Issuu on Google+

/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

åâðîïà.àðò

/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò /

europe.art

Ñîôèÿ 2007 Sofia


åâðîïà.àðò Òâîðáè îò êîëåêöèèòå íà ÌÂíÐ è ïîñîëñòâàòà íà Àëáàíèÿ, Áåëãèÿ, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ, Ãåðìàíèÿ, Ãúðöèÿ, Åñòîíèÿ, Èðëàíäèÿ, Èòàëèÿ, Ñúðáèÿ, Òóðöèÿ, Óíãàðèÿ, Ôèíëàíäèÿ, Ôðàíöèÿ, Õîëàíäèÿ è Øâåöèÿ â Ñîôèÿ 18 àïðèë – 27 ìàé 2007 ã. Ñîôèéñêà ãðàäñêà õóäîæåñòâåíà ãàëåðèÿ Äúðæàâåí êóëòóðåí èíñòèòóò êúì ìèíèñòúðà íà âúíøíèòå ðàáîòè

europe.art Works from the collections of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the embassies of Albania, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Serbia, Turkey, Sweden and United Kingdom to Bulgaria. 18 April – 27 May 2007 Sofia Art Gallery State Institute of Culture under the Minister of Foreign Affairs


/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò /

 ïúðâàòà ãîäèíà îò ïúëíîïðàâíîòî ÷ëåíñòâî íà Áúëãàðèÿ â Åâðîïåéñêèÿ ñúþç è 50-ãîäèøíèíàòà îò ïîäïèñâàíåòî íà Ðèìñêèòå äîãîâîðè âñè÷êè òúðñÿò ñâúðçâàùèòå åëåìåíòè íà ðàöèîíàëíîòî íà÷àëî íà ïðîöåñà íà èíòåãðàöèÿ, çàïî÷íàë êàòî åäèí ïî-ñêîðî ñòðàíè÷åí ïðîäóêò íà èêîíîìè÷åñêè ïðîñïåðèòåò è ëîãè÷íà õàðìîíèçàöèÿ ñ äíåøíîòî óñëîâèå, áåç êîåòî íå å âúçìîæíî áúäåùåòî íà Åâðîïà – êóëòóðàòà êàòî ïîëèòè÷åñêè èíñòðóìåíò íà èíòåãðàöèÿòà.  îñíîâîïîëàãàùèòå äîãîâîðè îò Ðèì, êîèòî òàçè ãîäèíà íèå òúðæåñòâåíî ÷åñòâàìå, ïîíÿòèåòî êóëòóðà íå ïðèñúñòâà. Ñëåä 50 ãîäèíè çà åâðîïåéñêèòå ïîëèòèöè òÿ å ïðîáëåì îò ïúðâîñòåïåííî çíà÷åíèå çà áúäåùåòî íà Ñúþçà. Èçëîæáàòà “åâðîïà.àðò”, îðãàíèçèðàíà îò Äúðæàâíèÿ êóëòóðåí èíñòèòóò ñúñ ñúäåéñòâèåòî íà Ñîôèéñêàòà ãðàäñêà õóäîæåñòâåíà ãàëåðèÿ, å ñâîåîáðàçíà ïðîåêöèÿ íà åâðîïåéñêàòà èäåÿ çà “åäèíñòâî â ìíîãîîáðàçèåòî”.  ñúáèðàíåòî è ïîäðåæäàíåòî â åäíî ïðîñòðàíñòâî íà ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ íà èçêóñòâîòî îò äèïëîìàòè÷åñêèòå ìèñèè íà åâðîïåéñêèòå äúðæàâè â Ñîôèÿ ìîãàò äà áúäàò ðàç÷åòåíè òðè îñíîâíè åâðîïåéñêè ïîñëàíèÿ: ñåìåéñòâî, åäèíñòâî, ìíîãîîáðàçèå. Âñåêè äîì ñå ïîäðåæäà îò íåãîâèòå ñòîïàíè è íîñè ñïåöèôèêàòà íà òÿõíàòà êóëòóðà è íàöèîíàëíà èäåíòè÷íîñò, íà åñòåòèêàòà è åìîöèîíàëíàòà èì íàãëàñà. Äàëè ìîæå äà ñå ïîäðåäè äîì çà åâðîïåéñêîòî ñåìåéñòâî, â êîéòî åäèíñòâîòî è ìíîãîîáðàçèåòî ñà â íîâà, ðàçëè÷íà õàðìîíèÿ? Èçëîæáàòà “åâðîïà.àðò” å îïèò äà ñå îòãîâîðè íà òîçè âúïðîñ ÷ðåç óíèâåðñàëíèÿ åçèê íà èçêóñòâîòî, êîéòî äîïóñêà ñâîåîáðàçíî íàñëàãâàíå íà ðàçëè÷íè ïî âðåìå íà ñúçäàâàíå è åìîöèîíàëíà ñúùíîñò îáðàçè, ìåòàôîðè è ñþæåòè. Îò åäíà ñòðàíà òå îòðàçÿâàò îïðåäåëåíà íàöèîíàëíà êóëòóðíà ñïåöèôèêà, íî âèäåíè â êîíòåêñòà íà ìåæäóêóëòóðíèÿ äèàëîã ïðèäîáèâàò íîâ ñìèñúë è ñå ïðåâðúùàò â äîêàçàòåëñòâî çà îáùèòå åñòåòè÷åñêè íàãëàñè ïðåç ÕÕ âåê â åäèí êîíòèíåíò, ÷èåòî èìå å ñèíîíèì íà öèâèëèçàöèÿ, íà îáùà äóõîâíà òåðèòîðèÿ.  èçëîæáàòà ïðèñúñòâàò è ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ îò íàøèòå ñúñåäíè äúðæàâè Òóðöèÿ, Ñúðáèÿ è Àëáàíèÿ. Ïîêàíàòà íè êúì òÿõ áå ìîòèâèðàíà îò äúëáîêîòî íè óáåæäåíèå â åâðîïåéñêîòî áúäåùå íà Òóðöèÿ è äúðæàâèòå îò Çàïàäíèòå Áàëêàíè. Åäíà îò âîäåùèòå çàäà÷è íà Äúðæàâíèÿ êóëòóðåí èíñòèòóò å äà ïîäïîìîãíå ïðîöåñèòå íà èíòåãðàöèÿ ÷ðåç ðåàëèçèðàíåòî íà îáùè ðåãèîíàëíè êóëòóðíè ïðîåêòè. 3


Óñïåøíîòî ïðèêëþ÷âàíå íà ðàáîòàòà ïî îðãàíèçèðàíåòî íà èçëîæáàòà íå áè áèëî âúçìîæíî áåç ïîìîùòà íà äèïëîìàòè÷åñêèòå ìèñèè, ïîêàíåíè äà ó÷àñòâàò â íåÿ. Ïðîÿâåíîòî ðàçáèðàíå è îòêðîâåíî æåëàíèå çà ñúòðóäíè÷åñòâî å íåîöåíèìî çà íàñ. Òî äîêàçâà íà ïðàêòèêà âåðíîñòòà íà òåçàòà, ÷å ïðîñòðàíñòâîòî çà îáùî åâðîïåéñêî ñåìåéñòâî å âèäèìî è ðåàëíî îñúùåñòâèìî. Áèõ èñêàëà äà èçêàæà ñïåöèàëíàòà ñè áëàãîäàðíîñò íà ðúêîâîäèòåëèòå íà ÷óæäèòå äèïëîìàòè÷åñêè ìèñèè, ó÷àñòâàùè â èçëîæáàòà. Ïðîÿâåíàòà îò òÿõ ãîòîâíîñò äà íè ïðåäîñòàâÿò ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ íà èçêóñòâîòî å îñîáåíà ÷åñò çà íàñ è ïðèçíàíèå çà äåéíîñòòà íà Äúðæàâíèÿ êóëòóðåí èíñòèòóò â ðåàëèçèðàíåòî íà åâðîïåéñêàòà èäåÿ çà åäèíñòâî â ìíîãîîáðàçèåòî. Ñ âÿðà â óñïåõà íà ñëåäâàùè ñúâìåñòíè êóëòóðíè ñúáèòèÿ è ïîæåëàíèå êúì âñè÷êè íàñ äà ïðåâúðíåì èçëîæáàòà “åâðîïà.àðò” â åäèí õóáàâ ïðàçíèê íà íàøåòî åâðîïåéñêî ñåìåéñòâî. Ëþäìèëà Äèìèòðîâà Äèðåêòîð Äúðæàâåí êóëòóðåí èíñòèòóò êúì ìèíèñòúðà íà âúíøíèòå ðàáîòè íà Ðåïóáëèêà Áúëãàðèÿ

4


/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò /

In the first year of Bulgaria's membership in the European Union and the 50th Anniversary of the Rome Treaties everybody is looking for elements that connect the rational beginning of the process of integration, which started rather as a by-product of economic prosperity, and a logical harmonisation with the current condition, in the absence of which the future of Europe would not be possible – culture as the political instrument of integration. There is no mention of culture in the founding Treaties of Rome which we are celebrating now. 50 years later European politicians consider culture of topmost priority in the discussions on the future of the Union. The ”europe.art” exhibition organised by the State Institute of Culture with the collaboration of the Sofia Art Gallery is to an extent a reflection of the European idea of diversity in unity. Three major European messages are contained in the act of collecting and exhibiting within a single space works of art from the diplomatic missions of the European member-states to Bulgaria – family, unity, diversity. A house is arranged by its owner, it bears the specific traits of cultural and national identity, aesthetic and emotional attitudes. Would it be possible to arrange a home for the European family and find a new, different harmony of unity and diversity? ”europe.art” is an attempted reply to this question through the universal language of art which makes it possible to bring together images, metaphors and plots that belong to different times or are charged with diverse emotions. On the one hand, they reflect their own national cultural environment, but looking at them from the point of view of intercultural dialogue, they acquire new meaning and become testimonies of shared aesthetic views in the 20th century throughout a continent bearing a name synonymous to civilisation and a common spiritual territory. Works by artists from our neighbouring Turkey, Serbia and Albania can also be seen in the exhibition. Our invitation to them was based on our certainty in the European future of Turkey and the states of the Western Balkans. One of the major goals of the State Institute of Culture is to support the process of integration by development of regional cultural projects. The successful launch of such an exhibition would be impossible without the support of the diplomatic missions invited to take part. We value their understanding and sincere will for collaboration. This once again reinforces the grounds for the claim that indeed, it is feasible to create a space for a common European family. 5


I would like to extend my special gratitude to the Heads of the foreign diplomatic missions who have contributed to the exhibition. We feel honoured by their readiness to provide the artworks, and their recognition of the efforts of the State Institute of Culture towards the European idea of unity in diversity. With faith in the success of future collaborative cultural events and hoping that to each and every one of us the �europe.art� exhibition will become a lovely, European family event. Lyudmila Dimitrova Director State Institute of Culture under the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Bulgaria

6


Þáåð ÐÎÁÅÐ 1733 – 1808 Ñåðèÿ ïåéçàæè, êîïèÿ íà ãàëåðèÿ “Òðóáåöêîé” Ôðàíöèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Hubert ROBERT 1733 – 1808 Series of landscapes, copies by the ”Trubetskoy” Gallery France / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

7


Óèëÿì Ëàéîíåë ÓÀËÈ 1851 – 1931 “Âúçñòàíîâÿâàíåòî íà ìîñòà Áëàêôðàéúðñ”, êúì 1868 ã. Ïðàâèòåëñòâåíà õóäîæåñòâåíà êîëåêöèÿ íà Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / William Lionel WYLLIE 1851 – 1931 ”The Rebuilding of Blackfriars Bridge”, circa 1868 UK Government Art Collection / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

8


/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

Íåèçâåñòåí àâòîð Ïîðòðåò íà Âèòî Ïîçèòàíî, êðàÿ íà ÕIÕ âåê Ïîñîëñòâî íà Èòàëèÿ

/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò /

Unknown artist Portrait of Vitto Positano, end of the XIX century Embassy of the Republic of Italy

9


Êàðåë âàí ËÅÐÁÅÐÃÅ 1889 – 1953 “Çèìà âúâ Ôëàíäðèÿ”, 1937 Áåëãèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Karel van LERBERGHE 1889 – 1953 Winter in Flandria, 1937 Belgium / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

10


Ôðàíö ÌÀÇÀÐÅË 1889 – 1972 Èëþñòðàöèè êúì ðîìàíà íà Åìèë Çîëà “Æåðìèíàë”, 1935 Áåëãèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Frans MASEREEL 1889 – 1972 Illustrations to the novel of Emil Zola ”Germinal”, 1935 Belgium / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

11


Ôðàíö ÌÀÇÀÐÅË 1889 – 1972 Èëþñòðàöèè êúì ðîìàíà íà Åìèë Çîëà “Æåðìèíàë”, 1935 Áåëãèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Frans MASEREEL 1889 – 1972 Illustrations to the novel of Emil Zola ”Germinal”, 1935 Belgium / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

12


Éîðäàí ÊÐÚ×ÌÀÐΠ1895 – 1980 Ïîðòðåò íà ïîåòà Õðèñòî Áîòåâ, 1928 Áúëãàðèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Yordan KRACHMAROV 1895 – 1980 Portrait of the poet Hristo Botev, 1928 Bulgaria / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

13


Àëâàð Ààëòî 1898 – 1976 Êóïè, 1936 Ôèíëàíäèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / AALTO, Alvar 1898 – 1976 Bowls, 1936 Finland / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

14


Ïàòðèê ÊÎËÈÍÑ 1911 – 1994 “Ìî÷óðèùå” Èðëàíäèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Patrick COLLINS 1911 – 1994 ”Swamp” Ireland / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

15


Ìàðãèò ÀÍÍÀ 1913 – 1991 “Íîêòþðíî” Óíãàðèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Margit ANNA 1913 – 1991 ”Nocturno” Hungary / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

16


Äæåðàðä ÄÈËÚÍ 1916 – 1971 “Ñòàðà æåíà è ïðàíå” Èðëàíäèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Gerard DILLON 1916 – 1971 ”An Old Woman and Washing” Ireland / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

17


Ôåðåíö ÄÎÎÐ 1918 – ? “Íàòþðìîðò”, 1962 Óíãàðèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Ferenc DOOR 1918 – ? ”Still life”, 1962 Hungary / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

18


Êàðeë ÀÏÚË 1921 – 2006 Ñåðèÿ “Âúçõâàëà íà ëóäîñòòà” I Õîëàíäèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Karel APPEL 1921 – 2006 Ñåðèÿ ”Eulogy of Madness” I The Netherlands / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

19


Êàðeë ÀÏÚË 1921 – 2006 Ñåðèÿ “Âúçõâàëà íà ëóäîñòòà” II Õîëàíäèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Karel APPEL 1921 – 2006 Ñåðèÿ ”Eulogy of Madness” II The Netherlands / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

20


Êàðeë ÀÏÚË 1921 – 2006 Ñåðèÿ “Âúçõâàëà íà ëóäîñòòà” III Õîëàíäèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Karel APPEL 1921 – 2006 Ñåðèÿ ”Eulogy of Madness” III The Netherlands / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

21


ßíîø ÁÎÆÎ 1922 – 1999 “Êëàäåíåö”, 1951 Óíãàðèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Janos BORSO 1922 – 1999 ”À Well”, 1951 Hungary / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

22


Ìîðèñ ÓÈÊÀÐÒ 1923 – 1996 “Ïåéçàæ ñ 37 îáëàêà”, 1962 Áåëãèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Maurice WICKAERT 1923 – 1996 ”Landscape with 37 Clouds”, 1962 Belgium / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

23


Ìè÷à ÏÎÏÎÂÈ× 1923 “Íàòþðìîðò” Ñúðáèÿ ¿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Mic¿a POPOVIC 1923 ”Still life” Serbia / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

24


Àíäðå ÂÎËÒÅÍ 1925 – 2002 “Òðèèçìåðíà òåëåíà êîíñòðóêöèÿ” Õîëàíäèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Andre ´ VOLTEN 1925 – 2002 ”Three dimensional Wire Construction” The Netherlands / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

25


Äæåâäåò ÁÀÒÓÐ 1930 “Êîìïîçèöèÿ ñ æåíè”, 2002 Òóðöèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Cevdet BATUR 1930 ”Composition with Women”, 2002 Turkey / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

26


Äæåâäåò ÁÀÒÓÐ 1930 “Îðêåñòúð”, 2004 Òóðöèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Cevdet BATUR 1930 ”Orchestra”, 2004 Turkey / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

27


Àííà ÌÀÄÅÍ 1932 “Òðúíëèâà çåìÿ”, 1960 Èðëàíäèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Anna MADDEN 1932 ”Burren Land”, 1960 Ireland / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

28


Äèìèòúð ÊÀÇÀÊÎÂ – ÍÅÐÎÍ 1933 – 1992 “Õàí Àñïàðóõ-681”, 1981 Áúëãàðèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Dimitar KAZAKOV-NERON 1933 – 1992 ”Khan Asparouh-681”, 1981 Bulgaria / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

29


Ïåòåð ÀÊÅÐÌÀÍ 1934 “×àòèÿòà”, 1970 Ãåðìàíèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Peter ACKERMAN 1934 ”The Gable”, 1970 Germany / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

30


ÊÐÈÑÒÎ è ÆÀÍ-ÊËÎÄ 1935 Îïàêîâàíèÿò Ðàéñòàõ, Áåðëèí, 1971-1995 Ïîñîëñòâî íà Ãåðìàíèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / CHRISTO and JEANNE-CLAUDE 1935 Wrapped Reichstag, Berlin, 1971-1995 Embassy of Germany / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

31


Äèìèòúð ÊÈÐÎÂ 1935 “Ðåêâèåì”, 1979 Áúëãàðèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Dimitar KIROV 1935 ”Requiem”, 1979 Bulgaria / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

32


Çäðàâêî ÌÀÍÄÈ× 1935 “Åñåí”, 2003 Ñúðáèÿ ¿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Zdravko MANDIC 1935 ”Autumn”, 2003 Serbia / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

33


ßí ÊÐÅÌÅÐ 1940 “Ëàëåòà”, 1979 Õîëàíäèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Jan CREMER 1940 ”Tulips”, 1979 The Netherlands / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

34


Éåðóí ÕÅÍÅÌÀÍ 1942 “Êðàëèöà Áåàòðèêñ” Õîëàíäèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Jeroen HENNEMAN 1942 ”Queen Beatrix” The Netherlands / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

