O F I
R O O TIAN E IN
ϯTHROUGHLINES & SONGLINES
2017 Winter Term Studio Project
2016 Fall Term Studio Project
ϮINDETERMINED S A
2017 Fall Term Studio Project (Team Work)
A MOMENT OF COMMUNICATION A DIALOG BETWEEN LANDSCAPES
2 The studio project is focused on the idea of landscape change in the Okanagan Valley, beginning with a series of investigations that begin at the scale of the region and end at the scale of the site.
â€œCodingâ€? the ecologies of the region. In part 1 of the project I am developing the interpretation of the region through an investigation of maps, reveal more than what is actually there, but the regional variation, process, and natures of change.
Basic introduction of The Okanagan Valley The Okanagan Valley is roughly 200 km long and 20 km wide. It lies between the Columbia and Cascade mountain ranges in southcentral British Columbia. Its landscape of low hills and oblong lakes ZDVIRUPHGE\JODFLDODFWLYLW\GXULQJWKH3OHLVWRFHQHHSRFKWKHĂ€QDO retreat of the ice between 11,000 and 9,000 years ago.2
The history of The Okanagan Lake The glaciers left large deposits of gravel, silt, and sand on the bottom and sides of the valley. These sediments were eroded by water and wind, resulting in large alluvial fans (i.e., triangle-shaped deposits of sediment) and deltas such as those on which the cities of Vernon, Kelowna and Penticton partly stand; these sediments are now used for agriculture. The valley includes several lakes, all of which were once part of a large glacial lake. The largest of these lakes is Okanagan Lake. From east to west are Swan, Kalamalka and Wood lakes and to the south lie Skaha, Vaseux and Osoyoos lakes. The whole system drains south through the Okanagan River into the Columbia River.3
Wetland 84% of low elevation wetlands in the Okanagan and lower Similkameen valleys were lost between 1800 and 2003. A second study of low elevation wetlands in the Okanagan Basin indicates a 38% loss of wetlands between 1988 and 2010.4
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Lake size & shoreline The reasons for lake contraction DUHDUWLĂ€FLDOFRQVWUXFWLRQDQG precipitation. The construction includes bridge, houses, farmland, and illegal docks. Since the nineties, annual rates of precipitation have decreased by100 mm. In addition, a comprehensive report about the lakeâ€™s shoreline was completed in 2013, and the
results are alarming. The report reveals that 57% of the shoreline has been developed to various degrees; that means only 43% of the shoreline has been untouched. Carolina RestrepoTamayo of the Okanagan Collaborative Conservation Program says there has been a rate of change of up to 2% every year. Anna Warwick
Sears from Okanagan Basin Water Board says if this rate of change continues, almost all the shoreline of Okanagan Lake will be lost within one generation. Due to the lake expansion area is the edge of detachment zone, the detachment fault pushes the lake larger and shallower.1
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Swan Lake Swan Lake 22
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Grassland ecosystem Grasslands commonly occur on sites that are amenable to development (both for agriculture and housing). The grassland area shows on the map had already been lost for urban development. Grasslands
are recognized as one of British Columbiaâ€™s most threatened ecosystems. Only 8% of the grasslands in the province are protected. About 1/3 of B.C.â€™s threatened and endangered species are reliant on grasslands.
Grasslands have many important traditional use plants for First Nation peoples. Therefore, destruction of grasslands will LQĂ XHQFHWKHFXOWXUHRI)LUVW Nation peoples.5
A forest plays a big role in maintaining and improving water quality. Thus it is an important regulator of hydrological processes, especially those involving groundwater hydrology and local evaporation and rainfall/snowfall patterns. A
reduction in forests is bad for tackle climate change and extreme weather. Perhaps, more importantly, duff layer and leaf litter can form a major repository of water storage. When this litter is removed or compacted, HURVLRQDQGĂ RRGLQJDUH
exacerbated as well as deprivation of dry season water for forest organisms. And the destruction of forests will increase WKHULVNRIZLOGĂ€UH,QIDFWIRUHVW Ă€UHVEHFRPHPRUHIUHTXHQWDIWHU 2000.6
Temporal Ecologies: â€œA Sense of Place: A Sense of timeâ€?. In part 2 of the project, I carefully examine how culture and other ecologies interwine, and how they operate.
