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TAN YEE YIN (560654)


PART A: CONCEPTUALISATION A1. DESIGN FUTURING 3-8 A2. DESIGN COMPUTATION 9-14 A3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION 15-20 A4. CONCLUSION 21 A5. LEARNING OUTCOMES 22 A6. APPENDIX 23

PART B: CRITERIA D B1. RESEARCH FIELD 25-26 B2. CASE STUDY 1.0 27-34 B3. CASE STUDY 2.0 35-37

B4. TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPM

B5. TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYP B6. TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

B7. LEARNING OBJECTIVES A B8. APPENDIX 76-77


DESIGN

MENT 38-45

PE 46-55 56-73

PART C: DETAILED DESIGN C1. DESIGN CONCEPT 78-103 C2. TECTONIC ELEMENTS 104-129

AND OUTCOMES 74-75

C3. FINAL MODEL 130-145 C4. ;AGI BRIEF 146-151 C5. LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES 152 C6 APPENDIX 153-154


A.0. Introduction Hi everyones! I’m Yee Yin, Tan, 3rd Year in Bachelor of Environments, Majoring in Architecture, The University of Melbourne

“16 years ago, I was just a kid who always follows my dad’s footsteps. I used to unfold the recycled boxes and start drawing on it to get rid of the boredom of waiting. whilst my dad was busying with his stuff.” That was the starting point of my painting life. Improving from using colour pencil, crayon to water colour, and now, digital programming had become a must tool in my designing. In the beginning of my university life, architecture was a total new thing that I could barely know from where should I start with. Time flies as now it turns to be my third year in Architecture Faculty. From the past two years, I was exposed to digital programming tools, construction studies, model-making and etc. Not only that, I also practice my critical thinking as well as presentation skill. Virtual Environments was the subject which I first get to know about Rhinoceros. It was definitely an interesting subject that we were asked to produce a wearable lantern by using the panelling tool in Rhinoceros.

Later, I further brushed up my skill in Rhinoceros during my short intern back in Malaysia. I realised that Rhinoceros is a useful NURBS-based-3D modelling software which manage to provide us the accurate measurements that is crucial when comes to physical modelling. With the enhancement by Grasshopper, designers can efficiently design whatever they would like to. In Air Studio, a range of explorations with the use of Grasshopper is just begins!

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A.1. .21Introduction Design Computation

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his is the project I did for my Water Studio. It is a boathouse locates next to the Yarra River. In this studio, I have to refer to the master architect, Herzog and De Meuron. I empasize on the walking ramp on the top of the building, which creates extra space for users to hang out as well as provides greater view beyonds Yarra River. I focused on tha materiality and the envelope of my building. A transition of light would be experience by the users in my building. The shading effects would bring a under seabed atmosphere in the restaurant.

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Sustainability is now a buzzword both among professionals and scholars. How-

ever, though climate change and resource depletion are now widely recognized by business as major challenges, and while new practices like “green design� have emerged, efforts towards change remain weak and fragmented.[3]

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Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Introduction, ( New York: Berg, 2009), pp. 2. Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Introduction, ( New York: Berg, 2009), pp. 5. 3 Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Book Description, ( New York: Berg, 2009).. 2

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A.1. .21Design DesignFuturing Computation

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ow is the future being understood? And what is meant by design? This is not a ‘how to’ question, but in fact, it requires a clear sense of what design needs to be mobilized for or against. [21 From the past until now, design brought many creations for the ease of human being. People design a city in such a way they would want to live in; people design useful tools to overcome their limitations. However, when we gain something we tend to lose something. Defuturing is the severe issue due to the destructions and exploitations for these designed creations. And now, design for sustainment becomes the mutual objective for designers to ensure a sustainable future, in other word, we could claim ourselves as environmental activists as well. Advanced technology improvements indeed bringing us to a better living quality compared to the old days. Despite of this, it led to the privatized trend of life whereas people tend to obtained privately many things that were once only available by sharing. This is in fact an unsustainable practice since the amount of Earth could give is never sufficient for every single person on this world. Moreover, it is the design for consumption in which we as humans are too relying on technology in order to get what we want far exceeding what we need instead. Hence, a redirective approach in designing is a must to shift the technology creation purpose from consumption to the one for sustainment, as what Design as Politics project aimed for.[2]

Design can be said as an innate ability, which makes human unique. In this matter, design democracy as in Hester’s proposal is definitely a good move to engage with multiple views in reaching a best trade-off solution for sustainment.

However, quality is always the priority regardless of quantity. With today’s advanced technology, heaps of easy accessible creative software such as Grasshopper, Rhinoceros, Autocad and etc are bringing the Everyones-Can-Design trend to the community. This ‘bottom up’ approach in computational design somehow led to designs that having forms without content. Thus, design intelligence is paramount in design democracy to ensure a useful design is developed rather than just the fancy form explored from the algorithmic practice. To get people out of the defuturing comfort zone, a discovery of new sustainable living pattern needs the assistance of design intelligence, which manage to redirect the community to betterment.

Sustainment is the acceptance of plurality within one unified goal, a meta-diverse end which he identifies as fundamentally changing our behaviour in order to avoid defutured world.[3] Similar to Fry’s thesis, in the LAGI competition, it encourages people to design a sculptural form that can function as both renewable energy generator as well as tourist attraction. It invites interdisciplinary teams from around the world to present their ideas for what infrastructure art of sustainable city looks like. To ensure the quality of the outcomes, a list of criteria had been set as the reference for the jury. This shows how the quality of interdisciplinary design is being maintained with the set of restrictions. Lacking of ecological literacy made us become less sensible to the natural factors in urban design. According to Hester, it would be a benefit if the city is capitalized on their regional characteristics. A wise use of natural resources, with the principle of maximise the effect from a minimal source would definitely guarantee a continuous supply in the future. Often, as designers, smart use of appropriate resource is indeed important. With the smart use of natural renewable resources available at the site, it would be getting closer to the target for Copenhagen to become the first carbon neutral capital by 2025.

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‘Given the fragile nature of the site, we decided to focus on the

air as well as create ground structures that could float in between the network of engineered system and highlight the dramatic topography of the landfill/estuary.’[4] 5 4

Land Art Generator Initiative, Sock Farm(2012), < http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/SOC26010/> [accessed 25 MARCH 2014]


A.1. .21Design DesignFuturing Computation

SOCK FARM

NANDINI BAGCHEE, ARTUR DABROWSKI & ANDREW SWINGLER

Iwindn thisbasedproject, in relation to the topography, solar and energy parks are planned along the east and

west slopes through its north-south ridge. For the first part, there would be a series of large greenhouses which called “Fresh Houses” that enclosed in a semi-transparent PV glass structure. On the second part, it consists of wind harvesting Glider kites that move up to a great distance to generate adequate energy. The energy generated will be consumed to power the installation of the tandem sock kites and Fresh Houses. Tethered to these main kites, are the smaller ‘sock’ kites that generate a moving, pulsating canopy on the banks of Main Creek. It acts as a moniker of the wind and the sun as it traces the changing shadows throughout the day. The principle of maximise the effect from a minimal resource have been applied in this design concept. The use of both solar and wind based energy generators in respective to the locations can ensure sufficient energy generated from these renewable resources throughout the year. During winter, although there is less solar energy being captured, but it could be traded-off with the wind energy. Besides, the design also introduces a complementary indoor produce farm on this site to supply food source to the neighbourhood. Greenhouse farming has the potential to attract users by exposing them to the greenhouse planting system.

However, greenhouse farming also requires electrical furnaces whenever supplementary heating is needed to grow the plants. The greenhouse covering could not be insulated well since it needs to allow light to filter into the structure, hence, supplementary heating spent to continually replace the heat lost. Thus, certain amount of energy generated from the renewable resources would be used up to supply electricity to the farm. In addition, for the super kite, albeit it could reach up to a 1000 feet in altitude, however, there is energy loss when it is reeled back by the tether. Hence, in this design, the net-gain energy is largely reduced after the energy loss as well as being used up to power the mobile sculpture of the tandem kites and to run the green houses as well. The unique kinetic airborne canopy could be a trademark of the site but somehow there is a waste of useful energy to power it rather supply to the neighbourhood.

A multifunctional project likes Sock Farm can be a good precedence for the green project at Copenhagen, which rather than only respond to the requirement in the brief, we can do something extra like the green house. Somehow, when doing this, we have to consider the consequences of the design to the environment.

This project would transform the New York City to a new green reality. The use of renewable resources to supply electricity can compensate the part of the carbon emissions produced by the population. Not only that, greenhouse gases can be absorbed by the vegetation in the Fresh Houses.

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‘At this tender young age, between telling everyone how big wind energy

would soon be, to the doubt of “smart people” like, for example, my Yaleeducated engineer father, I also saw that the laddermill was a drag machine, that drag-based turbine were the less efficient, therefore the “laddermill” needed to be changed to a lift-based machine - the sky serpent!’[6] 7 6

Selsam and its Awe (2006), < http://www.energykitesystems.net/0/Selsam/> [accessed 15MARCH 2014]


A.1. .21Design DesignFuturing Computation

SELSAM SUPERTURBINE DOUG SELSAM

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his device is equipped with multiple small rotors along its shaft. They all rotate in synchronicity, with the exhaust of the upper rotors helping to drive the ones below it. These rotors act as gyroscopes or spinning tops that stabilizing the driveshaft where they are attached.[5] Doug Selsam invented a high altitude wind generator called the Sky Serpent. The goal is to eventually tap into high winds in the jet stream and generate enough low-cost electricity to supply the increasing demands of the world. Back to traditional windmill, the installation requires a huge space and this becomes restricted due to the overpopulation around the world. The creation of this kind of kite or balloon windmill led to a new chapter in the renewable energy designs. Selsam Superturbine gets rid of any components that do not contribute directly to the generation of power. At its heart is a very long, flexible drive shaft, mounted on a housing with a versatile universal joint and designed to bend and twist at multiple angles to shift along with prevailing winds. Furthermore, this tubine is flexible to the energy productivity as the amount of energy could be increased even more by adding a dirigible anchored to the upper end of the turbineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s spine. Once anchored, the entire shaft can freely rotate, adding its own motion to the rotors and allowing even greater power generation. This intelligent design not only serve for wind energy but also solar. The blimp itself could be covered over with solar cells. It

However, this superturbine is yet to be constructed. Whether they do equally well with full-scale turbines still could not be guaranteed although some smaller test models had been made.Even if it could be built, but still these devices will cause safety threats to ships, boats, and wildlife who wander too close, especially in unpredictable conditions due to the swaying with the wind.

For the Copenhagen project, such an innovative design can be a good inspiration. Albeit the given space of the site is limited, but with the creative invention likes this superturbine would definitely reduce the need of large space in order to produce adequate energy. This can be sustainable, as in the future, a tremendous population growth of 100,000 towards 2025 is being forecasted for this city. This indicates more empty spaces are needed for inhabitants.

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Selsam and its Awe (2006), < http://www.energykitesystems.net/0/Selsam/> [accessed 15MARCH 2014] Selsam and its Awe (2006), < http://www.energykitesystems.net/0/


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Oxford Dictionaries (2014), < http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/> [accessed 27 MARCH 2014] 9 Performative Architecture (2014), < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Performative_architecture> [accessed 27 MARCH 2014] 9 Rivka Oxman andRobert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture:INtroduction, ( London and New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group), pp. 6. 10 Rivka Oxman andRobert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture:INtroduction, ( London and New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group), pp. 3. 8


A

rchitecture, according to Oxford Dictionaries, it defines as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;the art and study of designing buildings.â&#x20AC;&#x2122;[7]Performative architecture allows the use of digital technologies to challenge the way built environment is designed.[8] The engagement created by designers, engineers, planners, and other related professions create a platform for the creative designs to be built in reality. This trend opens an opportunity for digital architecture to being one of the redirective approaches in leading the community to a sustainable future with their designs. In the past, traditional architecture and designs are sourced from the analysis as well as by the constraints imposed. Thus, limited ideas are able to be produced. Today, the use of computing system in designing process creates more possible outcomes as in virtual world; it allows more imaginations to occur. However, there are also some designers who misuse the technology by simply generate designs from the algorithmic process without critically thinking about the content. This will results in the form created with only aesthetical value rather than functionality. Thus, design thinking always important in computation approach to ensure a qualitative control over the outcomes.

Design computation never reaches its permanent state, it never stop exploring any new possibilities to overcome its restriction as a programming tool. Nowadays, architecture could hardly stand alone without computer. From design process to the production; from the form generation to the fabrication, this man-machine relationship becomes the medium that support design thinking and making.

Apparently, digital materiality and fabrication become a trend in designing. The concept of digital materiality brings a new chapter of digital tectonics in design. With the use of computer, the way we perceive materiality with object is unlike the traditional way. Rather than previously manipulated static forms, designers now can play with geometric flows, which the surface the volumetric deformations that can be explored with computer tools. The performative design of material systems becomes an integral part of the digital architecture. It is the computational modelling of natural principles of performative design of material systems that we can potentially create a second nature, or a sounder architecture with respect to material ecology.[9] Some people accuse that design computation is unrealistic as it allows too much freedoms in designing even though some of these virtual designs could never be built in reality. Somehow, an architectural design is indeed a virtual object. There is no architectural design without some margin of indeterminacy that allows different paths to be followed.[10] In order to allow the virtual world closer to the reality, the invention of software such as Grasshopper creates a set of rules that not only considers the aesthetical value of the design but also the rationality of making it real. Computational design, although it is capable of a high level of generative variability, there are still modes of operation and preferences that constrain the designer. In this case, constraints are good to designs to ensure the outcome is logical in term of construction.

This understanding in computing is playing a role to practice digital design thinking in the project at Copenhagen. A performative sculpture that performs both aesthetical value as well as sustainable feature would be a future trademark for Copenhagen as a green city.

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A.2. A.2.Design DesignComputation Computation

Some people would say technology is slowly concurring the human as in we tend to be digitally dependent rather than applying design thinking when comes to the design ideas. Today, this could be untrue since design becomes the thinking of architectural generation through the logic of algorithm. Scripting of set of rules with the control on parameters need logical thinking to relate the objects with their parts-and-whole relationships. As the advanced technologies continually developing, designers could even explore the geometries in a micro scale. In architecture field, the context of envelopes now is becoming more interesting with the ability of producing prefabricated materials in a micro scale.


