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May 2012

Jamaica Past, Present and Future: strides in ICT’s advancements

Hansel Parchment’s 13.19 in 110 Hurdles

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YAADI CULTURE, FIMI STYLE MAGAZINE Libraries and LIME, Telecommunications giant helping to bridge the Digital Divide…...

In the twenty-First century, the capacity to communicate will almost certainly be a key human right. Eliminating the distinction between the information-rich and information-poor will also be critical in eliminating economic and other inequalities as well as to improve the lives of every human being. New developments in Information Communications and Technologies (ICT’s) is having a tremendous effect on “the quality, diversity and quantity of information transmission and by extension the work of the library as an Information broker”. It is worth noting that this effect is not just limited to the supply side of information transmission, but that it applies within the process of information transmission, specifically, within the core business of a library.

effective functionality in today’s information society. The digital divide for the purpose of this article can be referred to as the “gap between people with effective access to information technology and those with very limited or no access at all” In other words, the digital divide includes the imbalances in physical access to technology as well as imbalances in resources and skills that are needed to effectively play a part in society; the society that is using a certain amount of Information Technology for day to day communication. Additionally, it is the unequal access by some members of society to Information and Communications Technologies and the unequal acquisition of related skills while there is limited or no access by certain poverty stricken persons in societies.

Information literacy can be described as “knowing when and why you need information, where to find it and how to evaluate, use and communicate it in an ethical Information Literacy and manner” With this observation, Information Literacy can be seen as its impact on the digital the facilitator for lifelong learning: divide which is the key ingredient for

Information literacy and its effect on the digital divide is an aspect of information ethics that can be influenced and improved by those in the library profession. According to Elrod and Smith, “information ethics provides a framework for critical reflection on the creation, control and use of information” nevertheless, data analysis reveals that the divides still exist, particularly when considering income, education, region, disability, age and race . Librarians face many challenges to take on the digital divide which includes issues of access, content, technical literacy, privacy, civic participation, education, employment, non-use and political debate. Information technology is the “great enabler”. It provides for those who have access to it, “an extension of their powers of perception, comprehension, analysis, thought, concentration and articulation through a range of activities that include: writing, visual image, music, simulation and communication” .

Front Cover: Upcoming Jamaican 110m hurdler Hansel Parchment in a victorious run.

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VOLUME 1, ISSUE 2 For this reason, those with access will need to know how to accurately search for information and effectively manipulate the computer in order to get their desired result. Technology, in all of its various forms, offers users the tools to access, manipulate, transform, evaluate, use and present information. Along with technology, Information Literacy can be used to create new opportunities. Information Literacy can be used by individuals to evaluate information, organize themselves and to effectively communicate their interests. Information Literacy can also be used to improve the efficiency and responsiveness of groups that work with the poor. On a broad level, “information literacy can help to break down isolation structures of discrimination and to support new forms of economic and social innovation that benefits the poor” . Information literacy is helping in bridging the gap in the digital divide; knowing how to “recognize when information is needed and

have the ability to locate, evaluate and use effectively the needed information” , knowing what one wants narrows the level of intensity that one has to search and knowing where the information is located and how to get it can be fostered by the use of technology; as the internet has been used to solve numerous queries. People living in poverty can now use ICT’s as tools to empower themselves, whether it is through access to productive information, the creation of content that is relevant to them or through opportunities to communicate and better organize themselves. The focus is not on technology itself, but on how to use technologies for a specific purpose: to empower and enable people living in poverty to change their circumstances.

LIME and Caribbean libraries in bridging the gap……. Dr. Abdul Waheed Khan outlined that “modern societies are currently undergoing a number of fundamental transformations caused by the growing impact of the new communication and information on all aspects of human life”. Barriers to accessing the internet and computers have been widely targeted by countless initiatives aimed at bridging the first level “digital divide” have led to increased use of the internet and digital library resources in libraries in and around the Caribbean. The library in doing its part to bridge the gap in the digital divide is providing a place with the aim of facilitating less fortunate individuals in society, access to the internet and ICT’s that they could not access previously. Cont’d pg 8

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YAADI CULTURE, FIMI STYLE MAGAZINE ICT to Facilitate Use/Management of Information in National Development

