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Ain Shams University Urban Planning & Design Department

HELIOPOLIS TRANSFORMATION This research is a part of fourth year students work in Urban Planning Course 2015/2016

Teaching Staff: Prof. Shafak El Wakil Assoc. Prof. Ahmed Shetawy Assoc. Prof. Yehya Serag Asst. Prof. Dina Maarouf


DISCLAIMER

DISCLAIMER

Heliopolis Transformation

This research is the outcome of four weeks intensive work by students of the fourth year in Urban Planning and Design Department 2015/2016 ,in Cairo ,Egypt GROUP 1 NAMES:

GROUP 2 NAMES:

GROUP 3 NAMES:

GROUP 4 NAMES:

1. Esraa Abdel-Rahim

1. Abd El-Rahman Yousry

1. Abd elrahman Hisham

1. Alshaimaa Ali

2. Ayman Ramadan

2. Aya Mohamed Ali

2. Adham Mostafa

2. Hady Hamza

3. Doaa Magdy

3. Dalia Hassan

3. Alshimaa Ashraf

3. Lina Yasser

4. Safaa Taha

4. Khaled Abd El-Mouniem

4. Osama Mahmoud

4. Mayar Hussein

5. Abdulrahman Fathi

5.

Maha Moustafa

5. Randa Wassim

5. Menna tarek

6. Fadi Gamal

6.

Mohamed El-Shinnawy

6. Mahmud Abd Allah

6. Naness Mohamed

7. Caroline Sobhy

7. Omar Mostafa

7. Mai Samy

7. Nermine Ahmed

8. Lana Rasem

8.

8. Marwan Mohamed

8. Nouran Hussein

9. Magdy Mahana

9. Salma Mohamed Anwar

9. Maha Hatem

9. Nourhan Khalid

10.Nardine El-Bardisy

10. Salma Sherif El-Kady

10. Muhammed Ahmed AbdelHadi

10.Randa Mahmoud

Rehab Ahmed

11.Nada El-Morabea

11. Muhammed Emad

11.Yara Naguib

Teaching Staff: Prof. Shafak El Wakil

T.A. Aya El Wagieh

Assoc. Prof. Ahmed Shetawy

T.A. Heba Ghalib

Assoc. Prof. Yehya Serag

T.A. Nashwa Emad

Asst. Prof. Dina Maarouf

T.A. Amany Abdelkhalek T.A. Nada Samir

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND Heliopolis Transformation

01 HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

Introduction :

Heliopolis Transformation

Historic background

Site Selection

Design Concept Legend:

Basilic at the center & 5 Main axis The site was chosen according to the following reasons :

Axis system fabric Garden city fabric

Baron Empan was Affected by Greek Philosophy (Ancient Heliopolis city location).

Baron Empain focused on the “first oasis” regarding:

Flat Land.

Dry Soil suitable for construction

Have same Architectural and Urban Style

Creating different attracting uses :

Building different Centers

(1) Al-Maza Airport (2) Horse racing Club (3) Golf’s park (4) Heliopolis Palace (5) Luna Park Perspective View of Heliopolis-Monarchy EraFirst, He chose the idea of constructing two oasis for planning Heliopolis but that didn’t happen because it was far from Cairo & Differentiation between people’s class, socially and economically.

(6) Baron Palace

-Urban Spaces of Heliopolis area is a mixed model of Grid and Radial networks. - The Concept of Planning of Heliopolis is based on mixing between Garden City Fabric and Axes System Fabric

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


METHODOLOGY Heliopolis Transformation

02 METHODOLOGY

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


METHODOLOGY

Methodology

Phase 1: TRACING URBAN TRANSFORMATION IN HELIOPOLIS ZONES Zone 1 Monarchy Era Nasser Era Sadat Era Mobarak Era Post Revolution Era

Political/ Social/ Economic Events

This research aimed at tracing Heliopolis transformation along the different eras; Monarchy, Nasser, Sadat, Mobarak and post revolution eras. In this regard, each era had its significant economic, social and political character which contributed in Heliopolis transformation along the history. Building on this, the research is attempting to identify how these aspects affected Heliopolis’s physical environment with its components of fabric, open spaces, roads, transportation skyline, facades and building and land uses.

Heliopolis Transformation

Building & Land uses

Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 4

Skyline & facades

Roads & transpor -tation

Open spaces & Urban Fabric

Achieving this, the research was based on two phases: Phase 1 : Tracing the urban transformation in Heliopolis zones This phase is oriented towards deeply analyzing the transformation of the physical environment of Heliopolis’ zones along the different eras. Accordingly, the students were divided into 4 groups analyzing the different zones in Heliopolis.

Phase 2: COLLECTIVE URBAN TRANSFORMATION IN HELIOPOLIS DISTRICT Monarchy Era

Mobarak Era Building & Land uses Skyline & facades Roads & transportation Open spaces & Urban Fabric

Nasser Era

Phase 2: Collective urban transformation in Heliopolis district This phase aimed at compiling the transformation took place in Heliopolis district as a whole along the eras in terms of the physical environment. Accordingly, each of the four groups focused on one of the physical component and integrated the findings of each zone.

Sadat Era

Post Rev. Era

2

4 3

1

Map Showing Zones divisions in Heliopolis area

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

03 TRACING URBAN TRANSFORMATION IN HELIOPOLIS ZONES

ZONE 1

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Almaza Zone

Heliopolis Transformation

KEY MAP: Almaza zone is surrounded by Hussien Kamel street from the East,Al-Marghany street from the west, Salah Salem street from the north and Al-Thawra street from the south.

Caption: key map for Almaza Source: Heliopolis Company

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Monarchy Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban fabric and open spaces

Heliopolis Urban Fabric It has a western urban layout presented in radical urban fabric with rigid grid pattern Our Zone hadn’t been built yet except 3 buildings •

Baron Palace.

Villa Sultan Ibrahim Halim.

Baghous Basha noubar palace.

Baron palace

Red circle : Baron Palace Yellow circle : Ibrahim Halim villa White circle : Sultan Hussein Kamel villa

In 1931 According to the planned area •

Legend:

Solid was 1.2%.

Green open spaces

Void was 98.8%.

1.2%

98.8% Caption: Monarchy Urban Fabric Source: Heliopolis Company

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Nasser Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban fabric and open spaces After revolution Density of buildings increased due to nationalization. •

Solid ratio was 23%.

Void ratio was 77%.

Green area are divided into :

Green areas which are in the middle of the main roads.

Green that around landmarks.

A private green garden.

Green area in clubs.

Misr ElGdida High School

The Holy Family school

Legend:

Green open spaces

23%

77% Caption: Nasser Urban Fabric Source: Heliopolis Company

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Sadat Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban fabric and open spaces •

Building density increased

Solid and void ratio

Solid 40% and void 60% No. of buildings increase but Spaces between them are still wide

Legend:

Green open spaces

40% 60% Caption: Sadat Urban Fabric Source: Heliopolis Comapny

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


Mobarak Era

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

Urban fabric and open spaces

Some Green courts were part of the original plan, but they turned into garbage spots

Others were built on it like tivoli

Tivoli –Heliopolis (Tivoli rented an area from Almaza Culb to have a series of restaurants on it )

Legend:

Green open spaces

40%% 60% Caption: Mobarak Urban Fabric Source: Heliopolis Company

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Post Revolution Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban fabric and open spaces

Solid ratio 60%

Void ratio 40%

Deterioration of green area and open spaces.

Buildings are too close to each other

Legend:

Green open spaces

35%% 65% Caption: Post Revolution Urban Fabric Source: Heliopolis Company

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Monarchy Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Heights and Facades •

Most of facades were Indian style like baron palace

Classic decorations and booths with 3 openings and roman Flemish style

Heights were from 2 to 3 floors Villa prince Ibrahim Halim

Baron Palace 1924

Baron Palace 1942

Legend:

1 Floor 3 Floors Classic decorations

4 Floors 5 floors

Skyline of Baron Palace

Caption: Monarchy heights Source: Heliopolis Company

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Nasser Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Heights and Facades •

Most of facades were Eclectic style

There were many villas demolished

Heights were from 1 to 2 floors

The appearance of the labour housing reflects Nasser era

Skyline of the labour housing

Labour Housing

Labour Housing

Legend:

1 Floor 3 Floors 4 Floors 5 floors

Caption: Nasser heights Source: Heliopolis Company

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Sadat Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Heights and Facades •

Most of facades were Eclectic style like Nasser

Old building were repainted

most of the villas were transferred to buildings

Height were from 4 to 5 floors The Skyline

Building in El Horreya Street

Buildings in El-Marghany Street

Legend:

1 Floor 3 Floors 4 Floors 5 floors

Caption: Sadat Heights Source: Heliopolis Company

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Mobarak Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Heights and Facades •

Most of facades where Modern style

Some building didn’t follow the rules not to increase than 6 floors according to airport restrictions

Heights were from 6 to 10 floors

Post Revolution Era

skyline

Buildings in Almaza Street

Heights and Facades •

Due to the absence of supervision some building illegally build more floors than 6 floors

