HIHAUA PRECINCT PLAN RESEARCH REPORT
Group 7 Yi Luo (Bonnie) Sam Pillay Kelsey Raiha Metcalfe
1. Background 1.1. Introduction 1.2. Description 1.3. History
2.1. Te Aranga Principles 2.2. iwi 2.3. Values
3. Mapping Constraints Analysis 3.1. Flooding 3.2. Aspects 3.3. District Plan 3.4. Existing Area 3.5. Infrastructure 3.6. River Catchments 3.7. Sewage 3.8. Slope 3.9. Soil 3.9.1. Soil Classi cation 3.9.2. Soil Drainage 3.9.3. Soil Erosion 3.10. Stromwater System 3.11. Land Use Capabilities
4. Issues discovered on site and Solutions
4.1. Sea Level Rising(CLIMATE CHANGE) 4.2. Solutions A. Flood Barriers, surge barrier or storm surge barrier (Large Scale and Permanent) - Case Study: Maeslant Barrier, The Netherlands
B. Removable ood barriers, Glass oodwalls, ip-up barriers and self-closing ood barriers (Small scale and temporary) - Case Study: Wake eld Waterfront Regeneration Scheme, England
C. Coastal Management
- Case study: (Rock armouring) Guthrie Park, St. Clair Township, ON, Canada
4.3. Alternative solution to Sea Level Rise D. Living shorelines E. Building and Housing Typologies (i) Elevated Development
- Case Study: Treasure Island Development, San Francisco, CA, USA (ii) Floating Development
4.4. Untreated Storm Water 4.5. How to make it work with the site
5. Design Precinct 5.1. Key Point 5.2. Cross sections
6. Perspective 7. Reference
The HÄŤhÄŤaua Precinct is located in the inner city of Whangarei on a peninsula between two waterways; the Hatea River and Waiarohia Stream. The area was partly reclaimed in the early 20th century for commercial land. It continues to be characterised by light industry, marine related activities, warehousing, trade servicing, retail, open space and a number of residential apartments.
¯ The Hīhīaua Precinct is approximately 16.5 hectares in size delineated by Reyburn Street to the west, the Town Basin including a strip of public open space to the north, and Waiarohia Stream to the south. The local roads serving this area are Reyburn House Lane, Lower Dent Street, Finlayson Street, and Herekino Street, with three service lanes and associated internal parking areas.
Source: Esri, DigitalGlobe, GeoEye, Earthstar Geographics, CNES/Airbus DS, USDA, USGS, AEX, Getmapping, Aerogrid, IGN, IGP, swisstopo, and the GIS User Community
The Town Basin and wider area was the first place in Whangarei to be settled by European settlers and used for shipping and recreation. In 1839, William Carruth settled Te Ahipupurangi (Ahipupu-now known as the Town Basin) on the Hatea Riverside. In earlier years there were two landings in the Town Basin, one up the Hatea River, the other at Ahipupu on the riverbank end of Walton Street. The town of Whangarei, centred on the south bank of the Hatea River, grew southward around Walton Street to become the commercial and service centre for Northland (Parkes, 1992). The Town Basin area was used as a port for early Whangarei until the main port was developed further down the river to accommodate larger boats. The main port was once again moved in 2002 to its present location at Marsden Point.
TE ARANGA PRINCIPLRS WHANGAREI MEANINGS: 1. The waiting place of Reipae • Two twin sisters reipae and reitu from Waikato region were visited by a young chief Ueoneone from the far north • The elders of both iwi agreed there would be a marriage between them to strengthen tribal alliances • The sisters fought over who would marry him • He had to return home but told them he would send his messenger (kaarearea-falcon) to collect them for the marriage • The sisters flew on the back of the bird northward • Still arguing, reipae gave up on her desire to marry him and asked to descend onto a beach below them and here she waited for her people who were travelling across the land with their brothers Te kanapuiterangi and Kairangatira • The beach they landed on is now known as onerahi, where airport is located • Hence the name Whangarei, Ko te tauwhanga a Reipai mō ōnā tūngane mō te kanapuiterangi raua ko kairangatira The waiting place of reipae for her brothers te kanapuiterangi raua ko kairangatira. • Reipae married local chieftain Tāhūhūpōtiki
2. Whangarei-te-rerenga-parāoa • Ngatiwai named harbour Whangarei-te-rerenga-paraoa meaning the gathering place of the whales, because they gathered there to feed in summer. • Another interpretation: the gathering place of the chiefs
IWI 1) Ngare Raumati: • One of oldest tribes in northern Whangarei region • Lost much of the land by Nga puhi in late 18th century battles who had expanded from kaikohe and Te Waimate in bay of islands 2) Ngai tahuhu: • Descended from tahuhunui-o-te-rangi, the captain of the moekakara waka • Estab;ished pa at pouerua in bay of islands, the maungakahia river valley, Whangarei, te arai, and at otahuhu (mt Richmond) in Auckland. • By mid 1800s this decreased to only upper wairoa and mangakahia valleys • Tahuhunui-o-te-rangis son or grandson (tahuhupotiki) married the Waikato women (chief) reipae- one of the twin sisters sent to marry ueoneone 3) Ngatiwai: • Descended from manaia (captain of mahuhu-ki-te-rangi or ruakaramea waka) • Name comes from tradition at manawahuna a cave beneath motu kokako, where priests foretold their fortunes from the way the water passed through the cave • Have links to ancestors from whangaroa in north to Auckland and eastward to little barrier/ great barrier islands • Today most of the tribe live north and south of Whangarei, and are scattered among other coastal groups-ngati kahu, te whanauwhero, te akitai, and te panupuha.
4) Te Parawhau • Located north and south of Whangarei and inland. • Close connections with ngatiwai, ngapuhi, ngati whatua, and tahuwhakatiki captain of the te arawa waka that settled in Whangarei 5) Patuharakeke, ngati kahu, ngati manuhiri and te akitai • Related to ngatiwai and te parawhau • Occupy coastal lands mainly from southern side of Whangarei harbour to mahurangi MANAIA: Mountain: • Manaia, maunga raho, tokatoka once stood togtehr in Hawaiki • Manaia urged them to race across ocean to Aotearoa • As sun rode they were frozen in their place • Manaia stands in Whangarei • Maunga raho and tokatoka are on northern wairoa river Ancestor: • Had a bad omen when fishing, he then paddled home • Manaia saw that his wife had sleot with his servant paeko • They challenged each other with incantations until manaia, his wife, paeko and several of manaia’s children were turned into the distinctive peaks ontop of the mountain
VALUES POPULATION • 76,995 (2013 census). increase 2,532 (3.4%) since 2006 census – 7 years ago • 1.8% of NZ population • 9th in size of 67 districts in NZ • male:36,990 • female: 40,005 ETHNICITY GROUPS: • maori: 18,720 people/26.2% 7th in size of 67 districts 3.1%of nz maori population live here • European: 80% • Pacific: 2.9% • Asian: 3.5% • Middle eastern,latin American, African: 0.4% • New Zealander (other): 2.0% RESIDENTIAL: May 2016- Average price: $314,000
MAUNGATAPERE: Population 2006: 1,278 Housing prices: Whangarei net gain of 513 people for long term/permanent migration in 2016 to spetember Many from south Africa, Europe and America. Cost of housing in Auckland would have been part of reason for migration to northern regions
WHAREORA: 2013 census Population: 1,140, 1.5% of Whangarei district TOWNS/areas UNDER WHANGAREI DISTRCIT: • whangaruru • punaruku • oakura • Helena bay • Opuawhanga • Whananaki • Whakapara • Hikurangi • Matapouri • Tutukaka • Ngunguru 1,400 • Kiripaka • Glenbervie • Whareora • Kauri • Ngararatunua • Matarau • Purua • Riponui • Pipiwai • Nukutawhiti
• Parakao • Titoki • Poroti • Kokopu • Maungatapere 1,300 • Otaika 990 • Puwera • Portland 990 • Maungakaramea • Waiotira • Takahiwai • Marsden point • One tree point • Ruakaka • Waipu • Whangarei heads • Taiharuru • Pataua • Tamaterau • Kamo • Parua bay 1900
DARGAVILLE Population: 4251 2013 census Housing:
KAWAKAWA: 1,221 TE KOPURU: 453 (2006)
Much of whangareis commercial centre built on reclaimed land (1920s-1960s) When mangroves removed, original line of the town basin foreshore disappeared Doctors creek/waiarohia diverted Tidal flats
Northland house prices on the rise 2016 article: http://www.stuff.co.nz/auckland/local-news/northland/82311339/Northland-house-prices-growingfaster-than-Auckland rising faster than Auckland average house prices in region reaching $360,000 increase of 14.3% from june 2015? Auckland only 8.3% rise in comparison Whangarei heads, paihia tutakaka most sought after areas in north Prices increased by 26% in Whangarei city, 23% in Whangarei county Increasing demand in Whangarei area
Town basin has been redeveloped several times over past 180 years
Water quality and environment of the Whangarei harbour has been improving during the last 50 years due to the removing of historic sources of contamination or better management of these sources.
WHANGAREI HARBOUR • Population growth in harbour catchments is increasing, this and related changes to land use will put pressure on the harbour, especially in upper areas where water quality is degraded • Continued improvement in management/treatment of sewage/stormwater and reducing sediments and runoff entering harbour • Aims to develop catchment plan for harbour which involves the bringing together of different groups to work together (iwi, rural landowners, general public etc)
WAIONEHU STREAM BRIDGE WAIPU: • New walking/cycling bridge $170,000 • Allow people to travel off road around waipu • Enables people to get from township to waipu cove. • Due to be completed by end of march WAIPU COVE FLOOD ASSESSMENT: • Research being done into poor drainage at waipu cove area • Has potential to cause flooding risks in area ONERAHI AIRPORT UPGRADE: • expansion to accommodate larger aircraft • $1.02 mill • more seating for passengers in terminal • upgrade of toilets • internal baggage claim area expansion • second airport entry added • carpark extended plus barrier arm added • traffic management plan • work around carpark/front of building begin in mid july and take 6-8 weeks • aimed to be completed all work by feb/march 2016.
WHANGAREI FALLS: • improvement of parking area-increasing spaces to 40 (from 14) • removing problem trees (with permission from mana whenua) to create more of relationship to marae and waterfall, reduce shadows for people to loiter in and to make it safer and open • Create shared walking/through road make vehicle movements less complicated. • Retaining a large buffer between carpark and river rather than paving lawn space which will help water quality • More signage to inform people of the ecological value of site/water and special nature of the area.
WATER TREATMENT PLANT: • Continuing plans for development of new $18.3 million water treatment plant located on whau valley road to replace older plant (over 60 years old) • Due to age, location in residential area, growth in Whangarei district, advances in water treatment processes, and higher earthquake standards
WAITAUA AWA: • Improve the quality and restore the river • Goal: Plant 10,000 trees (native plants) in Gillingham road reserve in tikipunga (along river) with communities help
WAIMAHANGA BRIDGE UPGRADE: • 100 year old Bridges along boswell track/waimahanga track (in onerahi) to be replaced • Work being done on network of walking/cycling tracks • 2.5m wide, wider than pervious bridges
KENSINGTON ROADING/INTERSECTION UPGRADES: 20/1/2016 • Final stages of councils transoortation strategy started feb 2015 • Address traffic flow of region, has seen dramatic increase in traffic volumes recently which will be expected to rise in future • mill road/Nixon street intersection widening/upgrading • lamo road/Kensington ave intersection straightening/widening/upgrade • Nixon street widening • Estimated cost $10 mill
HUNDERTWASSERR WAIRAU MAORI ART CENTRE (HWMAC) • June 2015 community supported development of old harbour board building in binding referendum • Community driven project • Trust has till 30 june 2017 to secure funding, and if so, building will be complete in approximately 2019
ONERAHI CYCLEWAY/WALKWAY • Shared 6km off road route connecting onerhai to hatea loop walkway and whangareis CBD • Replacement of boswell track bridges • New pedestrian bridges adjacent to riverside drive bridges • Embankment built along riverside drive • Construction began 2014 • Will complete 3 primary routes of Whangarei cycleway network-includes kamo and raumanga/ maunu routes
RAUMANGA/MAUNU CYCLEWAY/WALKWAY: 15/12/2015 • Shared 5km walkway/cycleway • Runs through carruth park • Will provide access to Whangarei hospital, northtec and recreational aeas (tarewa park, cafler park). • Contstruction began 2013 and completed 2016 • Will complete 3 primary routes-onerahi, kamo routes. • In future NZ transport agency will build pedestrian/cycle underpass under otaika road enabling walkers/cyclists to avoid risk of crossing the busy road • 2007 council had developed/adopted Whangarei district walking and cycling strategy which provides alternative methods of transport • 2015 announced $4.81 mill invested into routes, further funding made available • $296 mill invested into 41 projects in 15 urban areas over next 3 years • $7 mill to be spent on construction of 3 new routes in district (incl kamo, onerahi, raumanga/ maunu)
TOWN BASIN: 30/7/2015 • expansion of activities and attractions CARPARK TO PARK • conversion of carpark space between dent street, riverside drive and hatea river into high quality urban park. • At rivers edge, provide hub for activities, social activity, events, youth and play facilities, integration of canopy bridge, loop walkway, other community facilities • Due to growing city centre/busy waterfront
HIHIAUA CULTURAL CENTRE: • Maori cultural centre on hihiaua peninsula • Hihiaua reserve • Reminiscent of beached waka would provide vessel for local history and artefacts and hub for interpretation, education and cultural tourism
KAMO CYCLEWAY: 15/12/2015 • Shared 6.5 km off road route • Will follow existing railway corridor running north/south through area • Safer access to central schools in whnagarei, connection to residential areas north of city to CBD, Auckland university campus, off road links to recreational areas e.g. Kensington park • Expected to attract 600 people a day • Encourage more kids to cycle to school 500m of new facility • Separate high volume traffic from cyclists and reduce pressure on state highway 1 by providing alternate option • Construction expected to start in 2016 and completed by mid 2018 • Complete 3 primary routes
HORAHORA NEW RUGBY FIELDS: 2/2/2016
CENTRAL CITY DEVELOPMENT: 12/8/2016
• New surface for field for no 1 and 2 fields • Grass stripped, levelled, new irrigation put in, sand silt drainage and couch grass sown
• Laneway project to upgrade central part of city. • Aim to make city mmroe friendly, comfortable, safe and vibrant for resident and tourists. • Will improve link between central business district and town basin by creating pedestrian friendly environment along james street • New pedestrian layout extending Cameroon street mall, around corner to james street, and another block along Cameroon street to john st • New paving, street furniture, plantings elevated stage around existing melia tree in mall • Construction of canopy covering intersection of Cameroon st mall and james st to create all weather space • Discussion of state of inner city: car park spaces, number of vacant shops, land use etc • Adopted Whangarei 20/20 strategy as guideline for inner city, based on good urban design for development of activities/attractions to enhance central city.
FLOODING Flood Susceptible Areas â—? Identifying 100 year flood zones for the site and its context shows importance towards implementing flood prevention strategies to reduce the impact caused.
ASPECTS â—? Identifying a East - West aspect of the site and its context shows importance of revegetation to reduce evaporation on the landscape but also identify spots more suitable for recreational activities.
