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International Convention Center, Dwarka, Delhi.

Architectural Design Thesis 2015

Chitkara School of Planning and Architecture, Chitkara University, Punjab

Yashima Jain| CUN110301120 | Semester 8


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Recommendation We hereby certify that the Thesis Report entitled “International Convention

Center, Dwarka�, prepared by Yashima Jain under our guidance, be accepted as a requirement for the partial fulfillment of the Degree of Bachelor of Architecture. Dated: July 02, 2015

_____________________ ____________________ Ar. Suchitra Sodhi

Ar. Arun Lakhanpal

Studio Adviser

Studio Adviser

____________________

Prof. Kiran Joshi

Thesis Coordinator

____________________ ` ____________________ Prof. S S Bais

Prof. I J S Bakshi

Principal, CSPA

Director, CSPA

External Examiners

____________________

___________________

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Acknowledgment:

I take this opportunity to express gratitude and deep thanks to my Studio Ad-

visers, Ar. Arun Lakhanpal, Ar. S. K. Midha & Ar. Suchitra Sodhi for their exemplary guidance throughout the course of the thesis. Their words of wisdom and constant support helped me put my thoughts and concepts on paper in a rational fashion.

I acknowledge, with gratitude, my debt of thanks to Prof. Kiran Joshi who guid-

ed me on every front in this thesis project.

I would like to thank my friends Gunjan Nanchahal, Suryaveer Patnaik and my

family for their constant support and encouragement without which this thesis would not be possible.

Yashima Jain

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Contents 1.1. Understanding convention centers

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1.2. The MICE Industry

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1.3. Need for a convention center:

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2.1. Project Proposal

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2.2. Project Location

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2.3. Objectives of the promoters

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2.4. Project Attributes

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2.5. User Groups

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2.6. Methodology adopted:

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2. Project Description

3. Theoretical Study 3.1. Understanding Conventions

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3.2. Types of conventions

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3.3. Space and user analysis:

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4. Space standards 4.1. Public movement pattern for convention centers:

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4.1.1. Delegates flow

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4.1.2. Public flow

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4.1.3. VIP flow

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4.1.4. Staff flow

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4.1.5.Journalist flow

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4.2. The Auditorium:

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4.2.1. Seating:

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4.2.2. Auditorium Design:

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4.2.3. Means of escape

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4.3. Conference Rooms

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4.3.1.Types of seating

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4.3.2. Space standards

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4.4. Exhibition Galleries:

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4.4.1.General Planning

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4.4.2. Space Standards

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4.5. Restaurants

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1. Introduction


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4.5.1. Types of restaurants

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4.5.2. Relationship of main elements

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4.5.3. Space standards

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4.5.4. Bar Service

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4.5.5. Toilet facility

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4.6. Central Kitchen

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4.6.1. Spatial components

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4.7. Fire safety norms by the National Building Code of India

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4.7.1. General Exit Requirements

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4.7.2. Capacity of exits

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4.7.3. Doorways

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4.7.4. Stairways and ramps

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4.7.5. Horizontal exits

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4.8. Vertical circulation

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4.8.1. Escalators

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4.8.2. Elevators

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4.8.3. Ramps

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4.8.4. Internal staircase

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4.9. Parking:

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4.9.1. Surface parking

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4.9.2. Basement parking

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4.9.2.1. Ramp systems

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4.9.2.2. Ramp Design

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4.9.2.1. Floor Systems

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5. Case Studies 5.1. Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi

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5.1.1. Introduction

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5.1.2. Intent of the study

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5.1.3. Location

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5.1.4. Form and architecture

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5.1.5. Planning of the complex

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5.1.6. Access to the complex

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5.1.7. The ground floor

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5.1.8. The first floor

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5.1.9. The second floor

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5.1.10. Fire fighting system

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5.1.11. Orientation of the building

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5.1.12. The Annexe Building

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5.1.13. Area statement:

5.1.14. Inferences: 49

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5.2. Vancouver Convention Center (west), Canada

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5.2.1. Introduction 51 5.2.2. Intent of the study

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5.2.3. Aesthetics of the building

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5.2.4. Design features of the building

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5.2.5. The living green roof

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5.2.6. Area statement

57

5.2.7. Inferences

64

5.3. International Convention Center, Jeju, South Korea

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5.3.1. Introduction

67

5.3.2. Intent of the study

67

5.3.3. Site planning

68

5.3.4. Level 1 and 2

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5.3.5. Level 3

72

5.3.6. Basement level

74

5.3.6. Inferences

76

6. Site Analysis 6.1. Location of the site

78

6.2. Surroundings of the site

78

6.3. Details of the site

79

6.4. Climatic conditions

80

6.5. Analysis and conclusions

82

7. Programme Formulation

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1. Introduction

Understanding the concept of convention centers, role of the MICE industry

and the need for a convention center in Delhi. 1.1. Understanding Convention centers 1.2. The MICE Industry 1.3. The need for a convention center

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The development of convention centers, sport facilties, and performing arts

venues are incresingly being acknowledged for their role in simulating local economies and improving the quality of life of a nation’s citizens. Conference and business tourism is hence a very important sector of the global tourism industry.

The booming convention market necessitates creationof not merely a con-

vention center but a convention destination with exhibition facilities, shopping plazas, cluster of hotels, backward-forward linkages with international airports, mass transit systems ad adequate parking.

1.1. Understanding convention centers

A convention center is a large building that is designed to hold a convention,

where individuals and groups gather to promote and share common interests. A convention center is designed, in most cases, for the purpose of conducting meetings, rallies, or seminars. It may also be adapted for specific events, such as appearances by well-known speakers or musicians. In some cases, meetings or other events take place in centers or buildings not specifically designed for conventions, but large enough to accommodate attendees.

Convention centers receive guests from local, national and international mar-

kets. The various market segments that visit these facilities are dictated by the types of events that are hosted.

1.2. The MICE Industry

MICE is a type of tourism in which large groups, usually planned well in advance,

are brought together for a particular purpose. MICE is an acronym for the Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions tourism segment.

This is therefore a business-oriented segment, involving obligatory (or non-dis-

cretionary) travel. The Incentives part of MICE is the odd one out – though it is related to business, as it is usually provided to employees or dealers/distributors as a reward, it tends to be leisure based.

Figure 1 : Meaning of the term MICE


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1.3. Need for a convention center: Delhi has a 35% share of the inter-

national conventions and meetings being hosted in India. It hosted 37 international conventions in 2003 out of a total of 101 international conventions hosted in India. It hosts approximately 110 exhibitions, 525 major conventions and nearly 11,000 con- Table 1 : International Conventions and Meetings hosted by Asia-Pacific cities ferences every year. The supply in Delhi is characterized by the following: • Stand-alone convention or exhibition centers like Vigyan Bhavan and Pragati Maidan. • Five-star and four-star hotels • Industry association facilities like FICCI auditorium, PHDCCI auditorium as well as other facilities like Indian Habitat Center.

None of these centers can cater to all kinds of MICE events, some host ex-

hibitions and others host conferences and banquets. Though Pragati Maidan offers convention facilities, however it has not developed a key convention destination due to small size of convention halls and poor quality of other facilities available. The largest convention hall has a seating capacity of 200 people. There is a clear lack of integrated convention and exhibition center of global standards in Delhi. The breakup of conferences and meetings across key convention centres in Delhi has been presented in Table 2. 1.3.1. Characterstics of Delhi market:

Delhi has its own unique climate and culture that impact the timing of the con-

ventions and exhibitions held in the city. Given the extremes heat experienced by Delhi during April-August, the international conventions are held from September to March (the peak season). More than 70% of the domestic events are also held in these months. Trade shows also follow a distinctly seasonal pattern with the peak periods being from September to March. Nearly 75% of all exhibitions held in Delhi are hosted in the peak season.

The key parameter examined for feasibility of establishing C&EC are location

demographics, air seat capacity and hotel room availability. Delhi is only second to Mumbai with regard to availability of hotels and air seat capacity. This makes Delhi one of the best locations in India to host conventions and exhibitions.

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2. Project Description

Introducing the proposed project and the clients. Brief objectives of the promot-

ers and the user groups of the project. 2.1. Project proposal 2.2. Project location 2.3. Objectives of the promoter 2.4. Project attributes 2.5. User groups 2.6. Methodology adopted

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2.1. Project Proposal

The proposed convention center project is to be located in Dwarka, one of the

fast growing urban sub-cities located in southwest Delhi. This integrated state-of-theart convention center and exhibition center has been proposed by the DDA ( Delhi Development Authority).

2.2. Project Location

The site for the proposed International Convention and Exhibition Center is lo-

cated in sector 24, Dwarka phase II, Delhi. It lies along a 100m wide right of way road connecting Dwarka to the NH8 via the airport. The proposed site is also in proximity to the international airport. On one side is a 130 acre green area abuts the site which is proposed to be developed as a golf course by the Delhi Development Authority. Around 250m from the site is the Najafgarh Drain. The site is also abutting a 30m wide sector road, connecting the site to M.P. Greens.

Figure 2 : The land use map of Dwarka indicating the location and surroundings of the proposed convention center

2.3. Objectives of the promoters • The project shall create and operate a commercially successful convention centre. • It shall improve the region’s ability to attract large international and national conventions. • It shall create an exciting, commercially successful convention center hence improving the regions ability to attract revenue regenerating conventions. • Operating an integrtaed convention facility accomodating different needs for a variety of user groups.


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2.4. Project Attributes The idea of international convention centre has been derived from the present

scenario of rapid growth of innovation, technology, art and cultures. Convention centers serve to provide a location for meetings, conventions, trade shows, public shows, the arts, and local interests. •

Typology : Commercial

Use : Public

2.5. User Groups

The users of the center are broadly classifies into 3 major types: •

The delegates : -- These are the group of people who form the major part of the convention center. -- People from both national and international backgrounds are a part of this user group.