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is tremendously affecting every aspect of human activity, people of the Caribbean and more specifically has impacted the lives of many Jamaicans. This era has seen the introduction and increase in the use of mobile phones, personal computers and the Internet, dramatic expansion in the number and range of telecommunications and broadcast media providers, and growth of applications of ICTs in businesses, schools and households. The revolution created by ICT has implications for many aspects of our lives and lifestyles now and in the future to come. The introduction of new technology has impacted the delivery and dissemination of information significantly, as a new set of technology and electronic information skills must be acquired in order to provide knowledge to users through effective information dissemination. The purpose of ICT in “education is generally to familiarize learners with the use and workings of computers and related social and ethical issues” . ICT has enables learning through multiple intelligences as it has introduced learning through simulation; which enables active learning through all senses. Traditionally, the “implementation and usage of ICT in the education sector has not been a priority trend of educational reform and the state paid little attention to it”, therefore, there should be an active participation, positive initiative and good will by schools and government institutions to enhance ICT implementation within the education sector. ICT defines a “broad range of technologies, including methods for communication… as well as techniques for storing and processing information; computing and data storage” ICT's are communication tools that aid in the collection, storage and most importantly the transfer of information. These tools include radio, television and most importantly the Internet and telecommunications. Development is a versatile and multi-disciplinary term which can be defined as, “a multi dimensional process that involves the quantitative increase in wealth and qualitative changes in the economy through improved technology, better utilization of natural resources and better social division of labor”. Development can be seen as a “process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy”. Traditionally development meant “the capacity of a national economy, whose initial economic condition has been more or less static for a long time, to generate and sustain an annual increase in its gross national income (GNI) at rates of 5% to 7% or more” Development today is frequently used to describe growth in an economic sense but can take place in different disciplines such as Politics, Science, Education and Culture. A benchmark activity associated with economic development has been “the use of rates or growth of income per capita to take into account the ability of a nation to expand its output at a rate faster than the growth rate of its population” . “levels and rates of growth of real per capita Gross National Income are normally used to measure the overall economic well-being of a population”.


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ICT to Facilitate Use/Management of Information in National Development

The millennium development goals have become the principal global scorecard for development. In September 2005 the United Nations World Summit reaffirmed the principles in the 2000 Millennium Declaration and recognized the need for ambitious national development strategies backed by increased international support . In light of this the Caribbean as

a region has sought to capitalize on this working framework by using it to mobilize groundwork for formulating national agendas for the development of their sectors. Jamaica through its “2030 vision” has set out clear analytical goals, geared towards the development of sectors, such as Information Communication (ICT) and Education. It must be noted that ICT has a means of delivering information is critical to the education sector and therefore it is necessary that careful analysis be given to the application of ICT to facilitate the use and management of information in the education sector. Information and Communications Technologies have become engines for social and economic growth globally. Economic theory suggests that a “shift toward the predominance of the ICT paradigm should result in productivity gains and provide a stimulus for economic growth”. Investment in human capital is necessary to foster ICT innovations at the technological frontier and to build demand for these technologies and related services. As outlined by Draca, Sadun and Van Reenen in the book Economic Development “Some developing countries have prioritized investment in human capital to promote their capacity for ICT production” this is evident in the case of the East Asian countries; they have utilized different combinations of development and national innovation and education strategies alongside the investment and employment strategies of multinational to reverse the “brain drain” to higher wages countries and as such has become world leaders in semiconductor production. This strategy can be employed by the heads of the developing countries, especially Jamaica, in order to help reverse the brain drain of the country. Governments worldwide should recognize the need to assist their people by investing heavily in the development of knowledge based societies; recognizing the advantage that the integration and use of ICT in sectors such as education, provides in the long-term social and economic development of their population.

Cont’d on pg. 10

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Feature: From a Bird’s view What influences priority in the lives of people . “Let us enjoy the longest journey we’ll ever take.”

I am perched up high, trying to decipher between personal importance and public opinion and swaying between these two extremes. Who decides what? What defines who? I may fall off this pedestal thinking about this all but then again, I believe I can fly. According to “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs” we have a base of things we “cannot live without” but then there are levels at which we place everything else that we aim for or that which we achieve. Good thing I’m like a bird, all I have to do is fly away. Life, food, shelter and beings of my kind to share all these with are all I need. My aim is to be free and live and enjoy living until of course, its bird season and somebody shoots me. But enough about this chick and more about those I hover over while playing Inspector Bird, and following shady tracks. Air, water, food, shelter, sleep and sex, are the noted physiological needs. But are they really? Are all these the fundamentals of every person in every society? Not really, maybe, hell yeah? The truth is the basic needs vary from man to man, being to being, maybe even bird to bird. Don’t expect the needs of an ostrich to be the same of a dove. Above this is then safety and security. It is noted that some value this more than life itself, because any day now, could be the last day. With all the looting and shooting taking place on our little paradise in par-

