifpkBuD; wpfckomjzpfjcif; wkdYjzpfMuygonf/ 8/ tpövmrfomoemonf NAdwdoQacwfrS jrefrmEdkifiHodkYa&mufvmaom omoemr[kwf? jrefrm rGwfpvifrf vlYtzGJU tpnf;onf yk*HacwfrSpí orkdif;aMumif;t& wnfNidrfpGmzGHUNzdK;vmaom wkdfif;&if;om;? EdkifiHom; vlYtzGJUtpnf;jzpfygonf/


6

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

arwåm&yfcHavQmufxm;csuf q&mawmfBuD;rsm;taejzihf arwåmw&m;a&SUxm;í y#dyu©wm;qD;a&; ESihf tMurf;zufrIrsm; xyfrHray:aygufa&;twGuf vdktyfaomulnD aqmif &GufrIrsm; aqmif&Gufay;yg&ef ½dkaopGm avQmufxm;tyfygonf/ ½dkaoav;pm;pGmjzihf

a'gufwmjrihfodef; (Nidrf;csrf;vkvif) trSwf-23? 139 vrf; rtlukef;? wmarGNrdKUe,f/ zkef; - 09 51 34487


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

11

odkY OD;odef;pdef EdkifiHawmfor®w EdkifiHawmfor®w½kH;? aejynfawmf/ &ufpGJ / / 1375 ckESpf? wefcl;vqef;(12)&uf 2013 ckESpf? {NyDv(22)&uf

taMumif;t&m/ rrSefruef0g'jzefYcsdrIaMumihf tpövmrfomoemESihf jrefrm rGwfpvifrfwkdYtay: txiftjrif vGJrSm;aerIudk &Sif;vif; jcif;ESihf tBuHjyKwifjyjcif;/ or®wBuD;cifAsm;Nidrf;csrf;om,mrItaygif;oufa&mufygap/ uRefawmf a'gufwmjrihfodef; (pma&;q&mNidrf;csrf;vkvif)taejzihf tpövmrf omoemESihf jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwkdYtay: rrSefuefaomowif; tcsuftvufrsm;ESihfvkyfBuHxm;aomorkdif;rsm;jzihf txiftjrifvGJrSm;ap&ef 0g'jzefYcsdaerIwkdYaMumihf &[ef;&SifvljynfolwdkYtMum; oHo,rsm;ESihf rkef;wD; pdwf"mwfrsm; jzpfay:aejcif;udk ajyaysmufap &efvnf;aumif;? EdkifiHawmfrS pDpOfjyKvkyfrnfh w&m;Oya'pdk;rkd;a&;? y#dyu©wm;qD;a&;ESihf tMurf;zufrI wdkufzsufa&;udk taxmuftuljzpfap&efvnf;aumif; þ&Sif;vif;csufESihf tBuHjyKvTmudk ½dk;om;pGmwifjytyfygonf/ 1/ ,cktcg jrefrmjynft0Srf; rGwfpvifrfqefYusifa&;0g' jzefYcsdrI rsm; trsdK;om;a&;toGif us,fjyefYpGmjzpfay:vsuf&Sd&m rGefjynfe,fESihfu&if jynfe,fww Ydk iG f rGwpf vifrw f t Ydk ay: vlrpI ;D yGm;oydwaf rSmufrrI sm;ESifh tMurf; zuf&ef BuHpnfrrI sm; jzpfymG ;aeygonf/ omauwESifh vIid o f m,mNrdKUe,fww Ydk iG f tMurf;zufrIjzpfyGm;NyD;aemuf &efukefwkdif;a'oBuD;ae&mtcsdKUwGif [pfatmf &efprIrsm;ESihf aumv[vrsm;aMumihf rwnfNidrfrIrsm;BuKHawGUcJh&ygonf/


8

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

r*FvmawmifñGefYNrdKUe,f? r*Fvmaps;ESihf ,kZeyvmZmwkdYrS aps;olaps;om;rsm; onfwpf&ufwGif txdwfwvefYjzpfívk,ufrnfpdk;um aeYvnf ½kwfw&uf aps;ydwfonf txdjzpfcJhygonf/ w&m;Oya'pdk;rkd;rItm;enf;jcif;aMumihf tMurf;zuform;rsm; twih&f v J mum rdwv D¬ mNrKdUwGizf suq f ;D ? rD;½IUd ? vlowfyJG tqihfxd a&muf&SdoGm;um aejynfawmfteD;NrdKU&Gmrsm;odkYyif ul;qufoGm;cJh ygonf/ yJcl;wkdif;a'oBuD; taemufjcrf;NrdKU&Gmrsm;wGifvnf; r,kHMunf avmufatmif tMurf;zufrIrsm; jzpfyGm;cJhygonf/ 2/ ,if;tMurf;zufrIrsm;ESihfpyfvsOf;í ukvor*¾ txl;oHwref rpöwmerfAD;,m;u tpDtpOf&Sd&Sd pepf wusaqmif&GufrIrsm;jzpfaMumif; ajymMum;cJhNyD; ukvor*¾ vlYtcGihfta&;qkdif&m txl;oHwref rpöwm uifwm;em;u tMurf;zufrIrsm;wGif EdkifiHawmftzGJUtpnf; tcsdKU wkduf½dkuf ywfoufaeaMumif; 28-3-2013 aeYupGyfpGJajymqkdcJh&m jyefMum;a&;0efBuD; Xme? 'kw, d 0efBuD;u 30-3-2013wGif jyefvnf jiif;qko d nfh tqihf a&muf cJhí EdkifiHa&;t&vnf; wkdif;jynf *kPfodu©mxdckdufygonf/ a'orsm;pGm wGifvnf; ,cifu cspfcif&if;ESD;pGmaecJhMuaomfvnf; ,cktcg Ak'¨bmom0if tcsdKUrS rGwpf vifrw f EYkd iS fh vlr-I pD;yGm;qufqrH jI zwfawmufjcif;? wrif&efpjcif; wkdY BuKHawGUaeMu&ygonf/ aumv[vrsm;aMumihf jynfolY&Jrsm;ESihf jynfol vlxkrSm vkHNcKHa&; uif;apmihfaeMu&ygonf/ urÇmtv,fwGif arwåmw&m; jzihf *kPfwihfaeaom ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomrSm rormolwkdYu bmoma&;udk tvGJokH;pm;vkyfrIaMumihf txiftjrifvGJcHae&ygonf/ rdw¬Dvm tMurf;zuf rItNyD;wGif rGwfpvifrf'ku©onfaomif;csDí u,fq,fa&; pcef; 5-ckwGif qif;&JMuyfwnf;pGm aeaeMu&ygonf/ eD;pyf&mNrdKUrsm;ü a&Smifwdrf;ae&ol axmifcsDívnf;&Syd gonf/ Ak'b ¨ mom'kuo © nf tenf;i,fom&SNd y;D vGwv f yfpmG oGm;vm vIyf&Sm;EdkifMuygonf/ or®wBuD;tygt0if u,fq,fa&;vkyfief; rsm; aqmif&Gufay;Muaom tmPmydkifrsm;? oHCmawmfrsm;ESihf bmoma&; tBuD;tuJrsm;? t&yfbufvlYtzGJUtpnf;rsm;? EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;? tvSL&Sif rsm;ESihf vkyftm; ay;rsm;udkvnf; *kPfjyKrSwfwrf;wiftyfygonf/


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

9

3/ þtMurf;zufrIrsm;jzpfay:&jcif;taMumif;&if;rsm;pGm &SdEdkifaomf vnf; uRefawmfhtaejzihf rGwfpvifrfqefYusifa&;0g'jzefYcsdrIrsm;ESihfpyfvsOf; íom &Sif;vif;wifjytBuHjyKvdkygonf/ (u) ]]trsdK;aysmufrSm pkd;aMumufp&m}}[laom w&m;r0ifpmtkyfudk 1988 ckESpfaemufydkif; jrefrmjynf t0Srf;jzefYcsdcJhrIaMumihf wyfrawmf tpdk;& vufxufwGif ESpfpOfvdkvdk AvDrsm;ESihf tpövmrfbmom0ifrsm;tm; tMurf;zufrIBuKHawGUcJh&ygonf/ 1997-ckESpf rEÅav;rSpí wpfjynf vkH;ysHUESHYoGm;cJhaom tMurf;zufrIrwkdifrD uRefawmfhtaejzihf EdkifiHawmf oHCmhr[mem,utzGJUESihf omoema&;0efBuD; XmeodkY 22-1-1997 &ufpGJygpmjzihf &Sif;vif;csufESihf BudKwifowday;rIjyKcJhygonf/ xdkpOfu ulnDapmihfa&Smufay;cJhaom EdkifiHawmfoHCmhr[m em,utzGJUudk txl;aus;Zl;wifaMumif; *g&0jyK rSwfwrf;wiftyfygonf/ (c) ,cktcg ]]rGwfpvifrfwkdY 786 oauFwudkwkNydKifí 969 oauFwudk tokH;jyK&jcif;jzpfonf/ trsdK;? bmom? omoemudk umuG,f apmihf a&Smuf&rnf}}[laom a<u;aMumfoHjzihf Ak'¨bmom w&m;yGJrsm;usif;y vmMu&m rSm;,Gif;aom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ESihf rSm;,Gif;aom orkdif;rSwfwrf;rsm;udk tajccHí txiftjrifvGJrSm;um rGwfpvifrf qefYusifa&;w&m;rsm;a[mMum;jcif;? ,if;w&m;acGrsm;udk trsdK;om; a&;toGifjzihf aus;vufta&mufjzefYcsdjcif;? ,if;tacGrsm;tay: tajccHí ydkrdkqdk;0g;aom aemufqufwGJvufurf;pmapmifrsm; jzefYcsd jcif;wkdYaMumihf rGwfpvifrfqefYusif rkef;wD;a&;pdwf"mwfrsm; jyefYyGm;ae ygonf/ uGrf;,mqkdif? vÇuf&nfqkdifESihf um;*dwfrsm;wGif us,favmif pGmzGihfaeMuygonf/ oHCmawmftcsdKU OD;aqmifjcif;jzpfí tusdK; xda&mufrIrsm;ygonf/ oHCmwpfyg;u 786ESihf vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;w&m;0if &yfpJu rdrdwdkY 969ESihf vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;&yfpJrnf[k tifwmAsL;wpfckwGif azmfjyoGm;onfudkvnf; awGU&ygonf/ uRefawmf\&Sif;vif;csufrSm EdkifiHawmf\ tjrihfqkH;tmPmydkifjzpfaom EdkifiHawmfor®w? EdkifiHawmf


10

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

oHCmhr[mem,utzGJUESihf vTGwfawmfOuú|rsm;odkY w&m;0ifay;ydkYjcif; jzpfí xdo k C H mrsm;tygt0if &[ef;&Siv f t l aygif; oHo,rsm;ajyaysmuf NyD; Nidrf;csrf;a&;vkyfief;rsm; yl;aygif;aqmif&GufEdkifrnf[k ½dk;om;pGm arQmfvihfygonf/ oHo,ESihf rkef;wD;rIrsm;udk racszsufbJ w&m;Oya' pkd;rkd;a&;ESihf Nidrf;csrf;a&;udk rwnfaqmufEkdifyg/ 4/ yl;wGJyg ]]tpövmrfESihf jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwkdYtay: txiftjrif vGJrSm;rIrsm;udk &Sif;vif;csufpmwrf; (tusOf;)}}wGif em;vnfvGJrSm;apao nfhtcsuftcsdKUudk &Sif;vif;wifjyxm;ygonf/ ,if;wkdYrSm… (1) 786 [lonf 21-&mpk[kvnf;aumif;? rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolwkdYESihf vlrIpD;yGm;rqufqH&[kvnf;aumif; t"dyÜm,froufa&mufbJ vlrsdK; bmomra&G;? a0ae,stm;vkH;tay: u½kPmxm;&ef oauFw jzpfygonf/ (2) tpövmrfbmomwGif om;azmufomoemjyKjcif; vkH;0 cGihfrjyK/ bmomrwlolESihf tdrfaxmifjyKcGihfr&Sd (uk&ftmef 2;221)/ Ak'¨bmom rdef;uav;rsm;udk,lEdkifvQif oufqkdif&mvlrIa&;tqihftwef;tvdkuf AvDu qkcsD;jr§ihfjcif;[lonf vkH;0r&Sd/ tpövmrfomoemudk pdwfESvkH; rygbJ vufcHonfqkdoltm; rkemzduf ac: ta,mifaqmif[kowfrSwf NyD; i&JwGifyif atmufqkH;tqihfü ae&rnf[k qkdxm;onf/ (3) tpövmrfwGif ZeD; 4 OD; cGihfjyKjcif;rSm rjyKrae&r[kwf? vlYtzGJUtpnf; wGif trsdK;orD;ta&twGuf rsm;jcif;jzpfap? tjcm; rvTJomra&Smifom udpö&yfrsm;wGifjzpfap vdktyfygu cRif;csufjzifh cGihfjyKcsufomjzpfNyD; wpfvifwpfr,m;pepfudk tm;ay;onf/ xdkYtjyif ESpfOD;oabmwl aygif;jcif;? tajr§mifr,m;xm;jcif;? jynfhwefqmvkyfief;rsm;udk vkH;0 wm;jrpfonf/ xdrf;jrm;jcif;rjyKbJ vdifqufqHygu Budrf'Pf 100 owfrSwfxm;onf/


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

11

(4) tpövmrfomoemwGif;okdY0ifolrsm;onf a&Twd*kHapwDESihf r[mjrwfrked apwDawmfykHrsm;udk ajcESihft&ifeif;NyD;rS 0if&onf[lonfrSmvkyfBuH Zmwfjzpfonf/ uk&ftmef 6;108 t& rGwfpvifrfwkdYonf tjcm; bmomw&m;wkdY\ udk;uG,f&mrsm;udk raumif;rajym&[kjy|mef;xm; &m rnfonfhenf;ESihfrQ apmfum;ydkifcGihfr&Sd/ (5) *sd[m'f[o l nf tpövmrfbmomxJr0ifaom bmomjcm;rsm;udk okwo f if &Sif;vif;jcif; vkH;0r[kwfyg/ Nidrf;csrf;pGmjyK&aom *sd[m'foabmw&m; t& b0wpfavQmufvkH; rdrd\rawmf avmb? a'go? arm[? rme ponfhw&m;rsm;udk csdK;ESdrf&ef tpGrf;ukefBudK;yrf;jcif;jzpfonf/ tu,f í rdrdwkdif;jynfvlrsKd;udk olwpfyg;usL;ausmfapmfum;ygu ckcHppfom jzpfygonf/ &efolu Nidrf;csrf;a&;urf;vSrf;u vufcH&rnfjzpfonf/ xdkYtjyifuk&ftmef 22;40t& *sd[m'f[lonf bmomw&m;wkdY\ vGwfvyfpGm udk;uG,fusihfokH;cGihfudk tumtuG,fay;jcif;? tMurf;zuf 0g'udk qefYusifjcif;omjzpfonf/ (6) tpövmrfomoemjyKjcif;[lír&SdbJ tpövmrf\Nidrf;csrf;odrfarGUrIrsm; udk vlwkdYodap&ef wifjyrIom&Sd\/ todÓmPfudkokH;í ,Ofaus;pGmajym qk&d rnf/ tjiif;tckjH yKvmygu vSyaomaqG;aEG;rIjzihfom wkHYjyef&rnf/ zsm;a,mif;jcif;ESihf t"r®pepfr&Sdap&/ rnfolrqdk ,kHMunfvdkygu ,kHMunf? r,kHMunfvdkujiif;y,fjcif;[laom vGwfvyfpGma&G;cs,f usihfokH;cGihf&dSygonf/ rav;&Sm;ESihf tif'kdeD;&Sm;EdkifiHwkdYü rlvu[dE´L? xdkYaemufAk'¨bmom? xdkYaemuf tpövmrful;ajymif;cJhygonf/ odkYaomf xdkif;ESihfoD&d vuFm EkdifiHwkdYurl Ak'¨bmomtrsm;pkjzpfvsuf &SdaeMu ygonf/ (7) AvDac: tpövmrf0wfausmif;awmfrsm;[lonf tEdIif;rJhudk;uG,f&m udk emcHOD;cs&mae&m? arwåmydkY&m? ,Ofaus;rI oGefoif&m ae&mrsm;om jzpfonf/ ppfpcef;rsm;? vufeufokdavSmif½kHrsm; r[kwfyg/ urÇmhAvD


12

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

tm;vkH; urÇmOD;ausmif;awmf utfA[f ac: Nidrf;csrf;a&;pifwmodkYvSnfhí wnfaqmufMu&\/ ,if;\ oabmw&m;ESihf oauFwrSm

(u) avmucyfodrf;wGif tEdIif;rJhudk;uG,f&m wpfyg;wnf; om&Sdjcif;/ (Unity of God)

(c) urÇmN*dK[fwGif eADwrefawmf ac: vlom;bk&m;rsm;pGmay:xGef;cJh aomfvnf; ¤if;wkdYa[mMum;cJhonfh w&m;rSm wpfckwnf;aom opöm w&m;jzpfjcif;/

(*) vlom;wdkYonf rsdK;EG,f? bmompum;? tom;ta&mif uGJjym; Muaomfvnf; vl[lonf urÇmh tdrfaxmifpkBuD;wpfck omjzpfjcif;wkdY jzpfMuygonf/

