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Module 3: Fabrication Tan Yee Ann (Ean) 573608

Module 3: Fabrication

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Revisiting Module 1: Ideation (Iterations of Designs) Starfish Iteration 1

Leaf Iteration 2

Iteration 3

Using Polings reading. Generated designs for the underbelly of the starfish.

Module 3: Fabrication

Iteration 1

Iteration 2

Generation of analytical drawings for the 2nd natural design considered. The leaf pattern was chosen. Further development would stem from iteration 3

Iteration 3

Chosen iteration Page 2

Derivation of Recipe

Leaf design This natural pattern shows a granular pattern.

Extracting of tensional and relations suggested by Poling’s reading on analytical drawings.

Simplification of the base units forming a pentagonal tessellation.

Combination of both processes. Analytical drawing used as the basis of the final paper model

Final paper model. Origin for the Development of the initial recipe

From week 3’s lesson on basic transformation lead to the derivation of the digital model deriving the recipe.

Translation of recipe into a clay model, for the module form of the lantern. I chosen the 1:5 scale to develop my design.

Final development of 3D module for digitalization.

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Recipe (that applied through out design process) 5. Complex centre as compared to the peripheral zones (differentiation of core and periphery)

1. Base unit

Base tessellation

Custom 2D panel

Custom 3D panel

Custom 3D panel Digitized paper model

Custom 3D panel

Custom 3D panel

Final model design

2. Repetition (3 layers) 3. Scaling (at the middle)

Initial Digitalization phase

Clay model interpretation of recipe

Final design module for the lantern

Edited module for lantern altered by problems faced.

4. Continuous Rotation

Initial Digitalization phase

Complexity reflected in the shadows

Complexity reflected on the illuminated lantern

Complexity reflected on the lantern

I have incorporated the recipe and embedded into my design process. Considering the base pattern, the physical structure, the lantern in illuminated the lantern in non-illuminated state and the shadow that is cast by the lantern.

Using curve attractor to represent the twisting effect on the 3D grid. having the edges rotating

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Base Module Design Model 1

Final Design Form for lantern

Model 2

Hand interaction (context lantern)

Model 3

Consideration of ways the lantern is held in Module 2. Hand interaction of the final model will be discussed later in the slides.

Final Concept in Module 1&2

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Panelling designs Panel design 1

Panel design 2

Panel design 3

Panel design 4

Panel Design 4 was chosen because 1. It had reflects the concept of core and peripheral (recipedescribed in later in the presentation) between than the other design with its central depression. 2. It follows original design closer as compared to the other 3 design which follows the basic guidelines of the recipe. Panel 2 and 3 I experimented with a thinner material. Which allowed more light to shine on the surface. Panel 1 experiments with the degree of open and closed surfaces

Module 3: Fabrication

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Revisiting Module 2: Design Base module

Slicing model for digitalization

Digitalization not representative of the design

Created the base module in Rhino.

Removal of the edges as it is not evident when panelled.

Using curve attractor to represent the twisting effect

Chosen Panel

2D panel

Digitalization of the paper model. (Origin of the recipe)

Module 3: Fabrication

Attempts to create a custom panel with the derived

Failure due to the incomplete edges. Formation of curved surfaces.

Resolution of problem through triangulation. Development of a 3D grid pattern derived from the 2D base pattern. The pattern clearly shows the relation to the complex core concept from the recipe.

3D panel

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Design concept (2 Skins) Have 2 skins to bring accentuate the concept of complex core where there is central 2D skin with a outer 3D skin. Increasing the complexity with the presence of a inner skin. Offset boarder was employed to create shadows that would interfere to reflect the theme of core complexity and peripheral scarcity. 2D panel (inner skin)

2D skin before offset face boarder

2D skin before offset face boarder

2nd skin

Testing of different offsets

3D panel (outer skin)

3D skin before offset face boarder

Module 3: Fabrication

curve attractor to show rotation( based on recipe

3D skin

Testing of lighting in Rhino Created a desired complex lighting

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Learning points from Prototype 1

Tabs on the edge of the surface.

2nd skin

Shadow effect and hand interaction

This is to connect to the 2nd skin.

Success: 1. Intricate Shadow formed shows a complex core theme. 2. Tabs - Strengthen the structure -Can be used to attach the inner and outer skin (inner skin tabs affixed in the opposite direction)

(A need to increase the height of

Prototype 1: the inner layer of the deign

the inner tabs)

2nd skin

3. 1:1 scale -Enables me to get a sense size and also the ways the hand can interact with the lantern. With a better understanding I start creating the next prototype. Resolving the problems of the this model Failures 1. Over exposed form -Unable to conceal light source and wiring 2. Structure -Not much differentiation between the inner core and outer core. ( Developed in prototype 3)

The second skin was discontinued. After testing our the effects. The second skin poses another issue, the second skin does not differ much from the inner layer hence not emphasizing the goals of the recipe

Hand interactions to Prototype 1

Learning points for next prototype 1. Offset boarder have decrease 2. Tabs have to increase in lenght.