What I focus on is how the city and natural ecosystem work. And avoid understanding these ecosystems separately and oppositely, prevent create a sense of â€œeither this or that.â€? :KDW,DPWU\LQJWRGRĂ€UVWLVunderstand the ecosystems as a whole by a perceptual way1RWRQO\IRFXVRQDVSHFLĂ€FRQH side or one body but the relationships of connected things.
EÄ‚ĆšĆľĆŒÄ‚ĹŻÄ?Ĺ˝Ć?Ç‡Ć?ĆšÄžĹľ/ĹŻĹŻĆľĆ?ĆšĆŒÄ‚Ć&#x;Ĺ˝ĹśÍ— 7KHĂ€UVWLOOXVWUDWLRQLVWKHQDWXUDO ecosystem map. It include the informations of topography, wetlands, VWRUPZDWHUĂ RZVDQGYHJHWDWLRQ pattern outside of the city edge. The HGJHRI.HORZQDLVGHĂ€QHGE\WKH FRQWRXUOLQHV7KHVWRUPZDWHUĂ RZVDQG WRSRJUDSK\VKRZWKHĂ€QDOGHVWLQDWLRQ of rainwater and the watershed. Besides, the watershed also shows its relationship with the wetland.
Precipitation 1992-1996: 429.9
1997-2001: 378.32 2002-2006: 346.68 2007-2011: 280.58 2012-2016: 281.2
Main plants species: Trees:
Douglas Fir Red Ceder Hemlock Trembling Aspen Ponderosa Pine
Common Snowberry Nootka rose Roses Saskatoon Bluebunch Wheatgrass Arrowleaf Balsamroot Rough Fescue Large Rushes Pinegrass
Types of Precipitation:7 51% light rain 23% light snow 9% moderate rain 5% moderate snow 4% thunderstorm 3% drizzle 2% heavy rain 2% heavy snow
Rainwater Flows & Snow Melt Water Flows Wetlands Area
How landscapes are measured? How landscapes are valued? The method we measured and valued landscape before is often one-sided. It means we did not calculate the natural ecosystems as the part of urban HFRV\VWHPEHQHĂ€WV7KHUHIRUHZKDW,WU\LQJWRGRLVFRPSDUHWKHVHWZRW\SHVRI HFRV\VWHPVĂ€QGWKHZD\RIFRPPHQVDOLVPDQGDOOZLQ,IWKHODQGVFDSHFDQQRW talk, we have to change our position and attitude. To achieve a balance and sustainable development. Due to the city is growing, what I more focused on is the edge of Kelowna. The new edge of the city has more chances to change the current mode of growth, it breeds the possibility of transformation.
Urban Ecosystem Illustration: The second illustration is the city ecosystem map.It includes the informations of topography, streets, wetland, building groups, and the vegetation pattern outside of the city edge. The edge of Kelowna which based RQDUWLĂ€FLDOGLYLVLRQ&RPSDUHZLWKWKHĂ€UVW illustration, the edge of Kelowna seems unreasonable. The streets are distributed based on the topography(Low-lying). And the construction of buildings is based on land use and street distribution.
2006: 44,910 2001: 40,045
Edge City The farmlands and urban divide the city of Kelowna. It leads to the effect of â€œEdge City.â€? â€œEdge Cityâ€? is an American term for a concentration of business, shopping, and entertainment outside a traditional downtown (or central business district) in what had previously been a residential or rural area. Usually, the â€œEdge Cityâ€? is a temporary phenomenon, it is a process of urban breeding and very similar to cell division.8
Wetlands Area Building Density & Building Distribution Streets Distribution
Everything singing. In part 3 of the project, I am trying to reveal the interacting and interdependent components that make XSWKHODQGVFDSHWKURXJKWKHFDVHVWXG\0RUHVSHFLĂ€FDOO\WKLVLVDERXWKRZWKHODQGVFDSHVZRUN
Framed farmland, and provide better views, enhance the communication between farmland and people.
Encourage walking and biking, the passageway between urban, farmland, and mountainous region
The stair structure reserve rainwater. Water can be used for farm irrigation and enhance the quality of urban landscape.