ticular, some value the mere sense of security as top shelf asset. Love and belongingness are central on Maslow’s pyramid, and o how it brings immense pleasure to see lovebirds enjoy each other’s company, free of care for even that moment. Companionship, coexistence, the whole flock and brood, serve great purposes in the lives and psyche of individuals. According to Maslow when all the above foundations are in their correct proportions and order, self-esteems are then automatically boosted. But is this what happens? A wise old owl would say, “To every man, his own”. Some aim for great things, some aim for what is great in their eyes, and then some have no aim. It is almost as if finding our self-worth gives us the sense of self-worth. Life has a different level of meaning when there is self-sufficiency and vitality. My view is, society does influence society and culture influences culture. Nature and nurture both play equal and opposite roles in the lives of every life we come across. Some choices are based on who we are and what we’ve seen, heard and experienced. So in the end the big question will have to be, “how individual are we individually?” When we make choices, set goals, dream dreams, how much of these are innate, how much is caused by influences of how we’re socialized and then how much of this just fell out of the sky and into our heads? Something to pick my bird brain for a long while until our next flight together.

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Ole Time People did say…by Georgette McGlashen





sh ou


kn o


otism and social contacts, known as ‘lingks’, translated ‘links’ in Jamaica. Even amidst educational documentation, many qualified persons in Jamaica find it a challenge to secure jobs, which are believed to produced mobility in one way or the other. There is also no guarantee that having and gaining money will reward you with high social status, as many ‘newly rich’ find themselves outIt is often said that persons from the urban regions of side traditional and prominent rich circles in Jamaica are impolite when compared to their rural Jamaica. Another way of becoming socialcounterparts. Persons especially from the inner cities ly mobile is to marry into a family, which are labelled as not having any manners or not having good manners. To whatever extent this is true or false, although is sometimes a rare case, has the I cannot say, as I know of no research conducted on reward or gaining status and opportunity. the issue. However, there is the tendency in Jamaica to However, the most effective means of getting somewhere in Jamaica is through links. It is measure someone’s potential for success based upon his or her good behaviour, which often includes his or often said, it is whom you know and who knows you. Here we can see how having her ‘good manners’. good manners can cause you to be known and ‘Manaz kyari yu roun di worl’ translated as even find favour in the right places among ‘Manners carry you around the world’ is an old time the right social contacts, which may be able Jamaican saying, that was and is often used to encourage youths and young adults to be polite if they to indeed take you around the world. intend to be successful, find favour among people or Until next time Waak Gud, Tek Kier and become socially mobile. But what exactly are remember Oudi an Tengki No Brok No manners? How much manners should one possess? Skwier. How far around the world, can it take you? In sociology, manners are the unenforced standards of conduct that demonstrate that a person is proper, polite, and refined. They are like laws or standards for human behaviour, but there is no formal punishment for transgressing; the main informal "punishment" is social disapproval (http:// Like every skill manners has to be practiced and honed. Too much manners is never a bad thing. The more polite you are, to more people, especially adults, elderly persons and persons of influence, the more favourable it will be with you in and around your community; and according to the saying, the world. When you are good and kind to persons, they are more inclined to be good and kind to you. As far as travelling around the world is concerned, manners may not be all you need. International travel is only accommodated by a passport and in some cases a visa. If it depended solely on manners to get a visa at the American embassy in Jamaica, the large majority of Jamaicans would be well-mannered people. However, it is still a mystery to man y Jamaicans as to what are the exact criteria to get a visa from the embassy; but for certain, manners is not one of them. Mobility is almost always facilitated by educational documentation, financial support, nep-

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YAADI CULTURE, FIMI STYLE MAGAZINE Libraries and LIME, Telecommunications giant helping to bridge the Digital Divide…... Contd pg. 3

All information resources that are provided directly or indirectly by the library, regardless of technology, format or method of delivery, should be readily, equally, and equitably accessible to all library users. This will help to increase the information literacy rate of the Caribbean more, specifically, Jamaica. In helping to bridge the digital divide, the Jamaica Library Service, in collaboration with telecommunications giant, LIME, fulfilling its goal “to achieve universal access to information and knowledge” has since implemented a nation -wide internet access service; where persons can have free internet access in any public library across the island for a maximum of thirty (30) minutes in one sitting. Even though thirty minutes might not be sufficient to some individuals, it is still beneficial to those who were once deprived of this opportunity. The provision of access to computers and the internet free of charge is a direct result of the Jamaica Library Service’s commitment to achieving its objectives and to ensure that equal access to online information resources are provided to those unable to provide for themselves. As outlined by the Jamaica Library Service, it “operates on the assurance that it has the challenging, but exciting responsibility of assisting to bridge the gap which will result in the development of individuals, communities and the nation; preparing Jamaicans to take their place in the emerging global environment’. Other Caribbean countries such as Anguilla, Barbados, Trinidad and Guyana have also placed focal points on enabling access to the internet to their citizens. In Trinidad, NALIS is providing free internet access for a maximum of one (1) hour per day as well as providing training for users who are not fully competent.