(8) tpövmrfomoemonf NAdwdoQacwfrS jrefrmEdkifiHodkYa&mufvmaom omoemr[kwf? jrefrm rGwfpvifrf vlYtzGJUtpnf;onf yk*HacwfrSpí orkdif;aMumif;t& wnfNidrfpGmzGHUNzdK;vmaomwkdfif;&if;om;? EdkifiHom; vlYtzGJUtpnf; jzpfygonf/

tBuHjyKcsuf (1) EdkifiHawmf\rl0g't& tpövmrf? c&pf,mef? [dE´LESihf ewfudk;uG,frIwkdY onf EdkifiH\tapmihfa&SmufcH todtrSwfjyK bmomw&m;rsm; jzpfaMumif; ay:vGifaponfhvkyfief;pOfrsm; azmfaqmifay;yg&ef/ (2) jrefrmrGwfpvifrf vlYtpkta0;onf wkdif;jynfESihfvlrsdK; tusdK; aqmif&GufcJholrsm;jzpfí jrefrmvlYtzGJUtpnf;\ tpdwftydkif; jzpfaMumif;? cGJjcm;qufqH&rnfholrsm;r[kwfaMumif;? jrefrmrD'D,m rsm;ü tcgtm;avsmfpGm azmfjyaomtpDtpOfrsm; xnfhoGif;azmfjyyg&ef (3) ,ckESpf ausmif;rsm;jyefzGihfvQif jyify ya,m*rsm;aMumihf bmomrwlol ausmif;om;rsm;tMum; cGJjcm;qufqHrI rsm;? q&m^q&mr rsm;rS


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

13

ESdrfhcsqufqHrIrsm;r&Sdapa&;? Nidrf;csrf;pGmtwl,SOfwGJynmoifMum; Edkifa&; pDpOfaqmif&Gufay;yg&ef (4) y#dyu©wm;qD;a&;ESihf tMurf;zufrIwkdufzsufa&;wkdYtwGuf ta&;ay: umvtwGif;omru oufqkdif&m tmPmydkifrsm;? oHCmawmfrsm;ESihf bmoma&;tBuD;tuJrsm;? EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;? t&yfbuf vlYtzGJU tpnf;rsm;? vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESihf &yfrd&yfzrsm;yg0ifaom tNrJwrf;aumfrwDtqihfqihf zGJUpnf;aqmif&Guf ay;yg&ef/ (5) jynfaxmifpkor®wjrefrmEdkifiHawmfzGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfykHtajccHOya' (2008)\yk'fr 364 t& bmoma&;udk EdkifiHa&;twGuf tvGJokH;pm; jyKum vlrsdK;a&;? bmoma&; zefwD;rIrsm;ay:aygufapjcif;udk ta&; ,lEdkif&ef Oya'wpf&yfudk EdkifiHawmfrS tjrefqkH;a&;qGJjy|mef;ay;&ef jzpfygonf/ av;pm;pGmjzihf

a'gufwmjrihfodef; (Nidrf;csrf;vkvif) 12^wre(Edkif)077505 trSwf-23? 139 vrf;? rtlukef;? wmarGNrdKUe,f &efukefNrdKU/ zkef; - 09 51 34487 rdwåLudk^ 1/ jynfaxmifpk0efBuD;Xmersm; 2/ jynfe,fESihfwkdif;a'oBuD;tpdk;&tzGJUrsm;


14

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

tpövmrfESifhjrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay: txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk &Sif;vif;csuf pmwrf;(tusOf;)

1/ ed'gef; (jrefrmEdkifiHrS 2013 aEG&moDtMurf;zufrIrsm;) ,cktcg jrefrmEdkifiHwGif rsm;aomtm;jzihf rGwfpvifrf pm;aomuf qkdifrsm;ü a&;om;xm;avh&Sdaom 786 trSwf wHqdyfESihf pyfvsOf;í txif tjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm; BuD;rm;pGmay:aygufvsuf&Sdaeygonf/ ,if;rSm 7+8+6 wkdYudkaygif;vsif 21 &onf/ jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd rGwfpvifrfwdkYonf jrefrmEdkifiHudk 21 &mpkwGiftNyD;odrf;&ef BuHpnfaeMuonf/ txl;ojzihf ZeD; trsm;,lum om;azmufomoemjyKenf;ESifh *sd[g'fac: rdrdwdkYtiftm;aumif;vmvQif bmomjcm;rsm;udk okwfoif&Sif;vif;onfhenf;udk tokH;jyKMurnf/ AvD 0wfausmif;awmfrsm;udk ppfpcef;rsm;tjzpf tokH;jyKí ,if;vkyfief;rsm;twGuf aiGaMu;axmufyHhvsuf&Sdonf/ c&pfESpf 2012 wGif 21&mpkukefqkH;&ef 88 ESpfomusefawmh&m ,ckuwnf;u rGwfpviffrfwdkYudk wm;qD; ydwfyifjcif; rjyKvQif rdrdwdkYom;ajr;rsm;tm;vkH; vnfvSD;towfcHMu& vdrfhrnf[k a[m ajymrIrsm;? 0g'jzefYcsdrIrsm; ay:aygufvm&m u&ifjynfe,fESihf rGefjynfe,f wdkYwGif vlrIpD;yGm;a&; oydwfarSmufrIrsm;? tMurf;zuf&efBudK;yrf;rIrsm; BuKHawGU ae&NyD; omauwESihf vIdifom,m (&efukef)? rdw¬DvmESihfteD;w0dkuf NrdKU&GmtcsdKU? yJcl;wkdif;a'oBuD;taemufjcrf; NrdKU&GmtcsdKUwGif AvD0wfausmif; awmfESihfpmoifausmif;rsm;? rGwfpvifrfwkdY\ touf? tdk;tdrf? pnf;pdrfrsm;udk tMurf;zufwkdufckdufrIrsm; ay:aygufcJh&onf/ 28-3-2013 aeYwGif EdkifiH


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

15

awmfor®wrS tMurf;zufrIrsm;udk xda&mufpGm ta&;,lrnfjzpfaMumif; wkduf½kdufaMunmcsufxGufrS1 tMurf;zufrIrsm; &yfqkdif;oGm;cJhonf/ urÇmh tv,fwGif EkdifiHawmfESihf ppfrSefaom Ak'¨bmomESihfpyfvsOf;í txifjrifvGJrI rsm;tcsdKU ay:aygufvmcJh&jyefonf/ ukvor*¾tzGJUBuD;\ txl; oHwref rsm; jzpfMuaom rpöwmerf;AD;,m;u ,if;tMurf;zuf wkdufcdkufrIrsm;rSm tpDtpOf&Sd&Sd pepfwusjzpfaMumif;2ajymMum;NyD; rpöwmuifwm;em;url ,if;tMurf;zufrIwGif EdkifiHawmftzGJUtpnf;tcsdKU wkduf½dkufyg0if ywfouf aeaMumif; 28-3-2013 aeYwGif pGyfpGJonfhtqihfodkY a&muf&SdvmcJhygonf/ jynfaxmifpkjyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme 'kwd,0efBuD; OD;&JxG#fu 30-3-2013 aeYwGif ,if;okdYyg0ifywfoufjcif; r&SdaMumif; xkwfjyefaMunmcJhonf/3 ,cktcg qif;&JrGJawrI'Pf cHpm;&rIaMumihf rdrdwdkYb0udk rausreyfjzpf aeMuaom atmufajcvlwef;pm;twGif;ü ,if;odkYrGwfpvifrfqefYusifa&; 0g'jzefYrIrsm; a&muf&SdoGm;aomtcg &efvdkrIrsm;? wkdufckdufvkdrIrsm; ay:ayguf vsuf&Sd aeygonf/ EdkifiHawmftpkd;&? EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;? t&yfbuf vlYtzGJU tpnf;rsm;? oHCmawmfrsm;ESihf bmoma&; acgif;aqmifrsm;? NrdKUrdNrdKUzrsm; yl;aygif;í ,if;okdYtxiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm; yaysmufapí y#dyu©wm;qD;a&; tpDtpOfrsm; ay:aygufap&ef vnf;aumif;? y#dyu©rsm;ay:aygufvmyg uvnf; aESmihfaES;rIr&SdbJ xda&mufaomumuG,fwm;qD;rI? ta&;,lrIrsm; jyKvkyfEdkif&efvnf;aumif; tvGefta&;BuD;aeygonf/ EdkifiHawmf zGHUNzdK;wkd;wufa&;ESihf 'Drkdua&pDyef;wkdifodkY a&muf&Sda&; twGuf t[efYtwm;jzpfaprIrsm; avsmhcsyaysmuf ap&ef&nfpl;í tpövmrf ESihf jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwkdYtay: txiftjrifvGJrSm;rItcsdKUudk &Sif;vif;wifjytyf ygonf/ 1 The New Light of Myanmar, 29 March 2013, p.1 2 The Independent, trSwf46? 28-3-2013? pm-30

3 jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 'kwd,0efBuD; OD;&JxG#f\ Face Book aMunmcsuf/ 30-3-2013


16

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

2/ 786 oauFw\ t"dyÜm,frSefrSmtb,fenf; 786 [laomoauFwrSm ,aeYtrsm;ajymaeovdk cGef? &Spf? ajcmuf [laom oD;jcm;*Pef;okH;vkH;r[kwfbJ ckESpf&m &Spfq,fhajcmufjzpfygonf/ ,if;(786)ESihfpyfvsOf;í tpövmrfomoem\rSwfausmufjzpfaom uk&ftmef usrf;jrwfESihf wrefawmfrk[r®'f\ Mo0g'rSwfwrf;rsm;wGif azmfjyxm;jcif; r&Sdojzihf 786onf tpövmrfomoem\ t&if;tjrpfESihfjzpfap? vrf;ñTef csufESihfjzpfap wkduf½dkufywfoufjcif;vkH;0r&Sdyg/ xkdYaMumihf tzGJU0if 57 EdkifiHyg0ifaom OIC ac: rGwfpvifrf EdkifiHrsm;yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;tzGJU? &mAdoG[f ac: urÇmhrGwfpvifrftzGJUcsKyftygt0if rGwfpvifrfEdkifiHrsm;wGif 786 okH;pGJjcif; tvsOf;r&SdMuyg/ tmqD,HtzGJU\ EkdifiHrsm;jzpfMuaom rav; &Sm;? tif'dkeD;&Sm;ESihf b½kEdkif;EdkifiHrsm;wGifvnf; tokH;rjyKyg/ xdkYtjyif tpövmrfomoemwGif aA'ifvu©Pmynmudkjzpfap? udef;*Pef;twdwf edrdwfrsm;u vlYuHMur®mudkvTrf;rkdh; jc,fvS,fonfqkdonfht,ludkjzpfap jyif;xefpGm wm;jrpfxm;&m 786 ESihf 21 *Pef;wkdYonf tpövmrfomoem\ ,kHMunfcsuf? usihfpOfwkdYESifh rnfodkYrQywfoufjcif;r&Sdyg/ ,if;odkY tpövmrfomoem\ t&if;tjrpfESihf usifhpOfwGifryg0ifbJ 786 [laom oauFwrnfodkYay:aygufvmcJhygoenf;/ uk&ftmefusrf;pm\tzGihfAsm'dwfawmf (tcef; 1? Asm'dwfawmf 1) wGif avmucyfodrf;\ tEIdif;rJhudk;uG,f&m\ emrawmf 3 &yfudk azmfjy xm;&m rl&if;t&ADESihf jrefrmbmomjyefrSm atmufygtwkdif; jzpfygonf/ = tEIdif;rJhudk;uG,f&m tpjyKyg\/

jrwftv’m[f\

emrawmfjzihf

= xdkt&Sifonf rdrdtm; ,kHMunfvufcHoludk jzpfap? jiif;y,foludkjzpfap rcGJjcm;bJ zefqif;cHtm;vkH;tay: u½kPmxm; awmfrlaomt&Sif


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

17

= xdkt&Sifonf trSefw&m;udk ouf0if,kHMunfí jrwf aomtusihf &SdolwkdYtm; txkl;aumif;csD;u½kPm jyK awmfrlaomt&Sif tpövmrfbmom0ifwkdY taejzifh pm;jcif;? aomufjcif;? tdyfjcif;? a&mif;0,fazmufum;jcif;? usrf;pm&Gwfzwfjcif;? 0wfjyKjcif; ponfwkdYtyg t0if rnfonfhtrIudpöudkrqkd jyKawmhrnfqkdvQif rjyKrD ,if;Asm'dwfudk &GwfzwfNyD; ESvkH;oGif;Mu&ygonf/ wpfenf;qkdaomf uk&ftmef 2;138 t& tv’m[fhta&mifqkd;jcif;udkcH,lMu&ygonf/ qdkvkdonfrSm… • tEIdif;rJhukd;uG,f&m jrwftv’m[fonf Nidrf;csrf;rIESihf w&m;rQwrI\ t&if;tjrpfjzpfí rdrdonfvnf; rnfonfhtrI jyKjyK Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf w&m;rQwpGm aqmif&Gufygrnf/ rdrdaMumihf olwpfyg;epfemrIjzpfapjcif;rS a&SmifMuOfygrnf/ • xkdt&Sifjrwfonf zefqif;cHcyfodrf;tay: u½kPmw&m; xm;awmfrl onfjzpfí rdrdonfvnf; vlrsdK;? bmom? vdifrcGJjcm;bJ zefqif;cH cyfodrf;tay: u½kPmxm;qufqHygrnf/ • xkdt&Sifjrwfonf trSefw&m;udkouf0if,kHMunfNyD; rSefaomtusihf&Sdol wkdYtm; txl;aumif;csD;u½kPmjyKawmfrlaom t&Sifjzpfí rdrdonfvnf; rSefaomt,l? rSefaomtusihf&SdolwkdYtm; *g&0xm;í u½kPmjyKrnf[k ESvkH;oGif;jcif;jzpfygonf/ xkdYaMumihf wrefawmfcsKyfrk[r®'fuvnf; rGwfpvifrfwpfOD;tedrfhqkH; *kPf&nfrSm vrf;ay:&Sd olwpfyg;udk xdckdufaprnfhql;udk z,f&Sm;ay;jcif; jzpfonf[k oGefoifawmfrlcJhygonf/ (wrefawmfMo0g'? Akcg&Dusrf;) rGwfpvifrfwkdYonf uk&ftmefusrf;pmudk &GwfzwfwwfMuaomfvnf; t&ADpmayudk bmompum;wpf&yftaejzifh ruRrf;usifMuojzihf txuf azmfjyyg uk&ftmef\ tzGihfAsm'dwfawmf (1;1)udk &nfñTGef;NyD; atmufygtwkdif; wDxGiftokH;jyKMujcif;omjzpfygonf/


18

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

jrefrmpmaywGif we*FaEGemrfpmvkH; rsm;onf 1? wevFmemrf pmvkH; rsm;onf 2 ponfjzihf owfrSwfcsuf&Sdygonf/ xdkYtwl t&ADpmaywGif Asnf;tu©&m 28 vkH;&Sd&m Asnf;wpfvkH;csif; udk,fydkifeHygwf (udef;*Pef;) rsm;rSm atmufygtwkdif; jzpfMuygonf/ ‫ا‬

‫ب‬ ‫ج‬ ‫د‬ ‫ھ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ط‬ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ‫ي‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫س‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ص‬ 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ‫ق‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ث‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ظ‬ 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

1

‫غ‬ 1000

txufazmfjyyguk&ftmefusrf;pmtzGihfAsm'dwfawmf (1;1)wGif t&AD Asnf;tu©&m 19 vkH;yg0if&m ,if;wkdY\ udk,fydkif*Pef;toD;oD;udk aygif; vdkufygu 786 (ckESpf&m&Spfq,fhajcmuf)&&Sdygonf/ atmufwGifMunfhyg/

‫بسم اهلل الرحمن الرحيم‬ 786=

‫بسماللهالرحمنالرحيم‬

40+10+8+200+30+1+50+40+8+200+30+1+5+30+30+1+40+60+2

(u) 786 [laomoauFwonf 21 &mpkwGif jrefrmEdkifiHudkodrf;ydkuf&ef vrf;ñTefcsufr[kwfyg/ 786 [lonf 7? 8? 6 [laom oD;jcm;*Pef; 3 vkH; pkpnf;xm;jcif; r[kwfovdk ,if;*Pef; 3vkH;udk (7+8+6=21)[lívnf;aumif;? (2+1=3) [lívnf;aumif; xyfaygif;p&mtaMumif; vkH;0ray:aygufyg/ ,if; 21 [laom*Pef; ay:aygufp&mr&SdvQif ,if; 21 aemufü &mpktygt0if ck? aumif? a,muf ponfh rnfonfhemrfrQ wGJbufay:aygufp&mvnf; tvsOf;r&Sdyg/


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

19

txufazmfjyyg uk&ftmeftzGihfAsm'dwfawmf (1;1)\ t"dyÜm,fwGif 21&mpk[laom a0g[m&tvQif;r&Sdovdk Asnf;wkdY\ udef;*Pef;udkaygif;pyf xm;aom 786 [lonfvnf; 21 &mpk[k rnfokdYrQt"dyÜm,fr&ojzifh 21 &mpkwGif rGwfpvifrfwkdYonf jrefrmEdkifiHudkodrf;ydkufrnf/ bmomrwlolrsm;udk okwfoifypfrnf[laom 0g'jzefYcsdrIrsm;rSm tajctjrpfr&Sdaom azmfjycsuf rsm;omjzpfygonf/ xdkYaMumihf jrefrmrGwfpvifrfrsm; taejzihfvnf; ,if; &nf&G,fcsufESihf vkyfief;pOf tvsOf;r&SdMuyg/ xdkYtjyif uk&ftmef (61;8) t& rGwfpvifrfwkdY,kHMunfcsufrSm opömw&m;[lonf udk,fydkiftvif;a&mif &Sdojzihf rnfolzsufzsufrysufbJ ,if;udk,fwkdif tvdktavQmufxGef;vif; aprnf[líomjzpfygonf/ (c) 786 [laom oauFwonf rGwfpvifrftcsif;csif;udktm;ay;apí rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolrsm;ESihf vlrIpD;yGm;a&; rqufqH&ef ñTefMum;csuf jzpfygoavm 786 [laomoauFwonf vlrIpD;yGm;a&;wGif rGwfpvifrftcsif;csif; udkomtm;ay;apí rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolrsm;ESihf rqufqH&[laom vrf;ñTefcsuftvsOf;ryg&Sdyg/ ,if; 786 oauFw&nfñTef;aom uk&ftmef\ tzGihfAsm'dwfawmf (1;1) wGif tEdIif;rJhudk;uG,f&m\ emrawmf 3 yg;udk jyqkdxm;&m 'kwd,emrawmfrSm t&f-&[frmef jzpfNyD; ,if;\t"dyÜm,frSm vlrsdK;? bmom? vdifrcGJjcm;bJ zefqif;cHavmutoD;oD;\ tajccHvdktyf csufrsm;udk axmufyHhaom r[mu½kPm&Sif[kqkdxm;&m rGwfpvifrfrsm; taejzihfvnf; xdkemrawmftwkdif; ESvkH;oGif;í vlrsdK;? bmom? omoem? vdif rcGJjcm;bJ w&m;rQwpGm? MuifempGmqufqH&ef oGefoifxm;NyD;jzpfygonf/ xdkYtjyif tEIdif;rJhukd;uG,f&m jrwftv’m[fu--1/ urÇmay:&Sd vlom;tm;vkH;onf vlrsdK;? a'o? ,Ofaus;rI uGJjym;aeMuaomfvnf; rdom;pkwpfpkwnf;omjzpfaMumif;? wpfOD;ESihfwpfOD;? wpfrsdK;ESihfwpfrsdK; tjyeftvSeftodtrSwfjyK