The core idea of hand planning in Copenhagen is to build urban and street upon the hills and highlands, leaving WKHORZO\LQJDUHDIRUYHJHWDWLRQ7KHEHQHĂ€WLVXVLQJ YHJHWDWLRQDVDĂ€OWHUWRFOHDQUDLQZDWHUWKDWĂ RZVWKURXJK the urban area. Due to the vegetative belts between the urban conditions and the river, planners can ensure the UDLQZDWHULVFOHDQEHIRUHĂ RZLQJLQWRWKHULYHU9
Traditionally, people only think about the hand planning from the viewpoint of the city. However, on the other hand, there has another â€œhandâ€? from the viewpoint of nature(outside of the city), these two ecosystems merged WRJHWKHUWLJKWO\MXVWOLNHPHVKHGĂ€QJHUV,EHOLHYHWKLVLGHD can provide a new way of thinking urban development.
The concept of this vision comes from Leduâ€™s construction of â€˜Sponge cityâ€™
In this vision, I created a dynamic urban park by incorporating the agricultural strategy of FURSURWDWLRQDQGDORZPDLQWHQDQFHPHDGRZ$QHOHYDWHGĂ RDWLQJQHWZRUNRISHGHVWULDQ paths, platforms and pavilions create a visual frame for this cultivated swathe and the natural features of the terrain and water. With the help of these strategies, a deserted mismanaged landscape was dramatically transformed into a productive and beautiful setting for urban living And preserving the natural and cultural patterns of the site at the same time. The ideas such as agricultural urbanism, productive landscape, minimum intervention, performative landscape, etc. are integrated into the landscape transformation strategy of â€œquilting terrainâ€?.
Woody plants sourranding pond: clean and remain rainwater. Stage topography, divided land, create water Ă RZVUHXVHWKHH[WUDZDWHU from upper land.
Riverside wetland and SRQGXVHGIRULQĂ€OWUDWLRQ VWRUDJHSXULĂ€FDWLRQ irrigation reuse.
Farmland: enhance runoff permeability, sustainable development of economy and agriculture.
The concept comes from the project of LUMING park from China.
The vision shows the special stair topography on the site, in order to achieve the idea of â€œSponge cityâ€?. I use depressions to store excess rainwater, the depressions are all close to farmlands for irrigation, therefore it is more economically and more reasonably. And the woody plants around ponds can remain and clean water.
The vision shows the relationship between topography and urban property. It including WKHGHQVLW\RIGZHOOLQJVZRRG\SODQWVJUHHQVSDFHDQGGLVWULEXWLRQRIWUDIÃ€F7KH SRVLWLRQRIWKHXUEDQDUHDDQGJUHHQVSDFHVKRZVKRZSODQWVZRUNDVDÃ€OWHUWRFOHDQ rainwater that goes through the city from the mountain to low-lying areas.
Idea of The Hand Plan Based on my analysis of Kelowna’s boundary and the hand-shaped plan of Copenhagen, I am drawing a similar map for the city of Kelowna to compare with the map of Copenhagen. In Kelowna, the main highways are built along the lowland areas but not upland areas. But fortunately, Kelowna is a young city and has the great potential to improve. Vegetation can protect and enhance the resilience ability of wetland, act as a buffer strip to clean UDLQZDWHUEHIRUHÁRZVLQWR the wetland.
Walkway encorage people walk through, and enjoy the landscape, create ecological and economic value for citizens.
Existing wetland and DUWLÀFLDOZHWODQGLPSURYHWKH water resilient ability for Kelowna, help to the preservation of biodiversity, improving hydrological characteristics of the city.
The concept comes from the Qunli Stormwater Park in China.
The vision shows the relationship between urban, mountain, and green space. As you can see, the green space is built in the depression of urban area with a certain scale. The large size of green space ensures a more stable and stronger water storage subsystem. It can protect the existing wetland, the same time, the walkways inside it allow people enjoy the space by experience. Also, the big water-resilient green space becomes a patch and attract animals, to achieve ecological optimization.
Context The site I choose for my project is located at the city’s edge. It is next to a cliff, beside residential area and farmlands. As you can see, it is a complex and mixed-use district, which is connected to my case studies -- connectivity between different zones. It is close to the 33 highway, which is the optimum development direction at Kelowna. 7KHWRSRJUDSK\DORQJLWLVÁDWWHUDQGEURDGHUVRWKDWLWFDQSURYLGHDQ appropriate region for urban growth.
Projective Ecologies: The Agency of Design. Part 4 of the project involves a design study engaged through ecological narratives. It is an attempt to evoke ecology as a metaphor, guideline, model, or perspective on nature.
The Tributary of Okanagan Lake
Concept The concept of my project is the connectivity between farmland, residential area, and natural scenery. Function The water square can collect rainwater to enhance hydrological landscapes and use for irrigation. The lower water square can catch the runoff from the upper one.