They also provide wireless internet access for patrons with laptops, outside and inside the library building. In Anguilla, the internet access is free but it is only available to student. Barbados helps by providing access to for persons with disability such as the visually impaired; while Guyana provides internet access but unfortunately there is a cost of approximately US$1 an hour. Across other parts of the world, there are numerous projects being undertaken by libraries to help bridge this gap between information and possible users. The United States of America, for example, has reported in 2002 that “they are truly a nation online; as the gap in the digital access has now narrowed based on the infrastructure and attention that was being placed on educating individuals on how to effectively use and include ICT’s in their everyday lives”. There is evidence that computers are being placed in public libraries and public schools for easy access and use by citizens. This in turn, helps to bridge the gap as access to internet has opened up great doors for the poorer citizens in society. Through this service those with limited access can now have access to numerous websites as well as governmental information that can help in their daily decision making. It also fosters information literacy and literacy in general as users while waiting to use the internet can browse through the collection of the library. It is through institutions as well as moral and legal codes that we can ensure the right to access and work for more equitable distribution in order to bridge the information gap between the


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LIME and Caribbean libraries in bridging the ICTs and its inclusion in the Jamaica Education System Cont’d from pg. 2 gap……. “information poor” and the “information rich” . The challenging patterns of disadvantage in the global political economy demand that the Caribbean moves aggressively toward fostering an innovative culture and environments in securing a place for itself among the technological leaders. This includes a more vigorous attempt to resolving the technology access divide, skills divide, social capacity divide and the technology production divide. It is only then that any significant strides can be made in narrowing the economic divide between the haves and the have-nots in the current techno-economic context. The change from an economy based on labor and capital to one based on information, requires information literate workers who will know how to interpret information. It is imperative that individuals learn how to master their respective skills in their respective fields as without being information literate and possessing the necessary skills to participate in a technological environment, they will be left lagging behind. Besides, studies have proven that individual must be literate in order to function effectively and participate in society.


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ICT to Facilitate Use/Management of Information in National Development ICT in the Education Sector When looking into the key areas of ICT applications, education is the first and best option to influence in development. Literacy can be seen as the key element, and similarly recently acquired “informational capabilities” can act as an means for change for individuals and communities enhancing their abilities to connect with the formal institutions in the economic, political, social and cultural spheres of their life. Nowadays the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), especially Internet in the education sector plays an important role, especially in the process of empowering the technology into the educational activities. The education sector can be the most effective sector to anticipate and eliminate the negative impact of ICT; additionally technology (internet) can be the most effective way to increase the student’s knowledge. Educational authorities should be wise enough in implementing the strategies to empower ICT in supporting the teaching and learning process in the classroom. ICT is seen as not just the bloom of the educational activities, but also it will be the secondary option to improve the effective and meaningful educational process. The current education system in Jamaica is governed by seven strategic objectives. Included in these seven objectives is the PIOJ’s (Planning Institute of Jamaica) declaration to “enhance students learning by the greater use of information and communications technology as preparation for life in the national and global communities” (PIOJ 58). This in itself proposes the

advancement of greater social freedom of information usage by individuals locally and globally using ICT. According to Amartya Kumar Sen in her book Development as Freedom “freedom depends on other determinants, such as social and economic arrangements” (3), she further states as one of these determinants, facilities for education and makes reference to the fact that even though overcoming these issues is central to the development process “freedom of agency that we individually have is inescapably qualified and constrained by the social, political and economic opportunities that are available to us”. It is therefore important that Government as well as other local and international educational bodies consider the availability and implementation of the necessary tools, infrastructure and policies needed to propel growth and usage of ICT within the education sector.


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ICT to Facilitate Use/Management of ICTs and its inclusion in the Jamaica Education System Cont’d from pg. 2 Information in National Development

In the education sector ICT is used as a tool to support, enrich, improve and share information. It enhances course delivery and improves the teaching learning process. Any policy designed by government to improve the education sector must be geared towards lifelong learning and should reflect the ambitious goal of those considered as learners to use ICT in their future professions. Because of the increasing attention being given to the use, access and dissemination of ICT, there has been a gradual change in the way we view education on a whole and the role ICT plays in delivering information within this sector. We see where there is a higher demand for communication technology and its use in transferring knowledge in an educational setting. ICT has brought to the platform a more interactive way of transferring information. With new knowledge we see where information in the classroom can be integrated with technology to provide a more interactive medium for communication, for example using the World Wide Web, it is possible for instructors and students to send and receive instantaneous information on given topics of discussion. We now see the advent of E-learning and distant education becoming more popular. It is worth noting however that this type of information delivery has its challenges, and must be monitored for best practices and credibility. In an article by Petra Fisser titled Reengineering university services to manage ICT in education it is noted that on using ICT in education “it is not the intention to develop towards a virtual university where a student can sit at home, do some courses, "surf" in the electronic environment and then collect their diploma without having seen any instructor or fellow-students”. Emphasis must be placed on social development, and the necessity for direct face-face contact. One must develop and use self discipline and new roles must be assumed for both the instructor and the learner. In the ICT environment both must adapt to changes that will facilitate the use of ICT and further the teaching learning experience for the