The exhibitors : -- They are the reason for the delegates to attend various conventions and exhibitions. -- People from all over the country gather to promote their respective event. -- The exhibitors may also be local craftsmen who are allowed to setup temporary shops.

The staff : -- These people form the backbone of the convention center. -- They take care of all the needs of nth the delegates as well as the exhibitors who are new to the place and a guest at the convention centre. -- The building must cater to their needs along with catering to the direct users of the building.

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2.6. Methodology adopted: Topic Selection and Justification.

• • • •

Brief understanding of the topic selected. Defining the aims and objectives of the project. Listing down the attributes and challenges of the project. Understanding various user groups of the project. Literature Study

• Design standards and guidelines. • Study of bye-laws and specialized services.

Case Study

• Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi • Vancouver Convention Center, Vancouver, Canada • International Convention Center, Jeju, Korea

Theoretical Studies.

Site Analysis.

• • • •

Study of climatic data. Sun path and orientation Identifying major problems Geographical study for slope, vegetation, etc.

Area Formulation.

• Formation of a project brief that includes detailed requirements of the project. • Detailed calculations of all the components that have to be incorporated in the project.

Site Zoning.

• Zoning of various building blocks based on design requirement and site analysis. • Development of circulation plans.

Concept Development.

• Development of design concept, massing and basic form of the structure.

Design Process.

Final Design Proposal.


3. Theoretical Study

Understanding conventions and their types. User analysis as per the various

space requirements. 3.1. Understanding conventions 3.2. Types of conventions 3.3. User and space analysis

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4.1. Understanding Conventions

A convention is a gathering of individuals who meet at an arranged place and

time in order to discuss or engage in some common interest. Conventions are often planned and coordinated by professional meeting and convention planners, generally by staff of the convention’s hosting company.

Most large cities will have a convention center dedicated to hosting such

events. The term MICE - meetings Incentives Conventions and Exhibitions - is widely used in Asia as a description of the industry.

4.2. Types of conventions

The most common conventions are based upon industry, profession, and fan-

dom. Along with them, •

Trade conventions : It typically lays focus on a particular industry or in-

dustry segment, and feature keynote speakers, vendor displays, and other information and activities of interest to the event organizers and attendee •

Professional Conventions : They focus on issues of concern to the pro-

fession and advancements in the profession. Such conventions are generally organized by societies dedicated to promotion of the topic of interest. •

Fan Conventions : They usually feature displays, shows, and sales based

on pop culture and guest celebrities.

Figure 4 : Difference between various types of conventions

Seminars : They are meetings organized to inform a group of people

about a specific topic, or to teach a specific skill. Expert speakers and teachers are usually invited to speak on various topics. •

Social events : A large gathering organized to celebrate major life events

and religious ceremonies. Common social events include: anniversaries, weddings and birthdays. •

Trade shows/Exhibitions : They are an opportunity for companies to ex-

hibit some of their latest products, as well as yet to be released prototypes to journalists as well as others in the industry


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4.3. Space and user analysis:

1. Entrance Hall

2.

Registration Center

Space analysis Users: Delegates, performers and staff. Description: 1. The major connectivity between the various components of the convention center. 2. It acts as an ideal space for delegates to network. 3. Spaces like information kiosk and waiting lounges form a part of the entrance hall. Users: People taking part in various conventions Description: 1. It acts as a space where people attending various events register themselves.

3. Toilets

Users: All occupants. Description: 1. The size and quantity of the toilets to be provided shall be decided in accordance to NBC standards. 2. They shall be provided for peak capacity.

4. Exhibition Halls

Users: All occupants Description: 1. Trade relative promoters take part in the trade shows to promote their products. 2. Large span structures and column free spaces are required for these promotions. 3. Crowd management of such components becomes necessary.

Semi Public Use 1. Auditorium / Plenary Hall

Users: Performers, delegates and local people. Description: 1. The purpose of the auditorium is to accommodate large scale gatherings for various events like dance, drama and delegations. 2. The design of the auditorium shall be evolved in accordance to various standard guidelines subjected to auditorium design.

2. Conference Rooms

Users: Delegates and staff Description: 1. They hold meetings and small company training sessions for 20-30 people.

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Components Public Use


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3. Seminar Rooms

Users: Delegates and staff. Description: 1. They are ideal for small-scale events like workshops, training sessions, press conferences, etc. 2. They are large enough to seat attendees in theatre configurations ranging from 50-200 people.

4. Public amenities

Users: Delegates Description: 1. They include smoking lounges, ATM’s, phone booths, etc. 2. Only people attending any event in the convention center shall have an access to these amenities

Private Use 1. Administrative offices

Users: Staff of the convention center Description: 1. It contains offices for the convention center which handles the general functioning of the bus terminal.

2.

Users: Staff Description: 1. The control room will monitor the overall functioning of the convention center.

Control room

Service Areas 1. Parking

Users: Anyone visiting ICC. Description: 1. Car and bus parking as per norms laid by NBC and DDA.

2. Loading Docks/ Bays

Users: Staff Description: 1. They form a crucial part for loading/ unloading purpose in the exhibition pavilions.

3. Service Block AC Plant room; Electrical substa; Maintainenece Deptt.

Users: Staff

3. Back of House : The Kitchen

Users: Staff Description: 1. It shall serve all the events hosted by the convention center.


4. Space standards

Segregation of the public movement pattern and the details of the anthropomet-

ric standards of the various components of the project. 4.1. Public movement pattern for convention centers 4.2. The auditorium 4.3. Conference rooms 4.4. Exhibition galleries 4.5. Restaurants 4.6. Central kitchens 4.7. Fire norms by NBC 4.8. Vertical circulation 4.8. Parking

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4.1. Public movement pattern for convention centers:

Communication and functionality can be improved by implementing efficient

circulation patterns in a convention center. People visiting or working in a convention center can be divided into 5 broad user categories: • Public flow • Delegate flow • VIP flow • Journalist flow • Staff flow

4.1.1. Delegates flow:

Delegates form the most important group of users for a convention cen-

ter. The parking shall lead them to the main entrance foyer which further directs them to their destination. An unobstructed delegate movement is very important.

4.1.2. Public flow:

Dignified personalities are invited depending on the nature of confer-

ence. It can also have relatives and public guests invited by the organistaion. The public guests also have access to the exhibition areas and hence these areas shall a seperate acces to manage the public flow during peak hours effeciently.

4.1.3. VIP flow:

They shall either directly lead to the dais of the main hall or shall enter

through the VIP entrance which is connected to a VIP lounge.

4.1.4. Staff flow:

The staff can be divided into two categories namely the technical staff

who are responsible for the effecient working of the convention center while the others are the administrative staff who are exposed to the people coming to the center. The paths of the technical and administrative staff diverse at the staff entrance.

4.1.5.Journalist flow:

It includes press people, cameraman and diplomats. They shall have a

direct access to the documentation center and the TV studio of the convention center.


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4.2. The Auditorium: The three-dimensional volume of an auditorium is conditioned by the need for

all members of the audience to be able to see the whole of the platform or stage; and to hear the actor, singer, musician or speaker. Seating density, floor rake and seating layout are partly determined by this, partly to give the audience an appropriate level of comfort and essentially to ensure a means of escape in an emergency, such as a fire, within the time required by safety considerations and by legislation.

Figure 5: Visual and aural limitations: (a) Plan: for a performer at centre stage B there is an arc Y beyond which visual and aural perceptions are impaired. However, for performers nearer the sides of the stage at A and C produce more restrictive curves X. (b) Section: Similarly, visual and aural limits in section also set an arc centred on the performer.

4.2.1. Seating:

Figure 6: Auditorium seating: definitions of terms and dimensional information (to be read in conjunction with Table I): a Plan. b Section

Dimension

Minimum(mm)

Maximum(mm)

Drawnn as

A

Overall seat depth

Description

600

720

650

B

Tipped seat depth

425

500

450

C

Seatway

305

-

400

D

Back to back seat spacing

760

-

850

E

Seat width for seat with arms

500

750

525

F

Annrest height

50

-

50

G

Seat height

430

450

440

H

Armrest height

600

I

Seatback height

800

850

800

J

Seat inclination

17

9

7

K

Back inclination

15

20

15

600

Table 1 : Dimension of auditorium seats

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• Writing surface Conference use may require a writing surface for note-taking. The writing surface may be: -- A tablet fixed to each seat, 20.10 -- A fixed table with fixed pivoting or sliding seat, 20.13.

(a.)

Figure 7: (a) Fixed tablet arm (b) Fixed writing surface, individual pivoting seats, section and plan

(b.)

4.2.2. Auditorium Design: • Audience requirements:

Every member of the audience should be able to see and hear clearly

whatever is happening on every part of the stage or platform. The greater the encirclement of the audience of platform or stage, more people can be accommodated within the aural and visual limitations up to 180° encirclement. With a full encirclement, the distance from platform or stage is restricted to six rows. • Number of seats in a row:

With traditional seating the maximum number is 22 if there are gangways

at both ends of the row, and 11 for gangway at one end. Rows with more than 22 seats are permitted if the audience is not thereby imperiled. • Row to row spacing:

Spacing is controlled by the clearway between the leading edge of the

seat and the rear of the back of the seat in front. For traditional seating the minimum clearway for people to pass along the row is 300 mm and this dimension increases with the number of seats in a row. For continental seating the clearway is not less than 400 mm and not more than 500 mm. • Gangways:

As gangways are essential escape routes, their widths are determined


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by the number of seats served. The minimum is 1100 mm. They can be ramped the full width and these must have consistent treads and risers in each run. • Seating geometry:

Seating is usually laid out in straight or curved rows focused towards the

platform or stage. Further forms are the angled row, straight row with curved change of direction and straight rows within emphasised blocks of seats.