Legend:

Heights were from 6 to 12 floors

1 Floor 3 Floors 4 Floors 5 floors

The skyline

Caption: Mobarak Heights Source: Heliopolis Company Buildings in Almaza Street

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Monarchy era

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads and Transportation •

The tram line was created this era in 1952 so that the people would come and visit Heliopolis

Roads and tram

Legend: Tram

Caption:Monarchy Roads And Transportation Source: Heliopolis company

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


Nasser and Sadat Era

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

Roads and Transportation •

Al-Asr street was renamed to Salah Salem street after Salah Salem died in 1962

Salah Salem Street

Legend: Arterial roads Main roads

Secondary Roads Local roads Tram

Caption: Nasser Roads and Transportation Source: Heliopolis company

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Mobarak Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads and Transportation •

Al-Marghany and Al-Nozha bridge were established in 2003

Private cars were the main mean of transportation

Al-Sabaa omarat square

Al-Marghany bridge

Tramline at AlSabaa omarat

Tramline in Al-Horreya street

Post Revolution Era Roads and Transportation

• • •

Legend:

Al-Marghany Tramline was removed in 2014

Arterial roads Main roads

The tramline at Al-Thawra street was removed

Secondary Roads Local roads Tram

Al-Marghany street became wider

Caption: Post Revolution roads and transportation Source: Heliopolis Company

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


Monarchy era

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

Land uses •

In this era Almazah wasn’t built up .

3 palaces were built : Baron’s Palace. Prince Ibrahim’s Palace. Baghous Basha Nubar’s palace

The 3 palaces which were built

Legend:

Residential

Caption: Monarchy Land Use Source: Heliopolis Company

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


Nasser era

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

Land uses •

Almaza was planned in the era of gamal abd el-nasser.

•

It was mainly planned as an extension for heliopolis .

Legend: Administration Entertainment Religious Residential Educational Industrial Stores Military

Caption: Nasser Land Use Source: Heliopolis Company

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


Sadat era

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

Land uses •

Buildings were constructed all over almaza.

It’s was planned as a residential district.

Legend: Administration Entertainment Religious Residential Educational Industrial Stores Military

Caption: Sadat Land Use Source: Heliopolis Company

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


Mobarak and Post Revolution Era

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

Land uses •

First floor of many buildings converted from residential to commercial.

Legend: Administration Entertainment Religious Residential Educational Industrial Stores Com. Residential

Caption: Mobarak and Post Revolution Land Use Source: Heliopolis Company

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

03 TRACING URBAN TRANSFORMATION IN HELIOPOLIS ZONES

ZONE 2

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Zone (2)

Heliopolis Transformation

KEY MAP:

Al-Bostan Area

SURROUNDING ROADS : 1. Abu Bakr El-Siddiq Street.

1

4

2.Salah Salem Street.

3.Beruit Street. 4.El-Hegaz Street. 3 2

Al-Bostan Area : Originally, Service area Now, Part of Al-Mantazal, Builders of Heliopolis lived here at the beginning It was the second poorer commercial center of Heliopolis Centered around A Mosque (Gamal El-Afgany) Heliopolis City in a City Dr/ Mohamed Abd El-Baki

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Monarchy Era (1905-1952)

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban Form •

Urban Spaces formation of Heliopolis area is a mixed model of networking Grid and Radial concentric .

Buildings constructed in 1908

Heliopolis by the end of Monarchy Era Heliopolis City in a City Dr/ Mohamed Abd El-Baki

Buildings constructed in 1912

Buildings constructed in 1923

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Monarchy Era (1905-1952)

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads and Transportations •

Tramway Line was the Core of the creation of new city in the desert.

The first Line opened in 1910 connecting Heliopolis with Cairo.

It was managed by the Heliopolis Company. Tramway line in Heliopolis *http://www.passion-egyptienne.fr

Tramway in Othman bin Affan Street Private Cars in Abbas Street 1930 ( Tanta street) 1940 *http://ouionnet.com/clipv/item/photos *http://www.passion-egyptienne.fr Legend: Tramway

The First Tramway line under construction *http://ouionnet.com/clipv/item/photos

Before changing the path of the tram ( Al-Ahram Street)1940 *www.flickr.com/photos

Buses in San Stefano Street (Harun Street) A two-way street

Tramway in Heliopolis in 1910

Cars in Ibrahim Laqqany street *http://ouionnet.com/clipv/item/pho

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Monarchy Era (1905-1952)

Heliopolis Transformation

Façades and Heights Facades were formed by special style in this Era and there was harmony between the facades. •

Architecture style: is a mixed style of Moorish, Persian & Arabic styles.

Skyline: The end of façades created harmonic sky line by using minarets .

Rhythm: The openings made many rhythms because of using many shapes of arches and arcades.

Material: Rocks were used in construction and façades.

Colors: The common colors were Beige and Red.

Proportions: They were similar to each other.

Details: Ornaments made the façades more richness.

1.Entrance of Haroun EL-Rasheed street *www.wikimedia.com

Height : At 1905 some regulations was issued by the government Stated that the maximum number of Floors in residential buildings in our territory is 5 floors due to the presence of Heliopolis airport (el ghaba club nowadays).

3.Basilica *www.wikiin.com

2

1

2.Haroun EL-Rasheed street *www.wikimedia.com

3

AL-Bustan area map

Details in elevation 1 *Heliopolis rebirth of the city of the sun

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

Monarchy Era (1905-1952) Green and open spaces Public Parks: Public parks were located such that the maximum distance between a residential apartment and a public park is 300 m. Open spaces: El-Gamae square, El-Ismaelia square and Salah El-Dein’s function was mostly residential but damscus st.,Harun el rasheed st. and othman ibn affan st. had residential and commercial axis.

Basilica 1920 : Baroon Empain Street

Type 1

Othman Ibn Affan Street

Medan EL Gamea Market 1920 San Stefano street (Haroun El-Rashid)

Type 2

Streets: Type 1: Streets on the boarders of Heliopolis 30-40 meter wide, Green Island always exists in the middle.

Legend: Type 3

Type 4 Bustan Area Green area

Type 2: Streets separating zones in Heliopolis 20-25 meter wide, also, Green Island always exists in the middle. Type 3: Streets between city blocks, their size depends on the length varying between 11.5-19 meter. Type 4: Streets inside of the block for local traffic 10 meter wide.

Abu Bakr al-Siddiq Street

AL-Bustan area map 1930 Heliopolis City in a City

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Monarchy Era (1905-1952)

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Uses Industry 5%

Transport 25%

Residential 45%

1

Entertainme nt 25%

A Market in Al-Gamea Square *www.wikimedia.com

2

A Market in Al-Gamea Square *www.wikimedia.com

Abbas Street *www.wikimedia.com

Heliopolis 1915

Legend:

Industry 5%

Residential Industrial Commercial Religious Educational

Transport 25%

Entertainme nt 15%

Residential 55%

Heliopolis 1930

Land Uses Map

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Nasser’s Era (1952-1970)

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban Form •

Kept the same urban fabric of the Monarchy Era.

The difference between Nasser's era and monarchy era

Heliopolis by the end of Nasser's era Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Nasser’s Era (1952-1970)

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads and Transportations •

Streets width between 30 and 40 meters.

Identification of the main streets, parks, pedestrian’s Paths.

Changing the path of the tram to Othman bin Affan Street.

1951 start Abdel Aziz Fahmy Tramway line.

• •

Tramway in Cairo in 1957

Tramway in Heliopolis in 1962 *http://www.subways.net/egypt/heliopolis.htm

Court Square

1952 Transport Al Nozha Tramway Line.

Private Cars in 1963 Legend: Avenue Boulevard Main Street

Harun Square

1962 Extension of Al Marghany Tramway Line.

Square Tramway

Ismailia Square

El Galaa Square Basilica Square

Street Network Hierarchy & Tramway in 1975

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Nasser’s Era (1952-1970)

Heliopolis Transformation

Façades and Heights There wasn’t noticeable changes in this Era in façades form or vocabulary .

Height: After 1952 revolution The heights remained the same & no change observed in heights except some new buildings that exceeded by one floor . 1.Entrance of Haroun EL-Rasheed street 1954 ‫عمر الحسيني‬/‫د‬,‫*تطور الفراغات العمرانية في مصر الجديدة‬

1

2.Basilica *www.wikiin.com

2

AL-Bustan area map

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Nasser’s Era (1952-1970)

Heliopolis Transformation

Green and open spaces Open spaces and streets: •

Streets and Open Spaces became 35% and building density began to increase .