EXISTING AREA Existing Land Cover â—? The most common land cover is grasslands, expected to be intensively managed for grazing in dairy production â—? The fragmented patches of vegetation illustrate the significant need for connectivity, used for sustaining ecological habitats and diversity â—? Estuaries running across whangarei harbour are predominantly covered in mangroves.
INFRASTRUCTURE Infrastructure â—? Whangerai is connected at a national level with state highway 1 and the railway running directly through it
STORM WATER SYSTEM
LAND USE CAPABILITIES
ISSUES DISCOVERED ON SITE AND SOLUTIONS
1. SEA LEVEL RISE (CLIMATE CHANGE) Solutions A. Flood Barriers, surge barrier or storm surge barrier (Large Scale and Permanent)\ What is it? These are specific types of floodgates designed to prevent storm surges or spring tides from flooding the protected area behind the barrier . They are essentially a large dam or a series of gates, or locks that are used to manage tidal flows within an area. E.g. The Oosterscheldekering (Eastern Scheldt storm surge barrier) in The Netherlands (High Resolution pic here). As a permanent solution, the barrier can be installed and anchored, and operates by regulating the flow of water going through, managing tidal function and shipping. However, the barrier can also perform as a short-term solution and set up only to intercept flooding during a storm surge .
Case Study: Maeslant Barrier, The Netherlands (High Resolution pics are in this folder) Name: Maeslant Barrier Location: Rhine River, Port of Rotterdam, Netherlands Population: 608,422 Contractor: BMK (Bouwcombinatie Maeslantkering) Client: Ministry of Waterways and Public Works, The Netherlands Government Construction: 1991-1997 Overview The Maeslant Barrier is a storm surge barrier in the Rhine River, in Rotterdam, The Netherlands that automatically closes when certain conditions are met. It is one of the largest moving structures on Earth . History The Maeslant Barrier is part of a larger project to improve the safety against flooding on the Rotterdam harbour, and the surrounding towns and agricultural areas. Traditionally, flooding were controlled by using dikes (which stretched more than 50 km inland), and these had to be upgraded and reinforced.flooding were controlled by using dikes (which stretched more than 50 km inland), and these had to be upgraded and reinforced.However, in 1980s, it was discovered that the project would take more than 30 years to complete and would prove extremely costly. Furthermore, historic town centres some as much as four centuries old, would have to be broken down and rebuilt behind the larger, upgraded dikes.
Therefore, a competition was organised by the Ministry of Waterways and Public Works, where construction companies would make plans for the construction of a relatively cheap and reliable storm surge barrier .
Planning The storm surge barrier was to be placed in the waterway, which connects Rotterdam (the worldâ€™s largest port), to the North Sea. Therefore, the barrier could not be constructed like the aforementioned Oosterscheldekering, as these would block shipping routes .
Advantages: - The construction of the barrier could take place in dry conditions, on dry docks. (As opposed to the Oosterscheldekering, for example, which had to be built in the sea). - Because it is on dry docks, this would allow for easy maintenance of the barrier. - Additionally, all vital parts of the storm surge barrier would be above water, prolonging their life and further adding to the ease of maintenance. - This moveable barrier, allows the waterway to be completely open when there is no storm surge, and so there is no disruption to the shipping routes.
HOW TO MAKE IT WORK WITH THE SITE
Case Study: Wakefield Waterfront Regeneration Scheme, England Name: Wakefield Waterfront Regeneration Scheme Location: West Yorkshire (on the River Calder), England Population: 325,837 Contractor: Flood Control International Client: Capita Symons Construction: 2007-2008 Overview The Wakefield waterfront has been undergoing a ÂŁ100m regeneration scheme over recent years. In 2007 Flood Control Limited was commissioned by Capita Symons to design and build flood defences for the area. The waterfront area is subject to frequent flooding from the River Calder. While designing the scheme, Flood Control Limited needed to respect the historic nature of the area and meet the approval of the client CTP St James, the Wakefield Planning Authority, English Heritage, British Waterways and the Environment Agency. Requirement A system that is fully automated and unmanned was called for. This reliable system would have barriers that are discreet and in keeping with the surroundings.
Solution • The system is managed by an “intelligent control system”. This comprises of a main control unit (MCU) in the site management suite and a local control unit (LCU) adjacent to each group of barriers. • Ultrasonic sensors connected to the MCU, monitor the river levels and when preprogramed levels are attained, the MCU commences the flood warning and barrier-closing procedures. The MCU also sends out SMS text alerts to mobile phones. • All critical electro-mechanical systems are replicated, so if one system failed another is ready to take its place. Individual barrier operation can be managed by the LCU, thereby ensuring that the barriers can still be operated at the locally, in case the MCU malfunctions
• Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) facilities, capable of fully operating barriers in the event of power failure, are fitted to the main and local control units. The MCU is designed to monitor all barriers and send alerts in the case of any critical failures. As a further precaution, each barrier set is fitted with back-up manually operated hydraulic and pneumatic systems. • The barriers are hydraulically operated and the flip-up barriers were chosen as the best option for the scheme. They work particularly well against the load that was projected and the best to resist silt clogging. • These barriers can also be finished with different materials such as block paving, wooden sets, wooden decking or tarmac decking. This ties in well with the client’s requirement to blend with the surrounding when not in use. The barriers fold in to ground when not in use • To ensure that the safety of the public was fully looked after, the barriers were also fitted with audio and visual alarms, motion sensors and emergency stop buttons. All barriers are also equipped with built-in ladders, so that someone trapped in the flood can climb to safety.
(iv) Self-closing flood barriers are flood barriers that use the hydrostatic pressure of the rising floodwater to activate and raise the barrier into position. No external power or intervention is required, making them ideal for unmanned locations, especially alongside rivers.
C. Coastal Management What is it? These are strategies that can be applied on the coast to help with defending against flooding. There are “hard engineering methods” and “soft engineering methods” . Hard Engineering Methods (i) Groynes is a rigid hydraulic structure built from an ocean shore or from a bank (in rivers) that interrupts water flow and limits the movement of sediment.
Benefits • Uses the floodwater itself to operate the barrier - no manual intervention required. • No storage required - the barriers recesses fully into the ground when not in use. • Fast action - with a fast flood the barrier will close within a minute. • Easy to test - the pit can be filled with water, which automatically lifts the barrier ready for inspection. • Unlimited lengths - from 1m to 1km or more. Uses The Self Closing Flood Barrier can be used to protect areas such as: • Underground garages • Riverside defences • Coastal defences
(ii) Seawalls is a form of coastal defense constructed where the sea, and associated coastal processes, affect directly upon the landforms of the coast.
(iii) Revetments are slanted or upright blockades, built parallel to the coast, usually towards the back of the beach to protect the area beyond.
(iv) Rock armour (a.k.a riprap) is large rocks placed at the sea edge using local material. This is generally used to absorb wave energy and hold beach material.
(v) Gabion. Boulders and rocks are wired into mesh cages and placed in front of areas vulnerable to erosion: sometimes at cliffs edges or at right angles to the beach. When the ocean lands on the gabion, the water drains through leaving sediment, while the structure absorbs a moderate amount of wave energy.
(vi) O ffshore breakwater Concrete blocks and/or boulders are sunk offshore to alter wave direction and to filter wave and tide energy. The waves break further offshore and therefore lose erosive power. This leads to wider beaches, which further absorb wave energy.
(vii) Cliff stabilization can be accomplished through drainage of excess rainwater of through terracing, planting and wiring to hold cliffs in place.
HOW TO MAKE IT WORK WITH THE SITE (viii) Entrance training walls. Training walls are built to constrain a river or creek as it discharges across a sandy coastline. The walls stabilise and deepen the channel which benefits navigation, flood management, river erosion and water quality, but can cause coastal erosion by interrupting longshore drift. One solution is a sand bypassing system to pump sand under/ around the training walls.
(ix) Flood gates (as seen above)
Alternative solution to Sea Level Rise Case Study: (Eco Engineering) Artificial Oyster Reefs, Kutubdia Island, Bangladesh The project is part of a Dutch-run program as part of the Ecological Engineering for Coastal Protection and Food Production (Ecobas) project that concluded in 2014. Two main outcomes: • Artificial oyster reefs can prevent coastal erosion and grow fast enough in height to keep pace with sea level rise. • Additionally oyster reefs increases the biodiversity, providing shelter and substrate for fish and crab, creating a source of food for the local human population Keeping pace with the sea level rise Calculations show that the oyster reef could grow in height by about two centimetres per year, allowing it to keep pace with the rising sea level. Result • After a year there were large numbers of oysters. • Wave-dampening effects resulted in sediment being deposited behind the reef.
Advantages • A self-repairing coastal defence (especially when coupled with a mangrove strip that will be developed). • Can also be used with earthen dykes which would have been more easily destroyed in a storm when used without an oyster and mangrove reef. • Sustainable, durable and inexpensive when compared to other strategies.
HOW TO MAKE IT WORK WITH THE SITE
D. Living shorelines What is it? Wetlands is the natural form of much of New Zealand’s shoreline, they can protect the shoreline from floods and erosion by absorbing waves. They can also absorb heavy rain and release the water slowly. Other environmental benefits are improved water quality and it provides a wildlife habitat.
Advantages • Beneficial to the society as wetlands filter pollutants out of the water and stops carbon. • Provides recreational open space. • Creates a wildlife habitat. Disadvantages • Requires a lot of time and space to work. • More land is needed, compared to other armouring strategies such as levees. • Requires not only a lot of time, but also intensive management and monitoring for it to become wetlands are generally "thicker" than linear armouring strategies such as levees, so they need more land. They also require management, monitoring and time to become established.
HOW TO MAKE IT WORK WITH THE SITE
E. Building and Housing Typologies (i) Elevated Development What is it? The raising of the height of land or existing buildings, while also applying strategies such as coastal armouring.
Advantages o Allows constructions to take place on an exposed shoreline area, where the risk of flooding is low. o Cost effective for new buildings. Disadvantages o A short-term strategy. o Will change the characteristics of the shorelines. o Not effective for areas that are affected by sea-level rise for a prolonged period. o If the above is the case, the elevated development will need protection similar to what low-lying development needs.
Case Study: Treasure Island Development, San Francisco, CA, USA Name: Treasure Island Development Location: San Francisco Bay, California, USA Site Area: 393 acres Population: 6,793 Masterplan: SOM (Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP) Client: Treasure Island Community Development Year: In progress Overview • Treasure Island is a 393-acre manmade island, whose masterplan have been designed by architecture firm SOM. • Development plans include 6,000 to 8,000 new homes, up to 500 hotel rooms, a 400-slip marina, restaurants, retail and entertainment venues, and nearly 300 acres of parks and open space. Requirement • Research showed that the sea level is estimated to rise up to 33 inches over the next century. Solution Implement strategies that would address sea level rise and flooding. Some of these strategies included: • constructing building pads and vital infrastructure at elevations 36-inches higher than present day 100 year return period water level in the bay. • Furthermore, an additional 6 inches of freeboard are to be added for finish-floor elevations of buildings. • constructing a storm drainage system
HOW TO MAKE IT WORK WITH THE SITE
• building a shoreline protection system • Constructing sea walls (ii) Floating Development What is it? These refer to structures (buildings and infrastructure) that are invulnerable to changing tides, this is because they float on the water’s surface or may be floated if a flood occurs. Advantages o Manages the uncertainty of high tides and earthquakes. o Could work in spite of the uncertainty surrounding the timing and nature of sea level rise. o Very resilient to seismic activity. Disadvantages o Works only in protected areas. o Do not work well in places subject to wind and wave action from storms, such as the ocean coastline. Note One of the big unknowns however is how well this type of development will perform in highdensity cities, as this type of development is only just beginning to be thought of as a sea level rise strategy for larger cities or islands.
(iii) Floodable Development What is it? Structures that are designed to withstand flooding or retaining stormwater. Advantages o Could work as a back-up strategy in case shoreline armouring fails. o Can be used to create retention areas, where the water is captured and then later released in the waste water system, when floodwaters recede. o An extremely efficient way to reuse stormwater, done by infiltrating it into the ground, creating green space and habitat while reducing demands on urban wastewater treatment systems. o New floodable development built to handle sea-leve rise, may be designed to manage stormwater, both salt and fresh. Disadvantages o Potentially hazardous – this is particularly true close to the seaward end of a watershed, where it usually polluted with heavy metals and organic materials, as well as sediment and bacteria. o Contamination or other public health issues may arise due to the large quantities of stormwater sitting on the surface, or in underground storage facilities. o This could be especially a problem if the stormwater system is combined with the sewer systems – where wasterwater and street runoff go to the same treatment system. Note It is unknown if floodable development will fully work in a cost-effective way as it is untested. Also unclear is how much volume new development tools will hold.
UNTREATED STORM WATER What causes stormwater runoff • Impervious surfaces (Concrete, Asphalt, Housing) prevents rainwater from penetrating the soil surface, disrupting the natural water cycle (describe the process). • Deforestation and draining wetlands for farming, turning into grasslands prevents water from naturally penetrating the soil. Surface tension during hotter months increases runoff, especially during heavy downpours. Why is stormwater runoff bad for the environment • Pollutants produced by motor vehicles, etc. are washed into stormwater drains on downpours, washing pollutants into streams/estuaries effecting the ecology of the surrounding area. • Runoff produced by grasslands tend to carry a high concentration of sediment, leading to silt pollution in waterways affecting the surrounding ecology. • High concentrations of runoff into streams/rivers increases bank erosion, further polluting waterways Who does stormwater affect • Sedimentation smoothers plants and starves the water of oxygen leading to reduced fish populations • Affects drinkable water and food sources consumed by communities.
Healthcare Learning workshops
rela�onship kinship inclusiveness
matauranga knowledge learning skill
Green Spaces/ Social �nterac�on
life force/essence well being
Community Garden Walkway + Bicycle path
Key Point Maori �radi�onal Arts
rangatiratanga right to authority self-determina�on leadership
Kaitiakitanga protec�on responsibility
Empowerment with knowledge
tikanga protocol custom procedure rule
whakapapa belonging lineage geneaolgy
spiritual power pres�ge status
Journey Of The Two Sisters
Mountain and Hills (not only to add interest to the landscape) connection to the land/viewpoints
Viewshaft To Cultural Centre Preserved
Optimal Building Layout
Satisfying “Live, Work, Play, Visit, Learn”
Flooding Of Whangarei ÂCreates Water Feature/Lake/Rivers
REFERENCE "Addressing Sea level rise for the Treasure Island Development Project." Bay Planning Coalition â€” Leading Coalition and Consensus Building on Issues Facing the Bay-Delta Region. Accessed March 18, 2017. http://www.bayplanningcoalition.org/downloads/dmc10/compendium/10_TI%20Summary%20For%20BPC.pdf.
Tam, Laura. "Strategies for Managing Sea Level Rise." SPUR. Last modified November 2009. http://www.spur.org/publications/urbanist-article/2009-11-01/strategiesmanaging-sea-level-rise.
Anthoni, J. F. "Engineering Solutions." Seafriends Home Page. Last modified 2000. http://www.seafriends.org.nz/oceano/beacheng.htm.
United States Environmental Protection Agency | US EPA. Accessed March 19, 2017. https://www3.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_month_bookmark.pdf.