35


Óëëà-Ìàéÿ ÂÈÊÌÀÍ 1943 “Ðóîõîìèòàðè”, 1996 Ôèíëàíäèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Ulla-Maija VIKMAN 1943 ”Rouhomittari”, 1996 Finland / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

36


Èíãåãåðä ÐÀÌÀÍ 1943 Êóïà Øâåöèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Ingegerd RAMAN 1943 Bowl Sweden / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

37


Èíãåãåðä ÐÀÌÀÍ 1943 Âàçà “Ñàâàí” Øâåöèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Ingegerd RAMAN 1943 Vase ”Savan” Sweden / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

38


Èíãåãåðä ÐÀÌÀÍ 1943 Ïîäíîñ “Òðúñòèêà” Øâåöèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Ingegerd RAMAN 1943 Tray ”Reed” Sweden / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

39


Êåìàë ÐÀÌÓÉÊÈ× 1947 “Äî ñòåíàòà” Ñúðáèÿ ¿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Kemal RAMUJKIC 1947 ”Next to the Wall” Serbia / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

40


/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

Íå÷ìåòèí ßÃÆÚ 1956 “Êíèæåí ïëúõ”, 2006 Òóðöèÿ

/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò /

Necmettin YAG¿ CI 1956 ”Bookworm”, 2006 Turkey

41


Äîíàëä ÒÅÑÊÈ 1956 “Ïàðêèðàíåòî çàáðàíåíî”, 1996 Èðëàíäèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Donald TESKEY 1956 ”No Parking” , 1996 Ireland / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

42


Êèðèë ÏÐÀØÊÎÂ 1956 “togetherçàåäíîensemble”, 2007 Áúëãàðèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Kiril PRASHKOV 1956 ”togetherçàåäíîensemble”, 2007 Bulgaria / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

43


Õåëåíà ÃÈÁÑÚÍ 1957 “1001 íîù” Øâåöèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Helena GIBSON 1957 ”1001 Nights” Sweden / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

44


Õåëåíà ÃÈÁÑÚÍ 1957 Êóïà Øâåöèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Helena GIBSON 1957 Bowl Sweden / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

45


Ñèéì-Òàíåë ÀÍÍÓÑ 1960 Ñåðèÿ “Áåç íàçâàíèå” I, 2003 Åñòîíèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Siim-Tanel ANNUS 1960 Series ”Untitled” I, 2003 Estonia / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

46


Ñèéì-Òàíåë ÀÍÍÓÑ 1960 Ñåðèÿ “Áåç íàçâàíèå” II, 2003 Åñòîíèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Siim-Tanel ANNUS 1960 Series ”Untitled” II, 2003 Estonia / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

47


Ñèéì-Òàíåë ÀÍÍÓÑ 1960 Ñåðèÿ “Áåç íàçâàíèå” III, 2003 Åñòîíèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Siim-Tanel ANNUS 1960 Series ”Untitled” III, 2003 Estonia / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

48


Ôàòáàðä Ìàòè ÊÀËÂÀÐÈ 1962 “Ìàñëèíåíà ïëàíòàöèÿ”, êðàÿ íà 80-òå ãîäèíè Àëáàíèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Fàtbardh Mati KALVARI 1962 ”Olive Garden”, end of 1980s Albania / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

49


Àðáåí Ðèôàò ÑÅËÈÌÈ 1963 “Ïëàíèíè”, ñðåäàòà íà 80-òå ãîäèíè Àëáàíèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Arben Rifat SELIMI 1963 ”Mountains”, mid 1980s Albania / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

50


Âàñèëèñ ÊÀÖÈÂÅËÀÊÈÑ 1969 Åòþäè íà êîíñêè ãëàâè (îò çàïàäíèÿ ìåòîï íà Ïàðòåíîíà), 1994 Ãúðöèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Vassilis KATSIVELAKIS 1969 Study on Horse’s Head (from the West Metope of Parthenon), 1994 Greece / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

51


Äæåðàëäèí Î`ÍÈÉË 1972 “Íàòþðìîðò ñ ïðàç è çåëå” Èðëàíäèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Geraldine O`NEILL 1972 ”Still life with Leeks and Cabbage” Ireland / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

52


Ñàìóèë ÑÒÎßÍΠ1975 “Êàê âèæäàø Áúëãàðèÿ?”, 2007 Áúëãàðèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Samouil STOYÀNOV 1975 ”How you see Bulgaria?”, 2007 Bulgaria / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

53


Ïîðöåëàí îò Íèìôåíáóðã Ôèãóðêè ñ íîñèè îò Äàõàó è ßõåíàó, íà÷àëîòî íà ÕÕ âåê Ãåðìàíèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Nimphenburg Porcelain Figures with national costumes from Dahau and Jachenau beginning of XX c. Germany / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

54


Ñåâúðúðñêè ïîðöåëàí Îáåëèñêèòå îò Ëóêñîð, kðàÿ íà ÕIÕ âåê Ôðàíöèÿ / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / Porcelain from Se `vres Obelisks of Luxor, end of XIX c. France / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

55


/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò /

ÀÀËÒÎ, Àëâàð (ñ. 14) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1898 ã. â Êóîðòàíå, Ôèíëàíäèÿ. Óìèðà â Õåëçèíêè ïðåç 1976 ã. Ó÷è àðõèòåêòóðà â Õåëçèíêñêèÿ òåõíîëîãè÷åí óíèâåðñèòåò îò 1916 äî 1921 ã. Ïðåç 1923 ã. ñå çàâðúùà â Éèâàñêèëà, çà äà îòêðèå ïúðâîòî ñè àðõèòåêòóðíî ñòóäèî. Ñëåäâàùàòà ãîäèíà ñå æåíè çà àðõèòåêò Àéíî Ìàðñèî. Ñâàòáåíîòî èì ïúòåøåñòâèå äî Èòàëèÿ ïîðàæäà èíòåëåêòóàëíàòà ìó îáâúðçàíîñò ñúñ ñðåäèçåìíîìîðñêàòà êóëòóðà, êîÿòî îñòàâà èçêëþ÷èòåëíî âàæíà çà Ààëòî äî êðàÿ íà æèâîòà ìó. Ìåáåëè ïî íåãîâè ïðîåêòè ñå ïðîèçâåæäàò îò ôèðìàòà Artek, íà êîÿòî Ààëòî å ñúîñíîâàòåë. Ñòúêëåíè èçäåëèÿ ñ ìàðêèòå íà Àéíî è Àëâàð Ààëòî ñå ïðîèçâåæäàò îò ôèðìàòà Littala. Ïðåäñåäàòåë íà Àñîöèàöèÿòà íà ôèíëàíäñêèòå àðõèòåêòè SAFA (ïî÷åòåí ÷ëåí îò 1958 ã.) îò 1943 äî1958 ã. Ïðåïîäàâà â Ìàñà÷óçåòñêèÿ òåõíîëîãè÷åí èíñòèòóò (Êåéìáðèäæ, ÑÀÙ) îò 1946 äî1948 ã. ×ëåí íà Ôèíëàíäñêàòà àêàäåìèÿ (ïî÷åòåí ÷ëåí îò 1968 ã.) îò 1955 ã. Ïðåçèäåíò íà Ôèíëàíäñêàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïðåç1963-1968 ã. Ààëòî å èçâåñòåí ñ õóìàíèñòè÷íèÿ ñè ïîäõîä êúì ìîäåðíèçìà. Àâòîð íà àðõèòåêòóðíè ïðîåêòè, ìåáåëè è èçäåëèÿ îò ñòúêëî. Îïðåäåëÿò ãî êàòî íàé-âëèÿòåëíèÿ àðõèòåêò îò ìîäåðíîòî òå÷åíèå â ñêàíäèíàâñêèòå ñòðàíè. ×ëåí íà Ìåæäóíàðîäíèÿ êîíãðåñ íà ìîäåðíàòà àðõèòåêòóðà. Ñðåä íàéèçâåñòíèòå ìó òâîðáè ñà êîíãðåñíàòà çàëà “Ôèíëàíäèÿ” â Õåëçèíêè è êàìïóñúò íà Õåëçèíêñêèÿ òåõíîëîãè÷åí óíèâåðñèòåò.

Åäèí îò ñèìâîëèòå íà äèçàéíà íà ÕÕ âåê å ò. íàð. “Ñàâîéñêà âàçà” (“Êîæåíèÿò áðè÷ íà åñêèìîñêàòà”), ïðîåêòèðàíà ïðåç 1936 ã. Íåéíàòà èç÷èñòåíà ôîðìà ñëåäâà îðãàíè÷íèÿ ñèëóåò è ñå ïðåâðúùà â íîâî ïîíÿòèå îò ðå÷íèêà íà àáñòðàêòíîòî â äèçàéíà íà ñòúêëåíè èçäåëèÿ. Êðèòèöèòå îáÿñíÿâàò òîâà ÿâëåíèå êàêòî ñ ïðèâúðçàíîñòòà íà äèçàéíåðà êúì åñòåñòâåíèòå ôîðìè, òàêà è ñ âëèÿíèå âúðõó òâîð÷åñòâîòî ìó îò ñþððåàëèñòè êàòî Æàí Àðï, íàïðèìåð. Íàçâàíèåòî íà âàçàòà å ñâúðçàíî ñ èìåòî íà ïîñòðîåíèÿ ïðåç 1937 ã. îò Ààëòî Ñàâîéñêè ðåñòîðàíò â Õåëçèíêè. Òàçè è äðóãè òâîðáè îò ñúùàòà ïîðåäèöà ïîëó÷àâàò Ïúðâà íàãðàäà íà êîíêóðñ, îðãàíèçèðàí ïðåç 1936 ã. îò ôèíëàíäñêèÿ ïðîèçâîäèòåë íà ñòúêëî Karhula-Iittala. Êîíêóðñúò òúðñè íîâè èäåè çà ïîðöåëàíîâè è ñòúêëåíè èçäåëèÿ çà Ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà èçëîæáà â Ïàðèæ ïðåç 1937 ã., êúäåòî ïîñî÷åíàòà ñåðèÿ å èçëîæåíà çà ïúðâè ïúò. Òÿ âêëþ÷âà ðàçíîîáðàçíè èçäåëèÿ – îò ïëèòêà ÷èíèÿ ñ âèñî÷èíà 3 èí÷à äî âèñîêà 39 èí÷à âàçà. Ìîäåëúò ïúðâîíà÷àëíî ñå ïðîèçâåæäà îò áåçöâåòíî, êàôÿâî, íåáåñíîñèíüî, çåëåíî è îïóøåíî ñòúêëî. Âàçàòà ñå èçëàãà â ìíîãî ãàëåðèè è ìóçåéíè ñáèðêè ïî ñâåòà, âêëþ÷èòåëíî è â Ìóçåÿ çà ìîäåðíî èçêóñòâî â Íþ Éîðê. ÀÊÅÐÌÀÍ, Ïåòåð (ñ. 30) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1934 ã. â Éåíà, Ãåðìàíèÿ. Îò 1954 äî 1956 ã. ñëåäâà â Ñâîáîäíèÿ óíèâåðñèòåò â Áåðëèí. Ïðîäúëæàâà îáðàçîâàíèåòî ñè âúâ Âèñøåòî ó÷èëèùå çà èçîáðàçèòåëíî èçêóñòâî â Áåðëèí ìåæäó 1956 è 1962 ã. Óäîñòîåí ïðåç 1966 ã. ñ íàãðàäàòà íà ãåðìàíñêàòà õóäîæåñòâåíà êðèòèêà, à ïðåç 1971 ã. – ñ íàãðàäàòà çà èçêóñòâî Villa Romana. Ðàáîòè ïðåäèìíî â îáëàñòòà íà ãðàâþðàòà.

57


ÀÍÍÀ, Ìàðãèò (ñ. 16) Ðîäåíà â Óíãàðèÿ ïðåç 1913 ã. Óìèðà ïðåç 1991 ã. Âúçïèòàíè÷êà íà ó÷èëèùåòî çà æèâîïèñ “Âàñàðè” (1932-1936 ã.). Ïðåç 1936 ã. â ìóçåÿ “Åðíù” îðãàíèçèðà ïúðâàòà ñè èçëîæáà çàåäíî ñúñ ñâîÿ ñúïðóã Èìðå Àìîø. Ïðåç 1937 ã. äâàìàòà çàìèíàâàò çà Ïàðèæ, êúäåòî ñå çàïîçíàâàò ñ Ìàðê Øàãàë.  ðàííèòå òâîðáè íà õóäîæíè÷êàòà ëèðè÷íèÿò ðèòúì õàðìîíèðà ñ ãðîòåñêíè åëåìåíòè. Ìåæäó 19451948 ã. òÿ ó÷àñòâà â ìíîæåñòâî ñàìîñòîÿòåëíè è ãðóïîâè èçëîæáè êàòî ÷ëåí íà Åâðîïåéñêàòà øêîëà. Îñíîâåí ìîòèâ â òâîðáèòå é ïî òîâà âðåìå å êóêëàòà - ìåòàôîðà çà ÷îâåêà, ïîä÷èíåí íà âèõúðà íà èñòîðèÿòà. Ñëåäâà ïåðèîä, â êîéòî ìàíèåðúò íà ðèñóâàíå å ïî-ñóðîâ. Îò ñðåäàòà íà 60-òå ãîäèíè íà ÕÕ âåê õóäîæíè÷êàòà ñúçäàâà îòíîâî ñöåíè, êîèòî èçëú÷âàò òó ñïîäàâåí òðàãèçúì (“Ðàçõîäêà ñ êîí”, 1967 ã.), òó äåòñêà ÷èñòîòà (“Ïðèêàçêà”, 1964 ã.). Ìîòèâúò ñ êóêëàòà å ïðåïëåòåí ñ ÷åðåí õóìîð, à ìåòàìîðôîçèòå ñà ïî÷åðïàíè îò ñþððåàëèñòè÷íèòå è îò åêñïðåñèîíèñòè÷íèòå ïðåäñòàâè. ÀÍÍÓÑ, Ñèéì-Òàíåë (ñ. 46 - 48) Ðîäåí â Òàëèí, Åñòîíèÿ ïðåç 1960 ã. Çàâúðøâà õóäîæåñòâåíî îáðàçîâàíèå ïðè Òîíèñ Âèíò â Òàëèí (1974-1978 ã.), à ñëåä òîâà è “Èñòîðèÿ íà èçêóñòâîòî” â Óíèâåðñèòåòà Òàðòó (1978-1984 ã.) Çàíèìàâà ñå ñ æèâîïèñ, ãðàôèêà è ïúðôîðìàíñ. Íåãîâè ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ ñà ïîêàçàíè çà ïúðâè ïúò â èçëîæáàòà “Íîâî èçêóñòâî îò Ñúâåòñêèÿ ñúþç”, (1976-1977 ã.) â ÑÀÙ. Ïúðâèÿ ñè ïúðôîðìàíñ ïðàâè ïðåç 1976 ã. Ïúðâàòà ìó ñàìîñòîÿòåëíà èçëîæáà å âúâ Âèëíþñ, Ëèòâà ïðåç 1978 ã. Ïðåç 1997 ã. õóäîæíèêúò ó÷àñòâà â 47-òî Âåíåöèàíñêî

58

áèåíàëå. Íåãîâà èçëîæáà å ïîêàçàíà ïðåç 2006 ã. â åñòîíñêîòî ïîñîëñòâî â Áåðëèí. Íåãîâè òâîðáè ñà èçëàãàíè â Áåëãèÿ, Èçðàåë, Êàíàäà, Ãåðìàíèÿ, Ôèíëàíäèÿ, Íîðâåãèÿ, ×åõèÿ, ÑÀÙ è äð. Ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ íà õóäîæíèêà ñå íàìèðàò â êîëåêöèèòå íà ìóçåÿ “Ëóäâèã” (Ãåðìàíèÿ), ìóçåèòå “Àòåíåóì”, “Ïîðè” è Ãðàäñêèÿ ìóçåé íà Õåëçèíêè (Ôèíëàíäèÿ), ìóçåÿ “Äæåéí Óîîðêåç Öèìåðëè” â Íþ Äæúðñè (ÑÀÙ), Åñòîíñêèÿ ìóçåé çà èçêóñòâî, Ìóçåÿ çà èçêóñòâî â Òàðòó è Íàöèîíàëíàòà áèáëèîòåêà (Åñòîíèÿ). Îò 1995 ã. ñúçäàâà ðåëåôíà æèâîïèñ ÷ðåç ñëîé îò äîëîìèòîâà ïàñòà âúðõó ïëàòíî èëè øïåðïëàò. Òàçè æèâîïèñ íàïîäîáÿâà ñâèðåíå íà ñòðóíåí èíñòðóìåíò áåç ëúê. Åäèíèÿ êðàé íà ñòðóíàòà ñå ïðèêðåïÿ êúì ãâîçäåé íà ñòåíàòà â àòåëèåòî, à äðóãèÿò êðàé ñå äúðæè ñ ðúêà. Ñ âñÿêî êðúãîîáðàçíî äâèæåíèå ðàäèóñúò ñå óâåëè÷àâà ïîñòúïàòåëíî äîêàòî öÿëàòà ïîâúðõíîñò áèâà ïîêðèòà ñ ïðåñå÷íè ëèíèè. Ðåëåôíàòà æèâîïèñ ìîæå äà ñå ðàçãëåæäà êàòî ïðåâúïëúùåíèÿ íà ôèëîñîôèÿòà íà Àðèñòîòåë. Ãâîçäåÿò â ñòåíàòà å íåïîäâèæíèÿò äâèãàòåë, íåïîêëàòèìèÿò Àáñîëþò. À òâîð÷åñêèÿò ïðîöåñ ïîðàæäà åäèí ìíîãîîáðàçåí, ïðîìåíÿù ñå ñâÿò. ÀÏÚË, Êàðeë (ñ. 19 - 21) Ðîäåí â Àìñòåðäàì, Õîëàíäèÿ ïðåç 1921 ã. Óìèðà ïðåç 2006 ã. Èçïúëíåíèòå ñ æèçíåíîñò òâîðáè íà ñâåòîâíîèçâåñòíèÿ õóäîæíèê ñà ïîæúíàëè óñïåõ â ìíîãî ñòðàíè ïî ñâåòà. Ïúðâàòà ìó ñàìîñòîÿòåëíà èçëîæáà å ïðåç 1949 ã. ñ ãðóïàòà “ÊÎÁÐÀ” (àáðåâèàòóðà îò ïúðâèòå áóêâè íà ðîäíèòå ìåñòà íà ÷ëåíîâåòå é - Êîïåíõàãåí, Áðþêñåë, Àìñòåðäàì) â ìóçåÿ Stedelijk â Àìñòåðäàì. Ñëåäâàò ìíîæåñòâî ñàìîñòîÿòåëíè èçëîæáè,


