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N KNOWLEDGE L W D

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KNOWLEDGE E

KNOWLEDGE

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EDGE

The London School of Architecture


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DGE

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KNOWLEDGE E

KNOWLEDGE

DGE Linda Malaeb, Nancy Jackson, Charles McLaughlin, Carrick Blore, Xavier Smales, Lucy Steeden & Sasha Nakitende

EDGE

The London School of Architecture With many thanks to Akari Takebayashi & Peter Swallow


C O N T E N T S 1. Abstract 2. Introduction 3. Method & Procedure 3.1. Site Specificity: history, man made & natural environment A. Historic Context B. Wider Context C. Elements & Thresholds D. Ecology 3.2. Boating analysis A. History of the boats B. Interior Elements C. Inputs & Outputs D. Social Interactions E. Boating Survey F. Kit of Parts 3.3. Defining our Purpose 3.4. Narratives 3.5. Model Studies A. Defining community B. Placemaking C. Sharing D. Scale Analysis E. Housing Study F. Adaptability G. Material Details

3.6 Ergonomic Study of Social Interactions

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C O N T E N T S 4. Results 4.1. Nature & People 4.2. Boaters & Land 4.3. Dwelling Element 4.4. Sharing 4.5. Conflict 4.5. Placemaking 5. Discussion

4.1. Reflections on Symposium Feedback 4.2. Density Comparison 4.3. Quantitative Findings 4.4. Qualitative Findings

7. Conclusion 8. Bibliography

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8


A B S T R A C T

The reality of waste produced in cities is alarming.The design seeks to address a new way of living to reduce consumption and waste production. A prevention rather than a cure.

be cherished. Currently, the site lacks a relationship with the river and neglects the existing industry buildings. Therefore, there is a need to rethink the way we use our spaces within our private dwellings. Sharing with neighbours can allow for both interaction and conflict.

Can an architecture seduce the processes to become more sustainable?

The possibility to share more should be seen as a type of a luxury, not a compromise.

We conducted a site-specific approach that analyses the contextual, environmental and social conditions of Lea Bridge Depot, a concrete site that is nestled between vast green areas of the River Lea. From several site visits, we collated evidence from the flows of interaction between passers by, residents and the boaters along the river. We recorded data through interviews, surveys and social ergonomic studies.

An opportunity to re-imagine the existing buildings on site and reinstate an industry element, can allow for the sharing of skills, knowledge and items. In particular, items that need not to be accustomed within individual homes. Instead, sharing is a way to reduce consumption and give way towards a growing sustainable community.

Nature caresses the site with bird sanctuaries and historic filterbeds. Gathered research from the boating community identifies that their idiosyncrasies should be celebrated through an architectural form. Learning from the the itinerant boat-dwellers is integral for the project to create a sense of belonging within the city. Human interaction should

From looking at the boating community that live on London’s waterways, we value the potential towards living with less space and exploit accessible facilities within the close reaches of the city.

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material cycle maker space

LIVING WITH LESS

SHARING WITH MORE

housing typology new community

CLOSER TO NATURE connection to the wider community

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I N T R O D U C T I O N Can an architecture alter living processes to be more sustainable?

Defining Sustainability

- Designing for rich human experiences - Designing for maximizing performance - Designing for fitness to the context of ecological systems - Designing for manifesting cultural meaning

The word sustainable appears in the Oxford English Dictionary (2001) meaning, in the sense we use it in design: ‘Utilization and development of natural resources in ways which are compatible with the maintenance of these resources, and with the conversation of the environment, for future generations.’

“Equally necessary is attention to the subjective, psycho-cultural factors in devising a vision of a sustainable way of life sufficiently enticing to inspire impetus towards its realisation. Such a vision of deeply satisfying way of life in an environment offering extraordinarily rich choice of non commercial activities and experiences - in which its residences grow up, mature and age in the embrace of community and nature - cannot be realised at a scale smaller than a neighbourhood.“

This contemporary definition is a narrow view of sustainability. In terms of sustainable architecture, we tend to focus on the performance of buildings alone - you only need to look at BREEAM to see this. “Integral designs for sustainability are found in considering multiple levels of complexity - in the intersecting domains of self, culture and nature”

- Peter Buchanan

- Mark DeKay

Our project’s definition for sustainability can be summarised in 3 parts:

Integral sustainable design is a holistic approach which considers all four quadrants human knowledge and experience:

Living with Less Sharing with more Living closer to nature

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Procedure

Symposium 1

Symposium 2

Symposium 3

Research

Stories

Proposal

- Data and statistics - London’s waterways - History of the River Lea - London’s waste - The Boating community - Interview - Site visit - Kit of Parts - Self Builders - History of the Lea Valley

- Site chosen - Site Visit & analysis - Stories - Recording experience - Industry - Housing - Masterplan iterations - Plans - Project aims

- Site connections to London - Site visit - Primary data in real time - Application of research - 7-phase masterplan - New waterways - Interaction with boats - Sharing and Industry - Ergonomic studies of social interactions -Placemaking - Proposal vs London space standards - Housing and density

Process Elements

Integral Theory

UN Sustainability Development Goals

London Space Standards

Feedback “What if there is a problem with how we all live? Could we all be thinking more like the people who move, and therefore, more likely travel with less and are by necessity required to treat our domestic setting in a careful way?”

“Where are your references for an unseen kind of architecture going to come from? The boaters? The industrial heritage?”

“An incredibly provocative project - it raises a lot of questions about what is the role of housing in society beyond being simply somewhere to live”

Nigel Coates

Bob Allies

David Kohn

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M E T H O D S

&

P R O C E D U R E

The research of our design think tank takes the form of an experiment.

The procedure is conducted through strategic actions : Embed an architectural proposal through a site-specific approach. Identify the unique spatial and social qualities of the boating community.

The New Knowledge is gathered throughout a 14-week long process, that begins from initial research of the River Lea and life on water to a researched framework that challenges the orthodoxy of how we live in the city.

Challenge public, private and shared activities. Define living and sharing space standards.

The procedure taken consists in the development of research throughout the three symposiums and incorporating the feedback received within our strategic actions for the project.

Connect industry with living and the wider community. Grow existing ecology through a site strategy.

The research is expressed through a range of mixed media - moving image resulted in being the optimum method for recording the data collected. The process of film-making, as a whole, has allowed the development of experiential stories through the proposal, both on site and in real time.

0:27 - Symposium 2

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Methods & Procedure

S I T E

S P E C I F I C I T Y

History, Man-made & Natural Environment

The research project is located along the River Lea. The site of interest is within the Lea Valley Regional Park, between Leyton and Clapton.

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Bargee Children (Late 1940s)

Bargee Children (Late 1940s) 16


Methods & Procedure: Site Specificity

H I S T O R I C

C O N T E X T

The River Lea was the main artery that fed, fuelled and cleaned central London for over 100 years between, 1750 -1860. Some of the first goods to be produced along the canal was gunpowder, porcelain and timber manufacturing. Fruit and vegetables were also grown here within the nutrient rich soils along the water’s edge. The Lea Valley was known as the leading market garden of Britain.

The Lea Valley Regional Park was set up in 1966 by a unique Act of Parliament as a “green lung” for London. The Olympic bid was won in 2005 and the games held in 2012. The area has now been established with world class sporting facilities. Many of the industrial buildings today have been re-occupied by multiple, smaller manufacturing companies, as well as private development sites for waterside housing.

As populations grew and industry became more established; trading textiles, flour and arms weapons, the river was not only used for transportation, it was also an open sewer. After a devastating cholera outbreak in 1854 killed 20,000 people, Abbey Mills Pump Station was built, and the sewage systems that follows the River is still serving London to this day. Rail transportation began to improve in the early 1900’s, and after World War I, much of the Lea Valley was consumed by 30,000 greenhouses to feed London’s growing taste for exotic foods. After World War II, the manufacturing and processing of goods began to decline. Around this time was when Abercrombie drew his famous London plan, reimagining the derelict waterway as the ‘playground for London’.