Entrance of Haroun EL-Rasheed street 1954 ‫عمر الحسيني‬/‫د‬,‫*تطور الفراغات العمرانية في مصر الجديدة‬

Public means of Transportation 60s

Legend: 1- Othman Ibn Affan street

2

2- Harun El-Rasheed street Bustan Area Green area

1 AL-Bustan area map Green Areas 1975

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Nasser’s Era (1905-1952)

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Uses •

Social Aspect: Al-Gamae square, Al-Ismaelia square and Salah Elden functions turned into residential and commercial functions after it was mostly residential like in Damascus St., Harun el Rasheed St. and Othman ibn Affan St. that became commercial axis. St. George Coptic Orthodox Church *www.wikimedia.com

Commercial Industry 10% 5%

Transport 20%

1.Entrance of Haroun EL-Rasheed street 1954 ‫عمر الحسيني‬/‫د‬,‫*تطور الفراغات العمرانية في مصر الجديدة‬

Legend:

Residential Industrial Commercial Religious Educational

Residential 55%

Entertainment 10%

Heliopolis

Land Uses Map

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Sadat’s Era (1970-1981)

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban Form •

Buildings density increased

The urban fabric in the area reached the final phase.

Heliopolis by the end of Sadat's era Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Sadat’s Era (1970-1981)

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads and Transportations •

1972 Start Al Matrya Tramway Line.

Tramway in Al Ahram street in 1971

Public Buses in 1972

Tramway in Heliopolis in 1971

*http://www.subways.net/egypt/heliopolis.htm

Legend:

Tramway in Heliopolis in 1971 *Heliopolis city in a city” Legend:

Tramway in Al- Bustan District in 1971

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Sadat’s Era (1970-1981)

Heliopolis Transformation

Façades and Heights

The investment increased because of “Openness Policy” and the land value increased so it was the beginning of destroying the old buildings and built high buildings instead. •

Architecture style: there wasn’t defined style.

Skyline: The high buildings caused distortion in skyline.

Rhythm: The openings became boring.

Material: Concrete were used in construction and glass in façades.

Colors: There wasn’t common colors.

Details: The façades were poor due to lack of ornaments and details.

Height: As a result of the Economic openness Policy most of the villas was demolished & replaced by a residential buildings (from 7 to 8 floors). - Some owners of buildings added more floors regardless the shape or colors of the façade.

1.High building in Harun El-Rasheed street without architecture style *Site visit

2.Addition of floors regardless the style of façade *Heliopolis city in a city

3.Basilica in the 70’s ,‫*تطور الفراغات العمرانية في مصر الجديدة‬ ‫عمر الحسيني‬/‫د‬

2

1 3

AL-Bustan area map

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Sadat’s Era (1970-1981)

Heliopolis Transformation

Green and open spaces Open spaces and streets: •

Building density began to increase , Due to Sadat’s Policy of Openess,

High Buildings started to appear replacing Low-Rise buildings and even open areas

By the Time, Villas have been destroyed and High Buildings (5:10 floors) have replaced them, resulting in a clear decrease in the area of open spaces with respect to the buildings.

Entrance of Haroun EL-Rasheed street 1954

Heliopolis and its growth toward the east and it’s new routes and less green areas - Heliopolis 1975 ‫عمر الحسيني‬/‫ د‬,‫*تطور الفراغات العمرانية في مصر الجديدة‬

Legend: 1-El-Ismailia sq. 2-Salah El-Dein sq. 3-El-Gamae sq. 4-El-Basilic sq. Bustan Area

3

4

2

1

Green area

AL-Bustan area map

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Sadat’s Era (1970-1981)

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Uses •

Political Aspect: After the Economic Openness Policy

Using all the Closed Spaces( Courtyards and Gardens ) and Open Spaces ( public Green areas and pedestrian Paths) Caused an Absence of Green areas and public parks completely as they were exchanged with other building to increase the investment

1.A Building in Harun El-Rasheed *Site visit

Heliopolis 1975 2.A building in Abu Bakr Street *Heliopolis city in a city ‫عمر الحسيني‬/‫ د‬,‫*تطور الفراغات العمرانية في مصر الجديدة‬

Legend: Education 20% Industry 5% Commercial 15%

Residential 55%

1

2

Residential Industrial Commercial Religious Educational

Entertainment 5%

Heliopolis 1960

Land Uses Map

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Mubarak’s Era (1981-2011)

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban Form

Heliopolis by the end of Mobarak's era

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Mubarak’s Era (1981-2011)

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads and Transportations •

Increase of the number of Tramway to 280 Cars.

Increase of Population, Private Cars, Trucks and Traffic Jams in Heliopolis.

Decrease of Tramway Maintenance. Buses and more Private Cars Heliopolis in 1990 *www.flickr.com/photos

Tramway with 2-4 Cars in Abu Bakr El Siddiq street *http://misrelgedeeda.blogspot.com.eg

Tramway in Abu Bakr El Siddiq street Private Cars and Trucks in Heliopolis in 1995 “‫عمر الحسيني‬/‫د‬,‫”تطور الفراغات العمرانية في مصر الجديدة‬ *www.flickr.com/photos

Tram Interior View *www.flickr.com/photos

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Mubarak’s Era (1981-2011)

Heliopolis Transformation

Façades and Heights The buildings and façades became deterioration. •

Architecture style: there wasn’t defined style.

Skyline: The high buildings caused distortion in skyline.

Rhythm: The openings became 1.High building in Harun El-Rasheed boring. street without architecture style

Material: Concrete were used in construction and glass in façades.

Colors: There wasn’t common colors.

Details: The façades were poor due to lack of ornaments and details.

Height: The Number Of levels increased & the high rise buildings was Obviously appeared.

*Site visit

3.High rise buildings in ElIsmaeilya square *Site visit

2.High building in Abu Bakr ElSeddik street *Site visit

2

3 1

AL-Bustan area map

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Mubarak’s Era (1981-2011)

Heliopolis Transformation

Green and Open Spaces Open spaces and streets: •

Green courts were part of the original plan, but they turned into garbage spots and investors came up with the idea of building them over to restore them and recreate a green area again, it has an impact on the prices of the rent. Unfortunately most of the courts and green areas are locked ‘’only for watching’’.

Entrance of Haroun EL-Rasheed street 2010

Tramway in Abu Bakr El Siddiq street in 1995

Legend: Bustan Area Green area

AL-Bustan area map green Areas

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


25TH

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

January Revolution Era (2011-Now)

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban Form

Heliopolis now

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Mubarak’s Era (1981-2011)

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Uses •

Social Aspect: A New Development expanding the commercial Zones as in Damascus St. ,Also some commercial zones appeared on Abu Bakr El Seddik St.

1.Jewllery Shops in Haroun Al-Rasheed St. *Heliopolis city in a city

Auto mobile Shops in Damascus St. *Heliopolis city in a city

Legend:

Residential Industrial Commercial Religious Educational

A Building in Harun El-Rasheed *Site visit

Education 20% Industry 5% Commercial 15%

Residential 55%

Entertainment 5%

Heliopolis 2000

Land Uses Map

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


25TH

January Revolution Era (2011-Now)

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

Roads and Transportations •

problem of parking in streets.

Decrease in street width, parks.

Transform pedestrian path to selling goods.

Microbus in Othman bin Affan street in 2013 *Site visit

The third line of the metro in Heliopolis *http://www.nat.org.eg/arabic/Line3.html

No Maintenance for Trams *http://cairobserver.com/trams

The third line of the metro in Mosque Square *Site visit

Tram accident in Abu Bakr El Siddiq Street *http://cairobserver.com/trams

Tram in Abu Bakr El Siddiq street *Site visit

Bus in Ismailia square in 2014 *Site visit

Rubbish on the Tram line in Heliopolis Problem of Parking in Mosque Square *Site visit *Site visit

Decrease in Damanhur Street width *www.flickr.com/photos

parking on Tram lines in Ismailia Square *Site visit

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


25th

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

January Revolution (2011-Now)

Heliopolis Transformation

Façades and Heights The buildings and façades became more deterioration and irregularities increased.

Architecture style: there wasn’t defined style.

Skyline: The high buildings caused distortion in skyline.

Rhythm: The openings became boring.

Material: Concrete were used in construction and glass in façades.

Colors: There wasn’t common colors.

Details: The façades were poor due to lack of ornaments and details.

1.Building with illegally floors in Harun El-Rasheed street *Site visit

2.New Buildings with illegally floors *Site visit

1 2

Height : Due to the absence of Censorship after the 25 jan revolution the number of levels increased illegally.

AL-Bustan area map

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


25TH

January Revolution Era (2011-Now)

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

Green and open spaces Open spaces and streets: •

Currently, 11.7% of the total number of masses within the area is higher than 10 storeys.

39.47% of the total number of masses lies between 4 and 10 storeys.

The remaining 48.83% of the total number of masses ranges from 1 to 3 storeys.