Complex architectural and engineering challenges of turning a simple idea-solidifying the motion of a cartwheeling aircraft, into a vast kit-of-parts jigsaw puzzle for Richard Wilson’s new sculpture at Heathrow Airport.

‘People move – Architecture stops. People desire – space

defines. The designer as spatial programmer collects movements and desires and releases them into the conception of building.’[11]

-Ben Anderson 11

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Performative Architecture (2014), < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Performative_architecture> [accessed 27 MARCH 2014]


A.2. A.2.Design DesignComputation Futuring

SLIPSTREAM TERMINAL 2 HEATHROW AIRPORT RICHARD WILSON

This challenging project is done with the creative use of computing techniques. A series of computation pro-

cesses were being carried out to produce this unique form and translating it into a buildable kit-of-parts for rapid assembly. These include a novel combination of film animation software, aerospace design tools and scripting. In Slipstream’s design, cutting-edge computer programming technology, a popular technology in aerospace industry is used. It can accurately translate the volume of an aircraft’s movement through space. However, in order to transform this unique sculpture from the virtual world into the reality, many millions of operations had been running through by the generation of parametric modelling together with complex custom script.

Here is the contradiction between rationality and creativity. The generation of the sculpture from the source motion is beautiful, however, for it to be constructed is highly irrational. This is because each point on the Slipstream sculpture are differed and always markedly from every other. Trials followed by trials, a synthetic solution mentioned before made it possible to develop an integrated model of more than 30,000 unique pieces! In order to present the visual design, there is usually a sufficient space to locate the structure to support the envelope of a building. For Slipstream, a three-way iterative design process which finally came out with a satisfied form after 48 version of trying.

The main support of this sculpture is the 76-metre steel skeleton, a series of plywood spars are linking the OSB bulkheads on the skeleton to set out the complex surface of the Slipstream. Onto the upper layer of ply is scribed the settingout pattern for the aluminium panels which the sculpture’s instructions were printed upon its surface. Scripts generated the plywood skin components and the aluminium panels and also dealt with input pieces that displayed a high degree of variance in shape and size. In this case, computation does not only aid in virtual modelling but this digital fabrication also help to build the masterpiece in real world. The creation of Slipstream shows how a creative use of a range of computation technologies end up with such a remarkable sculpture in reality. Without the aid of Grasshopper, it is impossible for me to produce a parametric sculptural design. However, in order to transform the digital design into real model, Rhinoceros is playing an important role with the unrolling surface tool. This technique is quite similar to Slipstream, which many pieces of two dimensional surfaces build up together to form a three dimensional object of complicating curving. The structural system of Slipstream have given me a great idea on how to build up my design in the future by considering extra space for the supporting structure to be accommodated. Furthermore, the principal design of motion inspired me to think of using the abstract wind movement as part of my design ideas.

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‘The Helix is truly an engineering marvel. While the structure

is incredibly delicate and intricate, it’s been engineered to support more than 10,000 people at a time. The Helix is the first example of this structural solution applied to a bridge – there is nothing else like it.’[15] -Dr See Lin Ming, Arup project leader 13

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ARUP, The Helix (2014), < http://www.arup.com/projects/helix_bridge.aspx> [accessed 27 MARCH 2014]


A.2. Design Computation

THE HELIX BRIDGE, SINGAPORE COX ARCHITECTURE, ARCHITECTS 61 & ARUP

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he Helix Bridge provides a pedestrian pathway across the head of the Singapore River between the city’s existing CBD and its new Bayfront district.[12] It becomes a symbolic of Singapore’s goal as Asia’s ‘connected city’. During night time, the DNA-inspired design will be emphasized through a series of dynamic multi-coloured LED lights installed on the helix structures. From the plan view, the bridge is in an arc shape arrives fluidly into foreshore promenades on each side. The principal concept of the bridge is the lightweight double helix structure, which is contrasting to the heavy vehicular bridge next to it. The canopy formed from the double helix structure in integrated as segmented glass panels and perforated steel, which makes it different from other bridge structures. This structural typology generates an interesting feeling of moving along the journey. The bridge design is a multidisciplinary product of collaboration between architect (Cox Rayner/Architects 61) and engineer Arup. The concept is developed in 3D using the Arup software. Using Arup’s own 3D software, Oasys to explore possible solutions, a method of successfully linking the two helices was found.[13] The structural design software enables the form-finding and fabric analysis in order to solve structural problems such as tensile strength, right shape to resist applied loads or cope with non-linear fabric materials. Other than that, Oasys’ crowd simulation software enables users to develop custom analysis based on spatial, temporal, operational and personal characteristics of people and their environment.[14] Since The Helix Bridge needs to afford living loads of the passers-by, this software is definitely could be used as reference in the design process. These invented software allows the designers to set constrains onto the design so that can focus upon smaller scope of research.

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The Helix Bridge is the first bridge in the world that incorporates the helix structural solution. It is engineered to support more than 10,000 people at a time with the idea of two delicate helix structures act together as a tubular truss. The interesting way of connecting the two separate spiralling steel members is by holding them together with a series of delicate connecting rods to form a rigid tubular structure, which wrapping around each other in opposite direction and one inside the other. A sustainable design approach has been used with the five times less steel than a conventional box girder bridge, and the frame can support the pedestrian deck, shade canopies as well as light fixtures without the need of another sub-structure. This ends up with an attractive functional design that using minimal resources. This inspires me to focus on sustainable construction to be applied in my sculpture design with as less as possible of the material used.

In this project, design computation assists the analysis stage of the design process by collecting the crowd simulation data as well as determines the best solution for the structure to be built in reality. Hence, the development in computation is no longer restricted in the virtual world, but manages to relate the design to real world.

ArchDaily, Helix Bridge/ COx Architect with Architects 61 (2012), < http://www.archdaily.com/185400/helix-bridge-cox-architecture-with-architects-61/ > [accessed 27 MARCH 2014] ARUP, The Helix (2014), < http://www.arup.com/projects/helix_bridge.aspx> [accessed 27 MARCH 2014] Oasys, MassMotion , < http://www.oasys-software.com/products/engineering/massmotion.html > [accessed 27 MARCH 2014]

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C omputation is defined as ‘ the processing of information and interactions between elements which constitute

a specific environment; it provides a framework for negotiating and influencing the interrelation of datasets with the capacity to generate complex order, form and structure. [11] From this definition, it refers to the use of computer to process information through algorithm. This later allows exploration of new ideas with the control over parameters and changes made throughout the process. The flexibility of algorithm allows the design to accommodate any changes in parameters effectively. Computational designers tend to generate and explore architectural concepts through modification in algorithms that relate to the respective element. In generative design, it does not simply transform what we can design but having a huge impact on how we build. From a simple cube, it can turn into a variety of different creative geometrical outcomes after went through different explorations. Today, the parametric families of components and the control of data are playing important roles in computational approach to convert the compositional geometry to a generative product. A generative approach designs the process, but not the form. Designer decides where to make the change, how it being made with the ratio set. Hence, the end product contains the ‘story’ of its origin through the algorithm.

Design can be said as an innate ability, which makes human unique. In this matter, design democracy as in Hester’s proposal is definitely a good move to engage with multiple views in reaching a best trade-off solution for sustainment.

Nevertheless, algorithm, which is a front-end analysis needs a clear set of rules in order to run the process in computer. This can be a challenging part for setting a correct input. Sometimes we not sure whether or not the information provided is enough to guess the algorithms. If the points were drawn on a blackboard, we must probably have no problem in sketching their convex hull. However, if it needs us to locate the points in order to form a certain shape, it would require an understanding on how to make it and have a great imagination to figure out the point locations before draw them on the blackboard. This is why most people found algorithm is hard to practice. We need to have a clear image of what we want and how we could make it in order to carry out this task. By imagine what the outcome might be at the end, we can decide the input of the algorithm and most of the time, the outcome is not exactly what we aim for, which there are always unexpected possibilities gained at the end of the stage. What does it mean to be a good algorithm? It’s hard to know when the algorithm is complete and it is good enough that we should stop exploring. Similar to designing, it is crucial for the designers to know when to stop design. Algorithmic practice allows us to keep evaluating the output of each step and if the next stage is giving negative impact on design, we could always back to the previous step.

Parametric modelling would be the main tool for us to run the project of Copenhagen site. Varies from the ordinary design pathway, learning the algorithmic process allows us to practice the digital design thinking as well as the ‘bottom-up’ approach as another alternative for design futuring.

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A.3. Composition/Generation

Architecture is currently experiencing a shift from the drawing to the algorithm as the method of capturing and communicating designs.[12] Algorithmic concept allows architects to capture the complexity of how to build a project as well as providing clear information about the parameters that lead to the form formation. This is important since a good design always gone through repetitive experiments and evaluation stages. Algorithm allows architects to easily retrieve back the procedure. Hence, the responsiveness of computational simulation tool allows architects to explore and analyse new decisions during the design process.


‘I’m very interested in probing the human body as a bio-dy-

namic model that can give us new ways of thinking about issues of performance and adaptation at an architectural scale.’[17]

-Jenny Sabin

17 17 Jenny Sabin Studio, MyThread Pavilion (2014), < http://jennysabin.com/?p=684> [accessed 27 MARCH 2014]


A.3. Composition/Generation

MYTHREAD PAVILION JENNY SABIN

This is an architecture built for the International Nike Flyknit Collective that housed at Nike Sportwear’s own Bowery Stadium in New York.

How do you knit and braid a building? Could a building be as lightweight as air? How can sport influence both design and fabrication and inspire the next generation of buildings? What if we could form-fit and enhance architecture with bio-architecture and performance of our own bodies?[16]It’s inspiring with the way Sabin think about architecture. Rather than construct a solid rigid building, she thought of ‘knitting’ a building. In this design, Sabin links biology, art and technology together. Body motion was being analysed with the use of Nike + FuelBand technology to collect motion data from group of runners. She later transformed the patterns of this biological data into the geometry and material. With the reference of the dynamic body data, the surface patterns are generated via the parametric tools in design computation. From a single unit of thread, it turns into a building block for structures of great complexity.

With the multidisciplinary knowledge of science, art and technology, Sabin explores the relationship of the body to technology as well as structure, which later turn out to be a complex formfitting structure on a performance-enhancing shoe that made up of simple threads.

MyThread Pavilion made up of harder outer construction and softer, organic inner material. This pavilion employs the generative approach from a single thread to a complex pavilion made up of groups of adaptive knitted, solar active, reflective photo luminescent threads and a steel cable net holding hundreds of aluminium rings. The inner structure of soft textile which made up of whole garment knit elements is reactive to the presence of people as well as lighting. It absorbs, collects and delivers light whenever the materials react to the presence of people. Both response to sunlight and physical interaction is part of Sabin’s approach to enhance the performance and sustainability that Nike Flyknit addressed. This is definitely an interesting design in which it brings life to it. The intelligence act of relating bio architecture to the digital architecture leads to the formation of this creative pavilion. With the use of algorithm process in a repetitive way to this parametric model, it creates this network of reactive threads. This new form creates its own environment, its own community and its own energy with the installation of such sensitive and flexible materials as the cover.

MyThread Pavilion could be a great precedence with its relationship of motion and biology with architecture. The stimulation based on human responsiveness can be a creative feature of the design but without people surrounds, it could be nothing.

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Jenny Sabin Studio, MyThread Pavilion (2014), < http://jennysabin.com/?p=684> [accessed 27 MARCH 2014]


‘No person could draft them by hand, but they’re buildable — and they could revolutionize the way we think of architectural form.’[19]

-Michael Hansmeyer

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Building Unimaginable Shapes,dir. Michael Hansmeyer, (TED Talk, 2012)


A.3. Composition/Generation

HANSMEYERâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S COLUMNS MICHAEL HANSMEYER

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he Subdivided Columns is a project involving the concept and design of a new column based on subdivision processes.[18] An abstracted doric column is used as an input to begin the subdivision processes. This input conveys significant information of topography and topology in regarding to the form to be generated. With the data input provided, this parametric modelling could be generated through algorithms. Along the process, repetitive actions and changes are being made by exerting controllers such as ratio in order to form a New Order Column. This algorithmic process is not a random process, which means there are rules established in order to be efficient. Effectively, the architect designs a process that produces a column, rather than designs a column itself directly. With the use of different parameters, this process can be repeatedly running to create permutations of columns, which later combined to form a new column.

Unlike traditional design processes, the single subidivison process generates the form at multiple scales: from the overall proportions and curvatures, to smaller local surface formations, down to the formation of a micro-structure. More features would be discovered as getting closer to the form. Algorithms allow the additive method which results in a series of columns that contains both local condition as well as an overall coherency and continuity . In architecture, sometimes, we have to roughly figure what we want at the end of the stage. With the finite input, a planned set of rules could be commanded. At the end, the outcomes would not be exactly the same, after gone through some other possibilities along the algorithmic process.

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The complexity of column contrasts with the simplicity of its generative process. At the initial prototype fabrication stage, a full-scale of 2.7meter-column was fabricated form a 2D surface of 1mm sheet to form a 3D model. This is definitely labour intensive, which the overall process only needs few seconds to be produced digitally, but it requires days for this columns to be built in reality. Hence, it would be more efficient to be printed with 3D printing technology, which is less time-consuming for the assembly. Sand-printing technology could overcome the limitations such as small-scale and low material costs. It fabricates elements with high resolution and accuracy in a short period of time, which can fully self-supporting as a solid construction.

There is a paradigm shift in making and fabricating in architecture. Computational design thinking through digital tooling and material manifestation is being practiced recently by designers. From a simple cube, algorithmic practice in grasshopper allows possibilities in converting it into a complex façade as shown in the lecture. By referring to a set of database in regarding to the site context, we can manipulating the changing variables in order to produce various possible outcomes, which later can be traded-off to come out with the final satisfied solution. The idea of micro-scale fabrication is quite unique, which itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s slowly becomes a new trend in the contemporary architecture.