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Manufacturing

Match Girl’s Strike

1868

Abbey Mills Pumping Station

1860

Sulphur made at Coke Company

1854

20,000 deaths from cholera

1760

Leading market garden for Britain

1850

Tanning, textile and timber production

1749

Bow Porcelain Factory

1818

Wright’s Flour Mill

1665

Waltham Abbey Gunpowder Mills

1816

Royal Small Arms Factory

Lee Navigation 1771

Barges

River Lea

Houseboats

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1800

Navigation disputes 1595. Ruled in favour of house boats

1650

First navigation

1 AD

1000 AD

1888

1828 -1838, canal transport reaches its peak


Time-line - River Lea

Girl’s

Manufacturing & life on the water

Mills ng Station

ur made at Company

1939 1945

WW2

1966

Lee Valley Regional Park

g, textile mber ction

1932

30,000 acres of greenhouses

1964

Lea Garden Bridge Plan

2015

Lee Valley Leisure Trust

1914 1918

WW1

Lea Valley derelict

2012

Olympic Games

1910

Rail improvements

Abercombie ‘playground for Londoners’

2005

Olympic bid won

1900

Small Factory

1929 Grand Union Canal Company setup

1960’s 1943

1950

’s Flour

Last horse drawn barge 1955

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2000

0 deaths holera

Houseboat numbers increase by 57% since 2012


Historic image of Lea Bridge Filter Beds

1:49 - Symposium 3

Aerial View of Lea Bridge depot today

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Methods & Procedure: Site Specificity

Historic Context

After supplying water for over 260 years, the waterworks were closed in 1972 due to advancements in technology and the larger, more established reservoir to north of the area.

Lea Bridge is a neighbourhood in the Borough of Hackney and the area takes its name from being the first bridge built over the River Lea in 1745. This area is significant within the history of the Valley as it marks the start of the “Hackney Cut� - the man-made section of waterway used for navigation and transportation.

Today, the old Middlesex Filter Beds have been converted into a nature reserve, with a large section of the existing beds being concreted over and now serves at a depot.

In 1760, Lea Bridge Waterworks was founded, and the first water filter bed was constructed to feed piped water directly into homes. As populations increased, so did the waterworks. Water wheels, force pumps and water turbine power were all used, and many of these pumps were houses in engine houses that derived character from Italian Architecture.

0:53 - Symposium 2

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Wider Context

Lea Bridge Depot - a concrete depot in the middle of green areas that surround the River Lea.

Trees and nature reserves surrounding the waterways of Lea Valley.

Green parks and fields that provide sporting facilities and include bird sanctuaries and natural ecology reserves.

The site named Lea Bridge Depot

The research begins with a contextual study of the River Lea and develops into an analysis of site-specific elements.

1:30 - Symposium 3

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Methods & Procedure: Site Specificity

W I D E R

C O N T E X T

Known as the green lung for London, the Lea Valley includes, allotments, world class swimming facilities, 100 full-size football pitches, a nature reserve and the Lea Valley reservoir chain. 1:30 - Symposium 3

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Elements & Thresholds

ENGINEERS HOUSE

l e a b r i dg e

1:25 - Symposium 2

c ap t i o n

d e s c rip tio n

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Methods & Procedure: Site Specificity

E L E M E N T S

&

T H R E S H O L D S

Octagonal Turbine House (1707), Bespoke Iron Detail Railings & The Engineer ’s House (1890)

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cal nity

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Methods & Procedure: Site Specificity

E C O L O G Y

The filter beds provide a home for a rich variety of habitats and species and, provides great recreational and leisure interest. The newly planted filter beds make a great habitat for bitterns and bearded tits.

“Protecting and re-wilding the world’s living systems is not just an aesthetically pleasing thing to do. It is an essential survival strategy” George Monbiot Over 200 bird species have been recorded in the Lea Valley, of which 150 can be seen every year, including the rare and elusive Bittern. There are also 35 species of mammal, from the secretive Otter to the charismatic Water Vole, a huge variety of insects including over half the UK’s species of dragonfly and over 500 species of plant.

We should design a built environment that allows all species - from mould to mice - an opportunity to compete and continue to evolve in their habitat.

2:15 Symposium 3

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Methods & Procedure

B O AT I N G

A N A LY S I S

Boats around the Lea Bridge Depot

We aim to celebrate and reinforce these aspects. Secondly, when less successful conditions are identified, we aim to seek a solution, and include this within our final proposal.

The nature of the River Lea is accompanied by the continuous activity of the transient boating community. Like elsewhere in London, the waterways are full - and getting fuller - of boaters on a range water craft, living an alternative lifestyle in London. Our site specific approach to the experiment has led us to analyse the spatial and social conditions of the boating community.

Our process of analysis has revealed new knowledge of boating history, boat interiors, how the boats work, the community systems, stories and culture.

Our analysis has allowed us to identify the successes of the boaters and their boats.

3:48 - Symposium 3

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History of the Boats

1. Human Power: 1620 - 1660 2. Shire Horse: 1660 - 1700 3. Heavy Goods: 1700 - 4. Engine: 1700 - 1955 5. Tractor: 1860 - 1960 6. Lady of the Lea: 1931 - 1960

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Methods & Procedure: Boating Analysis

History of the Boats

The River Lea Navigation has been an integral artery for the shipping of goods from Northern England to London and beyond. From aggregates to explosives, these were delivered from the strength of manual labour, shire horses and industrial automation. Currently, the River Lea is home to a mixture of wide beam barges and narrowboats. The drawings on the left, identifies a self-build approach to create a living condition on a boat, an aspect of living that resonates throughout the boat dwellers of London.

The Lady of the Lea, commissioned in 1931 measured 21m in length and 4m in width. Built out of wood in Rotherhithe by boat-builders Hyam & Oliver (who operated well into the 1960s) for the War Department, following the original plans of canal barges from a century earlier. Lady of the Lea could carry up to 500 barrels of explosives, make regular deliveries from Waltham Abbey, down the River Lea and onto the River Thames.

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CABIN THRESHOLD

Change of level

LEVELS

access Living door at a lower level, and theStern v ie w o udoor t Stern access The stern deck of the average of the window narrowboat is approximately 1m higher than the finished floor level within the cabin. This means that the boat provides a feeling of seperation and privacy, even when the doors are left open to the public space outside.

S ection isometr ic showing heigh t o f a boat’s windows in r elation to the Living at tow path.

Th e liv in g s p a c e o f a b o a t is g e n e ra lly rig h t n e x t t o a b u s y p u b lic p a t h wa y. Th e b e t we e n t h e p a t h a n d t h e liv in g s p a c e a llo ws t h e b o a t e rs t o f e e l s p e ra t e d a n d h a v e p riv a c y in t h e ir space.

a lower c h a n g elevel o f le v e l

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Methods & Procedure: Boating Analysis

I N T E R I O R

E L E M E N T S

Th e ste rn deck of the aver age n a rro w b o a t is approxim ately 1m higher tha n th e fi nished floor level within the ca b i n . T hi s m eans that the boat p rovi d e s a feeling of seperation and p ri vacy, e ven when the doors are left o p e n to th e public space outside.

Section isometric drawings show heights of a boat’s window in relation to the towpath. The change of level between the path and the living space allows the boaters to feel separated and have privacy in their space.

The stern deck of the average narrowboat is approximately 1m higher than the finished floor level within the cabin, meaning that the boat provides a feeling of separation and privacy.

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sub heading

Boater restocking coal (author ’s photo)

Boater maintaining engine (author ’s photo)

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Methods & Procedure: Boating Analysis

I N P U T S

&

O U T P U T S

How does a boat wor k?

The romance of the waterways is mirrored by the unsustainable and labour intensive activities needed to keep the boats running as homes. Coal, wood, gas and diesel are burning everyday on the river. The diesel propels the boats through the water. Other fuels heat the cabin, food, and water. Through our analysis, we have identified these areas of consumption and concluded that our proposal must aim to reduce or substitute these processes.