Cost of housing in Auckland would have been part of reason for migration to northern regions http://whangareinz.com/news/item/northland-migration-at-25-year-high
"Ecobas: Artificial Oyster Reefs Can Keep Pace with Sea Level Rise." Dutch Water Sector. Accessed March 19, 2017. http://www.dutchwatersector.com/news-events/ news/12925-ecobas-artificial-oyster-reefs-can-keep-pace-with-sea-level-rise.html. "Erosion Control Projects - St Clair Region Conservation Authority." St Clair Region Conservation Authority. Accessed March 19, 2017. https://www.scrca.on.ca/flood-anderosion/erosion-control-projects/. ETHNICITY GROUPS: http://www.wdc.govt.nz/PlansPoliciesandBylaws/Plans/SustainableFutures/Documents/Sustainable%20Society%20and%20Culture/30-50-Ethnic-Diversity-of-the-WhangareiDistrict.pdf Flood Control International Limited. "Flood Barriers - Designed and Built by Engineers." Flood Defences from Flood Control International. Accessed March 16, 2017. http:// www.floodcontrolinternational.com/PRODUCTS/FLOOD-BARRIERS/flood-barriers.php. Flood Control International Limited. "Glass Floodwalls and Glass Flood Barriers for Flood Control." Flood Defences from Flood Control International. Accessed March 16, 2017. http://www.floodcontrolinternational.com/PRODUCTS/FLOOD-BARRIERS/glass-barriers.html. Moffatt, and Nichol. Treasure Island Development Project, Planning For Sea Level Rise, Part 1 â€“ Background and Projections. San Francisco, CA, n.d. Northland house prices on the rise 2016 article http://www.stuff.co.nz/auckland/local-news/northland/82311339/Northland-house-prices-growing-faster-than-Auckland RESIDENTIAL: May 2016- Average price: $314,000 https://www.enz.org/house-prices-ni-towns.html "Self-Closing Flood Barriers." Flood Defences from Flood Control International. Accessed March 17, 2017. http://www.floodcontrolinternational.com/PRODUCTS/FLOODBARRIERS/self-closing.html.
"Why Wetlands Are Important: Wetlands." Department of Conservation, New Zealand. Accessed March 19, 2017. http://www.doc.govt.nz/nature/habitats/wetlands/whywetlands-are-important/. Wikipedia. "Coastal Management - Wikipedia." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified February 23, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coastal_ management#Planning_approaches. Wikipedia. "Flood Barrier - Wikipedia." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified March 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flood_barrier. Wikipedia. "Maeslantkering - Wikipedia." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified March 4, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maeslantkering.
Hīhīaua Peninsula Research Report 2017 Jacqueline Paul, Chantelle Lubbe, Pearl Patel and brian Law Group 8
Table of Contents Hihiaua Peninsula Project What are the issues? Who are the community leaders and stakeholders? What are their aspirations and expectations? Site Context Introduction Description History Current Uses Climate Analysis Biophysical Analysis Land cover – soil, vegetation, land use Topography – elevation, slope, aspects Hydrologic – catchments, flooding, overland flow paths Geology – soils, pervious/impervious surface ratio Buffer- Proposed Cultural aspect Constraints Analysis Design requirements.. Population Constraints and opportunities Reverse Sensitivity Issues Cultural/Historic Heritage Heritage Buildings, Sites and Objects Planning Tangata Whenua Cultural Features Views/ View Shafts Natural Heritage
Table of Contents Resilience Research Case studies 1-9 Typology Housing Mixed use spaces Concept Concept phase Strategic direction Resilience Cultural Resilience Plant pallette Infrastructure resilience
Design Phase Masterplan Te maara kai. Te pou whenua Open space Maori Star
Perspectives Terraces and waterfront Housing Site flow References
Hīhīaua Precinct Peninsula Introduction
Who are the community leaders and stakeholders? Momentum North HIHIAUA COMMUNITY Momentum North Vision Hihiaua is a safe and thriving community in every season, where access to the water is strong. More people from every generation will LIVE, WORK, PLAY, LEARN and VISIT here. The mix of uses will be compatible with each other.
Clients aspirations and expectations The Momentum North community have several ideas as to how they intend to approach developing the new waterfront precinct. These are the key aspects th intend to implement and address for future development of Whangarei
These iwi and hapu values have been extracted from Iwi/Hapu Report: Input to Whangarei District Council Growth Strategy: Sustainable Futures 30/50. A large proportion of the population of Whangarei are Maori and with population estimates at 36% in 2016 there is high value of recognition of tangata whenua in the area which have significant influence in the future development of Whangarei.
In the WHANGAREI 20/20 MOMENTUM Strategic development plan they have acknowledged in development opportunities under CULTURE & HERITAGE - Taonga tuku iho, the Te Aranga Design principles should be integrated into the design process. This adds to cultural value to the area when cultural perspective is embedded and integrated.
This approach will aim to protect and preserve Maori culture and add sense of place.
Background Hihiaua Peninsula Location Map
The HiĚ„hiĚ„aua Precinct is built in the inner city of Whangerei which interacts with the two main waterways, the Hatea River and Waiarohia Stream. Current development on site focuses on the Te Kopu cultural centre and extending it out into a cultural experience throughout the park. The waterways has a constant flow from the the Whangarei Port inlet during heavy rain periods which means the surrounding open landscape can become almost like a wetland. Traffic flow through the area is light but with major intersections around the precinct.
Site Context Introduction The Hīhīaua Precinct is a inner city of Whangerei which interacts with two main waterways, the Hatea River and Waiarohia Stream. In the early 20th century the site has been used as a commercial land, the land started to development with light industry, marine related activities, warehousing, trade servicing, retail, open space.
Different color represent the group of development area
Description The Hīhīaua Precinct is around 16 hectares in size of the delineated by Reyburn Street to the west, the Town Basin including a strip of public open space toward the north and the South of Waiarohia Stream. There are located a Walkways close to Hatea River that are connected to the Town Basin which goes around Hatea River and across the Waiarohia Stream. River location
Hihiaua Development iconic buildings 13
Site History At Hīhīaua Precinct are fully relate to early European and Maori settlement. As specially at the time of 1867, Hīhīaua locted the seven acre block of Maori ladn with a title awarded by the Māori Land Court to Chief Renata Manihera on behalf of the tribes Te Uriroroi, Te Parawhau and Ngāti Kahu. Early stage the place have been used the place as canoe landing, shellfish gathering ground and a fishing village with a Pa built on the Pā built on the Ōkara hills. The name of Hīhīaua which happened several generations ago. The story start with, at that time there is a chieftain have been killed in a fight, therefore, in an act of insult and derision his enemies used certain parts of the victim's body as bait to fish (hīhī) for herrings (aua). European is the first discovered The Town Basin and near by area in Whangarei. Though the start they used as shipping and recreation. The Town Basin was used as a port until the port need to accommodate larger boats, therefore the port have to move further down the river.
Site Context Current Uses The HiĚ„hiĚ„aua Precinct is used as light industrial servicing and commercial activities. However, among these uses there is an eclectic mix of activities including cultural/entertainment activities, offices, medical services, retail and residential uses. Light industrial uses include automotive repairs, marine- related industries, warehouses, small-scale, manufacturing and commercial uses such as professional offices and retail. Other land use activities include a medical centre, dentist, storage facility, theatre, Art Trust museum, lunch bar/cafe, gym, pub, play centre, professional offices and residential dwellings (Whangarei District Council, 2013).
Climate Conditions Site Information The map show annual rainfall and temperature,which affect from the from the time of day lighting. The wind report can see where the ventilation come from, therefore can see is it possible to take the air pollution away from the traffic area. Building section cut see through the street level high.
16 This map represent the what kind of road have been surrounded the area. And the contour that are taller than 3.25mRl.
Biophysical Elements Land use Map
Landuse shows clusters of native forests with berms of exotic forest fragments. A cluster of mangroves are also present just opposite our site. Strong connection between green, blue and urban corridor to be made.
Biophysical Elements Land Cover Map
Land Cover shows a large area of annual cropland and native forest. Relationship strength between water, and, forest and the people.
Biophysical Elements Aspect
This map indicates the areas that would receive the most sunlight, categorised into N, E ,W AND S. Slope
Scale 1:20 000
The slope shows area of high and low land, areas of high slopes are indicated in a darker colour. 20
Biophysical Elements Slope
Soils indicate a large amount of alluvial and highly versatile volcanic soil along the banks, near the high slopes, sloping volcanic soil is present. Geotechnical issues: Manmade fill comprises the reclaimed land through the town basin. Alluvial sediments cover lower lying areas . Some slippage near foothills, sediment runoff into Hatatea River. 21
Infrastructure Analysis Infrastructure
Infrastructure indicates the town basin is in constant travel from bus stops to major intersections, along these lie the stormwater lines that then carry the runoff along stream
Flood Susceptibility Flooding
Scale 1:10 000 1 2 3 4 5 Flood susceptibility
Flooding is is a serious problem of this area and courted as a the highest risk potential in Whangarei City. The Central Business District which is the HiĚ„hiĚ„aua Precinct is regarded flood. The Precinct has originally part of the floodplain from the bottom of Waiarohia Stream and the top Hatea River until it was reclaimed to create commercial land.
Flow path Analysis Flow Accumulation
Scale 1:10 000 Flow path
Flood Accumulation indicates we have a downfall of water flowing through our site into the river during heavy rain period.
Buffer Analysis Buffer
Scale 1:10 000
1 2 3 4 5
The 10m buffers indicate a way to control flood waters and reduce flood susp areas, by creating them where bathymetric contours -2 and-4 lie.
Analysis Land Instability The Whangarei coastline has been threatened since 2001 with coastal erosion along the harbour front, causing slips along property lines and areas of the community. Geotechnical Constraints include the flooding along the coastline during major downpours where the land becomes contaminated through the sediments carried down from the harbour. Water supply. Nearly 80% of the Whangarei population uses the Council infrastructure for water. The other 20% access water from rainwater and springs.. Whangarei District has four water supply areas â€“ Whangarei, Bream Bay, Maungakaramea and Mangapai.
Cultural Connections Map TAWATAWHITI
NOTABLE LANDSCAPE AREA
HĪHĪAUA WAIAROHIA STREAM
VIEW OF MOUNT MANAIA
PARIHAKA – A citadel of pā and papakāinga once located on the ancient volcano remnant standing on the north-eastern skyline above Whangārei city. HĪHĪAUA – A canoe landing and fishing village belonging to local tribes Te Uriroroi, Te Parawhau and Ngāti Kahu. This site was situated on the Waiarohia Stream near the junction of Port Road and Okara Drive. TAWATAWHITI – The main village located in the Main Town area and attached to Parihaka Pā. This was also the name given by the chiefs of Whangārei to Capt. Gilbert Mair (Tawa) when he was born here.
Hihiaua Design Requirements
Hihiaua Development Requirements The Hīhīaua Precinct has a wealth of historical significance from both Maori and European settlement. This historic cultural heritage is special and unique to the Town Basin Environment and Hīhīaua Precinct and contributes to Whangarei’s sense of place Regulations in Whangarei District Plan Objectives, policies and rules that seek to protect the heritage buildings sites are in Chapter 58 of the Whangarei District Plan.There is one heritage building located within the Hihiaua precinct; Reyburn House. Reyburn House is classified as a Group I Heritage building. It is the oldest existing settler’s home in Whangarei. Cultural Symbols The Hīhīaua Precinct features a number of cultural icons including the Heritage Trail connecting the Art Walk to the award-winning Waka and Wave Sculpture located near the point of the Hīhīaua Peninsula.
The Waka and Wave Sculpture is a ‘signature’ public sculpture and taonga located on the Hīhīaua Peninsula.
Maori name for Whangarei –Te Renga Paraoa- a gathering place for whales, as the peninsula’s landform is reflective of a whale’s head
Census Data 2013 for Whangarei District Population/Age/Sex
Constraints and Opportunities Constraints: -
The health of the river and its current estate. The Hihihaua Peninsula becoming part of the CBD. Classified as â€˜touristâ€™ Papakainga label Lots of dark rundown buildings
Solutions thus far: -
Leasing light industrial buildings. Te Kopu Mountains to sea involvement. Cultural Centre. Art gallery.
Pedestrian only zones. Open living space/ live in museum. Waka launch Bank restoration and river cleanup. Hepunamata Gateway.
Hihiaua Precinct Development Programme
Hihiaua Precinct Development Programme
Research and Development: Case Study Investigation
Case Study One: Yanwei Zhou Park in Jinhua City
Yanwei Zhou Park is a landscape formed through the ecological surroundings of the city where an old abandoned space is transformed into a green sanctuary in the city. It is resilient in the way that it adapts as the city grows and changes. It not only shapes the city but it helps resist the negative impacts of population growth and global warming. The idea of this park is to create a green park within the city that not only The park focusses on the relationship between the city and the ecology the river carries alongside it.
26 Hectare Wetland park at the mouth of 3 rivers .
Previously a concrete flood wall with a deteriorating landscape.
The terraced embankment in place of the wall now offers a sanctuary escape for residents and is helping to restore the ecology.
The flood waters are absorbed by the design of the park and used for the plants.
The terraces are a way of collecting the water and redirecting it to stop possible flooding.
fertilises, irrigates and takes care of itself. -
The shape of the bridge and the terraces replicate a local dance called the Bandeng Long 35
Case Study Two: Sasaki’s “Forest City” Master Plan in Iskandar, Malaysia
“Forest City” is located in Iskandar Malaysia. It is claimed to be the biggest mixed use green development which is also design by Sasaki Associates. The forest city master plan is designed to promote live/work/sustainable culture. It consists of mixed use development and pedestrian friendly approach.
The design is based on a
preservation strategy. An example of this is the mangroves on the coastal edge which represents the ecology of the place. It is also resilient against sea level rising which is also a major issue in Hihiaua. The development has provision for recreation activities and has diverse transit systems but mainly focused on pedestrian connection. There is a diversity in housing typologies suiting all types of people. -
The 4 diagrams on the right show the different methods of dealing with the sea level rises.
Case Study Three: Waitangi Park, Wellington, NZ
Cultural narrative and the history is the main drive of this waterfront park. The idea is to replicate the stories of water, land and people as a meeting place for their ancestors. This has been embedded through including a waharoa and pou carved by local artists. Other interpretive elements of the design include the graving dock, powhiri mound and waka landing areas The park itself is driven by sustainability, the sensitive water design contributes to the health of the water and is used to carve the walkways through the park. The Waitangi Park grasps the rich cultural history of the site and the surrounding city, and alongside this aim to restore the stream that runs through it and create an ecological sustainable space within the city centre. -
Water irrigation, daylighting and cleaning of the stream.
Using water runoff as irrigation for the plants.
Connections between the waterfront and the urban life of the city.
Using water, landform and vegetation to amplify the arks cultural heritage.
Interactive water features that help prevent flooding and
Case Study Four: BIG U project, New York, USA BIG U new project have located at the central of New York. but the site is in a really bad area that alway have coastal flooding. However the new design from BIG have executed several phases as using a raised berm strategically which incorporate with public space. The design will mix with different range of functions -
Flood protection system in the master plan mean set small scale interventions with ingenious solution and transfer to other conditions as climate changing. Do the different between public is they can engage in defining specific programs and funtion to face the local problem.