Michael Hansmeyer Computational Architecture, Michael Hansmeyer-Subdivided Columns, < http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/projects/columns_info.html?screenSize=1&color=1> [accessed 26 MARCH 2014]

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A.4. Conclusion

D

esign for futuring needs a critical design thinking about development for sustainment and how human behaviour acts upon it. The advanced technologies in architectural design allow a shift from virtual to a position of hybridity with the actual. The emergence of digital architecture proven that computation no longer just for representation purpose, but also practice design thinking digitally, as well as actively explore in prefabrication and materiality. For instance, parametric modelling becomes a popular computational tool which contains a set of data to be manipulated in order to get different possible design outcomes. The generated design outcome usually originated from a simple geometry which later went through a series of algorithmic process. What is my rough design ideas? Sustainability would be the main concern on my design. I would always consider the trade-off effect of my construction to the sustainment. Maximising the strength of my sculpture design with the minimal use of material could be my goal in this project. It will make no difference if we use unsustainable method to build the so-called green project. Thus, I want to minimise the harms caused by the construction of my project to the environment. Other than just functions as a renewable energy generator, I prefer to make my sculpture to be useful in other ways as well, which will give benefits to the users. In brief, not only the aesthetical value that I concern about, but also its impact on the environment and the community. I want it to make a change to the local community. What is my design approach? To do so, computation tool can be employed in design process. Algorithmic process in the parametric modelling will allows me to keep on track with my design process development and explore new possibilities in the parametric tooling. Keep making changes throughout the process and later compare and contrast the several outcomes. Finally, this will end up with the best-suited solution for the project. Meanwhile, along the process, I will make some experiments with simple prototypes.

21


A.5. Learning Outcomes

‘A

fter gone through the readings and lectures, my thinking about computation has shifted from negative to positive. Before this, I always think that digital tool is nothing but simply to represent our ideas in a clearer way. It is just an ‘accessories’ to make my design look better and more presentable. However, now I realised this is not true. Design computation is still in its infancy, which more and more exploration that continually being developed to make the virtual world closer to the reality. It could assist us in exploring new possibilities. The algorithms in computation require the design thinking in order to set the rules as the command for the computer to do its work. Inspired by the work of Michael Hansmeyer, he showed how powerful is the digital tool to do something that we could not get it done with hand. The micro-scale of the details could be produced by computation within a short time but it seems to be an impossible task to build by hands. This understanding allows me to start appreciate what computation could contribute in my design. Back to the past lantern design in Virtual Environments, I would practice Grasshopper tool in the digital modelling so that I could explore more possibilities to best fit my principal design.’

22


BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Land Art Generator Initiative, Sock Farm(2012), < http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/SOC26010/> [accessed 25 MARCH 2014] 2. Selsam and its Awe (2006), < http://www.energykitesystems.net/0/Selsam/> [accessed 15MARCH 2014] 3. Oxford Dictionaries (2014), < http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/> [accessed 27 MARCH 2014] 4. Performative Architecture (2014), < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Performative_architecture> [accessed 27 MARCH 2014] 5. Rivka Oxman andRobert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture:Introduction, (London and New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group), pp. 1-8. 6. Ralph Parker and Tim Lucas, ‘Slipstream Terminal 2 Heathrow Airport’, Tripping the Flight Fantastic, 75-81. 7. Emily, Writings and Musings: Artist Richard Wilson’s New Installation Takes Off at Heathrow (2012), < http://www.emilysack.com/2012_10_01_archive.html> [accessed 20 MARCH 2014] 8. Lucy Siegle , ‘Giant vapour trail sculpture takes shape at Heathrow ‘, BBC News England, 21 September 2013. 9. ARUP, The Helix (2014), < http://www.arup.com/projects/helix_bridge.aspx> [accessed 27 MARCH 2014] 10. ArchDaily, Helix Bridge/ COx Architect with Architects 61 (2012), < http://www.archdaily.com/185400/helix-bridge-cox-architecture-with-architects-61/ > [accessed 27 MARCH 2014] 11. ARUP, The Helix (2014), < http://www.arup.com/projects/helix_bridge.aspx> [accessed 27 MARCH 2014] 12. Oasys, MassMotion , < http://www.oasys-software.com/products/engineering/massmotion.html > [accessed 27 MARCH 2014] 13. Jenny Sabin Studio, MyThread Pavilion (2014), < http://jennysabin.com/?p=684> [accessed 27 MARCH 2014] 14. Marija Bojovic, ‘Knitting A Building: My Thread Pavilion for Nike’, Evob, 9 Nov 2013, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/knitting-a-building-my-thread-pavilion-for-nike/> [accessed 27 MARCH 2014] 15. Building Unimaginable Shapes,dir. Michael Hansmeyer, (TED Talk, 2012). 16. Michael Hansmeyer Computational Architecture, Michael Hansmeyer-Subdivided Columns, < http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/projects/columns_info.html?screenSize=1&color=1> [accessed 26 MARCH 2014] 17. Sally B. Woodbridge, ‘Book Review: Design for Ecological Democracy’, review of Design for Ecological Democracy, by Ran dolph T. Hester, < http://designbythebay.com/ecological-democracy/> [accessed 20 MARCH 2014] 18. Christina Care, ‘Design Futuring: A Look at Computational Design’, Atoms Meet Dream, 16 Dec 2013, < http://atommeetsdream.com/monday-marvels-4-christmas-coming/> [accessed 20 MARCH 2014]

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studio air journal TAN YEE YIN (560654)


1

4

5

2

Montreal Biosphere: The other example has shown that how a geometrical form speaks for its architecture. This huge geodesic dome is constructed with simply repetitive frame of steel pipes enclosing some acrylic panels. The transparent skin of the pavilion allows the inner structure of the building to be seen from outside. Moreover, this huge spherical form would transform into a sparkling jewel that dominating the landscape during the night. This form reminds me o how important is a basic geometry of my sculpture could be in order to be outstanding at the flat undisturbed surface.

San Gennaro North Gate by SOFTlab : An interesting piece that operates quite similar to LAVA -Green Void, with the flexible fabric as the material. In addition, this design has the unique repetitive patterning on the fabric with the different colours that further enhance the design.

Australian Wildlife Health Centre at Healesville Wildlife Sanctuary: The idea of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;form follows functionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is applied. The space is organized in such a way to enhance the view of visitors to the animals. The magnificent central space allows visitors to witness series of activities about the animals whilst the roof form is also designed in a descending way to floor level in order to enclose the central space in which enable visitors to view the multimedia effects onto the its surface.

6

7

Canton Tower by Information Based Architecture: It is simply generated by two ellipses, one at foundation level and the other at a horizontal plane at 450 metres, which produced a tightening effect by the rotation between two of them. The slenderness appearance is formed by the positioning of straight vertical structures in angle to each other.

25

1 ArchD < http


o of

By looking at the precedent projects, we found out that simply playing with geometries could come out with different approaches of the structures that form it, the materials used and decide on how the spatial relationship to be emphasized. It seems to be served as the very first conceptual idea for designers in order to further proceed their designing ideas. In our concern about the parametric modelling, experiments in regrading to the relationships between the very basic inputs such as curves, lines and points could result in many interesting geometrical outcomes. With the preferred form, we could later decide on the choice of materials used, whether we want it to be flexible, responsive or rigid. Structure always to be the concern for designers when it comes to the decision-making phase of what material to be used. Rigid materials such as brick can act as the structure itself but if flexible and soft materials like fabric, an additional structure is needed to support them. However, with the existing form, it would restrict the exploration of materials and structures since they have to be designed in such a way that to form the geometry we want. Fabrication would be a hard task when it comes to irregular forms. Nevertheless, none a design can perform best of all the aspects, it just depends on which aspect you would like to emphasize on and enhance them with the other aspects. For our group, we would like to highlight the spatial experience of the users in our sculpture and hence, geometry is the research stream that we want to focus on. Geometry provides a fundamental form for architecture. From a single line til the pattern of wall allocation, all are relating to the geometries. The spatial quality that can be derived from the use of dynamic geometrical form of the sculpture. This could not only produce a sensational effect to the users but also allow a control of wind flow throughout the sculpture. The design site is locating at a happening place, which surrounded by buildings such as theatre, music recording studio and etc. In addition, the Copenhagen Opera House is made up of simple rigid geometrical form with light coloured façade. Thus, in order to allow the sculpture to be outstanding whilst standing next to this massive attention catcher, it has to show a contrast to it, with its dynamic form covered up by unique façade.

Daily, GreenVoid-LAVA/ Chris Bosses, Tobias Wallisser & Alexander Rieck (2013), p://www.archdaily.com/10233/green-void-lava/> [accessed 28 APRIL2014]

Unlike conventional technology which we have to do heaps of copy and paste command in order to edit a small part of our design, with the use of parametric tool likes Grasshopper, it enables us to do a lot of testing and changes that are not permanent, so that we can easily retrieve back the original form by the algorithmic process. In addition, with some plug-ins such as Weaverbird and Kangaroo, it further enhances the geometrical form such as the use of relaxing command in Kangaroo. This applied in the LAVA-Green Void design, which performs a dynamic outcome that is eye-catching.

LAVA-Green Void: This sculpture is inspired by the relationship between MAN, NATURE and TECHNOLOGY. The key visions of the design are focusing on sensual, green and digital. With the intelligent digital thinking, LAVA-Green Void managed to be produced with the fabricated 2D surfaces, which later being connected to form a whole sculpture. This concept of detail as a whole allows a transformation from an emphasis of a single unit to a ‘whole’ pattern of geometrical form that we want by multiplying the single unit. This simple green sculpture mainly focuses on its geometry. With the idea of MORE IS LESS, this sculpture uses the minimal surface to occupy the large area of the atrium of Sydney Customs House, which spanning across the five levels of the building. There is no attractive patterning on the surface, but only the lightweight fabric design that follows the natural lines and surface tension of the fabric. Similar to my previous precedence of the Mythread Pavilion, they both are considered as sustainable sculpture with the least use of structural components by mostly relying on the tensional forces of the fabrics. Not only that, they are portable and could be dismantled in order to relocate at other places. In term of visualisation effect, LAVA-Green Void shows the contrast to the Sydney Customs House, from the historical features of the building to a digital component; from a building locating at the heart centre of the city to the so-called ‘green forest’. The green colour sculpture manages to grab the attention of the users with the contrasting white colour of the interior of this building. “We wanted to see how far we could take the idea of creating more space with less material, filling 3000 cubic meters, the equivalent of 8 million cola cans, with a minimal surface of 300 square meters weighting only 40 kg.”, emphasises Tobias Wallisser Director of LAVA Europe and professor of Digital Design at the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart. [1]

26

B.1. Field .21Research Design Computation

s

A

ll of the categories in the material systems listed in fact most of them are related to each other. The patterning that shapes the form is supported by the structure; the stripping/folding idea defines an interesting outcome of geometry and so on. After discussion, our group decided to start the project by working on geometry.


B.4. B.2. Technique Study Development 11.0 n Computatio Design .21 Case

cube

SIMPLE GEOMETRY

cylinder

lofting

mesh

sphere

number of sides number slider

number of divisions node size radius

changes

anchor point

polyline (branches)

EXO-SKELETON polar array

kangaroo

rest length

addition

mesh triangulation (voronoi 2D)

relaxation

x-direction changes y-direction

LOFTING OF CURVES mesh utility exo-skeleton addition

surface freeform (pipe) revolution oc-tree

27


B.2. Study 1.0 .21Case Design Computation

DEFINITION EXPLORATIONS GREEN VOID-LAVA

From the very beginning, we started to experiment with the combination of basic geometries such as cube, cylinder and

so on in order to produce some unique forms. With the use of given definitions, we further explored the exoskeleton component as well as the lofting of the curves. By simply changing the values of the sizes, sides, divisions and radii, the outcomes of exo-skeleton component, as well as addition some of the component options in the definition, the outcomes are very different from each other. As what we had learnt in the research field, with the alteration of curves, lines and etc., designers can come out with many types of interesting forms. Moreover, we also did some experiments on the Kangaroo plug-in in the definition by changing the intensity of the relaxation, the rest length as well as the position of the anchor point. We observed that the positions of the anchor points affect the spatial quality of the relaxed model. This could be paramount for us to decide where the fix structures should be located without reducing the spatial quality due to relaxation/ flexibility of the dynamic surfaces. Besides, when the rest length increases, the shapes become more irregular and crumpleâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;like forms. Refer to the Hookeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Law, the force exerted by a spring is directly proportional to the amount its length differs from its rest/natural length. This shows the relationship of the stiffness of the spring to its rest length, which usually springs with a natural length of zero are often useful. For example minimal surfaces can be approximated by treating all the edges of a mesh as zero-length springs.1 This would be important for our future investigation on the length of the tunnel spanning in order to intensify the flexibility of its surface.

Limitations: For the lofting of the curves, it is quite restricting since the curves are a collection of the curves created in Rhino, hence they are not adjustable with inputs such as number slider and the use of mathematical components. The alternatives are to set another set of curves created in Rhino into the provided case-study definition or simply alter the points of the curves. Besides, I tried to add some new components into the definition such as OCtree, revolution and etc. and they turned out to be very different from each other. Brep component has great potential to be further explored as it explodes the brep into faces, edges and vertices that could be inputs for the next components. However, once they are converted to the meshes, they are no longer could be altered with additional grasshopper components. This would be a limitation when we want to zoom into a single mesh in order to make a change on it. This issue affects the exoskeleton definition even worse since the output of exoskeleton automatically turns to meshes. Thus, what we could manage to change is values of the variables with the control over the number sliders. For kangaroo plug-in, it could only work on a whole geometry but not for those made up of few breps.