âêëþ÷èòåëíî è òðè ãîëåìè ðåòðîñïåêöèè, â Íþ Éîðê, Àìñòåðäàì, Áîñòúí, Ëîíäîí, Ìèëàíî, Ïàðèæ, Ñàí Ôðàíöèñêî è Òîêèî. Ó÷àñòâà â ïîâå÷å îò 150 ãðóïîâè èçëîæáè èç öåëèÿ ñâÿò, â òîâà ÷èñëî è íà Áèåíàëåòî â Ñàî Ïàîëî (ïîîùðèòåëíà íàãðàäà ïðåç 1953 ã. è íàãðàäà çà æèâîïèñ ïðåç 1959 ã.), Âåíåöèàíñêîòî áèåíàëå (íàãðàäà íà ÞÍÅÑÊÎ ïðåç 1954 ã.), Äîêóìåíòà III â Êàñåë, Ìóçåÿ çà ìîäåðíî èçêóñòâî è ìóçåÿ “Ãóãåíõàéì” (íîñèòåë íà ìåæäóíàðîäíàòà íàãðàäà “Ãóãåíõàéì” çà 1960 ã.) â Íþ Éîðê. Àïúë å èçâåñòåí è ñúñ ñâîèòå ïàíà â Àìñòåðäàì, Ïàðèæ è íàé-âå÷å â Áðþêñåë, êúäåòî ñúçäàâà ñòåíîïèñèòå çà õîëàíäñêèÿ ïàâèëèîí íà Ñâåòîâíèÿ ïàíàèð ïðåç 1957 ã. ÁÀÒÓÐ, Äæåâäåò (ñ. 26 - 27) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1930 ã. â Àíêàðà, Òóðöèÿ. Ñëåäâà æèâîïèñ â Èíñòèòóòà “Ãàçè” â Àíêàðà îò 1950 ã. Îò 1955 äî 1960 ã. ïðåïîäàâà æèâîïèñ è èñòîðèÿ íà èçêóñòâîòî â ðàçëè÷íè ó÷èëèùà. Îò 1960 äî 1995 ã. å ñöåíîãðàô è ðúêîâîäèòåë íà ñöåíîãðàôñêèÿ åêèï êúì Äúðæàâíèÿ òåàòúð çà îïåðà è áàëåò íà Òóðöèÿ. Ïðåç 1995 ã., ïî ïîâîä íà 50-ãîäèøíàòà ìó òâîð÷åñêà äåéíîñò å íàãðàäåí ñ îòëè÷èå íà Ìèíèñòåðñòâîòî íà êóëòóðàòà íà Ðåïóáëèêà Òóðöèÿ. Õóäîæíèêúò èçïîëçâà ñâåòëèíàòà è öâåòîâåòå ïî óíèêàëåí íà÷èí, â êîéòî ñå îòðàçÿâà ëþáîâòà êúì ïðåñúçäàâàíåòî íà ïðèðîäàòà âúðõó ïëàòíîòî. Ñðåä ïî-êúñíèòå íåãîâè òâîðáè èìà è ìíîæåñòâî àáñòðàêòíè ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ. Èçïîëçâà ìàñëåíè áîè, àêâàðåë è ãðàôè÷íè òåõíèêè. Èìà 6 ñàìîñòîÿòåëíè èçëîæáè â Ãåðìàíèÿ, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ è ÑÀÙ è 63 èçëîæáè â Àíêàðà, Èñòàíáóë, Èçìèð è äðóãè ãðàäîâå â Òóðöèÿ. Ìíîãî îò ïëàòíàòà ìó ñà èçëîæåíè â

ïðàâèòåëñòâåíè ñãðàäè (Ïðåçèäåíòñêèÿ äâîðåö è äðóãè), êàêòî è â Ìóçåÿ çà æèâîïèñ è ñêóëïòóðà â Àíêàðà. Íåãîâè òâîðáè ñà ïðèòåæàíèå è íà ÷àñòíè èíñòèòóöèè. Ïðîäúëæàâà äà ðèñóâà è äà ïðåïîäàâà â àòåëèåòî ñè â Àíêàðà. ÁÎÆÎ, ßíîø (ñ. 22) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1922 ã.  Óíãàðèÿ. Óìèðà ïðåç 1998 ã. Èçîáðàçÿâà ïðåäèìíî ïðåäìåòè îò áèòà íà óíãàðñêîòî ñåëî, ñòàðè êúùè è çàîáèêàëÿùèÿ ãè ïåéçàæ. Ðàáîòè â ðåàëèñòè÷åí ñòèë, ñ åêñïðåñèâíè öâåòîâå, áåç äà êëîíè êúì áåçâêóñåí ñîöðåàëèçúì èëè êúì êè÷îçíè ïðåäìåòè íà èçêóñòâîòî. Îò 50-òå ãîäèíè íà ÕÕ âåê íàñàì ñ êîëåêöèîíåðñêà ñòðàñò òúðñè è ñúáèðà ïðåäìåòè íà íàðîäíîòî èçêóñòâî. Ïîëóñèðàê, îòðàñúë êàòî ðàòàé÷å, õóäîæíèêúò èñêà äà ïðåñúçäàäå òîçè ñâÿò â òâîðáèòå ñè. Çàòîâà è òúðñè àâòåíòè÷íè ãëèíåíè ñúäîâå çà íàòþðìîðòèòå ñè.  äîìà ìó íà òåçè “ñòàðèííè öåííîñòè” å îòðåäåí îòíà÷àëî åäèí ðàôò, à ïî-êúñíî òå ñå ïðåâðúùàò â ñåðèîçíà êîëåêöèÿ. ÂÀÍ ËÅÐÁÅÐÃÅ, Êàðåë (ñ. 10) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1899 ã. âúâ Âóìåí, Áåëãèÿ. Óìèðà ïðåç 1953 ã. â Ãàíä. Ñëåäâà â àêàäåìèèòå çà èçÿùíè èçêóñòâî â Äèêñìóä (1908 ã.), Áðþæ, Ãàíä è Àíâåð (1911-1913 ã.).  íà÷àëîòî íà ñâîåòî òâîð÷åñòâî å âäúõíîâåí îò ïåéçàæà íà Çàïàäíà Ôëàíäðèÿ. Ñëåä êàòî ñå óñòàíîâÿâà â Ãåíò, ñþæåòèòå ìó ñà ñâúðçàíè ñ òîçè ðåãèîí, à ñúùî è ñ ìîðñêè èçãëåäè è íàòþðìîðòè ñ öâåòÿ. Ñëåä ïúòóâàíå â Þæíà Ôðàíöèÿ ðèñóâà ïàíîðàìè. Ðàáîòè â èìïðåñèîíèñòè÷åí ñòèë. Íåãîâè ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ ñå íàìèðàò â ìóçåè â Áðþêñåë, Ãàíä, Ëóâåí. ×ëåí å íà

59


õóäîæåñòâåíèÿ êðúã â Èçåð.Òàì èçïúëíÿâà è âîåííàòà ñè ñëóæáà ïî âðåìå íà Ïúðâàòà ñâåòîâíà âîéíà. Äî 1927 ã. å ñåêðåòàð íà Âóìåíñêàòà îáùèíà. ÂÈÊÌÀÍ, Óëëà-Ìàéÿ (ñ. 36) Ðîäåíà ïðåç 1943 ã. â Îóëó, Ôèíëàíäèÿ. Ðàáîòè â îáëàñòòà íà èíäóñòðèàëíèÿ äèçàéí è òåêñòèëà. Ïðåç 2002 ã. çàâúðøâà ìàãèñòðàòóðà â Óíèâåðñèòåòà ïî èíäóñòðèàëåí äèçàéí. Ïðåç 1992 ã. å îòëè÷åíà êàòî Õóäîæåñòâåí äèçàéíåð íà ãîäèíàòà. Àñèñòåíò â Óíèâåðñèòåòà çà èíäóñòðèàëåí äèçàéí (1974-1976ã.). Îò 1975 ã. ðàáîòè â ñîáñòâåíî ÷àñòíî àòåëèå. Ðúêîâîäèòåë íà ñïåöèàëíîñòòà “Äèçàéí” â Óíèâåðñèòåòà â Õåëçèíêè (1980-1986 ã.). Äèçàéíåð â ó÷åáíèÿ öåíòúð íà Óíèâåðñèòåòà ïî èíäóñòðèàëåí äèçàéí (1986-1993 ã.). Ïðåç 1993 ã. ïîëó÷àâà 15-ãîäèøíà äúðæàâíà ñòèïåíäèÿ çà èçêóñòâî. Èìà ìíîæåñòâî ñàìîñòîÿòåëíè èçëîæáè âúâ Ôèíëàíäèÿ, Êàíàäà, ÑÀÙ, Øâåöèÿ, Ãåðìàíèÿ, êàêòî è ãðóïîâè èçëîæáè ñ õóäîæíèöè îò Ïîëøà, Ãåðìàíèÿ, Íîðâåãèÿ, Èòàëèÿ, Øâåöèÿ, Èñëàíäèÿ, Óíãàðèÿ, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ, Øâåéöàðèÿ, Äàíèÿ, Ôðàíöèÿ, Áåëãèÿ, Èñïàíèÿ, Àâñòðàëèÿ è ÑÀÙ. ÂÎËÒÅÍ, Àíäðå (ñ. 25) Ðîäåí â Àíäàéê, Õîëàíäèÿ ïðåç 1925 ã. Óìèðà â Àìñòåðäàì ïðåç 2002 ã. Çàïî÷âà ïðåç 1946 ã. òâîð÷åñêèÿ ñè ïúò êàòî æèâîïèñåö, à ñëåä 1953 ã. ñúçäàâà ãåîìåòðè÷íî-àáñòðàêòíè ñêóëïòóðè, ñ êîèòî ñå íàðåæäà ñðåä õàðàêòåðíèòå çà ñëåäâîåííîòî ïîêîëåíèå õîëàíäñêè àâòîðè.  íà÷àëîòî íà 50-òå ãîäèíè íà ÕÕ â. ñå óñòàíîâÿâà â Àìñòåðäàì-Íîîðä, êúäåòî ðåäîâíî ìîæåë äà áúäå âèäÿí äà

60

åêñïåðèìåíòèðà ñ ðàçëè÷íè ñãëîáêè â êîðàáîñòðîèòåëíèöèòå. Ñëåä 50-òå ãîäèíè íà ÕÕ âåê ñå ïîñâåùàâà ïî-ïëàìåííî îò êîéòî è äà å äðóã ñâîé ñúâðåìåííèê íà ñêóëïòóðàòà çà îòêðèòî ïðîñòðàíñòâî. Íàðåä ñ ìíîæåñòâîòî òâîðáè, êîèòî ðåàëèçèðà â ñòðàíà è ÷óæáèíà, òîé äîïðèíàñÿ çíà÷èòåëíî çà äåáàòà îòíîñíî íóæäàòà îò èçêóñòâî â ïóáëè÷íîòî ïðîñòðàíñòâî. Èíòåãðàöèÿòà íà àðõèòåêòóðà è ïëàñòè÷íè èçêóñòâà, êîÿòî ñå ïîñòèãà â íåãîâîòî òâîð÷åñòâî, äîêàçâà, ÷å àðõèòåêòóðà è èçÿùíè èçêóñòâà ìîãàò äà ñå äîïúëâàò âçàèìíî è äà ñå ïîäêðåïÿò. Ïðåç 1966 ã. ìóçåÿò Stedelijk â Àìñòåðäàì ìó ïîñâåùàâà èçëîæáà. Ïðåç 1996 ã. ïîëó÷àâà íàãðàäà çà öÿëîñòíî òâîð÷åñòâî îò Ôîíäà çà ïëàñòè÷íè èçêóñòâà, äèçàéí è àðõèòåêòóðà. Ïîääúðæà áëèçêè îòíîøåíèÿ ñ êðàëñêîòî ñåìåéñòâî è å ÷åñò òåõåí ãîñò. Ñúâåòíèê íà êðàëèöà Áåàòðèêñ ïðè îðãàíèçàöèÿòà íà ðàçëè÷íè ñúáèòèÿ â íåéíèÿ äâîðåö. Ïðåç 1998 ã. å îòëè÷åí îò êðàëèöàòà ñ ïî÷åòåí ìåäàë çà èçêóñòâî è íàóêà.  íà÷àëîòî íà 2002 ã. ìó å âúçëîæåíà èçðàáîòêàòà íà ñêóëïòóðà çà ãðàäèíàòà íà ïðèíö Âèëåì-Àëåêñàíäúð ïî ïîâîä áðàêà ìó ñ Ìàêñèìà. Òàçè ñòàòóÿ îñòàâà íåäîâúðøåíà. Íàé-äîáðèòå òâîðáè íà õóäîæíèêà ñà ÷èñòèòå ãåîìåòðè÷íè ôîðìè. Íåãîâèòå ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ ñà áåç çàãëàâèÿ. Íàé-èçâåñòíèòå ìó òâîðáè ñå íàìèðàò â Àìñòåðäàìñêèÿ ìóçèêàëåí òåàòúð, íà ïëîùàäèòå Jaarbeursplein â Óòðåõò è Frederiksplein â Àìñòåðäàì. ÃÈÁÑÚÍ, Õåëåíà (ñ. 44 - 45) Ðîäåíà ïðåç 1957 ã. â Øâåöèÿ. Ó÷è â Glasskolan â Îðåôîð (1980-82 ã.) è â Pilchuch Glasscenter â Ñèàòúë, ÑÀÙ (1985 ã.) Èçâåñòíà øâåäñêà àâòîðêà íà ñúâðåìåííè ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ îò ñòúêëî.


ÄÈËÚÍ, Äæåðàðä (ñ. 17) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1916 ã. â Áåëôàñò, Èðëàíäèÿ. Óìèðà ïðåç 1971 ã. Íÿìà àêàäåìè÷íî îáðàçîâàíèå ñ èçêëþ÷åíèå íà êðàòêî îáó÷åíèå â êîëåæà çà èçêóñòâî â Áåëôàñò. Êàðòèíèòå ìó ÷åñòî ïðåäñòàâÿò àâòîáèîãðàôè÷íè äîìàøíè ñöåíè, à ïåéçàæèòå è ôèãóðàëíèòå êîìïîçèöèè îòðàçÿâàò Çàïàäíà Èðëàíäèÿ, êîÿòî å èçòî÷íèê íà âäúõíîâåíèå çà ìíîçèíà õóäîæíèöè. Íåãîâèòå ñþæåòè ñà ñâúðçàíè ÷åñòî ñ Áåëôàñò è äîìà ìó â Ëîíäîí. ÄÎÎÐ, Ôåðåíö (ñ. 18) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1918 ã. Ãîäèíàòà íà ñìúðòòà ìó å íåèçâåñòíà. Çàâúðøâà Êîëåæà çà èçîáðàçèòåëíè èçêóñòâà â Áóäàïåùà ïðåç 1941 ã., âúçïèòàíèê íà Èùâàí Ñþíè.  íåãîâè��å êàðòèíè ñå ñú÷åòàâàò ðàçëè÷íè òåíäåíöèè íà ñúâðåìåííàòà æèâîïèñ. Òå ñå îòëè÷àâàò ñ èíòåíçèâíà öâåòíîñò, ñ èç÷èñòåí è àâòîíîìåí æèâîïèñåí åçèê, ÷ðåç êîéòî õóäîæíèêúò ñïîäåëÿ ñâîÿòà ôèëîñîôèÿ. Ïðåäïî÷èòà äà ðèñóâà íàòþðìîðòè è ïåéçàæè, â êîèòî ïðåñúçäàâà õúëìîâåòå îêîëî åçåðîòî Áàëàòîí è áðåãîâåòå íà ðåêà Òèñà. Íîñèòåë íà ïðåñòèæíè íàãðàäè çà èçîáðàçèòåëíî èçêóñòâî. Òâîð÷åñòâîòî ìó å ñâúðçàíî ñ ìíîæåñòâî èçëîæáè â ðîäèíàòà ìó Óíãàðèÿ, âúâ Ôðàíöèÿ, Èòàëèÿ è Ãåðìàíèÿ. Íåãîâè ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ ñà ñîáñòâåíîñò íà Óíãàðñêàòà íàöèîíàëíà ãàëåðèÿ, íà áúëãàðñêè ìóçåè â Ãàáðîâî, Ñòðàæèöà è Ïëîâäèâ. ÊÀÇÀÊΠ– ÍÅÐÎÍ, Äèìèòúð (ñ. 29) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1933 ã. â ñåëî Öàðñêè Èçâîð, Âåëèêîòúðíîâñêî, Áúëãàðèÿ. Óìèðà ïðåç 1992 ã. â Ñîôèÿ. Çàâúðøâà ñïåöèàëíîñòòà “Ãðàôèêà” â Õóäîæåñòâåíàòà àêàäåìèÿ â Ñîôèÿ