Entrance of Haroun EL-Rasheed street 2013

Mosque Square

Decrease in Damanhur Street

Legend: Bustan Area Green area

AL-Bustan area map 2015

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Post 2011 Revolution Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Uses •

Social Aspect: Minor Development occurred and new buildings were established

A Market in Al-Gamea Square NOW *Site Visit Industry 5%

2.New Established Buildings *Site visit

Education 12%

Legend: Commercial 18%

Residential Industrial Commercial Religious Educational

Residential 58%

Entertainment 7%

Heliopolis post 2011

Land Uses Map Heliopolis City in a City

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


Timeline

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

El-Korba Street

Ibrahim El-Laqani Street

Baron Palace

Basilic

Heliopolis Metro

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


Timeline

Abbas Mosque

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

Now : Gamal El-Din El-Afgani

Medan El-Gamaa Market

Haroun El-Rashed Entrance

Heliopolis Palace

Boulevard Ismail Street

Now : Korba Street

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

03 TRACING URBAN TRANSFORMATION IN HELIOPOLIS ZONES

ZONE 3

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

HELIOPOLIS DISTRICT Base Map

Base Map Heliopolis

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

MONARCHY ERA

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Use

29% 53.00% •

Foot-print was about 50%.

More green open space.

Less commercial activities.

1% 15.00%

2% Caption: palace hotel Source: Old Heliopolis page

Caption: Basilica 1912 +green space Source : Old Heliopolis page

Legend:

Green area

Caption: zone 3 Source: Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

NASSER ERA

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Use

16% 1%

10.00% •

Socialist era

Increasing the commercial activity.

Decreasing in the green area .

Turning the hotel to be aletahdya palace .

60.00% 5% 8%

Legend:

Green area

Caption: zone 3 Source: Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

SADAT ERA

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Use

7.00%

1%

2%

10%

Economic openness policy

Increasing the commercial activity as in AL Ahram st. And Ibrahim AL la’any.

Absence of the green spaces.

15%

65.00% Caption: Al Ahram st. and the absence of the green spaces Source: Old Heliopolis page

Legend:

Green area

Caption: zone 3 Source: Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

MUBARAK ERA

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Use

5.50%

1%

2%

10%

Increasing the commercial activity as in Roxy district

Building commercial and entertainment malls .

20%

61.50%

Caption: Roxy commercial shops Source: Author

Caption: Al Hurya Mall Source: Author

Legend:

Green area

Caption: zone 3 Source: Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

POST REVOLUTION ERA

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Use

5.50%

1%

2%

10% 51.50% • •

Increasing the commercial activity as in Roxy district. Random investments and commercial activities appeared.

30% Caption: Aswan Café Source: Author

Legend:

Green area

Caption: zone 3 Source: Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

Monarchy Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Solid and Void

-Footprint of Buildings didn’t exceed 50% of the plot area, so the ratio of open spaces (Public, Semi Public) were large with respect to the buildings.

Ratios between solid, void and green spaces Source: Author

Legend: Solid Void Green

Solid and void map Source: Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

Naser’s Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Solid and Void

-The decrease of the open spaces. -The density of buildings increased due to the increase of population.

Ratios between solid, void and green spaces Source: Author

Legend: Solid Void Green

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

Sadat’s Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Solid and Void

-By the Time, Villas have been destroyed and High Buildings (5:10 floors) have replaced them, resulting in a clear decrease in the area of open spaces with respect to the buildings.

Ratios between solid, void and green spaces Source: Author

- Open spaces decreased due to the economic openness policy.

Legend: Solid Void Green

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

Mubarak’s Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Solid and Void

-Disrespecting building regulations has led to leakage of open spaces (Public, Semi Public) and there have been many high buildings instead of small villas.

Ratios between solid, void and green spaces Source: Author

Legend: Solid Void Green

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

Mubarak’s Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Solid and Void

-Increasing the street width by decreasing the width of the platform. Ratios between solid, void and green spaces Source: Author

Legend: Solid Void Green

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Monarchy Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads hierarchy -Streets were very wide. -There wasn’t too many cars in the streets as they depended mainly on the tram. -The road network includes construction of the main roads that surrounds the area where some roads appeared like " Marghany " street besides the Heliopolis palace and the parallel roads to it.

Use this spa

Beirut Street

A-Ahram Street and Ibrahim Al-lakany Street Source : Memories of Heliopolis Book

Baghdad Street

Legend:

Roads Hierarchy Map Source : Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Naser’s Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads hierarchy -Streets are wide and ranged from 15-40. -Central Polarized field of the main axes.

Ibrahim Al-lakany Street Source : Memories of Heliopolis Book

Legend:

Roads Hierarchy Map Source : Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Sadat’s Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads hierarchy -Due to the inflation of the real estate investment , there was a need to extend the road networks to reach all around Cairo . -The public transportation increased due to the presence of the labors and employees Al-Ahram Street

Othman Ibn Affan Street

Source : Memories of Heliopolis Book

Legend:

Roads Hierarchy Map Source : Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Mubarak’s Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads hierarchy -Problem of parking in streets. -Decrease in street width.

Use this spa

-Transform pedestrian path to selling goods. -The infrastructure and roads were improved to handle the great increase in population.

Beirut Street

A-Ahram Street and Ibrahim Al-lakany Street Source : Memories of Heliopolis Book

Baghdad Street

Legend:

Roads Hierarchy Map Source : Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

25th January Revolution Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads hierarchy

-Closing some streets for security reasons. -Shortage in the parking lots.

-Transform pedestrian path to selling goods. -The Decrease of street width. -Parking the cars in illegal spaces.

Al-Ahram Street

Baghdad Street Source : Google Earth

Othman Ibn Affan Street

Legend:

X

X

X

Roads Hierarchy Map Source : Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

MONARCHY

Heliopolis Transformation

FACEDES

-Architecture style: heliopolis style the facades as symmetric equilibrium About vertical and Central axes -Number of floors: the maximum number of storeys ber building did not exceed 5 -Material: The building materials used were stones,bricks,wood.

1 Baghdad Street

2

Ibrahim el lakany

3 Beriut Entrance

Source : Memories of Heliopolis Book

-Colors: Colors determined by the company have been used for materials covering the faรงades -regulations have handled conditions dealing with protrusions of ornamental elements and balconies -Structure system: The structure system used skeleton and bearing walls system.

3

2

1

Base map Source: Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

NASSER’S ERA

Heliopolis Transformation

FACEDES -Architecture style: Monotony in facade forms and Some architectural models with (Art-Deco) style appeared -Number of floors: the building hights (6-9) storeys -Structure system: The reinforced concrete was introduced in the structure system

1

Burit Street

2

Ibrahim Al-Lakkany Street

1 2

Base map Source: Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

SADAT’S ERA

Heliopolis Transformation

FACEDES -Architecture style : Modern architecture Style -Number of floors : high rise buildings (10-12) storeys -Structure system : modern building technology as the (flat slab). 1 Al-Ahram street

2

Beriut street

2 1

Base map Source: Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

MUBARAK’S ERA

Heliopolis Transformation

FACEDES -Architecture style: loss of unique style and pattern of its architecture, appearance of different architecture style buildings -Colors: paint and some poor materials used to make a simple look 1

Al-Ahram Street

2

Al-Ahram Street

3 Ibrahim Al- lakany Street

2 3 1

Base map Source: Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

CURRENT SITUATION

Heliopolis Transformation

FACEDES -Big vast openings appeared in addition to large scale glass windows and the pluralism of many windows with different shapes and not to be tied with vertical axis. -Different colour and material treatments -The Addition of foreign elements to faรงades

Vertical additions to the buildings and use different colours and materials

-Masses are being negatively transformed through vertical and horizontal additions that usually have no connections with the existing architectural characters. -Rooftop constructions (permanent and temporary) also play a major role in changing the shapes of masses.

Base map Source: Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

Monarchy Era ( 1905 -1952 )

Heliopolis Transformation

Transportation Methods and Tram paths

Automobile in Heliopolis 1913

Tram passing near basilica in the 40s

Tram in El-khalifa mamoun street 1916

Tram in Nazih Khalifa street 1947

Legend: Tram Paths

One of the King`s Cars 1924

Public Buses in the late 40s

The tram line was established at 1910 to connect heliopolis with Cairo and was a unique thing at that time in Egypt .

Caption: Tram Line paths ( Monorchy Era ) Urban Planning & Design Department Source: Electric Railway Company & Heliopolis Oasis Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

Nasser`s Era ( 1952 -1970 )

Heliopolis Transformation

Transportation Methods and Tram paths As we can see the Tram was extended to include more areas and to cover all the vital parts of helioples in the 60s . Public Buses in 1966

Tram cabin Bought from Los angeles to work in Egypt at 1964

Belgium Tram car 1958

Legend: Tram Paths

Trolly Bus in the 60s

General Transportation Methods in Egypt in the 60s

Caption: Tram Line paths ( Nasser`s Era ) Urban Planning & Design Department Source: Electric Railway Company & Heliopolis Oasis Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

Sadat`s Era ( 1970 -1981 )

Heliopolis Transformation

Transportation Methods and Tram paths The Tram line was almost not affected at all at sadat`s era , however , the density of buildings increased as we can see.