28


MATRIX

GREEN VOID-LAVA

29


B.2. Study 1.0 .21Case Design Computation

Cubic Mesh II

Curve Loft

Radius : 8

Voronoi 2D

Pipe surface

Rail revolution

Cylinder + Cube II

Cubic Mesh III

Polar Array

Branches

Smooth mesh

Oc-Tree

30


Further Exploration of One Iteration from Each Category with Kangaroo Plug-in:

31


B.2. Study 1.0 .21Case Design Computation

32


33

B.2. TCase Study 1


B.2. Study 1.0 .21Case Design Computation

SELECTION CRITERIA FORM FLUIDITY/DYNAMIC SPATIAL QUALITY AESTHETICAL VALUE

F

or the case-study Green Void-LAVA, it provides two different grasshoppers definitions of producing the sculpture, which are from the lofting of curves and by the use of exo-skeleton component. Throughout the iterations we had made for each alternative, we realised that by lofting the curves, it allows a broader scale of exploration rather than exo-skeleton. This is due to its output in a mesh form, which is the final state. The two iterations chosen are being evaluated through our selection criteria as listed above. Aesthetical value is a must for a sculpture to be an attention-grabber. Besides, since our rough idea of the sculpture is to focus on how the geometry of the sculptural form responds to the wind source of the site, form fluidity and dynamic motion is the crucial part to be considered. This characteristic of the geometry would hence define the unique of the spatial quality of its interior space. Our ideas could be assisted with the use of Kangaroo plugin by relaxing the rigid component of the original form, adjusting the rest length of the spring as well as changing the positions of the anchor points in order to get the best fluidity performance of the sculpture. Generally, it enhances the spatial quality of the sculpture, thus creating a more dynamic pattern. Different spatial quality in response to the air pressure will allow different experience of wind speed into the sculpture. Besides, a non-rigid geometry with smooth edges will promote smooth wind flow within the body of the sculpture. In related to the flat rectangular surface of the site and well as the rigid blocks of the buildings, the irregular sculpture would be outstanding amongst them, and hence brings

The choices are made due to the form fluidity which seems to provide a smooth flow of interior spatial quality. Different intensity of the spatial qualities could be experienced within the sculpture in a continuous relationship, unlike others which the spatial inequalities are obvious in a random way. They seems to have large openings at the ends and gradually smaller along the body. Along the creation of geometric variations, we played with the forms at the openings as well as the spatial experience along the body.

To applied these to our wind-energy generative sculpture, a creative spatial relationship that enhances the wind and user

34


8

34


AU OFFICE AND EXHIBITION SPACE Location:

Newly formed artistsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; complex, Jungong

History context:

Old warehouse that was used to store fabrics.

Function:

As an office and exhibition space.

Design Intent:

Spatial Relationship: Consists of three identical warehouse spaces, which the central warehouse is converted into an outdoor recreational space and there is an entrance lobby leading to the exhibition hall and the studio.

9

Treating the background culture as the main focus, the idea of using parametric processes in order to superimpose the contours and definition of silk undulating in the wind had been practiced. In Grasshopper, this could be done by the use of image sampler and vector 2 point to set the rotation. Looking at the plan, the parametric wall seems to be only served as decorative purpose by covering the structural wall of the building at three sides. The wall is built up of concrete blocks, each of them are angled to create the effect of the texture, which hence created the aesthetical effect due to the intensity of light penetrating into the building.

10

11

35

B.3. B.2. Study 1.0 2.0 .21Case Design Computation

SITE STUDIES


B.3. B.2. Study 1.0 2.0 .21Case Design Computation

1 SERIES OF POINTS

2 INTERPOLATE CURVE

3 DIVIDE DISTANCE

4 LINES IN Z DIRECTION

5 DIVIDE DISTANCE

6 ALIGN XY PLANE AT EACH POINT

7 DISPATCH

8 CREATE BOXES

9 BOX TRIMMING

10 VECTOR 2 POINT

11 REMAP AND ROTATE

12 BAKE THE OUTCOME

36


B.3. B.2. Study 1.0 2.0 .21Case Design Computation

REVERSE-ENGINEER

AU OFFICE AND EXHIBITION SPACE

F

he parametric wall is a made up of repetitive arrangement of bricks. To reverse-engineer the project, we start with analyzing the inputs needed for the final outcome, which is the box component in grasshopper. Both “Box 2 Point” and “Centre Box” need the base plane as the common input. To form the base plane, we need the point reference. Hence, we decided to begin the algorithm by creating a series of points in horizontal direction and connecting them by a curve. In order to form the bricks in a uniform repetitive way, we divide the curve with a preset distance between the points. We realized the difference roles played by “ Divide Length” and “ Divide Distance”, which in this case, since the bricks would experience rotation at the end, “Divide Distance” would be a more better solution. This is because if using “ Divide Length”, some of the blocks may overlap each other after being rotated since the centre points are equal in length of the curve itself but not the distance.

Divide Length

Divide Distance

Afterwards, we form straight lines with defined length in the vertical direction from each of the points along the curve. Later, we repeat the same step by dividing the lines into equal distance in order to form sub-points along each of the lines. Hence, now we have the intersecting points which can act as the origin point of every single XY Plane. We align them to ensure they follow the curvature of the curve. By looking at the case study, the bricks are arranged in such an alternating way from level to level. Hence, in order to create this outcome in grasshopper, we have to dispatch the planes in both horizontal and vertical directions in order to group them in respective to x and y directions.

With the dispatched groups, we formed the “Center Box” that are alternating to each other in respective to the columns and rows. Next, we build a smaller box in the original box and “Solid Trim” it in order to form the hollow boxes. Lastly, to create the rotating effect as produced by the parametric wall of Au Office and Exhibition Space, we make the individual boxes rotate in according to a point by the “Vector 2 Point” command. The outcome seems to be very similar to the precedenceParametric Wall of Au Office and Exhibition Space. However, we used different approaches to form the definition. Rather than use the silk texture as the image sampler as the reference, we simply rotate the bricks in according to its relationship to a fixed point. As a result, the patterning effect formed by these rotated bricks is less interesting compared to the case study. Besides, we found out that after the boxes being trimmed, they are no longer a closed defined volume. From this reverse-engineer process, we understood that as a parametric designer, we have to learn how to think backwards. In this case, we knew what we want to produce; hence, we have to explore the definition in the reverse way by thinking what input are necessary to produce the outcome and slowly linking them to the origin of the definition. A deep understanding of how the mathematical components and the sets work are also paramount in assisting us to reach the output we want.

For the next step, we would like to further explore this definition by applying the idea of repetitive patterning on the surface of the geometry Kangaroo plug-in would be used intensively in order to produce a flexible and dynamic

Patterning outcome of our definition

Patterning outcome of the case study

37


GEOMETRY

PATTERNING

VECTOR

RELAXATION

ANCHOR POINT

The technical development aims to create possibilities in order to get the potential design outcome for our project at Copenhagen. At this stage, it is the further step of the reverse-engineer for case study 2. We want to study the relationship between the geometry and the patterning field by exploring a range of possibilities in a sequential basis. We started with the creation of various forms and examine how they manage to fit with the patterning component. We chose best two out of ten in order to proceed to the next iteration and this continuous until the experiments with Kangaroo Plug-in.

38


B.4. B.2. Case Study Development 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

GEOMETRY

Planar surface

Arc to vector 2 point

Arc type 1 loft surface

Revolution

Arc type 2 loft surface

2 diverging lines with Arc SED

Arc type 3 loft surface

2 converging lines with Arc SED

Surface from a series of points

2 similar lines with Arc SED

39


B.4. B.2. Case Study Development 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

PATTERNING

Domain start: 20 Domain end: 0.5

Seed: 50

Seed: 50

Height of surface box : 10 Height of surface box :1

Height of surface box : 10 Height of surface box :-10

Range

Range

Random

Random

Scale to random

Scale to random

Dispatch

Dispatch

Dispatch

Dispatch

Domain start: 20 Domain end: 0.5

Seed: 50

Seed: 50

Height of surface box : 5 Height of surface box :1

Height of surface box : 5 Height of surface box :-5

40


B.4. B.2. Case Study Development 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

VECTOR

Dispatch and Rotate

Dispatch and Rotate

Vector 2 point (holes)

Vector 2 point (holes)

Rotate

Rotate

Dispatch and Move

Dispatch and Move

Vector 2 point

Vector 2 point

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B.4. B.2. Case Study Development 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

RELAXATION

Rest length:10

Rest length:10

Rest length:30

Rest length:30

Rest length:50

Rest length:50

Rest length:80

Rest length:80

Rest length:100

Rest length:100

42


B.4. B.2. Case Study Development 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

ANCHOR POINT

Anchor short

Anchor all except 4 edges

Anchor long axis

4 edges with in x on surface

Anchor surface

4 edges with diagonal on surface

Anchor 4 edges

Anchor 4 edges

Anchor 4 corners

Anchor 4 corners

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B.4. B.2. Case Study Development 1.0 n Computatio Design .21 Technique

BRIEF REQUIREMENTS

REFSHALEøEN, COPENHAGEN, DENMARK

F

he design site boundary encompasses the Sonder Hoved pier section of Refshaleoen snd some of the surrounding waterways. The pier is an old landfill that is partially comprised of material from buildings that used to exist on the now empty site[2]

Restrictions: There is no restriction on foundation depth or type. The artwork must within the site boundary and could not break the plane of the site boundary at any height. • Must not exceed 125 meters in height at any point (not an average but an absolute limit).

• •

Considerations: A water taxi terminal at southwest corner to be remained. • Plans for waterway development to the south of the site with houseboats, and boat access into the channel north of the site to be maintained.

Criteria:

• •

• • •

3D sculpture that able to attract visitors to the site. Manage to generate electricity from nature energy and have the ability to store , and/or transform and transmit the electrical power to a grid connection point to be designed by others. Not create pollution and greenhouse gas emission. Be pragmatic and employ technology that can be tested and scalable. Be well informed by the site context of Refshaleoen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

44 2 Land Art Generator Initiative, 2014 Design Guidelines(2014)


B.4. B.2. Case Study Development 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

RE-CONSIDER SELECTION CRITERIA

B

ased on Kalay’s reading, there are four basic phases of design process are very useful in aiding us to brainstorm the design ideas and judge on how realistic it is to be constructed: • • • •

problem analysis solution synthesis evaluation communication

At the problem analysis stage, we referred to the restrictions of the brief given as well as getting information of site conditions such as the weather, topography, views and proximity to existing buildings. We found out the North and East parts of the site are blocked by buildings and hence, the only broader views are from the West to the South of the site. Besides, the flat site allows a wider opportunity for the designers but somehow, there is a restriction of no more than 125 meter in height of the sculpture. In regarding to the weather, we have to concern on the effect of strong wind to the sculpture, whether to use it as our design enhancement or to protect our design from being destroyed by it. At the end, we came out with the idea of using the impulse of the strong wind onto our geometry’s surface in order to create the dynamic effect that we would like to have in our design. Due to the restriction of view, we decided only would focus on the South and West parts of the site.a new atmosphere to this huge historically industrial site.

For the development of our technical definition, we slowly evolve the definition starting from geometry, patterning, vector, rest length and lastly anchor point. This is to investigate the relationship between different geometries and the patterning onto it when there are some external variables such as the location of the fix structures (anchor point), the wind force ( vector) and etc. Looking at the final state of the iterations we made, we realised that it is hard to put rigid patterning form on a relaxed surface. Overlapping would occur at some points. Nevertheless, in term of spatial quality and aesthetical value, they are much captivating compared to the initial ones. Thus, when reached the evaluation phase, we have to think rationally and a trade-off has to be made for the design’s betterment. For our rough idea, it seems to be contradicting to have a moving geometrical form with patterning on it, since there would be no constant position for the surface to fit the patterning material. As what the iterations shown, it is impossible to use the rigid patterning material similar to case study 2 on the flexible geometrical form of case study 1. Thus, we shifted the idea of instead treating the patterning material as an additional component, we prefer to make it as the skin of the geometry itself.

At the next step of solution synthesis , we looked through few precedence. We intended to integrate the geometrical idea of case study 1, Green Void-LAVA and the patterning effect of case study 2: AU Office and Exhibition Space. This could provide a unique aesthetical sense to our sculpture. When the users view from outside, the attractive patterning would grab their attention; When they view from inside, the dynamic movement of the façade would create an interesting spatial quality due to the movements of the geometry.

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46

B.5. B.4. B.2. Case Study Development Prototypes 1.0 n Computatio Design .21 Technique


B.5. B.2. Case Study Prototypes 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

To start with, we simply used a clothing fabric to represent the wholeness of the geometryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s skin. However, the outcome is not as what we thought due to the type of cloth we used was too heavy to be moved when there is a wind blow. We later found an alternative to replace it with the much lighter halftransparent table cloth and this resulted in what the effect we would want to see, so that could imagine how the patterning panels would react in according to the wind blow direction.

By looking at this prototype, we observed that the material would have bigger movements if its spanning between the structure is larger. After this, we began to experiment the connections of small panels with one similar material, which is ivory card . Later on, we did experiments with the use of different materials.

47


B.5. B.4. B.2. Case Study Development Prototypes 1.0 n Computatio Design .21 Technique

CONNECTION PROTOTYPING

CONNECT FOUR PANELS WITH A SINGLE JOINT OF FISHING LINE There is no a smooth and continuous flow of the panels when the air is blew onto them.

CONNECT IN HORIZONTAL DIRECTION WITH THE USE OF THREAD

HALF-CUTTING ALONG THE EDGE OF THE PANEL

This turn out to be what we want for, the panels are moving in a smooth flow due to the continuous connection in horizontal way. Besides, thread are softer compared to fishing line and thus, less restrictive to the movement.

This could not work out the effect we would like to see, which most probably because of the inflexible jointing method as well as the quality of the material.

48


B.5. B.2. Case Study Prototype Prototypes 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

CONNECT FOUR PANELS WITH A SINGLE JOINT OF STAPLER PINS Same result with the first method due to the pattern of connection as well as the hardness of the joint material.

CONNECT FOUR PANELS WITH A SINGLE JOINT OF DOUBLE TAPE

CONNECT THE EDGES OF THE PANELS WITH DOUBLE TAPE

It work out the same effect as the one with thread and this is much easier and faster to joint them rather than sew them one by one with thread.

At this stage, this connection seems to be the most effective as it is fast to join, firmer and allow flexible movement to wind blow.