Figure 8: Alternative auditorium seating arrangement

• Seating density:

Seats with arms and tippable seat can occupy a space as small as 500

mm wide with a row-to-row dimension of 760 mm; but can be as large as 750 mm wide by 1400 mm. The area per seat therefore varies between 0.38 m2 and 3.05 m2 .

Figure 9 : Seating density, from 0.38 m2 to 1.0.5 m2 per person

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up to 10%. If the seating rake is steeper, gangways must have steps extending


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• Sightlines for a seated audience:

For every member of the audience to have an uninterrupted view of the

platform or stage over the heads in front and clear of overhangs the section and plan of the auditorium need to conform to certain limitations set by vertical and horizontal sightlines.

Figure 10 : Graphic representation of vertical sightlines at a transversal gangway

(b.)

(a.)

Figure 11: Horizontal Sightlines (a.) The maximum comfortable amount the head can be turned from the seat centreline is 30°. (b.) Horizontal sightlines of the performer

• Width of an auditorium:

Figure 21: Determining the width of the auditorium


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4.2.3. Means of escape

The maximum travel distance from seat to exit within the auditorium is

determined by the need to evacuate from each level of the auditorium within 2½ minutes. For traditional seating the maximum travel distance is 18 m measured from the gangway, for continental seating 15 m from any seat. • Exits:

From each level of the auditorium two separate exits must be provided

for the first 500 seats with an additional exit for each further 250 seats. • Stairs:

Staircase flights should have at least two risers and not more than 16. All

treads should be 275 mm and risers 180 mm. • Ramps:

Wheelchair users should be provided with flat or ramped escape routes

which may be separate from other routes. Ramps should not be longer than 4.5 m or steeper than 8.5%. Number of people

Minimum total exit widths (m)

upto 200

2.2

201-300

2.4

301-400

2.8

401-500

3.2

751-1000

6.4

1001-2000

14.4

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• Travel distance:


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4.3. Conference Rooms

A conference hall or conference room is a room provided for singular events

such as business conferences and meetings. Sometimes other rooms are modified for large conferences such as arenas or concert halls. Conference rooms can be windowless for security purposes.

4.3.1.Types of seating Type

Description

1. U shaped

• Seating around three sides of the room. • It is good for presentations from front. • Presentation space in the middle of the room. • Can be used for up to 50 persons. • Per seat area is 3.25m2.

2. Boardroom style

• Centrally located table. • Classic layout ideal for debate and discussion. • Seating capacity 5-30 persons. • Per seat area is 3.71m2.

3. Cabaret style

• All delegates facing front-center on round tables. • Large space in the middle of the room. • Ideal for small-group work. • Per seat area is 1.57m2.

4. Theater style

• Used for product launches, presentations, displays. • Used to present to large numbers of delegates. • Can be used for 100-250 persons. • Per seat area is 0.83 m2.

Layout

4.3.2. Space standards Consideration must be given to clearances and circulation around the larger conference table, as indicated in the adjoining figure. Type

Dimension

A

1210-1520

B

100-150

C

510-610

D

150-255

E

460-610

F

790-910

Figure 22: Seating standards for a conference table


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4.4. Exhibition Galleries: An Exhibition is an organized presentation and display of a selection of items. In

practice, exhibitions usually occur within museums, galleries and exhibition halls, and World’s Fairs. Exhibitions can include many things such as art in both major museums and smaller galleries, interpretive exhibitions, natural history museums and history museums, and also varieties such as more commercially focused exhibitions and trade fairs.

4.4.1.General Planning

The relationships between func-

tions are common to all museums and art galleries. Figure 23 shows collection item movements in the operation of collection services, but note that not every operation necessarily requires a separate space, and some services may be provided by outside agencies.

As far as possible, collection move-

ment and public circulation should be kept

separate. Figure 24 shows one approach to zoning and expansion based on this principle.

Figure 23: Flow diagram of collection item movements in the operation of collection services: exhibitions, conservation and collections management

Figure 24: A layout concept showing a clear relationship between museum functions and an approach to zoning and expansion

4.4.2. Space Standards a. Aisles:

• Must be a minimum width of 3 meters. • Must equal total width of existing exits. • Must have 2 exits. • Must have no dead ends.

b. Fire exits / Clearways:

• Designated fire exits and clear ways cannot be encroached upon under any circumstance. Storage of materials or equipment in these areas is not permitted. It is the responsibility of the event organizer to ensure that stand holders comply with this requirement.

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c. Pedestrian Mobility:

Figure 25: Figure depicting various scenarios for pedestrian mobility for various types of exhibit spaces

d. Queue management: Figure 26: Figure depicting various entrances and exits required and the types of entrances permissible for any exhibit area based on user group

Figure 27: Figure depicting various queuing area requirements both during light and heavy traffic. Also, buffer areas need to provided to accommodate various types of visitors


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4.5. Restaurants A place where people pay to sit and eat meals that are cooked and

served on the premises. Various types of restaurants are classified based upon menu style, preparation methods and pricing.

4.5.1. Types of restaurants Type

Description

1.

Fine dining restaurants with bar

• These are full service restaurants with specific dedicated meal courses. • Décor of such restaurants features higher-quality materials, with an eye towards the “atmosphere”.

2.

Casual dining • A casual dining restaurant is a restaurant that restaurants serves moderately-priced food in a casual atmosphere. • Except for buffet-style restaurants, casual dining restaurants typically provide table service.

4.5.2. Relationship of main elements • The layout and relationship between different areas is dependent on the type of facility. • The kitchen and preparation areas will equal about 50% of the dining space and ancillary and storage will be about 1.5-2 times the kitchen area. Figure 28: Relationship between major spaces

4.5.3. Space standards: • Restaurants should be planned so that a variety of seating arrangements is possible (e.g. tables for two and four). • To eat comfortably, one person requires a 600mm wide and 400mm deep table. • Service aisles should be minimum 900mm to 1350mm wide if used both by trolleys and guests. • Area required per person ranges from 1.3-1.9 m2. • There must be clarity in organization between self-service, fast food, etc. and a separate smoking area.

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Figure 29: Square tables with diagonal layout

Figure 30: Circular tables with diagonal layout

Figure 31: Circulation space requirements


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4.5.4. Bar Service entrance. • A fairly long bar counter supported by bar store and place for seating should be provided. • Cocktail lounge (comfortable) 1.8-2.0m2 per person. • General bar (some standing and on stools) 1.3-1.7m2 per person.

Type

Dimension

A

1370

B

450-610

C

610

D

760

E

400-450

F

610-760

G

760-910

H

710-960

Figure 32: Bar circulation dimensions

4.5.5. Toilet facility Sanitary

Male

Female

appliance 1.

WC

1 per 100 up to 400 2 per 50 up to 200 females. For over 400 males. For over 200, add males, add at the rate at the rate of 1 per 100 of 1 per 250 males. females.

2.

Urinals

1 per 50 males.

3.

Wash basins 1 per WC and in addi- 1 per WC. tion 1 per 5 urinals.

4.

Toilets for 1 unisex compartment should be reasonably close disabled by.

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• To encourage business from non-diners the main bar may have an external


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4.6. Central Kitchen:

Kitchen requirements vary depending on preparation methods used. The ca-

pacity of the kitchen is primarily dependent on the number of customer seats, customer expectations and the proportion of raw materials which have to be freshly prepared.

Figure 33: Graph representing area calculation for various zones in kitchen & Programmed kitchen function

Group catering for large number of people requires labor saving mechaniza-

tion and automatic units i.e. a programmed kitchen from meals plan, through goods procurement to meal distribution and crockery cleaning for more than 800-1000 table places. • Allow approximately 50% extra for staff toilets (0.4m2/person), locker and changing room (0.6m2/person). • The kitchen should be planned on one level to serve all catering outlets. • If this is not possible, the main kitchen should be on the same level as the main restaurant, with preparation and stores on a different level. • Banqueting service area not next to kitchen should be linked by service lifts and stairs and have their own forward service equipment.

Certain of the preparation pro-

cesses may be located in separate floors . A bakery, for example, may be tucked out of the way, but thought must be given to the flow of materials to and away from this area .

Generally the plan is a contin-

uous process, always moving forward from one step to the next, with backtracking or cross-ovens limited as for Figure 34: Conventional kitchen schematic layout with direct meal servery

as possible .


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4.7. Fire safety norms by the National Building Code of India Every building shall be so constructed, equipped, maintained and operated as

to avoid undue danger to the life and safety of the occupants from fire, smoke, fumes or panic during the time period necessary for escape.

4.7.1. General Exit Requirements • An exit may be a doorway; to an internal staircase, or external staircase, or terrace(s), which have access to the street, or to the roof of a building or a refuge area. • All exits shall provide continuous means of egress to the exterior of a building or to an exterior open space leading to a street. • Exits shall be so arranged that they may be reached without passing through another occupied unit.

4.7.2. Capacity of exits • The unit of exit width, used to measure the capacity of any exit, shall be 500 mm. A clear width of 250 mm shall be counted as an additional half unit. Clear widths less than 250 mm shall not be counted for exit width. • In an assembly building (convention center), the capacity per storey per unit width of exit of stairways, ramps and doors is 40,50 and 60 respectively. • The travel distance to an exit from the dead end of a corridor shall not exceed 30m in case of assembly buildings.

4.7.3. Doorways • No exit doorway shall be less than 1000 mm in width except assembly buildings where door width shall be not less than 2000 mm. Doorways shall be not less than 2000 mm in height.