Tram Cabins bought from Czech Republic in the early 80s

Tram at 1977

Tram in the early 70s in Cairo

Legend: Tram Paths

Public Buses 1978

Public buses 1981 Caption: Tram Line paths ( Sadat`s Era ) Urban Planning & Design Department Source: Electric Railway Company & Heliopolis Oasis Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

Mubarak`s Era ( 1981 -2011 )

Heliopolis Transformation

Transportation Methods and Tram paths

Toshiba Cabin for the Egyptian tram 1990

Tram passing near the english school 2006

Tram in El- Marghany street 1998

Tram in Heliopolis 1999

Legend: Tram Paths

Public Buses in 2009

The tram line was established at 1910 to connect heliopolis with Cairo and was a unique thing at that time in Egypt .

Caption: Tram Line paths ( Mubarak`s Era ) Urban Planning & Design Department Source: Electric Railway Company & Heliopolis Oasis Ain Shams University


HELIOPOLIS BACKGROUND

Post Revolution ( 1905 -1952 )

Heliopolis Transformation

Transportation Methods and Tram paths

A Diagram illustrating the huge speed difference between the Subway and the tram which made the government to focus on the subway and remove the Tram totally .

Photo showing the bad condition the tram cabins had after the revolution , this tram had no Glass nor doors , it was taken at 2015 in salah el deen square .

2 trams Colliding in Helioples due to the lack of maintainance

EL Ahram Metro station , the government started to focus more on the Subway than the tram which was later removed .

Legend:

One of the King`s Cars 1924

Egypt Removed the Tram totally after 100 years Despite the Huge benefit for it which made countries like UAE for example to start building it in Dubai due to its vital importance

The Tram Line was Totally Removed after 100 Years of being a Caption: Tram Line paths ( Post Revolutin ) Urban Planning & Design Department vital landmark for heliopolis and a unique thing that defines it Source: Electric Railway Company & Heliopolis Oasis Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

03 TRACING URBAN TRANSFORMATION IN HELIOPOLIS ZONES

ZONE 4

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Heliopolis

Heliopolis Transformation

Zone 4

Abou Bakr El Sedeek St. Al Sbaak St. Gesr El Suez St.

El Hegaz St.

El-Kalifa El-Maamoun St. Al Maahad Al Ashtraki St. Caption: Heliopolis Zone 4

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Monarchy Era (1905-1952)

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Use •

The area under study was mainly entertainment area ,occupying 25% of the land.

The rest of the land was vacant area.

The entertainment areas were the main attraction points to encourage the inhabitance of the residential areas “ex : Luna park , the horse race track , the aviation club “ .

Caption: Luna park Source: les memories d’helioplis

caption: Aviation club source: : les memories d’helioplis

25%

75%

Entertainment Vacant space

Land use

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Monarchy Era (1905-1952)

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban fabric and open spaces •

Al Kasr street was a main axis linking between the racing horse track and the Baron Palace.

•

The studied area was planned to be an entertainment district contained horse racetrack and Luna Park . Caption: the main road ALkasr Source: Author

Urban Fabric

caption: old planning of helioplis source:

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Monarchy Era (1905-1952)

Heliopolis Transformation

Transportation and road network •

The Heliopolis company decided establishing a railway to ease the transportation to helioplis, as this new community was 10 kilometers far from the nearest urban community.

There were two means of transportation, the first one was the private vehicles (high class social standard own cars) , the second was the electric tram line.

Caption: the tram through nasser’s era Source:memories d’helioplis

Scince our studied area was almost vaccant so had only a line which link the baron palace with the racing horse track passing by the basilic.

Transportation and road network

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Monarchy Era (1905-1952)

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Marks •

Luna park was considered as the first amusement park in the Middle East and Africa ,it started to welcome visitors in 1911.

Luna park was converted into a hospital through the world war.

There was a horse racing course (Merryland now).

The Heliopolis company established a swimming pool with unconditional entrance.

At the World War II in 1939, this swimming pool was devoted to the English soldiers and the army officers at the night used to go to the club too.

After the world war II in 1945, a group of Heliopolis residents, Egyptians and foreigners,thought about the construction of sports club in that place where the swimming pool and the surrounding land.

Caption: horse race track

caption:luna park when converted to hospital

caption: swimming pool before transformation

Caption:Heliolido club

And the club was called Heliolido in which Helio means the sun in ancient Greek language and Lido means the beach or harbor, so that it becomes the sun and the water Club Caption: Luna park Landmarks

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


Monarchy Era (1905-1952)

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

Heights and Facades •

The street was occupied by villas and low rise buildings that do not exceed 20 meters height.

built-up area occupied 50% of the land,so the containment was weak as it was only defined by trees and fences.

In this time the facades were Characterized by the existence of unique architectural style like arcades , columns , terraces and Almaizn portable by columns.

Caption:facades of architectural character Source: helioplis Book

caption:streets characterized by weak containment

Heights and Facades

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


INTEGRATED TRANSFORMATION

Nasser era (1952-1970)

Heliopolis Transformation

Land uses •

20%

A massive increase in the residential area due to the transition of a lot of suburbs inhabitance into Heliopolis. Due to the new urban expansion, the road network became larger and expanded to new areas .

20%

Entertainment Residential

60%

Roads

caption:pie chart for landuses.

The entertainment areas decreased due to the urban inflammation and some areas vanished ( ex: Luna park , the aviation club , the horses race track ) and others were founded (ex :Merryland park , Heliolido club ) .

Land use Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Nasser era (1952-1970)

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban fabric •

Residential Buildings started to appear along with the entertainment district due to the increase in population density which lead to the appearance of squares as Roxy square and AlMahkma square.

•

radical urban fabric with rigid grid pattern. Caption: map for urban fabric Source: dr.omar elhusseiny research Radial Urban Fabric

z

Urban fabric

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Nasser era (1952-1970)

Heliopolis Transformation

Transportation and road network •

The tram was extended to reach the heart of Cairo's midtown to “Emad e Din street” and the corner of “fouad street” which were the main economic and trading streets in Egypt at that time.

The extension of the tram to Cairo’s midtown allowed Heliopolis residents to attend parties and go to theatres and cinemas.

The tram line was one of the main reasons of the transition of habitants from other neighborhoods .

Caption: the tram through nasser’s era Source:memories d’helioplis

The tram path in our studied area ( transportation and road network) Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Nasser era (1952-1970)

Heliopolis Transformation

Landmark

•

The racing track was transformed to a public garden (Merryland park),and The horse racing club was moved from this region to the Sun club.

•

It was planned to be a public park, and it is made up of a casino , and remained as this from 1963 to 1980.

Caption:merryland , lakeview of the casino. Source: Almasry elyoum journal.

Caption:stepping seats kept ignorable Source:google image

Landmark Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


INTEGRATED TRANSFORMATION

Nasser era (1952-1970)

Heliopolis Transformation

FACADES •

Some villas were destroyed and high rise buildings took their

places,The height varied from 4 to 15 floors. •

The buildings were no more fenced or surrounded by trees in some parts.

The squares containment remained weak as they were very wide,Although the height of surrounding buildings increased.

They were interested in providing a large number of units rather than aesthetic form.

Buildings’ Facades were plain and of a large height.

Shehab eldeen khafaga street,Merryland. Source: google earth.

Comparison of containment through eras. source:dr.Abd elmenaam saeed research.

`

Heights and facades Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Sadat Era (1970-1981)

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Use

•

Foreign investment was allowed in the country with Sadat's policy especially after October War. "In 1974 the later president Anwar Sadat's open up policy

54% Residential 4% Entertainment 15% Educational & Industrial 25% Roads

Expansions of the area of Heliopolis & the surroundings Source (Eth studio basel)

Land Use

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Sadat Era (1970-1981)

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban Fabric & Open Spaces

Private green areas started to disappear after the opening up policy.

Radial Urban Fabric

Green areas became limited on public gardens only.

El Mahkma Squre

Legend: Green Areas

Roxy Square

Green Areas And Urban Fabric

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Sadat Era (1970-1981)

Heliopolis Transformation

Transportation & Roads Network •

Due to the massive increase in investments in this era , a lot of shops ,international companies , banks , and co-operative investments companies were located in Heliopolis , so new tram lines were extended and branched to become a new commercial axe through Heliopolis .

Many workers and employees who worked at Heliopolis needed a comfortable way of transportation , so the tram extended to some other neighborhood (ex: Al Matareya )

Due to the inflation of the real estate investment , there was a need to extend the road networks to reach all around Cairo

The public transportation increased due to the presence of the labors and employees .

Due to the inflation of the real estate investment, there was a need to extend the road networks to reach all around Cairo .

The public transportation increased due to the presence of the labors and employees.

Bus lines extended to new streets and new neighborhoods.

Source: Heliopolis

Abu Bakr EL Sedik Street

El Hegaz Street

s

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Sadat Era (1970-1981)

Heliopolis Transformation

LandMarks

•

•

" Merryland " Park regained its importance as a touristic place and entertainment field which needs to be cared of , then there were entrance tickets

In the late 1980s

The middle and the upper class were directed in this period to the private clubs so the park loosed its importance .