49


B.5. B.4. B.2. Case Study Development Prototypes 1.0 n Computatio Design .21 Technique

MATERIAL PROTOTYPING

12 IVORY CARD

13 TRACING PAPER 112GSM

Less flexible

We tr the d there

50


B.5. B.2. Case Study Prototypes 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

14 CLEAR-LAY ACETATE

15 YUPO STENCIL PAPER 100GSM

More flexible

ried to get a variety of soft, light and thin materials to be experimented with. Other than Ivory card, the rest seems to work well with dynamite. However, we prefer the Clear-lay Acetate due to its translucent characteristic. We want our ‘tunnel’ to be transparent, so that e is an interaction between the interior and the exterior spaces.

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B.5. B.4. B.2. Case Study Development Prototypes 1.0 n Computatio Design .21 Technique

FORM FLUIDITY/DYNAMIC

A

fter gone through the prototypying process, we came out with a wide range of factors that affect the flexibility of the skin membrane: •Panel size •Panel shape •Structure •Spanning of the skin membrane •Material that make up the skin membrane •Angle between the wind direction and the surface •Panel size For smooth fabric texture it could be work out the dynamic effect when it consists of a large piece. However, if we use the slightly harder materials such as paper and acetate, the smaller group of panels would work out rather than the big ones. •Panel shape A tetrahedral grid mesh allows a better connection for an irregular geometry compared to quadrilateral gird mesh. This is due to the number of vertices of the triangular shape provides a better potential to form the irregular forms.

•Spannig The spanning of the skin from a structure to the next will also affect the flexibility of the skin. This could be understood with the rest length and relaxation effect on the grasshopper model due to the positions of the anchor points. The longer the spanning of the skin membrance across the structures, the more flexible of the movement is. •Material In term of materials, as long as it is soft, thin and light enough, most of them could perform well with the use of correct jointing method as well as an appropriate size . •Wind Direction We observed that the skin membrane would only vibrate greater when the wind direction is in a steep angle to the surface rather than perpendicular or directly blow into the tunnel.

•Structure Structure is a paramount role in supporting the feasible skin but at the same time, is not over control until they lose their potential to create movement. Amongst the prototypes, we found out that however flexible material and connection are, once they are stick to the structures at both ends, they would lose their dynamite potential even strong wind is being blown onto them. Hence, not only flexible connection is needed in between the panels but also from the skin to the structure as well.

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B.5. B.2. Case Study Prototypes 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

SPATIAL QUALITY

T

hereare a few feature s that have to be take into account in creating a unique spatial quality: •Panel connection •Panel design •Structure •Material that make up the skin membrane •Panel connection The connection pattern would define the quality of the interior spatial experience. When they connected in a continuous way, or connecting four panels with a single joint; both different jointing methods would affect the movement of the skin membrane when there is wind blow and thus create a very dissimilar spatial quality in its interior space. Besides, if the panel is connected like the half-cutting ivory card prototype, it would provide an enclosed interior space. However, if it is connected like how the prototype being sewed by threads, there would be holes in between that expose the interior spaces to the exterior.

•Structure If the structure is built hidden under the skin membrane, it would acquire some of the interior space, which hence further reduces the limiting interior space. Not only that, it also becomes a blockage for the users to experience the great spatial quality when inside the tunnel as well as when they are looking towards outside. Thus, critical and creative thinking has to be applied in order to ensure the positioning of the structure will not give bad impact on the spatial quality. •Material Material is an important factor for spatial quality. We want the skin membrane to be made up of transparent material, so that the users from inside could indirectly feel the strength of the wind by observing the dynamic movement of the skin membrane but in fact, they are protected under the shell of the skin membrane.

•Panel Design If refer back to case study 2, the holes of the bricks allow natural light to be penetrated into the interior space. The design of the panel would define the spatial experience inside the tunnel. If a gradually change in the design is applied, the spatial quality would be enhanced by this gradually changing atmosphere.well.

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B.5. B.4. B.2. Case Study Development Prototypes 1.0 n Computatio Design .21 Technique

AESTHETICAL VALUE

S

culpture is a form of art, thus, aesthetical value must never be neglected in the design. In our wind generative sculpture design, it can be expressed through the use of: •Material •Panel Design •Structure •Geometry •Material More than half of the sculpture is made up of skin membrane, and the rest are the structures to support it, Thus, the material of the skin needs to be carefully picked in order to ensure its relationship to the sculpture, site context and so on. It would bring the message that the designers want to speak to the public through their aesthetic sculpture. In recent, the hidden potential of the conventional materials have been discovered such as the translucent quality of concrete and wood. With the use of creative materials like these, the sculpture would look prettier and fascinating. In the prototypical experiments, we tried different opacity level of materials such as the acetate, tracing paper and the total opaque stencil paper. They are create their own aesthetical values to the sculpture.

•Panel Design As explored in the iterations of the case study 2, there are many attractive ways of patterning design could be performed. The way the panels are arranged in relation to each other or the form of the panel itself could produce interesting aesthetic qualities to the sculpture. •Structure The design of the structure and how we are going to locate it is important. Since we decided to use transparent material as the skin membrane, we would hence allow the structure to be exposed to the outside world. This is an interesting idea to the site, which most of the buildings are in rigid and enclosed form, with the installation of this structural expossive and transparent sculpture , the site would has another fresh influence. •Geometry Other than patterning, the geometry itself also has to be considered. For our design intent, the geometry is not fix but rather changing in constant due to the wind response. This hence creates a lively effect to the sculpture but not simply in a constant state. This is definitely a good idea to bring a contrasting atmosphere to the site which surrounded by rigid buildings. tunnel.

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B.6. B.2. Case Study Proposal 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

INPUT PARAMETERS WIND STUDIES

W

Wind Speed

e use the wind data as our data input for the parametric model by setting a range of the wind speed at each direction across the year. These results would be

16 Wind Directions Over the Entire Year

In reference to the average weather statistic of Copenhagen, Denmark, the wind speeds are varying from 4mph to 21mph and rarely exceeding 30mph.Throughout the year, winter would experience the highest average wind speed of 14mph, at which time the average daily maximum wind speed is 21mph. In contrast, the lowest average wind speed would be occur during the summer period, which is around 10mph, at which time the average daily maximum wind speed is 15mph.[3] Apart from seasons, the strongest wind mostly comes from west (24%) and the least is from north-west and north-east (7%). From spent most from

Fraction of Time Spent with Various Wind Directions

17

the diagram that indicates the with various wind directions, of the time the people would the west and the least would

fraction of time it shows that experience wind be from north.

These information are very useful for us not only as the input parameters, but also enable us to consider the positioning of our design according to the wind direction. Generally, the threshold of a typical wind generator is around 10mph. The average wind speed of Copenhagen along the year has the minimum value of 10mph, which indicates that it manages to generate wind energy consistently throughout the year. The only consideration is how much electrical energy could be generated by the generator. Hence, since our ideal sculpture would extend in horizontal way, we thus have to create a larger dynamic surface that could generate more energy since the wind speed is lower as it is nearer to the ground.

3Cedar Lake Ventures, Inc, Average Weather For Kastrup near Copenhagen, Denmark (2014), < https://weatherspark.com/aver

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SITE ANALYSIS

REFSHALEOEN, COPENHAGEN

COPENHELL: There is a annual Copenhagen’s metal festival, COPENHELL. It is an outdoor festival that acclaims the metal and rock genre and offers dedicated metal-fans a serious festival in Refshaleoen, Copenhagen.[4]

HISTORICAL CONTEXT: A former industrial site in the harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, Refshaleoen is frequently used as a venue for events and festivals.

BIKE IN COPENHAGEN: Practically, everyone rides a bike. There are more than 300km of bicycle lanes and many guided bicycle tours.

NEIGHBOURING CONTEXT: A mixture of creative entrepreneurships, small craft, flea markets,storage facilities and culturaland recreational uses. The site is surrounded by rigid, tall and enclosed buildings

GREEN COPENHAGEN: Climate-friendly hotels, organic eateries and sustainable transportation the world’s most liveable cities – Copenhagen has much to offer the eco-conscious traveller.

TOPOGRAPHY: A giant flat land which the site boundary encompasses the Sonder Hoved pier section of Refshaleoen and some of the surrounding waterways.

59 4Wonderful Copenhagen, VisitCopenhagen (2014), <http://www.visitcopenhagen.com/search/editorial/global?keys=copenhagen%20copen-


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B.6. B.2. Case Study Proposal 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

DESIGN INTENT

WIND ENERGY-GENERATIVE SCULPTURE

Our design intent is inspired by the “Inflatable Air Dancer” which always being used for advertising purpose. Its volume is

formed by the air that flowing through its body, due to the difference in the air speed of its interior and exterior, the “Dancer” ables to make funny movements. It is only be supported at the bottom and therefore, the movements is not restricted at the top opening. It inspired us with its dynamic movement, which we want this characteristic to be applied to our design. We don’t want a fix sculpture that is not responsive to the users as well as

The dynamic flow of the skin membrane of the sculpture creates an interesting spatial quality for the users who are inside the tunnel. This makes the users at interior space could visualise the effect of high speed wind onto the surface but never feel it from interior.

However, rather than in the vertical direction, we want our sculpture to extend in the horizontal way. This horizontal elongating sculpture would like a tunnel, allowing both wind and users to enter. Somehow, in order to produce a dynamic effect as the “Dancer”, we need to provide a differential value between the air that penetrate into the tunnel as well as the air that hits on the surface from exterior. Due to this reason, we position the sculpture in such a way that the wind would hits on its surface at a steep angle. This strong wind will hence create pressure onto the surface, which the interior normal wind speed is lower.

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1 SERIES OF POINTS

2 FORMING LINES

3 XZ PLANES & CIRCLES

4 LOFTING

5 MOVE AND ROTATE

6 GET RID OF EXTRA TUNNELS

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B.6. B.2. Case Study Proposal 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

PROPOSED ALGORITHM WIND ENERGY-GENERATIVE SCULPTURE

W

e used the range of the wind speed at different directions as the input parameters for creating a series of points. For the directions that emerge in diagonal angle such as north-west, south-west and etc, the same parameter would be the input for both x and y coordinates of the point. Similar to the approach of case study 2, we create a line that links all the points together, which each of the point becomes the origin for the XZ plane. We built circles on each of the vertical plane which the radii are in random order, which the range is defined by the relationship equation shown. This is because the wind would speed up under pressure formed by small openings. For those in diagonal directions, an additional Rotate 3D component was being used. After that, we lofted all the circles that in a straight line in order to form the tunnel. Later, we moved the tunnels towards their origin. Since we want the wind hits on the tunnel in angle, hence we rotate all the tunnels in 45 degrees from the original directions. Here is the final outcome, which we at last decided

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PROTOTYPE PROPOSAL DIGITAL MODEL Perspective View 3

Perspective View 1

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B.6. B.2. Case Study Proposal 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

Plan View

Perspective View 3

Perspective View 2 Perspective View 4

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PROTOTYPE PROPOSAL PHYSICAL MODEL

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Architectural Qualities in Relation the Space

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B.6. B.2. Case Study Proposal 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

PROPOSED STRUCTURAL FRAMING & FACADE TREATMENT From the previous prototypes, we learnt that it is impossible to allow the skin membrane to move in a flexible way when there is a wind impact if we connect it to rigid structures. Similar to the precedence of the “Inflatable Air Dancer”, which at least one side should leave freely. Thus, we came out with the idea of using tensional springs to hold the skin membrane to rigid frames. This allow the skin membrane to move within the limit of the tensional spring. When wind blows onto the surface, the tensional force will pull the skin membrane, hence, the channel will reform. When there is no wind, the spring will be at its equilibrium state. The circular frame acts as the anchor point of the form, it links the skin façade to the spring.

In the physical proposal prototype, the skin membrane is not flexible enough in respond to wind blow. At first we thought by changing a more suitable material, we might can get an ideal result by the connection half-cutting along the edge. We even alter the quadrilateral mesh panels to tetrahedral shape. However, this proved that the half-cutting method would still unsuccessful due to its inflexible connection. Hence, we tried connect the tetrahedral mesh panels with the double tape as shown. This alternative comes out with the result that we want. In real world, we will explore some flexible and elastic joinery in order to connect the panels of the sculpture.

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B.6. B.2. Case Study Proposal 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

PROPOSED MATERIALS

QUANTUM TUNNELLING COMPOSITE (QTC MATERIAL) Quantum Tunnelling Composite are composite materials made up of metals and non-conducting elastomeric binder, used as pressure sensors.[5] When the skin membrane is facing pressure by the wind force, this material would switches from being a near-perfect insulator to being a conductor. This hence could fasten the generation of electricity energy by the piezoelectric generator. This technology not only being helpful in energy transmission, but also enhance the sensuality of the users since it is sensitive to both touch and pressure. Currently, a translucent characteristic of this material had been invented, which hence best fulfilling our idea of creating a transparent tunnel.

18

5The Engineer, Smart Dressing(2013), <http://www.theengineer.co.uk/in-depth/the-big-story/smart-dressing/1015984.article>

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Creative use of Piezoelectric effect:

Engineers at Stony Brook University in New York Creation of Mechanical Motion Rectifier (MMR) can harvest 200 watts of electric energy from train-induced deflections.

19

Graduate Student Jian Shi and Engineering Assistant Professor Xudong Wang at the University of Wisconsin-Madison A new device consists of plastic microbelt that could be used to capture energy from human respiration.

20

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B.6. B.2. Case Study Proposal 1.0 .21Technique Design Computation

POWER GENERATOR PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT

T

he world is full of vibrating surfaces that yield a rich trove of clean, sustainable energy. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s called piezoelectric energy, which formed by the conversion of mechanical strain into electrical, a charge is created when certain crystalline structures are subjected to stress or pressure. The device can be used to harvest energy from micro to macro scales, which from relatively small vibrations to many surfaces that are subjected to variable pressure such as highways and dance floors. The Bolton scientists have developed a way to weave piezoelectric capability into a flexible structure that lends itself to a wider variety of usages.[6]

Wind Energy

In our proposal, we would incorporate piezoelectric devices at the anchor points of the tunnel. Even when there is no strong wind, the device still can produce energy when lowspeed airflow passes over it and vibrate. Later, the kinetic energy produced would be transferred along the string that connects every panel to the device. Piezoelectric effect fulfil enable the moving skin of our sculpture to produce energy, it generates electrical energy from the kinetic energy formed by the skin of the sculpture due to the wind impact. One of the advantages of this technology is such that it does not require a big place to locate the energy generator. This can save the space for enhancing the spatial quality of the sculpture.