ïðåç 1965 ã. Òâîðè â îáëàñòòà íà æèâîïèñòà, ãðàôèêàòà, ìîíóìåíòàëíàòà äúðâîïëàñòèêà è êåðàìèêàòà. Îò 1966 ã. ó÷àñòâà â èçëîæáè è îðãàíèçèðà ñàìîñòîÿòåëíè èçÿâè â Áúëãàðèÿ è ÷óæáèíà. Íåãîâè æèâîïèñíè ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ ñà ïðèòåæàíèå íà ÷àñòíè è äúðæàâíè êîëåêöèè, âêëþ÷èòåëíî íà Íàöèîíàëíèÿ ôîíä çà ñúâðåìåííî èçêóñòâî â “Ëóâúðà”, ìîñêîâñêèÿ ìóçåé “Ïóøêèí” è Èìïåðàòîðñêàòà êîëåêöèÿ â Òîêèî. ÊÀËÂÀÐÈ, Ôàòáàðäõ Ìàòè (ñ. 49) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1962 ã. â Àëáàíèÿ. Çàâúðøâà Õóäîæåñòâåíàòà àêàäåìèÿ â Òèðàíà ïðåç 1989 ã. Ðàáîòè â ïðîäúëæåíèå íà íÿêîëêî ãîäèíè âúðõó ðåñòàâðèðàíå íà öúðêâè â Ãúðöèÿ, ÑÀÙ è Êàíàäà. Ó÷àñòâà â èçëîæáè â ñòðàíàòà è ÷óæáèíà ñ àáñòðàêòíè è åêñïðåñèîíèñòè÷íè êàðòèíè. ÊÀÖÈÂÅËÀÊÈÑ, Âàñèëèñ (ñ. 51) Ðîäåí â Êîðèäàëîñ, Àòèêà, Ãúðöèÿ ïðåç 1969 ã. Èçó÷àâà æèâîïèñ, ñêóëïòóðà è ñöåíîãðàôèÿ â Àòèíñêîòî ó÷èëèùå çà èçÿùíè èçêóñòâà. Ñòèïåíäèàíò íà Ãðúöêàòà äúðæàâíà ôîíäàöèÿ ïðåç 1990, 1993 è 1994 ã. ×ëåí íà Àñîöèàöèÿòà íà ó÷èòåëèòå ïî èçêóñòâà, íà Ôåäåðàöèÿòà íà ó÷èòåëèòå îò ñðåäíèòå ó÷èëèùà, êàêòî è íà Êàìåðàòà ïî èçêóñòâà. Àêòèâåí ÷ëåí (è áèâø çàìåñòíèêïðåäñåäàòåë) íà Àñîöèàöèÿòà íà âúçïèòàíèöèòå íà Àòèíñêîòî ó÷èëèùå çà èçÿùíè èçêóñòâà. Îò 1995 ã. äî ìîìåíòà ïðåïîäàâà èçêóñòâî, èñòîðèÿ íà èçêóñòâîòî è ñêèöèðàíå â äúðæàâíè ãèìíàçèè â Àòèíà è âîäè àòåëèåòà íà èçêóñòâàòà â ×àëêèäà è Êîðèäàëîñ. Îò ôðîíòîíà íà Ïàðòåíîíà å çàïàçåí ôðàãìåíò ñ êîí îò

61


êîëåñíèöàòà íà Õåëèîñ – âëàñòåëèíà íà ñëúí÷åâèòå ëú÷è.  àòåëèåòî íà õóäîæíèêà òîé ñòàâà ÷àñò îò èãðàòà íà âúîáðàæåíèåòî è ñÿêàø ñå ïðèäâèæâà ïî øàõìàòíàòà äúñêà íà Âðåìåòî. ÊÈÐÎÂ, Äèìèòúð (ñ. 32) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1935 ã. â Èñòàíáóë. Çàâúðøâà ìîíóìåíòàëíà æèâîïèñ â Õóäîæåñòâåíàòà àêàäåìèÿ â Ñîôèÿ ïðåç 1959 ã. Ïî÷åòåí ÷ëåí íà ãðóïàòà íà ÿïîíñêèòå õóäîæíèöè “Íèêà-Êàé”. Íåãîâèòå ïúðâè ñòúïêè â æèâîïèñòà ñúâïàäàò ñ âðåìåòî íà ÿðêèòå è ñèëíî îñïîðâàíè íîâè òúðñåíèÿ â áúëãàðñêîòî èçîáðàçèòåëíî èçêóñòâî.  ñòèëà íà õóäîæíèêà ôèãóðàòèâíîñòòà è àáñòðàêöèÿòà ñå äîïúëâàò âçàèìíî. Ñúçäàâà äåñåòêè äåêîðàòèâíî-ìîíóìåíòàëíè òâîðáè. Îðãàíèçèðà íàä 40 ñàìîñòîÿòåëíè èçëîæáè â ñòðàíàòà è â ÷óæáèíà. Íåãîâè êàðòèíè ïðèòåæàâàò Íàöèîíàëíàòà õóäîæåñòâåíà ãàëåðèÿ, Ñîôèéñêàòà ãðàäñêà õóäîæåñòâåíà ãàëåðèÿ è ãàëåðèèòå â Áúëãàðèÿ, ìóçåè è ÷àñòíè êîëåêöèè â Áúëãàðèÿ, Àðìåíèÿ, Áåëãèÿ, Âåíåöóåëà, Ãåðìàíèÿ, Ãðóçèÿ, Ãúðöèÿ, Äàíèÿ, Èñïàíèÿ, Êàíàäà, Êèïúð, Ìåêñèêî, Ðóñèÿ, Òóðöèÿ, Ôðàíöèÿ, Õîëàíäèÿ, ×åõèÿ, Øâåéöàðèÿ, Øâåöèÿ, ßïîíèÿ. Íîñèòåë å íà ïðåñòèæíè íàöèîíàëíè îòëè÷èÿ. Æèâåå â Ïëîâäèâ. ÊÎËÈÍÑ, Ïàòðèê (ñ. 15) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1911 ã. â Ñëàéãî, Èðëàíäèÿ. Óìèðà ïðåç 1994 ã. Ïîëó÷àâà õóäîæåñòâåíîòî ñè îáðàçîâàíèå â Èðëàíäñêàòà êðàëñêà àêàäåìèÿ ïî èçêóñòâàòà è Íàöèîíàëíèÿ êîëåæ çà èçêóñòâî è äèçàéí â Äúáëèí. Òâîðáèòå ìó ñà ïîâëèÿíè îò èðëàíäñêèòå ïåéçàæè, íàðîä è äóøåâíîñò. Æèâåå íÿêîëêî ãîäèíè âúâ Ôðàíöèÿ.

62

ÊÐÅÌÅÐ, ßí (ñ. 34) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1940 ã. â Åíñõåäå, òî÷íî ïðåäè Âòîðàòà ñâåòîâíà âîéíà äà ñå ðàçðàçè íàä Õîëàíäèÿ. Áàùà ìó, ßí Êðåìåð-ñòàðøè, ïðàêòèêóâà ðàçëè÷íè ïðîôåñèè, ìåæäó êîèòî è ïèñàíåòî íà ïúòåïèñè, ôîòîãðàôèÿ è æóðíàëèñòèêà. Îò íåãî õóäîæíèêúò íàñëåäÿâà ñòðàñòòà êúì ïèñàíåòî. Ëþáîâ êúì ðèñóâàíåòî è ÷åòåíåòî ìó ïðåäàâà íåãîâàòà ìàéêà, êîÿòî å óíãàðêà. Ñëåä òåæêèòå âîåííè ãîäèíè â Åíñõåäå, òîé å îñòàâåí íà ïîïå÷èòåëñòâîòî íà äúðæàâàòà è íà 14-ãîäèøíà âúçðàñò å èçïðàòåí äà ðàáîòè âúâ ôàáðèêà. Ïðåêàðâà êðàòúê ïåðèîä âúâ âîåííîìîðñêèòå ñèëè, ñëåä êîåòî ïëàâà ñ ìàëêè òúðãîâñêè êîðàáè, íàé-÷åñòî äî ðóñêè ïðèñòàíèùà. Ñëåä ìîðÿøêèòå ñè ãîäèíè ïúòåøåñòâà èç Ãåðìàíèÿ, Èòàëèÿ è Ôðàíöèÿ. Ïðåç 1958 ã. ñå óñòàíîâÿâà â Ïàðèæ. Äîêàòî ñìåíÿ ðàáîòàòà ñè ó÷è íÿêîëêî ìåñåöà â õóäîæåñòâåíèòå àêàäåìèè â Àðíõåì è Õàãà, à ïî-êúñíî â Ïàðèæ âçåìà óðîöè ïî æèâîïèñ è ãðàôè÷íè òåõíèêè. Îùå ñ ïúðâèòå ñè ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ ñå ïðîÿâÿâà êàòî õóäîæíèê, êîéòî æèâåå, çà äà òâîðè. Ïî ïîâîä íà ïúðâàòà ìó ñàìîñòîÿòåëíà èçëîæáà ïðåç 1953 ã. â ãàëåðèÿ Äå Ïîñòõîîðí â Õàãà, êðèòèöèòå, âñå îùå íå ñúâçåëè ñå íàïúëíî îò ìåòåæíîòî âúçäåéñòâèå íà ãðóïàòà “ÊÎÁÐÀ”, ãî íàðè÷àò “äèâî æèâîòíî”. Åäíà ãîäèíà ïî-êúñíî íåãîâè ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ ñà èçëîæåíè â Gemeentemuseum â Õàãà, à ïî-êúñíî â Stedelijk Museum â Àìñòåðäàì. Æèâåå òðè ãîäèíè íà îñòðîâ Èáèöà, êúäåòî å ñâúðçàí ñ Grupo Ibiza. Ïî òîâà âðåìå ðàáîòè è âúðõó ïúðâàòà ñè êíèãà “Àç, ßí Êðåìåð”. Êîãàòî ïðåç 1964 ã. èçëèçà îò ïå÷àò, òÿ ïðåäèçâèêâà èñòèíñêà êóëòóðíà ðåâîëþöèÿ è ìèëèîíè êîïèÿ ñå ïðîäàâàò ïî öåëèÿ ñâÿò. Ñëåäâàò


ïîâå÷å îò ñòî èçëîæáè íà íåãîâèòå êàðòèíè èç ìóçåè è ãàëåðèè íå ñàìî â Õîëàíäèÿ, íî è â ìíîãî äðóãè ñòðàíè. Ïðîäúëæàâàéêè äà ðèñóâà, Êðåìåð ïèøå è äðóãè êíèãè. Òîé èçîñòàâÿ àáñòðàêòíèÿ ñòèë íà åêñïåðèìåíòàëíàòà æèâîïèñ è ñå îòäàâà íà èçîáðàçÿâàíåòî íà ïîëÿ ñ ëàëåòà è äðóãè òèïè÷íè õîëàíäñêè ïåéçàæè. Ñëåäâàò ìíîãî ãîäèíè íà ïúòåøåñòâèÿ, ðèñóâàíå íà æèâîïèñ è ïèñàíå íà ïúòåïèñè, êîèòî ñà ïóáëèêóâàíè âúâ âîäåùè âåñòíèöè è ñïèñàíèÿ. Õóäîæíèêúò ïðîäúëæàâà äà ñú÷åòàâà ðàáîòàòà ñúñ ñòðàñòòà ñè ïî ïúòåøåñòâèÿ. Ïîíÿêîãà îòñúñòâà ïî ïîëîâèí ãîäèíà, íî íàïîñëåäúê âñå ïî-÷åñòî ñå çàäúðæà â äîìà ñè â Àìñòåðäàì. ÊÐÈÑÒÎ è ÆÀÍ-ÊËÎÄ (ñ. 31) Àìåðèêàíöèòå Êðèñòî è Æàí-Êëîä, ðîäåíè â åäèí è ñúùè äåí íà åäíà è ñúùà ãîäèíà – 13 þíè 1935 ã. (Õðèñòî ßâàøåâ ïðîèçõîæäà îò èçâåñòåí ãàáðîâñêè ðîä â Áúëãàðèÿ, à Æàí-Êëîä Äåíà äüî Ãèéåáîí å îò ñåìåéñòâî íà âèñø ôðåíñêè âîåíåí) çàìèñëÿò è îñúùåñòâÿâàò ìíîæåñòâî ïðîåêòè, êîèòî èì äîíàñÿò ñâåòîâíà ñëàâà. Ìåæäó 1976 è 1995 ã. òå ïðàâÿò 54 ïîñåùåíèÿ â Ãåðìàíèÿ è ñå ñâúðçâàò ñ 352 ÷ëåíîâå íà Áóíäåñòàãà (ïàðëàìåíòà íà Ãåðìàíèÿ). Øåñòèìà ïðåäñåäàòåëè íà ïàðëàìåíòà ñà àíãàæèðàíè ñ ïðîåêòà “Îïàêîâàíåòî íà Ðàéõñòàãà” (1971-1995 ã.), êîéòî å íå ñàìî ðåçóëòàò îò 24-ãîäèøíèÿ òðóä íà õóäîæíèöèòå, íî è íà äúëãîãîäèøíàòà èì ðàáîòà â åêèï ñ Ìàéêúë Ñ. Êúëúí, Âîëôãàíã è Ñèëâèÿ Âîëö è Ðîëàíä Ñïåêúð. Ðàéõñòàãúò ñå èçäèãà â åäèí îòêðèò è îñîáåíî ìåòàôèçè÷åí ðàéîí íà Áåðëèí. Ñãðàäàòà ïðåìèíàâà ïðåç ìíîæåñòâî ïðîìåíè è ïðåâðàòíîñòè – èçãðàäåíà ïðåç 1894 ã., èçãîðÿëà ïðåç 1933 ã., ïî÷òè èçöÿëî ðàçðóøåíà ïðåç 1945 ã. ,òÿ å

ðåñòàâðèðàíà ïðåç 60-òå ãîäèíè íà ÕÕ â. êàòî çàâèíàãè îñòàâà ñèìâîë íà äåìîêðàöèÿòà. ÊÐÚ×ÌÀÐÎÂ, Éîðäàí (ñ. 13) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1895 ã. â Ðàçãðàä, Áúëãàðèÿ. Óìèðà ïðåç 1980 ã. Ïðåç 1921-1922 ã. ñëåäâà â Äúðæàâíàòà õóäîæåñòâåíà àêàäåìèÿ â Ñîôèÿ, à ïðåç 1923-1925 ã. ó÷è ñêóëïòóðà â Ìþíõåíñêàòà õóäîæåñòâåíà àêàäåìèÿ. Òàì ïîëó÷àâà äèïëîì ñ ïúðâà íàãðàäà è ñòàâà ïúðâèÿò ÷óæäåíåö, çàâîþâàë òîâà âèñîêî îòëè÷èå â èñòîðèÿòà íà ñúçäàäåíîòî â íà÷àëîòî íà ÕIÕ âåê ñâåòîâíî ïðèçíàòî âèñøå ó÷èëèùå. Ïðåç 1925-1926 ã. ñëåäâà ñêóëïòóðà â Ñîôèÿ. Ðàáîòè àêòèâíî â îáëàñòòà íà ïîðòðåòà, ôèãóðàëíàòà êîìïîçèöèÿ, ãîëîòî òÿëî è ìîíóìåíòàëíàòà ñêóëïòóðà. Ó÷àñòâà â ñâåòîâíèòå èçëîæåíèÿ â Ïàðèæ, êúäåòî å îòëè÷åí ñúñ çëàòåí ìåäàë (1937 ã.) è âúâ Âåíåöèÿ (1942 ã.). Îò 1927 ã. ó÷àñòâà â îáùèòå õóäîæåñòâåíè èçëîæáè â Áúëãàðèÿ. Íåãîâè òâîðáè ïðèòåæàâàò Íàöèîíàëíàòà õóäîæåñòâåíà ãàëåðèÿ, Ñîôèéñêàòà ãðàäñêà õóäîæåñòâåíà ãàëåðèÿ è äðóãè ãàëåðèè â Áúëãàðèÿ, ÷àñòíè êîëåêöèîíåðè. Îòíîøåíèåòî ìó êúì ïîðòðåòíèÿ æàíð ñå îòëè÷àâà ñ ðàâíîâåñèå ìåæäó ðåàëèñòè÷íîòî ïðåäàâàíå íà ôèçè÷åñêèòå îñîáåíîñòè íà ìîäåëà è ïñèõîëîãè÷åñêîòî ïðåñúçäàâàíå íà íåãîâèÿ åìîöèîíàëåí ñâÿò. Ñðåä íàé-èçâåñòíèòå ìó ïîðòðåòè ñà òåçè íà Õðèñòî Áîòåâ (1928 ã.) è íà Âàñèë Ëåâñêè (1943 ã.), íà âèäíè ëè÷íîñòè îò îáëàñòòà íà íàóêàòà è êóëòóðàòà (ãàëåðèÿ, ñúçäàäåíà ãëàâíî ïðåç 30-òå è 40-òå ãîäèíè íà ÕÕ âåê).

63


ÌÀÇÀÐÅË, Ôðàíö (ñ. 11 - 12) Ðîäåí â ñåëèùåòî Áëàíêåíáåðã â Áåëãèÿ ïðåç 1889 ã. Óìèðà â Ãåíò ïðåç 1972 ã. Ïðåìåñòâà ñå â Ãåíò ïðåç 1896 ã. è íà 18-ãîäèøíà âúçðàñò ïîñòúïâà â Ó÷èëèùåòî ïî èçÿùíè èçêóñòâà ïðè Æàí Äåëâèí. Ïðåç 1909 ã. ïîñåùàâà Àíãëèÿ è Ãåðìàíèÿ, êîèòî ãî âäúõíîâÿâàò çà ïúðâèòå ìó ãðàôè÷íè ëèñòîâå è ãðàâþðè âúðõó äúðâî. Îò 1911 ã. æèâåå â Ïàðèæ â òå÷åíèå íà ÷åòèðè ãîäèíè, à ñëåä òîâà åìèãðèðà â Øâåéöàðèÿ, êúäåòî ðàáîòè êàòî ãðàôè÷åí äèçàéíåð â ðàçëè÷íè ñïèñàíèÿ. Ïðèäîáèâà ìåæäóíàðîäíà èçâåñòíîñò ñúñ ñâîèòå ñåðèè ãðàâþðè âúðõó äúðâî, íàñèòåíè íàé-âå÷å ñúñ ñîöèàëíîêðèòè÷íè ñþæåòè è åêñïðåñèîíèñòè÷íè êîíöåïöèè çà ôîðìà. Ïî ñúùîòî âðåìå ïðàâè èëþñòðàöèè êúì íÿêîè îò íàéèçâåñòíèòå ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ îò ñâåòîâíàòà ëèòåðàòóðà, â òîâà ÷èñëî îò àâòîðè êàòî Òîìàñ Ìàí, Åìèë Çîëà è Ñòåôàí Öâàéã. Ïðåç 1921 ã. õóäîæíèêúò ñå çàâðúùà â Ïàðèæ, êúäåòî ñúçäàâà ïðî÷óòèòå ñè óëè÷íè ñöåíè – êàðòèíèòå îò Ìîíìàðòð. Ïðåç 30-òå ãîäèíè íà ÕÕ â. íàìàëÿâà áðîÿò íà èëþñòðèðàíèòå îò íåãî êíèãè è åäèíè÷íè ãðàâþðè âúðõó äúðâî. Ïðåç 1940 ã. õóäîæíèêúò áÿãà îò Ïàðèæ è æèâåå ïîñëåäîâàòåëíî â íÿêîëêî ãðàäà â Þæíà Ôðàíöèÿ.  êðàÿ íà Âòîðàòà ñâåòîâíà âîéíà óñïÿâà äà ñå âúðíå êúì òâîð÷åñòâîòî è ñå çàåìà ñ æèâîïèñ è ãðàâþ��è âúðõó äúðâî. Ïðåç 1950 ã. ïîëó÷àâà Ãîëÿìàòà íàãðàäà çà ãðàôèêà íà Âåíåöèàíñêîòî áèåíàëå. Ïðåç ïåðèîäà äî 1968 ã. ïóáëèêóâà íÿêîëêî ñåðèè îò ãðàâþðè âúðõó äúðâî, êîèòî ñå ðàçëè÷àâàò îò ïî-ðàííèòå ìó “ðîìàíè â êàðòèíè” ïî òîâà, ÷å âìåñòî äà ïðåäñòàâÿò íåïðåêúñíàòî ïîâåñòâîâàíèå, òå ïî-ñêîðî ñà âàðèàöèè âúðõó åäíà òåìà. Ðàáîòè è êàòî ñöåíîãðàô è êîñòþìîãðàô â ðåäèöà òåàòðàëíè ïîñòàíîâêè.