20

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

Mu&rnfjzpfaMumif;? vlwpfOD;ESihfwpfOD; jzpfap? vlrsdK;wpfrsdK; ESihfwpfrsdK;jzpfap jrihfjrwfjcif;udk rSefaomt,l? rSefaomtusihf jzihfom wkdif;wmaMumif; (uk&ftmef 49;13) 2/ vlom;wdkYtMum; jrwfaomtusihfESihf jypfrIa&Smifum aumif;rI jyKjcif;udpörsm;wGif yl;aygif;aqmif&GufMu&ef odkYaomf jypfrIESihf usL;ausmfapmfum;rIwGif yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufjcif;rjyKMu&ef (uk&ftmef 5;2) 3/

tpövmrfomoemESihf rGwfpvifrfwkdYudk ppfrufwkdufckdufaeolrsm; ESihf twGif;a&;eD;uyfaomqufqHrIrsdK;udk owday;xm;NyD; usef urÇmhvlom;wkdYtusdK;aqmif&Gufjcif;? MuifemrQwpGm qufqH jcif;wkdYrS wm;jrpfxm;rIr&SdaMumif; (uk&ftmef 60;8-9)

xdkYtjyif wrefawmfjrwfrk[r®'fuvnf; oGefoifonfrSm --4/ rGwfpvifrfwpfOD;\ tedrfhqkH;*kPf&nfrSm vrf;ay:rS trsm;olig owå0gwkdYudk tEÅ&m,fjzpfapaom ql;uJhodkYaomt&mudk z,f &Sm;ay;jcif;yifjzpfonf/ (Akcg&Dusrf;) 5/ rvSrf;rurf;rS *sL;psmyeo,faqmifvmonfudkawGUaomtcg wrefawmfjrwfrk[r®'fu x&yfvdkufonf/ xdktcg twl&Sdae aom aemufvdkufwpfOD;u rGwfpvifrfwpfOD;\psmyer[kwfbJ *sL;psmyejzpfaMumif; avQmufxm;&m wrefawmfjrwfu ]olYrSm vnf; 0dnmOf&Sdw,fr[kwfvm;}}[kqHk;rum rGwfpvifrfwkdYtae jzihf vl&Sifudkomru vlrsdK;bmomrcGJjcm;bJ vlaoudkyif tav;teufxm;&ef oGefoifawmfrlxm;ygonf/ (Akcg&Dusrf;) Ak'¨bmom0if&[ef;awmfrsm;twGuf tpmtm[m&rSD0J&mwGif usihf&ef MuOf&ef 0denf;&Sdovdk rGwfpvifrfwkdYtwGufvnf; tpm;pm;okH;&mwGif [vmvf ac: cGihfjyKcsuf? [&mrfac:wm;jrpfcsuf? rwfu½l[fac: rESpfouf zG,fponfh pnf;urf;rsm;pGm&Sdaeygonf/ ,cktcg urÇmESihft0Srf; tpm;tpm


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

21

xkwv f yk o f rl sm;taejzihf tpm;tpmab;Oy'fuif;a&;qkid &f m (Food Safety) axmufcHpmrsm;udk oufqkdif&mtpdk;&rsm;xHrS &,lMuygonf/ urÇmhvlOD;a&\ 4 ykH 1 ykHrQaom rGwfpvifrf aps;uGuftwGufvnf; (Halal Certification) [vmvf ac: pm;okH;cGihf&SdaMumif;axmufcHpmudk oufqkdif&mrGwfpvifrf tzGJUtpnf;rsm;rS &,lMuNyD; rdrdwdkY\ukefwHqdyfrsm;wGif [vmvfwHqdyf cwfESdyfazmfjyxm;Muygonf/ jrefrmEdkifiHü ,cifu 786 [k a&;om;azmfjy xm;&mrS ,cktcg [vmvf rSwfykHwiftrSwfwHqdyf azmfjyxm;onfudk awGU&ygonf/ ,if;odkYtpm;taomufqkdif&m rGwfpvifrfwkdY\ pnf;urf;owfrSwf csufrsm;udk rGwfpvifrftcsif;csif;om tao;pdwf od&SdvdkufemEdkifojzihf rGwfpvifrfwkdYtaejzifh aetdrfjyifyü pm;aomuf&mwGif rGwfpvifrfqkdifudk OD;pm;ay;í &SmazGpm;aomuf&jcif;om jzpfygonf/ ,if;tpm;taomuf twGuf qef? qD? pm;? MuufoGefponfhukefMurf;rsm;? tjcm; [if;oD; [if;&Guf oD;ESHrsm;? vQyfppf? ukefrmtp&SdonfwkdYudkrl rdrdwdkYtqifajyovdk rGwfpvifrfr[kwfol qkdifrsm;rSvnf; tm;ay;0,f,lavh &SdMuygonf/ rGwfpvifrf r[kwfolrsm; zGihfxm;aom vÇuf&nfqkdifü rGwfpvifrfrsm;pGm aomufokH;vsuf &SdaeMuygonf/ tpövmrfomoemu tvSL'geay;urf;&mwGifvnf; vlrsdK;? bmom ra&G; vdktyfcsuf&Sdolrsm;udkay;urf;ap&ef uk&ftmefusrf;pmü vrf;ñTefcsuf ajrmufjrm;pGmyg&Sdaeygonf/ udkvdkeDacwfu ArmrGwfpvifrfqdkqkdif,DwD Ouú|BuD; KIH OD;btkdrSm vlrsdK;^bmomra&G; axmufyHhcJhonf/ jrefrmh qkd&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwDacwfu [m*sDr ysOf;rem;a':ykrSm xdkpOfu usyfodef; okH;q,fausmfwef ausmufuyfaq;½kHBuD;udk &efukefNrdKUü tHhzG,fvSL'gef;cJh onf/ &efukefNrdKU? r[mAE¨Kvyef;NcHvrf;&Sd rGwfpvifrfukodkvfjzpfaq;½kHBuD; rSm ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm vlrsdK;^bmomra&G; tcrJhukoay;vsuf&Sd\/ ,cktcg rEÅav;NrdKU? 74 vrf;üvnf; jrihfjrwfjzLpiftcrJhaq;cef;rSvnf; ulnDay; vsuf&Sdygonf/ jrefrmjynfü ema&;ulnDrItoif;rsm; ray:aygufrD ESpfaygif;


22

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

rsm;pGmtvsifuwnf;u rEÅav;NrdKU rGwfpvifrfrsm;\ edAÁmefaqmftoif; BuD;u vlrsdK;ra&G;? bmomra&G; ema&;udpörsm;udk ulnDaqmif&GufcJhygonf/ em*pfrkefwkdif;'ku©onfrsm;udk &ufydkif;twGif; &efukefNrdKUrS tpövmrftzGJUcsKyf BuD;rS oufqkdif&mtmPmydkifrsm;ESihfn§dEIdif;í a&muf&efcufcJaom aus;vuf rsm;wkdif ukrÜPDolaX;rsm;udk,fwkdif cufcufcJcJoGm;a&mufí vlrsdK;^bmom ra&G; u,fq,fa&;vkyfief;rsm; vESihfcsDí aqmif&Gufay;cJhMuonf/ rEÅav;rS rGwfpvifrfrsm;uvnf; tjcm;nDaemifrsm;ESihfwGJzufí pepfwus ulnDaqmif&GufcJhMuonf/ odkYaomf nmbufuay;vQif b,fvufu rod apeJY[laom tpövmrfhoGefoifcsuft& rGwfpvifrfwkdY\ wkdif;jynfESihf vlrsdK; twGuf rGwpf vifrw f jYkd yKcJMh u aom tvSLrsm;udk trsm;jynfow l o Ydk yd rf odMuyg/ ,ck rdw¬DvmtMurf;zufrI'ku©onfrsm;ESihfpyfvsOf;í EdkifiHa&;ygwD wpfck\ A[kdtvkyftrIaqmifwpfOD;u ]]tNrdKUNrdKUte,fe,fu Ak'¨bmomeJY ywfoufwJh tzGJUtpnf;awGu vma&mufaxmufyHhwJhtcgrSm tpövmrf&,f? Ak'¨bmom&,f cGJjcm;rIr&SdbJeJY axmufyHhaewmawG uRefawmfwkdYawGUw,f/ tpövmrfaxmufyhHa&;tzGJUawGvma&mufwJhtcgrSm Ak'¨bmom 'ku©onfawG qDa&muf&Sdjcif;? axmufyHhjcif;r&SdwmudkawGU&w,f/ qdkvdkwmu &ckdifrSmvdk UN rvm&wdkY? NGO rvm&wdkY pmawGuyfwJhtajctaersdK; a&mufvmrSmudk pdk;&drfw,f}}[k The Voice ESifhtifwmAsL;ü ajymonfudkawGUvdkuf&ygonf/4 ¤if;\ajymMum;csufrSm vkH;0rSm;,Gif;onfhtjyif zwf½IolwkdYudk vrf;vGJ aprnfh rSwfcsufrsdK;udkvnf; csjyoGm;onfudk 0rf;enf;zG,fawGU&ygonf/ Oyrm- &efukefrS Nidrf;csrf;rIwnfaqmufa&;uGef&ufESihf a&T0ga&mif oHCm awmfrsm;uGef&uf yl;aygif;ívnf;aumif;? rEÅav;rS rGwfpvifrftvSL&Sifrsm; uvnf; oHCmawmfrsm;ESihfyl;aygif;ívnf;aumif;? vlrsdK;bmom rcGJjcm;bJ ay;vSLaxmufyHhvsuf&Sdygonf/ rnfolrqkd awGUqkHar;jref;cef;jyKrnf qkdvQif oufqkdif&mtaMumif;t&mudk uRrf;usif&efESihf rodaomudpöudk rodaMumif; &dk;om;pGmajym&efvdkygonf/ vlxkukdvrf;vJGaponfh rSwfcsuf 4 The Voice, 7.4.2013? pm-24


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

23

rsdK;rsm; rjyKvkyf&ef vnf; txl;vdktyfygonf/ pD;yGm;a&;a&mif;0,fazmufum;rIudk vlrsdK;wl odkYr[kwf bmomwl odkYr[kwf a'ouefYowfcsuftwGif; uefYowfaqmif&Gufjcif;tm;jzihf ,if; vlrsdK;^a'otwGif; wkd;wufzGHUNzdK;rI aES;auG;oGm;apygonf/ Oyrm-jrefrmh qkd&S,fvpf vrf;pOfygwDacwfu jrefrmEdkifiHonf pD;yGm;a&;wHcg;ydwf0g'usihf okH;cJh&m aemufqkH;wGif LDC ac: urÇmhzGHUNzdK;rItenf;qkH; pm&if;0if EdkifiH wpfckjzpfoGm;cJhygonf/ ,cktcg jrefrmEdkifiHtaejzihf aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepf usihfokH;aeNyDjzpf&m vlrsdK;^bmomra&G; jynfyrS t&if;tESD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm;udk zdwfac:jcif;? rdrdwkdYudk,fwkdifuvnf; vlrsdK;^bmomra&G; jynfy aps;uGuf &Smjcif;wku Yd kd aqmif&u G af e&aomumvjzpf&m vlrsdK;^bmomwltcsif;csif;om tm;ay;&rnfqkdygu udk,fhaowGif; udk,fwl;ouJhodkYom jzpfygvdrfhrnf/

3/ *sd[m'f[lonf rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolrsm;udk okwfoif &Sif;vif;jcif;jzpfygoavm/ wpfcsdefu taemufwkdif;wGif tpövmrfomoemonf "m;rkd;íomoem jyKcJhonf [laom 0g'jzefYrI vTGrf;rdk;aecJhonf/ odkYaomf ,if;pGyfpGJcsufudk taemufwkdif;rS ½dk;om;aomynm&SiftoD;oD;u r[kwfrSefaMumif; &Sif;jy oGm;cJhMuonf/ Oyrm - L.E.Browne u ]]ckdifrmpGmjzpfwnfvsuf&Sdaom tcsufrsm;u taemufwkdif;\ ,if;us,fjyefYaom pGyfpGJcsufrsm;udk y,fzsuf aeayonf}}[k azmfjyxm;onf/5 ,cktcg jrefrmEdkifiHwGifvnf; rGwfpvifrf wkdYonf tiftm; aumif;vmvQif *sd[m'fac: rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolrsm;udk okwfoif&Sif;vif;a&;vkyfvdrfhrnf/ txl;ojzihf 21-&mpkwGif jyKrnfjzpf&m 88-ESpfom usefawmhojzihf rdrdwdkY\om;ajr;vufxufwGif Ak'¨bmomrsm;udk okwfoifum jrefrmjynfudktNyD;odrf;vdrfhrnf[laom vGJrSm;onfh 0g'jzefYcsdrI ay:aygufvmojzihf rGwfpvifrfwdkYtay: oHo,rsm;? &efvdkrkef;wD;rIrsm;? tMurf;zuf wkdufckdufrIrsm; jzpfay:vm&ygonf/ 5 L.E Browne, "The Prospects of Islam", London: 1944, p.14


24

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

odkYqkdvQif *sd[m'f[lonfh t"dyÜm,frSefrSm tb,fenf;/ *sd[m'f [laom t&ADa0g[m&\ pmayt"dyÜm,frSm tpGrf;ukefBudK;yrf; jcif;? oufpGefYBudK;yrf;aqmif&Gufjcif; (effort, struggle, striving) [lí &yg onf/ uk&ftmefusrf;jrwf (9;24)t& t"dyÜm,frSm ppfrSefaomrGwfpvifrf[l onfh rdrd touf? tdk;tdrf? pnf;pdrfxuf tEIdif;rJhudk;uG,f&m jrwftv’m[fESihf xdkt&Sif\apwref rk[r®'fwkdYjyqkdaom rSefuefjcif;? w&m;rQwjcif;? avmuudk tvSqifjcif;wkdYudktajccHonfh Nidrf;csrf;a&;vrf;pOfudk ydkrdk cspfjrwfEdk;u ,if;twGuf oufpGefYBudK; yrf;aqmif&Gufjcif;udk ac:ygonf/ xkdYtjyif *sd[m'f[lonfh omoemhppfyGJqifETJjcif;(Holy War)? tpGef;a&muf jcif;? t,lonf;jcif;? tMurf;zufjcif;[k vkH;0t"dyÜm,fr&bJ uk&ftmef (22;40)t& bmomw&m;wkdY\vGwfvyfpGmukd;uG,fusihfokH; cGihfudktmrcH jcif;? tMurf;zufrIudk qefYusifwm;qD;jcif;[kvnf; t"dyÜm,f&ygonf/ xdkYtjyif uk&ftmefusrf;jrwft&--(1) Nidrf;csrf;pGmjyK&aom*sd[m'f (Peaceful Jihad) ESihf (2) vufeufpGJudkif&aom*sd[m'f (Armed Jihad) [lí (2)rsdK;&Sdygonf/ (u) Nidrf;csrf;pGmjyK&aom *sd[m'f wrefawmfjrwf rk[r®'fonf ruú[fNrdKUwGif 10 ESpfwkdif tpövmrf ac: Nidrf;csrf;rIb0wnfaqmufa&;vrf;ñTef w&m;udk a[mMum;oGefoifcJh&m vufcHolrsm;&Sdovdk trsm;pku qefYusifcJhMuonf/ xkdYtjyif wrefawmfjrwf tm; tpövmrfw&m;a[mMum;jcif;rjyK&ef bk&iftmPm? pnf;pdrf? unmysdK wkdYjzihf zsm;a,mif;cJhMu&m ratmifjrifcJhMuojzihf tpövmrfudk vufcHolrsm; udk n§Of;yrf;owfjzwfrIrsm; jyKvmcJhMuonf/ xdkYaemuf wrefawmfjrwfESihf aemufvkdufrsm;udk ruú[fNrdKUjyifodkY armif;xkwfí 3-ESpfwm tquftoG,f jzwfawmufxm;cJhMuonf/ ,if;odkY rGwfpvifrfrsm; 13ESpfwm n§Of;yrf; owfjzwfcHcJhMu&aomfvnf; tEIdif;rJhudk;uG,f&m jrwftv’m[fu vufeufpGJ