Kinetic Energy

Electrical Energy

73 6 Office of Technology Licensing, Piezoelectric Energy-Harvesting System That Can Generate Electricity From Vibration, <http://technologylicensing.research.ufl.edu/technologies/13608_piezoelectric-energy-harvesting-system-that-can-generate-electricity-from-vibration> [accessed 4 MAY 2014]


B.7. B.4. B.2. Technique Case Study Outcomes Development 1.0 n Computatio Design .21 Learning

After given suggestions by tutors, our group decided to further explore the patterning on the surface. Rather than a simple repetitive pattern, we would like to make a gradual change effect along the tunnel, which hence enhance the spatial experience of the users inside. The skin membrane does not necessary to be single repetitive flexible material, we want to explore more different materials that could be put together and generate an attractive outcome of the sculpture. Besides, we also want to play around with the natural light penetration into our form by making holes in some of the panel. This could be done in grasshopper with the scale component in deciding which panel to put holes. Furthermore, there is one important point mentioned by the tutors, which as designers, we have to make the decision whether or not the sculpture to be a kind of shelter or we want it to be exposed to weather. During exploring the panelling connection, this issue has to be addressed in order to decide whether we should leave gap in between the panel, or we have to provide a base layer behind the panel to protect the interior part of the sculpture to be exposed to rain and so on. In addition, we should start to do more experiment on how to generate energy through the piezoelectric effect. The results gained would definitely affect our idea concepts since error during the transmission, the location to store and generator and etc may will occur.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 ArchDaily, CantonTower/ Information Based Architecture(2010),

< http://www.archdaily.com/89849/canton-tower-information-based-architecture/> [accessed 28 APRIL2014]

2 ArchDaily, GreenVoid-LAVA/ Chris Bosses, Tobias Wallisser & Alexander Rieck (2013), < http://www.archdaily.com/10233/green-void-lava/> [accessed 28 APRIL2014]

3 ArchDaily, AU Office and Exhibition Space/ Archi Union Architects Inc (2010),

< http://www.archdaily.com/82251/au-office-and-exhibition-space-archi-union-architects-inc/> [accessed 30 APRIL2014]

4

5

3Cedar Lake Ventures, Inc, Average Weather For Kastrup near Copenhagen, Denmark (2014), < https://weatherspark.com/aver ages/28823/Kastrup-near-Copenhagen-Capital-Region-of-Denmark> [accessed 1 MAY 2014] Land Art Generator Initiative, 2014 Design Guidelines(2014)

6 Minifie van Schaik Architects, Australian Wildlife Health Centre(2006),

< http://www.mvsarchitects.com.au/doku.php?id=home:projects:australian_wildlife_centre> [accessed 28 APRIL2014]

7 Office of Technology Licensing, Piezoelectric Energy-Harvesting System That Can Generate Electricity From Vibration,

<http://technologylicensing.research.ufl.edu/technologies/13608_piezoelectric-energy-harvesting-system-that-can-generateelectricity-from-vibration>

8 The Engineer, Smart Dressing(2013),

<http://www.theengineer.co.uk/in-depth/the-big-story/smart-dressing/1015984.article> [accessed 28 APRIL2014]

9 Wikipedia, Monstreal Biosphere/ Buckminster(2014),

< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montreal_Biosph%C3%A8re> [accessed 28 APRIL2014]

10 Wonderful Copenhagen, VisitCopenhagen (2014),

<http://www.visitcopenhagen.com/search/editorial/global?keys=copenhagen%20copenhell%20gdk421979http%20cphnews%20mediajungle%20dk%20archives%202314> [accessed 1 MAY 2014]

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Bibliography

IMAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY 1,2,3

ArchDaily, GreenVoid-LAVA/ Chris Bosses, Tobias Wallisser & Alexander Rieck (2013), < http://www.archdaily.com/10233/green-void-lava/> [accessed 28 APRIL2014]

4

Wikipedia, Monstreal Biosphere/ Buckminster(2014), < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montreal_Biosph%C3%A8re> [accessed 28 APRIL2014]

6

Minifie van Schaik Architects, Australian Wildlife Health Centre(2006), < http://www.mvsarchitects.com.au/doku.php?id=home:projects:australian_wildlife_centre> [accessed 28 APRIL2014]

7

ArchDaily, CantonTower/ Information Based Architecture(2010), < http://www.archdaily.com/89849/canton-tower-information-based-architecture/> [accessed 28 APRIL2014]

8,9,10,11

ArchDaily, AU Office and Exhibition Space/ Archi Union Architects Inc (2010), < http://www.archdaily.com/82251/au-office-and-exhibition-space-archi-union-architects-inc/> [accessed 30 APRIL2014]

12

http://www.ideal-envelopes.co.uk/images/super/a3_ivory_card_.png

13

http://easternagency.in/UploadedFiles/ProductImage/1338288622-

14

http://www.cardcraftplus.co.uk/clear-acetate-5-sheet-pack-1325.

15

http://www.deserres.ca/data/Products/Photos/FR/family/Source/

16, 17

http://www.deserres.ca/data/Products/Photos/FR/family/Source/

18

The Engineer, Smart Dressing(2013), <http://www.theengineer.co.uk/in-depth/the-big-story/smart-dress-

19

The Green Optimistic, New Piezoelectric Device Generates Energy From Human Respiration/ Graduate Student Jian Shi and Engineering Assistant Professor Xudong Wang(2011), < http://www.greenoptimistic.com/2011/10/10/electricity-human-respiration/#.U2b60lcXJmN> [accessed 28 APRIL2014]

20

The Green Optimistic, Stony Brook Gets Award for Piezoelectric Railroad Energy Harvestor/ Engineers at Stony Brook University(2012), < http://www.greenoptimistic.com/2011/10/10/electricity-human-respiration/#.U2b60lcXJmN> [accessed 28 APRIL2014]

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SITE CO

ANA

A range of site analysis had been carried out in order to generate an engaging sculptural form that could ada sity is our main concern since wind power would be our energy source. We altered the height and total area surface o human traffic into account by considering how the people could access to the site and the sculpture. The soon-to-b at the opposite. This had been depicted in the activity density diagram, the area surrounds the site is more passive create a balance between these two neighbouring sites by dragging more people to visit and engage in this site is extremely huge and there are some blind spots which could not be noticed by users at different scale ners, a detailed analysis had been done. After considering all the site factors, we overlapped the analysis c

WIND INTENSITY

POTENTIAL HUMAN TRAFFIC

LEVEL OF EXPOSURE

78


ALYSIS

apt to the environment, meanwhile, it also manage to appear outstandingly with the rest. Wind direction and intenof the form that expose to the wind according to the wind data we searched. For the basic form, we take the potential be-built water taxi terminal would provide better accessibility to this less happening site compared to the main city in term of human activity compared to the area opposite Refshaleoen. Thus, this interesting sculpture must able to s sculpture. Last but not least, the level of exposure is also a paramount criterion to be deemed, since the e of distance. Hence, to ensure the aesthetic sculpture could grab attention of people from most of the corcollected and came out with the conceptual form for us to start play with grasshopper tool in Rhinoceros.

E

ACTIVITY DENSITY

OVERLAPPING THE COLLECTED DATA

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C.1. B.3. B.2. Design Study Concept 2.0 1.0 .21Case Design Computation

ONTEXT


ADDRESSING

ALONG SE

The design intents of our energy generative sculpture are creating unique spatial and the dynamic qualities. At the first rough proposal, we derived the form from the wind data of Copenhagen. This result in the radial shape made up of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;wind tunnel corridorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; with various sizes. We tried to show the dynamic through the flexible connection of skin, which hence creates changeable spatial experience. Our crazy idea is to bring the user into the tunnel, let them to experience the power of wind through the two sensations, visual and touch. being sewed by threads, there would be holes in between that expose the interior spaces to the exterior. Nevertheless, the geometrical form is too literal and over simple. Not only that, the sculpture is less interactive to the site context. The dynamic effect could not be realised through the fabrication we did. Score-folded lines that connecting the panel largely reduced the flexible movement between panels. We thus further explored different types of connection and found out that by allowing spacing between panels could resolve this problem. To hold the hanging tunnels, rigid frames are evenly distributed across the spanning of the tunnel at this early stage. After addressing the feefback from the interim presentation, we decided to take a different approach for the formation process. A couple of site analysis had been carried out, which led to the formation of interesting form. From the rough conceptual idea, we played with different heights at different segments in respect to the wind intensity and direction. A range of supporting elements had been tested digitally and at the end, we all decided on the use of prefabricated I-beam. Instead of using the rigid portal and truss framing, prefabricated I-beam could follow the dynamic pattern of the form whilst resisting the strong wind. Kinetic energy resulting in the vibrating panels is the energy source of our design. Therefore, we thought of attaching the piezo patch sensors to every single panels and the deflection due to wind effect would generate electrical signal that to be transferred to the energy storage device underground.

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EMESTER

However, we were facing a dilemma between energy optimisation and aesthetical value of the sculpture. It is a tricky part to maximise energy production while at the same time, the sculpture could remain its aesthetical value. At the end, we made a commitment by increasing the height of the sculpture, this indirectly increase the amount of panels, which in return, produce more energy. The extremely high sculpture would eventually become the attention grabber among the buildings surrounding. Somehow, it seems to be irrational to build this â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;high-rise sculptureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; simply by the huge I-beam structures on a single level. There is even no secondary framing structure such as bracing or nogging as support to the primary structure. Panels is the main focus on our design proposal. We want the panel to stay simple, the only different is the way it reacts to the wind effect by exploring some alternatives to connect them to the long cable, so that the panel design would not steal the attention of its dynamic response towards wind. It was a big mistake that we did not consider the scale of the cable Through the prototypes we made, it tends to sway when we stick the panels onto it, which spanning from two frames that far apart to each other. Besides, small size of piezo patch behind every single panel would not optimise the energy generation that could supply to the housing area. This is an important issue that we forced to bear with to prevent overloading of the panel that burden the cable. Finally, we realised that to be a good designer, we should learn to give up something in order to reach the ultimate goal. From what we observed through the prototypes and reflection on the feedback from tutors, we decided on leaving the idea of whole-skin movement, simply focus on the flapping panels. Hence, the cable could be replaced with the secondary structure that holds the panels. Furthermore, the primary structure is stabilising itself by spanning in two opposite directions, which result in the grid-like pattern. In this case, since we only use the flapping concept, hence, we now shift the focus from type of connection to the type of panelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s geometry. We did experiments on how the surface area and shapes of the panels respond to the wind. Meanwhile, to optimise the energy generation, we also fully utilise the ground by incorporating the piezo-generative flooring system. Although the transitional experience created by different connections of the panel could not be realised in our sculpture, we tried to impose the dynamic effect with the fixed form and expose the structure so that people from inside could view the flapping panels in a different way from exterior. At last, the transition of panel sizes is being visualised by the change in density in responding to the wind intensity.

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G FEEDBACK


‘Luckily I was treated to a fabulous sunset – a great way to start a visit to a wonderful city!’-The photographer[1]

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C.1. B.2. Design Study Concept 1.0 .21Case Design Computation

SITE ANALYSIS

BACKGROUND RESEARCH

No one knows precisely how the world will develop technologically, in population terms, politically etc., or precisely how this will affect the climate, and whether this will be overlain by natural disasters etc.[2]The consequences that climate change may have in Copenhagen come gradually, but the pace of development of predicted to increase steadily, with the most substantial changes occurring after 2050. A number of key factors are needed to consider in order to successfully adapt the city to the climate of the future:

Flexible Adaptation:

For a long term planning, it should not be simply according to a particular scenario for future development. In the other word, our green project should provide more possibilities for future development. Thus, flexible jointing between panels is one of our main focus, which future alterations always be allowed.

High Technical Level:

Technology has to be well-explored to ensure the wind power is being optimised as well as the establishment of the wind farm would not cause disturbance to the community. Thus, in our project, we allow minimum spacing in between every single panel leaf, in order to prevent severe friction occurs between them, which might cause the reduction in energy efficiency as well as noise impact that would disturb the community.

Synergy with Other Planning:

The city is being planned in such a way to provide convenience to the cyclists .Besides, green transport also becoming the mainstream of the city. In addition, the urban design also integrates with the wastewater management to resolve the pollution issue at the harbour. A wide range of water management systems are being installed to increase the water supply in order to meet the increasing demand. Thus, to incorporate the wind power well to these other planning, the ‘not in my backyard’ attitude must be overcame. They all should be working together in order to optimise the output. The sculptural project could heighten the awareness of the public about the wind power by attracting the community to experience it.

An Attractive, Climate Adapted City:

In Copenhagen, climate adaptation measures are representing the assets of this city. Thus, meanwhile, green energy becomes the attraction point of the city. In our sculptural project, we aimed to make it outstanding amongst the rest. Rather than only producing green energy, we would like to add in the aesthetical value to it.

1 Jim Nix, Copenhagen, Denmark, Photography < http://www.hdrone.com/2012/08/copenhagen-denmark/> 2 The City of Copenhagen, Technical and Environmental Administration. “Copen hagen Solutions for Sustainable Cities.” Electricity Production from Wind Power. 23.

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SITE ANALYSIS CLIENT RESEARCH

C openhagen will become a carbon neutral city by 2025. The client would like to see a product that optimise green energy

3

production whilst still remain the aesthetical value of the sculpture, which hence could induce the visitors to come over the site. At first we explored a range of interesting panelling patterns on the form to enhance the artistic value of the sculpture. However, after went through experiments, we found out that to maximise the deflection of the panel by wind, the panel has to be flat and large surface. Thus, we came out with the idea of using simple panel, with transition shown by decreasing the panel size. The effect would be compelling with different degrees 5 of deflection occur when different size of panels hit by wind. of deflection occur when different size of panels hit by wind.