The implementation and use of ICT in the educational sector has made a tremendous difference. Currently, schools in Jamaica are utilizing ICT to teach computer studies and information technology at the CXC level as a component of the Business Education programme; it is also being utilized for computer assisted instruction for remediation, numeracy and literacy, for promoting computer literacy, to enhance learning in all subject areas and for research purposes, utilizing software and the Internet. As outlined in the ICT plan for Education for Jamaica, the JCSEF in partnership with the HEART Trust/NTA, the private sector through the Business Partners, and secondary school communities launched the Jamaica 2000 Project. Aiming at establishing a fully equipped fifteen-station computer laboratory in each secondary school, community college and teachers' college and provide inservice training for teachers. The initial aim of the project was to provide opportunities for students of the upper secondary level to pursue computer studies in the CXC examinations enlarging the pool of potential computer professionals. Cont’d on pg. 14

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Jamaica Past, Present and Future: strides in ICT’s advancements By: Adrian St. P. Duncan Fifty years ago, Jamaica had a mere semblance of technological inclusion in citizens’ homes and even workplaces. As a result of the emergence of the information society, information has become a priceless commodity and the most important factor of production and wealth creation. How well an individual, organization or an entire society can harness, access, share and use available information will ultimately decide their ability; to generate, stimulate economic growth and to enhance the quality of life. Additionally, diverse development opportunities have opened up due to the influence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT’s) and Jamaica now has the opportunity of advancing even further into the information age by fully embracing and integrating the powers of ICT’s in every aspect of the development of the Jamaican economy. With a mantra for Jamaica to be the place of choice to live, work, raise families and do business, the Government has been making strides to accomplish this goal and make this dream a reality. To achieve this, Jamaica has developed an information policy that has been taking full advantage of the opportunities offered. However, if a 100% success rate is to be achieved, it will depend heavily on the Government’s ability to integrate and apply such technologies including computers, telephones, television, electronic mail, online retrieval and numerous other multimedia in our day-to-day activities. The usage of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) is widespread and has yielded astounding results in numerous aspects of the country’s holistic development. ICT’s are now impacting on every aspect of the country and its citizenry; they are being used as vehicles for the transportation of goods and services for the development of individuals and the country. Jamaica, 2012, is ranked as the telecommunications hub of the Caribbean and th 24 in the world as the ideal destination for investment and is regarded as one of the most conducive places worldwide, to conduct business. These ratings can be attributed to the boost in the islands telecommunications in-

dustry in the past few years. Additionally, the growth of the mobile telecommunications sector can be credited to the advent of Digicel and Claro as well as the modification of the services offered by the premier provider Cable and Wireless, now LIME. Due to the revamping of the services as well as the additions to and expansion of their networks, the introduction of new services and the adoption of new and emerging technologies; Jamaica is now a leader in Caribbean mobile penetration, 110%, and have been making strides in the connectivity and access segment as they possess a 55% Internet access rate (UNDP 2011). Another milestone in Jamaica’s ICT development was the acquisition by FLOW of a direct undersea fiber-optics connection which connects North and South America. The existence of this high power technology further boosts Jamaica’s development as this places Jamaica on par with first world countries as it relates to connectivity. Moreover, it offers to Jamaica varying broadband affiliated systems and services; including greater and faster connectivity and easier access at competitive rates. Despite numerous setbacks, man-made or natural, Jamaica now has unprecedented broadband access, which is a key requirement for any e-transaction in today’s technologically driven society. Essentially, this means that the island is a prime choice for investment; locally, regionally and internationally. Jamaica’s strategic move to embrace ICT’s has further recorded success in the deployment of E-Government services and is the recorded leader in the Caribbean for the past three years in this area. Our operationalized e-government initiatives span several entities; Customs, National Land Agency, Office of the Register of Companies, Registrar General’s Department, Management Institute for National Development and the Inland Revenue Department. The GoJ is nevertheless committed to advanced service delivery by establishing multi-agency transactions that will be seamlessly delivered to the citizens of Jamaica via a single touch point. The deployment of this e-government service has already seen astonishing results as it helps in the speedy processing of documents as well as yielding over JMD$400 million in revenue since its implementation and creates the environment for numerous online payment services. This development allows for the application/request of various important documents online including birth certificates, registration or reservation of business titles as well as certificates of titles to name a few. *Cont’ d on pg 20