4.7.4. Stairways and ramps • The minimum width of tread shall be 300 mm and the maximum height of riser shall be 150 mm for assembly buildings. • The minimum width for a starcase shall be 2m. • The minimum headroom in a passage under the landing of a staircase and under the staircase shall be 2.2 m. • The slope of a ramp shall not exceed 1 in 10. In certain cases steeper slopes maybe permitted but in no case greater than 1 in 8.

4.7.5. Horizontal exits • For buildings more than 24 m in height, refuge area of 15 m2 or an area equivalent to 0.3 m2 per person to accommodate the occupants of two consecutive floors.

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4.8. Vertical circulation: 4.8.1. Escalators:

Figure 35: Cross section of an escalator

Escalators are required for

continuous mass transportation of people. The standard dimensions for various depths of an escalator are prescribed in the adjoining table.

Figure 37: Superimposed

Figure 36: Escalator width

Step width A B

600

800

1000

605-620

805-820

1005-1020

1170-1220 1320-1420 1570-1620

C

1280

1480

Transportation 5000-6000 7000-8000 capacity/hr

Figure 38: Crossover

1680 800010000

Figure 39: Double crossover

• Angle of inclination of an escalator from the horizontal shall not exceed 30°, but for rises not exceeding 6 m the angle of inclination is permitted to be increased up to 35°. • In accordance with a worldwide standard, the width of the step to be used is 60cm (for one person), 80cm (for one-to-two people width) and 100cm (for two people width). A 100cm step provides ample space for carruing goods. • Calculation of length in plan for an escalator: -- with 30deg. escalator = 1.732*storey height -- with 35deg. escalator = 1.428*storey height • The landing area of escalators shall have a surface that provides a secure foot hold for a minimum distance of 0.85 m measured from the root of the comb teeth.


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4.8.2. Elevators:

Passenger lifts should be within a reasonable walking distance

from the furthest part of the floor areas served (say, 70 m maximum) and, where they are the only or main lifts near an entrance. The location of goods and service lifts will depend on their function, but they should not open into passenger lift lobbies or public areas. • Planning a passenger lift:

Cul-de-sac or recessed lobbies, are essential to get the maximum

performance from lift groups. Clearly, having called for lift service the waiting passengers should not have to walk further than necessary to the responding lift car, and should not be obstructed by passers-by.

Figure 40: (a.) Plan of recessed lobby and machine room for multi-lift installation (b.) Plan of cul-de-sac lobby and machine room

• Selecting the size of an elevator: Type

Capacity/ Shaft size

Car size

Door

Pit

mm

mm

mm

load persons/kg

mm

General purpose passenger traffic (speed : 1m/s)

13/1000

2400*2300 1600*1400

1100

1800

16/1250

2600*2300 1950*1400

1100

1900

21/1600

2600*2600 1950*1750

1100

1900

Intensive passenger electric traction (speed : 2.5 m/s)

13/1000

2400*2300 1600*1400

1100

2800

16/1250

2600*2300 1950*1400

1100

2800

21/1600

2600*2600 1950*1750

1100

2800

General-purpose goods lifts, electric traction (speed : 0.5/0.63/1 m/s)

13/1000

2100*2100 1400*1800

1400

1500

Heavy-duty goods, electric traction

26/2000

2600*2900 1700*2000

1700

1500-1800

26/2000

2900*2500 2000*2100

1800

1500-1800

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• Location:


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4.8.3. Ramps: • These are used to allow wheeled vehicles such as trolleys, wheelchairs and buggies to change levels. • A ramp when provided should not have a slope greater than 1 in 20 or maximum of 1 in 12 for short distance up to 9000 mm.

Figure 41: Location of landing in a staight external ramp

• Each ramp shall have at least 1800 mm of straight clearance at the bottom. • At least one entrance usable by individuals in wheelchairs shall be on a level that would make the elevators accessible. • Width of a ramp: It is determined according to type and intensity of use. Oneway travel requires a minimum width of 900 mm clear, whereas two-way travel needs 1500 mm. Where turns occur at landings adequate space for manoeuvring wheelchairs must be provided.

4.8.4. Internal staircase: • All assembly buildings having area more than 500 m2 on each floor shall have a minimum of two staircases. • The minimum width for a staircase in an assembly building shall be 1500mm. • The formula for most staircases of twice the rise plus the going lies between 600 and 630mm will give a suitable relationship. • The rise should not exceed 190 mm, and the going should not be less than 250 mm. Maximum

Rise

Going

Maximum risers per

Pitch 32.7degrees

flight Minimum

135

Minimum

280

Maximum

180

Maximum

340

16 risers

• The top of the handrail should be between 900 and 1000 mm above the pitch line. • The minimum headroom in a passage under the landing of a staircase and under the staircase shall be 2.2 m.


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Parking stalls should be built to accommodate the larger cars frequently

used, although not necessarily the very largest. Parking spaces may be parallel, perpendicular, or angled (30, 45, or 60 degree) to the driving lane, or aisle. rea per ECS for surface car parking as per DDA is 23 m2. Type

Description

Layout

Advantage/Disadvantages

Perpendicular • Effective in low turnover rate or long term parking areas, • Most efficient and economical since it accommodates the most vehicles per linear meter.

Advantages: • Works well with either one- or two-way aisles • Handles the most vehicles per square meter of pavement Disadvantages: • Requires widest area • Two-way traffic can create visibility problems

Angled - 60 degree

• This parking area configuration is ideal for a fast turnover rate or predominantly short term use. • This is often offset by difficulties of inefficient circulation patterns and one-way aisles.

Advantages: • Easy maneuvering in and out of parking spaces • Good visibility • Lends itself to either one-or two-way aisles Disadvantages: • Requires more pavement per vehicle than perpendicular configuration

Angled - 45 degree

• The 45 degree angled parking configuration displays similar benefits and limitations as the 60 degree.

Advantages: • Reduced width requirements for layout. • Easy maneuvering in and out of parking spaces. • Good visibility to the rear Disadvantages: • Doesn’t work well with two-way aisles • Requires more pavement per vehicle than perpendicular parking configuration.

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4.9. Parking: 4.9.1. Surface parking:


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4.9.2. Basement parking: • Every basement shall be in every part at least 2.4 m in height from the floor to the underside of the roof slab or ceiling. • Adequate ventilation shall be provided for the basement. • The access to the basement shall be separate from the main and alternative staircase providing access and exit from higher floors. • Area per ECS for basement car parking as per DDA is 32 m2.

4.9.2.1. Ramp systems: Type Clearway ramp systems

Description

Layout

• Interfloor travel path completely separated from potentially conflicting parking–unparking movements. • Provide safest movement with least delay • Preferred for self park design

Adjacent ramp • Part or all of ramp systems travel is performed on access aisles • Requires less area per parking stall • Twofold use of travel paths • More susceptible to traffic movement delays

4.9.2.2. Ramp Design: Type

Description

Opposed ramp • Vehicles rotate in the design same direction • Up and down ramps in opposite direction • Required ramp surfaces to be opposed Parallel design

ramp • Up and down ramp slope in the same direction • Ramp surfaces are parallel • Vehicles must rotate in opposite direction • Cheaper to construct

Layout


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4.9.2.1. Floor Systems: Advantage / Disadvantages Advantages: • Construction is relatively simple • The design fits well on rectangular sites • Efficient in terms of floor space per vehicle parking stall Disadvantages: • Frequent conflicts may arise between circulating traffic and parking and un-parking vehicles

Sloping systems

Advantages: • The relatively flat floor slope permits comfortable parking and pedestrian walking • Floor-to-floor travel distance is greater in sloping-floor garages than in other types of ramp garages Disadvantages: • Cause congestion during peak outbound movements.

floor • Consist of sloping levels (full width ramp/continuous ramp) • Contains two adjacent parking modules tilted in opposite directions

Two-way floor ramp system.

Figure 43: Sloping floor systems

Split level or • Floor levels in s t a g g e r e d one section is floor systems staggered vertically by one half story from those in adjacent sections

Figure 42: Split level or staggered floor systems

Description

Basic sloping floor concept

Tandem floor ramp system

Double sloping-floor system

Parking on level floors

Sloping-floor system

Staggered floor system section

Sloping floor system section

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Type


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5. Case Studies

Understanding the functionality and components of the project in a detailed

manner. 5.1. Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi 5.2. Vancouver Convention Center, Vancouver, Canada 5.3. International Convention Center, Jeju, South Korea

International Convention Center | Thesis 2015


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5.1. Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi: Address : Maulana Azad Road, New Delhi,110003, India. Owner :

Government of India

Built :

1956

Architect : Joseph Allen Stein

5.1.1. Introduction:

Vigyan Bhavan is India’s largest and most prestigious conference center

which has been hosting numerous conventions and conference at the national and international level as early as from 1956 when it was designed and constructed by CPWD. It is one of the centre in India whose conferencing facilities can compete with those in any corner of the world; very close to international standards.

Figure 44: External facade of Vigyan Bhavan

5.1.2. Intent of the study: • To study the auditorium (capacity 1285) and its different components • To study the conference halls. • To understand the common facilities provided for information and dissemination. • To study facade treatment, materials, landscape and climate-tempered courtyards. • Finally to analyze the architectural character, circulation-vehicular, and pedestrian, the services provided and the parking for vehicles.


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5.1.3. Location: Vigyan Bhavan is located on Maulana Azad road, a few meters away

from the intersection of Rajpath and Janpath. It is located between National Museum and vice presidents residence on the other side. This building is hardly a furlong from the Rashtrapati Bhavan.

