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philharmonia in sprague

February 28, 2014 • Morse Recital Hall

Robert Blocker, Dean

Philharmonia Orchestra of Yale

philharmonia in sprague Friday, February 28, 2014 • 8:00 pm • Morse Recital Hall Shinik Hahm, Conductor in Residence

Aaron Copland 1900–1990

Music for the Theatre (1925) 1. Prologue 2. Dance 3. Interlude 4. Burlesque 5. Epilogue Louis Lohraseb, conductor

Richard Wagner 1813–1883

Siegfried Idyll, WWV 103 Louis Lohraseb, conductor


Ludwig van Beethoven 1770–1827

Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major, Op. 55, “Eroica” I. Allegro con brio II. Marcia funebre: Adagio assai III. Scherzo: Allegro vivace IV. Finale: Allegro molto Jonathan Brandani, conductor

As a courtesy to the performers and audience, turn off cell phones and pagers. Please do not leave the hall during selections. Photography or recording of any kind is prohibited.

Conductor Profiles

Jonathan Brandani (b. Lucca, Italy 1983) is currently a conducting fellow (’14mm) at the Yale School of Music, where he studies with Shinik Hahm. Jonathan studied orchestral conducting with Mark Stringer at the Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst in Vienna, Austria, where he obtained his Magister Artium Diploma with full grades and honours in June 2012. There he also studied opera conducting and répétiteur with Konrad Leitner and choral conducting with Erwin Ortner. While studying in Vienna, he also received advice from Daniel Harding and Zubin Mehta. Jonathan has conducted the Russian National Orchestra, Wiener Kammerorchester, Webern Symphonie Orchester, Maribor International Orchestra, Royal Camerata Bucharest, and the Haydn Sinfonietta. From 2008 to 2010 he worked as répétiteur at the Festival Oper Klosterneuburg (Austria). He recently conducted several operas at the Opera House at Schönbrunn Castle (Vienna, 2011–2012), Sommertraum Festival am Semmering (Austria, 2012), and Lucca Opera Festival (Italy, 2013). A passionate interpreter and scholar of early music, Jonathan has played continuo with several renowned European early music ensembles, such as Coro della Radiotelevisione Svizzera Italiana, Concerto Köln, I Barocchisti, and ArteMusica, and has recorded for Deutsche Grammophon, Virgin Classics, and ORF. Jonathan also studied piano (graduating with full marks and cum laude from the Instituto Musicale P. Mascagni in Livorno, Italy) as well as harpsichord, organ, composition, and musicology.

As a conducting fellow at the Yale School of Music, Louis Lohraseb (b. 1991) currently studies with Shinik Hahm. Mr. Lohraseb took up music at an early age, and later studied piano with Findlay Cockrell and Amy Stanley, composition with Robert Levin, musicology and composition with William Carragan, conducting and composition with James Walker, and conducting with Gerard Floriano. As a conductor, Mr. Lohraseb was the assistant director of the Geneseo Symphony Orchestra and the music director of the Friends of Music Orchestra, which is comprised of members of the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra. He has recently directed J.S. Bach’s Magnificat and Mozart’s “Jupiter” Symphony, and in December 2012 presented an event with Cicely Parnas as soloist with the Friends of Music Orchestra. Conducting from the keyboard, Lohraseb has performed many concertos of Mozart, as well as J.S. Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 and Bach’s two triple harpsichord concertos. Recent credits include the Mozart two-piano concerto and the Rachmaninov Second Concerto with the Geneseo Symphony Orchestra. Mr. Lohraseb has participated in a number of chamber music recitals, including concerts with members of the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra in 2012. His compositions have been performed internationally. His recent musicological work on the sources of Anton Bruckner’s Sixth Symphony was presented at a musicological conference at the University of Oxford this past April, and will be published this fall in the Bruckner Journal. This past spring he graduated summa cum laude from SUNY Geneseo, where he was an Edgar Fellows Honors student and became a member of Phi Beta Kappa.

Notes on the Program

aaron copland Music for the Theatre American art music is a tapestry woven of many threads, most of which are imports from Europe. One need only glance at a concert or recital program to see the breadth of the continent’s impact on our conception of the art form. Western music as we know it today was born of the Italians, Germans, French, and English, all of whom have migrated across the Atlantic, bringing their musical traditions with them. From Dvořák to Schoenberg, Mahler to Toscanini, Rachmaninoff to Heifetz, and Milhaud to Yale’s own Paul Hindemith: so many of the notable musicians and teachers who gained celebrity status in the American music world were actually Europeanborn. The founders of major conservatories in the United States were immigrants, as were the founders of orchestras and opera houses. For American-born composers and musicians, it was for many years a rite of passage to study in the conservatories of Europe. What the continent did not bring over, Americans went there to retrieve. The rate of this exchange grew exponentially around the turn of the twentieth century, when developments in travel and an increasingly unstable socio-political climate in Europe generated a surge in immigration. And the Great War would send American soldiers to Europe in droves. When one thinks of quintessentially “American” composers, Aaron Copland—born in Brooklyn, New York right at the turn of the century to Lithuanian Jewish immigrants—is often the first name that comes to mind; though Charles Ives, a Connecticut-born Yalie (Class of 1898), did precede him. Even Copland, however, went to Europe to study composition along with droves of his peers, spending time in Paris and Fontainebleau with the influential mentorcomposer Nadia Boulanger, whose open-mind-