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Prototype 2 2D skin

Steps taken after prototype 1: 1. Alteration of the offset. -Decreased the offset value (more closed form)

Creation of longer tabs such that the inner skin can be attached to the outer skin

2. Experimentation with grid -Point attractor and curve attractor (recipe’s central and peripheral concept) -to achieve a differential shadow sizes. 3. Creation of longer tabs for the joining of the 2 skins After much experimentation on Rhino I decided on a 20 x 20 grid with a 2 cm offset for the 3D grid point. I decided to add the point attractor at the front and back of the model to create a more dense form at the centre of the lantern. After which I created prototype 2.

3D skin

Prototype 2 created to test the lighting effects.

Testing of 1. Grid 2. Offset value 3. Point attractor varying offset 4. Lighting effect in Rhino

Module 3: Fabrication

Interference in the shadow created

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Learning points in Prototype 2 Resolved issues: 1 Structure - more closed form (able to conceal light source and wires) - Shadows echoes the recipe’s theme of core and peripheral - Light segments have an interference pattern.

Resolved issues:

Actions taken for Prototype 3

Interference in the shadow created

2. Score lines making it difficult to fold in the opposite direction.

Problems faced/ Failures: 1.Structure (form) -There is little Differentiation between the 2 skins. -The base form with 3 layers is also lost (recipe). 2. Folding process - model surface bending in 2 direction - Score lines have a crease formed

Problems faced/ Failures:

Actions taken for Prototype 3 1. Having combine the 2D and 3D design. Consider using different coloured card.

2. The effects of dashed lines.

2. Attempt to use dashed lines instead of score lines. The design just look like the 3D skin. Cannot clearly see the presence of the 2D skin embedded within. Evident in prototype 1 and 2

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Prototype 3 Integration of the 2 skins to make a clear distinction. Experimentation to use different card to distinguish 3 segments. This is possible due to the same base pattern differing only in the Z-plane. This reemphasis the central them/recipe on the core and peripheral concept. In the final model the card distinction facilitates the central concept and reinforces the theme.


Module 3: Fabrication


Differ in the Z-plane

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Prototype 3

Complex core evident in the shadows cast on the wall

Interference of light source. Creating a peripheral glow dimmer than the central fragment

The unexpected success of experimentation of dashed lines. Created a clear glow bringing out the design pattern

The distinction between black and ivory card carries out the distinction between the 3 layers (recipe) stronger. This was an unexpected successful experimentation.

Problems/ issues emerged. 1 Loss of the central core idea in previous 2 prototype. Solution: Design concept 2 (Central Core)

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Design concept 2 (Central Core) (Prototype 4- Improving Prototype 3) Considering the original concept of a central core replacing the inner skin with a central core (focusing on the theme/recipe)

Picture 2

Picture 3

The centralised core that sits within the structure would carry out the core concept stronger and hence the decision made.

Inserting the ellipsoid (a shrunken version of the outer model cutting out the 2 sides) into prototype 3. The tabs created outward make it difficult to close the outer skin (Picture 2). The shadow is lost, losing the interference pattern. However it created a soft glow that allows the lantern’s exterior to reflect the complex core concept (Picture 3)

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Steps towards the Final Model.

Picture 2

Experimentation of different material: Picture 2 shows the area with the translucent paper prevented any lights to leave the prototype.

Interference pattern lost: I am satisfied with the final design. However the interference pattern created and the shadow is lost.

Size issue: I also decided to shrink the size of the inner core because I had issues with closing the model.

From the experimentation with the translucent paper I decide to reject the idea. This is because it would prevent light from passing through. Which lead to the idea of having offsets along the inner core. The offsets are through the y-axis. This echoes the recipe’s complex core concept. The offset would then enable me to reestablish the interference and shadows casting effects.

Redesigning (Both puzzle making&problem solving)Testing and rendering of different offset for final model.

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Steps towards the Final Model. I also learnt that I have to attach the light into the lantern while constructing the model

Lessons from prototype 3&4: I realised that I have to build the central portion (part 2) last before encasing the core structure.

Final 2 parts of the lantern

Final Outer skin

Final Inner core.

From prototype 3&4 I learnt how the black card will have very obvious glue stains. Hence the need to be exceptionally careful in the final model.

Attaching the LED light while constructing.