Form The form of the project comes from farmland and water HOHPHQWWKHĂ RZLQJZDWHUJLYHVWKHÂ´IDUPODQGVÂ´DVHQVH RIG\QDPLF7KHSDWKOHDGVWKHDUWLĂ€FLDOODQGVFDSHWRWKH QDWXUDOFOLII7KHLGHDRIFRQQHFWLYLW\UHĂ HFWHGLQHYHU\ZKHUH not just within different landscapes, but also different culture between the city, countryside, and natural landscape.
Structure The project can divide into two parts: pathway and water square. The starting point of the pathway is next to the farmland, and ends up at the edge of the cliff; the water squares are built along the pathway, the height of the typography create levels and views. The shape of the water squares is straight lines intersecting at different angles. The shape and angles are all come from the form of the farmland.
The project creates a sense of dialogue with farmlands. The pathway which ends up at the edge of the cliff creates a bridge between the urban area and natural cliff. It providing a sense of the sublime, includes a sense of fear and a sense of pleasure.
This picture shows the project from low to high. In this perspective, the water element has been hidden, the interlaced geometry cement structure creates a sense of ceremony and solemn. In addition, the huge and increasing levels can attract people climbing and see the landscape behind it. The undulating path gives increased contrast and dramatic effects, and inspire the desire of walk.
This picture shows the project from high to low. In this perspective, the water element start appear. The irregular distribution of water pools creates a drama of the landscape, and inspire peopleâ€™s desire for exploration.
This picture shows the project from high to low(look at the front horizontal). In this perspective, we can clearly see the scale of the project and people. The relationship between the wild animal and people shows my ambition of design, which is breaking anthropocentrism. To me, it is not only about equal and share, but also about use and integration of ecological resources.
INDETERMINATE S A ES MOMENT T
ITH REA H S
17 The studio project is focused on speculative design drawings for the eviscerated landscape transformation and its ‘rehabilitation’ are the goals of the design studio. Within one term we are required to think - Is it really possible or even desirable to rehabilitate this landscape? - What might be the visual forms the newly emerging landscape take? - Does the new landscape offer practical uses? - Which aesthetic-formal positions are available to us in this process?
The site I intervene is an abandoned quarry adjacent to Stony Mountain(a small community in Manitoba), whose shape has been an attribute to many events happened in the past. It means all the environmental and natural disaster and also human intrusions have made incessant change to this land.
Looking at the current landscape, one can see a free land with a variety of options to offer such as hunting, fossils and enjoying the view while sitting on the cliffs. That is to say, this is a land on which people can be creative in choosing their activities. A future intervention can be to keep this place undetermined by determining public places allowing for equal access and equal representation or a high degree of social and cultural inclusion.
Exploring the history of the quarry. In part 1 of the project, I am understanding the region through its historic character and geomorphology. I roughly divided the land into four main periods, they are the Ordovician period, Glacier period, Tallgrass Prairie period, and Mining period. The pictures concise the characteristics of different historical periods.
The Glacial period
After discovering the near-surface limestone bedrock, people started mining this golden material to build their cities. The limestone is a sedimentary rock composed of Ordovician sea creatures shells and the chemical precipitate. Today, approximately 22% of the 2900 hectares Rockwood quarry area have been disturbed by mining. That is one of the crucial reasons behind the creation of many cliffs, terraces, grassland, shrubland, forest and desert-like land.10
During the late Ordovician, a series of glacial periods led to a mass extinction. This ZDVWKHEHJLQQLQJRIWKHÂ´ELJĂ€YHÂľH[WLQFWLRQVRIWKH3KDQHUR]RLFWKDWFDXVHG devastation of diverse marine ecosystems. Over a past million years, we had 5 glaciations, 2 lm of ice was going around to the top of Stone Mountain. Limestone was a surviving material which protected Stone Mountain from the previous glaciation.12
Tallgrass Prairie period
The Ordovician period