edness to “avant-garde” and modern music appealed to the young Brooklynite. Copland was in Paris in the early 1920s, alongside Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway, and Ezra Pound, those disillusioned American ex-pats known as the “Lost Generation.” Copland was decidedly more optimistic than these figures about the potential of American art. He returned to the United States in 1925, bringing with him all that he had learned, but determined to create a distinctly American-sounding music. For Copland, besides the folk music that would eventually make its way into his compositions, the first place to look for this American sound was in jazz. To Copland, only jazz music could be called truly American in its genetic make-up, and it was born of musicians and creative minds who were not subjected to the training and formalities of the European “classical music” tradition. In 1925, Serge Koussevitzky, the conductor of the Boston Symphony — and a Russian immigrant — commissioned more music from the 25-yearold composer after the success of his previous Organ Symphony. Copland provided a fivemovement suite for an intimate ensemble of around 18 musicians, and titled it Music for the Theatre. Its working title, Incidental Music for an Imagined Drama, reveals that there was no actual theatrical work meant to go with this music. Rather, Copland noticed that “the music seemed to suggest a certain theatrical atmosphere, so after developing the idea into five short movements, I chose the title.” Even the choice of instrumentation, streamlined and minimal, is rather theatrical in nature, reflecting the configuration of pit orchestras in American music halls, vaudeville theaters, and the nightclubs of the Roaring Twenties. The jazz influence in the piece is unmistakable. The composer incorporates the distinctive syncopated rhythms and “blue notes” that give jazz

Notes on the Program

music its own unique identity and flavor. From the laid-back trumpet solo in the Prologue to the white-hot energy of the Dance, and the cabaret act humor and grotesqueness of the Burlesque, these movements bring together the sophisticated language of jazz with the formality and modernist experimentation of Copland’s compositional style. One can still hear the irregularity of meter and rhythmic configuration, splashes of dissonance, and brightness of sound that we have come to expect of Copland’s music — much of it brought back from Paris — yet with a distinctly “American” flavor. Jazz has always been a classy and intelligent lady, but Copland has dressed her up in a new outfit and brought her to the concert hall. –Patrick Jankowski

richard wagner Siegfried Idyll, WWV 103 Hearing Siegfried Idyll is like overhearing an intimate conversation: a brief glimpse into the private domestic life of one of the music world’s most public and outspoken figures. Richard Wagner presented the work as a birthday gift to his newlywed, Cosima, at their Swiss home on Christmas Day in 1870. The story of their marriage is almost tabloid-worthy in its complexity. Cosima was the illegitimate daughter (or “love child,” as she liked to say) of Franz Liszt, and was first married to the famed German conductor and pianist Hans von Bülow. Both men were dedicated champions of Wagner’s music, and close companions of the composer. Wagner — estranged from his wife Mathilde, known as “Minna” — had been carrying on an affair with Cosima, even fathering a child while she was still married, albeit unhappily, to von Bülow. In true tabloid tradition, Cosima had served as Wagner’s secretary for a period, when

the von Bülows lived a few houses away from the composer in Munich. After Minna’s death, the birth of another child that was not his own, and some pressing from Cosima, von Bülow granted his wife a divorce, proclaiming, “you have preferred to consecrate the treasures of your heart and mind to a higher being: far from censuring you for this step, I approve of it.” The conductor’s respect and near-reverence for his friend certainly played a part in his approval, and he wrote in his diary, “had it been anyone but Wagner, I would have shot him.” The young Cosima — nearly a quarter-century Wagner’s junior — was at last able to marry the man who called her his true love. Liszt was hesitant about the relationship, and received word of his daughter’s marriage to his friend through a newspaper announcement. Any manifestation of this drama is nowhere to be found in the opening bars of the work, a placid musical depiction of a sunrise or, in Wagner’s words, an “awakening theme.” The piece was performed early on that Christmas morning, in its original configuration for an intimate chamber ensemble of thirteen players, to literally awaken Cosima from her slumbers with its opening strain. The work was called, in translation, Triebschen Idyll with Fidi’s birdsong and the orange sunrise, as symphonic birthday greeting. Presented to his Cosima by her Richard. It had never been intended for publication or distribution, and was truly meant to be an intimate and personal gesture. Financial incentive later compelled Wagner to submit a version – with an expanded orchestration – for publication, under the title Siegfried Idyll, over which Cosima lamented that their “secret treasure is to become public property.” To those familiar with Wagner’s music, some of the motivic material that would later make its way into his Ring cycle can be heard in infantile form in this piece, particularly in the central Lebhaft section, where a distant horn call