Merryland 1979 Source: Google images

Merryland 1970s Source: Paper of Dr. Shetawy and Dief-Allah ( Historic Pars in he face of change )

Caption:Merryland

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Sadat Era (1970-1981)

Heliopolis Transformation

Heights & Facades

The buildings still high till 15 floor and more .

Buildings uses remain residential except the basement and the first 2 floors became commercial .

Due the high value of land in the seventies and exploitation to the maximum degree , there was an increase in height of the buildings So some towers appeared .

New materials appeared in the formation of the facades of the buildings like Glass.

Othman Buildings , El Fateh Street Source (Google Earth)

Shehab El Deen Khafaga Street Source (Google Earth)

Rearrangement of Land Use Source (Dr Abd El Menaam EL Saeed PDF

Land Use

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Mubarak Era (1981-2011)

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Use •

The residential area had a great increase ,although the chart ratio didn’t increase a lot due to the great expansion of land ,and the increase was vertical more than horizontal

The roads network didn’t increase as the expansion in the residential areas was a vertical expansion mostly .

Dr. Abd Fl Menam research

A lot of crafts and industries were added as (Ex: the mechanical trading in Damascus street , a lot of small shops ) , and a lot of banks and international companies were located .

Legend: Residential Entertainment

Educational - industrial

The entertainment areas decreased in an obvious way , and the few remaining areas were less proper compared to it‘s glorious history

Roads

Land Use

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Mubarak Era (1981-2011)

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban Fabric and Open Spaces There wasn’t any change in this era than el Sadat era

Legend: Open Spaces

Solid and Void Caption:Green Areas And Urban Fabric

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Mubarak Era (1981-2011)

Heliopolis Transformation

Transportations and Road network Transportation : •

The massive increase in the number of private cars eased the pressure on public transportations , so the increase in public transportations wasn’t a big one .

Few bus lines were extended .

Gesr Al Suez St.

Roads : •

El Hegaz St.

Abou Bakr Al Sedeek St. Site visit

The infrastructure and roads were improved to handel the great increase in population .

Al Sbaak St. El Hegaz St. Al Maahad Al Ashtraki St.

El-Kalifa El-Maamoun St. Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


Mubarak Era (1981-2011)

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

Land Marks •

Luna park is converted to part of cinema Roxy .

In late 1990’s one of mubarak’s sons took care of the park trying to bring back it’s importance by making well-known restaurants and cafes open in the park .

Heliolido Club (swimming Pool) .

Caption: Short description on the photos / comment Source: Author 2003

2006

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


Mubarak Era (1981-2011)

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES Heliopolis Transformation

Heights and Facades 1981 •

President Husni Mubarak moves into Heliopolis Palace Hotel after being renovated will serve as his office and meeting palace . The impact of president will be huge on the further development and preservation of Heliopolis . Heliopolis must be strong , independent district of cairo , there are 46,267 jobs offered for inhabitants of the city of the sun.

Source : City in a city

1983 •

Law 117 introduced : It says that demolition of any building must first be consulted with CSA , the institution responsible for heritage preservation . it should help protect the historical buildings in Heliopolis .

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Current situation

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Use •

Land uses didn’t change , although a lot of violations took place , the violations were in building forms not in usage , as the ignoring of the setbacks and the massive illegal heights . and the demolition of old villas and replacing them with a high rise buildings , specially in the area of “El sabaq street “ area where it is illegal.

Dr. Abd Fl Menam research

The violations were mainly vertical. Legend: Residential Entertainment

Educational - Industrial Roads

Land Use

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Current situation

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban Fabric and Open Spaces There wasn’t any change in this era than el Sadat era

Legend: Open Spaces

Solid and Void Caption:Green Areas And Urban Fabric

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Current situation

Heliopolis Transformation

Transportations and Road network •

Some of the old tram ways were transformed into road expansions to solve the congestion problem in some streets , as the tram network is not used a lot in modern days as it became a less tan proper way of transformation ,But there are still two lines of trams .

The infrastructure and roads were improved to handel the great increase in population

Caption: Short description on the photos / comment Source: Author

Abou Bakr El Sedeek St. Al Matrya Tram Line Gesr El Suez St. Al Sbaak St. El Hegaz St.

Abd El Aziz Fahmy Tram line

Al Maahad Al Ashtraki St.

El-Kalifa El-Maamoun St. Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Current situation

Heliopolis Transformation

Land Marks •

Luna park is converted to part of cinema Roxy .

Merriland is closed for public .

The merriland greenery decreased .

Heliolido Club (swimming Pool) .

Luna Park

Merriland Caption: Short description on the photos / comment Source: Author

Heliolido

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ZONES

Current situation

Heliopolis Transformation

Heights and Facades Heights : •

Still as it’s 15 floor and more (more than 50 m ) .

Facades: •

They build in modern architecture ways using new materials (glass – steel ) .

Google Earth

They concern the form and the design of the buildings .

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION Heliopolis Transformation

04 COLLECTIVE URBAN TRANSFORMATION IN HELIOPOLIS DISTRICT ROADS AND TRANSPORTATION

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

Monarchy era

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads and Transportation •

Nearest urban community was 10 kilometers away

Heliopolis holding Company established a Railway to ease the transportation and to attract people to the area

Two lines were established: AlKobba “1909” and Al-Atabba “1911”

Tramway line in Heliopolis

Tramway in Heliopolis in 1930

The first Tram line in Heliopolis

There were also some private cars and carts but the main transportation medium were the trams Legend:

Marghany line Nozha line Arterial Road Main Road Secondary Road

Caption: Monarchy Roads and transportation Source: Heliopolis city in a city

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

Nasser era

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads and Transportation •

Changing the path of the tram to Othman bin Affan Street

1951 start Abdel Aziz Fahmy Tramway line.

1952 Transport Al Nozha Tramway Line.

1962 Extension of Al Marghany Tramway Line.

Tramway line in Heliopolis

Tramway line in Heliopolis on 1962

Tramway line in Heliopolis on 1962

Legend: ALMarghany line Al Nozha line Al Matarya line Abdel Aziz Fahmi line

Caption: Nasser Roads and transportation Source: Heliopolis city in a city

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

Nasser era

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads and Transportation •

Al-Asr street was renamed to Salah Salem street after Salah Salem died in 1962

Al Marghany street. Al-Hegaz Street, Hussein Kamel street and Gesr EL suez street were established in this era

Streets width were between 30 to 40 metres

Al-Hegaz Street

Al-Marghany street

Legend: Arterial Road Main Road Secondary Road

Caption: Nasser Roads and transportation Source: Heliopolis city in a city

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

Sadat era

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads and Transportation This is the narrative section where you add text on the area with font: Tahoma, size:16

Al-matarya line was established in 1972

Al-Nozha line was extended to Al-Abbasiya

Buses started to be used as a public transportation

Noticeble increase in the number of private cars

Al-Nozha tramline

Al-Matarya Tramline

Private cars in Baghdad Street

Legend: Arterial Road Main Road Secondary Road ALMarghany line Al Nozha line Al Matarya line Abdel Aziz Fahmi line

Caption: Sadat Roads and transportation Source: Heliopolis city in a city

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

Mobarak era and Post Revolution era

Heliopolis Transformation

Roads and Transportation •

Al-Nozha and Al-Marghany Bridge were established in 2003

They didn’t completely solve the traffic problem because they both lead to the same area(AlSabaa’ omarat square)

Al-Marghany tramline was removed in 2014 and AlMarghany street became wider

A new metro station (Al-Ahram) was established in 2013

Nazih Khalifa street was closed for 3 years since 2010 until AlAhram metro station was established

Al-Marghany street now

Al-Marghany Bridge

Al-Ahram metro station

Legend: Arterial Road Main Road Secondary Road ALMarghany line Al Nozha line Al Matarya line Abdel Aziz Fahmi line

Caption: Mobarak and Post Revolution Roads and transportation Source: Heliopolis city in a city

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


OVERVIEW

TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ASPECTS Heliopolis Transformation

MAIN EVENTS AND FEATURES

MONARCHY ERA

NASER ERA

SADAT ERA

Socialism led to the flee of The end of socialism came Tram lines were with the “Open Trade” established by Heliopolis foreigners and the policy getting born which introduction of industry. company with the emphasized the trade in Many natives moved to majority using the tram the area with further the city with their trade and minority have private expanding road network movement to the city vehicles and carts. increasing the density, and and the beginning of noticeable increase in the public buses. private vehicles.

MOBARAK ERA

The new president moved his accommodation to Heliopolis palace hotel, forcing security precautions in the streets, The roads density increased to its maximum and a series of bridges and tunnels were built.

REVOLUTION ERA

Constant protesting caused the absence of security and the blockage and necking of many streets for security reasons. Meanwhile due to the accumulation of the population and with the majority using private vehicles some tram lines were removed to widen the streets.