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SITE ANALYSIS USERS RESEARCH

B

4

5

iking culture is a symbol of Copenhageners. In fact, there is a target to increase the number of Copenhageners and commuters cycling to work and education from 35% in 2011 to 50% by 2015. The shift from cars to bicycles provides a more livable city by reducing the carbon emissions as well as air pollution. However, in order to reach the goal of Copenhagen to become the first carbon neutral capital by 2025, change in transportation habit might not sufficient to reach this target, but reorganisation of energy supply should also be focused on. Thus, we decided to install the piezo-energy flooring system as part of our generative sculpture. This would heighten the awareness of the users, telling their roles in reshaping Copenhagen as a green city is not only by reduce the usage of carbon-emission-product, but also aiding in generating green energy. Whenever the users step on the piezo panel, the compression would generate energy due to the polarisation effect. We want to ensure users could have both unique experiences at both external and internal of the sculpture. Thus, they could observe the flapping effect of the gradually denser panels from exterior; and the spatial quality could be emphasized with the dynamic form and the extreme ceiling height when they are inside the sculpture.

6

7

In order to attract users to visit the site, the sculpture has to be located at the strategic spot that could be noticed by users from far, since the site is quite further from the main happening town. Besides that, we also decided on making an lookout point at the end of the sculpture, so that outsiders would be attracted by the interactions of people at the lookout point.

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Kahn: “I am fascinated with nature, and I draw a lot of my

inspiration from nature. But I am interested in letting nature to express itself through my work. [...]I’ve created a frame, but it’s the natural process that is doing the real sculpting. [...] I’ve set up a system, [...] I am asking a question of nature. [...T]here is a great potenial for surprises to occur and anything can happen.”[3]

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3 4


C.1. B.2. Design Study Concept 1.0 .21Case Design Computation

PRECEDENCE 1:

NED KAHN FEATHER WALL

8

The Chain of Ether is a 25-foot tall by 110-foot long, wind-activated artwork that consists of square-shaped aluminium chainmall. The idea of hanigng panels of metallic fabric inspired us with its responsive manner to the changes in wind, due to its extremely lightweight as well as the connection method.[4] This kinetic facade extends inside the building and covers a floor to ceiling wall, where it is animated by the ventilation of the building. In our design, the challenging part is, unlike this chain which installed on flat wall surface, our design needs the complex connection that fits onto the irregular geometrical form.

3 Ned Kahn â&#x20AC;&#x153;Tornadoâ&#x20AC;?, 1990, 2009 < http://www.hohlwelt.com/en/interact/context/nedkahn.html> accessed 9 JUNE 2014 4 Ned Kahn, Chain of Ether, < http://nedkahn.com/portfolio/chain-of-ether/> [ accessed 10 JUNE 2014]

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curve controller

OVERLAPPING THE COLLECTED DATA

grasshopper

POTENTIAL CONCEPTUAL OUTCOME

By overlapping a series of data analysis, a potential conceptual outcome is produced. After wards, with the use of cont sentation, we decided to enhance the form by using grasshopper tool. By making the lines of the potential conceptual wards, we tried to move the line at z-direction as well as change the curvature of the line in order to produce a few exa

The curve driver definition allows us to control the curvature radius through a control curve. Few lines have been set are used to connect the points on the flipped curves produce a series of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;ringsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; that would be lofted. On the other hand two curves, the curvature radius of the lofting curves could be adjusted. 88


C.1. B.2. Design Study Concept 1.0 .21Case Design Computation

r definition

curve driving form

HEIGHT IN RELATION TO WIND INPUT

LINE AS THE PARAMETER FOR GRASSHOPPER TOOL

trol points, we later adjust the height at different segments by considering the wind intensity and direction. After prel form as the input, we hence managed to produce an interesting form with the use of curve driver definition. Afteramples of unique forms. Finally, we came out with an aerofoil shape that could engage well with the wind pressure.

as the input of the definition. The curves are being divided into number of segments that we would want. Polylines d, two curves also being set as the control variable. By connecting the variable expression and fillet commands to the

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FORM EXPLORATION:

DIGITAL EXPLORATION WITH GRASSHOPPER

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C.1. Design Concept

Height differential Peak of sculpture Spatial experience

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PANELLING EXPLORATION DIGITAL EXPLORATION WITH GRASSHOPPER

OPENING ARC-LIKE PANEL

92 DISPATCHED FISH SKIN PANEL


C.1. B.2. Design Study Concept 1.0 .21Case Design Computation

TRANSITIONING RECTANGULAR PANEL

93 TRIANGULAR OPENING PANEL


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C.1. B.2. Design Study Concept 1.0 .21Case Design Computation

EXPERIMENT 1:

EVALUATE WIND IMPACT ON DIFFERENT PANEL GEOMETRIES

Variables: Constant: Stalk length; Panel materiality; Type of clamp; Type of supporting element; Location Manipulating: Panel geometries (total surface area that exposes to wind) Responding:

Result: Semicircular panel <Triangular panel < Slim rectangular panel <Large rectangular panel

Criteria to be considered: Total surface area; Length of panel (away from clamp) We realised that the panel would deflect better when its length is further away from the clamp. Besides, the deflection is more obvious when the total surface area of it increases. In conclusion, the large rectangular panel deflects best amongst the rest since it has larger surface area as well as span longer from the clamp.

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96


C.1. B.2. Design Study Concept 1.0 .21Case Design Computation

EXPERIMENT 2:

EVALUATE WIND IMPACT ON SHORT AND LONG STALK

Variables: Constant: Panel shape Panel materiality; Type of clamp; Type of supporting element; Location Manipulating: Length of stalk Responding: Panel deflection

Result: Short stalk > Long Stalk

Criteria to be considered: Width; Length of panel (away from clamp) We observed that the panel would easily deflect with the long stalk, even the wind speed is slow. In contrast, panel with short stalk would only deflect when the wind is strong. However, in term of degree of deflection, short stalk tends to deflect more than the long stalk. Hence, it would be more efficient in term of generate electric. Besides, piezo stalk that less wider can deflect easier than the one wider.

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98


C.1. B.2. Design Study Concept 1.0 .21Case Design Computation

EXPERIMENT 2:

EVALUATE WIND IMPACT ON SHORT AND LONG STALK

Variables: Constant: Panel shape Length of stalk; Type of clamp; Type of supporting element; Location Manipulating: Panel materiality Responding: Panel deflection

Result: Hard material > Soft material

Criteria to be considered: Width of panel; Length of panel (away from clamp) We found out that the concept is quite similar to the experiment about the length of stalk. Panel that made up of soft material could deflect easily even the wind is weak but with hard material, it would only deflect when the wind is stronger. Nevertheless, in term of degree of deflection, panel with hard material could deflect more, which hence becomes more efficient in energy generation.

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PANELLING ON SCULPTURE TRANSITIONAL FLOW IN TERM OF DENSITY

SURFACE

ISOTRIM(SUB-SURFACE)

DIVIDE DOMAIN2

DECONSTRUCT DOMAIN CO

With the uneven distribution definition, we came out with three separating parts in order to incorporate three different types of panel. Each part would act as an individual component to run the grasshopper definition. The surface is being iso-trimmed with 70 segment divisions at a single strip. Surface box command is used in order to create refereing box for the aligned panels to fit in to the surface. A height of 5 mm is fixed. Later, a variety of meshed geometrical panels are being explored simply by changing the input of the mesh command that connected to bounding box. Lastly, with the use of box morph, the design of panels appear on the surface. 500mm 350mm

250m

100


C.1. Design Concept

After went through the experiment, we decided on using the rectangular panel as our final choice. BOX MORPH

SURFACE BOX

MESH

2 NONSTRUCT DOMAIN2

BOUNDING BOX

different input of gemetries

HARD ALUMINIUM PANEL

Transition is made by separate into three parts, with a hierarchical reduction in term of the width. This arrangement is made according to the wind intensity at this huge site. The strongest wind will be from south and west, hence the large panels would be placed at the area near to lookout point. In contrast, at the entrance part, smallest panel is used due to the less wind impact after blocked by buildings. This is because from the tested prototype, we observed that slimmer rectangular panel will deflect easily even low wind intensity, but the degree of deflection is not that great. In addition, in term of materiality, we concern on how the hardness of the material impact on the deflection. As the wind velocity increases when the altitude is increase, we hence decided creating a hardness gradient from soft aluminium panel at bottom to hard aluminium panel at top. The panels will be attached to the secondary structure in certain angle to ensure different wind direction could hit efficiently onto the surface of the panel. Thus, it could maximise the energy power generated.

SOFT ALUMINIUM PANEL

What remained constant are the length the number of layer of stalk. All the piezo stalk would be in single layer in order to ensure it is sensitive to deflection

500mm 500mm

150mm

mm

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CONSTRUCTION FLOW

FROM FOOTING TO PIEZO INSTALLATION

Pile footing is used to anchor the sculpture deep into ground so that this high sculpture can stay firmly on the site.

Concrete slab is poured according to the base area shaped by the primary structure with reinforcement.

Primary steel structure is bolted Second to th ground slab, to ensure they would primar no move when resisting the storngand wind su bracin structu

102


C.1. Design Concept

he dary structure is screwed to the ot ry structure to act as bracing d. upport the panels. Additional ng will be further added to the ure.

Piezoelectric flooring panels are installed onto the ground floor slab.

Flapping skin panels with piezoelectric patches is bolted to the structure.. Power storage device is placed under the sculpture, which furthe linked to the electric supply source.

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PORTAL FRAME PREFABRICATED I-BEAM RIBS STRUCTURE

DIGITAL EXPLORATION

WAFFLE FRAMING

UNRO

WINDOW-LIKE FRAMING DIAMOND FRAMING CROSS-BRACING FRAMING

DISPATCHED FISH SKIN 3D TRIANGULAR PANEL

TECHNIQUE

PANEL

DIGITAL EXPLORATION

UNRO

OPENING ARC-SURFACE PANEL RECTANGULAR PANEL WITH VARIOUS WIDTH SQUARE PANEL

PULLEY JOINT TO BEAM JOINTING

DIGITAL EXPLORATION

FIXED JOINT TO BEAM

UNRO

FLEXIBLE JOINT ON PANEL SOCKET JOINT

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B.2. C.2. Tectonic Study Elelments 1.0 .21Case Design Computation

PHYSICAL EXPERIMENTS

OLL SURFACES

LASER CUT

OLL SURFACES

PAPERCUT

OLL SURFACES

LASER CUT

SELECTED CHOICES

REPEATED PROCESS OF PHYSICAL EXPERIMENT

ASSEMBLY FOR FINAL PRODUCT

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PROTOTYPING STAGE

IMPROVEMENTS FROM INTERIM TO POST-FINAL INTERIM STAGE

FINAL STAGE

DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONNECTION METHOD

CONNECTION TO STRING AND TO BEAM

horizontal direction with the use of thread

fixed joint to the beam and flexible joint to the pane

half-cutting along the edge of the panel

failure-the string would sway

a single joint with double tape at centre

flexible joint to panel (whole body movement)

joint at each edge of panel with double tape

connection of panel to structure

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C.2. Tectonic Elelments

el

POST-FINAL STAGE CONNECTION BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY STRUCTURE

socket joint to the primary structure

intersection between primary structures

connection from patch to panel

overall connection of panel to structure

107


TECTONIC EXPLORATION PHYSICAL MODELLING

+ JOINTING FROM BEAM TO PANEL This connection seems to be firmly connect the string to the beam. However, the piezo patch that attached to the panel in between the connectors are irrational in term of the scaled size. It is too small and would not be energy efficient in this case.

+ JOINTING OF FLAPPING PANEL The long spanned string resulted in the swaying effect, due to the loads supported along the string. This caused the strutural beams to bend towards each other. Thus, extra support such as bracing and cable are needed to make the structural system firm.

108


C.2. Tectonic Elements

+ JOINTING FOR WHOLE-SKIN PANEL The whole-skin panel does not show the desirable effect. There is no smooth flow between panels when wind hits on it.

MODEL AS A WHOLE The final model seems to be extreme massive. The only support of this huge structure is just the prefabricated I-beam, which hence, this sculpture wis hard to withstand the strong wind. Square panels are just too dull and less attractive.

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FINAL TECTONIC SYSTEM PHYSICAL MODELLING

1 FORM THE SOCKET AND THE STRUCUTER SEPARATELY

1 FORM THE PLATE , WHICH BOLTED TO THE STRUCUTURAL COLUMN

2 CONNECT THE SOCKET TO THE END OF THE STRUCTURE

2 CLAMP THE PIEZO PATCH TO THE PLATE

110


C.2. Tectonic Elements

3 FORM THE INTERMEDIATE JOINT

3 CONNECT THE PANEL WITH HINGE IN BETWEEN THE PATCH AND ITSELF

4 COMBINE THE END OF STRUCTURE AT THE INTERSECTION POINT

4 DUPLICATE THE PANELS TO FIT INTO A FRAME

111


EXPERIMENT WITH FINAL MODEL FLAPPING PANELS UNDER NATURAL WIND

112


C.2. Tectonic Elelments

113


STRUCTURE EXPLORATION DIGITAL EXPLORATION WITH GRASSHOPPER

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY GRIDSTRUCTURE -WINDOW-LIKE CONCEPT -ABLE TO SUPPORT IN LARGE SCALE

SINGLE STRUCTURE WITH CROSS-BRACING IN BETWEEN -MIGHT BE QUITE FRAGILE

114

PRI -TR TH ZO


C.2. Tectonic Elelments

IMARY AND SECONDARY DIAGONAL STRUCTURE RICKY IN DIAMOND SHAPE TO FIT THE PANEL IN, HUS SHIFT TO RECTANGULAR SHAPE WITH HORIONTAL AND VERTICAL ELEMENT.

WAFFLE FRAMING SYSTEM -MIGHT HARDLY REMAIN THE EDGE OF THE SHAPE -STRONG FRAME BUT HARD TO DEAL WITH PANEL -STRONG ONLY IN SMALL SCALE BUT NOT LARGE.

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRUCTURE AND PANEL CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

2

3

5

1

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C.2. Tectonic Elements

4

1

The panels are connected to the secondary structure at specific angle to ensure the different wind directions could hit on the panel efficiently. Thus, energy produced could be optimised.