The relationship create a line that become civic infrastructure back to the public. BIG U have putted berms to strategically to protect the infrastructure below to protect the upland
The water protection can block the flooding meaning while is over flow, however when the flooding is gone, the space can become a social public.
Boring parking changed to a benrath marketplace to create more people to visit.
The underpass have become a public space, rather than have open space that no one use. However it continuous band of flood defense
The area have interactively the flood protection system into furniture, attractive, fun and practical.
Case Study Five: Self- closing flood barriers in Cockermouth, Cumbria
Cumbria have a new design of flood defence. It helped to protect house and store from the area. Hyflo is a automatic self closing flood barriers. The does not need to require any manual control, this system work immediate to a emergency situations flood, this can provide an efficient flooding solution, while the water get into the right level, the collector will be fill up under the ground, the flood wall will be rise. -
A watertight seal is used on the flood barrier wall, when the flood moving away, water inside the basin will drain out to an one-way check valve and everything will get back to before.
Self-closing flood barriers is design effortlessly integrates with the structure's faรงade.
It needs a minimum surface of footprint. However there have been reduced risk of the mechanical error.
Climate Resilient Cities Case Study Six: Dyke Systems in Hanoi, Vietnam Adaptation Measures: Enhancing Resilience to Climate Change Impacts Hanoi is currently participating in the increase of adaptation methods: This is through recognising the importance of sustainable development that is needed in order to resist flooding in the future. Several methods include strengthening the dike system along the red river in order to protect the bank which will resist as the flood levels rise. This needs to be continuously monitored and respond to dike emergencies through specific strengthening methods. Maintain the river bed so that silt doesnt build to an extent where flood levels will rise and spills over. Infrastructure will need to be raised and housing willl need to be relocated so that they are within a resilient and sustainable zone that isn't prone to flooding. Water reservoirs will need to control the flood pressure that are discharged from the city and into the red river. Green Infrastructure: Plant and protect upstream forests
Hihiaua Peninsula Dyke? The use of a dyke system can change the way we control flooding and potentially managing it. If we were to manipulate the landform around Hihiaua Peninsula there would be a great chance to control water within the area and would prevent the likelihood of inundation. With the site being so flat we can shape the land towards resilience so that buildings will also move out of of inundation zone. It would be a great opportunity to explore this international concept locally. 40
Research and Development Concept of ‘resilience’ and explore new strategies for urban development, such as, green infrastructure, soft engineering and green buildings Urban Resilience is the capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses, and systems within a city to survive, adapt, and grow no matter what kinds of chronic stresses and acute shocks they experience. There are many strategies that deal with urban resilience, such as green infrastructure, soft engineering and green buildings. Below are examples of how these strategies have been used in an Urban environment. New York after Hurricane Sandy Since Hurricane Sandy struck New York, much has been made of "green infrastructure" and its potential to defend cities against waves and floods. They started a programme called “New York’s 2012 Green Infrastructure Grant Program” Which included projects involving green roofs, flue roofs, combined roofs, bioswales, permeable pavers and perforated piping for stormwater, Madrid Sustainability There was a report released by Arup’s foresight + research + innovation, seeking to provide various sustainable and nature based solutions to regulate Madrid’s urban environment. Issues such as pollution, heavy storm events, drought and biodiversity loss were raised. They proposed the use of big green spaces to improve social cohesion, healthier lifestyles and increased sense of community belonging.
Papakainga Medium Density - Te Aro Pa, Kainga tuatahi Te Aro Pā is Wellington’s first city papakāinga.Papakāinga translates as ‘nurturing place to return to’ and reflects a type of housing development that is located on multiply-owned Māori or ancestral land. Te Aro Pā is owned by a private trust which represents the collective owners of the land. They have developed a contemporary kāinga (village) made up of ten three-bedroom units and four one-bedroom units for young families, kaumātua and professionals who have a connection to the original Ngāti Ruanui and Taranaki Iwi people of Te Aro Pā.
Medium Density Housing Typologies Flat Bush have been slowly become urban area, because of the Auckland population keep increasing, One of the good examples in this area is Gracechurch Drive, which built in 2008. The area has been development into 16 apartments and 4 detached houses in a 6480m2 area with a 31 dph; However the design have been limited into smaller scale.Being a small construction site, apartments parking just have a 30m2 carport. Therefore in the new development by taking carport away from the site with benefit the site. Privacy always became the biggest issue in density housing. In this case, half of the site is facing the street, which mean the privacy will reduce by people looking into the building, Whitney St is located at blockhouse bay, which is a residential suburb in Auckland. The area has been located 11km away from the city center and the nearest suburbs of Lynnfield and New Windsor, and Waitakere suburbs of New Lynn and Green Bay. The closest shopping center is Lynn mall that is just about 3.5km away, the mall has included banks, 24 hours countdown and a new development foodcourt, est.167 Whitney St has built in 2010 .The building site have designed 41 Terrace house within a 21623m2 area that created a 21dph. All of the buildings are 2 or 1 level and it accessed through the ground floors. From the housing it maintain can see it is a really large site. However with the design of the site it doesn't reach high densities of house, the size of each house go up to 180m2 and the two levels are a bit bigger as well. For the driveway design, it has been a comfortable continues driveway form like a circle, therefore this is more focus into social commentary, which it has more public area though the driveway and public green area, in the calculation see the total 5600m2 over 21623m2 , which is 26.6%. 42
Resilience Resilience in EcologyDenmark- Jystrup Savvaerket Jystrup Savvaerket was Completed at 1984, design by Vandkunsten, the whole site have located 21 units. One special thing from this design is there are a common house on the end of the road, the common have used for solo power and water collection. The walkway is a covered pedestrian street.
Site walk way and service location
The site used PV panels and water collection to create a Ecology design for the site, therefore it will taking the energy from nature and reduce pollution and cost of power to the site. Planting area also locate in the to the site this can reduce sunlight to reduce for the interior temperature. And also can produce their only food for theirself. It can also provide education to the site. Car park have locate outside the site, create a car free area. People can walk to their home with cover over the head. But this design reduce space and pollution, also it will be more safety for kids to go around Having a community center can easier to gather people together, and as specially bring the culture. Share service can reduce the waste power. Solar dry have locate in this site for people to dry their clothes.
Space been use
Interior private Non- site private Private
Public place been used
Carpark been used
Research and Development of Concept: Housing Typologies
Terraced Housing Typology Te Aro Pā Papakāinga, Greta Point, Wellington 14 unit developmentRoger Walker
Key characteristics of terraced housing include:
A mixture of 10 apartments and 4 single story homes.
Traditional concept of Whanaungatanga, (Kinship).
Kids play areas and communal garden spaces.
Areas converted for family gatherings and market spaces.
An urban approach to a cultural way of living.
Using symbols in the local culture to reflect history.
Modern, cladded buildings to serve both an aesthetic and sustainable way of living.
Honouring the ties back to their ancestors through way finding and living structure of the buildings.
Mixed use typologies Toronto Urban Farming
A space that reflects both residential and urban design.
‘Boxes’ that act as apartments, offices and mixed commercial spaces.
Live in community, always busy, always people around.
Turning different spaces into studios, markets or even classrooms.
Creative spaces adapting to different uses.
Apartments can become minature hotels, apartments and be transformed into cafes, uses constantly changing.
Conceptual Stage: Direction
Concept Phase Solutions: -
Sustainable, environmentally friendly, resilient to climate change. Design something that is self-funding, something that raises money for the community. Landscape that links the art gallery and the cultural center as the middle is all industrial, roads, cars. No real connection between the two. Create a theme throughout the peninsula Create a building that connects to the mother earth, and can be treated as a building of spirituality. It will be treated with mana. Symbolism: Fish, stars, Maui, waka etc Do not create something that competes with CBD but rather complements CBD.
Potential spaces/activities ● ● ● ● ●
Kai and manaki space (eating, health care) Stage, atrium, performing arts for communal gatherings Growing food Workshops for kids (canoe making etc) Open space for kids to play out in the open.
Residential Development Wa kainga: refers to community that represents your home. As an old village where together. ● ● ● ●
everyone lives, learns, earns
An urban way of traditional housing. Cultural ways of building, a marae palette to acknowledge the surrounding history. A live in museum that teaches about the cultural history. A place for people to come together, communal open spaces among the housing.
Cultural Symbolism Creating spaces that reflect traditional and sustainable values. Promote, teach and learn the cultural. Respect mother nature and the relationship between people and land. A place for meeting, to come together. A reference to the meeting place of chiefs, where the whales gathered. Te Kopu, morning star as a navigational tool through the site.
Our Strategic Direction
COASTAL HAZARDS BUFFER ZONES RIPARIAN PLANTING
WATER URBANISM WATER SENSITIVE DESIGN
DESIGN FOR RESILIENCE
RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES PLACEMAKING
HIHIAUA PENINSULA SOCIAL INCLUSIVENESS
TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND MAORI METHODS KAUPAPA
MATAURANGA MAORI AND TE AO MAORI
WA KAINGA > PAPAKAINGA
MEDIUM DENSITY HOUSING TYPOLOGIES TE ARANGA DESIGN PRINCIPLES CULTURAL DIVERSITY MAORI VALUES IDENTITY CULTURAL CONNECTIONS
TOURISM AUTHENTIC VS TOKENISM
RESTORATION AND PROTECTION OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE TIKANGA
TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY ECOLOGY
GREEN CORRIDORS BIODIVERSITY
INDIGENOUS FLORA AND FAUNA
Marae Palette for Housing Development How might we encourage cultural resilience in the built and natural environment? NGÄ€RARATUNUA
The rationale behind the idea of using marae palette is driven from the location of the hihiaua peninsula and the loss of identity. The site is located central to all the marae located within the area. By drawing the connection between each marae and embedding this pallette into the built environment. Recognising the wider connection and preserving and embedding identity into Hihiaua.
These connections also draw further axis points into the site which could potentially determine spatial configuration of the built elements. Using this tool of the marae palette would encourage the Te Aranga Design Principles and add cultural value to this site.
This could be reflected in the use of colours transferred into the built environment through colour and materials. This might also include the structural details which could be integrated into landscape elements as well. For example several tupuna pou could be developed into new pou which could be allocated in Hihiaua in relation to that Marae. This acknowledges the mana whenua and ancestors that will be recognised in the central of Whangarei.
The area of Hihiaua and the surrounding waterways use to be a tidal area where mangroves would flourish, having strong connections to the first settlers. In recent years, the mangroves have started to populate again in small patches as stream restoration reintroduces tidal flats.
Another important symbol within the Hihiaua history is flax. Used for weaving that would later become a source of trade and cultural learning. Reintroducing this species will encourage the green links to the old wetland and also creates learning opportunities for Te kopu through weaving.
The Kahikatea tree is evident throughout the native forestry around the Whangarei area. The cultural importance reflects its rich nature of fertile soils, timber supply and the viewshafts they created. Bringing this species closer to Hihiaua widens the ecological connections with the forest.
A local icon in the Whangarei region, the cabbage tree and any of its family thrives in native forest and wetland areas. By bringing this closer into the site once again reconnects the forest patches with the Hihiaua Peninsula.
Being the most common native forest type in the district, taire, it is of great cultural and environmental importance. Giving Whangarei its iconic landscape, this forest type flourishes around the estuary and wetland scene and is encouraged to be grown throughout Whangarei.
An excellent source of timber and of strong cultural value to the local people, the totara forest tree is found throughout the Whangarei district, ringing in connections to the Kahikatea forest.
Kanuka can be found in different areas from wetland, riverines to low alpine regions. The kanuka in Whangarei is mostly found in the wetland regions. 52
Oioi/ Jointed wire rush Used as a water filtration along roadsides, walkways and great for bank restoration.
Toetoe A large grass found in wetland ecosystems, great for planting along river bank.
Taupata is a small tree great for covering areas around wetland for shade.
Makaka/ saltmarsh ribbonwood, acts as shade and food source in salt marsh/wetland areas.
Regenerating the local plants in the area can bring back the native wetland around the Hihihaua Peninsula, creating habitats for eels, mangroves and salt marshes to flourish in the river landscape.
Eels The local stories around eel fishing and the significance to the waterways of Whangarei is evident throughout the cultural perspective. However, due to water pollution and sediment discharge, the eel population started to die out. The return of mangroves in small patches have helped the eel population to reintegrate themselves back onto the waterways. The more the water is cleaned, the more they will populate.
Sea Level Rise To ensure that all buildings or structures in the coastal environment should be located so as to avoid the effects of a forecast 50 centimetre rise in global sea level this century. Explanations and Reasons: A rise in global sea level of about 50 centimetres by the year 2100, as forecast by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1996) , will exacerbate both erosion and flooding from the sea, providing a cumulative threat to buildings or structures situated within close proximity to the sea. The policy adopts a precautionary approach to this hazard by ensuring that sea level rise is considered for all development in close proximity to the sea Sea level A base value sea level rise of 0.5 m relative to the 1980â€“1999 average should be used out to 2100. Estimated for planning purposes An assessment of the potential consequences from a range of possible higher sea level rises should be made in undertaking assessments. At the very least, all assessments should consider the consequences of a mean sea level rise Flood Flow Paths To ensure that subdivision, use and development does not obstruct the flood flow paths of rivers and the efficient functioning of natural drainage systems. Explanation and Reasons: Activities located in the flood paths of rivers and streams have the potential to interfere with the flow of floodwater. This may increase the adverse effects of the flooding upon human health and safety, property and infrastructure
This concept is driven from ecological, infrastructure and cultural resilience. It incorporates community aspirations and cultural values. It contributes to the aligned framework developed from Momentum North Group. It aims to provide an authentic cultural experience as you transition through the site.
Te Maara Kai Community Gardens
The Maara kai is also known as community gardens which are implemented into the design site as a sustainable landscape to provide for the local community and public. This is managed by keen green fingers - either the local residents or the local schools. This way you are providing educational engagement with the landscape but also reduces financial pressure from having to buy fresh produce from the local supermarket. This is nothing new but it isn't very common in cities due to the limited land available to accommodate this. This has always been a traditional practice where Maori lived off the land. It just means that we are trying to re-introduce Maara Kai back into the urban environment. It brings Maori perspective to growing food which will enhance cultural value in the area. This could also support local Marae and contribute to local events. Might also generate some revenue at local markets for those managing plots of the Maara Kai. It is a sustainable practice and very easy to implement. Not only does this add to cultural values but also adds to social, economic and environmental benefits. The Maara Kai walls behind the Maara Kai also has the opportunity to act as a dike upon our terrace system. It will enhance the terrace strength if flood levels potentially rise. The Maara Kai walls may also act as a canvas for public art to be expressed. The current patterns identified were produced from North Tec. It becomes a mural for the community to engage in and help shape their environment. 57
Te Pou Whenua
Pouwhenua or pou whenua (land post), are carved wooden posts used by MÄ ori, the indigenous peoples of New Zealand to mark territorial boundaries or places of significance The Pou is very significant in demonstrating culture and telling narratives. They embody the relationship between people and the land. There is an opportunity for these to embark and stand upon the south western end of Hihiaua as a gathering point. This is relevant in relationship to the culture centre, the surrounding maunga, the local marae and the harbour where the confluence of two water bodies meet. It connotes the idea of how whales lead the chiefs and embedding that relationship into the landscape. With a similar to the process of the Te Pouihi project outside Whangarei central library, there is a huge potential for new pou to be allocated at the Hihiaua site. This shall be led by local carvers of both Maori and tauiwi (non-maori) in order to embed culture and identity to Hihiaua. Te Warihi Hetaraka has been identified as a local carver. Local carvers have a huge influence in the built environment. If they are the key in the development process it will generate that sense of authenticity rather than creating something rather tokenistic. The Pou influences the concept of Turangawaewae and will encourage several cultural values and the Te Aranga Design Principles. Materials would be sourced locally and provides and opportunity for cultures to work collaboratively and have an input into shaping the communities they live in. This might also act as an educational initiative where students from the local kura kaupapa can engage in. We must think of tools and techniques that incorporates multiple layers of 58 ideas and aspects.