For the final model I re unrolled the lantern to determine the area where the black card is located at.(in prototype 3: the black parts were randomly included)

Prototype 4: Problems with closing the model

Prototype 4: Glue stains ofn black card.

Module 3: Fabrication

Prototype 4: Uneven distribution the black and white card on the model.

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Final Model The final model has a beautiful and intricate form and shadows/lights casting. The inner core allows the lights to pass through and allowed interference to occur previously prevented in prototype 4. Because of the small opening it result in diffraction, something I learnt in physics in the past. The light distribution is caused by diffraction due to the small aperture. Hence resulting in a diffraction of the light source. The light pattern is shaped in the shape of the light (circle) which is different from the openings (triangles). Making the lamp complex (recipe).The offsets on the inner core creates an interesting light pattern on the outer skin, showing a complex centre core. The effect can only be achieve when shining on a ivory card. The distinction between the black and ivory card emphasises the complex core theme.

Diffraction- the bending of light/waves as the pass through a small opening.

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Hand interaction with the Final Model. The final model can be held in all the ways shown in the prototype as well as in the pictures of the final model.

I have decided to hold the lantern in this way as it is less tiring and it allows people to see the lantern. It allows the light to be projected forwards as well. Idiom Holding cards close to one’s chest = Keep your intended actions a secret. Correlating with the complex core theme. Where hand gestures translate the emotion across to the audience

Hand interaction in prototypes

Hand interaction with the final model

Module 3: Fabrication

Standing up and raising it in the air suggest a central core concept it physical representation as well. Page 18

Construction Process (for Prototypes and Final Model) (UNROLLING)

Unrolling steps: 1. Explode the polysurface into different segments. 2. Select different segments and join them together. -Selecting a maximum of 3 pyramid as i am using dashed lines if i were to used score lines it might be more difficult. For the 2D pattern or a 3D pyramid, I would exclude 1 triangle for each set to prevent an overlap in the unrolling process.

1. Exploded surfaces

2. Joining the pieces together

3. After which I would keep the same object and unrolled surface on the same layer with a distinct colour. ( Annotating with numbers is another alternative which could be done too). 4. Next I would nest the pieces into a 900mm x 600mm boarder and run grasshopper plug-in to create the tabs and fold lines.

3. Screen grab of how I identified different segments.

4. Creation of tabs with Grasshopper

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Construction Process (for Prototypes and Final Model) -Grasshopper Issues Grasshopper issues 1. The difficulty in creating tabs for dashed lines. It only allows single brep 2. The running of the tab lines (the imperfection of the plug-in).Hence there is a need to draw the tabs manually after running through grasshopper. 3. The issue with the grasshopper plug in is that if we want to have boarder offsets and dashed lines we need to run both the make tabs grasshopper and the make dash grasshopper plug-in to get the lines. 4. Some of my unrolled surfaces had 2 curves on the edge hence unable to run the plug-in. I only discovered this was the issue after I drew the pieces using Osnap function, an alternative is to use the Make2D function. I place the curves drawn on a different layer. I then scaled the lines by the mid point by 0.9/0.8 to ensure the edges are not cut and changed the continuous lines to dashed lines.

4. Failure to create tabs (need to manually draw curves)

2. Manual drawing of boarders.

3. Dashed lines created for inner offset.

4. Scaling the lines from the mid point.

Module 3: Fabrication

4. Photo of my screen. Scaling the lines from the mid point.

4. Scaling the lines from the mid point.

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Construction Process (for prototypes and Final Model) -Grasshopper Issues Make dash plug-in: Creates all the lines in a dashed form including the inner offset.

Make Tabs plug-in: Used the other plug-in in order to get the inner offset as a continuous line.

Other issues that arise due to the plug-in. The boarders generated either intersect or does not follow the form. In either case I will have to manually edit the lines.

Delete the dashed offset boarders on the 1st page and copy over the dashed join lines.

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Preparation for fablab on Rhino (prototype)

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Preparation for fablab on Rhino (Nesting)

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Construction process (for prototypes and final model)

Cutting the nested Rhino files with the CNC machine.

Cutting out the pieces and gluing them together.

Keeping them in the paper to locate each segment.

Placing the inner core in the outer skin.

Module 3: Fabrication

Then selecting piece by piece and attaching them together.

Using triangle clips ti hold the glue together ensuring adhesiveness. Add the LED light in and tape the wire in place.

Closing the outer skin by holding on to the tabs.

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Material used and decision made Art knife

To cut I used a art knife which I broke. Hence I use the a craft knife and scissors to trim the edges. The craft knife is preferred over the art knife. The craft knife is more resistent to stress.