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

25

udkifcGihfray;cJhbJ Nidrf;csrf;pGmyif oufpGefYBudK;yrf; aqmif&GufapcJhygonf/ uk&ftmefusrf;jrwf (29;6 ? 29;69 ? 16;110)t& Nidrf;csrf;pGmjyKcGihf &aom*sD[m'f[lonf rdrd\emrfcE¨m (ezfpf0dnmOf) oefYpifzGHUNzdK;a&;twGuf rawmfavmb? a'go? arm[? rme ponfwkdYudk atmifEdkif&efBudK;yrf;jcif;? rdrdywf0ef;usifü raumif;rIrsm;yaysmufapí aumif;rI&Sifoefapjcif;udkac: ygonf/ wkdYtjyif uk&ftmef (25;52)t& uk&ftmefusrf;jrwfu ay;aom w&m;\todynmjzihf trSm;udkwGef;vSefum w&m;rQwrIESihf Nidrf;csrf;a&; &&Sdatmif aqmif&Gufjcif;udk BuD;us,faom *sD[m'f[kac:onf/ þNidrf;csrf; pGmjyK&aom *sd[m'fudk b0wpfavQmufvkH; usihfokH;&rnfjzpfonf/ (c) vufeufpGJudkif&aom *sd[m'f tpövmrfhb0wnfaqmufrIvrf;pOfwGif pdwftvdkudkrvkdufbJ b0 jyóemrsm;udk ajz&Sif;ap\/ ]]… raumif;rIudk ydkrdkvSyaumif;rGefrIESihfwkHYjyefavmh? odkYjzpfvQif tMuifolESihf toiftMum; &efnd§K;&SdtHh? xdkolonf rdwfaqGt&if;uJhodkY jzpfvmayrnf/}} (uk&ftmef 41;34) odkYaomf Nidrf;csrf;a&;udkarQmfudk;í ,if;odkYarwåmjzihfqufqHjcif;udk tcGihfaumif;,lí wkdufckdufvmygu &efoltjzpf vufeufpGJudkif ckcH wdkufckdufcGihf&Sdvmygonf/ odkYaomf rdrdudkwkdufckdufoludkom jyefwkduf&rnfjzpf NyD; tjypfrJholrsm;udk rxdckdufap&/ (uk&ftmef 2;190)/ &efolbufrSckdvIHcGihf awmif;vmolrsm;udk vufcHí tpövmrftaMumif;&Sif;jyum ab;uif;&m okdYydkYay;&rnf/ (uk&ftmef 9;6)/ &efolrS ppfajyNidrf;&efurf;vSrf;vmygu tv’m[fxH,kHMunftyfESHí vufcH&rnf/ (uk&ftmef 8;61)/ ,if;odkYtrSef w&m;twGuf? w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;twGuf? Nidrf;csrf;a&;twGuf toufpGefY vSLoGm;olrsm;udk tpövmrfu olaorsm;r[kwf? tNrJwrf;&Sifoefaeolrsm;[k *kPfjyKxm;ygonf/ (uk&ftmef 2;154) jrefrmpum;üvnf; ]]&Jabmfrao? aoaomfi&Jrvm;}} [k *kPfjyKxm;ygonf/


26

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

ppfAsL[mt& uif;ykef;csjcif;? &efoludkzrf;qD;jcif;? ppfajrjyifü&efoludk &ifqkdifwkdufckdufapjcif;rSm ppfrufumvtwGuf ñTefMum;csufrsm;om jzpf ygonf/ (uk&ftmef 9;5)/ ]]ppfajrjyifü &efol\vnf*kwfudkckwf}}[laom t&ADpum;rSm &efol\xdk;ppf&yfqkdif;oGm;apEdkifonfh t"duusaom csuf aumif;rsm;udk &SmazGí xda&mufpGm ppfqifa&;jyK&ef t"dyÜm,fvnf; yg0if ygonf/ (uk&ftmef 47;4)/ þvrf;ñTefcsufüyif ppfyGJumvNyD;qkH;ygu ppf okHYyef;rsm;udkwpfenf;enf;jzifh vTGwfay;&efvnf;azmfjyxm;ygonf/ odkYaomf tpövmrfomoemudk rvdkrkef;xm;&SdolwkdYu þuk&ftmef\vrf;ñTefcsufrsm; udk udk;um;í rGwfpvifrfwdkYonf rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolwkdYtm; tcsdefumv ra&G;? awGU&mocsØKif;"m;rqkdif;bJ owfjzwf&ef ñTGefMum;xm;onf[kvGJrSm;pGm 0g'jzefYEId;qGavh&Sd&m Nidrf;csrf;a&;vdkvm;olwdkif; owdjyKtyfygonf/ c&pf,mefbkef;awmfBuD; &J*sDe,fabmhpf0ofprpfu wrefawmfjrwf rk[r®'fü tNrJwrf;ppfwyfBuD;r&SdaMumif; *kPfjyKazmfjy&mwGif ]]olonfEdkifiH acgif;aqmifESihf omoemhtBuD;tuJjzpfonf/ wpfOD;wnf;ESihf qDZmbk&if vnf;jzpf? omoemydkif ykyf&[ef;rif;vnf;jzpfonf? omoemydkifjzpfaomf vnf; ykyf&[ef;rif;BuD;uJhodkY omoemydkiftaqmifta,mifr&Sd? qDZmjzpf aomfvnf; ppfbk&ifqDZmuJhodkY tNrJwrf;ppfwyfvnf;r&Sd? oufawmfapmihf vnf;r&Sd? eef;awmfvnf;r&Sd? owfrSwfxm;aom tcGefwpfpkHwpf&mvnf;r&Sd? rnfolrqkd trSefajymcGihf&Sdygu ajymrnfrSm rSefuefaom aumif;uifus vrf;ñTGefusrf;ESihf tkyfcsKyfoGm;olrSm rk[r®'fomjzpfonf/ taMumif;aomf rnfonfh,EÅ,m;ypönf;rQrygbJ? rnfonfh taxmuftyHhrQrygbJ tmPm tvHk;pkHudk ydkifqkdifEkdifcJholjzpfaomaMumihfwnf;/}}6 wrefawmfjrwf rk[r®'fonf tpövmrf ac: Nidrf;csrf;a&;vrf;pOfudk wnfaqmufjy&mwGif tcsdKUolrsm; pGyfpGJykwfcyfaeovdk wPSmBuD;ol? tMurf;zuf0g'DwpfOD;r[kwfbJ urÇmhjyóemrsm;udk vufawGUususajz&Sif;í 6

Rev. Reginald Bosworth Smith, Mohammad and Mohammedanism, London: 1874, p.92


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

27

urÇmBuD;udk wnfNidrfat;csrf;atmif? ,Ofaus;rI&SdaomvlYtzGJUtpnf;jzpf atmif xdfyfqkH;tqihfrS aqmif&GufcJholjzpfaMumif; urÇmh xdyfwef;ynm&Sifrsm; rS todtrSwfjyK azmfjyNyD;jzpfygonf/ jrefrmhorkdif;yg&*l a'gufwmoef;xGef;u rdkufu,f tdyfcsf[wf\urÇmausmf The 100 [laompmtkyfudk ]]ausmfpGm wpf&m}}trnfjzifhbmomjyefcJh&wGif ]]vlYorkdif;aMumif;wpfckvkH;udk usepGm qef;ppfokH;oyfMunfhvQif ol(rk[r®'f)wpfOD;wnf;omvQif bmoma&;ESihf avmuDa&;ESpfrsdK;pvkH;ü tatmifjrifqkH; yk*¾dKvfwpfOD;jzpfcJhjcif;aMumifh þodkYtqihf 1 ay;&jcif;jzpfonf}}[kazmfjyxm;onf/7 (*) bmomjcm;wkdYtm; jzm;a,mif;jcif;? "m;rkd;jcif;? okwfoifjcif;r&Sd urÇmhorkdif;wGif ya'o&mZfacwfrsm;ü EdkifiHrsm;tMum; tjyeftvSef e,fy,fcsJUxGifrI &SdcJhMuygonf/ jrefrmjynfwGifvnf; taemf&xm? bk&ihf aemifESihf tavmif;bk&m;rif;rsm;vufxufu txl;xif&Sm;cJhygonf/ odkYaomf tpövmrfu "m;rdk;í omoemjyKcJhjcif;qkdonfrSm orkdif;ynm&Sifrsm; xyfcgwvJvJajymaeMuonfh rjzpfEdkifaom pdwful;,Of,kHwrf; pum;om jzpfaMumif;8 taemufwkdif;ynm&Sifrsm;uyif jyef&Sif;aeMuygonf/ ykyf&[ef;rif;BuD; tmAef 2 (1042-1099)OD;aqmifcJhaom c&pf,mef wkdYonf rGwfpvifrfwdkYtm; c&pfawmfudk qefYusifolrsm;jzpfonf? ,Ofaus; rIr&Sdolrsm;jzpfonfqkdNyD; txiftjrifvGJrSm;um pwifwkdufcdkufcJhrIaMumihf c½l;qdwfppfyGJ ESpf 200 jzpfcJh&onfudk txl;&Sif;jyp&mrvdkawmhyg/ vufawGUwGifrGwfpvifrfwkdYonf Oa&mypydefwGif aumf'dkAm,Ofaus;rI xlaxmifNyD; urÇmhvlom;xkudk ESpfaygif; 800 rQ odyÜH? 0dZÆmESihf ,Ofaus;rI tarGrsm;ay;cJhMuonf/ odkYaomf rnfolYudkrQ tpövmrfomoemtwGif;odkY t"r®oGwfoGif;jcif;? okwfoif&Sif;vif;jcif; rjyKcJhyg/ c½ll;qdwfppfonfrsm;0if a&mufvmNyD; rGwfpvifrfwkdYaoG;acsmif;pD; owfcHcJh&jcif;om&SdcJhygonf/ Michael. H.Hart, The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, New York : A&W Visual Library, 1978, p.40. 8 De Lacy O'leary, "Islam at Cross Road," London: 1923, p.8. 7


28

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

jyifopfrSodyÜHynm&Sif a'gufwm arm&pfbkudkifvfu ,if;owfjzwfrIom r&SdcJhygu ,aeYurÇmBuD;onf ,ckxufydkí odyÜH ynma&SUa&mufaernf[kyif rSwfcsufjyKcJhonf/ rGwfpvifrfwkdYonf tma&Asa'oudk ESpfaygif; 1400 ausmf pdk;rdk; tkyfcsKyfolrsm;jzpfcJhNyD; NAdwdoQESihfjyifopfwkdYu ESpf tenf;i,fom usL;ausmf odrf;ydkufrI jyKcJhMuygonf/ odkYaomf ,aeYtma&AswGif aumhywpfc&pf,mef bmom0if t&AfvlrsdK;(14)oef; &SdaeqJjzpfygonf/9 rnfonfh"m;rkd;rI? okwfoif &Sif;vif;rIrQ r&SdcJhyg/ urÇmhorkdif;wGif b*¾'uftifyg,mrS rGwfpvifrfwkdYudk aoG;acsmif;pD;owfjzwfcJhMuaom ppfaoG;<urGef*dkppfonf wkdYonf aemufydkif;wGif rGef*dkwmwmrsm;tjzpf tpövmrf bmom0ifjzpfoGm; Mujcif;rSm rnfonfh"m;rdk;rIESihf t"r®pepfaMumihfrS r[kwfcJhyg/ uGefjrLepf BuD;pdk;aom w½kwfjynfwGif rGwfpvifrfoef; (100)ausmf&Sd&jcif;rSm rnfonfh t"r®rIaMumihfrSr[kwfyg/ tdE´d,ukd rGwfpvifrfwkdY ESpfaygif; 1000 rQ pdk;rdk; cJhMuNyD; r*dktifyg,mudkxlaxmifcJhMuonf/ rGwfpvifrfr*dk{u&mZf Zz&f&S[f vufrS NAdwdoQwkdYu tdE´d,udkodrf;cJhMuNyD; ¤if;tm; &efukefodkY ydkYaqmifcJhjcif; jzpfonf/ odkYaomf ,aeYtdE´d,wGif vlOD;a&(80)&mckdifEIef;rSm rGwfpvifrf r[kwfolrsm;omjzpfae&m t"r®pepfESihf okwfoif&Sif;vif;rIr&SdcJhíomjzpfyg onf/ xdkYaMumihf acwfopf tdE´d,EdkifiHzcifBuD; r[wår*E¨Du tpövmrfonf "m;rkd;í omoemjyKchJjcif;r&Sd? wrefawmfjrwf rk[r®'f\"m;rSm oH"m;r[kwfbJ arwåm"m;omjzpfaMumif; *kPfjyKajymMum;cJhjcif;jzpfygonf/10 ,cktcg OIC ac: rGwfpvifrfEdkifiHrsm; nd§EdIif;aqmif&Gufa&;tzGJUwGif 57 EdkifiHyg0if&m ,if;EkdifiHrsm;wGif rGwfpvifrf r[kwfol ajrmufjrm;pGm&Sdjcif;rSm rnfonfhokwfoif&Sif;vif;rIrQ rjyKcJhíomjzpfygonf/ ,cktcg odyÜH 0dZÆm ynm wkd;wufaeonfhtaemufurÇmwGif tpövmrfjyefYyGm;ae&jcif;rSm tod ynmudk tajccHíomjzpfygonf/ 9 Dr. Zakir Naik, "Most Common Questions about Islam," Kuala Lumpur: SABA Islamic Media, 2003, p.13 10 Young India


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

29

4/ tpövmrffwGif omoemjyKvrf;ñTef rnfodkY&Sdoenf; rGwpf vifrw f o Ydk nf a'owpfcw k iG t f iftm;raumif;ao;ygu Nird af eNy;D tiftm;aumif;vmygu bmomjcm;rsm;udk tpövmrfomoemtwGif;odkY t"r®oGwfoGif;onf/ tu,fí jiif;qefMuygu AvD0wfausmif;awmfrS &ufwpf&ufowfrSwf aMunmNyD; bmomjcm;rsm;udk *sd[m'fjyKum okwfoif &Sif;vif;onf/ jrefrmjynfwGifvnf; 21 &mpkukef&ef 88 ESpfom vdkawmhí rMumrDokwfoif&Sif;vif;vdrfhrnf[k vkyfBuH0g'jzefYrIrsm; ay:aygufaeygonf/ tpövmrfwGif ,if;odkYpdwfESvkH;om;rS trSefwu,fr,kHMunfbJ bmomul; ajymif;jcif;udkvnf; vkH;0 vufrcHyg/ xdkYtwl todÓmPfESihf vGwfvyfcGihf rygbJ t"r®pepfjzihf bmomul;ajymif;apjcif;udkvnf; vkH;0vufrcHyg/ xdkYtjyif tpövmrfwGif omoemjyKjcif;[lonfhoabm w&m;vnf;vkH;0r&SdbJ tpövmrfomoemtaMumif; vltrsm;od&SdEkdif&ef &Sif;vif;jzefYcsdjcif;ESihf Nidrf;csrf;pGm ,SOfwGJaexdkifa&;rlom&SdaMumif; atmufyguk&ftmefvrf;ñTef csufrsm;t& odEdkifygonf/ (u) tpövmrfwGif t"r®pepfr&Sd ]]ajzmihfrwfrSefuefaomvrf;pOfonfrrSefuefaomvrf;pOfESihf xif&Sm; &Sif;vif;pGm&SdaeNyDjzpf&m tpövmrf b0wnfaqmufrIvrf;pOfwGif t"r®pepf r&Sdacs/}} (uk&ftmef 2;256) (c) todÓmPfESihf,SOfí ckdifvkHaom oufaoom"utay: tajccHí zdwfac:&rnf tpövmrffha&;&mrsm; a[mMum;? a&;om;? aqG;aEG;&mwGif rckdifrmaom xifjrifcsufrsm;? todynmudk a00g;aprnfh ykHjyif'@m&Drsm;ESihf oHo, rsm;tay:tajcrcHbJ todÓmPfESihfckdifrmaom oufaorsm;tay:om tajccH&rnf/


30

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

]]toifwrefawmf þodkYajymavmh? þonf ighvrf;jzpf\? igonf tEIdif;rJhudk;uG,f&m jrwftv’m[fxHawmfodkY zdwfac:\/ igESihf ighaemuf vdkufwkdYonf ckdifvkHaomoufaoom"utay:wGif &SdMu\}}/ (uk&ftmef 12;108) ]]tEIdif;rJhukd;uG,f&m jrwftv’m[fxHawmfodkY ÓmPftajrmftjrifESihf vSyaumif;jrwfaom tqkH;trjzifh zdwfac:avmh? tacstwif ajym&onf &Sdaomf tvSqkH;taumif;qkH;enf;jzifhom ajymqkdavmh…}}/ (uk&ftmef 16;125) (*) vlwkdif;vGwfvyfpGm a&G;cs,fusihfokH;cGihf&Sdonf ]]ajymavmh? trSefw&m;onf toifwdkYtm; tqihfqihfjyKpkysdK;axmif&Sif xHrSjzpf\/ odkYjzpfay&m rnfolrqkd ,kHMunfvdku ,kHMunfEdkif\? xdkYtwl jiif;y,fvdkyguvnf; jiif;Edkif\...}}/ (uk&ftmef 18;29) (C) Nidrf;csrf;pGmtwl,SOfwGJaexdkifa&;rludk tpövmrfu jy|mef;NyD;jzpfonf ]]…toifwkdYtwGufvnf; toifwkdY\ vrf;pOf? omoem? uREfkyfwkdY twGufvnf; uREfkyfwdkY\ vrf;pOf^ omoemyifjzpf\...}} (uk&ftmef 109;6) (i) w&m;rQwrItNrJapmihfxdef;&ef rnfolw&m;ysufysuf rGwfpvifrf[lonf Nidrf;csrf;a&;orm;jzpf\/ w&m;rQwrIapmifhxdef;&ef vrf;ñTefNyD; jzpfygonf/ ]] … rnfonfhvlrsdK;wpfrsdK;udkrqdk rkef;wD;jcif;onf toifwkdYtm; w&m;rQwrIudk rjyKbJae&ef vIHYaqmf onfr&Sdap&? w&m;rQwMuavukef…}}/ (uk&ftmef 5;8)