Te Wapu Hihiaua Hihiaua Wharf
Te Wapu Hihiaua aims to celebrate the waterways and improve access to connect with water. It also includes a gathering space which is utilized to share narratives about the local area. It is in axis with the Maunga Manaia creating a viewshaft which is also aligned with the cultural centre . You are able to view Parihaka from the wharf as a panoramic view, This location allows people to draw that connection with significant features in the area. It also provides an area for Karakia and encourages Mahinga Kai activities. People are able to access the water for swimming, fishing or gathering kai. Multiple values and principles have influenced the implementation of this built component.
Hihiaua Amphitheatre Open Space + Events
The Amphitheatre provides a space for gathering which is derived from the cultural narrative of the gathering of the chiefs. It provides a pleasant view out to the Whangarei Harbour, Waiarohia Stream and the Hatea River. It is spatially configured towards the harbour in relation to Te Koopu, Parihaka and Manaia. The front end of the amphitheatre is accommodated by a level of open space which can be utilized by staging events. For example Matariki occurs annually and provides an opportunity for local schools to display performances and connect with the community. This enhances social and cultural value to the area. The terraces of the amphitheatre allow the sea level to rise and bring the water back onto the site. If it does increase. It may reduce the amount of space available to public but allows the water to reclaim the land. It is a mitigation measure used to mediate the flow of seawater and run off from the city.
Te Kapehu Whetu Hihiaua Maori Star Compass in Hihiaua
The Maori Star compass is influenced by the Artist Piripi Smith which created a rendering of the star Compass project in hawkes Bay, New Zealand. This is only one example that could be implemented into the built landscape. It creates a visual connection to the wider context. There is a a lot of depth behind this tool. Cultural elements include navigation amongst stars and using this as guide for waka. It is more than just a compass. It is embedded with value from narratives and history of the area, This has been driven from the idea of â€˜how can we embed narratives and culture into the built environment?. These maori markers are a significant element of the Te Aranga value Tohu. It recognises the surrounding elements which are stated in the compass pavement e.g Manaia and Parihaka. It allows people to understand the connections beyond their view to create an engaging experience with the landscape.
Te Rerenga Paraoa Park
Te Rerenga Paraoa Park is derived from the narrative of the gathering of whales at Hihiaua. It will consist of constructed wetlands to control sea level rises and the run-off from the city. Through these interventions it will filter the pollutants and discharge the water back into the sea. Native and indigenous plants will be used for these filtering systems. The whale tail sculpture is influenced from Esperance in Perth, Australia. It adds to the cultural values and principles being embedded into the landscape. As you transition around the site from the town basin, around the peninsula and the end of the route will be Te Rerenga Paraoa Park. It creates both recreational and social spaces within the area as open space is very limited considering the density of people in business in the area. Environmental, social, cultural and recreational value is enhanced through the implementation of the park. It is next to the Waiarohia Stream so adds that connection to water and the potential for people to fish near by. A viewing platform/jetty would also be ideal. Further development to be explored.
Terraces and Waterfront
2 1 0 -2
5 4 3 2 1 0
Perspectives Pedestrian Zone/ Emergency Access
Hihiaua Precinct Flow and Movement
(Rep.). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.wdc.govt.nz/PlansPoliciesandBylaws/Plans/SustainableFutures/Documents/Sustainable%20Society% 20and%20Culture/Iwi-Hapu-Report.pdf (Rep.). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.wdc.govt.nz/PlansPoliciesandBylaws/Plans/LTCCP/Documents/2015-2025-Long-Term-Plan.pdf Yanweizhou Park in Jinhua City. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.landezine.com/index.php/2015/03/a-resilient-landscape-yanweizhou-park-in-jinhua-city-by-turensca pe/ (Rep.). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.wdc.govt.nz/YourCouncil/CouncilMeetings/Documents/2015/20-20-Inner-City-Revitalisation-Committ ee-2015-02-18.pdf (Rep.). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://citylinkwhangarei.co.nz/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Citylink-Map-Timetable-2016.pdf The Story. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.yeswhangarei.co.nz/the-project/the-story/ Sasaki's "Forest City" Master Plan in Iskandar Malaysia Stretches Across 4 Islands. (2016, February 02). Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.archdaily.com/781247/sasakis-forest-city-master-plan-in-iskandar-malaysia-stretches-across-4-islands Video: Yanweizhou Park by Turenscape controls floods. (2017, March 27). Retrieved April 12, 2017, from https://www.dezeen.com/2015/12/07/terraces-of-plants-yanweizhou-park-control-floods-ecological-turenscapelandscape-architecture-china/ http://www.wdc.govt.nz/PlansPoliciesandBylaws/Plans/SustainableFutures/Final-Strategy/Documents/Final-Gro wth-Strategy/Part-B-Section-2.pdf Waitangi Park. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.waal.co.nz/our-projects/urban/waitangi-park/ http://www.wdc.govt.nz/PlansPoliciesandBylaws/Plans/SustainableFutures/Final-Strategy/Documents/Final-Gro wth-Strategy/Part-B-Section-2.pdf
(2009, December 10). Landmarks: Jystrup Savvaerket, Jystrup, Denmark. Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.multifamilyexecutive.com/design-development/design/landmarks-jystrup-savvaerket-jystrup-denmar k_o Smith, P. E., & New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu Taonga. (2013, July 08). Taupata. Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/photograph/13834/taupata McLintock, A. H., Alec Lindsay Poole, M.SC., B.FOR.SC., F.R.S.N.Z., Director-General of Forests, Wellington., & New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu Taonga. (2009, April 22). MANGROVE or MANAWA. Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/mangrove-or-manawa Williams, S., & New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu Taonga. (2015, July 17). Mangroves near Paihia. Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/photograph/7512/mangroves-near-paihia Hodsell, P., & New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu Taonga. (2012, November 16). Flax. Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/photograph/5288/flax (Rep.). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/conservation/land-and-freshwater/land/whangarei-ecological-district/whan garei-ecological-district-4-schedule-of-sites-4-1-level-1-sites-list.pdf (Rep.). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/conservation/land-and-freshwater/land/whangarei-ecological-district-abstra ct-intro-methodology-ecological-character.pdf Molloy, L., & New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu Taonga. (2013, July 08). Kahikatea stand. Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/photograph/12654/kahikatea-stand Rolfe, J., & New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu Taonga. (2013, July 08). Tī kōuka – New Zealand cabbage tree. Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/photograph/13829/ti-kouka-new-zealand-cabbage-tree Morris, R., & New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu Taonga. (2013, July 08). Tōtara. Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/photograph/12657/totara Mānuka/kāhikatoa and kānuka. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.doc.govt.nz/nature/native-plants/manuka-kahikatoa-and-kanuka/ Working together to save the eel. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.wdc.govt.nz/NewsRoom/Latest-News/Pages/Working-together-to-save-the-eel.aspx 68
Smith, P. E., & New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu Taonga. (2013, July 08). Taupata. Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/photograph/13834/taupata McLintock, A. H., Alec Lindsay Poole, M.SC., B.FOR.SC., F.R.S.N.Z., Director-General of Forests, Wellington., & New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu Taonga. (2009, April 22). MANGROVE or MANAWA. Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/1966/mangrove-or-manawa Hodsell, P., & New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu Taonga. (2012, November 16). Flax. Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/photograph/5288/flax (Rep.). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/conservation/land-and-freshwater/land/whangarei-ecological-district-abstra ct-intro-methodology-ecological-character.pdf Molloy, L., & New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu Taonga. (2013, July 08). Kahikatea stand. Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/photograph/12654/kahikatea-stand Beilschmiedia taraire. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2017, from http://www.nznativeplants.co.nz/shop/Native Trees/Beilschmiedia taraire.html 1Introduction. (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://www.aucklanddesignmanual.co.nz/project-type/buildings-and-sites/housing/terraces#/project-type/buildi ngs-and-sites/housing/terraces/guidance/placing-the-building/designing-light-sun Mānuka/kāhikatoa and kānuka. (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://www.doc.govt.nz/nature/native-plants/manuka-kahikatoa-and-kanuka/ Working together to save the eel. (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://www.wdc.govt.nz/NewsRoom/Latest-News/Pages/Working-together-to-save-the-eel.aspx Multi-Unit Housing : Walker Architecture & Design. (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://www.rogerwalker.co.nz/multi-unit-houses/ Apodasmia similis. (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://www.nznativeplants.co.nz/shop/Grasses reeds rushes/Apodasmia similis.html T.E.R:R.A.I.N - Taranaki Educational Resource: Research, Analysis and Information Network. (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://www.terrain.net.nz/friends-of-te-henui-group/trees-native-botanical-names-m-to-q/ribbonwood-plagianth us-regius.html 69
Pouwhenua. (2017, March 24). Retrieved April 13, 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pouwhenua BIG's first Los Angeles project is a massive modular hill topped with trees. (2016, December 14). Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://inhabitat.com/big-unveils-plans-for-a-modular-artificial-hill-in-las-arts-district/ T.E.R:R.A.I.N - Taranaki Educational Resource: Research, Analysis and Information Network. (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://www.terrain.net.nz/friends-of-te-henui-group/plants-grasses-sedges-rushes-nz-natives/toetoe.html T.E.R:R.A.I.N - Taranaki Educational Resource: Research, Analysis and Information Network. (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2017, from http://www.terrain.net.nz/friends-of-te-henui-group/trees-native-botanical-names-m-to-q/ribbonwood-plagianth us-regius.html
Group 9 KNHER SANTOS SALLY SHI WILLIAM GILES YANAN LI
YANAN LI WILL GILES KNHER SANTOS SALLY SHI
CONTENT 1. Background...................................................................................................2 2. Brief.................................................................................................................4 3. Site Context....................................................................................................8 4. Bio-physical Analysis...................................................................................11 5. Infrastructure 6. Site Analysis ................................................................................................20 7. Socio-culture Analysis 8. Transport........................................................................................................25 9. Urban Growth ...............................................................................................28 11. Planning 12. Examples.......................................................................................................30 13. Concepts.......................................................................................................45 14. Masterplan....................................................................................................50 15. Sections.........................................................................................................52 16. Perspective...................................................................................................56
Story: Māori creation traditions Ranginui and Papatūānuku
This lintel, which was carved with stone tools in the Bay of Plenty in the
Like all societies, Māori have traditions about how
the world was created. Although various tribes tell different versions of the creation story, there are some themes in common. Most describe movement from Te Kore (nothingness) to something, and from Te Pō (darkness) to Te Ao (light). The separation of earth and sky always features, as does talk of how the gods were responsible for making the natural world.
The koru, which is often used in Māori art as a
symbol of creation, is based on the shape of an unfurling fern frond. Its circular shape conveys the idea of perpetual movement, and its inward coil suggests a return to the point of origin. The koru therefore symbolises the way in which life both changes and stays the same.
1850s, shows Ranginui (the sky) and Papatūānuku (the earth) during the stage of creation known as Te Pō (darkness). The spirals represent light coming into the world. The following Ngāti Raukawa version of the subsequent separation of Rangi and Papa was dictated by Hūkiki Te Ahukaramū in the 19th century: Ka moe [a] Rangi i a Papatūānuku, te wahine o Tangaroa, i pūremutia e Rangi … Ka puta ki waho ko … Tānenui-a-rangi …Ka whakaaro rātou kia puta iho te rā i te kēkē o Rangi. Ka mea [a] Tānenui-a-rangi ‘Tēnei te rā kei runga e whiti ana’. Ka mea [ia], ‘Me toko tō tātou matua kia waiho ko te wahine ko Papa hei matua mō tātou’. Ka mea rātou, ‘Tokona, wehea rāua, kia tau kē te wahine kia tau kē te tāne, kia tupu ai tātou ki te Ao’. Kātahi ka tokona te rangi. E tū iho ana a Rangi e takoto nei a Papa.
The sky (Rangi) cohabited with the earth (Papa), who was the wife of the sea (Tangaroa). She was seduced by the sky. They had a child whom they called Tānenui-a-rangi (Tāne, great of the heavens). … The family thereupon decided that the sun should be allowed to shine through the armpit of the sky. Tānenui-a-rangi said, ‘The sun shines above’. He then said, ‘Let us raise our father above and leave the female, Papa, as our parent’. They joined in and said, ‘Raise him up, separate the two. Let the female be set apart, let the male be set apart so that we may prosper in the world’. The sky was then raised above. Hence, the sky stands above and the earth lies below.
CULTURE Story: Waka – canoes
New Zealand’s abundance of wide-girthed trees such as tōtara meant that Māori could
build much more diverse waka (canoes) than in their Polynesian homeland. They developed a variety of vessels for coastal and inland waterways. Each had its special function, from the grand carved waka taua for war parties, to handy rafts for fishing. Story by Hoturoa Barclay-Kerr
ānau ----Curve,Ramble,Wander The Origin of the Maori Curve and Spiral The feature in which Maori carving art transcends all the rest of Polynesia is the use of the curve, and especially the spiral. In the bow and stern pieces of the canoes it is called by the natives pitau, the name for the centre frond of an edible tree-fern. And there it has indeed a strong resemblance to the young half-uncurled fern frond. But in tattooing and in the carving on the bargeboards and lintels of runangas and patakas it does not so closely resemble this; whilst in some of the older bow-pieces of canoes the two spiral whorls are more concentric than the fern frond, and in far the larger majority of those open-work carvings it is a double spiral that appears, and not a single spiral, such as this vegetable model would suggest. But the feature in which Maori carving art transcends all the rest of Polynesia is the use of the curve, and especially the spiral. In the bow and stern pieces of the canoes it is called by the natives pitau, the name for the centre frond of an edible tree-fern. And there it has indeed a strong resemblance to the young half-uncurled fern frond. But in tattooing and in the carving on the bargeboards and lintels of runangas and patakas it does not so closely resemble this; whilst in some of the older bow-pieces of canoes the two spiral whorls are more concentric than the fern frond, and in far the larger majority of those open-work carvings it is a double spiral that appears, and not a single spiral, such as this vegetable model would suggest.
Climate Change Projections of future sea-level rise due to climate change will cause lower freeboard on coastal flood-mitigation structures, increased inland influence of tides and a flattening of river slopes in coastal reaches in some locations. The reduction of a riverâ€™s slope reduces the energy of the flood flow, increases the depth of flow and reduces the sediment-transporting capacity potentially leading to aggradation in the channel. A risk-based approach can be used to assess the sensitivity to different amounts of future sea-level rise. Preparing for Coastal Change provides guidance on planning for future sea-level rise and recommends assessing the potential consequences of a range of future possible sea-level rise values. The most common weather-related cause of river flooding in New Zealand is heavy rainfall, which can greatly increase water levels in rivers and lakes and cause water to overflow into surrounding areas.