Baron’s palace Tramway in Heliopolis in 1957

Merghany bridge built in 2003 Tramway in Al Ahram street in 1971 Blockage of streets by protests

The First Tramway line under construction Tramway in Heliopolis in 1962 Public buses in 1972

Tramway infront of Heliopolis Palace Hotel

Protests infront of presidential Private cars and trucks in accommodation Heliopolis Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION Heliopolis Transformation

04 COLLECTIVE URBAN TRANSFORMATION IN HELIOPOLIS DISTRICT URBAN FABRIC & OPEN SPACES

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


Green Area

Solid

70 % 30 %

30 %

Void


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

Nasser’s Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban Fabric & Open Spaces No Noticeable change was observed in urban fabric in Nasser’s era. •

Urban Fabric: Radial planning mixed with Grid planning.

Squares: Some of them had commercial importance like: (ElGamae sq. ,Salah El-Dein sq. , Roxi sq.)

Squares: The other squares had transportation importance like: (El-Ismailia sq. ,El-Korba sq. ,Roxi sq.)

7.Merryland was established in 1958 , it was an interest for public people

Legend: Square

Some streets had commercial importance so they turned into pedestrian streets like: (Harun El-Rasheed st. ,Salah El-Dein st.) Open Spaces: Merryland park was established for public people instead of horse racing club due to socialist thought.

Solid =40% Void =60%

Green Area =15%

8.Green area at Beirut street ,‫*تطور الفراغات العمرانية في مصر الجديدة‬ ‫عمر الحسيني‬/‫د‬

Pedestrian Path

7

1

3 2

4 6

Solid =40% Void =45% Green areas =15%

8 5

Green areas 1.El-Ismailia square 2.Salah EL-Dein square 3.El-Gamae square 4.El-Basilic square 5.EL-Korba square 6.Roxi square

Heliopolis in Nasser’s era Solid & Void with green areas *Heliopolis City in a city

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

AlSaadat’s Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban Fabric & Open Spaces Political Aspect: •

Economical Openness “ Infitah ”

Economical Aspect: •

Establishing New Cities ( 10th of Ramadan – 6th of October – Sadat City ).

Building New Terminal building and developing the old one in Cairo Air Port.

Results: •

Increasing the number of investors ( Egyptians & foreigners ). Moving of the low income people to the new cities ,searching for work.

The Transformation of Houses

The Urban Fabric and Green Spaces of Heliopolis

Legend:

Green Area = 9%

Green Area Solid Void Solid = 45% Void = 55%

Increase in land value .

Effects On Urban Fabric & Open Spaces: •

Decreasing the area of Open spaces

Decreasing the width of the Pavement and build on it

Replacing the Villas with high rise buildings with bigger foot print

Solid = 45% Void = 46% Green area = 9%

Heliopolis in AL-Saadat’s Era Solid& Void with green areas Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

Mubarak’s Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban Fabric & Open Spaces No obvious change was observed from el Sadat's era in the urban fabric.

the number of floors increased in some buildings.

Some Villas were removed in order to make room for skyscrapers not in line with city fabric .

• •

1.Public Garden Beside Basilica * site visit

2.Green Area in front of Basilica * site visit

Private green areas started to disappear.

Legend:

Green areas became limited on public gardens only.

Green Area Solid Void

2

Solid = 55% Void = 45%

1

Green Area = 12%

Solid = 55% Void = 33% Green area = 12%

Heliopolis in Mubarak's era Solid& Void with green areas Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


25TH

COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

January Revolution Era

Heliopolis Transformation

Urban Fabric & Open Spaces Urban Fabric: Radial planning mixed with Grid planning. •

After the Revolution there was a slight increase in the Urban Density Causing the decrease of open spaces .

The Increase in population opposed what the Baron Empan had established which led to the existence of a crises in the parking lots and illegal buildings.

The Merryland Park 2015 * http://www.moheet.com Legend:

Open Spaces: •

Green Area Solid

Due to the increase in urban density and violation of laws, decrease in open spaces and deterioration of Green Areas took place.

Void

Solid = 60% Void = 40%

Heliopolis Post 2011 Revolution Era Solid& Void with green areas Green area = 10%

Solid = 60% Void = 30% Green area = 10%

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


Heliopolis Palace was built in 1908, opened in 1910. In World War I,II It was used as a “Hospital “ to medicate injured soldiers


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION Heliopolis Transformation

04 COLLECTIVE URBAN TRANSFORMATION IN HELIOPOLIS DISTRICT FACADES AND SKYLINE

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

Monarchy Era (1905-1952)

Heliopolis Transformation

FACADES SKYLINE AND HIGEHTS •

The buildings consists of three parts : Building axis Towers Horizontal Body

The Facades` Module Opening module varies according to each part ; the towers are wider

The Sky line rise at the middle and the sides towers to make a variable sky line

Ornaments made the façades are rich with different architecture styles

Caption: Baghdad street current situation Source: Panoramia

Building in Baghdad street analysis Analyzed by authors

Legend: Baghdad street Entrance of Haroun EL-Rasheed street

Caption: façades Ornaments Source: Heliopolis Book

Heliopolis map Source: Authors Entrance of Haroun EL-Rasheed street

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


INTEGRATED TRANSFORMATION

Monarchy Era (1905-1952)

Heliopolis Transformation

FACADES SKYLINE AND HIEGHTS •

The building heights parts : building height about 25 m

Number of floors : Four floors and Roof floor Rooms were built on roofs with water facilities to be used for laundry

Lower zone : Their were Few commercial shops

Openings: Variable shapes of windows and arches enriches the facades

Buildings height from 4 floors Analyzed by Author

Facades Porosity Analyzed by Author

Legend: Baghdad street Entrance of Haroun EL-Rasheed street

Baron Palace Heliopolis book

Heliopolis Palace

The Mosque Of “Sultan Hussein built 1914 First Mosque in Heliopolis

The Mosque square

Heliopolis Base map Source: Author

Heliopolis place 1915 Old Heliopolis Page

Buildings height from 4 floors Source : Architektur á la Heliopolis Stadtanalyse Heliopolis Bauforschung WS 2010/11

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

Nasser’s Era Socialist Era (1952-1970)

Heliopolis Transformation

FACADES SKYLINE AND HIEGHTS

The “Heliopolis Palace” had been Nationalized

Some architectural models with (Art-Deco) style appeared

Heights increased to be more than 4 floors some new buildings that exceeded by one floor

Facades module became more regular and symmetric

Openings are: simple rectangles

Residential Building Baghdad street Source: Author

Residential building Façade module Source: Author

Residential building Façade porosity Source: Author

Residential building Floor (ground floor commercial shops ) Source: Author

Legend: Baghdad street

Ibrahim Al-Lakkany Street in 1962

Entrance of Haroun EL-Rasheed street Heliopolis Palace The Mosque square

Residential building Source Heliopolis book

Heliopolis Base map Source: Author

Entrance of Haroun EL-Rasheed street 1954

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

Sadat’s Era Open door Policy (1970-1981)

Heliopolis Transformation

FACADES SKYLINE AND HIEGHTS •

There wasn’t strict building regulations, which helped in the appearance of different architecture style buildings.

lower class owners neglect the architectural Values.

Architecture style: there wasn’t defined style.

-Skyline: The high buildings caused distortion in skyline.

Building height increased to be more than 7-8 floors

Porosity : windows and openings in facades became simple and alike

Residential Building Baghdad street Source: Author

Residential building Floor (ground Residential building floor commercial shops ) Façade porosity and module Source: Author Source: Author

Legend: Baghdad street

Residential Building Source: Author

Entrance of Haroun EL-Rasheed street

lack of ornaments and details. Heliopolis Palace

“Heliopolis Palace “ became President palce under name “Arabism Palace “

Heliopolis Base map Source: Author President s place Old Heliopolis Page

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

MOUBARAK’S ERA

Heliopolis Transformation

FACADES SKYLINE AND HIEGHTS •

Concrete was used in construction

and glass was used in façades. •

There was no unity in colors.

The façades were poor due to lack of ornaments and details.

There was no defined style. Horreya mall Façade module Source: Author

Horreya mall Façade materials Source: Author

Horreya mall Façade porosity Source: Author

Legend: Horreya mall Harun el rashed street High building in Harun El-Rasheed street without architecture style Source: Author

Heliopolis map Source: Author High building in Abu Bakr ElSeddik street without architecture style Source: Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

AFTER REVOLUTION’S ERA

Heliopolis Transformation

FACADES SKYLINE AND HIEGHTS •

Deterioration of buildings and façades.

Vertical ,horizontal & terrace extensions due to lack of inspection.