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diesel

sunshine

wind

engine

solar panels

turbine

movement

power

fumes

noise

the air

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ser vice boat

logs

coal

canal & river tr ust

gas

water

boiler + oven

tank

general waste

blackwater

greywater

public bins

canal & river tr ust

the river

stove

war mth

smoke

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Dutch barge on the River Lea (author ’s photo)

Fibreglass boat cruising down river (author ’s photo)

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Methods & Procedure: Boating Analysis

S O C I A L

I N T E R A C T I O N S

The boating community has a unique relationship with nature, the public and one another. This is not only due to the spatial qualities as identified in the earlier pages, but also the specific relationships the boaters have with the passing public, their boat neighbours, the wider boating community and the outer reaches of the city. Some of these relationships are specific unwritten rules, like turning their engines off after 8pm, as well as sharing stories and objects over a community social media forum.

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ser vice boat

-

connectedness sense of safety, tr ust shared customs wellbeing

- ser vices - consumer goods - par ticipation & contribution

- awareness - respect boat neighbour = contribution & par ticipation - shared knowledge

-

responsibility caring for the environment stroies, visions, goals awareness wellbeing

- pollution / natu - waste / commu

environment & sur ro

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s

canal & river tr ust

-

- gover nance - facilities - infrastr ucture

ural environment unity infrastr ucture

par ticipation stories shared customs shared goals sense of connectedness skills & abilities motivation & experience

wider boating community

- awareness - connectedness - respect

- par ticipation & contribution - ser vices

- sense of safety, tr ust

ounding neighbourhood

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There are 900 boaters on the River Lea‌

2% of them are children

50% live onboard because of sustainable living

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Methods & Procedure: Boating Analysis

B O AT I N G

S U R V E Y

We surveyed the boaters on site and through the London Boaters facebook group; with over 80 responses.

We collected data describing the conditions of the boating community, thanks to their sharing culture and willingness to tell their stories.

The survey revealed that sustainability is the most popular reason for people to move onto the boats, with the community being the second most popular reason.

Our visits to the River allowed several conversations with boaters, including Henry, who told us he would live on a boat regardless of his financial situation. His anecdotes were repeated throughout the boating community, and allowed us to compile data.

These were two results in particular that were taken forward to our proposal.

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DIY boat on the River Lea (author ’s photo)

Barn Raising, a community coming together to erect a structure

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Methods & Procedure: Boating Analysis

K I T

o f

P A R T S

Evidence collected from research and surveys we have taken have shown a culture of self-built work is present within the boating community. Key components used for the construction and adaptability to boats have been grouped within a kit of parts. These items range from construction tools, wooden planks, tarpaulin, recycled items and collected objects.

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material cycle maker space

LIVING WITH LESS

SHARING WITH MORE

housing typology new community

CLOSER TO NATURE connection to the wider community

46


Methods & Procedure: Boating Analysis

D E F I N I N G

the inner individual aw ar enes s

o u r

P U R P O S E

the outer individual s k ills & a b ilitie s

s e n s e o f s a fe ty, tr u s t

a c tiv itie s

c onnec t ednes s & r es pons i b ility

p ro g ra mme p a rtic ip a tio n

c r eat iv it y & innnoc at ion

a c tio n s to w a rd s o th e rs a n d th e e n v iro n me n t

par t ic ipat ion & c ont r ibut io n

the inner collective s har ed goals

the outer collective

tr e at m ent of t he nat ur al env i r onm ent

c ollec t iv e nor m s

b u ilt e n v iro n me n t

s har ed at t it udes

c o mmu n ity in fra s tru c tu re

s t or ies , m y s t hs

g o v e rn a n c e s y s te ms

c o- c r eat iv it y

s y s te ms & s tru c tu re s fo r p a rtic ip a tio n

c ult ur e of par t ic ipat ion & c o n trib u tio n

Using Integral theory as a framework to analyse the boating community, we found that the sense of trust, connection and participation were particularly strong.

Our project takes a holistic approach to design, considering all four quadrants of human knowledge and experience. We have summarised our aims into three themes, which can only exist interdependently; one cannot exist in isolation. For our sustainable community to thrive, it must exist under these conditions.

Collective norms of creativity and shared attitude towards community are evident amongst all boaters. However, it is clear the boaters treatment of the natural environment could be improved. Boat engines, stoves and rubbish cause harmful pollution.

“An integral approach to design is one that unites the beautiful the art of design, and the good, the ethics of design, with the true, the science of design� - Mark DeKay

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Methods & Procedure

N A R R AT I V E S

“Where is the story?� - Deborah Saunt The data collected throughout this design think tank is recorded through both a quantitative and qualitative methodology.

This experiential research depicts our interpretation of space, the life within a space and the interaction with people within a place.

The process took the form of narrative - telling a story through time, resulting in qualitative results. The envisioning of the human experience through narration and drawing is crucial for us (the designer and architect) to position ourselves within this proposal.

We used drawing to describe: 1. The day of a resident within her dwelling. 2. The process of sharing materials. 3. The qualities of the outdoor spaces and the links between them.

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1

3:48 - Symposium 2 2

2:22 - Symposium 2 3

5:48 - Symposium 2

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51


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Methods & Procedure: Model Studies

M O D E L

S T U D I E S

Defining Community

An important method that has been developed throughout the experiment has been the study of models and modes of building. As the project is exploring elements of community, sharing and living, and the following pages summarise these components which are intrinsically linked within the projects results.

Additional models are detailed within the appendix document. Richard Scarry’s children’s novel, What do people do all day?, has been used as a reference of a model of community within our city.

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Defining Community

WHAT DO PEOPLE DO TODAY?

“Communities are all different, but you know when you are in one”

There’s no such thing as society” - Margaret Thatcher

- Charles Kuralt

Interpretation of this reference has been done to understand the present community of today, and its relationship with the environment.

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Methods & Procedure: Model Studies

Defining Community

WHAT WILL PEOPLE DO?

“Community can be conceived as a process, a battle or struggle to establish linkages, connections and relations”

“Community is an unfulfilled desire emanating from the modern world” - Zygmunt Bauman

- Giorgio Agamben

A look into the future envisioning how our community will be has been interpreted if we do not live and work sustainably within the city. Time is a variable for this experiment - challenging our role as architects beyond the standard production of a scheme for the present, as cities and communities perpetually change.

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Placemaking

The diagrams explore principles of scale, legibility, safety, continuity and vibrancy of the public realm.

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Methods & Procedure: Model Studies

P L A C E M A K I N G

The architecture alone cannot create places, we must also design and celebrate the life between buildings. Inspired by Jan Gehl and Jane Jacobs, we researched people-centred urban design principles which informed our placemaking strategy.

Our proposal will be car-free and rely on sustainable transport methods to get to public transport or car sharing off-site.

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Sharing

C O O P H O U S I N G AT R I V E R S P R E E F E L D

Location: Berlin, Germany Date: 2013 Program: co-working, co-housing, community facilities Size: Three blocks with 64 apartments. Total area 7,400 m2 Client: Architects: Carpaneto Architekten, Fatkoehl Architekten, BARarchitekten

DESCRIPTION

Co-op Housing at River Spreefeld

This co-working / co-housing development was built using a simple support and construction systems. No two of the 64 apartment dwellings are alike, although they all follow the same principles. As well as the conventional dwelling units, there are six clusters of apartments that provide a communal living structure Location: Berlin, Germany for groups of 4 to 21 people. Apartments are barrier-free; there is communal use of laundry rooms, fitness Date: 2013 rooms, guest rooms, rooftop terraces, and the music and youth room.