Site Characteristics 24.6 hectares. 840M away from CBD Hihiaua peninsula is a long spit that is connected to the Whangarei CBD. It is a hub of Maori Culture within the district and acts as a beacon and an en-
trance between Whangarei and the Pacific Ocean. Hihiaua Peninsula can be accessed by its three main entrances: Reyburn House Lane, Lower Dent Steet and also Herekino Street. Now Hihiaua is a neglected mixed used baron land where very little development takes place. Hihiaua is bustling with potential when it comes to tourist attraction. with its 24.6 hectares of land plenty of development and future projects can be overcome. New centres to learn about maori culture, new areas for young ones to play and finally popular hubs for visitors to live and work can be designed within this area. Hihiaua is ripped for the taking. Hihiaua is very flat which makes it susceptible to flooding especially within the next 50 years where the entrance of the site can be engulfed with sea water. Hihiauas highest point would have to be 8 meters above sea level which can be found on the north western entrance of the site and the lowest is 2 meters above sea level which can also be found in the tip of the spit. The lands geology is made up of clay and sandstone making it very vulnerable from erosion especially on the banks. This factor was solved by locals planting exotic South American mangroves but was removed later by unknown reasons. Contamination of storm water leaching into the fresh water estuary is also another factor that Hihiaua experiences. Pollution from the urbanisation of hihiaua is not taken care off. Very minimal filtration of water develops along the site therefore spoiling the water that exits into Whangarei Harbour. Another contaminated source is also the Landfill that can be found on the eastern side of the peninsula across Hatea River.
This area is covered by water and wastewater. They are full of peopleâ€™s life. As for wastewater, people have to pay attention to the reasons. There are 13 million litres of wastewater treated on average every day. Occasionally, pipes blockages causes overflow into the surrounding area. However, the common causes of blockages are fat build up, material/rags, plant roots or silt. Also, wet weather spills are caused by rain water draining into the sewerage system. During storm events, when sewer pipes are full, the excess flow is diverted into the tank and stored. Once the storm has passed, the wastewater is pumped back into the sewer pipes to be treated at the main plant. The tank is sized to cope with most small storms and can store 1,000 cubic metres of wastewater. During larger storm events the wastewater is treated in the tank using ultraviolet light before being discharged into the Hatea River.
The Hatea Loop Enjoy the 4.2km Hatea Loop - a fully accessible walkway incorporating the
Whangarei Town Basin Marina precinct, Sculpture and Heritage Trails.
SITE ANALYSIS TRANSPORT From
site to inner city, its convenient by cycling or walking, keeping out car from city site, increasing people go to some nearly place by walking or cycling .
Takahiwai clay The Yellow-brown clays of high with mod-
erate natural fertility occupy large areas of rolling and hill country between Whangarei and Bay of Islands. They have brownish mellow granular clay loam topsoils and yellowish-brown nutty subsoils. Many of the soils are somewhat shallow; but the rock is within 2ft, or so of the surface. Meanwhile, the soils of moderate natural fertility are more extensive, well-known types near Whangarei that being he Waiotira clay loam, formed on sandstone and the Marua clay loam on greywacke. These soils support fair pastures when adequately top-dressed with lime and superphosphate and on the easier country many dairy and fat lamb farms are situated on them. Because of the greater difficulty in topdressing, pastures on the hill country are less easy to maintain.
MASTERPLAN PRINCIPALS Live Work Play
This masterplan enables key Live work and Play attributes. Having a variety of mixed use buildings scattered on the edges makes for a lively and interactive space, the residential mixed use blocks allow for an open view on living, Shared facilities will accommodate 350 apartments 150 of which along the water’s edge. These facilities will vary in size to suit the needs of all shapes and sizes of families and individuals. Having these buildings on the water’s edge will create a playful atmosphere where commercial and retail space can flow onto the streets and interact with the people of the town in a playful way. One carpark facility will be located on the corner of the site encouraging people to venture through Hihiaua by other means and enjoy the culture and the atmosphere first hand. Green space flourishes the length on the site with lots of small pocket parks. These pocket parks have a special environmental use as well.
The masterplan originates from a variety of cultural narratives that have been incorporated into the design as a part of working with the Te Aranga Principals guidelines. We decided that a landmark building for the site would be an adequate feature. It would give a beacon and wayfinding landmark to the city. This landmark tower rangi ki te moana. Which uses Te Aranga principals in its design. It is the Maori story of creation and shows the connection between Ranginui the sky and Papatunuku the earth and the darkness between them which allowed creation of their children. You’ll see the tower broken up into the 3 sections the earth, the sky and the creation. As you move through the tower you appreciate the levels of creation and in the sky element you can overlook the breath-taking views of Whangerei. The curves of the raised walkway mirror the local river as it weaves through the land. The paths that cross the site relate to traditional weaving patterns. The path symbolises the journey of a waka through the site to the land taking you all the way to rangi ki te moana. Culture can breathe through this site with view shafts created between buildings so the people of Hihiaua can have a strong visual connection to their mountains. Culture will live and breathe through all elements of this design
Everyone should be guardians of this land that we step upon. We’ve made a conscious decision to incorporate Kaitakitanga principals into our design so that all people of the land can be a guardian.one of the ways we plan to do this is in the Hydrology scheme. Water is a very essential component of the people of Whangarei. Our goal with our project is to revitalise the contaminated water from flowing into the Hatea River and the Raumaunga Stream. In our project, we have collaborated as Architects and Landscape Architects to create a new Hihiaua Peninsula that is capable of sustaining and enhancing itself. Our first plan was to create buffers between buildings filtering the water flowing through the new developments this will be achieved by grading the landscape allowing the water to flow down the site with ease. Retention ponds are also precisely designed to put hydrology on a pause allowing the people to both interact and witness the water in Hihiaua. For further enhancement of the site our group has also created wetlands towards both the North and the Southern side of the peninsula allows filtration of the water before flowing into the large body of water mimicking the design that towards the residential development of Hihiaua but with less impervious surfaces. With these alterations of the site we are confident that Hihiaua’s hydrology will be revitalised for future generations. Ponds in-between the mixed-use sector will also act as rain gardens where the residents will take responsibility in planting in their own raingarden. It is the people who reside on this lands responsibility to care and maintain for the land and show guardianship towards it.
RANGI TE KI MOANA MANGOPARE WALKWAY
WHANGAREI MARKET COMMERCIAL
RANGI KI TE MOANA Diagram showing Ranginui and Papatuanukus children
EARTH TO SKY
SKY RANGINUI CHILDREN
The tower also reates to the narritive of Maui the navigator. The tower at night will light up as the stars of matariki do and can be used as a wafinding and navigational tool as our ancestors used the stars to navigate.
The tower rangi ki te moana. Which uses Te Aranga principals in its design. It is the Maori story of creation and shows the connection between Ranginui the sky and Papatunuku the earth and the darkness between them which allowed creation of their children. You’ll see the tower broken up into the 3 sections the earth, the sky and the creation. As you move through the tower you appreciate the levels of creation and in the sky element you can overlook the breath-taking views of Whangerei. This tower will be so unique as nowhere else in the world would you get to climb a tower through the elements of creation and then look out over Ranginui’s and Papatunuku’s children first hand.
The central walkway will act as a guide for people to navigate from the existing CBD and town centre to the Hihiaua Peninsula. The walkway design originates from the Mangopare (hammerhead) curve which is commonly seen in Maori design. This curve represents natural abundance, strength and determination. These ideas behind this curve are values that we hope to have a strong presence in the Hihiaua precinct. This walkway will take you through all the different elements of this masterplan in an excited raised elevation. This elevation of the walkway will leave you in constant view of the peninsula as well as the two wayfinding points at each end of the site. The walkway will showcase the whole precinct and environment surrounding. It is the key driver in the layout of the buildings that surround this desâ€“â€“ign element.
SMALL GRADIENT IS DESIGNED WITHIN THE SITE ALLOWING W
Hyrology. Water is a very essential component of the people of Whangarei. Our goal with our project is to revitalise the contaminated water from flowing into the Hatea River and the Raumaunga Stream. In our project we have collaborated together as Architects and Landscape Architects to create a new Hihiaua Peninsula that is capable of sustaining and enhancing itself. Our first plan was to create buffers between buildings filtering the water flowing through the new developments this will be achieved by grading the landscape allowing the water to flow down the site with ease. Retention ponds are also precisely designed to put hydrology on a pause allowing the people to both interact and witness the water in Hihiaua. For further enhancement of the site our group has also created wetlands towards both the North and the Southern side of the peninsula allows filtration of the water before flowing into the large body of water mimicking the design that towards the residential development of Hihiaua but with less impervious surfaces. With these alterations of the site we are confident that Hihiauaâ€™s hydrology will be revitalised for future generations.
WATER TO FLOW DOWN HIHIAUA WITH EASE
10 9 8 7 6 CLEAN WATER WILL BE RELEASED AT THE RAUMANGA STREAM
SMALL SCALE RIPARIAN PLANTING
COMMUNITY GARDENS WILL BE INTRODUCED IN BETWEEN THE BUILDINGS
WATER WILL BE FILTRATED AS IT GETDABORBED BY THE NEW VEGETATION IN THE SITE
SMALL GRADIENT ALLOWING WATER TO FLOW DOWN THE SITE
RAISED PLATFORM HIGHEST POINT 10M ABOVE SEA LEVEL
MIXED USED ROAD
PERSPECTIVE LAYOUT 4
PERSPECTIVE 1 A raised walkway flows through the site acting as a navigational path do a variety of precincts along the way such as the new cultural centre, mixed use buildings and cultural landmark sculptures along the way. The green spaces which line the path allow for a pervious surface for water to absorb. A percentage of buildings have green roofs which act as a pervious surface that the buildings footprint has used. Every building uses Kaitakitanga as a principal in where it puts back to the earth what it takes away from it. The tower rangi ki te moana. Which uses Te Aranga principals in its design. It is the Maori story of creation and shows the connection between Ranginui the sky and Papatunuku the earth and the darkness between them which allowed creation of their children. You’ll see the tower broken up into the 3 sections the earth, the sky and the creation. As you move through the tower you appreciate the levels of creation and in the sky element you can overlook the breath-taking views of Whangerei. This tower will be so unique as nowhere else in the world would you get to climb a tower through the elements of creation and then look out over Ranginui’s and Papatunuku’s children first hand. PERSPECTIVE 2 The residential dwellings in Hihiaua peninsula will cater for a new way of living as well as traditional ways. Being able to share common facilities with your neighbour such as kitchen and living areas will allow the residents in Hihiaua to have a strong community bond like no other place. Terrace roofs will allow for additional space for the residents to play collectively. The gardens between the buildings are at the resident’s responsibility. The rain gardens in between will cleanse the water as it makes its way to the retention ponds. The residents can have a strong sense of pride knowing the water they use can be cleansed by them to prevent any water contamination going into the river. PERSPECTIVE 3 The south buildings mirror the north of the site and allow for the buildings occupants to have a greater connection with their mountains and river. On this side, there are two retention ponds that can hold a vast amount of water in flood and then be cleansed and replenished using natural sediments before going back to the river. Yet again we are using Kaitakitanga as a principal for putting back what we take from the earth. These buildings on the edge will locate residential and mixed use buildings that can thrive on the water’s edge. The building will be able to spill out onto the streets on both sides creating a lively environment in Hihiaua. PERSPECTIVE 4 The northern rivers edge of the site will allow for a mixture of residential and business space to connect with the river’s edge. The occupants in these buildings will have extravagant views to their mountains and river. The corridors that connect the buildings make important view shafts to the surrounding environment. The terracing will act as a flood protection barrier to prevent rising sea levels from spilling in to the site instead the terracing will allow a controlled system where the water can flow through the site into retention ponds located in 3 locations 2 on the south and one on the north. The terracing allows people to get close to the water so they can connect with Tangaroa.
REFERENCE http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/maori-creation-traditions http://www.newzealand.com/ca/whangarei/ http://www.wdc.govt.nz/Pages/Default.aspx http://www.maoritelevision.com/news/regional/orakei-volcanoes-take-steps-curve-obesity http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-BroMaor-t1-body1-d14-d3.html https://www.niwa.co.nz/education-and-training/schools/resources/climate/overview http://whangareinz.com/activities/detail/the-hatea-loop-huarahi-o-te-whai-walkway
HIHIAUA ISLAND PROJECT PREPARING FOR GENERATIONS TO COME UNITEC INSTITUE OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE Group 10
Harris BUtt Arhcitecture http://www.hbarchitecture.co.nz/waiarohia%20footbridge.html
Presented by the Department of Architecture of Unitec Insitute of technology by Nick Slattery- Bachelor of Landscape Architecture Benjamin Joseph Meredith- Master of Architecture Losa Nimo- Master of Architecture Max Sun - Bachelor of Landscape Architecture
ANALYSIS AND MAPPING
Introduction Description History Client Vision Climate change Case Studies
HYDROLOGY CATCHMENTS FLOOD SUSEPTIBILITY FLOOD PRONE AREAS LAND USE CAPABILITIES SOIL CLASSIFICATION OPEN SPACE DISTRICT PLAN & FLOOD PRONE AREAS INFRASTRUCTURE TRANSPORT
PROJECT BRIEF DESIGN (DIAGRAM)
PROJECT DESIGN PROJECT BRIEF DESIGN SKETCHES DESIGN (DIAGRAM)
MASTERPLAN Perspectives and Secions Vegetation Leanring centre Exhibition Centre Night market Resturant
INTRODUCTION Located in the inner Whangarei Town Basin, the Hihiaua Precinct has become a central point for a mix use land space. Boarded by the Hatea river and Wairohia Stream, the land was reclaimed in the early 20th century for commercial purposes. Current purpose of the site is light industry, marine related activities, warehousing, trade servicing, retail, open space and a number of residential apartments(Whangarei District Council, 2010a; Whangarei District Council et al., 2006, Whangarei District Council and Reset Urban Design, 2012). The area is divided by Reyburn Street which provides a barrier to the CBD and retail districts, creating an opportunity for development and cultural awareness. A cultural/arts hub is proposed for the area and a number of features have been erected to begin this process such as a Hatea trail walk, or renovation of town basin. An understanding of the local contexts provides an insight into implications of flooding and the awareness of climate change in the area. Expected levels are thought to rise above the town centre and CBD which means in the next 50-100 years (Northland Regional Council, 2013.) we will see the town basin of Whangarei underwater. Therefore, been able to create an adaptive design for this means the Town basin of Whangarei can expand and grow with climate change. The local Hihiaua trust has outlined 5 key areas for a project outline and the brief is based on both these visions and the treat of coastal flooding. The 5 visions are Work, Play, Visit, Live and Learn. Case Studies from international context provide evidence that combating climate change/flooding has been achieved through local knowledge and innovative design.