Painting the lower part of façades to remove graffiti. Horizontal extension in beirut street Source: Author

Horizontal extension in beirut street Source: Author

Painting the lower part of façades to remove graffiti. Source: Author

Legend: Beirut street

A Building with illegall floors in Harun El-Rasheed street Source: Author

Horizontal , vertical & terrace extensions Source: Author

Heliopolis map Source: Author

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

Facades transformation

Heliopolis Transformation

AL –Ahram Street

Legend:

1920

2006

Analysis Legend: New buildings

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

Facades transformation

Heliopolis Transformation

Beirut Street

Caption: Short description on the photos / comment Source: Author

1929

2006

Analysis Legend: New buildings

Ibrahim lakkany Street

1931

2011

Analysis

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

Facades transformation

Heliopolis Transformation

Intersection of Ibrahim lakkany with Al-ahram street

Caption: Short description on the photos / comment Source: Author

Use this space to add the base map + Analysis 1920

2006

Analysis

New buildings

Jamal al afghani mosque in AL-gamea sqaure

1920

Legend: Legend:

2011

Analysis

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION

Facades transformation

Heliopolis Transformation

Al-ahram Street

Caption: Short description on the photos / comment Source: Author

Use this space to add the base map + Analysis 1929

2006

Analysis

Legend: New buildings

Ibrahim lakanny street

1931

2015

Analysis Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ASPECTS

OVERVIEW

Heliopolis Transformation

MAIN EVENTS AND FEATURES

Monarchy’s Era

Abd Elnasser’s Era

Sadaat’s Era

Mubarak’s Era

After 25thJan.Revolution

(1905-1952)

(1952-1970)

(1970-1981)

(1981-2011)

(2011-now) Political aspects: Absence of governmental inspection

Source:Author

Political aspects: company owned by foreigners. Social aspects: diversity of social classes. Economic aspects: Low rate of unemployment & Strong Economy and wealth. Façade Vocabulary: -Architecture style: Mixed style between Moorish, Persian & Arabic styles. -Number of floors: (2-5) floors. -Material: Rocks were used in construction and façades.

Source:Author

Political aspects: Nationalism of foreign companies Social aspects: Decreasing the gap between social classes Economic aspects: Economic & social reform program similar to the program that emerged in the soviet union

Source:Author

Political aspects: Open door policy Social aspects: Reversing all nasser’s social policies Economic aspects: Expensive land cost

Façade Vocabulary: -Architecture style: there Façade Vocabulary: wasn’t a defined style. There wasn’t noticeable -Number of floors: (10-12) changes in this Era in floors façades form or vocabulary -Material: Concrete were . used in construction

Source:Author

Political aspects: Policies that favour the private sector Social aspects: Increased space sharing thereby to over crowded conditions Economic aspects: High inflation rate & an increase in housing prices Façade Vocabulary: -Architecture style: there wasn’t a defined style. -Number of floors: more than 10 floors -Material: Concrete were used in construction

Social aspects: Increased violence between different social classes Economic aspects: High inflammation rate Façade Vocabulary: -Architecture style: there wasn’t a defined style. -Number of floors: more than 10 floors -Material: Concrete were used in construction

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ASPECTS

OVERVIEW

Heliopolis Transformation

MAIN EVENTS AND FEATURES

Monarchy’s Era

Abd Elnasser’s Era

Sadaat’s Era

Mubarak’s Era

After 25thJan.Revolution

(1905-1952)

(1952-1970)

(1970-1981)

(1981-2011)

(2011-now)

Source:Author Source:Author

Source:Author

Source:Author

Baron Emban palace

Entrance of Haroun elrashid st. AL-Hurya mall

Heliopolis Hotel

Basilic Church

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION Heliopolis Transformation

04 COLLECTIVE URBAN TRANSFORMATION IN HELIOPOLIS DISTRICT BUILDING AND LAND USES

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


COLLECTIVE TRANSFORMATION Heliopolis Transformation

Building and land uses

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ASPECTS

OVERVIEW

Heliopolis Transformation

MAIN EVENTS AND FEATURES

MONARCHY ERA

NASSER ERA

SADAT ERA

MUBARAK ERA

CURRENT SITUATION

President Mubarak’s house was located in Heliopolis so the location became more secure.

Hosni Mubarak stepped down from being the President.

Heliopolis palace It was built in 1908 and opened in 1910. In World War I,II, British Used it as a “Hospital “ to medicate injured in.

Heliopolis palace hotel

Heliopolis palace as Hospital in world war

The palace became deserted after a period of nationalization then it was reused at the sixites as the headquarters for several government departments and ministries

In 1972 , The Government of Egypt , Syrian and Labia had merged under which Known “The Union Of Arabian Governments “and used “Heliopolis Palace “ under name “Arabism Palace “

The Military Forces became in charge of the country,then to morssi and to mansour and finally to sisi.

30 june revloution

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ASPECTS

OVERVIEW

Heliopolis Transformation

MAIN EVENTS AND FEATURES

MONARCHY ERA

NASSER ERA

SADAT ERA

MUBARAK ERA

CURRENT SITUATION

Merry Land It was a horse racing club and Baron Empain who was known as the owner of the new territory of Egypt

it was planned to be a park frequented by the public, Then Alex company rented the park , and established 3 cafeterias to serve the visitors , a lake , boats and a mini Zoo

" Merryland " Park restored and returned to its importance as a touristic place and entertainment field which needs to be cared of , then there were entrance tickets .

(open market )

In the late 1980s The middle and upper class were directed to the private clubs &the park lost its importance and gained a lower level of visitors

It is now closed and damged ,they removed all the trees and greens areas and the lake disappeared

One of Mubarak sons took care of the park trying to bring back its importance by making well- known restaurants and cafes open in the park

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ASPECTS

OVERVIEW

Heliopolis Transformation

MAIN EVENTS AND FEATURES

MONARCHY ERA

NASSER ERA

SADAT ERA

MUBARAK ERA

CURRENT SITUATION

Heliopolis club Heliopolis Sporting Club was founded in Cairo on 23 December 1910, on area 144 fedan At firstly ,this area comprised several sport courts ( Golf course 18- holes , two poles fields , two tennis courts and one cricket field ) From 1948 untill 1952 the overall area has been reduced to the present area 19 fedan

General view of the club at 1961

Children area

General view of the club at 2003

Children area Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ASPECTS

OVERVIEW

Heliopolis Transformation

MAIN EVENTS AND FEATURES

MONARCHY ERA

NASSER ERA

SADAT ERA

MUBARAK ERA

CURRENT SITUATION

Luna Park The first amusment park in the Middle East and Africa and it was opened for the visitors in 1911.

the place of the luna park is converted to a part of cinema Roxy.

On 19 January 1915, Luna Park was converted into an auxiliary hospital at for World War , the hospital was closed on 10 July 1916.

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ASPECTS

OVERVIEW

Heliopolis Transformation

MAIN EVENTS AND FEATURES

MONARCHY ERA

Elsultana Malak Mosque

NASSER ERA

SADAT ERA

MUBARAK ERA

CURRENT SITUATION

Elsultana Malak Mosque

Elsultana Malak Mosque

It was for Elsultan Hussien After the revolution , Kamel wife ,designed The palace changed by “ Alexander Marcel ” to a school in 1908

It remains school as it was from nasser era

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ASPECTS

OVERVIEW

Heliopolis Transformation

MAIN EVENTS AND FEATURES

MONARCHY ERA

NASSER ERA

SADAT ERA

MUBARAK ERA

CURRENT SITUATION

El Baroun Palace : The palace was designed by French architect Alexandre Marcel . It was built between 1907 and 1911

El Sultan Hussien : It was Opened in 1914,This Mosque Considered the first mosque in “Heliopolis”.

El Sultan Hussien : This Mosque called now “El Thawra Mosque “.

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ASPECTS

OVERVIEW

Heliopolis Transformation

MAIN EVENTS AND FEATURES

MONARCHY ERA

•

NASSER ERA

Basilica church : In 1913, Basilica is completed , Empain attend the opening

SADAT ERA

MUBARAK ERA

Basilica church : Basilica in 2006, Baroun empain street

CURRENT SITUATION

Basilica church : Basilica in 2015, Nazih 5alifa street now

Empain is buried under basilica as he wished.

Sacred Heart School: Sacred Heart School: The history of the emergence of the school dates back to 1804. but it was built in 1913 in heliopolis .

Sacred Heart School Part of the area now has become a health center and the other is still school

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University


TRACING TRANSFORMATION BY ASPECTS

OVERVIEW

Heliopolis Transformation

MAIN EVENTS AND FEATURES

MONARCHY ERA

Heliolido club :

The Heliopolis company established a swimming pool with unconditional entrance but a small amount of money.

NASSER ERA

SADAT ERA

MUBARAK ERA

CURRENT SITUATION

Heliolido club :

A group of Heliopolis residents Egyptians and foreigners thought of the construction of sports club in the place where the swimming pool and the surrounding land. And the club was called Heliolido in which Helio means the sun in ancient At the World War II in 1939, this swimming pool Greek language and Lido means the beach or was devoted to the English soldiers and army harbor, so that it officers and at the night becomes the sun and a night club too. the water Club.

Urban Planning & Design Department Ain Shams University

Profile for Yehya Serag

Heliopolis transformation compiled  

This is an analytical study on the urban transformation of the District of Heliopolis over 110 years. The study was made by the final years...

Heliopolis transformation compiled  

This is an analytical study on the urban transformation of the District of Heliopolis over 110 years. The study was made by the final years...

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