The decline of the sugar industry in an increasingly globalized world through trade liberalization: A Case study of Central Jamaica by Dorlan burrell

The advent of globalization has had varying effects on different countries around the world. In first world countries, globalization have increased the market access of these countries while at the same time limiting the efforts of third world countries in gaining access to such markets. This is very much evident in the sugar cane and banana industries in the Caribbean. In several cases, these industries are forced to close (e.g. sugar cane industry in Trinidad and to a lesser extent the banana industry in Jamaica) as they lack the ability to become more competitive in an increasingly globalized world. The sugar industry in Jamaica has been declining since the 1990’s with very little hope of survival without urgent and significant diversification. Although such diversification has been sought in since 2009 most small scale farmers involved in the industry are still experiencing the effects of trade liberalization through the ‘domino’ effect. In response, a number of small farmers have lost interest in the sugar industry which can be seen in the production levels of small sugar cane farmers from the mid 1990’s. Small farmers are vital to the sugar industry and such harsh effects of trade liberalization can be very devastating for the sugar industry in Jamaica, as small farmers do not have the resources to cope on such competitive levels. *Full Story in the next issue

Big up urself Jamaica……….50th Anniversary

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YAADI CULTURE, FIMI STYLE MAGAZINE ICT to Facilitate Use/Management of Information in National Development

The Trinidad and Tobago education system has a long history using and experimenting with ICT in schools. The Fast-forward project, the Secondary Education Modernization Program (SEMP) and other initiatives currently in process are used as instruments of change, geared towards improving the quality of teaching and learning in schools. The Trinidadian ICT policy points out that “ICT in education would enhance human capacity, dynamize the teaching/learning environment, [they went further to explain that] providing equity and access would create an environment that encourages creativity, critical thinking, and decision-making thus developing an individual capable of finding his place in a technologically driven skills-based economy” . The policy further states that the usage of “Information and Communications Technology is critical to the transformation of the society to ultimately meet the universal requirements of an ever changing global environment”. Evidence through practical experience in the world indicates that investing in ICT consumption might contribute mainly to increasing human and knowledge capital, while investment in ICTs production seems to be a more effective tool for development of the whole society. In both cases ICTs can create new jobs and entrepreneurial opportunities. Social networking has become an integral part of the lives of the rising generation, and so we cannot ignore the impact ICT is having on the way people interact socially. ICT has brought to the forefront of society new networks by which people can share information on their experiences and document for the purpose of information sharing. We see where more and more people are coming into the education system with the knowledge and expertise of using social software as tools of communication. “At least some of these people are looking for the opportunity to use some of these technology applications in parts of their lives related to education and study” .The implication that social networking has on education and social development on a whole is far reaching. It has broken down cultural barriers and strengthens cultural practices. We see where the link between education and ICT usage has through different means such as blogs and e-mails heightened and revolutionize the information sharing process. Furthermore, with the development of the education sector, the long-term application of ICT as a means of accessing and disseminating information will bring with it the furtherance of human development. Sen has reiterated this point in her book, stating that: Expansion of health care, education and social security contribute directly to the quality of life and to its flourishing. There is evidence that even with relatively low income, a country that guarantees health care and education to all can actually achieve remarkable results in terms of the length and quality of life of the entire population (144).


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ICT to Facilitate Use/Management of Information in National Development ICT and National Development Diverse development opportunities “have opened up due to the influence of ICT and developing nations now have the opportunity of leapfrogging into the information age by employing the powers of Information and Communication Technology”. It is now widely accepted that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have an important role in national development. In the development theory framework; ICT tools are used as a “means of achieving something”. ICT is used as a “commodity for supporting development activities and is merely a driver of economy which must be directed by specific development activities”. Sein proposes four different paradigms of ICT in development: functionalism, social relativism, radical structuralism and neo-humanism. The theory went further to conceptualize the role of ICT in development. Sein’s concepts of paradigms, the actors and their paradigmatic assumptions complement his framework by focusing on the volitional and motivational aspects of the actors involved. “ICT represents a hierarchy in that the tool and computational views while essential for understanding the ICT artifact, do not have much developmental impact”. We need to move up from the tool and computational view to the ensemble and ultimately the proxy view, where the proxy view is defined in terms of knowledge creation”. ICT as a tool for development does exist, but not “within a vacuum” and will only be as effective as how it is conceptualized by different government and non-governmental agencies. Knowledge creation is a key means of evaluating ICT projects and any developmental issues proposed by government must be conceptualized and reviewed based on a developmental framework that will articulate best policies and practices for the furtherance of national development. These frameworks may include, but not limited to issues focusing on poverty reduction or meeting millennium development goals and geared towards global issues such as sustainable development for sustainable livelihood, of which education must be given priority. The Jamaican ICT policy on Education outlines that “to compete successfully in a fiercely competitive global economic environment, a highly skilled and educated workforce with aptitude and skills in the application of information and communication technologies in everyday life will be essential” and this is true as societies only flourish if there are skilled and educated individuals in the workforce. But in order for there to be skilled and competent people in the workforce, there has to be a system in place that teaches how to effectively and efficiently manipulate and use ICT for the enhancement of productivity in all sectors. The level of education and training of a society is one of the key indicators used in the UNDP Human development report to determine the level of development of a country. It is therefore imperative that the necessary social, political and economical structure is put in place to support this view of human development.