After the glacier, the Ordovician landscape converted into a prairie landscape which was caused by the deposition of parent material, (parent material is the soil in the form of unsorted sediment.) about 10,000 years ago. Consequently, deep levels of topsoil were a result of wind-dropped loess and organic matter accumulation. Animals such as bison, elk, deer, and rabbits added nitrogen to the soil through urine and feces. For 5,000 to 8,000 years, more than 240 million acres of prairie grasslands were a major feature of the landscape. Bison, livestock grazing, and cultivation breached tallgrass root systems, interrupted reproduction and ultimately led to collapsing prairies.11
Lasted 42 million years, from 485 to 443 million years ago, it was proceeded by the Cambrian period and followed by the Silurian. The biodiversity of the Paleozoic was at one of its highest points in the Ordovician. The early Ordovician was possibly dominated by the trilobites in a way that they were FRQVLGHUHGWKHDSH[FUHDWXUHVRIWKHHUD7KHUHLVDOVRHYLGHQFHWKDWWKHĂ€UVWZLGHO\RFFXUULQJ FRUDOVVHDVWDUVRUWKRSHGLFVDQGDOVRVRPHRIWKHĂ€UVWODQGSODQWVOLYHGGXULQJWKLVWLPH'XULQJWKLV period Stone Mountain was below the sea levels and everything. During this period Stony Mountain was below the sea level and everything here was marine sediments deposited at the bottom of an ocean 400 million years old.13
Red Pond :KHQ\RXIROORZWKHFRQFUHWHFXEHV\RXZLOOĂ€QG\RXUVHOIZDONLQJ over a pond which leads you to a small forest. This design represents the landscape which was form as a result of mining showing the ponds and vegetation created on the land. The design helps people to have an open view of their surroundings when people walking over the pond. As time passes the grasses grow, limiting your vision and that would create a whole different walking experience.
In part 2 of the project, I decided to use time as the design theme, all WKHFRQVWUXFWLRQVUHĂ HFWWKHXQLTXHODQGVFDSHFKDUDFWHULVWLFVGXULQJ WKHVSHFLĂ€FSHULRG$WWKHVDPHWLPHWKHGHVLJQJLYHVWKHDEDQGRQHG quarry a new meaning and experience for people. Itâ€™s more of an enlightenment, which is an integrally and timelessly perspective.
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Exploded Terraces Having the cliff at the entrance as a result of mining, gave me the idea of building a structure which illustrates the changes in the land. I decided to have concrete cubes in different sizes concentrated on the cliff and then distribute them to the abandoned quarry. So we can simplify the explosion needed to excavate limestone from the land. We chose concrete as our material, as it is a product of the limestone, and it also creates a pleasant contrast between the structures and the landscape itself.
The Glacier Garden and The Icebound Bridge For these two design, we recreated a landscape of Glacier period by using concrete. For the Glacier Garden, I designed the broken playful stages on the ground to imitate the characteristics of a glacier. In order to attract people to explore and play. For the Icebound Bridge, I created a concrete tunnel with arches and provide people a kind of illusion of walking through the ice tunnel.
The Ordovician Garden There is a large cliff behind the construction with a very special shade RIUHGGLVKSXUSOHZKHUH\RXZRXOGÀQGKXQGUHGVRIIRVVLOV7KHGHVLJQ is focused on the fossils as the main characteristic of this site. I came up with the idea of building the concrete structure which would frame in a part of the cliff and would draw people’s attention to the fossils. The design encourages people to collect fossils, and help SHRSOHUHGHÀQHWKHPHDQLQJRIZDVWHODQGDEDQGRQHGODQG
5HÁHFWLRQRI7KH3DVW For the last part of the project, I focused on the present. To make a division within the past and the present which decided to switch the material from concrete to mirror. The reason I choose DPLUURUDVWKHPDLQPDWHULDOLVEHFDXVHRXUSUHVHQWLVDUHÁHFWLRQRIWKHSDVW7KHVPDOOVHPL closed structure can provide a different sense of space compared with the open quarry.
Rosybloom Garden In this design, I decided to have a semi-enclosed public small garden, to achieve more possibilities of human activities. The cliff inside the garden divided the space into WZROHYHOVDQGFRQQHFWHGWKURXJKVWDLUV7KHĂ DWDUFKHVFDQJLYHSHRSOHDVHQVHRI ceremony and lead people to the higher level, where they would be able to observe the whole site. In addition, the garden planted some Rosybloom Crabapples with concrete planters, in order to provide shade, sounds, creature, and a sense of sublime.
Exploring the Nature of Eviscerated Landscapes, know the history of a landscape, and give the landscape a new vitality. At the same time, pay attention to aesthetic and poetic dimensions as well as functional and technical aspects of landscape design.