Figure 45: Location of Vigyan Bhavan

5.1.4. Form and architecture:

The building stands out as a

cuboidal mass which gives no indication of its functions. The structure is a bulky white mass with very little fenestrations.

The entrance arch of the main

building is embedded with granite and forms the most attractive architectural element. It rest on red sand stone podium. The western Figure 46: The building stands out as a cuboidal face done in sand stone demarcates the block as separate entity. The Annexe building and dining halls are cuboid masses subdued by main block with no noticeable features.

The main building

incorpo-

rates elements of British Raj architecture, along with Hindu and Mughal architecture, as well as ancient Buddhist architecture, especially the chaitya arches of Ajanta Caves. The overall style of the building remains modernistic with revivalist elements.

mass

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5.1.5. Planning of the complex: Vigyan Bhavan consists of two components: • The main building : The main building has a plenary hall with a seating capacity of1285 delegates. Besides this, it has six smaller halls with capacities ranging from 65 to 375 delegates. The building has a separate VIP lounge, secretariat, a documentation center, business center and an exhibition hall. • The annexe building : The adjacent building is the Vigyan Bhavan Annexe which was built in 1970 to provide additional facilities to the Vigyan Bhavan Complex. It accommodates a conference facility and offices occupied by various authorities such as interstate council, MDONER, etc. The Vigyan Bhavan Annexe stands adjacent to the Vice President’s House.

Figure 47: Site zoning and access to Vigyan Bhavan

5.1.6. Access to the complex: • The complex can be approached by 3 main entrances through the Maulana Azad road on the southern side of the complex. • As per figure , Entry 1 : VIP Entrance Entry 2 : Delegates, journalists, media, etc. Entry 3 : Staff and visitors of the Annexe Building • Entry 3 also serves as the service entry for the kitchen, A/C plant rooms in the complex. • All the three entrances meet the service road on the rear end of the building.


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5.1.7. The ground floor: m . The ground floor consists of the following components: • The plenary hall • Dining area including the VIP lounge • Offices and business center • Dining and central kitchen • Conference room 5.1.7.1. Entrance Foyer:

The main building has 3 en-

trances each of which leads onto a foyer. • Main foyer has flight of steps leading to the main hall and upper floors. • The staff entry is on the eastern side and has a chaitya arch in red sandstone. The staff entry and the offices placed on one end generate a well defined staff movement. • The VIP entrance lies on the western side of the building. Figure 48: Ground Floor Plan

Figure 49: Flight of steps leading to the main hall

Figure 50: Atrium covered by space frame

5.1.7.2. Atrium: • The ground floor has an atrium of 367 m2. • It is sailing three floors of building height. • It is provided with space frame and heat reflecting glass roof which permits natural light into the area. • Used for dinning by the conference attendees and is decorated with a water fountain. • The atrium can hold up to 650 people while standing.

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The main building a three storied structure with a total plinth area of about 17222 2


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5.1.7.3. Plenary hall:

Heralded by the insignia of Vigyan Bhavan the entrance foyer to this hall

is a magnificent and elegant sight with a plush interior. • The plenary hall has a seating capacity of 1200 delegates with a break up of 900 on the ground floor and 300 in the balcony. • The plenary hall has a stage that is approached by steps. It measures 42X48m. • It is the largest hall in fan shaped curvilinear staggered seating arrangement. • It extends from ground floor to first floor. • It has fixed tables and movable chairs for 900 and 300 fixed chairs for the rest. • The stage is far and can be approached directly from the VIP entrance. It can accommodate 37 people. • It has fixed tables and movable chairs for 900 and only fixed chairs for the rest.

• There are press observer galleries accessible and approached from second floor. There are three balconies on either side of the hall on an average height of 11m from the ground level.

Figure 51: View of the plenary hall from the stage

Figure 52: VIP entrance to the plenary hall

Figure 53: Entrance to the balcony from the hall

Figure 54: The press observer galleries


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5.1.7.4. Office block and business center: eastern side covering an area of 770 m2. • There are 15 rooms with an area of 15.5m2 and 2 rooms of 47m2. • It has audio-video recording studio with an area of 30 m2 for on the spot interviews. • A business center with provision for a bank, travel desk, post office, secretarial services and telephones etc is located adjacent to the main atrium lobby. • The block is of load bearing masonry with R.C.C. slabs for roof and terraces. The walls on ground floor are 450mm thick and 340 mm thick on the upper floors with partition walls remain 115mm thick. Foundation depth of R.C.C. strip footing is 1.2m. • The corridor linking the office spaces are 2.7m wide and the block is carpeted. 5.1.7.5. Dining and the central kitchen: • An exclusive VIP lounge is located adjacent to the VIP entrance serving only the prime minister and the president of the country. • A separate lounge adjacent to the VIP lounge serves the other delegates. Also, the atrium is used for dining purposes. • A central kitchen is located on the ground floor which serves all lounges and banquet halls. • The kitchen does not serve the atrium dining hall directly but serves VIP lounge and hall No.1. • A service corridor accompanies hall no. 1 which leads to central kitchen. This acts as pantry not kitchen. • There is a separate entry to the kitchen from the backside. The corridor has two lifts (one smaller for kitchen utensils and furniture transport).

Figure 55: Dining area for delegates

Figure 56: Meeting lounge for the PM and the President

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• The support offices for conventions are located in the office block on the


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5.1.7.6. Conference room - Hall no. 1: • Adjacent to the plenary hall on the rear end lies the hall no. 1. • This hall can accommodate 74 delegates and has a fixed round table style conference furniture. • Around 37 delegates can be seated around the table while the 37 are seated along the edge of the room.

Figure 57: Hall no. 1 with round table conference facility

5.1.7.7. Vertical transportation: • For ease in vertical circulation, three different cores are provided in the main building segregating the users of the building. • At the main entrance, two staircases are provided on opposite sides of the foyer. • In the rear end, an atrium is pierced through the building which houses a pair of staircase and an escalator. • This atrium is also the major source of light within the area. • The third staircase is located at the western entrance of the building which is used by the staff only. • Also, a separate core is located just at the VIP entrance including a lift and a staircase which can only be accessed by VIPs.

Figure 58: The atrium at the rear end of the building accommodating a staircase and an escalator. As per figure, 1. Staircase at the main entrance 2. The atrium core 3. Staircase for the staff 4. VIP core

Figure 59: Location of the various vertical transportation cores


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5.1.8. The first floor escalator. • It consists of an exhibition space and conference rooms 2,3 and 4. • The exhibition hall covers an area of 170 m2 and has an attached per-function lounge that can be used to put a temporary small bar counter. • The conference halls 2,3 and 4 have a seating capacity of 68, 83 and 171 respectively. • Conference hall 4 has a fan shaped curvilinear staggered seating arrangement whereas 2 and 3 has a round table conference sating arrangement.

Figure 60: Hall no. 2 with round table conference facility

Figure 61: First floor plan

5.1.9. The second floor • The second floor consists of preview theaters 5 and 6. • Both the theaters have a fan type sating arrangement with hall no. 5 having an electric communication facility on each seat while hall no. 6 accommodating only staggered seats similar to an auditorium. • Hall no. 5 can comfortably seat 263 people while hall no. 6 has a capacity of 373 people.

Figure 62: Hall no. 5 with writing desks for each seat

Figure 63: Hall no. 6 accommodating staggered seating arrangement

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• The first floor covers a plinth area of 17000 m2 approachable by stair and


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5.1.10. Fire fighting system : • Close circuit televisions (C.C.T.V.) are installed in the entire building. • There exists wet riser systems with three risers and an external yard hydrant . • An automatic sprinkler system is provided with a separate pumping system. • There is a separate underground fire tank with a capacity of 65000 liters of reserved water located in the rear of the complex . • Smoke detectors are installed to set off fire alarms with electronic panels located in each building to pin point the location of fire .

5.1.11. Orientation of the building : • The orientation of building is in North-South direction. • The

conference

rooms,

lounges and the cafeteria are all located on the northern side of the building as it provides a good view of central vista.

Figure 64: Orientation of the building

• The VIP entrance is located on the western side of the building keeping it totally separate from other entrances. • The entrance foyer is located on the southern side of the building.

5.1.12. The Annexe Building: • Annex building is a 3 storey high building which was built in 1970 to provide additional facilities to the complex. • The building houses four committee rooms, press work area , cafeteria, a big lounge, telex room, telephone booths etc.

5.1.13. Area statement: • The site covers an area of 4.53 ha. / 11.19 acres / 45,300m2. • The main building covers 7659.72 m2 with a plinth area of 6317.37 m2 • The plenary hall covers an area of 2016 m2 excluding the galleries located on either sides of the hall. • The atrium used for dining purposes covers an area of 345 m2 while the atrium which houses the central core covers an area of 163 m2. • The Vigyan Bhavan Annexe covers an area of 5924.43 m2 with a plinth area of 4037.43 m2. The central courtyard covers an area 671.58 m2.


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5.1.14. Inferences: By bringing together a number of institutes from various habitat related

professions in one complex, the complex problems of meeting facilities, co-ordination between different professionals and the problems like car parking, food services etc have been smartly solved.

(a.) External: • Approach: Persons approach either by public vehicle park their vehicles in the parking tot (Meena Bagh) opposite to the Vigyan Bhavan, thus they are exposed to moving vehicular traffic while crossing the road. • Entrance gate: It was observed that separate gates “Vs’ vehicular traffic and pedestrian movement. • Parking: Parking lots have been provided inside Vigyan Bhavan. However, haphazard vehicular parking on pathways obstructs right of way and safe movement of everyone including the physically challenged. • Vehicular movement is restricted only to the periphery of the site with only pedestrian movement allowed inside the blocks creating a very clean environment. Parking has been kept in the basement allowing rest of the site to be landscaped. • Steep ramps: There is a ramp provided on the western and the southern entrance, but is very steep (1:8) for pedestrian use. Also, it has no supporting handrail/ guard rail. • Architectural character: It marks a transition in the architecture of Joseph Allen Stein. Facade treatment on the exterior presents a very stable and strong visual effect by use of special bricks.