64

Õóäîæíèêúò èìà ìíîæåñòâî èçëîæáè è å ÷ëåí íà íÿêîëêî àêàäåìèè. Ïðåç 1947 ã. Büchergilde Gutenberg â Öþðèõ èçäàâà ñ íåãîâè èëþñòðàöèè ðîìàíà “Æåðìèíàë” îò Åìèë Çîëà. ÌÀÄÚÍ, Àí (ñ. 28) Ðîäåíà ïðåç 1932 ã. â Àíãëèÿ. Êîðåíèòå é ñà èðëàíäñêè, àíãëèéñêè è ÷èëèéñêè. Ïðåêàðâà ðàííîòî ñè äåòñòâî â ×èëè è Èðëàíäèÿ, à ïî-êúñíî â Àíãëèÿ. Çàâúðøâà êîëåæ çà èçêóñòâî è äèçàéí â ×åëñè. Îìúæåíà å çà ïðî÷óòèÿ èðëàíäñêè õóäîæíèê Ëóè ëå Áðîêè îò 1958 ã. Ó÷àñòâà â ìíîãî èçëîæáè â Èðëàíäèÿ è â Åâðîïà. Òâîð÷åñòâîòî é å ïîâëèÿíî îò ñóðîâàòà ïðèðîäà íà Çàïàäíà Èðëàíäèÿ è ÷åñòî îòðàçÿâà òåìè îò ìèòîëîãèÿòà. Ðàííèòå é ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ ñúäúðæàò ïðåäèñòîðè÷åñêè îáðàçè, íàïîäîáÿâàùè ìåãàëèòíè ñòðóêòóðè ñ àáñòðàêòíè ôîðìè. Íàïîñëåäúê ñå âäúõíîâÿâà îò ðèìñêàòà è ãðúöêà èñòîðèÿ. Æèâÿëà å âúâ Ôðàíöèÿ, à ñåãà æèâåå è ðàáîòè â Äúáëèí. ÌÀÍÄÈ×, Çäðàâêî (ñ. 33) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1935 ã. â Ñòðèãîâà, Áîñíà è Õåðöåãîâèíà. Çàâúðøâà Õóäîæåñòâåíàòà àêàäåìèÿ â Áåëãðàä â êëàñà íà ïðîô. Äîðàí Ïåòðîâè÷, à ïî-êúñíî è àñïèðàíòóðà ïðè ïðîô. Ìèëî Ìèëóíîâè÷. Äîêàòî æèâåå è ðàáîòè â Çðåíÿíèí (Âîåâîäèíà, Ñúðáèÿ) îðãàíèçèðà íàä 100 ñàìîñòîÿòåëíè èçëîæáè è ó÷àñòâà â ïîâå÷å îò 500 ãðóïîâè èçëîæáè â áèâøà Þãîñëàâèÿ è ÷óæáèíà. Íîñèòåë å íà ìíîæåñòâî íàãðàäè. Èçâåñòåí ñ ðå÷íèòå ñè àêâàðåëè è ìàñëåíè ïåéçàæè, õóäîæíèêúò èçîáðàçÿâà íåÿñíè ñöåíè, â êîèòî ÷îâåøêèòå ôèãóðè ïîòúâàò â ìúãëàòà. Êðèòèöèòå ÷åñòî ãî îïðåäåëÿò êàòî “ìàãüîñíèê íà ìúãëàòà”. ×ëåí íà Àñîöèàöèÿòà íà ñðúáñêèòå õóäîæíèöè.


Î’ÍÈÉË, Äæåðàëäèí (ñ. 52) Ðîäåíà ïðåç 1971 ã. â Äúáëèí, Èðëàíäèÿ. Çàâúðøâà Íàöèîíàëíèÿ êîëåæ çà èçêóñòâî è äèçàéí. Êàðòèíèòå é â ÿðêè òîíîâå ñà íàñèòåíè ñ ðåàëèçúì. Æèâåå è ðàáîòè â Äúáëèí. ÏÎÏÎÂÈ×, Ìè÷à (ñ. 24) Ðîäåí â Ëîçíèöà, Ñúðáèÿ ïðåç 1923. Óìèðà ïðåç 1996 ã. â Áåëãðàä. Ñðåä êàòî èçêàðâà ïî-ãîëÿìàòà ÷àñò îò Âòîðàòà ñâåòîâíà âîéíà â Áåëãðàä, ïðåïèòàâàéêè ñå ñ ðàçëè÷íè çàíàÿòè, ïðåç 1946 ã. ïîñòúïâà â Õóäîæåñòâåíàòà àêàäåìèÿ â êëàñà íà ïðîô. Òàáàêîâè÷. Ïðåç 1947 ã. çàìèíàâà çà Çàäàð è çàåäíî ñ äðóãè õóäîæíèöè ñúçäàâà èçâåñòíàòà “Çàäàðñêà ãðóïà”. Ñëåä çàâðúùàíåòî ñè â Áåëãðàä ïðîäúëæàâà ñàìîñòîÿòåëíî ïîäãîòîâêàòà ñè, ñ ïîìîùòà íà ïðîô. Òàáàêîâè÷. Êàòî æèâîïèñåö å èçâåñòåí íàé-âå÷å ñ ïåðèîäà, â êîéòî å ïîâëèÿí îò òå÷åíèåòî èíôîðìåë (1958-1968 ã.) è ñúñ ñâîÿòà “ñþæåòíà æèâîïèñ” (ñëåä 1968 ã.). Ïðåç 60-òå ãîäèíè íà ÕÕ â. ðåæèñèðà íÿêîëêî ôèëìà. Ïðåç 1986 ã. å èçáðàí çà ðåäîâåí ÷ëåí íà Ñðúáñêàòà àêàäåìèÿ çà íàóêà è èçêóñòâà. ÏÐÀØÊÎÂ, Êèðèë (ñ. 43) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1956 ã. â Ñîôèÿ. Çàâúðøâà Õóäîæåñòâåíàòà àêàäåìèÿ â Ñîôèÿ ïðåç 1983 ã., ñïåöèàëíîñò “Èëþñòðàöèÿ è îôîðìëåíèå íà êíèãàòà”. ×ëåí/îñíîâàòåë íà Èíñòèòóòà çà ñúâðåìåííî èçêóñòâî – Ñîôèÿ. ×åñòî ñúñòàâÿ ðàáîòèòå ñè îò òåêñò, èçáîðúò è êîìïîçèöèÿòà íà êîéòî ñå ïîä÷èíÿâàò íà èäåÿòà çà òðóä è äâèæåíèå ïðè ÷åòåíåòî. Ïðè ñòðîåæà íà èíñòàëàöèèòå ñè îò öèòàòè èëè îò ñâîè äóìè èçïîëçâà ðàçëè÷íè åçèöè èëè íîòíè çíàöè. Èçðàçèòå ñå “èçïèñâàò” â

ðàçíîîáðàçíè ìàòåðèàëè – ðèñóíêà âúðõó õàðòèÿ ïðè “Íàé-äúðâåíîòî ïàð÷å íà Áåòõîâåí”, (1995); äúðâî – ”THE TIME HAS COME... TO TALK OF MANY THINGS”, (1999); äèãèòàëåí ïå÷àò – ”IT’S HARD TO BE A MACHO NOWADAYS”, (2000); îòïàäúöè – ”TVOJ DOM JE TAMO GDJE JE TVOJE SMECE”, (2002); ïå÷àò âúðõó ìîêåò – ”Ceçi n’est pas un texte”, (2006) è äðóãè. ÐÀÌÓÉÊÈ×, Êåìàë (ñ. 40) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1947 ã. â Ïîäãîðèöà, ×åðíà ãîðà. Çàâúðøâà Õóäîæåñòâåíà àêàäåìèÿ â Áåëãðàä ïðåç 1973 ã. ×ëåí íà Àñîöèàöèÿòà íà ñðúáñêèòå õóäîæíèöè. Ïðåïîäàâà â Öåíòúðà çà õóäîæåñòâåíî îáðàçîâàíèå “Ñóìàòîâà÷êà” â Áåëãðàä. Òîé å æèâîïèñåö-òðàäèöèîíàëèñò, îáñåáåí îò Ñðåäèçåìíîìîðèåòî è ïîåòè÷íàòà óìîçðèòåëíîñò. Íåãîâè ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ ñà ïîêàçâàíè â èçëîæáè â Þãîñëàâñêèÿ êóëòóðåí öåíòúð â Ïàðèæ (1996 ã.), Áåëãðàä (1997 ã.), Ïîäãîðèöà (2000 ã.), Áðàòèñëàâà (2004 ã.), Âèåíà (2005 ã.) è äð. Âúâ ôèãóðàòèâíèòå ñè êîìïîçèöèè ïðåäïî÷èòà ñòèëà íà Âàòî, Êîðî è Áüîêëèí. ÐÀÌÀÍ, Èíãåãåðä (ñ. 37 - 39) Ðîäåíà ïðåç 1943 ã. â Ñòîêõîëì, Øâåöèÿ. Çàâúðøâà Òåõíîëîãè÷íèÿ êîëåæ â Ëóòúí, Àíãëèÿ (1961 ã.). Ó÷è êåðàìèêà â Êàïåëàãàðäåí (1962 ã.), â êîëåæà êúì Óíèâåðñèòåòà ïî èçÿùíè è ïðèëîæíè èçêóñòâà è äèçàéí â Ñòîêõîëì (19621965 ã.), â Äúðæàâíèÿ õóäîæåñòâåí èíñòèòóò çà êåðàìèêà âúâ Ôàåíöà, Èòàëèÿ (1965-1966 ã.) è îòíîâî â êîëåæà êúì Óíèâåðñèòåòà ïî èçÿùíè è ïðèëîæíè èçêóñòâà è äèçàéí â Ñòîêõîëì (1966-1968 ã.). Äèçàéíåð â øâåäñêè ôèðìè çà êåðàìèêà è ñòúêëî. Îò 1972 ã. èìà ñîáñòâåíî êåðàìè÷íî ñòóäèî. Íîñèòåë íà ìíîæåñòâî íàöèîíàëíè íàãðàäè çà íàé-äîáúð

65


äèçàéíåð. Íåéíè ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ ñà ïîêàçâàíè â ìíîãî ñàìîñòîÿòåëíè è êîëåêòèâíè íàöèîíàëíè è ìåæäóíàðîäíè èçëîæáè. Òâîð÷åñòâîòî é å âêëþ÷åíî â êîëåêöèèòå íà øâåäñêè è ÷óæäåñòðàííè ìóçåè. ÐÎÁÅÐ, Þáåð (ñ. 7) Ðîäåí â Ïàðèæ, Ôðàíöèÿ ïðåç 1733 ã. Óìèðà ïðåç 1808 ã. Æèâîïèñåö, ãðàâüîð, ïåéçàæèñò è äåêîðàòîð. Ïî âðåìå íà ïúòåøåñòâèåòî ñè èç Èòàëèÿ ïðåç 1759 ã. ðèñóâà ìíîæåñòâî ïåéçàæè, ñðåä êîèòî îñîáåíî ìÿñòî çàåìàò ðóèíèòå íà Õåðêóëàí è Ïîìïåé. Ïîäîáíè ñþæåòè îòêðèâà è âúâ Ôðàíöèÿ. Ïðåñúçäàâà íà îñíîâàòà íà ìåëàíõîëè÷íàòà ïðåðîìàíòè÷íà ÷óâñòâèòåëíîñò àíòè÷íèòå ïàìåòíèöè îò Ïðîâàíñ, êàêòî è ïðîìåíèòå â èçãðàæäàíåòî íà Ïàðèæ, áåç äà òúðñè òî÷íà àðõåîëîãè÷åñêà ðåêîíñòðóêöèÿ. Ïðåç 1766 ã. âëèçà â Êðàëñêàòà àêàäåìèÿ è îò ñëåäâàùàòà ãîäèíà èçëàãà â íåéíèÿ Ñàëîí. ×åñòî ðèñóâà æàíðîâè ñöåíè. Ïîä âëèÿíèå íà àíãëèéñêîòî ïàðêîñòðîèòåëñòî ñúçäàâà ïëàíîâå çà ïàðêà âúâ Âåðñàé. Ñëåä ðåâîëþöèÿòà îò 1789 ã. çàåäíî ñ Ôðàãîíàð ðàçðàáîòâà íÿêîëêî ïëàíà çà èçãðàæäàíåòî íà Ãîëÿìàòà ãàëåðèÿ â Ëóâúðà. Ãàëåðèÿ “Òðóáåöêîé”, Ïàðèæ Åäèíñòâåíàòà ãàëåðèÿ â ñâåòà, ñïåöèàëèçèðàíà â êîïèðàíå íà îðèãèíàëíè êàðòèíè îò ÕVI âåê äî íàøè äíè, êîèòî ïðèíàäëåæàò íà ÷àñòíè êîëåêöèè (ïðè ñïàçâàíå íà àâòîðñêèòå ïðàâà). Ñðåä òÿõ ñà è êàðòèíè íà Þáåð Ðîáåð. ×àñò îò êîïèÿòà ñå èçïîëçâàò çà õóäîæåñòâåíî îáçàâåæäàíå íà îáùåñòâåíè èíòåðèîðè âúâ Ôðàíöèÿ è äðóãè ñòðàíè. ÑÅËÈÌÈ, Àðáåí Ðèôàò (ñ. 50) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1963 ã. â Àëáàíèÿ. Çàâúðøâà Õóäîæåñòâåíàòà àêàäåìèÿ â Òèðàíà ïðåç 1986 ã. Ðàáîòè êàòî

66

ñöåíîãðàô â òåàòúð “Ìèäæåíè” â ãðàä Øêîäðà.  ìîìåíòà æèâåå è ðàáîòè â Ïàðèæ. ÑÒÎßÍÎÂ, Ñàìóèë (ñ. 53) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1975 ã. â Äîáðè÷, Áúëãàðèÿ. Çàâúðøâà Ó÷èëèùåòî çà èçÿùíè èçêóñòâà â Ïëîâäèâ ïðåç 1994 ã. è ñïåöèàëíîñòòà “Êåðàìèêà” â Íàöèîíàëíàòà õóäîæåñòâåíà àêàäåìèÿ ïðåç 2001 ã. Ó÷àñòâà â ìíîæåñòâî êîëåêòèâíè áúëãàðñêè è ìåæäóíàðîäíè èçëîæáè íà ñúâðåìåííîòî èçêóñòâî. Îðãàíèçèðà øåñò ñàìîñòîÿòåëíè èçëîæáè â Ñîôèÿ, Ïëîâäèâ è Äîáðè÷. Íîñèòåë íà ñëåäíèòå íàãðàäè: çà ïîùåíñêà êàðòè÷êà “Àðò ìàãèñòðàëà Áúëãàðèÿ – Åâðîïà 2007” (2005 ã.); îò Íàöèîíàëíèÿ êîíêóðñ çà ìëàäè õóäîæíèöè è êðèòèöè (2004 ã.); îò Ôîíäà çà äåáþòíè ïðîåêòè â îáëàñòòà íà ñúâðåìåííèòå èçêóñòâà è êóëòóðà (2003 ã.); îò êîíêóðñà çà ìëàäè õóäîæíèöè “Áúëãàðèÿ – Åâðîïà. Òðàäèöèèòå íè îáåäèíÿâàò” (2002 ã.); çà ìîíóìåíòàëíî ïàíî, ïðåäñòàâåíî ïðåç 2001 ã. â êîíêóðñà íà Ìèíèñòåðñêèÿ ñúâåò “Åâðîïåéñêèÿò ïúò íà Áúëãàðèÿ” (ðåàëèçèðàíî â ñúàâòîðñòâî ñ Àíòîí Òåðçèåâ); íîìèíàöèÿ îò æóðèòî íà Íàöèîíàëíàòà õóäîæåñòâåíà àêàäåìèÿ â Ñîôèÿ çà áúëãàðñêèÿ ó÷àñòíèê â Ìåæäóíàðîäíîòî ñòóäåíòñêî òðèåíàëå â Èñòàíáóë (2000 ã.). ÒÅÑÊÈ, Äîíàëä (ñ. 42) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1956 ã. â Ëèìåðèê, Èðëàíäèÿ. Çàâúðøâà ó÷èëèùåòî çà èçêóñòâî è äèçàéí â Ëèìåðèê. Êàðòèíèòå ìó èçîáðàçÿâàò ãðàäñêè è ïðîâèíöèàëíè ïåéçàæè â ìðà÷íè êðàñêè, ïîñòèãíàòè ÷ðåç íàñëîÿâàíå íà òîíîâåòå. Òâîðáèòå ìó ñà àáñòðàêòíè, íî ñúäúðæàò ïîçíàòè åëåìåíòè îò èðëàíäñêèÿ ïåéçàæ, èçîáðàçåí êàòî öåíòúð íà ïðèðîäíèòå ñèëè è åíåðãèè. Ðàáîòè âúðõó ìíîãî èëþñòðàöèè è ðàçëè÷íè õóäîæåñòâåíè ïðîåêòè,