The triangle clips are used to hold the tabs in place while the glue sets.

Glue tape

Craft knife

Rulers used to help the cutting of the score line to help keep the pieces on the card.

Module 3: Fabrication

8 AA battery in a plastic case

D/S tape

Double sided tape and glue tape is not strong enough to hold the structure in place. White Glue does not dry as quickly hence would require a longer time to make the model. UHU glue is prefered as it allows some error as its cohesiveness is not as strong as white glue when dried hence if mistakes are made correcting them is a lot easier.

Joining the wire s by twisting the open wire.

Led light’s wire taped on to the inner skin.

Delamination of the double sided tape and glue tape.

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Electrical setup

Reason for choice of Light: I needed a stronger source of light as the lantern has 2 layers. The light source also produces a cool white light that I was looking for. Location of the lamp: The LED light is placed at the bottom of the lamp in order to illuminate the entire lamp. The direction of the lighting is to shining out wards and not to the ground hence the location of the LED Light.

Attaching the Light: I used sticky tape to place the wire in place while I was constructing the inner core. The wire followed the path of the folds of the inner skin. It exited at the centre of the ellipsoid. The wire then continues to exit the outer skin through a offset border.

Electrical setup: The circuit is in a simple series set up with a single Light and a pack of batteries. The input voltage for the light is 9-30VDC. Hence, I chose the 8 pack battery case to optimise the time the light can be litted up. A single battery cell is 1.5 volts hence the battery pack will be a total of 12V which is within the specified range. The lantern would be able to be turn on for 45mins straight without any issues. Although the set up is in series the internal structure of the LED light is in parallel .

The exiting of the wire from the inner core. Module 3: Fabrication

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Steps taken to build the final model (exploded model) Part 4 Part 1

Part 2

Part 3 Construction order: 1. Part 1 (inner core) 2. Part 2 3. Part 3 (not closing the structure) 4. Part 4

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Part 1

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Part 4

Part 3

Part 2

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Part 2

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Part 3

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Part 4

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Final Model

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Lecture and reading analysis I Learnt that in design there are 2 processes that we have to continuously visit the concept of Puzzle making and problem solving. In the design and fabrication phase I have employed these processes the creation of my lantern. Using the puzzle making technique I consider widening my horizon by focusing on certain elements in the recipe decreasing the limitations to my design outcome. While considering the problem solving aspect such as practical ways to illuminate the lamp and positioning of the light source to achieve desired effects in line with the recipe. A practical step I took in my design was through opening a panel at the bottom of my lamp in order to on and off the lamp. Both the lecture and reading increased my horizon by revealing the myriad of technologies available in the market that can facilitate me in more complex designs in the future. As I transit from the design to the fabrication phase I related to the video shown in the lecture. It showcases people who produce hand-made designer products. Interaction with materials during the fabrication phase results in possible alterations to the design. Having both design and fabrication done by the same person is something that is rarely done in the industry of product as suggested in the video. I am pleased that the school has given us a chance to interact with the CNC machine enabling us to go through this experience of fabrication of my own design. As an aspiring architect, now being aware of the developments and problems that may arise in the transition from design to fabrication, I am will seek to understand the happenings within the manufacturing process if possible in the future.

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Lecture and reading analysis W8 reflections In this weeks reading I learnt how technology has greatly improve the flexibility and ability of our to produce complex structures. In Kolarevic’s reading shows large range of different technology is being used in the fabrication of architecture design as well as in product design. From the lecture I have learnt how customizing is becoming more accessible with the proliferation of the technology. These processes are enabled through the development in software, CNC (computer numerical control) technology and stimulated analysis. Iwamato discusses several concepts that are relevant to the fabrication process. In the reading he discusses how fabrication relates to the materials. The reading shows how materials are pushed to the limits due to the greater understanding of materials due to the advances in technology. Previously impossible designs are now made possible. He also talks about the concept discussed in the lecture on problem solving process and puzzle making process. From the lecture I can see how the topics discussed in the readings helps me realize the direction technology has shaped the design industry both in architecture and in product design. The lecture enabled me to see the examples discussed in the readings and learn the different processes taken to develop the design. The lecture also reinforces how experimentation leads to the development of a design. In the lecture the building by Frank Ghery has struck a chord in me. I see how my lantern relates to the building. It has a separate skin that has a totally different structure, which was able to show the core and complexity that I was trying to achieve. The lecture also has many amazing buildings that were raised in the readings. Chris bosses lava Digital origami feature enable light to shine both way, which created an interesting effect. The play of coloured light is something that I could consider in my design.

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M3 Fabriction (final)  
M3 Fabriction (final)  

Module 3 Fabrication presentation