(b.) Internal: • The main entrance foyer on the southern side does not serve the maximum during peak hours. Hence mezzanine floors have been created on either sides which help in crowd management more efficiently. • Location of main lift bank for vertical circulation is far away from the main entrance on the southern side. • The use of R.C.C. frame structure has helped in creating flexible spaces in the interior. • The main circulation is via a doubly loaded corridor. There seems to be absence of clarity in planning as one moves along them. • The main hall has been treated as a central mass with other halls and offices placed around it. • The location of the dining hall in the atrium is not suitable. The odor of food spreading into the convention hall is not desirable.

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• There is no way one can reach the space frame and the building which should be absolutely clean has maintenance problem. • The service corridor to the kitchen from the VIP lounge and hall no. 1 is narrow and does not have any storage space. • The segregation between VIPs and public access is well planned. Entry for VIPs to the lounges are also accessible from the conference hall. • The plenary hall is well planned in terms of sightlines, acoustics and interior finishes. • Fire escape stairs and lobbies are pressurized to prevent spread of fire along vertical shafts. • The inner facades are very light, delicate and support light hanging gardens.


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5.2. Vancouver Convention Center (west), Canada British Columbia, Canada Owner :

BC Pavilion Corporation

Opened : 2009 Architect : LMN Architects, Seattle

5.2.1. Introduction

The Vancouver Convention Centre is one of Canada’s largest conven-

tion centers. It has a 6-acre “living roof” which is the largest in Canada The Vancouver Convention Centre expansion is a 100,000 sq. m. project that achieved Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Platinum certification.

Figure 65: Aerial view of the iconic convention center

5.2.2. Intent of the study • Aesthetics and design of the building • Design features of the building • Incorporation of the living green roof system in the building • Areas of the various components: It will help to figure out the area that should be allotted for each of the requirements.

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Address : 1055 Canada Pl, Vancouver,


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5.2.3. Aesthetics of the building • Situated on Vancouver’s waterfront, the Vancouver Convention Centre West is designed to bring together the natural ecology, vibrant local culture, and built environment, accentuating their interrelationships through the architecture. • The desire to maintain view corridors from the downtown core limited the overall building height, and has given the project a horizontal emphasis. • Shallow, sloping roof planes supporting an extensive green roof create an architectural landform that is both an appropriate visual connection between the city and its natural context, and a reflection of local ecology and cultural values. • The use of glass enhances the waterfront development provides spectacular views of mountains, ocean and parks. • The design approach creates a community experience that is simultaneously a building, an urban place, and an ecosystem. • The project is a result of a thoroughly integrated approach to architecture, natural system and technology. • The geometry is an extension of the ground plane, reflecting the topography of the region, and they help the building blend into the waterfront.

Figure 66: The design began as a concept to continue the existing waterfront park system such that the building emerges through a seamless “folded landscape”. The photo above shows how its architectural landforms and living roof build on the topography and ecology, mediating between the downtown core and the city’s spectacular natural surroundings.


59

5.2.4. Design features of the building The central design challenge was to create and integrate a 22-acre de-

velopment program at the intersection of the urban realm and the marine habitat. Each environmental interface is carefully considered, roughly grouped into a landscape habitat, a marine habitat, and a human habitat. (a.) Landscape Habitat: • One of the most spectacular green features of the building is its six-acre living roof (the largest in North America). • Since the building functions as an extension of the park system, acting as a link in the continuous waterfront ring of green spaces, this feature completely fits with the objective of the building. • It is home to an impressive 400,000 indigenous plants as well as several hives of bees.

Figure 67: Depiction of the varied landscape habitat as an extension of the park system

(b.) Human Habitat: • The distinctive form of the Convention Centre took shape in response to interior requirements as well as to outside influences. • It accommodates a variety of programmatic functions, including one million sq. ft. of convention space (with exterior plazas and walkways, a ballroom, meeting rooms, and exhibition space), 90,000 ft2 of retail space, and parking. • To provide continuity between its interior and exterior, the entire building perimeter is glazed. • This transparent boundary helps tie in the 400,000 sq. ft. of walkways,

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bike paths, and open spaces that the center provides beyond the building envelope. • Natural ventilation and extensive daylighting not only contribute to the building’s sustainability goals, but also enhance the user experience.

Figure 68: Depiction of the human habitat as an extension of the park system

Figure 69: Photographs representing the relationship between the interiors and the exteriors of the building. The visitors learn about the green roof that can be seen through the large windows.


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5.2.5. The living green roof: While the project employs a

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wide range of green strategies, including on-site water treatment, deep seawater cooling and heating, and a giant skirt designed to help restore the local fish habitat, the single most visible component of the environmental strategy is the building’s living roof.

The Convention Center’s 2.4 hect-

are (6 acre) self-maintaining, regenerating, living roof is the largest green roof in Canada and presented some unique challenges both in design and construction.

Figure 70: Depiction of the human habitat as an extension of the park system

(a.) The role of green roofs: • A key component of the overall building envelope design, a living roof is comprised of plants, growing medium, drainage medium, and irrigation system, all of which work together as part of the overall roof system. • Living roofs provide benefits for both the building and the environment. The buildup of growing medium and the associated plant layer protect the roof membrane from ultraviolet light degradation and mechanical damage. • Water evaporation from the growing medium and transpiration from the plants contribute to the reduction of building heat gain. • In addition tothese building-related benefits, a living roof can provide significant improvements to storm water management by detaining runoff and reducing peak flows.

Figure 71: Depiction of the human habitat as an extension of the park system


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International Convention Centre

(b.) Choice for the type of green roof • With a roof area of 6 acres, the issues of weight, envelop design, storm water management, growing medium retention on sloping surfaces, irrigation water volumes, and plant types were among the initial technical problems the team singled out to be resolved. • In addition, clear spans able to accommodate rooms in the range of 7,400sq.m with the minimum possible roof structure needed to be carefully considered. • In order to address these issues, a living roof system similar in nature to Coastal grassland was proposed. Grassland plants are able to grow in shallow depths of soil, plus endure long periods of drought in the summer and heavy rain in the winter. (c.) Technical details • This plant palate can grow in 15cm of growing medium and enabled the architects to meet the structural limit for dead load on the roof. • The living roof overlay comprised of a drain mat/filter cloth drainage layer over the roof insulation, 15cm of growing medium, drainage runnels and a drip irrigation system. • The largest and most challenging area of the roof’s many sloping planes is 1.5 acres in size. An arrangement of 45cm-wide, rock-filled aluminum-edged runnels crisscrosses diagonally over the various roof planes directing storm water into a conventional building drainage system around the roof perimeter. • The building’s piled foundations, and long structural spans meant that considerable attention had to be paid to avoid overloading of the roof.

Figure 72: Section of the sloped roof at Vancouver Convention Center.

Figure 73: Section of the edge of the roof at Vancouver Convention Center.

Figure 74: The living roof inspired by ecosystem of British Columbia’s coastal grassland.


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5.2.6. Area statement The West Building is directly adjacent to Canada Place which houses

the East Building. The West Building consists of: • 20,490 m2 of convention space, • 440 parking stalls. • Surrounding the building are 37,000 m2 of walkways and public open spaces. • A total project area of 14 acres (57,000 m2) of land and 8 acres (32,000 m2) over water. (a.) Exhibition Level : • The exhibition level is located below the ground level and is accessible through the escalators and stairs on the ground level as well as the parking. • It occupies 1,860 m2 of pre-function space and consists of 3 exhibition halls namely A,B and C which are divisible as per the user need.

Figure 75: Exhibition level schematic plan

Type

Capacities Theatre Classroom

Usable Area Dining

(m2)

A

4,062

3,195

3,080

5,435

B

4,883

3,882

3,910

6,689

C

5,988

4,635

5,190

8,361

• This level occupies an area 20,485 m2 of flexible exhibition space which is divisible into three halls. • 22 loading bays with dock levelers and ramps are provided for convenient drive-on access for the exhibition halls.

International Convention Centre


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International Convention Centre

(b.) Level 1 • This entrance to this level is through a flight of steps and an escalator located in the entrance lobby on the ground floor. • This level consists of the ballrooms and the meeting rooms with varying ceiling heights due to the sloping green roofs.

Figure 76: Level 1 level schematic plan

Type

Capacities Theatre

Usable Area

Classroom Boardroom

(m2)

101/102/103/104

33

18

18

47

105/106/107/108

30

12

18

40

109/110

252

150

52

217

111/112/113

70

36

26

70

114/115/116/117

84

36

26

83

118

216

120

50

194

119/120

98

48

28

96

121/122

120

60

24

121

Type

Capacities

Usable Area

Dining

Reception

(m2)

A

720

1,880

1,342

B

720

1,880

1,405

C

720

1,886

1,405

D

440

1,139

741

Figure Capacity and area chart for ballrooms


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International Convention Centre

Figure 77: Flight of steps in the entrance foyer leading to level 1

Figure 78: Ramp on the western entrance leading to the ground floor

Figure 79: Ballroom D overlooking the ocean on the northern end


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International Convention Centre

(c.) Level 2 • The level 2 of the Vancouver convention center consists of 24 meeting rooms covering an area of 2,745 m2 and 3,872 m2 of pre function space. The size of meeting room ranges from 70m2 to 706 m2. These room can be configured as per user needs and have been designed as per theatre, classroom and boardroom style of seating arrangement.