âêëþ÷èòåëíî ïîùåíñêè ìàðêè è èëþñòðàöèè çà äåòñêè êíèæêè. ÓÀËÈ, Óèëÿì Ëàéúíúë (ñ.8) Ðîäåí â Ëîíäîí, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ ïðåç 1851 ã. Óìèðà ïðåç 1931 ã. Àâòîð íà ìîðñêè ïåéçàæè è ãðàôèêè. Ñèí íà æèâîïèñåöà Óèëÿì Ìîðèñúí Óèëè è ïî-ãîëÿì áðàò íà ×àðëç Óèëÿì Óèëè, ñúùî ìàðèíèñò. Ó÷è â õóäîæåñòâåíîòî ó÷èëèùå “Õåäúðëè” ïðåäè äà ïîñòúïè â Êðàëñêàòà àêàäåìèÿ çà èçêóñòâî ïðåç 1865 ã., êúäåòî ïîëó÷àâà çëàòåí ìåäàë “Òúðíúð” ïðåç 1869 ã. Íåãîâè êàðòèíè ñà ïîêàçâàíè â Êðàëñêàòà àêàäåìèÿ îò 1868 ã., êàêòî è â Êðàëñêîòî îáùåñòâî íà õóäîæíèöèòå, Íþéîðêñêîòî îáùåñòâî íà àêâàðåëèñòèòå è ãàëåðèÿ “Ãðîçâåíúð”. Àñîöèèðàí ÷ëåí íà Êðàëñêàòà àêàäåìèÿ îò 1889 ã., à îò 1907 ã. å ïúëíîïðàâåí ÷ëåí. Ëþáîâòà ìó êúì ìîðñêàòà òåìàòèêà ãî îòâåæäà â Ðî÷åñòúð, êúäåòî õóäîæíèêúò ñå óñòàíîâÿâà ñëåä 1889 ã. è ïðåêàðâà ïîâå÷åòî âðåìå íà ÿõòàòà ñè. Òàì òîé ðèñóâà ïåéçàæè îò äîëíîòî òå÷åíèå íà Òåìçà è Ìåäóåé. Îò ñúçäàâàíåòî íà ñïèñàíèå ”The Graphic” ïðåç 1870 ã. ðàáîòè êàòî èëþñòðàòîð â íåãî â ïðîäúëæåíèå íà 20 ãîäèíè. Õóäîæíèêúò ïðåäïî÷èòà äà ðèñóâà ñ àêâàðåë, íî å è ìíîãî äîáúð ãðàôèê. Ñëåä ñìúðòòà ìó àêâàðåëèòå îò íåãîâîòî àòåëèå, ÷èéòî áðîé íàäâèøàâà 5000, ñà îòêóïåíè çà Íàöèîíàëíèÿ ìîðñêè ìóçåé â Ãðèíóè÷. Ïðåç 1901 ã. ïúòóâà ñ êîðàáà ”Majestic”, çà äà îòðàçè ïîêëîíà ïðåä òëåííèòå îñòàíêè íà Êðàëèöà Âèêòîðèÿ îò Îñáúðí, Îñòðîâ Óàéò, äî Ïîðòñìóò, êúäåòî êóïóâà êúùà íà ñàìîòî ïðèñòàíèùå. Õóäîæíèêúò å ñâèäåòåë íà íÿêîëêî âîåííîìîðñêè ñúáèòèÿ. Òîé ðèñóâà è èñòîðè÷åñêè ñöåíè îò Ïúðâàòà ñâåòîâíà âîéíà.Ðåàëèñòè÷íèÿò ïîãëåä íà õóäîæíèêà êúì ñòðîåæà íà ìîñòà Áëàêôðàéúðñ ñå ñúñðåäîòî÷àâà âúðõó ñëîæíàòà èíôðàñòð��êòóðà, ïîäêðåïÿùà êîíñòðóê-

öèÿòà îòâúòðå. Îðèãèíàëíèÿò ìîñò å ïîñòðîåí îò Ðîáúðò Ìèëí ïðåç 17591769 ã. Ïî-êúñíî å ðàçðóøåí è ïîñòðîåí íàíîâî îò Äæîóçåô Êþáèò ïðåç 18601869 ã. Òîçè ïåéçàæ å îò ðàííèÿ ïåðèîä íà õóäîæíèêà, âåðîÿòíî îò âðåìåòî, êîãàòî çà ïúðâè ïúò ïîêàçâà êàðòèíà íà äâîðåöà Äîóâúð â Êðàëñêàòà àêàäåìèÿ ïðåç 1868 ã. Òåìçà å åäèí îò ëþáèìèòå ìó ñþæåòè, íàðèñóâàë å ìíîãî ðàçëè÷íè èçãëåäè êúì ðåêàòà, ïîâå÷åòî îò êîèòî ñà ó÷àñòâàëè â ãîäèøíèòå èçëîæáè íà Êðàëñêàòà àêàäåìèÿ. ÓÈÊÀÐÒ, Ìîðèñ (ñ. 23) Ðîäåí â Áðþêñåë, Áåëãèÿ ïðåç 1923 ã. Óìèðà ïðåç 1996 ã. Çàâúðøâà Êðàëñêàòà àêàäåìèÿ çà èçêóñòâî â Áðþêñåë ïðåç 1948 ã. Îñíîâàòåë íà Meridiaan magazine (19531954 ã.), ÷ëåí íà Taptoe group (1956 ã.) è íà International Situationisme (1958 ã.) Ïðåç 1957 ã. ïîëó÷àâà íàãðàäàòà çà æèâîïèñ îò ìëàäè áåëãèéñêè õóäîæíèöè. Ïðåäñòàâÿ Áåëãèÿ íà áèåíàëåòî â Ñàî Ïàóëî ïðåç 1975 ã.  êðàÿ íà 70-òå è íà÷àëîòî íà 80-òå ãîäèíè íà ÕÕ âåê ñúçäàâà íÿêîëêî ñòåíîïèñà â Èçðàåë è â áðþêñåëñêîòî ìåòðî. Ïðåç 1984 ã. ðàáîòè â Ëîíäîí. Ïúòóâà äî Òîêèî, Âàøèíãòîí è Ëîñ Àíäæåëèñ.  êðàÿ 80-òå ãîäèíè íà ÕÕ âåê ñå èçÿâÿâà è êàòî äèçàéíåð. Ïðåç 1990 ã. å îòëè÷åí îò Êðàëñêàòà àêàäåìèÿ â Áåëãèÿ ñ íàãðàäàòà Jules Raeymaekers. ÕÅÍÅÌÀÍ, Éåðóí (ñ. 35) Ðîäåí â Õàðëåì, Õîëàíäèÿ ïðåç 1942 ã. Ó÷è â Frederiksplein â Õàðëåì è â Èíñòèòóòà ïî ïðèëîæíè èçêóñòâà â Àìñòåðäàì (1951-1961 ã.) Îò 1961 äî 1976 ã. ïúòóâà ÷åñòî èç Áåëãèÿ, Ôðàíöèÿ, ÑÀÙ è Øâåéöàðèÿ. Òîé å åêñïðåñèâåí òâîðåö â ðàçëè÷íè îáëàñòè – æèâîïèñåö, ãðàôèê, ïðèëîæíèê, à òåàòðàëíèòå ìó è òåëåâèçèîííè èçÿâè ñå ðàäâàò íà óñïåõ êàêòî â ñòðàíàòà, òàêà è â

67


÷óæáèíà.  íåãîâèòå ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ ïðåäìåòèòå çàäàâàò ôèëîñîôñêè âúïðîñè çà çàîáèêàëÿùèÿ íè ñâÿò. Ïðèâëè÷àò ãî óïîðèòèòå íåùà – ñàìîòíàòà ñâåòåùà êðóøêà çàä ñòúëáàòà, áàñòóíúò íà êîëåëà, ïîäïèñâàùèÿò ìîëèâ. Çàñòèíàëîòî âðåìå å äðóãà òåìà, êîÿòî ïðèâëè÷à íåãîâèÿ èíòåðåñ. Ïàäàùè ïåïåëíèöè è ÷àéíèöè, ðåæåùè íîæèöè – òîâà ñà âñå òåìè â êàðòèíèòå ìó, êúäåòî ïðèñúñòâàò îùå øêàôîâå è äâèæåùè ñå ïðåäìåòè. Îùå â ðàííèòå ñè ãîäèíè å ïðèíóäåí äà èçáèðà ìåæäó ëèòåðàòóðíèòå ñè âëå÷åíèÿ è àìáèöèèòå ñè â îáëàñòòà íà ñêóëïòóðàòà. Íàääåëÿâà ïîñëåäíîòî, âåðîÿòíî è çàðàäè óñïåõà, êîéòî èìàò èçëîæáèòå ìó. Ñòîÿùèòå êàðòèíè è ïîðòðåòè íà äúðâî ñà îò ïî-êúñíèÿ ìó ïåðèîä, íî òîâà íå ãè ïðàâè ïî-áåçèíòåðåñíè èëè ïî-ìàëêî ïîïóëÿðíè. Ïðåç ïîñëåäíèòå äâàäåñåò ãîäèíè ãðàäúò, àðõèòåêòóðàòà è ñâåòëèíàòà ñòàâàò òèïè÷íè êàêòî çà æèâîïèñòà, òàêà è çà ãðàôè÷íèòå ìó ïðîèçâåäåíèÿ. Èçâåñòåí å ñúñ ñâîèòå ìîíóìåíòàëíè ëèíåéíè ñêóëïòóðè, êàòî òàçè ïðåä ñãðàäàòà íà KBBconcern â Àìñòåðäàì è äåâåòìåòðîâîòî “Êîëåëî” âúðõó åäíà îò ðàéîííèòå ñãðàäè íà äàíú÷íàòà ñëóæáà â Àìñòåðäàì. Õóäîæíèêúò íàðè÷à ëèíåéíèòå ñè ñêóëïòóðè “èçïðàâåíè ðèñóíêè”, â êîèòî èëþçèÿòà çà îáåìíîñò èäâà îò âçàèìîäåéñòâèåòî íà ëèíèèòå. Ïîðòðåòúò íà êðàëèöà Áåàòðèêñ å ïðèìåð çà òàêàâà “èçïðàâåíà ðèñóíêà”. ßÃÆÚ, Íå÷ìåòèí (ñ. 41) Ðîäåí ïðåç 1956 ã. â Ìàðäèí, Òóðöèÿ. Çàâúðøâà ïðåç 1982 ã. îòäåëà ïî èçêóñòâà âúâ Âèñøåòî ïåäàãîãè÷åñêî ó÷èëèùå “Ãàçè” â Àíêàðà. Ñêóëïòîð íà ñâîáîäíà ïðàêòèêà â Èñòàíáóë.

68

Ïðåïîäàâà ñêóëïòóðà îò 1986 ã. Ïðåç 1997 ã. çàâúðøâà ìàãèñòðàòóðà ñ äèïëîìíà ðàáîòà çà “Îðãàíè÷íè ôîðìè â ñêóëïòóðíîòî èçêóñòâî” â Óíèâåðñèòåòà “Ãàçè”. Ïðàâè 5 ñàìîñòîÿòåëíè èçëîæáè, â òîâà ÷èñëî âúâ Ôðàíöèÿ, Áåëãèÿ è Ãåðìàíèÿ è ó÷àñòâà â ïîâå÷å îò 100 ãðóïîâè èçëîæáè. Èìà 44 ìîíóìåíòàëíè ïëàñòèêè â Òóðöèÿ, ñðåä êîèòî ñòàòóÿòà íà Þíóñ Åìðå â Àíêàðà (1992 ã.), ñòàòóÿòà íà ìú÷åíèöèòå â Êèëèñ (2000 ã.) è äðóãè â Êàíàäà è ÑÀÙ. Ïðîäúëæàâà äà ïðàâè ôèãóðàòèâíè ñêóëïòóðè êàòî âëàãà äåôîðìàöèè è àáñòðàêòíè ôîðìè â òÿõ. Íîñèòåë íà íàãðàäè îò Ìåæäóíàðîäíèÿ ôåñòèâàë íà èçêóñòâàòà â Èñòàíáóë Kartal CultureArt (1985 ã. - íàãðàäà çà ïëàñòèêà), îò Òðàáçîí (2002 ã.), îò 66-òà íàöèîíàëíà èçëîæáà íà ñêóëïòóðàòà (2006 ã.) è äð. ÍÅÈÇÂÅÑÒÅÍ ÀÂÒÎÐ (ñ. 9) Ïîðòðåò íà Âèòî Ïîçèòàíî èòàëèàíñêè äèïëîìàò îò êàðèåðàòà, ïî÷èíàë ïðåç 1886. Ïðåäè äà äîéäå ó íàñ, òîé å íà êîíñóëñêà ñëóæáà â Ìàëòà, Òðèåñò, Àëæèð è Èñòàíáóë. Âèöå - êîíñóë íà Èòàëèÿ â Áúëãàðèÿ îò 5 þëè 1876 ã. äî 21 àâãóñò 1879 ã. Ïðîÿâÿâà èçêëþ÷èòåëåí ãåðîèçúì, êîãàòî â êðàÿ íà Ðóñêî-òóðñêàòà âîéíà, ïðåç äåêåìâðè 1877 ã. Íóðè Ïàøà ðåøàâà äà ïîäïàëè Ñîôèÿ è ïðåäóïðåæäàâà çà òîâà ñàìî êîíñóëèòå. Âìåñòî îáà÷å äà áÿãà, Ïîçèòàíî ñå îòêàçâà îò äèïëîìàòè÷åñêèòå ñè ïðèâèëåãèè, ñúáèðà â äîìà ñè äèïëîìàòèòå è âàæíèòå õîðà â ãðàäà ãè ïîäêàíÿ äà íå íàïóñêàò Ñîôèÿ â òîçè äðàìàòè÷åí ìîìåíò, à äà ñå áîðÿò çà íåéíîòî ñïàñÿâàíå. Ðèñêóâàéêè æèâîòà ñè, òîé îðãàíèçèðà äîáðîâîëöè, êîèòî ó÷àñòâàò â ïîòóøàâàíåòî íà ïîæàðà. Ñëåä Îñâîáîæäåíèåòî å îòëè÷åí ñúñ çíàêà íà Ïî÷åòåí ãðàæäàíèí íà Ñîôèÿ. Èñòîðèöè ãî íàðè÷àò “íàéñúäáîâíèÿ ÷îâåê çà Ñîôèÿ”, à


îáùèíàðèòå çàÿâÿâàò ïðåç 1879 ã.: “Áåç íåãîâàòà ïðÿêà íàìåñà îò Ñîôèÿ íÿìàøå äà îñòàíå è ïîìåí è õèëÿäè ñîôèÿíöè ùÿõà äà èçãèíàò â ëþòàòà çèìà”. ÏÎÐÖÅËÀÍ ÎÒ ÍÈÌÔÅÍÁÓÐà (ñ. 54) Ôàáðèêàòà çà ïîðöåëàí å ðàçïîëîæåíà â Íèìôåíáóðãñêèÿ äâîðåö â Ìþíõåí, ñòîëèöàòà íà Áàâàðèÿ. Ïðåç 1745 ã. êíÿç Ìàêñèìèëèàí III Éîçåô íàðåæäà ñúçäàâàíåòî íà ôàáðèêè, çà äà èçáàâè ñòðàíàòà îò ôèíàíñîâèòå çàòðóäíåíèÿ. Îò 1747 ã. çàïî÷âàò îïèòè çà ïðîèçâîäñòâîòî íà ïîðöåëàíîâè èçäåëèÿ è â êðàÿ íà ãîäèíàòà áèâøèÿò äâîðåö Íàóäåê, ðàçïîëîæåí â äíåøíîòî ïðåäãðàäèå íà Ìþíõåí Àó-Õàéäõàóçåí, å ïðåäîñòàâåí çà òàçè öåë. Äî 1754 ã. âñåêè åêñïåðèìåíò ïðîïàäà áåçñëàâíî, êîåòî âîäè äî çíà÷èòåëíè ôèíàíñîâè çàãóáè, íî â êðàÿ íà ñúùàòà ãîäèíà îïèòèòå äà ñå ïðîèçâåäå ïîðöåëàí íàé-ñåòíå ñå óâåí÷àâàò ñ óñïåõ è Ôðàíö Àíòîí Áóñòåëè å íàçíà÷åí çà äèçàéíåð. Ïðåç 1755 ã. ôàáðèêàòà ïîëó÷àâà ïúðâàòà ñè ïîðú÷êà îò ñúäà íà Áàâàðèÿ, à ïðåç 1756 ã. óñïÿâàò çà ïúðâè ïúò äà îöâåòÿò ïîðöåëàíà. Ïîä óïðàâëåíèåòî íà þðèñòà è ïðåäïðèåìà÷ ãðàô Çèãìóíä ôîí Õàéìõàóçåí îò 1758 ã. äåéíîñòòà ñå ïîñòàâÿ íà ñîëèäíà òúðãîâñêà îñíîâà. Äî 1761 ã. ôàáðèêàòà âå÷å å ïðåìåñòåíà â äâîðåöà Íèìôåíáóðã, êúäåòî ñå íàìèðà è äî äíåñ. Ïðåç 1881 ã. Àëáåðò Áàóìë (1855-1929 ã.) âçåìà ôàáðèêàòà ïîä íàåì ñ öåë äà âúçâúðíå âèñîêèòå àðòèñòè÷íè êà÷åñòâà íà íåéíàòà ïðîäóêöèÿ. Èìåííî òîé “ïðåîòêðèâà” Áóñòåëè. Öåëòà å ïîñòèãíàòà êúì êðàÿ íà ÕIÕ - íà÷àëîòî íà ÕÕ â., êîãàòî îñâåí òðàäèöèîííè èçäåëèÿ, òóê ñå ïðîèçâåæäàò è åëåãàíòíèòå

êåðàìè÷íè èçäåëèÿ â þãåíñòèë. ÑÅÂÚÐÑÊÈ ÏÎÐÖÅËÀÍ (ñ. 55) Íàöèîíàëíàòà ìàíèôàêòóðà â Ñåâúð å ñðåä íàé-èçâåñòíèòå ìàíèôàêòóðè çà ïîðöåëàí â Åâðîïà. Ïúðâîíà÷àëíî òàì ñå ïðîèçâåæäà ìåê ïîðöåëàí (îò ìàòîâî ñòúêëî è ãëèíà). Ñëåä îòêðèâàíåòî íà ïúðâèòå çàëåæè íà êàîëèí áëèçî äî Ëèìîæ, ïðåç 1770 ã. ìàíèôàêòóðàòà ïóñêà íà ïàçàðà òâúðä ïîðöåëàí. Èñòîðèÿòà íà ìàíèôàêòóðàòà - íàðè÷àíà ïîñëåäîâàòåëíî êðàëñêà, èìïåðàòîðñêà è íàöèîíàëíà, ïðåç âåêîâåòå è äî äíåñ å ñâúðçàíà ñ ïðåäíàçíà÷åíà ïðåäèìíî çà äúðæàâàòà ïðîäóêöèÿ. Êàòî ñå èìà ïðåäâèä èçêëþ÷èòåëíî âèñîêîòî êà÷åñòâî íà ïðåäìåòèòå,îáÿñíèì å èíòåðåñúò êúì òÿõ íà ìíîãîáðîéíè ÷óæäåñòðàííè è ôðåíñêè êîëåêöèîíåðè. Åãèïåòñêè îáåëèñêè Ïðåç 1830 ã. âèöåêðàëÿò íà Åãèïåò Ìåõìåä Àëè ïîäàðÿâà äâàòà îáåëèñêà îò Ëóêñîð íà ôðåíñêèÿ êðàë Øàðë Õ. Àðõåîëîãúò Æàí-Ôðàíñîà Øàìïîëèîí å íàòîâàðåí äà èçáåðå êîé îò äâàòà ìîíóìåíòà äà áúäå òðàíñïîðòèðàí ïúðâè. Ñïîðåä ëåãåíäàòà ó÷åíèÿò èçáðàë “òîçè îò äÿñíî, âëèçàéêè â çàìúêà ” âñúùíîñò ïî-ìàëêèÿ è ïî-çàïàçåíèÿ. Ïðåç 1836 ã. îáåëèñêúò å òúðæåñòâåíî èçäèãíàò íà ïëîùàä “Êîíêîðä” â Ïàðèæ ñ ïîìîùòà íà äåñåò îãðîìíè ðóäàíà (ëåáåäêè). Çà áëàãîäàðíîñò êðàë Ëóè-Ôèëèï I ïîäàðÿâà ÷àñîâíèê, êîéòî è äíåñ óêðàñÿâà äâîðà íà äæàìèÿòà íà Ìåõìåä Àëè â Êàéðî. Âòîðèÿò îáåëèñê, êîéòî âñúùíîñò íèêîãà íå å íàïóñêàë Åãèïåò, å îôèöèàëíî “âúðíàò” îò Ôðàíöèÿ íà Åãèïåò ïðåç 1981 ã., â íà÷àëîòî íà ïúðâèÿ ïðåçèäåíòñêè ìàíäàò íà Ôðàíñîà Ìèòåðàí.