Program: co-working, co-housing, The ground floor is largely open to thecommunity public. Thesefacilities spaces includes a carpentry workshop, catering Size: Threespace. blocks with 64 kitchen, studios, daycare center, and a co-working Available to non-residents are Option Rooms – apartments. unassigned, unfinished spaces for community, social, or cultural projects. Total area 7,400 m2 Architects: Carpaneto 6 Architekten, Fatkoehl Architekten, BARarchitekten

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Methods & Procedure: Model Studies

S H A R I N G

A N A LY S I S

Ground Floor A N A LY S I S Walkways & Structure

A N A LY S I S

Ground Floor Walkways & Structure

Ground Floor Walkways & Structure

Communal

0

Circulation Communal

5

0

5

Living / Cooking

0

5S I T E

SCALE

33 blocks S I T E S C704 A Lapartments E

Communal

S I T E SSpace CALE Outside

Circulation

33 blocks Sleeping 704 apartments

Ground floor plan

Communal

Living / Cooking

Total area 81,400m2

33 blocks 704 apartments

7

Total area 81,400m2

This co-working / co-housing development was built using a simple support and construction systems. No two of the 64 apartment dwellings are alike, although they all follow the same principles. As well as the conventional dwelling units, there are six clusters of apartments that provide a communal living structure for groups of 4 to 21 people. Apartments are barrierfree; there is communal use of laundry rooms, fitness rooms, guest rooms, rooftop terraces, and the music and youth room.

7

61

Circulation

Circulation

Living / Cooking Structure

Communal

Outside Space Pathways

Circulation

WC Total area 81,400m2

Outside Space

Sleeping

Sleeping Living / Cooking

WC

The ground floor is largely open WC Outside Space to the public. These spaces includes Sleeping a carpentry workshop, catering kitchen, studios, daycare WC centre, and a co-working space. Available to non-residents are Option Rooms – unassigned, unfinished spaces for community, social, or cultural projects.

Living / Cooking 7

Outside Space Sleeping WC


Scale Analysis

Zimmer, was not the draft of an interior design, but a manifesto for a different principle of living and thus for a new world. The design of the Co-op Interieur was not one of taste, but of economy. ‘The folding chair, rolltop desk, light bulb, bathtub and portable gramophone are typical standard products manufactured internationally and showing a uniform design. They are apparatuses in the mechanization of our daily life.’

‘‘Co-op Interieur is not just a representation of the precarious existence of the contemporary mass worker, but also the promise of a life liberated by the burden of domestic space’ A monk’s cell at Certose Del Galluzzo Monastery in Florence consists of a bedroom and prayer room, furnished with bare essentials. To learn from the monastic communities model for an ideal life in common, would benefit how the design proposal suggests a more inclusive domestic condition is acceptable. The early monks would inhabit single huts loosely arranged around a central space, allowing the monks to live together but apart and allow their own rhythm of rule.

The name of the room refers to a series of projects, artworks, exhibitions and theatre plays that Meyer produced in the 1930s as educational propaganda for the co-operative movement. Meyer, unlike Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius, steered away from presenting their domestic interiors as part of housing typologies. Meyer proposed the Co-op Zimmer as a universal space for a generic worker. The name of the room indicates that it is part of a co-operative where, other domestic functions such as cleaning, childcare are undertaken by a communal organisation.

“This monastic way of living would later become a fundamental typology of the modern world: the single cell or single room occupancy.” - Pier Vittorio Aureli

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Methods & Procedure: Model Studies

S C A L E

A N A LY S I S

Where did the spatial constraints of London’s housing derive from? After the Great Fire of London (17th Centry), they based the entire redesign of the City on the longest piece of wood that was available in the ship yards.

1 acre

1 square chain (66ft / 20.12m)

4 rods per chain (16.5ft / 5.03m)

1 house and its garden

40 plots per acre

80 homes per 2 acre terrace

Above: Typical London terrace arrangement. 93% of London is still based on this model.

93% of London is still based on this model

Where did the spatial constraints of London’s housing derive from? After the Great Fire of London (17th Century), the entire redesign of the city was based on the longest piece of wood available in the shipyards.

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Scale Analysis

Comparison of private/shared space relativity; looking at a typical Dutch barge, London space standards, and other precedents.

64


Methods & Procedure: Model Studies

Scale Analysis

3:53 - Symposium 3

Scale comparisons, showing a typical Dutch barge found on the River Lea, against London space standards, and other precedents.

65


sub heading

GRUNDBAU UND SIEDLER

Location: Hamberg, GER Date: 2012 Program: Residential (self build co-housing) Size: 1136m2 housing and 335m2 workshop space. 5 storeys Residential units: 8 - 12 Unit sizes: 30 – 150 m² Client: Primus Developments Architect: BeL Sozietät für Architektur BDA, Cologne

DESCRIPTION

Grundbau Und Siedler

Based on the principle of do-it-yourself construction, this project is a self assembly house as opposed to modular design. Families on lower incomes create their own homes using personal funding.The ground floor contains car parking spaces and storage rooms, which the Location: Hamburg, GER Residential units: 8 - 12 residents can also use as workshops. It was constructed in two stages: Date: 2012 Unit sizes: 30 – 150 m² The first stage structural frame, the load-bearing floors/ceilings, Program: Residential (self build Client: Primus Developments outside walls and the connections for building services. The second co-housing) Architect: BeL Sozietät is the inhabitants, laying out the ground plan, and forging a personal für Size: 1136m2 Architektur BDA, Cologne bond withhousing their own and apartments.

335m2 workshop space. 5 storeys 2

66


Methods & Procedure: Model Studies

w

H O U S I N G

S T U D Y 0

0

5

5

Communal

0

Circulation

5

Living / Cooking Outside Space

Communal Circulation

Sleeping

Living / Cooking

WC

Communal

Outside Space

Circulation

Sleeping

Living / Cooking

WC

5

Outside Space 5

Sleeping WC

5

Based on the principle of doit-yourself construction, this project is a self assembly house as opposed to modular design. Families on lower incomes create their own homes using personal funding. The ground floor contains car parking spaces and storage rooms, which the residents can also use as workshops. It was constructed in

two stages: The first stage structural frame, the load-bearing floors/ceilings, outside walls and the connections for building services. The second is the inhabitants, laying out the ground plan, and forging a personal bond with their own apartments.

67


Housing Study

E HACHETTE COMPLEX

aris, France -1975 Social housing, offices, r parking ey complex of 40 dwellings and l facilities split into two nt volumes

eanne Renaudie

D E S C R I P T I O NJeanne

Hachette Complex

The general floor plan is conceived as a continuous fabric which spreads out beyond the border of the plot, invades public space and establishes relationships with neighbouring organisms. Renaudie Location: Paris, Franceand separating functions Size: 9 storey complex disagreed with zones (living, working, Date: 1970-1975 comprising of 40 dwellings and recreation and function). Within the design of the complex, Renaudie Program: Social housing, offices, commercial facilities split into two used angled geometric forms to build a independent design so that each dwelling cinema, car parking volumes affected also the relationship between adjoining in Renaudie terms of Architect: units Jeanne privacy and access. Many of the dwellings are maisonettes and most have terraces on both floors. The double height living areas create sound and light connections between the two floors. A walkable continuous green exterior aims to create a feeling of freedom, and these walkways link to the pedestrian path with civic activities. Access from the street is on an inclined plane and establishes relationships with the different floors. ‘Just as he believed that each human being was specifically different, he also realized that social housing68in collective buildings should be based on grouping together different units, each with its own identity and in touch with nature’ (Fernández Per, Mozas and Ollero, 2013)


A N A LY S I S

One Bedroom Floor Area: 65m2 Outside Area: 63m2

Housing Study Communal Circulation Living / Cooking

Sleeping

11

WC

Communal

5

Circulation Living / Cooking

240 dwellings

Sleeping

11

between the two floors. A walkable continuous green exterior aims to create a feeling of freedom, and these walkways link to the pedestrian path with civic activities. Access from the street is on an inclined plane and establishes relationships with the different floors.

TheWC general floor plan is conceived as a continuous fabric which spreads out beyond the border of the plot, invades public space and establishes relationships with neighbouring organisms. Renaudie disagreed with zones and separating functions (living, working, recreation and function). Within the design of the complex, Renaudie used angled geometric forms to build a design so that each dwelling affected also the relationship between adjoining units in terms of privacy and access.