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

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5/ tpövmrfu tjcm;omoemrsm;tay:oabmxm; tpövmrfonf Nidrf;csrf;a&;vrf;pOfjzpfay&m vlom;rsdK;EG,frsm;ESihf tjcm;bmomomoemrsm;udk tjyKoabmaqmifaom? Nidrf;csrf;rIwnf aqmufapEdkifaom oabmxm;om&Sdygonf/ urÇmhvlom;xk wpf&yfvkH;onf rdom;pkwpfpkwnf;om jzpfonf/ (uk&ftmef 49;13)/ xdkYaMumihf vlrsdK;cGJjcm; qufqHrI vkH;0cGihfrjyK/ tjcm;bmomwpfckck\ rSm;,Gif;aomudk;uG,f&mrsm;udkyif raumif; rajym&[k (uk&ftmef 6;108)uqkdxm;&m opömw&m;udk tajccHxm;onfh rnfonfhomoemudkrQ raumif;rajym&/ xkdYaMumihf Ak'¨bmomrS tpövmrf bmomodkY ul;ajymif;vmolrsm;udk rGwfpvifrfwkdYu a*gwrjrwfpGmbk&m;\ ykHawmfudk ajcaxmufESihf eif;acsaponf qkdjcif;rSm pGyfpGJcsufomjzpfí tpövmrfh oGefoifcsufr[kwfyg/ xdkrQomru rGwfpvifrfwkdYonf a'owpfckwGif pDrHcefYcGJol? tkyfcsKyf olrsm;jzpfMuygu Ak'¨bmomESihf [dE´Lbk&m; ausmif;uefrsm;? c&pf,mef0wf ausmif;awmfrsm;? *sL;0wfausmif;awmfrsm;? AvD0wfausmif;awmfrsm;udk ol,kwfrmwkdYu zsufqD;&efvmygu rGwfpvifrfwdkYu umuG,fay;&ef ñTef Mum;xm;ygonf/(uk&ftmef 22;40)/ qdkvdkonfrSm tpövmrfonfvGwfvyfpGm udk;uG,fcGihfESihf usihfokH;cGihfudk tmrcHaomomoemjzpfygonf/ urÇmay:wGif ya'o&mZfpepf vTGrf;rkd;cJhpOfu bmomwl tcsif;csif; jzpfap? bmomrwlolrsm;udk jzpfap wkdufcdkufí e,fajrcsJUxGifjcif;udk tifyg,m xlaxmifjcif;[k qkdcJhMuonf/ bmomrwlolrsm;tMum; ppfyGJ BuD;rsm;jzpfyGm;cJhaomfvnf; rnfonfhbmomrQ urÇmay:rS aysmufuG,f roGm;cJhyg/ tmz*efepöwefbk&ifwpfOD;jzpfaom plvfwmefr[frl'f*ZfeD (at'D 971-1030)onfvnf; e,fajrcsJUxGifcJh&mwGif wEÅ& 0g'DA[dkjzpfaom O'´d,ae(Mo&ZÆ)yg0ifcJhNyD; ,if;üAk'¨bmomausmif;rsm;r&SdcJhyg/ xkdYtjyif


32

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

¤if;\rif;qufrsm;onfvnf; Ak'¨ bmomtay: zdESdyfcsKyfcs,frIr&Sdyg/ Nava Vihar ü&Sdaom Ak'¨bmomeH&Haq;a&;yef;csDtEkvuf&mrsm;? tmz*eftv,f ykdif;&Sd AgrD,efAk'¨½kyfyGm;awmfrsm;udk zsufqD;cJhjcif;vnf;r&Sdyg/ Ak'¨bmom bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;ESihf AvDrsm; ab;csif;,SOfvsuf Nidrf;csrf;pGm&SdcJhaMumif; [m;AwfwuúodkvfrS a'gufwmbGJU& r[m,e Ak'¨ynm&Sif a'gufwm tvufZE´m;AgZifefu azmfjyxm;onf/11 omoemESpf 600? at'D 100 cefYwGif tdE´d,jynfajrmufydkif;ESihf taemufajrmufydkif;wkdYwGif ax&0g'Ak'¨bmom uG,faysmufNyD; r[moHCdu *kdPf;ESihf oAÁwd*dkPf;wkdYomvTrf;rdk;aecJhaMumif; armiftHh(r[m0dZÆm? bkHab)12 u Ak'¨omoemawmfESpf 2500 c&D; pmtkyfwGif &Sif;vif;NyD;jzpfygonf/ Ak'¨ *,mü&Sdaomr[maAm"danmifyifudk ckwfxpfrD;½IdUcJholrsm;onf rGwfpvifrf rsm;r[kwfbJ jA[®Pbmom0ifbk&ifrsm;om jzpfaMumif; OD;pdefxGef; (rmru-okawoD)u urÇmywfí bk&m;&Smjcif;pmtkyfü a&;om;cJhNyD; jzpfyg onf/13 xdkYaMumihf tmz*efbk&ifr[frl'f tdE´d,udk0ifa&mufcsdefwGif tdE´d, ajrmufydkif;ESihf taemufajrmufydkif;ü ax&0g'Ak'¨bmomuG,f aysmufae csdefjzpfNyD; r[m,meAk'¨bmomtoGif,lxm;aom wEå& rEå&t,l0g'&Sdcsdef omjzpfcJhygonf/ xkdYaMumihf at'D 500ausmfwGif tdE´d,ü&Sdaeaom emvE´ wuúodkvftygt0if tjcm;Ak'¨wuúokdvfrsm;rSm ax&0g' wuúodkvfrsm; r[kwfMubJ wEå& rEå& r[m,mewuúodkvfrsm;om jzpfcJhMuygonf/ at'D 1193wGif wl&uDppfAdkvf rk[r®'fAifef AcfoD,m&f cdvf*sDppfwyf onf emvE´wuúodkvfudk zsufqD;cJhNyD; wEå&? rEå&t&nf;BuD; arSmfq&m rsm;ESihf ¤if;wkdY\ wynfhrsm;udk okwfoifcJhaMumif; yg&Seforkdif;ynm&Sif rifef[m*sK'f'D;ef Aifef pD&m*sf\ yg&Sefpmayjzihfa&;om;xm;aom ]]oGAumod 11 Dr. Alexander Berzin, The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before Mongol Empire, Unpublished Manuscript, http://www.berzinarchives.com, 2006. 12 armiftHh? r[m0dZÆm(bkHab)? Ak'¨omoemawmf ESpf 2500 c&D;? pm 82-83. 13 OD;pdefxGef;(rmru-okawoD)? urÇmywfí bk&m;&Smjcif;? pm 142-143


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

33

empd&D}}pmtkyfüom azmfjyxm;ygonf/ tjcm;rnfonfh&mZ0ifusrf;rsm;ü azmfjyxm;jcif;r&SdyJ ,ckuJhodkY rGwfpvifrf&mZ0ifüom azmfjyxm;jcif;rSm rGwfpvifrfwkdYu orkdif;udk rzkH;uG,fvkdonfh qE´[k qkd&rnfjzpfygonf/ rnfonfh taMumif;aMumihf zsufqD;okwfoifcJhonfudk tao;pdwfrod& aomfvnf; a,bk,stm;jzihf ,if;vkyf&yfrSm tpövmrfhvrf;ñTefESihfqefYusif onf[k qkd&rnfjzpfygonf/ þtBudrfysufpD;rIrSm yrmPrBuD;rm;ojzihf emvE´wuúodkvf qufvufwnf&Sdaeygonf/ tdE´d,EdkifiH\ or®wjzpfcJhol tpövmrfbmom0if a'gufwmtAÁ'lvfuvmrfonf ,if;wuúodkvf\ ynma&;tzGJU0ifwpfOD;jzpfygonf/14 ,ckacwf tmz*efepöwefEdkifiHudk wmvDbefwkdYacwÅodrf;ydkufEdkifcJhMu ygonf/ ,if;umvwGif urÇmhrGwfpvifrf 57 EdkifiHteuf aqmf'Dtma&As? ygupöwefESihf tD&ef (3)EdkifiHwkdYuom xdef;odrf;Edkif&ef oHtquftoG,fjyKcJhNyD; usefEdkifiHtm;vkH;u todtrSwfrjyKbJ aecJhMuygonf/ wmvDbefwkdYu AmrD,efAk'¨½kyfyGm;awmfrsm;udk udk;uG,frnfholr&Sdawmhí Ak'¨onf rdrdtm; &Sdckd;ukd;uG,fjcif;xuf w&m;udkusihf&ef t"dua[monf[k taMumif;jyNyD; zsufqD;rnf[kqkdaomtcg tzGJU0if 57 EdkifiHjzihfzGJUpnf;xm;aom OIC (Organization of Islamic Conference) tpövmrfrpfnDvmcHtzGJU (,ck Organization of Islamic Co-operative rGwfpvifrfEdkifiHrsm;nd§EIdfif;aqmif &Gufa&;tzGJU)u tpnf;ta0;ac:,lNyD; aMunmcsufxkwfum uefYuGufcJhyg onf/ oHtquftoG,f&Sdaom aqmf'Dtma&AsESihf ygupöwefwkdYuvnf; rzsufqD;yg&ef uefYuGufcJhMuygonf/ odkYaomfvnf; wmvDbefwdkYtaejzifh rGwfpvifrfurÇm\uefYuGufcsufudkyifqefYusifí ½kyfyGm;awmfrsm;udk zsufqD; cJhjcif;rSm tpövmrf\vrf;ñTefr[kwfbJ ¤if;wkdY\ bmoma&; t,loD;rIom jzpfygonf/ olwpfyg;udk;uG,f&m raumif;rajym&? olwpfyg; ausmif;uef rzsuf&[laom uk&ftmef\vrf;ñTefudk OD;xdyfyefqifMuaom jrefrmEdkifiHrS tpövmrfbmom0ifrsm;taejzihfvnf; wmvDbefwdkY\ ,if;odkY aqmif&Guf 14 News Post, India, June 12, 2007


34

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

csufudk jyif;xefpGm½IwfcscJhMuygonf/ a*gwrjrwfpGmbk&m;teD;ü yif a'0'wf&SdcJhygonf/ trsm;jynfolwdkYtaejzihfvnf; 0g' ESihf 0g'D cGJjrifapvdk ygonf/ Ak'¨bmom0if tavmif;rif;w&m;BuD; (1752-1760) wwd, jrefrmEkdifiH xlaxmifcJhpOfu t,k'¨,NrdKUawmf (,dk;',m;)udk csDwuf wkdfufckdufcJh&mwGif NrdKUESihf Ak'¨bmomapwDykxdk;rsm;yg ysufpD;cJhojzihf ,ckwkdif xdkif;EdkifiH t,k'¨,NrdKUü ,if;apwDykxdk; tysuftpD;rsm;udk awGUjrifEdkifygonf/ Nidrf;csrf;a&;vdkvm;aom vlom;wkdif; orkdif;udk oifcef;pmtjzpfom,lNyD; trkef;tw&m;tjzpf rzefwD;oihfawmhyg/ vlrsdK;aygif;pkH? bmomaygif;pkH yg0ifaom vlYt&if;tjrpfudk wkdif;jynf zGHUNzdK;wkd;wufa&;twGuf pepfwus tokH;csoihfygonf/ vlrIa&;ESihf EkdifiHa&;jyóemrsm;udk bmoma&;-vlrsdK; a&;toGif zefwD;rIrsm;udk txl;owdxm;a&SmifusOftyfygonf/ urÇmh Ak'¨ bmom orkdif;tarGtESpfrsm;jzpfMuaom ygupöwefEdkifiHrS wuúoDvmESihf tif'dkeD;&Sm;rS aAma&mAka'¨mwkdYudk oufqkdif&m rGwfpvifrfEdkifiHrsm;u apmihfa&Smufxm;vsuf&Sdaeygonf/ rGwfpvifrfEkdifiHrsm;wGif rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolrsm;onf ZifrFD ac: tapmihf a&SmufcH jynfh0aomEkdifiHom;rsm; jzpfMuonf/ tpövmrf[lonf tEIdif;rJhukd;uG,f&m jrwftv’m[fxkwfjyefydkYcsaom w&m;awmfudkemcHjcif;jzihf Nidrf;csrf;rI&&Sdjcif;[k t"dyÜm,f&onf/ tpövmrf omoemudk todÓmPfESihf,SOfí vufcHoludk rGwfpvifrf[kac:onf/ uk&ftmefusrf;jrwft& tpövmrfomoemtaMumif; trSefwu,fod&Sd ygvsuf rdrd\pdwfESvkH;rSjiif;y,foludkjzpfap? trSefw&m;udk zkH;uG,fxm;ol udjk zpfap? aus;Zl;uef;olujkd zpfap ]]umzd&}f }[kac:jcif;omjzpfonf/ tpövmrff bmom0ifwpfOD;onfyifvQif ,if;tcsufwpfckckESihfNidpGef;u ]]umzd & f } } jzpfoGm;Ekdifonf/ xdkYaMumihf tpövmrffbmom0ifr[kwfolrsm;udk rGwfpvifrf wkdYu qefYusifbuf&efol[kowfrSwfjcif;? ¤if;wkdYudk okwfoifygu ukodkvf


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

35

&jcif;? ,if;odkYbmomjcm;udk okwfoif&if;usqkH;ol rGwfpvifrfonf aumif;uifbkH wkduf½dkufa&mufjcif;[lonf vkyfBuH0g'jzefYjcif;om jzpfyg onf/ xdkrQomru rGwfpvifrfEdkifiH&Sdbmomjcm;wkdYrSm EdkifiHa&;t& ZifrD ac: txl;umuG,frIudkay;cH&onfh EdkifiHom;rsm;jzpfMuygonf/ wrefawmf jrwfu ]]rnfolrqdk ZifrD ac: tapmihfta&SmufcHwpfOD;udk zdESdyf apmfum; jcif;? rEdkif0efxrf;apjcif;? olYtcGihfta&; csdK;azmufjcif;? oloabmrwlbJ wpfpkHwpf&m&,ljcif;wkdYudkrjyK&ef jyif;xefpGm owday;wm;jrpfxm;ygonf/}} (tAl'g0k'fusrf;) xdkYtjyif vlrsdK;^bmomra&G; vlYtoufwefzdk;ESihfpyfvsOf;í uk&ftmef (5;32)wGif ]]… rnfolrqkd vlwpfOD;tm; Oya'ta& aopm;aoap vnf; r[kwf? urÇmN*dK[fay:wGif tzsufvkyfief;vkyfaomaMumihfvnf; r[kwfbJ rw&m;owfjzwfcJhygvQif xdkolonf vlcyfodrf;udk owfjzwfouJh odkYjzpfonf/ xdkYwl rnfolrqkd vlwpfOD;udk touf&SifapcJhygvQif xdkolonf vlcyfodrf;udk touf&SifapouJhodkYjzpf\…}}/

6/ tpövmrfwGif r,m; (4)OD;,lí om;azmuf omoem jyKjcif;udk ñTefMum;xm;ygoavm/ rdom;pk[lonf vlYtzGJUtpnf;\ tajccHtkwfjrpfwpf&yfjzpf&m tpövmrfb0wnfaqmufrIvrf;pOfwGif tdrfaxmifjyKjcif;udk bmoma&; wm0efwpf&yftjzpf jrihfjrwfpGmowfrSwfxm;ygonf/ taMumif;aomf trsdK;om;ESihf trsdK;orD;onf tdrfaxmifa&;y#dnmOfjzihf ckdifrmpGmaygif;pnf; jcif;jzihfom wnfNidrfat;csrf;aomvlYtzGJUtpnf; wnfaqmufEdkifrnfjzpfyg onf/ xdkYaMumihftpövmrfwGif tdrfaxmifjyKjcif;\&nf&G,fcsufrSm udk,fusihf w&m;oefYpifzGHUNzdK;a&;twGufjzpfNyD; tdrfaxmifa&;tESpfom&rSm cspfjcif; arwåmESihf u½kPmw&m;jzpfap&rnf[k oGefoifxm;ygonf (uk&ftmef 4; 24-25? 30;21)/ tpövmrfwGif w&m;0ifxdrf;jrm;jcif;rjyKbJ zdkr qufqH


36

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

jcif;udkjyif;xefpGm½Iwfcsxm;ygonf (uk&ftmef 17;32)/ xdkYtjyif rGwfpvifrf vlYtzGJUtpnf;wGif ,if;odkY w&m;r0ifvdifqufqHolrsm;udk Budrf'Pf(100) pDowfrSwfxm;jcif;jzihf vlYtzGJUtpnf; oefYpifzGHUNzdK;a&;udktmrcH csufay; xm;ygonf(uk&ftmef 24;2)/ vdifwlqufqHjcif;onf vlYtzGJUtpnf;udk ysufpD;apaMumif; jyif;xefpGm owday;xm;ygonf (uk&ftmef 5;61-76)/ tpövmrffhtdrfaxmifa&;epfrSm ukd,fusihfw&m;jynfh0aom vlYtzGJU tpnf;0ifrsm;ay:xGef;NyD; Nidrf;csrf;rIwnfaqmufa&;omjzpfay&m trnfcH rGwfpvifrfta&twGuf rsm;jym;ap&ef r,m;trsm;,lí om;azmuf omoemjyKjcif;rSm tpövmrfhusihfpOfr[kwfyg/ xdkYaMumihf ,cktcg jrefrm EkdifiHwGif rGwfpvifrfwkdYonf wpfOD;vQif ZeD;(4)OD;pD,lí ZeD;wpfOD;pDrS om;orD;(8)OD;pDarG;zGm;jcif;jzihf wpfrdom;pkwGif (32)OD;pDjzihf vlOD;a&wkd;yGm; ap&efBuHpnfaeonf[laom pGyfpGJcsufESihf vdktyfygu w&m;r0iftajr§mif r,m;,lcGihf&Sdonf[laom 0g'jzefYcsdrIwkdYrSm tpövmrfomoemESihf rnfodkYrQ rywfoufyg/ jrefrmrGwfpvifrf vlYtzGJUtpnf;wGif wpfvifwpfr,m;pepf udkomusihfokH;NyD; wpfNydKifwnf;wGif ZeD; (2)OD;&SdolrSm vlwpfaxmifwGif wpfa,mufr&Sdacs/ xdkYtjyif tEdIif;rJhukd;uG,f&m jrwftv’m[fu urÇmN*dK[f&Sdvlcyfodrf;udk tpövmrfbmom0iftjzpf jyKEdkifpGrf;&Sdaomfvnf; rjyKvkyfbJ vlom;taejzihf rdrdwdkY\ qifjcifwkHw&m;ESihf vGwfvyfpGma&G;cs,fjyKydkifcGihfudk tokH;csapxm; aMumif; wpfenf;qkdaomf tpövmrfwGif vlta&twGuf t"durusbJ todÓmPfudktokH;jyKolrsm;om t"duusaMumif; vrf;ñTGefxm;ygonf (uk&ftmef 10;99-100)/ rSefaomt,l? rSefaomtusihf&SdolwkdYudk avmuD ESihfwrvGefESihf ESpfb0vkH;wGif atmifjrif Nidrf;csrf;aprnf[k uwdawmfay; xm;onf (uk&ftmef 24;55)/ rGwfpvifrf[kqkdolrsm;udkyif w&m;awmfrS rsufESmvTJygu z,f&Sm;cH&rnf[k jrwftv’m[f (uk&ftmef 47;38)wGif owday;xm;&m tpövmrfomoemwGif vlrsm;vmap&ef om;azmufomoem jyKjcif;twGuf ae&mr&Sdacs/