Notes on the Program

foreshadows the leitmotif of Siegfried’s call in the Ring. The original title forecasts the intimacy of the work, depicting their family life at their Swiss home, in the district of Triebschen. The music combines birdcalls beloved of “Fidi,” the nickname of Wagner and Cosima’s son Siegfried, and a German lullaby — heard first in the solo oboe after the climax of the opening “sunrise” section — that was beloved of the couple’s daughter, Eva. The piece, a tone poem in every sense, is loosely structured in three sections, with transitional music that draws them together. The lively central section with Siegfried’s call eventually melds with the music from before, transitioning into a final section that recollects the music from earlier in the piece, layering motives on top of one another, in a new, more lively tempo. Motivic development and recollection is, after all, one of the hallmarks of Wagner’s compositional technique, and is as present in this small tone poem as in his epic dramas. Presumably, if nothing else, the vigorous trumpet solo in the march-like climactic restatement of the “awakening theme” would have stirred Cosima from her bedroom, so by this final section, all of the musical material is infused with energy, as the young bride was likewise energized by the music. The tempo, dynamic, and tone all become steadily calmer as the pastoral placidity of the opening of the piece returns at the end, bringing the music full circle. Along with the music, Wagner composed a poem to commemorate the occasion. The music traces the themes and tone of the poem, creating a “tone poem” in the fullest sense. Repeated listenings will reveal ever more depth to this intimate music that we are so lucky to overhear. Cosima herself got to hear the work performed three times on that Christmas Day, each performance

illuminating the music a bit more, like the light from a rising sun. Siegfried Idyll By Richard Wagner It was your self-sacrificing, noble will That found a place for my work to develop, Consecrated by you as a refuge from the world, Where my work grew and mightily arose, A hero’s world magically became an idyll for us, An age-old distance became a familiar homeland. Then a call happily rang forth into my melodies; “A son is there!” —he had to be named Siegfried. For him and you I had to express thanks in music— What lovelier reward could there be for deeds of love? We nurtured within the bounds of our home The quiet joy, that here became sound. To those who proved ever faithful to us, Kind to Siegfried, and friendly to our son, With your blessing may that which we formerly enjoyed As sounding happiness now be offered. — Patrick Jankowski

ludwig van beethoven Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major, Op. 55, “Eroica” Beethoven’s “Eroica” symphony ushers in what is widely considered Beethoven’s “heroic” style, the mid-life stage in which he began to produce large-scale works of breathtaking vision and power. The nineteenth-century hero figure is brave, virtuous, and self-reliant, primed to overcome any obstacle. The Eroica glorifies an unnamed “great man,” and, as its published title explains, “celebrates the memory” of this hero. In 1804, the year Beethoven completed the symphony, Napoleon

Notes on the Program

crowned himself hereditary emperor of the French Republic. Napoleon was the dominant figure of the age, and artists and scholars fell under his imperial spell. The composer surely had Bonaparte in mind as he titled his heroic portrait, but Beethoven reportedly tore the title page in anger and revoked the dedication when he heard of Napoleon’s arrogant self-crowning. Because the Eroica is among the first great programmatic works ever written, its publication is often described as a watershed moment at the beginning of the Romantic period. It opened the floodgates for the symphonic outpourings of the nineteenth century — from Schubert and Mendelssohn to Brahms and Bruckner — just as Haydn’s London symphonies had brought the 18th-century symphony to its brilliant conclusion. Certainly the Eroica is drastically longer than any symphony that had ever been written by Beethoven or any other composer. Each movement stands alone on a majestic scale, like four massive architectural columns. The first movement gives the symphony its bulk, though its introduction is compacted into two brusque chords. The movement’s chain of melodic ideas shows a striking and unprecedented unity. Conflict, drama, and resolution are the characteristics of this highly dramatic movement, especially in its extensive development section. At the famous “false recapitulation,” when Beethoven thwarts the listener’s expectation that the opening theme is about to return, the second horn comes in with the first theme in a spot that sounds two bars early, while the strings still play dominant-seventh harmony. At the first rehearsal, Beethoven’s pupil Ferdinand Ries is said to have burst out, “The damned horn player! Can’t he count?” — a mistake Beethoven did not find amusing.