‘Just as he believed that each human being was specifically different, he also realized that social housing in collective buildings should be based on grouping together different units, each with its own identity and in touch with nature’ (Fernández Per, Mozas and Ollero, 2013)

Many of the dwellings are maisonettes and most have terraces on both floors. The double height living areas create sound and light connections

69

6 x complexes 240 dwellings

Outside Space

5 SITE SCALE

WC

WC

Living / Cooking

Sleeping

One S I T E Bedroom SCALE Floor Area: 65m2 6 x complexes Outside Area: 63m2

Outside Space

Sleeping

Living / Cooking

Circulation

Circulation

0

Communal

Outside Space

0

7

Communal One Bedroom Floor Area: 65m2 Outside Area: 63m2

A N A LY S I S

00m2

0

Outside Space

E

s

5

Methods & Procedure: Model Studies

0


Housing Study B

W B

L

KD

-1

B

KD

W

B

L

+1

00

00

PROPOSAL

+1

TERRACE HOUSE

L

L

B

B DL

B

W

B

W

KD

00

B

+1

B

+2

NOFELS

00

+1 FALA ATTELIER 5

Nofels, Feldkirch, 1993 Architects: Baumschlager & Eberle Floor Plan Type: Longitudinal Split-level The organisation of this compact row housing development is very economical, where the staircase is placed in the middle of the house and directly adjacent to the party wall. Kitchen and dining area are located above the entrance level; the living room is half a level below. These two areas are spatially connected. The vertical circulation axis ends in a large roof terrace on the upper floor, with a bedroom and washroom.

70

B

K


Methods & Procedure: Model Studies

Housing B Study

W L

K B

KD

LB D

B

L

+1

00

+1

-1

TERRACE HOUSE

00

MINI HOUSE

KEY

L B

- Entrance - Terrace

B

- Circulation DL

W

B

B

B

B

W

KD

+1

W

LD

B

+2

B

K

00

L

+1

W

+2

FALA ATTELIER 5

Halen Estate, Switzerland, 1957-1961. Architect: Atelier 5 Floor Plan Type: Transversal Staircase The estate comprises of 81 privately owned houses arranged in three terrace row. The arrangement of the homes are on three different levels and are oriented north/south. The entrance is approached through a private courtyard front garden. A kitchen is the first room accessed off the hallway. The main circulation is central within the plan. A living area and winter garden is south facing. On the first level are two bedrooms, and the top floor is another bed, wash room and terrace. The homes are large but the buildings arrangements are efficiently oriented to capture views and sunlight.

71

K

- Kitchen

D

- Dining

L

- Living

B

- Bedroom

W - Washroom


72


Methods & Procedure: Model Studies

A D A P T A B I L I T Y

Naked House (2017) A scheme focused on 22 “affordable homes�, the homes are specifically designed from robust, cheap and DIY materials. Mirroring the lifestyles of the communities who live on the boat. This scheme explores some of the themes we propose to implement on our scheme by creating a shell of a home which can later be built upon by the new home owners when purchased.

73


74


Methods & Procedure: Model Studies

M AT E R I A L

Based on the principle of doit-yourself construction, this project is a self assembly house as opposed to modular design. Families on lower incomes create their own homes using personal funding. The ground floor contains car parking spaces and storage rooms, which the residents can also use as workshops. It was constructed in

D E T A I L S

two stages: The first stage structural frame, the load-bearing floors/ceilings, outside walls and the connections for building services. The second is the inhabitants, laying out the ground plan, and forging a personal bond with their own apartments.

75


Strategic Actions

3.6

76


Methods & Procedure

E R G O N O M I C S T U D Y o f S O C I A L I N T E R A C T I O N S

From our ontological study (see page 63) of the spatial constraints of a typical London terrace arrangement, showed us that a dimension study to inform a new housing typology is important.

We tested the relationships between public, private, and nature on site, to better understand what sharing looks like in real time. Creating moments of domesticity around unique positions on the site, allowed us to document how close the public came to our theatrical performances of domestic labour. We documented the distances between our setting out of activities and the public’s route of passage, thus informing the minimal dimensions that give shape to our architectural proposal. How permeable can an architecture go, before a private space becomes public? And what does that look like?

77


Ergonomic Studies of Social Interaction

6m

2.

6m

2.

2.6m

2.6m

A bedroom, a private space for personal interactions - where do the boundaries lie between private and semi-private?

7:05 - Symposium 3

78


Methods & Procedure

Ergonomic Study of Social Interaction

1.5m

1.5m

Questioning the need for privacy during domestic tasks - Can I iron in my underwear outdoors?

6:55 - Symposium 3

79


Ergonomic Study of Social Interaction

1.5 m

2m

2.5m

1m

1m

A towpath, a space where interactions with the public realm begin to emerge - the distinction between public and private are now apparent.

7:33 - Symposium 3

80


Methods & Procedure

Ergonomic Study of Social Interaction

1.5m

2.5m

1.5m

A dining room a space for human interactions beyond your private space this is where the boundaries between a semi-private, semi-public become blurred. 6:40 - Symposium 3

81


82


R E S U L T S

2:10 - Symposium 3

As a result of the research previously shown in this publication, we have established the importance of our overarching ethos; Living with Less, Sharing with More and Being closer to Nature. These Results are providing the most critical information about our experiment. The following pages are an

Nature + People

Boaters + Land

interpretation of our brief and how our proposal would be phased on site over a period of time. We believe our hypothesis was supported and throughout this next chapter we will be embellishing each of the phases, going into programmatic details of our proposal.

Dwelling

Sharing

Site Progression Through Time

83

Placemaking


2:33 - Symposium 3

84


Results

N AT U R E

&

P E O P L E

10:33 - Symposium 3

We start by integrating nature into the site through the form of a waterway, creating an island for wildlife, contributing to the local ecology and maximising the site’s water edge. We have reinstated the existing filter beds to the

north of the site, cultivating local flora and fauna and growing bird populations.The perimeter of our site is rich with flourishing nature and ecology - we aim to grow this through our proposal, integrating people, children and industry.

2:46 - Symposium 3

85


canal & river tr ust

On site wor kspace

sunshine

ser vice boat/house

recycling bins

blackwater

wind

bio - diesel

bio - gas

sunshine

ash recycling

electric engine

wier house the air

water

engine

solar panels

movement

power

general waste

turbine

stove

noise

fumes

smoke

greywater

the river

88

war mth

boiler + oven

tank

wind

eco - coal

logs


Results

B O AT E R S

We have identified the huge global consumption and waste issue, and want to create a sustainable way of living through sharing more and living with less. We begin by introducing the existing boating community into the site through a canal waterway, between the existing factory buildings that once served

&

L A N D

the water beds. The buildings are a place for the exchange of materials and tools. And allows the boaters to repair and recharge their boats sustainably. As boaters start to occupy the buildings, they also grow fruit and vegetables in the rich soils of the filter beds.

89


B

W B

L

KD

-1

B

KD

W

B

L

+1

00

00

PROPOSAL 1 Bed Flat 49m2

+1

TERRACE HOUSE Proposal 20.8m2

L

L

B

B B

DL B

B W

B

B

L

W W KD

00

+1

B

-1

+2

PROPOSAL

NOFELS Nofels Layout

L 94

KD

K

00 00

+1

FALA ATTELIER 5 Proposal Layout

B

B

B

+1

+2


Results

D W E L L I N G

The dwelling element of the proposal is, at its core, a 1 bed 2 person unit and has a total private space of 20.8m2.

E L E M E N T

The floor plan type is a Longitudinal Split-level plan, oriented north/south and is three half floors. The half staircase accommodates the different site levels so that the bedrooms are slightly sunken in the ground. The buildings are efficient in layout due to the staircase being located along the party wall, and bathrooms.

The shared space within the dwelling is both at ground floor level, comprising of a kitchen, dining and wash area, and an open green space at first floor. Over 50% of the GEA is shared or open space.