Figure 80: Level 2 schematic plan

Type

Capacities Theatre

Usable Area

Classroom Boardroom

(m2)

201

203

102

42

182

202/203/204 205/206/207/ 208/209

99

54

34

97

210

112

75

28

123

211

437

234

68

355

212/213/214

144

72

42

118

215/216

88

45

28

77

217/218/219

96

45

28

80

220

208

120

48

196

221/222

104

60

28

93

223

80

45

28

72

224

285

144

64

150

Table Capacity and area chart for meeting rooms


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International Convention Centre

Figure 81: Pre function area in front of the meeting rooms

Figure 82: Fully glazed meeting room 201 with a double height foyer adjoining ballrooms on the left side

Figure 83: Interior of a meeting room exhibiting classroom style of seating arrangement


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International Convention Centre

(d.) Level 3 • The level 3 of the Vancouver convention center consists of 6 executive level meeting rooms with spectacular harbor and mountain views. • They cover an area of 818 m2 while the pre function space covers an area of 546 m2. • The size of meeting room ranges from 59 m2 to 604 m2. These room can be configured as per user needs and have been designed as per theatre, classroom and boardroom style of seating arrangement. • The unique six acre living roof featuring a variety of 400,000 indigenous plants is visible from this level. • Service elevators are located on each floor with a back of house area to cater the hospitality needs of each floor. • Only a pair of escalators provides access to this level .

Figure 84: Level 3 schematic plan

Type

Capacities Theatre

Usable Area

Classroom Boardroom

(m2)

301

456

273

66

387

302/303/304

54

24

26

60

305

46

24

26

59

306

234

120

52

214

Table Capacity and area chart for meeting rooms on level 3


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International Convention Centre

Figure 85: Pre function area adjoining the executive level meeting rooms

Figure 86: View from the terrace on the northern end

Figure 87: The pre function area in front of an executive meeting room


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International Convention Centre

5.2.7. Inferences: • The convention center has been planned in a way that it visually centers the surrounding roads and buildings; preserves the environment and creates spectacular views of the surrounding landscape. • The Vancouver Convention Centre West brings together the natural ecology, vibrant local culture, and built environment. • With an ultra-clear structural glass skin on all sides, extensive daylight and views set up an extroverted, community-friendly relationship and maximize the use of natural daylight in the building’s public spaces. • A six-acre living roof that is the largest in Canada acts as an insulator to mediate the exterior air temperature, contributes to the building’s storm water utilization, and integrates with the waterfront landscape ecosystem. • The Convention Center’s exhibition space is 300*735 ft (90*225 m) with a 90*120-ft (27*36-m) structural grid, and the building has a maximum clear roof span of 180 ft (55 m). • As per the various areas provided for each space, the per person are alloted is mention in the following table Pre-function space

Per person area

1.64

Ballrooms

Meeting rooms

Dining

Reception

Theatre

1.83 m2

0.70 m2

1.13 m2

Classroom

Boardroom

1.92 m2 2.90 m2

Figure 88: Model of the Vancouver Convention Center at the final design stage.


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(a.) Functionality: • The foyer on the ground floor has been designed in such a way that the users do not feel that they are caught up in a mechanical space with no character. • There is no separate entrance for the VIPs. Only 2 pedestrian entrances are provided for on either sides of the building. • Large pre function spaces have been provided in front of the meeting rooms as well as the ballrooms. • Ramp is provided only on the western entrance which is 7-8m wide. • Extensive use of controlled daylighting has been incorporated very well in all the circulation as well as pre function spaces. • The height of the ballroom varies from 10.5m to 16.75m due its sloping nature and has a capability to accommodate 3000 people in a dining arrangement to 6000 people in a theatre style arrangement. • Fire exits do not open directly into an open space. 3 fire exits have been provided which lead to level 1 of the building. • The exhibit halls have a capacity to accommodate 12,000 people. It has large column spans to accommodate maximum clear space. • The upper convention floors are organized with a central core of flexible meeting and function rooms supported by service spaces. • The centrally located kitchen served only the events managed by the Vancouver Convention Center. The restaurant located on the western deck of the building is served by the food companies who have their own private stalls.

Figure 89: The Vancouver Convention Center at night

International Convention Centre

• The West Building is a masterpiece of both functional and sustainable design.


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5.3. International Convention Center, Jeju, South Korea:

International Convention Center Jeju (ICC Jeju) opened in 2003

on Jeju Island, South Korea, near the city of Seogwipo. It consists of a larger ovalshaped glass structure and a smaller round glass annex, and surrounding facilities. The largest hall accommodates 4,300 people, with various smaller halls and meeting rooms. This project planned semicircle roads, such as Central Rotary, to connect main facilities and harmonize with neighboring streets. Along the semicircle roads, there are convention center, shopping streets, amusement facilities, hotels as independent structures, with their own entrances facing the roads.

Figure 90: International convention center at Jeju

5.3.2. Intent of the study: • Site Planning • Functionality: Studying the functioning of the place, which helps to figure out the requirements and the area that should be allotted for each of the requirements. • Horizontal and vertical circulation: Horizontal circulation consists of elements such as the corridors and lobbies. Vertical circulation includes elevators, staircases, ramps etc.

International Convention Centre

5.3.1. Introduction:


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International Convention Centre

5.3.3. Site planning: • The site for the convention center can be approached by 2 entrances, one serving the general public and the other serving the VIPs and the staff. •

The exhibition level can be approached through steps and ramp leading

directly into the sunken garden. • The oval building, facing Mt. Halla, reminds people of the contour of Jeju Island. • Surface parking has a capacity to accommodate 100 cars, including 5 VIP vehicles and 40 staff vehicles. These areas are segregated from the general parking. • 2 ramps located near each entrance lead to the basement 1 and 2 which is also used for car parking.

Figure 91: A view of the convention center from the western end

Figure 92: The covered car drop off


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International Convention Centre


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International Convention Centre

5.3.4. Level 1 and 2: • The level 1 of the convention can be approached through 3 main entrances, including the main entrance for general public, the VIP entrance and the one for the staff on the rear side of the building. • At the entrance lies the huge foyer which accommodates the information desk, vertical circulation and various other components. • This level has 2 meeting/conference rooms, the administration offices on the rear side, a restaurant and a kitchen which serves the entire convention center. • The exhibition halls on the lower level can also be approached by the escalator located on this level. • The restaurant is located in an annexe which is connected to the main building but appears segregated due to its external form. • Level 2 is similar to level with a difference of VIP lounge instead of the kitchen. The VIP lounge acts as a mezzanine floor to the restaurant.

Figure 93: The restaurant located in the annexe with a VIP lounge on the upper floor

Figure 94: Escalators with island landing on Level 1

Figure 95: The elevator shaft in the foyer


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International Convention Centre


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International Convention Centre

5.3.5. Level 3: • This level has the largest convention hall accommodating 4300 people and can be divided into 2 parts as per user need. • The building overhang which covers the car drop off begins at this level, but is inhabitable and has been constructed on for aesthetics. • The convention hall has a hybrid seating which includes flat as well as raised seating arrangement. • The initial half room is flat with temporary furniture arrangement while the later half has a fixed stepped seating arrangement. • This convention hall continues till the fifth level of the building with accessibility to highest seats in the convention hall from the fourth level.

Figure 96: View of the main hall from the upper balcony with the curtains on either sides reflecting the two halves of the convention hall.

Figure 97: The stepped seating arrangement with projection room located on the fifth level and entrance from the back located on the fourth level.


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International Convention Centre


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International Convention Centre

5.3.6. Basement level: • The basement has been divided into 2 major components, one being the parking and the other is the exhibition area with a pre function/registration space. • The annexe contains a restaurant and food court with a separate kitchen fro the upper levels. • The access to the exhibition halls is from the basement 2 and attain a height of 8.4m till the ground level. • Escalators from the level 1 run directly to the basement 2 level with a landing at an intermediate level. • The parking can be approached through a ramp accessible from the staff entry on the site level. • 2 fire exits in the form of staircases are provided to reach the site level in case of emergency.

Figure 98: The escalator with an intermediate landing leads to the exhibition hall in the basement 2.

Figure 99: The sunken garden accessible from the exhibition as well as ground level.

Figure 100: Entry to the exhibition hall from sunken garden

Figure 101: The interior of the exhibition hall


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International Convention Centre


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International Convention Centre

5.3.6. Inferences: • There is a separate entrance for the VIPs on the site as well as building level. This helps in ensuring clear as well as quick movement of the VIP. • Parking has been segregated both on the surface as well as basement. • The ramp leading to the basement is provided near the site entrance while the exit ramp is provided on the other side leading to the site exit. This reduces confusion and helps in division of the incoming and outgoing traffic. • The parking in the basement is approached only by one ramp located at the staff/VIP entrance on the site. • The exhibition level is located in the basement which can be accessed from the site as well as from inside the building. • The car drop off area is covered by the building extended on the third floor and above. • Large pre function/ foyers have been provided on every level to maintain the grandeur. • The main core comprises of escalators and staircase while the elevators are provided separately wherever necessary. • Several fire exits are provided on the rear end of the building which do not open directly into open space. • The loading/unloading bays are located just next to the kitchen which has an entirely separate core for services on the upper floors. • The basement has been planned very well keeping in mind the accommodation of parking as well as the exhibition halls. • The main convention hall has been designed with almost perfect sightlines with a perfect viewing angle form all the seats. • The main convention hall which can accommodate 4300 people has 16 double sided exit doors.