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Happy Birthday JAMAICA!!


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Hansel Parchment

Name: Hansel Parchment Age: 21 years Home location: Roosters, Taylor Hall. and St Thomas Sport: Track and Field Profession and educational background: Golden Grove Primary, Morant Bay High and Kingston College and the University of the West Indies Years in sport of any kind: 8 years Sports participated in: Football, Cricket (Primary) Years in current sport: 8 years running What got you started: Interest sparked after attending 2nd form Sports Day Other personal information you would like to share: Coincidentally, I was not a fan of Track and Field until that eye-opening day in high school. What is your biggest accomplishment in your sports: Won Gold at the University Games Which one or two things do you currently do in your training that is integral to your success: Strength and flexibility What would be your ultimate achievement: To win a world record. How do you set your goals: Well based on the event coming up I would make my goals based on where I’d like to be.


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What is your biggest challenge, and what do you do to manage this challenge: Biggest challenge is to balance school and training as well resting, which is pertinent. What is your diet like: Isn’t the best really, not balanced but sufficient. What 1-2 things do you believe differentiates you from your contemporaries who have tailed off in their athletic participation and abilities: I believe determination and strong will to achieve. Do you have any recommended resources to share (books, seminars, websites and coaches): Well I could recommend my coach, Fitz Coleman. Have you experienced a breakthrough, and if so, what led to it: I don’t believe I have got to the point of breakthrough as yet. What was the best advice you were ever given: keep humble and focused. Do you have a saying or motto that you live your life by: Don’t have a saying but always tell myself that I’ll keep determined and focused on my task. Where do you draw your inspiration from: Inspired by the great athletes of our time; Usain Bolt, Asafa Powell and Dayron Robles. Noting, however, that his favorite is Robles. How many times in the last year have you been to see a physician, and why (only what you’re comfortable sharing): Seen the doctor twice for basic check up. Anything else you’d like to share: Track and Field is a great Sport and God’s willing I would like to take this to the top as well as help persons foster their own development while doing this. Why did you come into sports: Came into the sport after seeing the eye opening 100m event at sports day while attending Morant Bay High. In 2nd form at the time.

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Jamaica Past, Present and Future: strides in ICT’s advancements cont’d fr. pg 12 Information technology and ICTs are great enablers as they provide for those who have access to it; an extension of their powers of perception, comprehension, analysis, thought, concentration and articulation through a wide range of activities that include: writing, visual image, music, simulation and communication. It is clear that the Jamaican Government has realized the importance of ICT’s and its ability to foster social and economic advancement. The Minister of State in the Ministry of Science, Technology, Energy and Mining, Hon. Julian Robinson recently announced that the government will be further committed to the development of the ICT sector. He further noted that there will be several institutions implemented to improve access, training and the country’s global ranking in the industry as it currently stands at 73rd on the Global Network Readiness Index, which attests to a country’s environment, usage and readiness and 7th on the ITU Digital Access Index; which points to infrastructure, knowledge, quality as well as usage. Embracing the facts, he outlined that in today’s ultra-connected world, there is no better way for the country to prepare its people than by educating and training them in ICT’s. It is wonderful as the Jamaican government has recognized the potential of ICT’s as a great enabler and equalizer in today’s technologically driven world and states that we cannot capitalize on technological advancements unless citizens possess the skills needed to compete globally. In the Jamaica that we know and love, agriculture is an important sector with majority of the rural population and other parishes on the island depending on it. The sector faces major challenges of enhancing production in a situation of dwindling natural resources necessary for production. The growing demand for agricultural products offers opportunities for producers to sustain and improve their livelihoods. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT’s) play an important role in addressing these challenges and uplifting the livelihoods of the rural populace. There is evidence of strides in this sector’s development. Numerous individuals, myself included, have written on this area’s development, as a result, a group of students from the University of Technology Jamaica, have developed an application for farmers to establish a network for internal communication of agricultural information. This is a postulation that I made in an earlier article, “ICTs for a better Jamaica” and I am happy that it is bearing fruit, which will foster development of the sector in years to come. Current trends prove that mobile communication is having a profound impact on individuals; especially those in the rural and inner city communities. The mobility, ease of use, flexibility in deployment and relatively low cost of this wireless technology has proven beneficial to persons with lower level income and literacy. The agricultural sector is confronted with the major challenge of increasing production to feed a growing and increasingly demanding population in a situation of decreasing availability of natural resources. Factors of particular concern are water shortages, declining soil fertility, effects of climate change and rapid decrease of fertile agricultural lands due to urbanization. However, the growing demand, including for higher quality products, also offers opportunities for improving the livelihoods of rural communities. An important use of mobile phones by the Ministry of Agriculture and farmers can be for their use in accessing and imparting market information. This can be done through the careful establishment of networks between farmers, the Ministry and Agricultural agencies. Through careful facilitation by a telecommunications service provider, this platform can allow consumers to sign up for Short Messaging Services (SMS) alerts for commodities and markets of their choice and receive instant alerts for offers to buy and sell when anyone else on the network has submitted an offer. Networks like these can form the basis on which the stabilization of the Jamaican Agricultural Market can be done; using these networks allows for easier stabilization of the prices of commodities reducing disparities on the parish level and ultimately, on a National Level. Access to market information through mobile telephony will allow for faster response to market demands and helps in the increasing of profits.