95


98


99


Dwelling Element

Ground Floor

Ground Floor

First Floor

First Floor

Roof

Roof

CONFIGURATION 1

CONFIGURATION 2

2 X 1B 2P

3 X 1B 2P

The proposed housing elements comprise of a 1 bed 2 person unit which can be configured in various ways to integrated different shared spaces and oriented to maximise views and solar gain, depending of the buildings location. The basic structural

module is a 2.6 x 2.6m unit, the dimensioned width of a dutch barge. An alternative, accessible layout is a 2 bed 4 person dwelling. This is still configured within the 2.6m grid, and has scope to adapt both outwards and upwards.

100


Results

Dwelling Element

Ground Floor

First Floor

Ground Floor

First Floor

Roof

CONFIGURATION 3

CONFIGURATION 4

2 X 1B 2P

1 X 2B 4P

The core housing typology is a three floored duplex, creating light connections between the floors. At the lower level is the bedroom and a wc. At the entrance story is a cooking area, dining space and large shower. Half a floor upwards is a private

living area, and across is the large shared garden terrace. Above this is a framework, allowing the residence to either grow food, or extend their homes.

101


2400

-1

-1

00

2400 2400

3900

3900

Dwelling Element

2400

00

+1

+1

+2

KEY

+2

KEY - Structure- Structure - Non-adaptable - Non-adaptable - Adaptable- Adaptable - Stair

- Stair

- Exterior - Exterior

Plan illustating which elements of the house are structural or adaptable. Iso illustrating how dwellings could change post occupancy.

102


Results

Dwelling Element

New

Exsisting Existing

Adapted

Detail

Existing

Existing

New

Exsisting

Adapted

Exsisting 1

2

6

5 4

Existing

Exsisting

Adapted

Detail

Adapted

Existing

Exsisting

Adapted

Adapted

New

New

Adapted Exsisting

Detail 1. Box Gutter 2. Gravel / Earth with potential for green roof 3. Cross-laminated timber frame 4. Recycled timber panel system 5. Acoustic Panel 6. 150x200mm glue-laminated timber beam 7. Recycled timber ceiling

Detail

Exsisting

1

2

6

5

7

4

Existing

aa - section

Adapted

Detail Adapted

Detail

Detail

1

New

3

Detail

1. Box Gutter 2. Gravel / Earth with potential for green roof 3. Cross-laminated timber frame 4. Recycled timber panel system 5. Acoustic Panel 6. 150x200mm glue-laminated timber beam 7. Recycled timber ceiling

2

aa - section

6

5

7

4

aa - section

dapted

Existing

New

2 x Details explaining how structure can be modified to create additional space at ground and roof levels. 3

Detail

103

3

New


Results

Dwelling Element

hi, borrowe d peppa pig will return ASAP

looking to KS2 revisionborrow books for the kids... anyone?

please clean boots after use x

need to borrow size 9 men’s hiking shoes this week

please return the vacuum cleaner once you’ve finished - we all need it!!

help yourself to seed packets suitcase

needed for two weeks (1/4/19)

please place back neatly :)

borrowed the apple charger will give back on the 1st of april

staircases of the private areas do not only serve as circulation and light connections, there is also storage space underneath. A hammock is supplied for each home which hangs underneath the living rooms window.

Space efficiency within the dwellings is not only designed in the layout of the floorplans, it is also instilled in the furniture components of the homes. An item of furniture is supplied within every shared space, private area and outside terrace.

Water is an important resource that does not go to waste. A carefully crafted water drainage detail collects water from the growing shelves. Water passes through the holes, into a channel and down a chain to the allotments below.

In the shared space, a dining table is stored in the wall, with two chairs stored within the inside walls of each home. Storage is very important when living in a small space, so the

Image to the left, water drainage detail

105


Dwelling Element

Chairs stored in the wall

106


Results

Dwelling Element

Hammock and under-stair storage

107


Sharing

Existing resident in the estate nearby

Existing resident in the estate nearby

P ri

Front porch

Public seating

v a t e D w e l l i ng

Semi p riv ate Parking

P ri

Estatel ling v ate Dwe Front

Pubs

Pubs

Public School seating

E5

Farmers’ porch market

School

Farmers’ market Shopping School centre

Stair

Semi p riv aPostcode te Neighb r hood ou Parking

EPublic state square Boro u g hE5 Neighb

Postcode

d o ur hoo

CPublic it y

School

Stair

Boro u g h

Pubs Workplace

square

Shopping centre

Pubs Workplace

Approximately 50% of the items needed for living activities C it y are situated within the space of a private dwelling. Private dwelling

Approximately 50% of the items needed for living activities Semi-private Shared are situated within/ the space of a private dwelling. Estate / Close provimity of site, ground floor facilities of denser housing Private dwelling/ Site Neighbourhood Semi-private / Shared Borough Estate / Close provimity of site, ground floor facilities of denser housing City Neighbourhood / Site Borough City Approximately 50% of the items needed for living activities are situated within the space of a private dwelling.

110


Results

S H A R I N G Existing resident in the estate nearby

Residents of our proposal

Ground floor facilities

P ri

Front porch

Public seating

School

n

v a t e D w e l l i ng

Stair

Semi p riv ate

Estate Sem ed i private /E5 shar Neighb

C lo School

t e d w e lli

Parking Farmers’ market

Pubs

iv a

g

Pr

E5

Postcode

d o ur hoo

F e/G se Pr oxim ity of sit Public square

Postcode

Shopping centre

Boro u g h

Pubs

Workplace

S it e C it y B oro u g h Workplace

Approximately 50% of the items needed for living activities are situated within the space of a private dwelling. y C it Private dwelling Semi-private / Shared Estate / Close provimity of site, ground floor facilities of denser housing Neighbourhood / Site

Approximately 8% of the items needed for living activities are situated within the private space of a dwelling within our Borough proposal. City

32% of these items are shared between dwellings in semi-private space.

Approximately 8% of the items needed for living activities are situated within the private space of a dwelling in our proposal. 32% of these items are shared between dwellings in semi-private.

111


Sharing

Ikea Tottenham (Edmonton)

Costco Wholesale B&Q Chingford

Build It Builders Merchants

Selco Builders Warehouse Walthamstow

Travis Perkins Tottenham Tyre Warehouse Tottenham Tyres

Blackhorse Workshop Ferry Lane Filter Beds

Square Mile Coffee Roasters

Jaybee Recycling Beavertown Brewery B&Q Tottenham Asda Tottenham Lidl Tottenham Screwfix Tottenham

Reliance Veneer Timber Merchant

Screwfix Leyton Lee Valley Riding Centre

Asda Stamford Hill

FedEx UK TNT Depot Whiterock Construction Products

Factory Settings Designers & Fabricators New Spitalfields Market

House of Twenty Repair & Restoration

Asda Leyton B&Q Leyton

Crate Brewery Howling Hops Brewery

East London Energy Centre Truman’s Beer Brewery Screwfix Maverton Road

Tesco Superstore Bromley By Bow

The Remet Company Metal Suppliers

Bywaters Recycling Facility Sainsburys Bromley By Bow

Wickes Canning Town EMR Canning Town Recycling Centre

KEY Royal Docks Metals Scrap Metal Dealer

Site Location

Examples of Proposed Sharing Economy

Engaging with a new sustainable economy

112


Results

Sharing

sub heading

KEY

Settlement Settlement Residents

RESOURCE EXTRACTION

Local Community

RECYCLING

Local Workspace

RESOURCE EXTRACTION

PRODUCTION Waste// Recycling Facilities

COLLECTION

Nearby Nature

DISTRIBUTION

Nearby Recreation

DESIGN

Resident// Community Travel

USE, REUSE, REPAIR

CONSUMPTION

Residential Area

PRODUCTION + REMANUFACTURING

Walking Time

DISTRIBUTION

Local Sharing Economy

WASTE

Wider Sharing Community

sub heading

The current liner economy could would more effectively and sustainability if circular

RESOURCE EXTRACTION

RECYCLING

Landfill 16%

RESOURCE EXTRACTION

PRODUCTION

COLLECTION

DISTRIBUTION DESIGN

Incinerator 40%

USE, REUSE, REPAIR

Recycling 44%

CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION + REMANUFACTURING DISTRIBUTION

WASTE

UK’s waste Source: UK Statistics on Waste, DEFRA, 2018

The current liner economy could would more effectively and sustainability if circular

There is a UN global shift from linear economies to circular economies. In this section we analyse the local community and utilise existing establishments, aiming to minimise waste while maximising finite resources. The Circular Economy that we are UK’s wastepromoting within our proposal Source: UK Statistics on Waste, DEFRA, 2018 and the wider community is one where resource input, waste, emissions and energy leakage caption

is minimised by reducing, caption slowing and narrowing material loops. This will be achieved through long-lasting design, maintenance, repair, reuse, remanufacturing,4 refurbishing, and recycling. Collaborating with the surrounding businesses (shown on the map) will allow this proposals residents to realise these goals.