This picture is a collage, the structures are all come from the real project design, but I express humans’ imagination, and expanded humans’ DFWLRQ,WUHÁHFWVSHRSOH·VIUHHZLOOXQGHUWKHLQGHWHUPLQDWHVSDFHV Of course, the charm of indeterminate space is not just about action, but also the imagined vision of the land history. The prehistoric marine animal and ancient ocean are waking people’s memory of this land.
This collage shows the different understanding of creatures on the same land. Behavioral extensibility, and exploratory are the core idea of indeterminate spaces.
The prehistoric marine animal stand for people’s vision and imagination of the Ordovician period. It breaks the limitation of time and space. It is the interaction of the Glacier Garden and people vision. The memory of land has been rediscovered.
33 29 Rosybloom Garden
this collage shows people’s interaction of actual behavior and imagination.
THROUGHLINES & SONGLINES THE STORIES OF BAKKEN UNDER OIL BOOM
31 The studio project is focused on is the region of Bakken, including parts of Montana, North Dakota, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. As technology advances, horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing make extract shale oil beginnings possible, the oil boom started. People crowded into there to get jobs and make money, due to the Inadequate infrastructure and industrial pollution, the living environment of resident get rapidly worse, the contradiction between industry and environment LQWHQVLĂ€HVGD\E\GD\%DVHRQWKLVEDFNJURXQGZKDW,QHHGWRGRLVWU\WRĂ€QGDQG understand the logic behind the tragedy, get my own way to treat this event.
Canada Saskatoon Montana
The sequences involve the mapping of the network and infrastructure element relevant to fracking in the Bakken region. The place I focus on is the province of North Dakota, due to the railway throughout the whole Bakken area, and crosses the whole province from east to west. Therefore it can show the differences between city development method compare with a traditional city. The elements I focus on is transportation, economy, oil well, population, and water resources.
Shootings As of 2013, the Bakken was the
Minot: In 2015 August, a series of shootings events happened in the city -- including a very public incident at an Applebeeâ€™s UHVWDXUDQWHDUOLHUWKLVPRQWKZKHQVKRWVZHUHĂ€UHGĂ€UVWLQVLGHDQG then also in the parking lot in broad daylight. Another shooting and stabbing in the middle of the afternoon Wednesday on the north side of the city resulted in three people showing up at the Trinity Hospital emergency room for gunshot or knife wounds DQGFKDUJHVEHLQJĂ€OHGODWHULQWKHGD\DJDLQVWWZRRIWKH men. The latest shooting incident was reported just after 3 p.m. Wednesday when police were dispatched to the 500 block of 9th St. NE for a report of gunshots.22
source of more than ten percent of all US oil production.16
Lac-MĂŠgantic runaway train On the evening of July 5, 2013, at about 10:50 p.m., a Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway (MMA) train arrived at Nantes, Quebec, carrying 7.7 million liters of petroleum crude oil in 72 Class 111 tank cars. Originating in New Town, North Dakota, these were bound for Saint John, New Brunswick. After the train derailment, almost all of the 63 derailed tank cars were damaged, and many had large breaches. About six million OLWHUVRISHWUROHXPFUXGHRLOZDVTXLFNO\UHOHDVHG7KHĂ€UHEHJDQ almost immediately, and the ensuing blaze and explosions left 47 people dead. Another 2000 people were forced from their homes, and much of the downtown core was destroyed.15
The Bakken rig count dropped about 60% over the year ending in October 2015 in response to the collapsing price of oil, while the new-well (initial) oil production per rig increased by 40%, both apparently
plateauing at that time.23
Labor Force Sidney: In 2003 October, due to the oil boom, a large number of workers are attracted to the oil industry, Local businesses DUHXQDEOHWRĂ€QGZRUNHUV(YHQDIWHUDQH[SHQVLYHDGYHUWLVLQJ SURJUDPWRĂ€OORXWKLVVHDVRQDOZRUNIRUFH6LGQH\6XJDUV,QFÂˇV general manager, David Garland, has fewer employees than he needs to process sugar beets from October through February. 'XULQJWKHVHĂ€YHPRQWKVSHRSOHZRUNDWWKHIDFWRU\24
Murder in Willston: In January 2012, when a school teacher out for a predawn jog in Sidney, Montana was abducted, killed and buried by the side of a highway. Two Colorado men searching for work in the oilpatch were later charged with her murder.17
The US imported 52% of its oil in 2011, down
from 65% in the past.18
In 2009, the global economy recovery, include the bakken region, oil price start rebounded.19
Due to the subprime crisis in America, in 2008, it gradually evolved into a JOREDOĂ€QDQFLDOFULVLV20
7KHVXESULPHFULVLVLQĂ XHQFHGWKH oil investment of Bakken in some way, but it did not bring a big change to the entire oil industry.21
In the part 1 of the project, I have done a research of peopleâ€™s life change under the oil boom in Bakken region during 2001 to 2015. It include digital data and representative event.