69


/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art /

/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò /

AALTO, Alvar (ð. 14) Born in Kuortane, Finland in 1898. Died in Helsinki in 1976. He studied architecture at the Helsinki University of Technology from 1916 to 1921. He returned to Jyväskylä where he opened his first architectural office in 1923. The following year he married architect Aino Marsio. Their honeymoon journey to Italy sealed an intellectual bond with the culture of the Mediterranean region that was to remain important to Aalto for the rest of his life. His furniture is manufactured by Artek, a company Aalto co-founded. His glassware designs (Aino Aalto as well as Alvar) are manufactured by Littala. Chairman of the Association of Finnish Architects SAFA (Honorary Member since 1958) - 1943-1958. Professor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology M.I.T. (Cambridge, USA) - 19461948. Member of the Finnish Academy (Emeritus Member since 1968) – 1955. President of the Finnish Academy - 1963-1968. He was a Scandinavian architect and designer, noted for his humanistic approach to modernism. His work includes architecture, furniture and glassware. He was one of the first and most influential architects of the Scandinavian modern movement, and member of the Congres Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne. Among his most significant works are the Finlandia Hall in Helsinki and the campus of Helsinki University of Technology. Aalto’s glassware includes the world-famous Savoy Vase (”The Eskimo Woman’s Leather Breech”), 1936 - an icon of 20th century design. Entirely plain but for the free organic curves to provide decorative interest, this vase introduced a new abstract vocabulary into glass design, a development that art critics have attributed both to the designer’s fondness for natural forms and to the influence of such surrealist artists as Jean Arp. Sometimes known as the Savoy vase from its use in the Savoy restaurant in Helsinki which Aalto built in 1937,

70

this piece and others in the series took First Prize in a competition sponsored by the Finnish manufacturer Karhula-Iittala in 1936. The competition aimed to find new tableware and art-glass designs for the International Exhibition in Paris in 1937 where these pieces were first exhibited. They ranged from a shallow, 3-inch dish to a tall vase about 39 inches high. This model was originally produced in clear, brown, azure blue, green, and smoke-coloured glass. The gorgeous shape of the vase is exhibited worldwide in galleries and museum collections, such as The Museum of Modern Art in New York. ACKERMAN, Peter (ð. 30) Born in Jena, Germany in 1934. Between 1954 and 1956 he attended the Free University in Berlin. He continued his study at the Higher School of Fine Arts n Berlin (1956-1962). In 1966 he received the German art critics award and in 1971 – the Villa Romana award for art. He works mainly in the area of etching. ANNA, Margit (ð. 16) Born in Hungary in 1913. Died in 1991. She attended Vaszary’s school (1932-1936). Her first exhibition was at the Ernst Museum in 1936 together with her husband Imre Amos. In 1937 the couple left for Paris where they met Mark Chagall. In the artist’s earlier works the lyrical rhythm is in harmony with the elements of grotesque. Between 1945 1948 she took part in a number of individual and group exhibitions as part of the European school. One of the main motifs in many of her paintings from that period is the puppet symbolizing man, subordinated to the tempests of history. Over the next period she acquired a much more austere style. From the mid 1960s every now and then there are scenes in her paintings filled with subdued tragedy (”A Walk by Horse”, 1967) or with childish innocence (”Fairytale” 1964). The image of the puppet was linked closely to black humour whereas the metamorphoses were drawn from surrealistic and expressionistic ideas.


ANNUS, Siim-Tanel (ð. 46 - 48) Born in Tallinn, Estonia in 1960. Graduated in Art at Tonis Vint’s studio in Tallinn (1974-1978) and in Art history at the University of Tartu (1978-1984). Painter, graphic artist, performance artist. His art was first shown at the exhibition ”New Art from the Soviet Union”, 1976-1977 in the USA. First performance in 1976. First solo exhibition in Vilnius, Lithuania in 1978. In 1997 the artist took part in the 47th Biennale di Venezia, Italy. Exhibition in Estonian Embassy, Berlin in 2006. His works exhibited in Belgium, Israel, Canada, Germany, Finland, Norway, Czech Republic, USA, etc., are part of the collections of the Ludwig Museum (Germany), Ateneum Museum, Pori Museum and Helsinki City Museum (Finland), Jane Woorkees Zimmerli Museum in New Jersey (USA), Estonian Art Museum, Tartu Art Museum and the National Library (Estonia). Since 1995 the artist has been making relief paintings on a layer of dolomite paste on canvas or plywood. Relief painting is like playing a stringed instrument without a bow. One end of the string is fixed to a nail in the studio wall, the other end is in the hand. With each circular stroke the radius is gradually increased until the whole surface is criss-crossed. The relief paintings can be seen as models of the Aristotelian philosophy. The nail in the wall is the immovable mover, the unshakeable Absolute. This creates a diverse and changing world, in every moment. APPEL, Karel (ð. 19 - 21) Born in Amsterdam, The Netherlands in 1921. Died in 2006. The vibrant and rather forceful works of the internationally known Dutch artist have been displayed and well-received in major cities throughout the world. He had his first solo-exhibition in 1949 with the ”Cobra” group (from the initials of the members’ home cities: Copenhagen, Brussels, Amsterdam) at Amsterdam’s Stedelijk Museum. Since then he has had solo-exhibitions, including three major retrospectives, in New York, Amsterdam, Boston, London, Milan,

Paris, San Francisco and Tokyo, and has participated in over 150 group exhibitions throughout the world, including the Sao Paulo Biennale (Honorable Mention in 1953 and Prize for painting in 1959), the Venice Biennale (UNESCO prize in 1954), Kassel’s Documenta III, the Museum of Modern Art and Guggenheim Museum (Guggenheim International Award in 1960) in New York. The artist is also well known for his murals in Amsterdam, Paris, and particularly Brussels where he executed a mural for the Dutch Pavilion at the Worlds Fair in 1957. BATUR, Cevdet (ð. 26 - 27) Born in Ankara, Turkey in 1930. Attended the Department of Painting of Ankara Gazi Training Institute, in 1950. Between 1955-1960 was lecturer in painting and history of art at various schools. Between 1960-1995 worked as stage designer and Chief of Scene Decorators at the Turkish State Opera and Ballet. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of his artistic career, he was decorated in 1995, with the ‘Reward of Honour’ by the Turkish Ministry of Culture. The use of light and colours was unique to his style, it reflected his passion for nature onto the canvas, and in the recent years performed abstract paintings as well. He used oil colors, water colors and drawing techniques. Has had 6 individual exhibitions abroad (in Germany, the UK and the USA) and 63 in Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir and different cities of Turkey. Many of his paintings are currently exhibited in state buildings, such as the Presidential Palace, Ankara Museum of Paintings and Statues, as well as in the collections of private institutions. He continues to paint and teach in his workshop in Ankara. BOZSO, Janos (ð. 22) Born in 1922 in Hungary. Died in 1998. His paintings usually are about everyday objects from rural Hungary, old houses and their surrounding landscape. His style was mainly realistic, adding to that expressive colours but without ever bringing it down to the tasteless socialist realism or the kitsch

71


objects in art. From the 1950s he passionately began seeking out and collecting objects of folk art. He was half-orphaned and grew up as a farmhand, which is the world he later wanted to recreate as an artist. That was why he needed authentic earthenware pots for his still-life. He had a special shelf at home for his ”old valuables” which later became a serious collection. CHRISTO and JEANNE-CLAUDE (ð. 31) American artists Christo and Jeanne-Claude, were born on the same date – 13 June 1935 as Christo Yavashev (descendant of a prominent family from Gabrovo, Bulgaria), and Jeanne-Claude Denat de Guillebon (in the family of a high ranking French officer). Together they have conceptualised and developed a number of projects for which they have have been internationally acclaimed. They visited Germany 54 times between 1976 -1995 and contacted 352 members of Parliament. Six presidents of the Bundestag (German Parliament) were involved in the project ”The Wrapped Reichstag”, (19711995), which represents not only 24 years of efforts in the lives of the artists but also years of team work by its leading members Michael S. Cullen, Wolfgang and Sylvia Volz, and Roland Specker. The Reichstag stands up in an open, strangely metaphysical area. The building has experienced its own continuous changes and perturbations: built in 1894, burned in 1933, almost destroyed in 1945, it was restored in the 1960s, but the Reichstag always remained the symbol of Democracy. COLLINS, Patrick (ð. 15) Born 1911 in Sligo, Ireland. Died in 1994. He studied at the Royal Hibernian Academy and the National College of Art and Design in Dublin. His works are influenced by Irish landscape, people and spirit. Collins lived in France for some years. CREMER, Jan (ð. 34) Born in Enschede in 1940, just before the Second World War swept over the Netherlands.

72

His father Jan Cremer-senior had many professions and was also a writer of travel notes, photographer and journalist. It was from him that the artist inherited his urge to write. The love of drawing and reading came from his Hungarian mother. After the difficult years of the war in Enschede, he became a ward of the state and at the age of 14 was sent to work in a factory. A short intermezzo followed when joining the marines, after which he sailed on tramp ships, mainly to Russian ports. After his sailing period he travelled through Germany, Italy and France, finally settling in Paris in 1958. Between jobs he studied for a few months at art academies in Arnhem and The Hague, later in Paris he took lessons in free painting and then specialised in printmaking techniques. From his earliest works he was an original, obsessive artist who lived for his work. At his first solo exhibition in De Posthoorn gallery in The Hague in 1958, the critics - still not fully recovered from the turbulent impact of COBRA - spoke of a ‘wild animal’. A year later he exhibited at the Gemeentemuseum in The Hague, followed by the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam. He subsequently stayed for three years on Ibiza, connected with the ‘Grupo Ibiza’. In the meantime he worked on his first book ‘I, Jan Cremer’. Published in The Netherlands in 1964 it caused a real cultural revolution and has since sold millions all over the world. More than a hundred exhibitions followed in museums and galleries not only in The Netherlands but in many other countries. Cremer wrote more books, but also kept on painting, abandoning the abstract style of peinture barbarisme in favour of paintings of tulip fields and other aspects of the Dutch landscape. Many years of travelling and painting followed, during which he wrote travel stories for leading newspapers and magazines as well. He still manages to combine his work with his passion for traveling. Sometimes he is away for six months of the year, although lately he can be found more often at his home in Amsterdam.


DILLON, Gerard (ð. 17) Born 1916 in Belfast, Ireland. Died in 1971. He was virtually a self-taught artist and studied only briefly at Belfast College of Art. His paintings often represent autobiographical images of interior domestic scenes, with his landscape and figure paintings inspired by the west of Ireland, a source of creative fertility for many Irish artists. He also drew inspiration from Belfast and his home in London. DOOR, Ferenc (ð. 18) Born in 1918 in Hungary. Year of death unknown. Completed the College of Fine Arts in Budapest in 1941 where he studied under Istvan Szonyi. A variety of contemporary trends can be seen in his paintings. They are intense in colour, with a simple, independent languagethrough which the artist has shared his philosophy. He preferred painting still-life and landscapes of the hills surrounding the Balaton Lake and the riverbanks by the Tisa. He was honoured with numerous prestigious international awards for his painting. His works have been exhibited in Hungary, France, Italy and Germany. Paintings by him are owned by the Hungarian National Gallery, as well as the Bulgarian museums in Gabrovo, Strajitsa and Plovdiv. GIBSON, Helena (ð. 44 - 45) Born in 1957 in Sweden. She studied in Glasskolan, Orrefors (19801982) and in Pilchuch Glasscenter, Seattle, USA (1985). A famous artist in the field of the contemporary Swedish glass art. HENNEMAN, Jeroen (ð. 35) Born in Haarlem, Netherlands in 1942. He studied in Mendelcollege in Haarlem and in the Institute for Applied Arts in Amsterdam (1959-1961). After 1961 until 1976 follows a period of travelling in Belgium, France, USA and Switzerland. He is an expressive artist who as a painter, artist, graphic artist and object maker as well as theatre and television maker enjoys a good reputation in and outside the country. The objects in his

works ask philosophical questions of the world around us. The philosophical aspect of objects has a rich tradition in art. He is attracted by persistent things, the lonely burning bulb which is left behind the painter’s ladder, the walking stick on wheels, and the pencil which signs. Time stopping is another theme that enjoyed his interest. Pictures, cupboards, moveable objects such as falling ash-trays, falling coffee pots, cutting scissors are themes in his art. From the very beginning he had to make the choice between his literary aspirations and his ambitions in the field of sculpting. The latter prevailed - perhaps due to the fact that the exhibition of his objects was a great success. The standing drawings and the portraits in wood are from a later period, but surely not less interesting or popular. In the last twenty years the town, architecture and light are characteristic for his drawings, paintings and graphic work. Well-known are his monumental linear sculptures, like ‘De Kus’ (1982, 22 meters high) in front of the KBB-concern in Amsterdam-Zuidoost and the 9 meter high ‘Wheel’ (1996) on top of the Tax-office in Amsterdam-Sloterdijk. Jeroen Henneman names his linear sculptures ‘standing drawings’ in which the illusion of volume is obtained by means of interplay of lines. The portrait of Queen Beatrix is such a ‘standing drawing’. KALVARI, Fàtbardh Mati (ð. 49) Born in 1962 in Albania. Completed the Tirana Academy of Fine Arts in 1989. For several years he worked on the restoration of churches in Greece, USA and Canada. His abstract and expressionistic paintings have been exhibited in Albania and abroad. KATSIVELAKIS, Vassilis (ð. 51) Born in Korydallos, Attica, Greece in 1969. He studied painting, sculpture and scene painting at the Athens School of Fine Arts. He was recommended to the Greek State’s Scholarship’s Foundation in 1990, 1993 and 1994. Member of the Art Teachers’ Association, of the Secondary Education Teachers’ Federation, as well as of the

73


Chamber of Arts. Member (and ex vicechairman) of the Athens School of Fine Arts Graduates’ Association. From 1995 until now he has been teaching Art, Art History and Sketch in secondary education public schools and he has taught at the Art Workshop of Chalkida and of Korydallos. A fragment of a horse from the Parthenon pediment is left of Helios’s chariot, the oddment of sunlight. In the artist`s studio it poses for study used to trigger the mind’s gallop, just as the horse pawn on the chessboard of Time. KAZAKOV – NERON, Dimitar (ð. 29) Born in the village of Tsarski Izvor, near Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria in 1933. Died in Sofia in 1992. He graduated in Graphic Art from the Academy of Arts in Sofia in 1965. Kazakov worked in the area of painting, printmaking, monumental wood sculpture and ceramics. From 1966 he participated regularly in group exhibitions and has had many solo-exhibitions in Bulgaria and abroad. His paintings are in private and public collections, including the National Fund for Contemporary Art (FNAC) at the Louvre, the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts in Moscow and the Imperial Collection in Tokyo KIROV, Dimitar (ð. 32) Born in Istanbul in 1935. In 1959 he graduated in Monumental Painting from the Sofia Academy of Art. He is honorary member of the ‘Nika Kai’ Group of Japanese Painters. His first steps in painting have coincided with the period of the bright and ardently disputed new groupings of Bulgarian expressive art. Figurativeness and abstract complement each other in his style. He has dozens of decorative-monumental works of art in his biography and also over 40 solo exhibitions in Bulgaria and abroad. His works of art are owned by the National Gallery of Art, the Sofia City Art Gallery, galleries in the country, museums and private collections in Bulgaria, Armenia, Belgium, Venezuela, Germany, Georgia,