Landfill 16%

Incinerator 40%

Recycling 44%

4

113


A child, learning how to repair their broken clock and the importance and value of the object.

9:48 - Symposium 3

A couple from the existing community, dropping off an old cot to be repurposed into another item of furniture.

9:57 - Symposium 3

A new resident, collecting a ladder for their own building project.

10:04 - Symposium 3

116


Results

Sharing

Ground Floor industry

KEY

Entrance Town Hall Water Drop off Storage// Sorting

KEY

Workspace Education// Showroom// Shop

Entrance Town Hall KEY

Water

First Floor industry

Stairs// Lifts Washrooms Mooring// Fixing Canal Boat

Entrance

Drop off

Town Hall

Storage// Sorting

Entrance

Water

Workspace

Town Hall

Drop off

Water

Storage// Sorting

Education// Showroom// Shop

Drop off

Workspace

Storage// Sorting

Education// Showroom// Shop

Workspace

Circulation

Mooring// Fixing

Education// Showroom// Shop

Stairs// Lifts

Canal Boat

Circulation

Washrooms

Stairs// Lifts

Mooring//

KEY

Circulation

Circulation Stairs// Lifts Washrooms

We have explored sharing atFixing a Canal Boat Washrooms domestic and industrial scale throughMooring// communal and social Fixing Canal Boat entrepreneurship. In a domestic setting, neighbours not only share household items, but they also share stories, play areas and allotments. The industrial buildings serve the boating

community, as well as the new and existing residents of the area. We have imagined the use of this sustainable life source through three experiences (see left page). The community passes through sharing walls filled with household items to be used and respected.

117


Sharing Key

Dutch Barge

2.6m

0.5-4m

Semi-shared space

2-4m

Shared public space

Dwelling River

Terraced Houses

20m 2m 6m

5.03m

Proposal

2.6m

10.5m 2.6m

Private Space vs Semi-Private/shared space Private space (m²)

Shared space (m²)

80

60

40

20

0

Dutch Barge

1 bed flat

Jeane Hachette Complex

The collective

Proposal

Dwelling Type

Analysis of which space is private, semi-private (in the case of a Terraced House) or semi- shared (in the case of boats and our proposal) and completely shared. Our research also explored looking at the dwelling types included in the comparison studies, analysing this contrast through a bar chart

118


“When people usually imagine where the life of a community is to be found, they usually look for it in the center of a community; to strengthen community life, planners try to intensify life at the center, which means neglecting the edge.� - Richard Sennet

119


120


Results

C O N F L I C T

‘‘When you scratch architects, they bleed utopia” - Charles Jencks We are aware of the need for architects to socially engineer their designs and the naive ideologies behind architectural proposals. Instead, we searched for possible ways to address risk of conflict between neighbours. Self build is viable as a solution in managing the inclination towards such behaviour. Rules - 2 meters is the minimum yet comfortable width for a domestic setting - Existing infrastructure and site, should influence proposed spaces. - Anything under 1 metre between private activity and the public is uncomfortable

8:28 - Symposium 3

121


Existing resident and new residents of our proposal sharing the site as part of the close neighbourhood. Existing resident and new residents of our proposal sharing the site as part of the close neighbourhood.

Town Hall Town Hall

Ground floor facilities Ground floor facilities

Industry buildings Industry buildings

Farmers’ market

Engineer’s house

Farmers’ market

Engineer’s house

S it e S it e

B oroug h Workplace Workplace

B oroug h

C it y

Workplace Workplace Workplace School

Workplace

School

C it y

The Industry and leisure elements on the site can enable a minimum of 12% decrese in the amount of items needed in The Industry and leisureand elements on the site can enable a The industry leisure elements on the site can enable a minimum of 12% existing private dwellings in close neighbourhoods. minimumdecrease of 12% decrese in the amount of needed in in the amount ofitems items needed in existing private dwellings in existing private dwellings in close neighbourhoods. close neighbourhoods.

122


Results

P L A C E M A K I N G

1

4

2

5

3

KEY Key Public Spaces Vehicle Route Main Route Slow Route Water Edge

KEY

1

High Density Housing Blocks

2

Medium Density Housing

3

Low Density Housing

Slow Route

4

Industrial Buildings

Water Edge

5

Community Buildings

Key Public Spaces Vehicle Route Main Route

1

High Density Housing Blocks

2

Medium Density Housing

3

Low Density Housing

4

Industrial Buildings

We this a place 5 cannot Communitycall Buildings without celebrating the life between buildings. This is how we envisage the community populating the north edge of the site in and around the existing filter beds, growing in height and becoming more compact, but maintaining generous shared spaces and proximity to nature.

New pathways and special moments occur within the compact yet rich pockets of space. The streets are designed primarily for people, where walking and cycling are prioritised, the air is clean and it is safe for children to play.

123


KEY Key Public Spaces Vehicle Route Main Route Slow Route Water Edge 1

High Density Housing Blocks

2

Medium Density Housing

3

Low Density Housing

4

Industrial Buildings

5

Community Buildings


1

4

5

2 3


Placemaking KEY - Private - Semi-Public - Public Pathway - Pathway - Water - Allotment

Grid configurations of 17 Dwellings

126


Results

Placemaking

frames of the homes on the grid, and how the adaptable walls can be extended to increase the size of the dwellings, as well as the shared spaces. These additions also create relationships with the neighbouring buildings and begin to encroach on pathways.

Part of the proposal is to encourage self building to give the residence freedom to grow their homes, as well as their food, and to encourage biodiversity. With a self build element comes both freedom but also some rules have to be established to ensure good neighbourly relations, as well as respect to the public, and to nature.

No dwellings are to obstruct, damage or remove any trees. The buildings can encroach on a public walkway, but must ensure a minimum of 1m width right of way is given. The same 1m minimum is the space between entrance shared spaces of each home.

An example area of land, 76m2, has two public paths, a section of the waters edge and nine established trees. This is enough room for 17 dwellings. The following configurations illustrate the fixed structural

127


Placemaking

Ground Floor

Ground Floor

Ground Floor

First Floor

4B 8p Block - Configuration 5 First Floor

First Floor

4B 8p Block - Configuration 5

128


Results

Placemaking

“Make it nice where you are, and put the density on top� - Jan Gehl The active ground floor frontage provides space for businesses, markets, nurseries and industry, whilst creating a dynamic and safe street. The ground floors are an extension of the busy street, the water’s edge and the courtyards between houses. These sheltered courtyards are semi-private, and provide space for allotments, playgrounds and open green space. This safe space is primarily for the youngest and oldest in the community to enjoy the outdoors.

The natural progression is to apply our housing typology to a denser configuration. To translate this model of living to an urban setting, we need to test our typology within highdensity dwellings. Our dense configuration sees 4 dwellings with large private balconies clustered around a double height shared space. This space is open on 2 sides for solar gain and views out, and is large enough to accommodate flexible activity.