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Jamaica Past, Present and Future: strides in ICT’s advancements cont’d The application of ICT in Jamaican education could have miraculous national, regional and even international effects in the context of alternatives to overcome current inequalities. For Caribbean countries, ICTs have the potential for increasing access to. as well as. improve the relevance and quality of education. ICTs can greatly facilitate the acquisition and absorption of knowledge, offering Jamaicans and other Caribbean Nationals unprecedented opportunities, both formally and informally, to previously underserved constituencies, scattered and rural populations, groups traditionally excluded from education due to cultural or social reasons such as girls and women, persons with disabilities and the elderly; as well as for reason of cost or simply because of time constraints are unable to enroll on campus. It is important to promote and facilitate awareness and lobby activities by Jamaican practitioners with expertise in ICT and education. Despite the enormous progress made during the last decade, there is still a general lack of awareness among policymakers, particularly concerning the developmental aspects of ICT in the education sector. A long-term vision with regard to integrating ICT in Jamaican education is a clear necessity in order to provide guidance and motivation to enthusiastic early adopters and other stakeholders. In Jamaica, there is a highprofile, public-private initiative that was launched in February 2006, with the aim of providing solutions to the growing number of the island’s secondary school students graduating without the necessary work-related technology skills; by building partnerships between the public and private sector to fund ICT programmes in schools’. Additionally, the Jamaica Library Service in collaboration with telecommunications giant, LIME fulfilling its goal “to achieve universal access to information and knowledge” has also implemented a nationwide Internet access service; where persons can have Internet access in any public library across the island for a maximum of thirty (30) minutes in one sitting. The provision of access to computers and the Internet free of charge is a direct result of the Jamaica Library Service’s and the Government of Jamaica's commitment to achieving for its citizens equal access to all information resources; especially for those unable to access these resources from home due to lack of infrastructure, as well as those needing assistance accessing the resource. This will result in the development of individuals, communities and ultimately the literacy rate of the country; preparing Jamaicans to take their place in the emerging global environment. By: Adrian St. P. Duncan

‘A life is not live unless it is lived for others’


Yaadi Culture, Fimi Style Magazine is a socially endorsed magazine that tackles social, economical, political and technical issues affecting the country. Yaadi Culture, Fimi Style will through, scholastic research, aid in the sparking of debates, implementation of policies as well as help to foster developmental changes in the Jamaican Diaspora. Yaadi Culture, Fimi Style Magazine will be analyzing issues, from a pin to an anchor, in all fields of development; Technology, Governance, Policy Making, Librarianship, Sports, Entertainment, Telecommunications as well as politics, Science and Religion. The chief audience for the Yaadi Culture, Fimi Style will be movers and shakers, the average "Joe" and "Jane" of the Jamaican Society as well as the intellectually empowered students of the Jamaican Diaspora. Furthermore, the Yaadi Culture, Fimi Style Magazine will be aiding in the fight for ICT's to be integrated within the Jamaican Society and will be utilizing the services of its Website, Face Book Fan page, Twitter Account, LinkedIn, BlackBerry Messenger and Blog for the dissemination of on time information to its valued readers. ©

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http:// yaadiculturefimistyleja.

Yaadi Culture, Fimi Style Magazine  
Yaadi Culture, Fimi Style Magazine  

Yaadi Culture, Fimi Style Magazine will be analyzing issues, from a pin to an anchor, in all fields of development; Technology, Governance,...