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

37

(u) tpövmrfwGif ZeD;wpfOD;xuf ydk,lcGihf tb,faMumihfcGihfjyKxm;ygoenf; tpövmrfwGif ZeD;wpfOD;xuf ydk,lcGihfudk vlYtzGJUtpnf;twGif; wnfNidrfat;csrf;rI vdktyfcsuf&Sdygu jznfhqnf;&ef cRif;csufjzifh cGihfjyKxm; jcif;omjzpfNyD; rGwfpvifrfwkdif; ZeD;trsm;r,lrae&[k owfrSwfcsufr&Sdyg/ wpfvifwpfr,m;pepfudk om tav;ay;xm;ygonf/ ]]… tu,fí toifwkdYonf rdbrJhuav;rsm;ESihfywfoufí (vlYtzGJU tpnf;twGif;)w&m;rQwatmif (ajz&Sif;) jyKvkyfEdkifMurnfr[kwf[k pkd;&drfcJh MuygvQif toifwkdYESpfouf&m trsdK;orD;rsm;teuf ESpfOD;pDESihfjzpfap? okH;OD;pDESihfjzpfap? av;OD;pDESihfjzpfap xdrf;jrm;Muavmh? wpfzef (,if;odkYjyK &mwGif) w&m;rQwrIjyKEdkifrnfr[kwf[k pdk;&drf&ygvQif wpfOD;wnf;udkom xdrf;jrm;Muavmh …}} (uk&ftmef 4;3) vlYtzGJUtpnf;wGif tdrfaxmifa&;udk tajcjyKí wnfNidrfat;csrf;rI vdktyfcsufrsm;rSm … (1) trsdK;om;vlOD;a&xuf trsdK;orD;vlOD;a& ydkrdkrsm;jym;vmjcif; þuk&ftmefvrf;ñTefusa&muf&onfhtaMumif;&if;rSm wrefawmfjrwf ESihf rGwfpvifrfrsm; ruú[fNrdKUrS r'De[fNrdKUodkY wdrf;a&SmifoGm;NyD; 'kwd,ESpfwGif ruú[fNrdKUrS &efolwyfBuD;u vma&mufwkdufckdufcJhMuygonf/ ,if; tk[k'f ppfyGJwGif rGwfpvifrfbufrS trsdK;om; (70)ausmfusqkH;cJh&m rkqdk;rESihf rdbrJhrsm;pGmusef&pfcJh&m vlYtzGJUtpnf; wnfNidrfa&;twGuf rkqkd;rrsm;udk r,m;NydKifZeD;t&m xdrf;jrm;*kPfjyKapjcif;jzpfygonf/ xdkYtwl yxrurÇm ppfESihf 'kwd,urÇmppfjzpf&ma'orsm;wGif trsdK;orD;ta&twGufonf tav;xm; ajz&Sif;&avmuf atmif trsdK;om;OD;a&xuf ydkrdkvmcJhygonf/ trsdK;om;wpfOD;udk ZeD;wpfOD;xuf w&m;0ifxdrf;jrm;apjcif;onf trsdK;orD; rsm;udk txD;usefxm;apjcif;xuf ydkaumif;jrwfygonf/


38

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

(2) ,cktcg okawoersm;t& orD;xuf om;a,musfm;av;rsm; ydkí taotaysmufrsm;jcif;? ppfyGJü a,musfm;rsm; aoqkH;jcif;? trsdK;orD; rsm;onf trsdK;om;rsm;xuf toufydk&Snfjcif;? rkqkd;rrsm; rsm;aejcif;wkdY jzpfae\/ txl;ojzihf taemufEdkifiHrsm;wGif trsdK;orD;OD;a&ydkae½kHomru trsdK;om;rsm;pGmrSmvnf; vdifwlqufqHolrsm; jzpfvmMuojzihf w&m;0if xdrf;jrm;vdkolrsm;r[kwfMu&m trsdK;orD;wkdYtwGuf tdrfaxmifbuf tcGihf ta&; enf;vmonf/ xdkYaMumihf wpfvifwpfr,m;pepfom cRif;csufr&Sd jy|mef;xm;ygu trsdK;orD;ydkrsm;aeaom EdkifiHrsm;twGuf vufawGUrus awmhyg/ olrwkdYtaejzifh tysdKBuD;rsm; vkyfMurnfavm? odkYwnf;r[kwf tajr§mifr,m;tjzpf cHMu&rnfavm/ odkYwnf;r[kwf pD;yGm;a&;twGuf jynfhwefqmvkyfMu&rnfavm/ tpövmrfhb0 wnfaqmufrIvrf;pOfwGif udk,fusihfw&m;ESihf cspfjcif;arwåmu½kPmudk tajccHí r,m;NydKifpepfjzifh oefY&Sif;aom vlYtzGJUtpnf;xlaxmifapjcif;omjzpfygonf/ urÇmay:wGif ZeD;ESihfarmif;rrdóH uefYowfcsufr&Sd,laecsdefwGif tpövmrfomoemu (4)OD;trsm;qkH; w&m;0ifowfrSwfvdkufjcif;om jzpfonf/ jrefrmjynfwGif a,musfm;aumif; armif;rwpfaxmif[laom pum;&Sdonf/ tpövmrfwGif ESpfOD;oabmwl aygif; oif;cGihf? tajr§mifr,m;xm;cGihfESihf jynfhwefqmvkyfief; vkH;0cGihfrjyKyg/ tcsdKUaomvlYtzGJUtpnf;rsm;wGif wpfvif wpfr,m;pepf[k qkdaomfvnf; tajr§mifr,m;xm;jcif;ESihf jynfhwefqmpepf usihfokH;aeygonf/ (3) tu,fíZeD;jzpfolrSm emrusef;jzpfaeí cifyGef;\qE´udk rjznfhqnf; Edkifjcif;jzpfap? tNrKHjzpfaeí om;orD;r&Edkifojzihf cifyGef;uvnf; om;orD; &vdkjcif;jzpfap ponfhtajctaersdK;wGif xdkZeD;udk uGm&Sif;jcif;xuf 'kwd, ZeD; xdrf;jrm;jcif;u ydkaumif;ayonf/ yxrZeD;taejzifh cifyGef;ESihf qufaygif;jcif; okdYr[kwf uGm&Sif;jcif; jyKydkifcGihf&Sdaeygonf/


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

39

7/ jrefrmjynfwGif rGwfpvifrfwkdYu Ak'¨bmomtrsdK;orD;udk &atmif ,lEdkifygu trsdK;orD;\ vlrIa&; tqihftwef; tvdkuf AvDrS qkaiGrsm;xkwfay;aeonfqkdjcif;rSm rSefygovm; ,if;tqkdESihf 0g'jzefYrIrSm vkH;0(vkH;0) rSm;,Gif;ygonf/ taMumif;rSm… (1) uk&ftmef 2;221 t& bmomrwlolESifh tdrfaxmifjyKjcif;udk wm;jrpf xm;ygonf/ (2) pdwfESvkH;rS tpövmrfbmomudk wu,fr,kHMunfbJ tdrfaxmifjyK&ef tvdkYiSm tpövmrfbmomodkY 0ifa&mufygonf[k qkdjcif;udkvnf; vufrcHyg/ ,if;okdYjyKoludk rGwfpvifrfta,mifaqmif (rkemzduf) [kac:NyD; i&JwGifyif atmufqkH; tqihfü ae&rnf[k qkdxm;ygonf/ (3) tpövmrfw&m;awmfESihftnD xdrf;jrm;rI (edum[f)jyKvkdu ESpfzufpvkH; rGwfpvifrfjzpf&ygrnf/ tcsdKUbmomrwlbJ rdrdwdkYqE´tavsmuf xdrf;jrm; Muygu AvDodkYvmp&mrvdkbJ w&m;½kH;ü vGwfvyfpGmxdrf;jrm; EdkifMuygonf/ rnfolrqdk omoemxuf rdrd\pdwfqE´udk OD;pm;ay; xGufcGmoludk wm;jrpfp&mr&Sdyg/ (4) tcsdKUu Ak'¨bmomtrsdK;orD;onf rGwfpvifrfa,musfm;ESihfxdrf;jrm; ygu n§Of;yef;ESdyfpufcHMu&onf[k Zmwfematmif ajymavh&SdMuonf/ vufawGUwGif jrefrmjynfwGif Ak'¨bmom0ifrSmtrsm;pkjzpfNyD; Oya' t&vnf; 1954ckESpf Ak'¨bmom trsdK;orD;rsm;umuG,fonfhOya' jzihf Ak'¨bmom trsdK;orD;rsm;rSm tompD;&&SdaeNyD;jzpfygonf/ ,if;odkY tompD;&aeygvsuf zdESdyfcHae&onfqkdjcif;rSm vufawGUrusaom 0g'jzefYrIomjzpfygonf/ (5) txufygtcsufrsm;aMumihf rnfonfhAvD odkYr[kwf tpövmrf tzGJU tpnf;urS Ak'¨bmomtrsdK;orD;udk,lygu trsdK;orD;\ &mxl;? vlrI tqihftwef;tavsmuf aiGaxmufyHhonfqkdjcif;rSm vkH;0 rSefuefrI r&Sdyg/ &Sdvnf;r&Sdyg/


40

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

8/ AvD ac: tpövmrf0wfausmif;awmfrsm;onf Nidrf;csrf;a&;pifwmrsm; jzpfMuonf/ tpövmrfw&m;awmft& AvD ac: tpövmrf0wfausmif;awmfrsm;onf ppfpcef;rsm;zGihf&efr[kwf/ arwÅmw&m;yGm;rsm;&m Nidrf;csrf;a&;pifwmrsm;om jzpfMuygonf/ tpövmrf ac: Nidrf;csrf;a&;b0wnfaqmufrIvrf;pOf\ tajccHoabmw&m;wGif… (1) pMu0Vmavmucyfodrf;wkdY\ udk;uG,f&m&Sifonf tEIdif;rJhwpfyg;wnf; jzpfjcif; (Unity of God) (2) urÇmN*dK[fwGif eADwrefawmf ac: vlom;bk&m;rsm;pGmay:xGef;cJh aomfvnf; ¤if;wkdY\a[mMum;rIrSm wpfckwnf;aom opömw&m; jzpfjcif;/ (Unity of Law) (3) urÇmhvlom;wkdYtwGif; rsdK;EG,f? a'o? acwfumvrwl uGJjym;Mu aomfvnf; vlom;rsm;onf waygif;wpnf;wnf;jzpfjcif; (0g) rdom; wpfpkwnf;jzpfjcif; (Unity of Mankind) wkdYudk tckdiftrmtwnfjyKusihfokH;aponf/ (Munfhuk&ftmef 2;213? 2;27)/ ,if;odkYaygif;pnf;Edkifrnfh tajccHoabmw&m;uom vlom;xk Nidrf;csrf;a&; udk &&SdapEdkifrnfjzpfonf/ (u) utfA[f ac: urÇmOD;ausmif;awmf ,if;odkY

wpfaygif;wpfpnf;wnf;jzpfaom vlom;\oauFw (Symbol of the Unity of Mankind) udk ykHazmfjyo&ef tEIdif;rJhudk;uG,f&m jrwftv’m[fu (,aeY tma&Asa'o ruú[fNrdKUü) vlom;wkdYtusdK;twGuf urÇmOD; utfA[fausmif;awmfudk wnfaqmufapcJhonf (uk&ftmef 2;125? 5;97)/ rnfolrqkd ,if;ausmif;awmfwGif;okdY 0iftHh? ab;&efuif;Nidrf;tHh (uk&ftmef 3;95-96)/ xkdYaMumihf urÇmOD;utfA[fausmif;awmfudk rwfpf*sd'f [&mrf (ab;&eftaygif;? raumif;rItaygif;rS wm;jrpfxm;aomAvD? jrihfjrwfaomAvD)[kac:onf/ txufyg oabmw&m;rsm;udk ykHazmfEdkif&ef


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

41

urÇmhrGwfpvifrftaygif;onf p&dwfwwfpGrf;EkdifNyD; c&D;tajctae aumif; ygu wpfoufwGif wpfBudrf ,if;urÇmOD; ausmif;awmfodkY [*sfjyK&efoGm; a&mufí vufawGUoufaocHMu&ygonf/ qkdvdkonfrSm wpfyg;wnf;aom udk;uG,f&m? wpfrsdK;wnf;aom opömw&m;? wpfckwnf;aom vlom;rdom;pk oauFwudk ykHazmf&jcif;jzpfonf/ [*sfumvwGif rGwfpvifrfrsm;twGufyif omreftcsdefESihfrwlaom udk,f? EIwf? ESvkH; okH;yg;pvkH;jzihf txl; apmihfxdef;&aom jyif;xefaom usihfpOfrsm;yg&Sd&m tpövmrfbmom0ifr[kwfolrsm;twGuf apmihfxdef;&ef rvG,fulyg/ Oyrm … rdrdaMumihf ywf0ef;usifvkH;0taESmihft,Sufrjzpf ap&? rdrdudk,frS tarG;wpfrQif taMumif;rJhruRwfap&? yk&GufqdwfuJhodkY owå0gwpfaumif taMumif;rJh raoap&/ xdkYtjyif ,cktcg ESpfpOf urÇmha'otoD;oD;rS [*sfjyK&ef vlodef; 20 ausmf vma&mufaeay&m [*sfumvrSm 5 &ufomjzpfaomfvnf; BudKwifjyifqifrIrsm;tygt0if &uf(40)avmuf Mumygonf/ 2 oef;txuf vlwkdY\ NrdKUBuD;wpfrQ pm;0wfaea&;? a&tdrfoefYpifrIudpö? pdwfcsrf;ompGm 0wfjyKEkdifa&;rSm BuD;us,f aom wm0efjzpfygonf/ xdkYaMumihf ESpfpOf [*sfjyK&ef vlOD;a&udk EdkifiHtvdkuf owfrSwfcsufjzihfom cGihfjyKay;Edkifygonf/ xdkrQomru [*sfumvr[kwfonfh tcsdefrsm;wGifvnf; tGrfr&[f [laom txl;usihfpOfjzihf urÇmhrGwfpvifrfwkdY oGm;a&mufum 0wfjyKjcif;? w&m;xkdifjcif;wkdYjyKMuí tNrJwrf;vlpnfum;aeygonf/ 24 em&DywfvkH; noef;acgifcsdefwGifyif 0wfjyKolrsm;ESihf pnfum;aeaomausmif;awmfjzpfyg onf/ aqmf'Dtpdk;&rS vl 2 oef;txuf wpfNydKifwnf;0wfjyKEdkif&ef tcg tm;avsmfpGm y&0kPfudk csJUxGifae&ygonf/ (c) r'De[fNrdKUrS wrefawmfjrwf\0wfausmif;awmf wrefawmfjrwf rk[r®'fonf ruú[fNrdKUrS r'De[fNrdKUodkYa&mufaomtcg txufyg urÇmOD;ausmif;awmf\ tESpfom&oauFwudkykHazmfonfh r'De[f


42

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

NrdKU AvD0wfausmif;awmfudk wnfaqmufcJhonf/ tESpfom&rSm wpfqlwnf; aom udk;uG,f&m? wpfckwnf;aomopömw&m;? wpfckwnf;aom vlom; rdom;pkjzpf&m AvD[lonf tEIdif;rJhudk;uG,f&mudk emcHOD;cs&mae&mESihf vlom;wkdY\Nidrf;csrf;a&;pifwmjzpfygonf/ ,cktcg wrefawmfjrwf\ *lAdrmefonf ,if; r'De[fNrdKU ausmif;awmfy&0kPftwGif;ü &Sdaeygonf/ (*) urÇmay:&Sd tjcm;AvD0wfausmif;awmfrsm; aqmf'Dtma&AsrSbk&ifrsm;onf bGJUcHaomtcg tqkdygjrihfjrwfaom AvD0wfausmif;awmfESpfck\tapcH ]]cg'Drkvf [&rkdif;ed? &S&Dzdkif;ef)[k bGJUcH avh&SdMuygonf/ ruú[fNrdKUrS [*sfjyKolrsm;udk r'De[fausmif;awmfodkY wpfNydKifwnf;vTwfír&bJ aeYpOfuefYowfcsufjzihfom apvTwf&ygonf/ xdkYaMumihf [*sfESihf tGr®&[fusihfpOfwGif bmomrwlolrsm;apmihfxdef;&ef cufcJaom ½kyfESihfemrfqkdif&m txl;usihfpOfrsm;&Sdaejcif;? 0wfjyKol oef;csDí jynfhESufae&m 0wfjyKolrsm;udk taESmihft,Sufrjzpfapjcif;? rGwfpvifrfrsm; udkyif vlOD;a&uefYowfcsufjzihfom oGm;cGihfay;jcif;wkdY&Sdaeay&m urÇmvSnfh c&D;oGm;rsm;twGuf tpDtpOfrvkyfEdkifbJ aqmf'Dtma&As tpdk;&onfyifvQif ,if;ESpfNrdKUudk bmoma&;NrdKUrsm;tjzpf owfrSwfvdkufNyD; &D,'fudk EdkifiHa&; NrdKUawmftjzpf owfrSwf½kH;xdkifaeMu&ygonf/ urÇmhNrdKU&GmtoD;oD;rS AvD ac: tpövmrf0wfausmif;awmfrsm;onf urÇmOD;ausmif;awmf utfA[f&Sd&mt&yfodkY rsufESmrlíwnfaqmufjcif;? ,if;bufodkYrsufESmrlí 0wfjyKjcif;udk jyKMu&onf/ qdkvdkonfrSm ta&SU? taemuf? awmif? ajrmuf uefYowfcsufr&Sdyg/ jrefrmjynfrSqkdygu taemufbuf? ½k&Sm;rSMunfhu awmifbuf? qkdrmvD(tmz&du)rSMunfhu ajrmufbuf? tD*spfrSMunfhu ta&SUbufponfjzihf rsufESmrl&ygonf/ urÇmhrGwfpvifrfwkdYtaejzihf tEIdif;rJhudk;uG,f&m wpfjzpfjcif;? vlom;bk&m; rsm;pGmyGihfay:cJhaomfvnf; tESpfom&rSm wpfckwnf;aom opömw&m;jzpfjcif;? vlom;rsdK;EG,f tom;ta&mifrsm; uGJjym;aeaomfvnf; wpfckwnf;aom