These four line charts show the income and increasing housing unit situation in New Town(oil boom growth method city) and Williston(traditional growth method city), from the data, it is obvious, after oil boom the income gap between the two FLWLHVDFWXDOO\EHFRPHELJJHUDQGWKHLQFUHDVLQJKRXVLQJXQLWDOPRVWĂ DWWKLV proves the oil boom city actually not growth quicker than traditional city, on the contrary, the crime rate in Newtown is 5 times than Williston.28
Due to farmers overuse the water in Missouri 5LYHUWKHZDWHUĂ RZZDVGHFUHDVHSHUFHQW in the past, and still get worse, in order to solve the problem, the government build Garrison 'DPLQGRZQVWUHDPWKHUHIRUHWKHZDWHUĂ RZULVH suddenly, and inundated towns and the land which belongs to the aboriginal people.31
In the part 2 of the project, I focus on the deeper reason and impacts of the oil boom tragedy, which is the aspects of politics and economy.
Governor Jack Dalrymple approved all Stripper Well on the spacing unit, thereâ€™s an oil extraction tax exemption (or reduction) that probably kicks in for the entire spacing unit, regardless of how intensely productive the rest of the fracked wells on the mega-unit are.33
On May 10, 2016, a site run by Denbury Onshore LLC in southwestern North Dakota has spilled more than 120,000 gallons of oil and wastewater into pastureland after a mechanical failure. Some estimated 17,000 gallons of oil and 105,000 gallons of drilling wastewater containing saltwater and chemicals leaked into pastureland near the city of Marmarth when a tank sensor failed. Workers were excavating the affected pastureland, which LVEHLQJHTXDWHGWRWKHVL]HRIDIRRWEDOOĂ€HOG 36
Little Missouri State Park
The unit square shows where the story happened, it is located in Dunn County(the south of the Lost Bridge area), and include the Little Missouri State Park, which is a patchwork of private, state and federal land beloved for its rugged trails. In 2010, Governor Jack Dalrymple, Attorney General Wayne Stenehjem and Ag Commissioner Doug Goehring approved the creation of an unprecedented oil development â€œspacing unitâ€?, which is the mega-unit, each unit is one square mile, and the reason is simply that it is easy to grabbing land.29
North Dakotaâ€™s earliest industries were fur trading and agriculture. Although less than 10% of the population is employed in the agricultural sector, it remains a major part of the stateâ€™s economy, ranking 9th in the nation in the value of crops and 18th in total value of agricultural products sold. Large farms generate the most crops. North Dakota has about 90% of its land area in farms with 27,500,000 acres (111,000 km2) of cropland, the third-largest amount in the nation. Between 2002 and 2007, total cropland increased by about one million acres (4,000 km2), the only state showing an increase.30
According to the EPA, in 2007 the amount of pollution dumped into the Missouri River within the boundaries of the state totaled over 11,000 pounds. The pollution from construction and development has decreased the number RIĂ€VKDYDLODEOHIRUĂ€VKHUPHQDQGDVDUHVXOW FRPPHUFLDOĂ€VKLQJKDUYHVWVRQ0LVVRXUL5LYHU have decreased by up to 80%.34
On 23 January 2015, nearly 3 million gallons of saltwater and as yet unknown amount of crude oil have leaked from a northwest North Dakota pipeline into a creek that feeds into the Missouri 5LYHU2IĂ€FLDOVKDYHFDOOHGWKHOHDNWKHODUJHVWRI its kind in state history.32