Figure 102: International convention center at Jeju


6. Site Analysis

Understanding the functionality and components of the project in a detailed

manner. 6.1. Location of the site 6.2. Surroundings if the site 6.3. Details of the site 6.4. Climatic conditions 6.5. Analysis and conclusions

International Convention Center | Thesis 2015


84

International Convention Centre

6.1. Location of the site:

DDA has proposed an international standard convention center in sec-

tor 24 (near Dhul Siras village), Dwarka, New Delhi. The area for the proposed site is 15.2 acres/6.15 ha and is an irregular quadrilateral surrounded by roads on 2 sides.

Figure 103 Location of the site in sector 24, Dwarka

Figure 104 Location of the site

6.2. Surroundings of the site:

The site has a 60m and 45m right of way approach roads from the south-

ern and the eastern side respectively. On the western side lies the proposed site for golf course adjoining which is the Najafgarh drain. Within a radius of 5 km lies the metro station as well as the proposed ISBT in sector 22.

Figure 105 Proposed site with immediate surroundings


85

6.3. Details of the site: m2 with a minimum 15m and 12m setbacks from road and other sides of the site. The site is almost level with no major changes in the elevation of the site. There are presently 8 tress existing on site. Built form variable Ground coverage FAR Maximum permissible height Basement

Open space / circulation

Regulation

Implication on the project

30% (plus 5% for the atrium)

Maximum ground coverage in sit can be 18,617m2 / 4.6 acres.

1.2

Maximum built up area 74,469 m2 / 18.4 acres.

No restrictions; 30m as per Airport Authority of Permissibility is subject India to clearance from AAI Minimum 2 levels to be provided for parking Minimum 20% area to be developed as mandatory green

12,411 m2 / 3.06 acres to be developed as green space

Figure 106 View 1 showing the present conditions of the site

Figure 107 View 2 of the 45m road from the intersection of the roads

Figure 108 View 3 showing the road leading to the site

Figure 109 View 4, Road leading to the Najafgarh drain

International Convention Centre

The site proposed for the convention center covers an area of 15.3 acres / 62,058


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International Convention Centre

6.4. Climatic conditions: • New Delhi is located in the northern plains at an altitude of 200 m above sea level and a latitude of 28 deg. North. • Delhi has a composite climate with high variations between summers and winters temperatures and precipitation. • The climate is characterized by a hot and dry season in early summer determined by hot winds from the Thar desert in Rajasthan, with temperatures between a mean maximum of 32°C and 43°C and a mean minimum of 21°C to 27°C. • In winter the cold, northern winds from the Himalayans dominate the climate. The temperature fluctuates between 20°C - 27°C in daytime and 4°C - 10°C at night. • In between these two extremes there is a period of moderate temperatures. This includes the monsoon period during which the humidity is very high and most of the precipitation falls.

Figure 110 Summer solstice sun path

Figure 111 Winter solstice sun path Figure 112 Image representing the various wind directions throughout the year. NW-SE; Jan-June SE-NW; July-Aug W-E; December The wind speed varies from 11-17km/hr from Jan-June, 13km/ hr from July-August as well as December.


87

International Convention Centre


88

International Convention Centre

6.5. Analysis and conclusions: 6.5.1. Building orientation • Orient the buildings with longer axes in the east-west direction. • The building with glazed curtain wall facing northwest shows a substantial reduction in load compared to southwest orientation. The west and north orientations are also better than the southwest direction. • South

orientation

receives

Figure 113 Location of sun w.r.t. building orientation

maximum solar radiation during winters which is preferable as composite climate receives severe winters. • East and West receive maximum solar radiation during summer. West is a crucial orientation because high intensity of solar radiation is received during summers, when the internal gains are also at its peak. • Thus, attention needs to be paid while designing west facade and spaces behind west facade. 6.5.2.Landscaping: • Landscaping is an important element in altering the micro-climate of a place. • Proper

landscaping

reduced direct sun from striking and heating up building surfaces. • Planting

deciduous

trees on the southern side of a building is beneficial in a composite climate as they cut off direct sun during summer, and as these trees shed leaves

Figure 114 Location of trees to protect from winds

in winter, they allow the sun to heat the building in winter which is suitable in composite climate. • The use of dense trees and shrub plantings on the west and northwest sides of a building will block the summer setting sun. • Natural cooling without air-conditioning can be enhanced by locating trees to channel south-easterly summer breezes.


89

6.5.3. Building form: • Compactness: The building form determines the air flow pattern around the building directly affecting its ventilation. The greater the depth, higher is the need for artificial lighting. Conduction gain from the building envelope as well as solar gain from windows are least in circular geometry in comparison to other building geometries which is most energy efficient in composite climate. • Use sheltering and buffering: In composite climate, the envelope should be designed so that it remains shaded for the greater part of the day; the external walls should be so planned that they shade each other. 6.5.4. Shaded envelopes: • Shading of roof through design features like pergolas or solar photo-voltaic panels helps in reducing the incident direct solar radiation on the roof surface. This in turn helps to reduce the air temperature of the roof and conduction gains in the space below. • Shading of windows: External shading is the most effective ways of shading, as it cuts off direct sunlight during summer and allows winter sunlight to enter inside the space. • For instance, on north orientation minimum or no shading is required. On South orientation external shades should be designed after studying the sun path. • Shading devices on south orientation could be permanent in nature, as most part of the day, sun remains in south orientation. It is preferable to design movable external shading devices on East and West facades, so that the shades could be removed after sun faces opposite orientation.

Figure 115 External shading for windows as an effective means of shading

International Convention Centre

The general design objectives are


International Convention Centre

90


7. Programme Formulation

Detailed list of spatial requirements of all indoor and outdoor spaces to be de-

signed, including standards used for calculating sizes.

Yashima Jain Semester 8 A CUN110301120 International Convention Center | Thesis 2015


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International Convention Centre

Total site area = 15.3 acres / 62,058 m2 F. A. R. = 1.2 = 74,469 m2 Permissible built up area = 74,469 m2 / 18.4 acres Permissible ground coverage = 30% = 18,617m2 / 4.6 acres Functional component

Standards

Occupancy

No. of

Proposed

(m2)

(persons)

modules

area

0.65

4500

1

2925

1.40

6600

2

9,240

20% of exhibit area

-

1

1848

Male : WC (1.2m2): 2/400 and 1/250 thereof. U (0.63m2): 1/100 WB (0.92m2) : 1/WC

4400

Male : 18 WC, 44U, 18WB

93

Female: WC: 2/200 and 1/150 thereof. WB: 1/WC

2200

Female: 16 WC, 16WB

52

i. Foyer

0.8

1200

1

960

ii. Seating

1.2

1200

1

1440

iii. Stage

0.3

1200

1

360

30% of stage area

-

1

108

3.5

20M + 20F

4

140

vi. Projection room

Min. 3m*4.5m

-

1

13.5

vii. Light / sound room

Min. 3m*4.5m

-

1

13.5

1. Pubic spaces Foyer Exhibition halls i.

Main exhibit area

ii.

Storage

iii.

Toilets

Auditorium

iv. Backstage v. Green rooms + Changing rooms + Toilets


93

viii.

Toilets

800

Male : 4 WC, 8 U, 4 WB

19

Female: WC (1.2m2): 2/200 and 1/150 thereof. WB (0.92m2) : 1/WC

400

Female: 4 WC, 4 WB

12

Total area for public spaces 2.

17539

Semi public spaces Conference rooms

500

20

2000

Type 1

2

60

4

480

Type 2

2

30

6

480

500

5

900

100

5

750

Male : WC (1.2m2): 2/400 and 1/250 thereof. U (0.63m2): 1/100 WB (0.92m2) : 1/WC

660

Male : 3 WC, 7 U, 3 WB

-

Female: WC (1.2m2): 2/200 and 1/150 thereof. WB (0.92m2) : 1/WC

340

Female: 3 WC, 3 WB

-

Seminar rooms 1.5 Toilets

Banquet hall

1.2

1000

1

1200

Convention hall

1.5

1500

1

2250

International Convention Centre

Male : WC (1.2m2): 2/400 and 1/250 thereof. U (0.63m2): 1/100 WB (0.92m2) : 1/WC


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International Convention Centre

Toilets

Male : WC (1.2m2): 2/400 and 1/250 thereof. U (0.63m2): 1/100 WB (0.92m2) : 1/WC

1910

Male : 11 WC, 26 U, 11 WB

56

Female: WC (1.2m2): 2/200 and 1/150 thereof. WB (0.92m2) : 1/WC

940

Female: 10 WC, 10 WB

30

Total area for semi public spaces

3.

6203

Private spaces Administration Deptt. i. Estate manager

25

1

1

25

ii. PA to estate manager

10

1

1

10

iii. General Manager

25

1

1

25

10

1

1

10

v. Accounts

5m /table

4

1

20

vi. Administration office

2

5m /table

6

1

30

Male : WC (1.2m2): 1/15 U (0.63m2): 1/7-20 WB (0.92m2) : 1/15

8

Male : 1 WC, 1 U, 1 WB

Female: WC(1.2m2): 1/12 WB (0.92m2): 1/12

4

Female : 1 WC, 1 WB

3

5700

1

570

iv. PA to general manager

vii. Toilets

2

3.85

Central kitchen i. Main preparation

0.1

ii. Bakery

0.03

1

171

iii. Washing area

0.03

1

171

iv. Dry food store

0.01

1

57

v. Cold food store

0.01

1

57 1152.85


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4.

Parking

Total built up area = 49,557m2 FAR achieved = 0.69

32m2 for basement and 23m2 for surface parking.

850

2 levels of basement; 200 cars on surface.

4600m2 for surface; 20,800m2 for basement

International Convention Centre

Car parking @ 2 ECS per 100m2 of floor area

Theoretical Study Report for a Convention Centre  

The report includes various architectural standards and case studies including Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi and Vancouver International Conventi...