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

43

vlom;rdom;pkjzpfjcif;udk urÇmOD;ausmif;awmfbufodkY rsufESmrl&m wlnD jcif;jzihf oufaocHjcif;jzpfygonf/ tjcm;vlrsdK;? bmomw&m;rsm;udk apmfum;zsufqD;&ef[laom &nf&G,fcsufESihf usihfpOftvQif;r&Sdyg/ ,if;odkY aom tzsufvkyfief;rsm;twGuf tvSL'gersdK;udkvnf; tpövmrfu vufrcH yg/ jrefrmjynfwGif AvDrsm;udk ppfpcef;rsm;tjzpfokH;jcif;? 21&mpkwGif jrefrm jynfudkodrf;&ef om;azmufvkyfief;ESihf *sD[m'fvkyfief;aqmif&Gufaejcif;qkd onfrSm rormolrsm;\ vkyfBuH0g'jzefYrIomjzpfygonf/ tpövmrfomoemwGif t&G,fa&mufaom rGwfpvifrfwkdif; wpfaeY vQif 5 Budrf (qGvmof)0wfjyKwnfaqmufMu&ygonf/ AvDwGif pkaygif; 0wfjyKMu&ygonf/ t0wftpm;? udk,fvufoefYpifrIjyKNyD;rS 0wfjyKMu&yg onf/ xdkYaMumihf AvDwGif udk,fvufoefYpifrIr*FvmjyKaomae&m&Sdjcif;jzpf ygonf/ a&SUaqmifq&mrsm;rSvnf; uk&ftmefusrf;pmESihf wrefawmf rk[r®'f \ Mo0g'udktajcjyKí udk,fusihfw&m;zGHUNzdK;&ef? Nidrf;csrf;a&; wnfaqmuf&ef w&m;a[m&ygonf/ xkdYaMumihf AvDwGif w&m;a[mpif awGU&ygonf/ w&m;a[mNyD;wkdif;? 0wfjyKrINyD;wkdif; zefqif;cHa0ae,stm;vkH;Nidrf;csrf;&ef arwåmydkY qkawmif;Mu&ygonf/ ,if;odkYpepfwus0wfjyKjcif;? arwåmydkYjcif;? ,Ofaus;rIykHazmfjcif;twGuf uav;oli,frsm;udkvnf; AvDü oifMum; avhusihfay;&ygonf/ aeYpOf 5 Budrf 0wfjyK&ef [pfa<u;zdwfac:onfh oHawmfqihfudk rktZfZifef[kac:ygonf/ wpfurÇmvkH; wpfrsdK;wnf;aom t&ADpmydk'f rsm;jzifhom >rufqkd&ygonf/ ,if;t"dyÜm,frSm tv’m[fonf tBuD;us,f qkH;jzpfonf (4Budrf)? tv’m[frSty ukd;uG,f&mr&SdaMumif; uRefawmfrsdK; oufaocHyg\ (2 Budrf)/ rk[r®'fonf tEIdif;rJhjrwftv’m[f\ apwref jzpfaMumif; uRefawmfrsdK;oufaocHyg\ (2Budrf)/ 0wfjyK&efvmMuavmh (2Budrf)/ b0atmifjrifrItwGufvmMuavmh (2Budrf)/ tv’m[fonf tBuD; us,fqkH;jzpfonf (2Budrf)/ tv’m[frSty udk;uG,f&mr&Sd(1Budrf)/ qkdvdk onfrSm vlom;onf rnfrQ pnf;pdrf? tmPmESihf ynmrnfrQyifjynfhpkHygap?


44

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

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15 History of the Saracen Empires, London: 1870, p.54


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45

9/ jrefrmrGwfpvifrfvlYtpkta0;onf jrefrmEdkifiH\ arG;&myg EdkifiHom;rsm; jzpfMuonf rGwfpvifrfqefYusifa&; 0g'jzefYrIw&m;acGrsm;wGif tpövmrfomoem onf NAdwdoQe,fcsJUacwfrSa&mufvmaom omoemjzpfaMumif;? tcsdKUurl rGwfpvifrfwkdYonf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif {nfhonfomjzpfaMumif; vGJrSm;pGmazmfjy aeonfudk awGU&ygonf/ tpövmrfomoemonf yk*HacwfwGifa&muf&Sdae NyDjzpfaMumif;? jrefrmrGwfpvifrfvlYtpkta0;onfvnf; jynfaxmifpk jrefrmEdkifiHawmf\ wkdif;&if;om;ESihf arG;&mygEdkifiHom;jzpfaMumif; orkdif; jzpfpOftusOf;pmwrf;udk 2-7-2012 aeYpGJjzihf EdkifiHawmfor®wBuD;xHokdY vnf;aumif;? vTwfawmfOuú|rsm;xHokdYvnf;aumif; w&m;0ifay;ydkYcJhNyD; jzpfygonf/ t"duusaomtcsuftcsdKUrSm… 1/ yk*HacwfwGif yoD?yef;ao;ESihf w&ufvlrsdK;pktrnf azmfjyxm; jcif;/16 yk*HwGif ewfudk;uG,frI? r[m,eAk'¨bmomESihf tpövmrfbmomwkdY &SdaecJhpOf &Sift&[Hu oxkHwGif ax&0g'Ak'¨bmom\ yd#uwf okH;ykH&SdaMumif;>rufMum;&m taemf&xmu oxkHbk&ifxH awmif;qkd&m r&ojzihf yk*Hol&Jaumif;(4)OD;jzihf 0ef;&Hwkdufckdufaomfvnf; NrdKUrodrf; Edkif jzpfcJh\/ rGwfpvifrfol&Jaumif;Aswåu aemufqkH;toufpGefYvSLNyD; NrdKUwHcg;zGihfay;vdkufrSom yk*HodkY yd#uwfokH;ykH o,faqmifEdkifNyD; ax&0g'jyefYyGm;cJhjcif; jzpfonf/

16 (u) teEÅolausmufpm? yk*Htdrf&mausmif;ausmufpm? tyg,fi,fapwDausmufpm? qkawmif;jynfhapwDausmufpm (c) Dr. Than Tun, "Mandalay Historical Research 3," The Working People's Daily, 18 January 1967, p.6 (*) a':wihfpdef (vufaxmufuxdu? orkdif;Xme? &efukefwuúodkvf) ]]ukef;abmifacwf ,Ofaus;rIed'gef;}}? wuúodkvfynmya'ompmapmif? twGJ-13? tydkif;-14? pm-75


46

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

2/ yk*Hol&Jaumif; 7 OD;wGif AswåESihf ¤if;\om;ESpfOD;jzpfaom a&TzsOf; nDaemifrSm rGwfpvifrfjzpfNyD;17 yk*H\37 rif;ewfwGif rif;BuD;? rif;av; (a&TzsOf;nDaemif) yoDewf 2 yg; yg0ifaejcif;18? taemf&xm bk&ifxHwGif yoDwyfwpfwyf&SdaecJhjcif;19 3/

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4/ omvGefrif;vufxuf (1629-1648)wGif pD;yGm;a&;ppfwrf;wGif ppf onf? okHYyef;ESihf tvkdtavsmufajymif;vmolrsm; jzihf vlOD;a&wkd;jr§ihf atmifaqmif&Gufjcif;? qnfajrmif;rsm;jyKjyifNyD; v,f,mvkyfief; jr§ihfwifjcif;wkdYjyKcJhygonf/ orkdif;yg&*l a'gufwmoef;xGef;u omvGef rif; vufxuf jrefrmEdkifiH\ yxroef;acgifpm&if;[k,lqEdkifaom vlrsdK;rsm;pm&if;udk azmfjy&mwGif ukvm;ysdK(yoD)ESihf w&ufwkdYudkazmfjy xm;&m ¤if;wkdYrSm rGwfpvifrfrsm;jzpfMuonf/21

17 OD;boef;? jrefrm&mZ0if? &efukef? pmayESihfpme,fZif;vkyfief;? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? 1990? pm-29/ 18 (u) rSefeef;r[m&mZ0ifawmfBuD;? twGJ-1? &efukef? owif;ESihfpme,fZif;vkyfief;? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? pwkw¬tBudrf? pm 250-254 (c) atmifrkd;? ]]jrefrmEdkifiHrSrGwfpvifrfrsm;}} (Moslems in Burma)? vkyfom;jynfolYaeYpOfowif;pm? 10-5-1978 19 [Hom0wDOD;b&if? jrefrmh,Ofaus;rIESihfv,form;a&;&m? &efukef? jynfolYtvif;pmaywkduf? 1967? pm-25 20 (u) ]]ykodrfNrdKU}}? jrefrmhpG,fpkHusrf;? twGJ 6? &efukef? pmayAdrmef? 1962? pm-35 (c) OD;rmC? ykodrf&mZ0if? 7efukef? ZGJpmay&dyfNrKH? 1967? pm-13 (*) OD;zdk;usm;? ykodrf&mZ0ifESihf OD;xGef;&Sdeftw¬KyÜwåd? &efukef? trsdK;om;ykHESdyfwkduf? 1285 21 a'gufwmoef;xGef;? topfjrifArmhorkdif;? rEÅav;? okc0wDykHESdyfwkdfu^tvif;a&mifykHESdyfwkduf? 1975? pm431-432


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

47

5/ jrefrmEdkifiH\'kwd,oef;acgifpm&if;[k,lqEkdifaom bkd;awmfbk&m; (1782-1819)vufxufppfwrf;rsm;wGifvnf; yoD ac: jrefrmrGwfp vifrfvlrsdK;pktrnfpm&if;rsm;pGm awGU&ygonf/22 Armbk&ifrsm;acwfu ]]ukv}}[lonf jrwfaomtrsdK;udkac:í ]]ukvm;}}[lonf jrwfaom trsdK;[k *kPf&Sdaom a0g[m&wpf&yfjzpfcJhygonf/ xdkYaMumihf wpfcg wpf&H yoDukvm;? ukvm;yef;ao;vlrsdK;[kvnf;aumif;? yoDppfonf rsm;udk ukvm;ysdK[k vnf;aumif; *kPf&SdpGmac:a0:cJhygonf/ NAdwdoQ 0ifNyD;wGifrS ]]ukvm;}}[laoma0g[m&t"dyÜm,frSm rvdkvm;tyfaom trnfwpfck jzpfvmcJhjcif; jzpfygonf/ 6/ bkd;awmfbk&m;vufxufwGif &ckdifudkatmifEkdifNyD;aemuf wpfjynfvkH;&Sd Ak'¨bmom? tpövmrf? c&pf,mefESihf [dE´L omoem(4)&yftwGuf omoem ydkifrsm;cefYxm;&mwGif tpövmrfomoem0ifyoDrsm;twGuf tmAd'f&S[f[kpdkifeD ocifBuD;udk jyefwrf;jzihf cefYtyfcJhygonf/23 7/ NAdwdoQudkvdkeDtpdk;&vufxuf 1922 ckESpf &efukefNrdKUrS jrLeDpDyg,f tufOya'? yxrpm&if;? tcef;(1)wGif &efukefNrdKU? jrLeDpDyg,f aumfydka&;&Sif; toif;udk twkdifyifcHvlBuD; (34)a,mufzGJUpnf;&mwGif yoDvlrsdK;pku a&G;aumuf wifajr§mufol (4)a,mufvnf; yg&Sdap &rnf[kazmfjyxm;&m yoDvlrsdK;pkonf jrefrmbk&ifrsm;acwfwGif 22 (u) Lt.Col. Ba Shin, The Coming of Islam to Burma down to 1700 AD, Rangoon: Burma Historical Commission, BBHC 111, 1963 (c) q&mOD;bdk;csrf;? ArmrGwfpvifrfwkdY\a&S;a[mif;tw¬KyÜwÅd? ppfudkif;? jroef;ykHESdyfwkduf? 1939? pm 39-54 (*) R.S.Wilkie, Yamethin District Gazetteer, Vol.A, (Rangoon: Government Printing and Stationary, 1934), pp.44-45 (C) A.Williamson, Shwebo District Gazetteer, (Rangoon: Government Printing and Stationary, 1929), p-64 (i) 0if;jrihf? ukef;abmifacwfwkdif;&if;om;tpövmrfbmom0ifrsm;\tcef;u@? &efukef wuúodkvfodkY orkdif;bmom r[m0dZÆmwGJtwGuf wifoGif;aompmwrf;? 1986? pm 58-62 23 OD;wif (yk*H0efaxmuf)? jrefrmrif;tkyfcsKyfykHpmwrf;ESihf bkdk;awmfbk&m;BuD;\ &mZowfac:aom trdefYawmfwrf;BuD;? pwkw¬ydkif;? &efukef? tpdk;&ykHESdyfwkduf? 1973? pm-176 (&efukef? ,Ofaus;rIAdrmefOD;pD;Xme? pm 254)


48

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

omru NAdwdoQacwfwGif orkdif;0if? jyefwrf;0ifjzpfaecJhygonf/24 odkYaomf NAdwdoQtpdk;&taejzifh rGwfpvifrfwkdYtm; ArmvlrsdK;ESihfaygif;NyD; rdrdwdkYudkqefYusifaeojzihf rvdkvm;cJhbJ oef;acgifpm&if; aumuf,l&m wGif jyefwrf;0if ]]yoD}} vlrsdK;pkudk ]]aZ&fbm'D}}[k ESdrfhcsac:a0: aompum;vkH;opfjzihf wpfpp ajymif;vJaumuf,l cJhygonf/ xdkpOfu aumuf,laomoef;acgifpm&if;rsm;wGifvnf; yoQL;? yef;ao;? &ckdif rGwfpvifrf? aZ&fbm'D? uref? ajrxl;ponfh trnfrsm;jzifh azmfjyxm; onfudk awGU&ygonf/25 8/ ,if;odkY jyefwrf;0ifyoDvlrsdK;pkudk aZ&fbm'D[k ajymif;vJac:a0:jcif;? tdE´d,rGwfpvifrfESihf ArmrGwfpvifrfwdkY EdkifiHa&;t& a&maxG;aejcif; ponfwkdYudk t&Sdtwkdif;jzpfap&ef q&mBuD;OD;&mZwftygt0if jrefrm rGwfpvifrf acgif;aqmifwkdY BudK;yrf;cJhMu&m 1941 ckESpf? Mo*kwfv (9)&ufaeYwGif jrefrmEdkfifiHawmf wdkif;jynfa&;&m jyefMum;rI0ef½kH;rS aMunmcsuftrSwf 1112 jzihf aZ&fbm'D[laomtrnftpm; jrefrmrGwfpvifrf (Burman Muslim)}}[laomtrnfudk tokH;jyKrnf jzpfaMumif; xkwfjyefcJhygonf/26 jrefrmEdkifiHqkdif&m bk&ifcH qma':ref prpfuvnf; 27-9-1941 aeYpGJjzihf xyfqihf jyefwrf;xkwfcJhygonf/27 9/ q&mBuD; OD;&mZwf OD;aqmifaom ArmrGwfpvifrf uGef*&ufonf AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; OD;aqmifaom zqyvtzGJUcsKyfwGif wyfaygif;pk tjzpfyg0ifcJhonf/ zqyv tzGJUBuD;\ yxrqkH;nDvmcHudk &efukefNrdKU? a&Twd*kH tv,fypö,Hü usif;ycJh&m zqyv tzGJUcsKyfBuD;u Arm rGwfpvifrfwdkY\ wkdif;jynftay:opöm&SdrI? wm0efausrIwkdYudk *kPfjyKNyD; Arm rGwfpvifrfwkdYonf vuf&Sd Armvlrsm;pkESihftwl Armtjzpfyl;aygif; 24 Burma Act No.VI of 1922, City of Rangoon Municipal Act, 1922. pm 231? 244-245 25 ]]jrefrmrGwfpvifrf}}? jrefrmhtvif;ESpfopfowif;pm? {NyDv 1937 ckESpf 26 jrefrmEdkifiHwkdif;jynfa&;&mjyefMum;rI0ef½kH;? aMunmcsuftrSwf-1112? 9-8-1941 27 yoDOD;udkudkav;? jrefrmEdkifiHESihftpövmrfomoem? rEÅav;? uefopf? pm-15