2

The primary structures which run horizontally and vertically are conencted by prefabricated socket thourgh welding.

3

The panels and piezo patches are bolted to the secondary structure.

4

The secondary structure is screwed onto the horizontal primary structure.

5

The primary structure is anchored to the ground slab through bolting.

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118


C.2. Tectonic Elelments

PANEL TO STRUCTURE: BOLTING CONNECTION

CONNECTION PLATE

PIEZO PATCH

RUBBER HINGE FLAPPING PANEL

BOLT

WIRING CABLE

WIRE CONNECTION TO PATCH

9

Rubber hinge used to connect the flapping panel to the piezo patch, which allows movement when the wind blows onto the panel. Besides, the wiring is being located inside the structure to ensure the aesthetical value of the facade is not ruined.

119


120


C.2. Tectonic Elelments

PRIMARY STRUCTURE:

PREFABRICATED SOCKET CONNECTION

SOCKET TO BE WELDED TO PRIMARY STRUCTURE

Fillet welding is applied to the connection between primary structure, with socket as the intermediate joint at end of each structure. This is because welding is much stronger than bolting, thus, to ensure the primary structure is firm enough to support whole sculpture as well as resist wind, welding is the most suitable jointing method.

FILLET WELDING

121 10


122


C.2. Tectonic Elelments

PRIMARY STRUCTURE TO GROUND BOLTING WITH CLEAT PLATE

bolt metal plate

steel column grout

rebate

concrete slab vapour proof membrane

pile footing

The steel primary structures are bolted onto the rebated concrete slab with specific size of bolts. This could stabilise them and prevent them from moving when resisitng the strong wind.

123


124


C.2. Tectonic Elelments

SECONDARY TO PRIMARY STRUCTURE: BOLTING

The secondary structure is bolted to the primary structure at right angle. Equal spanning between the secondary structure is maintained to ensure the smooth flapping movement of the panels when the wind blows.

11 125


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C.2. Tectonic Elelments

GREEN ENERGY

PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT DUE TO WIND

BEFORE DEFLECTION

AFTER DEFLECTION

F

lexible piezoelectric material Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) is used as the basic component, as it could withstand unpredictable wind strength. Together, these flexible plate and film are driven to oscillate like a leaf flap in wind. The flapping motion is attributed to instability of the aero-elastic system. The basic design is to clamp one edge of PVDF element to the secondary structure and leave the other edge free. Thus, when wind blows across, it will lead to a vortex shedding and the periodic pressure difference will drive the piezo-leaf to bend in the downstream of the air wake, synchronously. AC signal is collected from the flapping piezo-panel and the electrical energy is stored in a capacitor. The wiring and capacitor components would be kept inside of the secondary structure to maintain the aesthetical value of the sculpture. Later, all these green energy would be stored at the electrical storage device, which locates underground of the sculpture. At the original state without the wind impact, the positive and negative charges in the piezo patch are mixing around. However, when wind blows onto it and caused deflection, this force would cause the polarisation of the charges that move the positive and negative charges to opposite ends as shown. The poled patch will hence produce electrical energy through the movement between negative and positive charges. At our case, the use of simply PVDF is not enough to meet the high electricity requirement, since the power generated level would just about 100pW(with the use of 2cm diameter circular cylinder as bluff boday in 5 m/s wind). Thus, by referring to a research done, we decided to attach a piece of plastic film to the end of the panel along the direction of air flow, which resulted about 100 times increase in efficiency.

127


128


C.2. Tectonic Elelments

GREEN ENERGY

PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT DUE TO STEPPING

BEFORE COMPRESSION

AFTER COMPRESSION

P

iezoelectricity is electrical energy generated from mechanical pressure. When the pressure is applied to an object, a negative charge is produced on the expanded side and a positive charge on the compressed side. Once the pressure is relieved, electrical current flows across the material. Electrical charge produced by the pressure of a single footstep is captured by floor sensors, convert to an electrical charge by the piezo material, which is usually in crystals or ceramics form and generate electrical energy through the generator. Lastly, it transmitted to the electrical storage device underground and stored as power source. Users are the main key of this design. One footstep can only provide enough electrical current to light up two 60-watt bulbs for a second, but as the number of people walking on the piezoelectric floor, greater number of energy would be generated. Hence, unlike the crowd at dance clubs and train stations, our site would not has that much people to make this piezoelectric flooring system to be efficient. Hence, our main focus of energy generative idea is the flapping panel, whilst this flooring panel would act as an add-on effect to prevent the waste of energy when users walking along the sculpture.

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130


C.3. Final Model

FINAL PRESENTATION MODEL SITE MODEL; PHYSICAL MODEL; DIGITAL MODELS

131


132


C.3. Final Model

FINAL MODEL SITE MODEL

DESIGN CONCEPT:

W

e realised that wind energy is a powerful energy source which not only able to produce energy, but also can create a visually-attractive outcome through the wind-induced movement. Hence, we decided to enhance this dynamic quality in our sculpture. From the site plan view, we locate the sculpture at the edge of the land, to ensure people from far opposite land would notice this amazing sculpture. Besides, in consideration of the future water taxi terminal, our sculpture sits at a distance which convenient to the users from the terminal, as well as playing as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;welcoming roleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; to the users. Spatial experience has been presented with the dynamic form of sculpture. From the low ceiling height at entrance to the extremely high level at the lookout point, the users could experience the transitional change in term of the height, the space as well as the flapping intensity of the panels. This is because the panels at higher point could deflect more due to stronger wind impact. In term of energy optimisation, we put the flapping panels at such a certain angles to ensure its deflection would at the greatest according to the wind direction analysis provided in data. Not only that, we also add in the human generating system-the piezoelectric flooring panels along the sculpture walkway. Hence, every step by users would automatically contribute to the green energy generation.

133


WEST

NORTH

134


C.3. Final Model

FINAL MODEL

NORTH, SOUTH, EAST, WEST ELEVATIONS

EAST

SOUTH

135


136


C.3. Final Model

FINAL MODEL VIEW AT SITE

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138


C.3. Final Model

FINAL MODEL

VIEW FROM OPPOSITE LAND

139


140


C.3. Final Model

FINAL MODEL

VIEW FROM LOOKOUT POINT

141


142


C.3. Final Model

FINAL MODEL

PERSPECTIVE VIEW ON SITE

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C.3. Final Model

FINAL MODEL

PERSPECTIVE VIEW ON SITE

145


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C.4. LAGI Brief

LAGI COMPETITION 2014 COPENHAGEN

T

he criteria set for this design competition is to produce a three dimensional sculptural form that can generate green energy, meanwhile has its aesthetical value that manages to attract the visitors to the site. This is part of the process that engaging in the vision of Copehagen to become a carbon neutral city by 2050. In our design concept, we would like the visitors to experience the dynamic spatial experience created by the form itself as well as the movement of the skin due to the wind action. Not only that, we also hope to get visitors involving in this generative system by creating the piezo-flooring panels. Every steps on the floor would exert compression force to the energy generator underneath the panel, which later convert to electrical charge. We want our sculpture to be â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;livelyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, which its external skin will not be fixed at a static form, but the panelling surface would flapping and creating movement whenever hit by the wind. At the same time, the deflected panels will generate electric signal, which transfer to the storage underneath the ground all the way down. The general form of the sculpture is originated from a series of site analysis, with the aerofoil shape to enhance the wind flow across the sculpture.

The construction of this sculpture may require a large amount of steel and concrete slab supply due to its huge dimensional form. The transportation of material will hence take a long time, thus, sufficient supply of petrol and work force are needed. Besides, during construction period will cause sound pollution to the community. Notwithstanding, these disadvantages could be traded-off once it is completed, with the green energy generation as well as serve as a leisure place for the community. It could be an asset of Refshaleoen in the future.

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C.4. LAGI Brief

GREEN ENERGY ENERGY CALCULATION

12

Eelectricity needed by 250000 houses =250000 x 1340 =335,000,000kWh per year Average wind of Copenhagen:14m/s Given short single layer PVDF stalk can produce 296 x 10-6 W at 8m/s wind speed, Thus, when the wind speed is 14m/s, the stalk (piezo patch) can produce 4.44 x 10-4W Hence, to to get the total amount of electricity that a panel could produce in a year, 4.44 x 10-4 x 3600 x 24 x 365 = 14001984 W per year By plugging in grasshopper, we manage to find out the total surface area of the sculpture, which is 17592000m2 We set the average dimension of a single panel as 500mm x 500mm, Total number of panels that cover the sculpture = 17592000/(0.05 x 0.05) = 70368000 panel In conclusion, total energy produced by flapping panels would roughly be, 14001984 x 70368000=9853 x 1011kW per year.

149


150


C.4. LAGI Brief

MATERIAL LIST TYPES AND DIMENSIONS

LIGHTWEIGHT ALUMINIUM PANEL DIMENSION: 150 X 500 250 X 500 350 X 500

13

GALVANISED STEEL STRUCTURE DIMENSION: PRIMARY STRUCTURE: 1000 X 1000 SECONDARY STRUCTURE: 140 X 140

14

151


There is a lot of knowledge that I gained through Studio Air. This studio unlike other usual studios which design is the main focus, I realised that in Studio Air, it does not only concern about the design, but also how it could be fabricated and how it will be built in the real world. Besides, I also learned to practice designing process through parametric tool, which definitely helps us to come out with an interesting output that we might not expected. Hence, with the practice on Grasshopper tool, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m begining to practice my design process by playing around with grasshopper, which could help me to boost my creativity. Through this project, I found out that how important is sustainable architecture is to the community, in order to guarantee for a sustainable future. With the smart application of architecture knowledge, there are many ways for us to engage the architecture piece with sustainable applications such as solar panel, material used with less embodied energy, green roof/wall and etc. In addition, I learned that even a small detail, such as joint, is able to alter the design concept in order to make it workable. Hence, detailing should always be considered along the process in order to ensure it could be built. In nowadays, most of these detailing and jointing parts could be accurately and easily fabricated with the aid of advancing computational approach. In our case, we managed to unroll the surfaces of the tectonic elements and laser cut them. The assembly process seems to be very efficient due to the precise cutting by laser cutter from the reference of the accurately measured digital model. In a nutshell, Studio Air is being a useful studio for me to further engage in my architectural studies.

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C.5. Learning Outcomes

153


BIBLIOGRAPHY

City of Copenhagen, Copenhagener’s Energy Consumption (2012) < http://subsite.kk.dk/sitecore/content/Subsites/CityOfCopenhagen/SubsiteFrontpage/LivingInCopenhagen/ClimateAndEnvironment/CopenhagensGreenAccounts/EnergyAndCO2/Consumption.aspx> [accessed 9 JUNE 2014} Cornell University, Flapping Leaf Generator for Wind Energy Harvesting, United States (2009) < http://www.energyharvestingjournal.com/articles/flapping-leaf-generator-for-wind-energy-harvesting-00001791. asp?sessionid=1> accessed 8 JUNE 2014 Inhabitat, Dance Floor Generates Electricity at London’s First Eco-disco!, < http://inhabitat.com/green-a-go-go-at-londons-first-eco-disco/> [accessed 9 JUNE 2014] Land Art Generator Initiative, 2014 Design Guidelines(2014)

Maria Trimachi, Can House Music Solve the Energy Crisis?, < http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/house-music-energy-crisis1.htm> [accessed 10 JUNE 2014] Ned Kahn, Chain of Ether, < http://nedkahn.com/portfolio/chain-of-ether/> [ accessed 10 JUNE 2014] Shu-guang Li, Hod Lipson & Francis C. Moon, Flapping Piezo-Leaf Generator for Wind Energy Harvesting, Cornell Creative MAchines Lab < http://creativemachines.cornell.edu/node/116> [accessed 9 JUNE 2014] Shuguang Li, xi’an Shaanxi and Hod Lipson, “Vertical-Stalk Flapping Leaf Generator for Wind Energy Havesting”, Carlifornia USA, SMASIS2009-1276, (2009): 1-9. The City of Copenhagen, Technical and Environmental Administration. “Copenhagen Solutions for Sustainable Cities.” Electricity Production from Wind Power. 23. Wikipedia, Fillet Weld (2014), < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fillet_weld> accessed q10 JUNE 2014

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Jim Nix, Copenhagen, Denmark, Photography < http://www.hdrone.com/2012/08/copenhagen-denmark/> [accessed 11 JUNE 2014]

2

The City of Copenhagen, Technical and Environmental Administration. “Copenhagen Solutions for Sustainable Cities.” Electricity Production from Wind Power. 23.

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Cassandra Pullos Lawyers, International Law < http://www.cassandrapulloslawyers.com.au/international-law/international-law.php> [accessed 10 JUNE2014]

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Dreamtimes, Royalty Free Stock Image:Male Toursit with Backpack Walking < http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-image-male-tourist-backpack-walking-isolated-white-background-image35845436> [accessed 10 JUNE2014]

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http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2009/7/24/1248458547959/Audience-watching-ashow--001.jpg

7

http://lakehealthyliving.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/HM-0314-cyclist.jpg

8

Ned Kahn, Chain of Ether, < http://nedkahn.com/portfolio/chain-of-ether/> [ accessed 10 JUNE 2014]

9

Shu-guang Li, Hod Lipson & Francis C. Moon, Flapping Piezo-Leaf Generator for Wind Energy Harvesting, Cornell Creative MAchines Lab < http://creativemachines.cornell.edu/node/116> accessed 9 JUNE 2014

10

Wikipedia, Fillet Weld (2014), < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fillet_weld> accessed q10 JUNE 2014

11

http://www.duplexfastener.com/images/fasteners_nut_bolts_

12

City of Copenhagen, Copenhagener’s Energy Consumption (2012) < http://subsite.kk.dk/sitecore/content/Subsites/CityOfCopenhagen/SubsiteFrontpage/LivingInCopenhagen/ClimateAndEnvironment/CopenhagensGreenAccounts/EnergyAndCO2/Consumption.aspx> [accessed 9 JUNE 2014}

13

http://www.myfreetextures.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/brushedsteel4.jpg

14

http://www.rcr.com.au/media/metalmate-profiles/Steel-Post.png

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Tan yeeyin 560654 journal final submission