INTRO STATE HIGHWAY 1
DESCRIPTION HIHIAUA PRECINT
The Hihiaua Precinct is approximately 16.5 hectares, comprised of open green spaces, housing, retail and education facilities. Reyburn Street to the west creates a barrier to the rest of the CBD providing connections to Reyburn house lanes, lower Dent Stre et, Finlayson Street, and Herekino Street, which circulate through the precinct. There are a number of smaller parking areas throughout the site, yet seems limited to the current and proposed building and recreational purposes, outlined by the council. The Hatea river and Waiaroha stream along with human influence, has created a distinctive peninsula at the end of the precinct. In the 1960’s and early 1970’s the peninsula was the result of land reclamation carried out by the Northland Harbour Board, for further commercial space. Large areas of Mangroves and diversion of the Waiaroha river took place. The area was used as a coastal shipping area in 1923 and has a reputation as a haven for international yachts (Whangarei: love it here! 2012). In and around the precinct several improvements have taken place over the years and in 1995 the town basin development began. Colonial Style buildings, retail, eatery and other local stores that aided in the precincts identity such as glass blower’s studio and Claphams clock museum. A Heritage trail links the area within the Hihiaua precinct, along with a waka and wave millennium sculpture on the north edge of the open space. The Hihiaua Cultural Centre is proposed to be built on the fringe of the reserve and urban development. This will include a theatre, conference facility, large display rooms, outdoor courtyards, outdoor stage, waka carving facility and waka store, amongst other facilities. It will attract a cultural presence to Whangarei that will extend locally and further afield within Northland. There is also a goal of national and international draw to the ‘Cultural/Art focused hub”, encouraging a centre point of Whangarei’s unique and historical identity.
HISTORY In the larger context the Maori largely represented Whangarei as Whangarei-te-rerenga-paroa (the gathering place of whales), because they use to feed there during the summer. Coupled with this, it is the meeting place of Chiefs from all over Northland. It was said that the Sperm whale or paroa represented a person of chiefly status. Chiefs of the Ngapuhi mobilised in Whangarei before war (Whangarei: love it here! 2012). Hihiaua was a landing place for many Maori canoes, with a small fishing village and a Pa, built on Okara hills. The seven-acre block was awarded a title by the Maori land court to Chief Renata Manihera, in 1867. Hihiaua was named after an incident which took place on this piece of land. A chieftain was killed during war and as an insult the enemies used the victimâ€™s body as bait for fish (hihi) for herrings (aua) (Ringer and Munro, 2010a). Hihiaua and the town basin was the first place to be settled by Europeans. The current Port of Whangarei is located on Marsden Point, 6km east of Hihi aua precinct. It allows easy of access for larger ships in the area and coming to the shores. William Carruth settled Te Ahipupurangi (Ahipupu-now known as the Town Basin) in the Hatea riverside, in 1839. Originally the town basin, suitable for smaller ships, was the hub for settlers and locals docking and exploring the area. On the South bank of the Hatea River the Whangarei town ship was founded and later moved southward around Walton street for commercial and a service centre for Northland (Parkes, 1992).
The community wants to have more employment in the area.
The group wants Hihiaua to be a recreational destination not just for the citizens of Whangarei but for those who visit the area. With the proposed Hihiaua Cultural centre , the peninsula will become a cultural and educational hub for Whangarei.
HIhiaua has the potential as a tourist attraction.
Development in Hihiaua is a great opportunity for people to live in the centre of Whangarei
Ngä Whare Noho o Whangarei
Whakamähorahora • Range of spaces, civic, sports & informal • Range of seasonal activities, events & facilities • Opportunities to connect with the water • Attractive streets
• Residential intensification • Community facilities • High quality urban design and architecture • Safe and inviting spaces • Recreation & wellbeing
“WOVEN TOGETHER TO BECOME STRONG”
CULTURE & HERITAGE
Taonga tuku iho
Toitü te whenua, toitü te taiao • Provide flood protection • Improve water quality • Restore ecological edges • Protect surrounding green network & landscape features
“WHITI WHIRI NGIA MAI A TATAU KIA KAHA RAWA”
• Protect heritage buildings • Work with Mana Whenua • Protect historic uses • Provide interpretation of heritage & culture • Celebrate local identity and unique history
Te whakatupu oranga whänau
• Educational facilities • Economic development and tourism • Regional facilities • Marine and fishing
• Connecting to surrounding green space • Integrated public transport • Second harbour crossing • Pedestrian and cycle network
This considered the hifghest risk potential in Whangarei. The precinct was orignally part of the flood plain for both of the catchment area. It is low lying and highly impervious and also because there is poor drainage in the area.
The area is a moderate land instability risk and areas along the catchment areas. It is not a absolute constraint but it is a concern for existing and future development in the the Hihiaua precinct
GEOTECHNICAL INSTABILITY The Hihiaua precinct has its Geotechnical challenges under both static and seismic conditions . The site has soft compressible soils , groundwater issues liquifaction and lateral spread which is a major issue.
POTENTIAL CONTAMINATED LAND
There ar inherent constraints when redeveloping land that is contaminated. New Zealand has a history of land contamination arinsing from the past use.
REVERSE SENSITIVITY ISSUES
LOST OF IDENTITY
This will occur when sensitive activities such as residential uses are introducedto an environment where there are existing effects - intensive activities. it will needed to be managed carefully . Stringent controls for noise , odour , parking , traffic movements and hours of operation.
Major issue , is the loss of the Maori and Pacific traditions , culture , traditions and the language . Desire for restoration , maintenance , development and advancement of the culture.
•Area to be developed with the future in mind •Resilient •Proximity to water/CBD/beaches •Willing landowner (WDC & NRC council’s own most land) •Hatea Loop (commitment from council to grow the loop) •Cheaper land cost •Multi-use development •Growth in tourism •Strong cultural element •Fast broadband/fibre •Sports fields •Community spirit •Hundertwasser/ He Puna Marama/ Te Kopu/ Town Basin and many others •Momentum en masse •Increasing strong Maori presence in business and learning
•Existing tenants/lease •Building act •Negative perception of Whangarei (need to change people’s mindset) •Suitable location required to relocate existing businesses •Current appearance is poor· •Dirty water •Silted river •Difficult access to water due to above •Poor geotechnical conditions •Dilapidating/inadequate infrastructure.
• Enrich • Experience • History • Hihiaua will be a contemporary location allowing for the sharing of knowledge and experiences. It will exhibit chiefliness and will be a place for all people.
CLIEN • Big meeting place • Shelter • Gantry • Theatre • Carving • Activities
NTS • Looking after the land • Sustainability • Not being contrained by the roads
•Create better looking appearance •Government focus for Northland development •More immigrants, more Aucklanders relocating to the region •Hundertwasser •Te Kopu- Pacific Indigenous & Local Knowledge Centre of Distinction •Hihiaua Cultural Centre •other attractions of varying scale existing/planned in the near vicinity •Riverside Drive – land available •Attractive region to live •redevelopment whilst preserving/enhancing our ecosystems and environment
•Leasees/Lessors •Lack of buy-in from all sectors •Climate change •Negative publicity •Rising Sea Level •Potential push back from current residents •Competing interests
• Ancestors • Vision from 1980 • Inspiration from the stories • Gathering place for the chiefs • History of the area • Understanding the customs • Bringing back the old
TE ARANGA PRINCIPLES Mana:
The status of iwi and hapu as mana whenua is recognised and respectedâ€‹.
Maori names are celebrated.
The natural environment is protected, restored and / or enhanced.
Environmental health is protected, maintained and / or enhanced.
Iwi/hapu narratives are captured and expressed creatively and appropriately
Mana whenua significant sites and cultural landmarks are acknowledged.
Iwi/hapu have a living and enduring presence and are secure and valued within their rohe.
Te Aranga Principles (2017).
Maori culture and identity highlights Aotearoa New Zealandâ€™s point of difference in the world and offers up significant design opportunities that can benefit us all. The Te Aranga Principles are especially important to create an environment that is in response to the clientâ€™s visions. It allows a sense of place to the landscape and an environment that is different to anywhere else. The landscape features, names restorations projects, ownerships over the land and narrative are draped over the landscape to create a unique opportunity for Hihiaua Precinct. With the impact of sea level rise, it is a new chance for this cultural hub to become a leader in indigenous response to climate change.
CLIMATE CHANGE The daily conversation. Climate Change Explained (2015) Ministry of the Environment. (2008). What is Climate Change The idea of climate change is the influence of human activity on a large amount of greenhouse gasses on the atmosphere. These gasses include- Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide. Climate change is the change in whether events brought about by an increase of temperatures due to these greenhouses gases. The increases amount of gases traps the sun radiation that enters the atmosphere and is a catalyst for changes in temperate gradients in the sea and ocean cause a disruption in the cycle of water and air flows, changing the weather and environment conditions. These events include, Stronger storms, slight change in seasons, rising water templates,
Human Influence: It is likely that human influence is a result. While earth warming occurs naturally over tens of thousands of years, in a gentle and adaptive manner, Human Activity is said in crease this process through mechanical process realsing carbon emissions into the atmosphere.
An Uncertain Future. Currently, models are based on trends, variable and outliers which can all due to the uncertainty of greenhouse gas emissions. We are unable to judge when the earths response. The potential for variables to be the cause of an increase and decrease of climate conditions as based on technologies. however, the further developed these technologies, the most likely the validity of data will be accurate. The climate although is very complex, we cannot determine the velocity of weather events. A cyclone, for example, until it is in its early stages We cannot determine the damage it will cause intel days out. This flow on effect includes the worst hit areas for rain fall, the amount of unsettled land for landslides, or the amount of storm surge the storm will produce till days out. It is common understanding however, the larger the storm, the worst the affects will be on natural and human activities on land.
WN O N K
N ILL U
AN INCREASE IN STORM STRENGTH
AN INCREASED GREEN HOUSE GASES
AN INCREASE IN STORM STRENGTH
AN INCREASE IN AIR AND WATER TEMPERATURE
30 2 Y B
STORM SURGE WITH SEA LEVEL PROJECTED MHWL, SEA LEVEL RISE BY by 2100 MHWL MLWL DATUM LEVEL , CURRENT SEA LEVEL
SEA LVL RISE
6m 5.4m 4.4m 3.12m 1.2m 0m
CASE STUDY 1 QINGLIU RIVER The Qingliu River landscape is an interesting concept on how the river can blend into the city. A lot of cities design buildings around a river but they do not blend the two. This is an example of not knowing whether the art lies in the landscape or in the buildings. The approach of the design is a poetic approach â€œdancing along Qing Liu Riverâ€?.
http://worldlandscapearchitect.com/qingliu-river-landscape-concept-chuzhou-china-tract-siad/#.WO3la_l94uV http:// worldlandscapearchitect.com/qingliu-river-landscape-concept-chuzhou-china-tract-siad/#.WO3la_l94uV
CASE STUDY 2 TURIA GARDENS The Turia Garden is one of its kind. It is the largest urban parks in Spain which is 9 kilometres of pure green spaces, cafes, many species of plants, pathways, and much more. It is a garden that is never closed so this allows for the public to talk long night walks. From a huge flood in 1957 this area had been known as a flood prone area. Valencia decided to divert the river and the soil had given life to an amazing garden.
CASE STUDY 3 RED RIBBON PARK The Red Ribbon park used to be neglected community rubbish dump that they have now turned into a 500 metre long steel structure that runs along a river bank. it is used during the day and lit during the night, this attracts a lot of the public to the area. it is interesting how the structure blends in with the land.
CASE STUDY 4 BOSTANLI BRIDGE Located in Turkey and is known as the rolling bridge. It is known for a type of curling bridge made in 2004. It is a multi-use bridge for walking, lying down, eating area or just a big chill out area for people to sit and enjoy the sunset. the way that the materials are expressed makes it the foot bridge interesting. wide seating areas and is like a sunset lounge.
ANALYSIS AND MAPPING
HYDROLOGY CATCHMENTS FLOOD SUSEPTIBILITY FLOOD PRONE AREAS LAND USE CAPABILITIES SOIL CLASSIFICATION OPEN SPACE DISTRICT PLAN & FLOOD PRONE AREAS INFRASTRUCTURE TRANSPORT
HiĚ„hiĚ„aua Precinct Raumaunga River
Order of Streams 1-5 are ways of determining a streams features and idea of flow speed. The higher the order the faster the volume of water running through the landscape and therefore, the higher the chance of erosion of sediments deposition/transportation. Around the site is an order 5 stream/River. This suggests that the amount of water and sediment volume is high and would need to be considered within the design. It has already been mentioned that the peninsula was formed through the movement of the Hatea and Raumaunga.
CATCHMENTS The main rivers that form the erosion and sediment transport through and around the Precinct are the Raumaunga and Hatea River. The two rivers have a large catchment area of the rivers travel through industrial, living, business, open spaces and recreational zones. Hatea river has the main connection to the Parihaka, which is significant to the iwi of Momentum group, which is within this larger catchment. The rivers order and locality can give an insight into connection through ecological landscapes to stabilise erosion when flooding and sea level rise will occur. An observation would be that due to the larger river widths during sea level rise the tidal changes will be different, which will have an effect on river banks, and water movements within the site.
FLOOD SUSEPTIBILITY Hihiaua precinct lies at the intersection between the Hatea river and the Raumaunga Stream. With the larger cachment of water and high elevations, rain fall is likely to be mixed with sediments and run off. the flat alluvial nature fo the CBD area will have an effct on the water collection of pmaterial dispersal, as suggested on the slope map. Below is an exmaple of a flood in 2014 on the Hatea river. The amount of brown in the water suggests high sediment and erosion transportantion.. These images were based in higher elevations indicating the amount of sediments would have more chance to collect before it is dumped in and around the site. However, it may not nessisarily deposit the sediemnts, yet aid in the eroding processes.
Fig 5-7. Hatea River Walk(2014).
CBD Hīhīaua Precinct
FLOOD PRONE AREAS
Flooding in an around Whangarei has begun to take effect and recent accounts show that the CBD in particular, is susceptible to 0.3m – 0.5m of flooding, depending on the deluge (Personal communication, 2017). The flooding catchment of Whangarei is an area which is feeding both the Raumaunga river and Hatea rivers. With increased flooding, the width and depth of the rivers increases which means the order 4 or 5 streams which they originally are, would then become order 6, meaning faster flow rates and likely to be transporting more sediments downstream with increase erosion. The map suggests that the Hihiaua precinct has a few small sections of 3m contours which are above flood susceptible areas of 2m. It is important to note that the mapping and data given is based on the present-day models and does not represent any matter of sea level rise. Flooding and Business districts are quantified by the majority of land which will be occupied by business or income earning spaces. It is key to highlight the steep and higher elevation on the slope map, relfects the flat and gently landform aroudn the precinct, giving a clue as tto the areas which are liekly to flood first. Erosion has created a flat alluvial surface.
CBD Hīhīaua Precinct
SOIL CLASSIFICATION Understanding the rock or soil composition allows a determination of soils fertility and textures. In addition, future predictions of landscapes with erosion and soil movement can be somewhat understood allowing further building, infrastructure, public space, production and vegetation planning. While the map doesnâ€™t show soil type around the Hihiaua precinct, we can understand the soil and compositions of materials that will travel down the Hatea and Raumaunga river, or used to be brought onto the site. These soils could also suggest some of the composition of the existing land due to the flat almost alluvial nature for the CBD and Whangarei district, suggested by the slope map earlier. Some of the key soil type that are able to transport down the rivers or used for Urban planning in the future are: Allophonic Soils: Quite weak and loose soils made up of clay, silts and sand materials. This soil type is porous and would be good for rotational crops, limited human traffic, yet would not be the best for stabilisation for buildings (Soils Portal, 2017). Gley Soils: are strongly affected by water logging and have been chemically reduced. They are heavily waterlogged in Winter and spring normally due to high water tables. (Soils Portal, 2017). Granular Soils: These soils would be best for high production if that was to occur on some point on the island. They are soils that are Brittle yet made up of weathered and deposited volcanic ash. (Soils Portal, 2017). Pallic Soils: comprised of low colour and limited iron compounds the soil is relatively weak and fragile. The soil is made up of Greywacke or schist which is sedimentary rock what has weaker structure that most soil types. (Soils Portal, 2017). Based on soil make up around the site and the slope typography the building would have to be relativity limited or used with light materials. With the idea of sea level rise and increased erosion, the amount of sediment movement careful selection of land stabilisation wold first need to occur and large amounts of geo tech/Engineering reports.