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

49

aexkdifvsuf&SdMuaomfvnf; ]]tu,fí wkdif;&if;om; vlenf;pkwkdY &xdkufaom tcGihfta&; ,lvdkuvnf; ,lEdkifonf}}[laomtqkd trSwf(6)udk 'D;'kwfOD;bcsdKu wifoGif;cJh&m nDvmcHBuD;u wpfcJeuf axmufcHtm;ay;cJhygonf/ ArmrGwfpvifrfuGef*&uf (Aru)uvnf; vGwfvyfa&;,lonfhtcg awmifwef;a'orsm;ESihf jynfr yl;aygif;a&; tqkdudk tqkdtrSwf(7)jzihfwifoGif;cJh&m nDvmcHu axmufcHygonf/28 pifppf ,if;rS ArmrGwfpvifrfuGef*&ufu yifvkHrsdK;aph pdkufvdkufjcif; yifjzpfygonf/ ArmrGwfpvifrfuGef*&ufrS OD;azcifrSm ,SOfNydKifrIrsm; Mum;rS zqyv\ awmifwef;a'oqkdif&m twGif;a&;rSL; jzpfvmcJh ygonf/ ArmrGwfpvifrfuGef*&uf(Aru)taejzihf vGwfvyfa&;udk OD;pm; ay;aomtm;jzihf zqyvnDvmcHBuD;uay;aom vlenf;pktcGihfta&;udk pGefYvTwfum rdrdwkdYudk,frdrdwkdY Armrsm;tjzpfom qufvufcH,lí vlrsm;pk tcGihfta&;,l&ef 1946 ? 'DZifbmvnDvmcHü qkH;jzwfcJhMuygonf/29 1947 ckESpf? azazmf0g&Dv(11)&ufaeY naewGif yifvkHpmcsKyf csKyf qkd&ef ysufjy,foGm;NyDjzpf&m AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;u &efukefjyef&ef av,mOf ysH pDpOfckdif;aeNyDjzpfonf/ ArmrGwfpvifrfOD;azcifu AdkvfcsKyfudk wpfnwm tcsdefay;&ef acsmharmhazsmif;zsí rdwfaqGrsm;ESihf nwGif;csif; BudK;yrf;cJh&m aemufaeY azaz:0g&Dv(12)&ufaeYwGif yifvkHpmcsKyfBuD; csKyfqkdEdkifcJhNyD; jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmf (Union of Burma) tjzpf vGwfvyfa&; &,lEdkifcJhjcif; jzpfygonf/30 tu,fíom ArmrGwfpvifrfuGef*&ufrS OD;azcifu ,if;okYdrBudK;pm;cJhvQif jrefrmjynfajrykH ,ckuJhodkY ay:aygufvm p&mr&Sdyg/ ArmrGwfpvifrfwdkYonf yifvkHrsdK;aphudk a&Twd*Hktv,fypö,Hü 28 'D;'kwf*sme,f? twGJ 19? 4-2-1946? pm 22? 31 29 udkudkav;? ArmrGwfpvifrfvlrsdK;pkjyóem? &efukef? AruXmecsKyf? 1960? pm 46-60 30 OD;azcif(r[moa&pnfol)? udk,fawGUyifvkH? &efukef? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? qXrtBudrf? 1990? pm 132-134


50

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tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

zsufodrf;jcif; cHcJh&ygonf/

51

33

10/ jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwDacwfwGif jynfxJa&;ESihfomoema&; 0efBuD;Xme? vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;ESihf jynfolYtiftm; OD;pD;Xmeu 1973 ckESpf wGif aumuf,lrnfh oef;acgifpm&if;twGuf 9-12-1972 aeYpGJjzihf ]]ykHpHa&;oGif;&ef ñTefMum;csuf}}[laom pmtkyfi,fwpfck jyKpkxkwfa0cJh&m jrefrmEdkifiHwGif wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK; 144 rsdK;ESihf EdkifiHjcm;om;vlrsdK; 27 rsdK; pm&if; azmfjyxm;&m wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;pm&if;wGif (1)&ckdif ppfwaumif; (2) jrefrm rlqvif (3)&cdkfif uref (4)ajr'l; (5)EdkifiHjcm;om;pm&if;wGifrygaom tjcm;jrefrmtdE´d,rsm;[k azmfjyxm;ygonf/ EdkifiHawmfydkif owif;pmBuD; rsm;uvnf; 23-2-1973 aeYwGif wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK;pk 143 rsdK;&SdaMumif; ,if;pm&if;udk urÇmodkY w&m;0if aMunmcJhNyD;jzpfygonf/34 12-10-1975 aeYu jynfxJa&;ESihf omoema&;0efBuD;Xme 0efBuD; OD;udkudkuvnf; wkdif;&if;om;rGwfpvifrf rsm;rSm tdrfaxmifpkwpfpkwnf;rS aoG;csif;rsm;jzpfaMumif; jrefrmrGwfpvifrfacgif;aqmifrsm;udk ac:,lawGUqkH &mü aqG;aEG;&Sif;vif;wifjycJhygonf/35

33 yoD OD;udkudkav;? jrefrmEdkifiHESihftpövmrfomoem? rEÅav;? 1999 34 Adkvfwaxmifowif;pm 23-2-1973 35 jrefrmhtvif;owif;pm ? 13-10-1975


52

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

10/ ed*kH; tpövmrf[lonf Nidrf;csrf;a&;b0wnfaqmufrIvrf;pOfjzpfay&m vlYtzGJUtpnf;udk oefYpif,Ofaus;apaom w&m; udkomoifMum;ay;ygonf/ rGwfpvifrfwpfOD;\ tedrfhqkH;*kPf&nfrSm vrf;ay:rSql;udk rdrdtodpdwfjzihf z,f&Sm;ay;jcif;jzpfonf/ nmvufuvSLvQif b,fvufurodap&[k rdrdudk,frdrdESdrfcsonf/ td[fpmef ac: avmu\tusnf;wefrIrsm;udk z,f&Sm;ay;í tvSqifay;&aom omoemjzpfonf/ ,ckqkdvQif jrefrm jynfü tpövmrfESihf jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwkdYtay: oHo,&Sdaeonfrsm; ajyaysmufrnf[k ,kHMunfygonf/ 1/ 786 [lonf 21-&mpk[kvnf;aumif;? rGwfpvifrfr[kwfolwkdYESihf vlrIpD;yGm;rqufqH&[kvnf;aumif; t"dyÜm,froufa&mufbJ vlrsdK; bmomra&G;? a0ae,stm;vkH;tay: u½kPmxm;&ef oauFw jzpfygonf/ 2/ tpövmrfbmomwGif om;azmuf omoemjyKjcif; vkH;0cGihfrjyK/ bmom rwlolESihf tdrfaxmifjyKcGihfr&Sd/ (uk&ftmef 2;221)/ Ak'¨bmom rdef;uav;rsm;udk,lEdkifvQif oufqkdif&mvlrIa&;tqihftwef;tvdkuf AvDu qkcsD;jr§ihfjcif;[lonf vkH;0r&Sd/ tpövmrfomoemudk pdwfESvkH; rygbJ vufcH onfqo dk t l m; rkemzduf ac: ta,mifaqmif[o k wfrw S Nf yD; i&J wGifyif atmufqkH;tqihfü ae&rnf[k qkdxm;onf/ 3/ tpövmrfwGif ZeD; 4 OD; cGihfjyKjcif;rSm rjyKrae&r[kwf? vlYtzGJUtpnf; wGif trsdK;orD;ta&twGufrsm;jcif;jzpfap? tjcm; rvTJomra&Smifom udpö&yfrsm;wGifjzpfap vdktyfygu cRif;csufjzifhcGihfjyKcsufomjzpfNyD; wpfvifwpfr,m;pepfudk tm;ay;onf/ xdkYtjyif ESpfOD;oabmwl aygif;jcif;? tajr§mifr,m;xm;jcif;? jynfhwefqmvkyfief;rsm;udk vkH;0 wm;jrpfonf/ xdrf;jrm;jcif;rjyKbJ vdifqufqHygu Budrf'Pf 100 owfrSwfxm;onf/


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

53

4/ tpövmrf omoemwGif;okdY 0ifolrsm;onf a&Twd*kHapwDESihf r[m jrwfrked apwDawmfykHrsm;udk ajcESihft&ifeif;NyD;rS 0if&onf[lonfrSm vkyfBuH Zmwfjzpfonf/ uk&ftmef 6;108 t& rGwfpvifrfwkdYonf tjcm;bmom w&m;wkdY\udk;uG,f&mrsm;udk raumif;rajym&[kjy|mef; xm;&m rnfonfh enf;ESihfrQ apmfum;ydkifcGihfr&Sd/ 5/ *sD[m'f[lonf tpövmrfbmomxJr0ifaom bmomjcm;rsm;udk okwfoif&Sif;vif;jcif; vkH;0 r[kwfyg/ Nidrf;csrf;pGmjyK&aom *sD[m'f oabmw&m;t& b0wpfavQmufvkH; rdrd\rawmfavmb? a'go? arm[? rme ponfhw&m;rsm;udk csdK;ESdrf&ef tpGrf;ukef BudK;yrf;jcif; jzpfonf/ tu,fí rdrdwkdif;jynfvlrsKd;udk olwpfyg;usL;ausmfapmfum; ygu ckcHppfomjzpfygonf/ &efolu Nidrf;csrf;a&;urf;vSrf;u vufcH& rnfjzpfonf/ xdkYtjyif uk&ftmef 22;40t& *sd[m'f[lonf bmom w&m;wkdY\ vGwfvyfpGmudk;uG,fusihfokH;cGihfudk tumtuG,fay;jcif;? tMurf;zuf0g'udk qefYusifjcif;omjzpfonf/ 6/ tpövmrfomoemjyKjcif;[lír&SdbJ tpövmrf\ Nidrf;csrf;odrfarGUrIrsm;udk vlwkdYodap&ef wifjyrIom&Sd\/ todÓmPfudk okH;í ,Ofaus;pGmajym qkd&rnf/ tjiif;tckHjyKvmygu vSyaomaqG;aEG;rIjzihfom wkHYjyef& rnf/ jzm;a,mif;jcif;ESihf t"r®pepfr&Sdap&/ rnfolrqdk ,kHMunfvdkygu ,kHMunf? r,kHMunfvdku jiif;y,fjcif;[laom vGwfvyfpGma&G;cs,f usihfokH;cGihf&dSygonf/ rav;&Sm; ESihf tif'kdeD;&Sm;EdkifiHwkdYü rlvu [dE´L? xdkYaemufAk'¨bmom? xdkYaemuf tpövmrful;ajymif;cJhygonf/ odkYaomf xdkif;ESihf oD&dvuFmEkdifiHwkdYurl Ak'¨bmomtrsm;pkjzpfvsuf &SdaeMu ygonf/ 7/ AvD ac: tpövmrf0wfausmif;awmfrsm;[lonf tEdIif;rJhudk;uG,f&mudk emcHOD;cs&mae&m? arwåmydkY&m? ,Ofaus;rI oGefoif&m ae&mrsm;omjzpf onf/ ppfpcef;rsm;? vufeufokdavSmif½kHrsm;r[kwfyg/ urÇmhAvD tm;vk;H urÇmOD; ausmif;awmf utfA[f ac: Nidr;f csrf;a&;pifwmodv Yk n S í hf


54

a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

wnfaqmufMu&\/ ,if;\oabmw&m;ESihf oauFwrSm (u) avmucyfodrf;wGif tEdIif;rJhudk;uG,f&m wpfyg;wnf;om&Sdjcif;/ (Unity of God)

(c) urÇmN*dK[fwGif eADwrefawmf ac: vlom;bk&m;rsm;pGmay:xGef;cJh aomfvnf; ¤if;wkdYa[mMum;cJhonfhw&m;rSm wpfckwnf;aom opömw&m; jzpfjcif;/ (*) vlom;wdkYonf rsdK;EG,f? bmompum;? tom;ta&mif uGJjym; Muaomfvnf; vl[lonf urÇmhtdrfaxmifpkBuD; wpfckomjzpfjcif; wkdYjzpfMuygonf/ 8/ tpövmrfomoemonf NAdwdoQacwfrS jrefrmEdkifiHodkYa&mufvmaom omoemr[kwf? tpövmrfESihf jrefrmrGwfpvifrf vlYtzGJUtpnf;onf yk*HacwfrSpí orkdif;aMumif;t& wnfNidrfpGmzGHUNzdK;vmaom wkdfif;&if; om;? EdkifiHom; vlYtzGJUtpnf; jzpfygonf/ &[ef;&Sifvl jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;taejzihf tpövmrfESihf jrefrm rGwfpvifrfvlYtzGJUtpnf;ESihfywfoufí oHo, odkYr[kwf txifvGJrSm;rI wpfpkHwpf&m&Sdu oufqkdif&mtpövmrfynm&Sifrsm;ESihf jrefrmrGwfpvifrf tzGJUtpnf;rsm;odkY qufoG,fpkHprf;jcif;tm;jzihf oHo,rsm;ajyaysmufum wkdif;jynftusdK; vufwGJo,fydk;MuygpdkY[k wkdufwGef;tyfygonf/ / av;pm;pGmjzihf

a'gufwmjrihfodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif) trSwf-23? 139vrf;? rtlukef; wmarGNrdKUe,f? &efukefNrdKU/ zkef; - 09 51 34487


tpövmrfESifh jrefrmrGwfpvifrfwdkYtay:txiftjrifvGJrSm;rIrsm;udk&Sif;vif;csufpmwrf;(tusOf;)

55

usrf;udk;pm&if; 1/ uk&ftmefusrf;jrwf t&ADrl&if; 2/ wrefawmfjrwfrk[r®'f\ Mo0g'awmfusrf;rsm; 3/ udkudkav; (1960)? ArmrGwfpvifrfvlrsdK;pkjyóemrsm;? &efukef? AruXmecsKyf 4/ a'gufwmcifarmifñGefY (1980)? ]]wkdif;&if;,Ofaus;rI okwya'om}}? okw pmaypmwrf;rsm;? yxrwGJ? &efukef? pmayAdrmef 5/ OD;pdefxGef; (rmru-okawoD)? urÇmywfíbk&m;&Smjcif;? &efukef/ 6/ OD;wif (yk*H0efaxmuf)(1973)? jrefrmrif;tkyfcsKyfykHpmwrf;ESihf bkd;awmfbk&m;\ &mZowfac:aom trdefYawmfwrf;BuD;? pwkw¬ydkif;? &efukef? tpdk;&ykHESdyfwkduf/ 7/ a':wihfpdef (orkdif;vufaxmufuxdu? &efukefwuúodkvf)? ]]ukef;abmifacwf ,Ofaus;rIed'gef;}}? wuúodkvfynmya'ompmapmif? twGJ-13? trSwf-14 8/ 'D;'kwf*sme,f? twGJ-19? 4-2-1946 9/ yoDOD;udkudkav;? jrefrmEdkfifiHESihftpövmrfomoem? rEÅav; uefYowf 10/ ]]ykodrfNrdKU}}? jrefrmhpG,fpkHusrf; (1962)? twGJ-6 ? &efukef ? pmayAdrmef 11/ OD;zdk;usm;(1285)? ykodrf&mZ0ifESihf OD;xGef;&Sdeftw¬KyÜwÅd? &efukef? trsdK;om; ykHESdyfwkduf 12/ OD;azcif(r[moa&pnfol) (1990)? udk,fawGUyifvkH? &efukefjyefMum;a&;0efBuD; Xme? q|rtBudrf 13/ Adkvfwaxmifowif;pm? 23-2-1973? ]]jynfaxmifpk wkdif;&if;om;vlrsdK; 143 rsdK;&Sd}} 14/ OD;b&if([Hom0wD) (1967)? jrefrmh,Ofaus;rIESihf v,form; a&;&m? &efukef? jynfolYtvif;ykHESdyfwkduf 15/ OD;boef;(1990)? jrefrm&mZ0if? &efukef? pmayESihf pme,fZif;vkyfief;? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme/ 16/ OD;rmC(1967)? ykodrf&mZ0if? &efukef? ZGJpmay&dyfNrKH/ 17/ armiftHh(r[m0dZÆm? bkHab)? Ak'¨omoemawmf ESpf 2500 c&D;? &efukef/ 18/ rSefeef;&mZ0ifawmfBuD;? twGJ(1)? &efukef? owif;ESihfpme,fZif;vkyfief;? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme? pwkw¬tBudrf/ 19/ jrefrmEdkifiHwkdif;jynfa&;&mjyefMum;rI0ef½kH;? aMunmcsuf trSwf 1112? 9-8-1941 20/ ]]jrefrmrGwfpvifrf}}? jrefrmhtvif;ESpfopfowif;pm ({NyDv 1937) 21/ OD;&JxG#f('kwd,0efBuD;? jyefMum;a&;0efBuD;Xme)\ Facebook (30-3-2013)


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a'gufwmjrifhodef;(Nidrf;csrf;vkvif)

22/ vl0ifrIBuD;Muyfa&;ESihf jynfolYtiftm;OD;pD;Xme? jynfxJa&;ESihf omoema&; 0efBuD;Xme? ykHpHa&;oGif;&efñTefMum;csuf? 19-12-1972 ?&efukef/ 23/ 0if;jrihf(1986)? ukef;abmifacwfwkdif;&if;om;tpövmrfbmom0ifrsm;\tcef; u@? &efukefwuúokdvf? orkdif;bmom? r[m0dZÆmwGJtwGuf wifoGif;aom pmwrf; 24/ aomfwmaqG (2001)? yk*Hol&Jaumif;rsm;? &efukef? uvsm ykHESdyfwkduf/ 25/ [Hom0wDowif;pm? 30-12-1958 26/ atmifrkd; (10-5-1978)? ]]jrefrmEdkifiHrSrlqvifrsm;}}? (Moslems in Burma) vkyfom;jynfolYaeYpOf ? 1958-1962? jrefrmEdkfifiHa&;(1991)? wwd,wGJ? &efukef wuúodkvfrsm;ykHESdyfwkduf/ 27/ Ba Shin, Lt. Col. (1963), The Coming of Islam to Burma down to 1700 28/ 29/ 30/ 31/ 32/ 33/ 34/ 35/ 36/ 37/ 38/ 39/ 40/ 41/

AD, Rangoon:Burma Historical Commission, BBHC 111. Berzin, Dr. Alexander(2006), Cultures before Mogol Empire, Unpublished Manuscript, http://www.berzinarchieves.com. Brown, L.E, (1944), The Prospect of Islam, London. Burma Act No.VI of 1922, City of Rangoon Municipal Act. Hart, Michael H. (1978), 100 : A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, New Yourk: A&W Visual Library. History of the Saiacen Empire, (1870), London The Independent – trSwf-46? 28-3-2013 O"leory, De Laay (1923), Islam at Cross Road, London Smith, Rev. Reginald Bosworth, (1874), Mohammad and Mohammedanism, London Than Tun, Dr. (18 January 1967), "Mandalay History Research 3’’, The Working People's Daily. The Voice, 7-4-2013 Wilkie, R.S.(1934), Yamethin District Gazetteer, Vol.A, (Rangoon Government Printing & Stationary). Williamson, A., (1929), Shwebo District Gazetteer, (Rangoon: Government Printing & Stationary) Young India Zakir Naik, Dr. (2003), Most Common Questions about Islam, Kuala Lumpur, SABA Islamic Media


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