10:51 - Symposium 3

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D I S C U S S I O N Reflections on Symposium Feedback

Nigel Coates

Partricia Brown

“I really like the way that you look carefully at the history of the city, and were able to begin to grasp its sense of transformation. You were looking almost as an archaeologist might, on a site which has had multiple occupations over time. You were then able to draw out some of those qualities and see how they might be part of a sympathetic future drawn from its origins.”

“I also wonder though, if we were sitting here in 100 years what would we be saying about this? And whether some of the comments are based on the contemporary view of where housing sits. And in the same way we have adapted to use public space, how will the other generations define their new blueprint? And maybe this is the new blueprint.”

Bob Allies

Niall McLaughlin

“I like the idea that you could live in a much smaller internal space and use external space as part of your life and get much more out of that. where do I live? What is my address? How do I find somebody there? How do I understand it? I think it does raise lots of questions about what housing is, and if you reduced it down to a certain set of ideas that you have, however interesting they are, it suddenly raises all other issues which you have to think about. For me it’s an incredibly provocative project paradoxically, even though actually it is sort of lovely, what is not to like? But it raises a lot of questions about what is the roll of housing in society beyond simply somewhere to live?”

“Boating community is a very rare phenomenon and behaviour that is very old fashioned and geographically located and we have gone in a long round circle to find this village. This village is a positive social paradigm and what we will do then is take other positive ideas about recycling and sustainability and attach them to the village and our jobs is to bring good things about. Cities are machines for emancipation. We need to be critical of - the idea of the land we are in, the activity happening on that land and the materials and resources taken from that land which constitute the idea of a community of the 21st century - this is a little bit of a unicorn.”

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Density Comparisons

P R E - A P P L I C AT I O N P R O P O S A L Density of 79 d/ha 449 Units Up to 6 floors

PROPOSAL

Density of 90 d/ha 516 Units Up to 4 floors

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Discussion

Density Comparisons

Both schemes aim to reimagine the historic buildings as a place of leisure and learning. However, the main difference between these projects is the quality and quantity of green space for both residence and the public. As the project integrates nature into the site before any architecture is built, the land takes priority over the dwelling. This is evident in the illustrated plans to the left, where the massing of the housing is half the GEA of the Savills application.

To test the design proposal, a comparison has been made to the pre-application scheme by Savills for the site in 2015. Comprising of 449 residential units, and the retention of the historic buildings to become a leisure and visitor centre, the total housing density is 79 dwellings per hectare at 6-7 stories. As the site currently prevents any public access, the scheme also aims to give back to the surrounding context by opening up half of the site to be accessible for all.

The proposal gives back to the public by not only opening up the site for leisure and sharing, but also integrates nature and architecture through a waterway into the site and the construction of lightweight, compact dwellings.

When comparing this to the projects proposal, the densities of dwelling units exceeds that of the Savills design due to the smaller dwelling sizes, 90 dwelling per hectare. The reduced housing size also means the buildings are low-rise, only up to 4 stories in height towards to north of the site.

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Quantitative

Average Dwelling Private/ Shared balance

Proposed Dwelling Private/ Shared balance

Average Dwelling Green/ Open space

Proposed Dwelling Green/ Open space

Average Dwelling Social/ Neighbour interaction

Proposed Dwelling Social/ Neighbour interaction

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Discussion

Quantitative

1. Our proposal provides less than half the private space (20.8m2) than the minimum building regulation 1 bedroom flat (49m2) 2. In our proposal, over 50% of the GEA is shared or open space 3. Our proposal encourages sharing 92% of everyday items, compared to an average of approximately 50%

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Discussion

Qualitative

The measurable data, and the visible outputs of our experiment, are paired with qualities of connection, culture, and wellbeing.

“The wisdom to be derived goes beyond economic and aesthetic considerations, for it touches the far tougher and increasingly troublesome problem of how to live and let live, how to keep peace with one’s neighbors, both in the parochial and universal sense.”

The qualities of the site, for both resident and visitor, encourage a culture of sharing and caring, interconnected with complex ecosystems and a symbiotic relationship with nature

- Bernard Rudofsky “A map of the world that does not include Utopia is not worth even glancing at, for it leaves out the one country at which Humanity is always landing. And when Humanity lands there, it looks out, and, seeing a better country, sets sail. Progress is the realisation of Utopias.”

Although these qualities are difficult to measure, our understanding of successful elements elsewhere on site has allowed us to propose a celebration of culture and wellbeing.

- Oscar Wilde

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C O N C L U S I O N Housing Crisis

How does our proposal sit within future trends of sustainable architecture?

In today’s housing crisis, driven by the extreme commodification of houses and land, the minimum dwelling size is returning in cities such as New York, London and San Francisco. Yet this new form of minimum dwelling, often called ‘microflat’, is an extreme reduction of the traditional bourgeois flat, lacking both the affordability and the collective ethos of their historical precedent. The growing population of London’s boating community is largely a result of being able to own a boat on a small salary, but there is only a limited about of space on the water. We need radical ideas to combat housing shortage and affordability; our proposal has taken inspiration from the boats and applied this to land.

We see our publication as an extreme provocation that challenges our unsustainable urban lifestyles. We have identified serious problems with the city of the future, and we hope that our project can inspire new ways of thinking about how we can live in harmony with people and the planet. We hope elements of our thinking can filter into real architectural projects in the near future. Challenging our economic model The major global economics of the 21st century is based on unsustainable growth. This perpetual growth is intrinsically linked with material consumption and the depletion of the earth’s resources.

Co-living Policy We want policy to change. We see a trend in young people accepting co-living as a genuine alternative to traditional private dwellings. Developers are starting to capitalise on creating smaller dwellings in developments such as ‘the Collective”. Our project sits within this trend of smaller private dwellings but argues that you must also provide generously shared spaces for this model to work. Furthermore, we also see the provision and proximity of green space as fundamental to the success of any co-living space.

“We must find a better way of measuring human welfare than growth” - George Monbiot We must ramp down all fossil fuel production and create a circular economy. At its core our project is about reducing waste at the source and creating deeply fulfilling environments in which children can grow up, owning fewer possessions and understanding the social and environmental benefits of sharing.

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C O N C L U S I O N The Neighbourhood

Our project illustrates the importance of designing a combination of private, shared and green space; if we are going to shift towards smaller units in the future to foster a sustainable lifestyle. Our aim is for policy framework to change to prevent failed developments such as collective.

In Peter Buchanan’s article ‘Big Rethink’ he argues that a neighbourhood is “apt place to initiate the broad range of changes necessary to progress to sustainability”, as much of human life takes place here. The scale is sufficient to shape an environment in which people may enjoy richly varied lives.

Climate Change We hope our project communicates the importance of environmentalism to the wider profession. Improving the biodiversity of flora and fauna is at the heart of our project and we have designed a scheme that reduces energy and material consumption. Through rewilding and ecological restoration you can draw down much of the carbon dioxide we have already produced. The integration of nature is not an afterthought or aestheticization, as we must not only see nature for its beauty but become much more aware of our surroundings. We have designed a built environment that allows all species - from mould to mice - an opportunity to compete and continue to evolve in their habitat. We believe in creating architecture which places people in symbiotic relationships with ecosystems.

If the shift towards living in harmony with the planet appears too overwhelming, architects must create appealing visions of sustainable life. Clearly communicated models of neighbourhoods provide a strong case for initiating change. Our neighbourhood engages in its surroundings whilst protecting and fostering the community within, encouraging residents to live fulfilled lives in connection with nature.

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Carrick Blore, Charles McLaughlin, Linda Malaeb, Lucy Steeden, Nancy Jackson, Sasha Nakitende, Xavier Smales

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The London School of Architecture | New Knowledge | Design Think Tank Publication | 2019  

A group architecture project by 'New Knowledge' Design Think Tank at the London School of Architecture. The project aims to challenge our un...

The London School of Architecture | New Knowledge | Design Think Tank Publication | 2019  

A group architecture project by 'New Knowledge' Design Think Tank at the London School of Architecture. The project aims to challenge our un...

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