LANDUSE CAPABILITIES The most common cover is natural and pre 1990 planted forest and vegetation. Currently there is a missing link through the CBD, while it’s not suggested a mass planting through business and Living spaces is the best solution, it allows a connection of plant species to be connected through the CBD. This also will help to re-introduce Avian species which are significant the Iwi of the site, with the promotion of species that are enhanced through bird interaction and rely on seed through transportation for growth. Flood suseptablity can give insight into the spaces that can be planted or best used for high production or low production of food source. High areas of flood would not be best suited for production yet would be good for other form of planting to control other parameters The areas around the flooded areas could be riparian edges or planting channels which control the flow of water to desired landmarks or river systems. These spaces also filtrate the water systems that would come down from higher elevations or with the incoming tide. CBD Hīhīaua Precinct
OPEN SPACE Mair park
The proposed areas of Open space by the district plan suggests that this could become a link for a green corridor or linkage of open spaces. Higher altitude open spaces provide views and breathable spaces when it is likely that urbanisation would condense. it is key to know that the open space on the precinct is close in connection with Willaim Fraser Memorial aprk and Tool Stdium, allowing for further activations fo spaces.
Mackesy Bush reserve
Open space also provides later understanding of proposed devlopemnt if further urbaisation did occur.
CBD HiĚ„hiĚ„aua Precinct
William Fraser Tool Stadium
DISTRICT PLAN AND FLOOD PRONE AREAS Proposed rural development could be a solution to flooded urban environments and an opportunity to source from the land in a sustainable way. However, current maps show production on the local mountain Parihaka, which would could provide accessibility issues. More local to the site, we see an opportunity of connection to the south, of urban environments.
WIDER CONNECTIONS Statehighway one connects the linear connections to Auckland to the South and Bay of Island to the North. It also connects to the west which leads to Dargaville and other high production areas. Riverside drive leads towards the east where there are coastal beachs and holiday destinations. This includes the surf beach Whangarei heads, Patua and ocean beach.
Blue represents the road connections to the port and sotuhern locality of Whangarei and the black are the smaller interscetion roads within the preceinct area.
Town basin HiĚ„hiĚ„aua Precinct
Road networks are connected through to the Hihiaua precinct and there is no lack of access. Walking distance to the training station is 5-10 minutes where as if you had to take the Okara drive to the south you would find that there were multiple bus stops along the way. There is no road connection direct across the rivers at this stage.
The darker grey represented on the map indicates impervious surface with little penetration into sub soils. The connected streets however, do run towards green spaces or the lighter grey where there is a chance to implement storm water catchments and wetland ponds for overland flows and flooding. event especially during the wetter months, or sub-tropical seasons.
CYCLE WAYS The sewer lines that line the CBD and Precinct areas are an indication of a pollutant issue that if flooding is a continuation may need to be planned in a way that It mitigates the chances of overflow into the waterways. 100-year flooding would become a regular cycle
The walking and cycling strategy outlines a longterm plan for improving cycling and walking routes throughout the district. This includes more on and off road tracks , safe transport systems for pedestrian and cyclists.
Proposed Business and living spaces vs Flood Suseptablity. When overlaying flood susceptibility with the Proposed Business(aqua) and Living districts(yellow) it is clear that with sealevel rise, the area is constantly going to flood more often. As stated earlier flood bring pollutants, sediments and velocity down
Town basin HiĚ„hiĚ„aua Precinct
It is important to note this is not a whole area that will constantly be underwater yet is likely to become an environment where architecture and infrastructure will have to adapt to consistent water submersion. Sediments that come with floods or king tides will allow sediments to penetrate storm water systems, or sewer system. CBD area in particular will become a hazardous zone where roads and walking access to retail and business could be shut off or cost millions to change areas that will have to adapt for aquatic environments. Roads and walking would consistently be closed due to flooding, business would suffer and economy would drop. The cost to adapt to the envirnoemnt would probably cost more rather than begining to have a contingency plan to relaocted to other specified urban developnt areas. e.g the higher elevations towadrs the north along sattehighway, or northwest for the porposed produciton land.
Design and propose a Cultural Hub for the 2020 Momentum of northland, one that takes into account Vision, Learn, Work, Play, along with the increased seal level rise. The project becomes a model for exploration, restoration, enhancement, maori culture expression, history and connectability. It is a chance to move back in time for core values of the landscape, yet in a modern aspect to keep up with current human activity and environmental changes.
View Shafts and approximate angle of View Proposed key buildings of Sites Hihiaua Precinct outline
Design Interventions- Sketches
Indicated by 3m elevation on the first sketch, the threat of a 1-2m flood reaching across most of the CBD toward the 3m contours is a large area of Urban development. This is correlated with 2100, sea level rise. At this stage of analysis the cultural centre and school are under threat of flood.
To retain the identity and acknowledgement of a more real threat of 2300 mapping for sea level rise, land reclamation would need to take place to keep the site above ground and confine to as many of the client’s needs as possible. Connection corridors to the northern banks of the Hatea could also be an option for ecology and vehicular axis from Toll Stadium. The location and centralisation of this further land reclamation will be susceptible to erosion. High points could suggest hydrology flows on the “island”.
LEARN PLAY WORK
Hihiaua learning centre and Western context.
The Hihiaua precinct creates the opportunity to learn about the land and the benefits it seeks. Education buildings which emerge out of the hill side andprovide a visual cue to enter and embrace what the precinct has to offer . Moreover, the centre is the connection point between understanding ecology and the part that humans can play to RESTORE, ENHANCE and REFLECT. Walking trails provide aOyster Bays historical recount of the impact of global warming and how the precinct has encouraged the architecture to be restored Oyster Bays within building materials or pathway features. Lastly the sea level rise allows the precinct to become a food source including a variety of shellfish or fishing locations.
Reyburn House Reyburn House
Reinforcement of the northern ban for reducing the a
“Steel arches” walkway A “Steel arches” walkway A A
Acess is through one jetty and walking trails for miminal impact on the land. School
Access and Connection
Central access to the Precienct allows connection to the Cultural Centre and School. The school provides learning opportunites and is an an easily connnected location to the landscape.
The new Hihiaua road provides a conncetion from Toll Stadium to the north banks of the Hatea river, then onto Statehighway 1 .
Work and Play
f coastline stability, especially on nk of the Hihiaua precinct, is key amount of sedmintation.
A large Jetty allows boats and ferries to take visitors to the island and discover what the precinct has to offer. Resturants and eating establishments allows a small income for the isalnd and reflection on the surrounding landscapes to the northern area. The tides can be seen lapping up on the shores of the northern Banks of the Hatea river . Walking tracks lead to the Reyburn Historical house, learning enviromnments and self discovery opportunities.
Set 300 Years into Global warming since the understanding of sea level rise, . The projected Masterplan of Hihiaua precinct takes into account a 3 metre sea level rise with new land developments and restricting. It protects the value of this centralised meeting place for Whangarei and Afar. The island become a restoration and enhancement project for learning and cultural purposes. It becomes a meeting place as an for combating Climate change through ecology and limiting the impact of human impacts.
The Cultural Centre and School pprovides local and users of the land to learn off the land and discover is rich history. Access routes are through Hihiaua Precinct The proposed resereve has become a linearl connection to the Wave and Wakak sculptures, footbrige of the Paumaunga River and an access point for those that are using boats.
WETLAND ELEVATED TERRAIN h
wa a k uta s h o ptu P Rata y l a or Euc
The Learning centre provides a chance for people to discover and learn about native and a small percent age of exotic vegetaion. Protected Pohutakawa, Kauri or Puriri could heighten the appareance of the island and in summer, the glistening red would become a beacon of attraction. Vegetatin connects avain species through green corridors re- establising species such as keruru, weka or hearing the vocals of the Tuis amongst the canopies.
Restore and Reflect
Old Steel bars and framing from warehouses create a linear connection perspective, an an asthetic attraction.
Visit & Play
Wetland /Tidal Planting.
Wetland and tidal planting selection would be an initial planting stratgey to allow for stablisation of the lower elevations. Genreally, wetland planting is mass planting of species and denoted by % on planting maps. Hihiaua precienct is unique in that it could create areas of learninig through Wetland rotations. Cultivations of wetlands or studies of their envrineomtns, coupled with the interaction between tidal watres, would be the first understanding of how the water is chemically made up, tmeperatures and velocity. Wetland planting has the abliity to be easliy transported through water and human influnce which creates a great trial and era space, for later and further growth through the precient. The understanding of sediments would also take place and in which plants can be cultivated to other sections of the island to stabilise or enhance soils. Wetland plant also allows final or initial fliteration of pollutants that may enter the site.
Shrub to canopy trees.
Some Species of Planting
Canopy trees or larger specimen trees that are planted on the precinct are orientated so that they create shade for the undergrowth and to establish a connected plant cycle. This will then transfer to other open spaces. Selective planting would be situated on higher elevations 6+ so that when trees reach maturity their seeds are able to travel down small streams that can come from site into the river and further afield. Creating a connection through water to other areas of Whangarei.
Wetland Oioi (Apodasmia similis) Sea rush (Juncus kraussii var australiensis) Harakeke (Phormium tenax) Mountain flax (Phormium cookianum) Glasswort (Sarcocornia quinqueflora) Stipa (Austrostipa stipoides) Eel grass (Zostera marina) Taupata (Coprosma repens) Mākaka/ saltmarsh ribbonwood (Plagianthus divaricatus) Knobby clubrush (Ficinia nodosa) Cabbage tree (Cordyline australis) Mangrove (Avicennia marina subsp. Australasica) Toetoe (Austroderia splendens)
Trees would also represent a symbolic connection to history and context of the sight. The Tairare tree for example, was a well established tree until it began to become more fragmented within the landscape. Re introducing onto the site would be a gradual process as these species take years to develop to mature plants. Initially complemented with undergrowth of flax and larger ground covers, this species of plant is able to survive and enhance. A plant such as the Tairare would be seen from other areas of Whangarei and would be landmark for Hihiaua. Secondly, would be selectively placed towards the centre of the island away from some of the harsher environments during the juvenile years to establish growth. Smaller Canopy trees provide a undergrowth a food source for other plants that are either above or below. Some species such as manuka or kanuka are great for Bee populations, which in turn would populate other species of plants. Bordered around the edges or nearer to the waterways Kanuka in particular is a hardy and durable plant selection for the conditions proposed with Climate change. These plants coupled with nitrogen fixing plants such as Alfalfa ground cover is a great way to fix the soil to a balanced state so that the larger trees are able to achive optimum growth levels. This replenishment cycles means that people are able to live off the forest with food production plants, as long as the solid becomes high in nutrients. The process of fixing the nitrogen in the soil promotes harvesting species to survive for Humans and a learning and education experience about the forest. This also not only visitors but iwi to have a strong relationship to the land, a landscape that gives back and enhances. Community shared spaces. •Planting surrounding on-site roading and community buildings, would become “Clumped” , allowing a more connected feel to the immediate landscape. This style of planting gives the sense of space a natural feel and that the green spaces are not manufactured. It allows a personal input to the planting strategy that reflects the immediate landscape and architecture Structure, creating pockets of micro climates. Smaller grasses grouped in 7, 11 or 13 plants, shrubs at 3 or 5 and specimen trees at 1. This provides a correlation to natural flora patterns. Linear planting of the same species reflects a colonial nature of planting, yet the clumped effect can still be expressed. The collective grouping of plants in a linear fashion can become. •Planting surrounding the shared zones, except for large specimen trees, is suggested that low lying planting allows clear visibility especially when their are children. Rain gardens, around collects run off from roading and altered walking spaces that will promote run off. Rain gardens can aid in the filtration of toxins or sediment breakdown through a structure of biotic metabolism. Waste products are then mitigated before entering any waterways. Auckland regional council. (1998),
Cultural plants & Communal garden Taupata (Coprosma repens) Kawakawa (Macropiper excelsum) Nikau (Rhopalostylis baueri var. cheesemanii) Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Pukio (Carex secta) Purei (Carex dissita) Oioi (Apodasmia similis) Trees and Shrubs Manuka (Leptospermum) Kanuka (Kunzea ericoides) Mahoe (Melicytus ramiflorus) Puriri (Vitex lucens) Pohutakawa(Metrosideros excelsa) Kaktieha(Dacrycarpus dacrydioides) Totara(Podocarpus totara) Tairare(Beilschmiedia tarairi)
NICK, LOSA, MAX & BEN
Refrecne list Auckland regional council. (1998). Native forest revegeation facts. Retreived from: http://www.naturespace.org.nz/sites/default/files/u4/Native%2520Forest%2520Restoration.pdf Clement, A., Fuller, I., & Holt, K. (2012). 145.121 Introdction to Geogrpahy. Retrived from massey.ac.nz. Climate Change 101 with Bill Nye | National Geographic :(Dec 2, 2015) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EtW2rrLHs08 Soils Portal. (2017). Collier, K. J., Cooper, A. B., Davis-Colley, R. J., Smith, C. M., & Williamson, R. B. (1995). Managing Riparian Zones: A contribution to protecting New Zealandâ€™s rivers and streams. Wellington, NZ: Dept. of Conversation Hatea River Walk (2014). Story July 2014. http://hateariverwalk.weebly.com/storm-july-2014.html Ministry of the Environment. (2008). Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for local government in New Zealand. Northland Regional Council. 2013. Whangarei City 100Yr Flooding Model. Northland Regional Council, Whangarei Parks, W. F. (1992) Guide to Whangarei City and District. Rossiter Printing, Whangarei Soil order(2017). Retrived from: https://soils.landcareresearch.co.nz/describing-soils/nzsc/soil-order/pallic-soils Te Aranga Principles. (2017). Auckland Desing Manual. Retrived from: http://www.aucklanddesignmanual.co.nz/design-thinking/maori-design/te_aranga_principles#/design-thinking/maori-design/te_aranga_principles/guidance/ahi_k%C4%81_living_presence. The daily conversation. Climate Change Explained . Published on Dec 2, 2015 . https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ifrHogDujXw&spfreload=5 Whangarei City link. (2016). Retrived from https://www.google.com/maps/d/viewer?mid=1HYlJjUaHc-tTpCuTjMmy_sSFzms&hl=en_US&ll=-35.7249144%2C174.3235016&z=1 Whangarei District Council. 2010a. Whangarei District Growth Strategy: Sustainable Futures 30/50. Whangarei District Council, Whangarei. Northland Regional Council. 2013. Whangarei City 100Yr Flooding Model. Northland Regional Council, Whangarei