The slow movement shifts the imagery from epic heroism to tragedy and grief. The lengthy C minor “Funeral March” evokes the picture of a slow processional for a fallen hero being taken to the grave. Perhaps its ceaseless pace mourns the inevitable demise of those who strive for heroic achievement. Even in this movement, not all is tragic — a lyrical C major interlude and a fugato section look to the sunlight — but hope does not triumph here. The theme disintegrates at the end, as if grief has so infused the notes that they are reduced from eloquent speech to stricken fragments. The effervescent third movement Scherzo rises out of scampering string figures. Three horns (one more than Beethoven had used in his first two symphonies) play a bold fanfare amid the hushed staccato motion. The finale erupts open and then whispers the theme from the Creatures of Promethues ballet, though rudely interrupted by outbursts. The theme rises out of the bass line into the treble, as if flowering into its mature state. The movement opens into a set of twelve variations that serve as a sort of textbook of styles, from military march to fugue. This finale is a resolution of tension, the achievement of a goal, and a psychological point of arrival — the hero reincarnated. In its paean to Prometheus, that emblem of hope for socially-enlightened humankind, the finale achieves the drama to which all the Romanticera symphonists who follow will aspire. — Ariana Falk

Philharmonia Orchestra of Yale

shinik hahm Conductor in Residence philharmonia staff andrew w. parker Manager roberta senatore Music Librarian brent laflam Production Assistant jonathan brandani louis lohraseb Assistant Conductors

violin 1 MÊlanie Clapiès Choha Kim Marina Aikawa Hye Jin Koh Edouard Maetzener Ye Hyung Chung Betty Zhou Jinyou Lee Eun Kyung Park violin 2 Suliman Tekalli Gayoung Cho Barbora Kolarova Inyoung Hwang Xi Liao Yite Xu Zou Yu Yenna Lee Ryan Truby viola David Mason Isabella Mensz Batmyagmar Erdenebat Danielle Wiebe Yuan Qi cello Alan Ohkubo Yoonha Yi Zhilin Wang Christopher Hwang bass Samuel Suggs Gregory Vartian-Foss Jonathan Hammonds

flute Christina Hughes Jacob Mende-Fridkis oboe Sol Jee Park Fiona Last Kemp Jernigan clarinet Eric Anderson Chi Hang Fung bassoon Barbara Bentley Bogdan Dumitriu horn Wing Lam Au Patrick Jankowski John Craig Hubbard William Eisenberg trumpet Mikio Alan Sasaki Patrick Durbin Carl Stanley trombone Elisabeth Shafer percussion Garrett Arney Mari Yoshinaga piano Zhenni Li

About the Philharmonia Orchestra

The Philharmonia Orchestra of Yale is one of America’s foremost music school ensembles. The largest performing group at the Yale School of Music, the Philharmonia offers superb training in orchestral playing and repertoire. Performances include an annual series of concerts in Woolsey Hall, as well as Yale Opera productions in the Shubert Theater. The Yale Philharmonia has also performed on numerous occasions in Carnegie Hall and Alice Tully Hall in New York City and at the Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C. The orchestra undertook its first tour of Asia in 2008, with acclaimed performances in the Seoul Arts Center, the Forbidden City Concert Hall and National Center for the Performing Arts (Beijing), and the Shanghai Grand Theatre.

philharmonia student staff assistant Timothy Gocklin music librarians Batmyagmar Erdenebat Allan Hon • Choha Kim Hye Jin Koh • Fiona Last Michael Laurello • David Mason Alan Ohkubo • Nicole Percifield Rachel Perfecto Matheus Garcia Sardinha Souza stage crew Jonathan Allen • Garrett Arney Samuel Bobinski • Patrick Durbin Batmyagmar Erdenebat Jonathan Hammonds Julia Ghica • Christopher Hwang Stephen Ivany • John Kossler Fiona Last • Christopher Lettie Louis Lohraseb • Thomas Park Douglas Perry • Zachary Quortrup

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Vista: A Fresh Look at Chamber Music

Laderman, Marshall & Theofanidis

march 4 Morse Recital Hall | Tuesday | 8 pm Top student ensembles perform and provide insight into their repertoire. Music by Fasch, Francaix, Haas, and Beethoven. Free Admission

march 6 New Music New Haven Morse Recital Hall | Thursday | 8 pm Featuring music by faculty composers Ezra Laderman, Ingram Marshall, and Christopher Theofanidis. With new works by graduate students in the school’s composition program. Benjamin Verdery, guitar; Sean Chen, piano; and others. Free Admission

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Robert Blocker, Dean

Philharmonia in Sprague  
Philharmonia in Sprague