74

Greece, Denmark, Spain, Canada, Cyprus, Mexico, Russia, Turkey, France, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Switzerland, Sweden, Japan. He has won prestigious national awards. He lives in Plovdiv. KRACHMAROV, Yordan (ð. 13) Born in Razgrad, Bulgaria in 1895. Died in 1980. He studied at the State Academy of Arts in Sofia in 1921 1922 and sculpture at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich in 1923 1925. There he was awarded a first-prize diploma, becoming the first foreigner to win this high distinction in the history of the internationally acclaimed academy founded in the early nineteenth century. In 1925 1926 he studied sculpture in Sofia. Krachmarov’s art consists largely of portraits, figure compositions, nudes and monumental sculptures. He participated in the World Expositions in Paris (1937), where he won a gold medal, and in Venice (1942). After 1927 he participated in all national exhibitions in Bulgaria. His works are in possession of the National Art Gallery, the Sofia City Art Gallery and other galleries in Bulgaria, as well as in private collections. His style in portraiture is distinguished by a balance between realistic representation of the subject’s appearance and psychological portrayal of his or her emotional world. His best known portraits are of Hristo Botev (1928) and Vassil Levski (1943), and of eminent figures in the field of science and culture (a series created mostly in the 1930s and 1940s). MADDEN, Anna (ð. 28) Born in 1932 in England, of Irish and AngloChilean origin. Spending her early childhood in Chile, Ireland, and then England, she studied at the Chelsea School of Art and Design. Married to the eminent Irish artist Louis le Brocquy since 1958, she has exhibited extensively in Ireland and Europe. Her work has been influenced by the rugged landscape of western Ireland, and is often concerned with


mythology. In her early works she employs prehistoric imagery resembling megalithic structures in abstract forms and more recently finding inspiration in Roman and Greek history. Having lived in France for some years, she now lives and works in Dublin. MANDIC¿, Zdravko (ð. 33) 1935 - Born in Strigova, Bosna and Hercegovina. Graduated the Academy of Fine Arts in Belgrade in the class of prof. Zoran Petrovi and post-graduate studies in the class of prof. Milo Milunovi . Living and working in Zrenjanin (Vojvodina, Serbia), he presented more than 100 solo exhibitions and took part in more than 500 group exhibitions in the former Yugoslavia and abroad, as well as winning numerous awards. Renown for his river water-colour and oil landscapes, the artist created hazy scenes, with human figures disappearing into the mist, often being referred to by critics as the ”mist magician”. He is a member of ULUS - The Association of Fine Artists of Serbia. MASEREEL, Frans (ð. 11 - 12) Born in the Belgian Blankenberghe in 1889. Died in Gent in 1972. He moved to Gent in 1896, where he began to study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts at the class of Jean Delvin at the age of 18. In 1909 he went on trips to England and Germany, which inspired him for his first etchings and woodcuts. From 1911 he settled in Paris for four years and then he emigrated to Switzerland, where he worked as a graphic artist for various journals and magazines. The woodcut series, mainly of sociocritical content and of expressionistic form concept, made the artist internationally known. At that time he also drew illustrations on famous works of world literature by Thomas Mann, Emile Zola and Stefan Zweig. In 1921 the artist returned to Paris, where his famous street scenes, the Montmartre-paintings, came into existence. During the 1930s the number of illustrated books and single woodcuts decreased. In 1940 the artist fled

from Paris and lived in several cities in Southern France. At the end of World War II Masereel was able to resume his artistic work and produced woodcuts and paintings. He was awarded the Grand Prize for graphics at the Venice Biennale in 1950. In the following years until 1968 several series of woodcuts were published, which differ from his earlier ”novels in picture” based on variations of a subject instead of being a continuing narrative. Furthermore he designed decorations and costumes for numerous theatre productions. The artist was honoured in numerous exhibitions and became a member of several academies. In 1947 ”Büchergilde Gutenberg” from Zurich published Emile Zola’s ”Germinale” illustrated by Frans Masereel. O’NEILL, Geraldine (ð. 52) Born 1971 in Dublin, Ireland. She graduated from the National College of Art and Design. She paints in vibrant colours with heightened realism. She lives and works in Dublin POPOVIC¿ , Mic¿a (ð. 24) Born in Loznica, Serbia in 1923. Died in Belgrade in 1996. After World War II, most of which he spent working odd jobs in Belgrade, he entered the Academy of Fine Arts in Belgrade in 1946 in the class of prof. Tabakovi . In 1947 he went to Zadar with some other painters and formed the famous ”Zadar group”. After returning to Belgrade he continued to study on his own with the help of prof. Tabakovi . As a painter Popovi is best known for his informal period (1958-1968) and his ”Scenes Painting” (from 1968). In the 1960s he also made several films. The artist was elected regular member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts in 1986. PRASHKOV, Kiril (ð. 43) Born in Sofia, Bulgaria in 1956. He graduated in 1983 the Art Academy in Sofia, department of Illustration and Book Design. Founding member of the Institute of Contemporary Art – Sofia. He often forms

75


his works on the base of text, choosing and composing it on the idea of reading as work and movement. His installations of quotations or own words are built up in different languages or musical scores. Phrases are ”written” in different materials – drawing on paper as in ”The Most Wooden Piece of Beethoven’s”, 1995; wood – ”THE TIME HAS COME... TO TALK OF MANY THINGS”, 1999; stone, paint – ”Speaking Cobblestones”, 1998; digital printing – ”IT’S HARD TO BE A MACHO NOWADAYS”, 2000; garbage – ”YOUR HOME IS WHERE YOUR GARBAGE IS”, 2002; printing on carpeting – ”Ceci n’est pas un texte”, 2006, etc. RÅMAN, Ingegerd (ð. 37 - 39) Born in 1943 in Stockholm, Sweden. Educated in the Luton College of Technology, England (1961); in ceramics in Capellagården (1962); in the University College of Arts, Crafts and Design, Stockholm (1962 1965); in Istituto Statale D’Arte per la Ceramica/Faenza, Italy (1965 1966); in the University College of Arts, Crafts and Design, Stockholm (1966 1968). Designer for a number of Swedish companies for tableware and glassware. Since 1972 she works in her own ceramics production studio. She has been awarded multiple prizes for her designs. Her works have been displayed in solo and group exhibitions both at home and abroad. Works by her are part of Swedish and foreign museum collections. RAMUJKIC¿, Kemal (ð. 40) Born in Podgorica, Montenegro in 1947. Graduated the Academy of Fine Arts in Belgrade in 1973. Member of ULUS (The Association of Fine Artists of Serbia). Professor in the Center for Art Education ”Sumatovacka” in Belgrade. He is a traditional painter with an obsession for the Mediterranean and poetic reflection. Exhibitions: Yugoslav Cultural Center in Paris (1996), Belgrade (1997), Podgorica, (2000), Bratislava (2004), Vienna (2005) and many other. In his figurative orientation he prefers the style of Vatteau, Corot and Becklin.

76

ROBERT, Hubert (ð. 7) Born in Paris, France in 1733. Died in 1808. Painter, etching and landscape artist, interior designer. While travelling in Italy in 1759 he painted numerous landscapes among which the ruins of Herculan and Pompeus are most prominent. He also discovered similar sites in France. Without seeking precise archaeological reconstruction, he recreated the ancient monuments of Provence with the melancholic sensitivity of the preromantic style. In 1766 he became member of the Academie Royale and started exhibiting works in its Salon the following year. He often painted topical scenes. Influenced by the English park design he drafted plans for the Versailles park. After the revolution of 1789 together with Fragonard he designed several plans for the construction of the Louvre’s Grande Galerie. Trubetskoy Gallery, Paris The only gallery in the world which specialises in copying original paintings from 16th century to the present, including works by Hubert Robert, all owned by private collections (and with acknowledgement of copyrights). Part of the copies have been used in interior designs of public spaces in France and other countries. SELIMI, Arben Rifat (ð. 50) Born in Albania in 1963. Graduated the Academy of Fine Arts in Tirana in 1986. Has worked as stage designer at the Mijen Theatre in Skodra. Currently lives and works in Paris. STOYANOV, Samuil (ð. 53) Born in 1975 in Dobrich, Bulgaria He attended the School of Fine Arts in Plovdiv until 1994, and then studied Ceramics at the National Academy of Fine Arts until 2001. He has taken part in many group exhibitions in Bulgaria and abroad. He has had six solo exhibitions in Sofia, Plovdiv and Dobrich. He is recipient of numerous awards including for his postcard Art Highway Bulgaria-Europe 2007; from the National Contest for Young Artists and Critics (2004); the Debut Fund for Contemporary Art and Culture (2003); the ”Bulgaria-


Europe. Traditions Shall Unite” contest for young artists (2002); for monumental art at the 2001 competition of the Council of Ministers ”Bulgaria’s European Road” (in collaboration with Anton Terziev); nominated by the jury of the National Fine Arts Academy for Bulgarian participant at the International Student Triennial in Istanbul (2000). TESKEY, Donald (ð. 42) Born 1956 in Limerick, Ireland. He studied at the Limerick School of Art and Design. He paints urban and rural scenes in moody palettes using a thick overlay of a plasterer’s trowel. His work is abstract but focuses on recognisable features of the Irish landscape depicted as sites of energetic elemental forces. He has worked on many illustrations and design commissions, including four postage stamps, and has illustrated several books for children. VAN LERBERGHE, Karel (ð. 10) Born in Woumen, Belgium in 1899. Died in 1953 in Gand. He studied at the fine art academies in Dixmude (1908), Bruges, Gand and Anvers (1911-1913). In the early years he was found inspiration in the landscapes of Western Flanders. After settling in Ghent he turned to the surrounding sites and also seascapes and floral still life. His travel to South France resulted in panoramas. His works were impressionistic in style and can be found in the collections of museums in Brussels, Gand, and Louvain. He was member of the Yser art community where he also served in the army during World War I. Until 1927 he was Secretary of the Municipality of Woumen. VIKMAN, Ulla-Maija (ð. 36) Born in Oulu, Finland in 1943. Industrial designer and textile artist. 2002 Master of Arts, University of Industrial Arts. 1992 - Art Designer of the Year. Assistant at the University of Industrial Arts (1974-1976). Since 1975 has a private workshop. Lecturer on design, at the University of Helsinki (19801986). Designer in the Training Center at the

University of Industrial Arts (1986-1993). Since 1993 - State 15-year Artist Scholarship. She has had numerous solo exhibitions in Finland, Canada, USA, Sweden, Germany as well as group exhibitions in Poland, Germany, Norway, Italy, Sweden, Iceland, Hungary, the UK, Switzerland, Denmark, France, Belgium, Spain, Australia, the USA. VOLTEN, Andre´ (ð. 25) Born in Andijk, The Netherlands in 1925. Died in Amsterdam in 2002. Painter since 1946. Since 1953 he made geometric-abstract sculptures and belongd to the typical Dutch sculptors of the post-war generation. In the beginning of the 1950s he settled in Amsterdam-Noord and was to be found regularly at a shipyard where he experimented with joints. Since the 1950s he devoted his work to open space sculptures. Along with the numerous works that he realized in the Netherlands and abroad he made a significant contribution to the debate about the need of art in public spaces. The integration of architecture and plastic art in the way they meet in Volten’s work show how art and architecture can complement and reinforce each other. In 1966 the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam dedicated an exhibition to him. In 1996 he received the Oeuvre Award of the Funds for Plastic Arts, Design & Architecture. He had a close bond with the Royal Family and was a regular guest at Drakenstijn and advised Queen Beatrix about the events at the Palace on the Dam. In 1998 the artist was honoured by the Queen with the Honour Medal for Art and Science in the Huisorde van Oranje. In the beginning of 2002 André was given the assignment to construct a sculpture for the garden of Prince WillemAlexander and Máxima on the occasion of their marriage. This statue was never finished. The masterpieces of Volten consist purely of geometric figures. He did not give names to his works. Famous public works of art are to be found at the Amsterdam Music Theatre, at the Jaarbeursplein in Utrecht and at the Frederiksplein in Amsterdam.

77


WYCKAERT, Maurice (ð. 23) Born in Brussels, Belgium in 1923. Died in 1996. He completed the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in 1948. He founded the ”Mediaan magazine” (1953-540), was member of the ”Taptoe Group” (1956) and of ”International Situationisme” (1958). He was awarded the Belgian Young Painting award in 1957. Wyckaert represented Belgium at the Sao Paolo biennale in 1975. In the late 1970s and early 1980s he created several murals in Israel and in the Brussels Underground. In 1984 he worked in London. He travelled to Tokyo, Washington and Los Angeles. In the late 1980s he also worked as a designer. In 1990 he was honoured with the Jules Raeymaekers Award of the Belgian Académie Royale. WYLLIE, William Lionel (ð. 8) Born in London, UK in 1851. Dead in 1931. Painter and etcher of marine and coastal subjects, he was the son of the genre painter William Morrison Wyllie, and elder brother of Charles William Wyllie, who also became a marine artist. Wyllie studied at Heatherley’s Art School before joining the Royal Academy Schools in 1865, where he won the Turner Gold Medal in 1869. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1868, and also at the Royal Society of Artists, the New Watercolour Society and the Grosvenor Gallery. He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1889, and a full member on 1907. His love of marine subjects ensured that by 1889 he had a house at Rochester where he was busy painting the lower Thames and Medway and spent much of his time on his yacht. He also worked as an illustrator for ”The Graphic” for twenty years from its inception in 1870. Wyllie’s favourite medium was watercolour, but he was also a skilful etcher. At his death the watercolours in his studio were purchased for the proposed National Maritime Museum at Greenwich: on counting these were found to number about five thousand.

78

Wyllie witnessed various naval events at first hand, and in 1901 was aboard the flagship, ”Majestic”, to record the passing of Queen Victoria’s body from Osbourne, Isle of Wight, to Portsmouth, where be bought Tower House on the waterfront at the entrance to the harbour. As well as painting from life, Wyllie also painted historical scenes and events of the First World War. The artist`s realistic view of the construction of Blackfriars Bridge focuses on the complex infrastructure supporting the underside of the bridge. The original Blackfriars Bridge was built by Robert Mylne in 1759-1769: this was demolished and rebuilt by Joseph Cubitt in 1860-1869. This painting is an early work of Wyllie’s, probably dating from the time that he exhibited his first painting of Dover Castle at the Royal Academy in 1868. The River Thames was one of his most popular subjects and many other views that he painted of it were included in annual Royal Academy exhibitions. YAG¿ CI, Necmettin (ð. 41) Born in Mardin, Turkey in 1956. Graduated from Ankara Gazi Higher Education Institution of Instructors, Art and Work Department, in 1982. Freelance sculptor in Istanbul. Started teaching sculpting in 1986. In 1997 he concluded his masters degree in ”Organic Forms and Shaping in the Art of Sculpture” at the Gazi University. Has 5 individual exhibitions, including in France, Belgium and Germany, and joined more than 100 group exhibitions. Has 44 monumental works in Turkey, such as the Yunus Emre Statue in Ankara (1992), Martyries Statue in Kilis (2000), as well as in Canada and the USA. He continues to create figurative sculptures, using deformations and abstractions in classical figure compositions. Some of his awards: 1985 Ýstanbul International Kartal Culture-Art, Plastics Success Award; 2002 - Trabzon Mention Award; 2006 - 66th State Exhibition on Paintings and Sculpture, Success Award. UNKNOWN ARTIST (ð. 9) Portrait of Vito POSITANO - Italian career diplomat (dead in 1886).


Before arriving to Bulgaria he worked at the consulates in Malta, Trieste, Algier and Istanbul. Vice Consular of Italy to Bulgaria from 5 July 1876 to 21 August 1879. Positano revealed his heroism during the end of the Russian-Turkish war when in December 1877 Nuri Pasha decided to burn down Sofia and warned only the foreign consuls of the fact. Instead of fleeing Vito Positano abandoned his diplomatic privileges, gathered diplomats and the city’s most prominent people at his home and encouraged them to fight for the saving of Sofia in this dramatic moment instead of rushing off to safety. Risking his own life he organised volunteers who took part in extinguishing the fires. After the Liberation he was decorated with the Honourable Citizen of Sofia award. Historians still call him Sofia’s most fateful personae, and in 1879 the City Council said that ”Had it not been for his direct intervention there would have been no sign of Sofia by now, thousands of citizens of the city would have died in the severe winter.” NYMPHENBURG PORCELAIN FACTORY (ð. 54) The factory is situated in the Nymphenburg Palace in Munich, capital of Bavaria. In 1745 Maximilian III Joseph, Prince-Elector of Bavaria, commanded the establishment of manufacturing companies in order to bail out the state finances. From 1747 attempts were made to manufacture porcelain and at the end of that year the former Neudeck Castle in the area now the Munich suburb of Au-Haidhausen was made available for that purpose. Up to 1754 the experiments failed and resulted in considerable financial losses, but in that year the efforts to manufacture porcelain finally began to succeed, and in 1754 Franz Anton Bustelli was appointed as figurist. In 1755 the factory received its first commission from the Bavarian court and in 1756 came the first success in painting the porcelain in colour. The management of the jurist and enterpeneur Count Sigmund von Haimhausen from 1758 ensured that the factory was placed on a sound commercial footing. By 1761 it had moved to the Nymphenburg Palace, where it still is today. In 1887 Albert Bäuml (1855-1929) took a

lease of the factory. His aim was to regain the previous high artistic level of the factory’s products: it was Bäuml, for example, who ”rediscovered” Bustelli. This aim was realised at around the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries and besides historical copies, elegant Jugendstil ceramics were developed. PORCELAIN FROM SE`VRES (ð. 55) The national factory in Sèvres was the most renowned producer of porcelain in Europe. Originally it produced only soft-paste porcelain (from matt glass and clay). After the first deposits of kaolin were discovered near Limoges in 1770 the factory started offering hard-paste porcelain too. Throughout its history to the present the factory - called subsequently Royal, Emperor’s and National – has been mainly producing output for the State. Considering the supreme quality of the products, the interest of numerous foreign and French collectors can hardly be surprising. Egyptian Obelisks In 1830 the Vice King of Egypt Mehmet Ali gave the French King Charles X two obelisks from Luxor. Archaeologist Jean-Francois Champollion was tasked to choose which of the two obelisks would be transported first. Legend has it that the scientist chose ”the one on the right upon entry into the palace”, in fact the smaller of the two and the better preserved. In 1836 the obelisk was ceremonially mounted at the Concorde square in Paris with the help of ten large hoisting crabs. In token of gratitude King Louis-Philip I presented in return a clock which still adorns the court of the Mehmet Ali mosque in Cairo. The second obelisk which actually never left Egypt was officially ”returned” by France to Egypt in 1981 in the beginning of Francois Mitterand’s first term as president.

79


/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò

Âåñåëà Õðèñòîâà–Ðàäîåâà – óðåäíèê íà èçëîæáàòà è ñúñòàâèòåë íà êàòàëîãà Ëþäìèëà Äèìèòðîâà – òåêñò Çàôåð Ãàëèáîâ – ôîòîãðàô Ëþáîâ Êîñòîâà – ïðåâîä íà àíãëèéñêè åçèê Íàäåæäà Îëåã Ëÿõîâà – äèçàéí Ïðåäïå÷àòíà ïîäãîòîâêà: ÈÄÀ Ïå÷àò: Êëàñèê äèçàéí 2007© Äúðæàâåí êóëòóðåí èíñòèòóò êúì ìèíèñòúðà íà âúíøíèòå ðàáîòè ISBN 978-954-91824-3-9

/ åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art / åâðîïà.àðò / europe.art

Vessela Christova-Radoeva – exhibition curator and catalogue compiler Lyudmila Dimitrova – text Zafer Galibov – photgraphy Lyubov Kostova – English translations Nadezhda Oleg Lyahova – design Pre-print: IDA Print: Classic Design 2007© State Institute of Culture under the Minister of Foreign Affairs ISBN 978-954-91824-3-9


Europa art