The progress of the State Industrial Commissionâ€™s administrative hearing process on the approval of the Corral Creek Bakken Unit, as it â€œcoincidesâ€? with campaign contributions received by Jack Dalrymple, each of these â€œcampaign donorsâ€? have their mineral interests, nearly $82,000 in campaign contributions to Jack Dalrymple as he pushed a lucrative administrative proceeding DORQJWREHQHĂ€WVRPHRIKLVRLOLQGXVWU\GRQRUV 35
Tree Grass land Lake Oil well
Reference 1. CHBC News. (2011, June 13). Retrieved from http://www.obwb.ca/newsite/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/110713_okanagan_lake_shoreline_at_risk_chbc_news_global_saskatoon.pdf 2. James H. Marsh. (2006, April 20). Okanagan Valley. Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/okanagan-valley/ 3. James H. Marsh. (2006, April 20). Okanagan Valley. Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/okanagan-valley/ 4. Ecoscape Environmental Consultants Ltd. (2014, May). Okanagan Wetlands Strategy | Okanagan Basin Water Board. Retrieved from http://www.obwb.ca/newsite/wp-content/uploads/13-1159-Wetlands-Strategy-Report-FINAL-MAY-2014.pdf 5. Kristi Iverson. (2008, September). Retrieved from http://a100.gov.bc.ca/appsdata/acat/documents/r15347/SEI_4810_rpt_1375996074737_7166f380f5815a3906f711c2e40ba811a133b7f4fd193d5bf01f92a67797b6ca.pdf 6. Kristi Iverson. (2008, September). Retrieved from http://a100.gov.bc.ca/appsdata/acat/documents/r15347/SEI_4810_rpt_1375996074737_7166f380f5815a3906f711c2e40ba811a133b7f4fd193d5bf01f92a67797b6ca.pdf 7. Weatherstats. (n.d.). Total Precipitation - Annual data for Kelowna. Retrieved from https://kelowna.weatherstats.ca/charts/precipitation-yearly.html 8. Garreau, J. (2011). Edge city: Life on the new frontier. New York, Canada: Anchor Books. 7KH'DQLVK1DWXUH$JHQF\ 5HWULHYHGIURPKWWSVGDQLVKEXVLQHVVDXWKRULW\GNVLWHVGHIDXOWĂ€OHVISHQJBBSGI 10. Jonathan G. Price, John L. Muntean, David A. Davis, Lisa Shevenell, & Richard Zehner. (2010). Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.590.2098&rep=rep1&type=pdf 11. Pam Graham: â€œTallgrass Prairieâ€?ProQuest Discovery Guides http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/discoveryguides-main.php Released November 2011. 7KH'DQLVK1DWXUH$JHQF\ 5HWULHYHGIURPKWWSVGDQLVKEXVLQHVVDXWKRULW\GNVLWHVGHIDXOWĂ€OHVISHQJBBSGI 13. Oldearth. (n.d.). Online Earth History Curriculum - Chapter 3 - The Ordovician Period. Retrieved from http://www.oldearth.org/curriculum/history/earth_history_c3_ordovician.htm -DFTXHOLQH*URWKDQG(ULF&RULMQÂ´5HFODLPLQJ8UEDQLW\,QGHWHUPLQDWH6SDFHV,QIRUPDO$FWRUVÂľ5HVHDUFK*DWH/DVWPRGLĂ€HG0D\KWWSVZZZUHVHDUFKJDWHQHWSXEOLFDWLRQB5HFODLPLQJB8UEDQLW\B,QGHWHUPLQDWHB6SDFHVB,QIRUPDOB$FWRUVBDQGB8UEDQB$JHQGDB6HWWLQJ Â´7KH'RZQVLGHRIWKH%RRPÂľ7KH1HZ<RUN7LPHODVWPRGLĂ€HG2FWREHUKWWSZZZQ\WLPHVFRPLQWHUDFWLYHXVQRUWKGDNRWDRLOERRPGRZQVLGHKWPO"U BU Â´/DF0pJDQWLFUXQDZD\WUDLQDQGGHUDLOPHQWLQYHVWLJDWLRQVXPPDU\Âľ*RYHUQPHQWRI&DQDGDODVWPRGLĂ€HG1RYHPEHUKWWSZZZWVEJFFDHQJUDSSRUWVUHSRUWVUDLOUGUGUHVDVS Â´0LQRWVKRRWLQJVVKRZWKHÂśEDGSDUWÂˇRIRLOERRPUHODWHGJURZWKÂľ7KH%LVPDUFN7ULEXQHODVWPRGLĂ€HG6HSWHPEHUKWWSELVPDUFNWULEXQHFRPPLQRWVKRRWLQJVVKRZWKHEDGSDUWRIRLOERRPUHODWHGDUWLFOHBFDDHEDDFDHFKWPO
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