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UC BERKELEY College Of Environmental Design 230 Wurster Hall, Berkeley, Ca 94720

THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG Faculty of Architecture Knowles Building, Pok Fu Lam Rd, Lung Fu Shan, Hong Kong INSTRUTORS Maria Paz Gutierrez & Tomas McKay STUDENTS Alexandra Cortez Caleb Bentley Deeksha Rawat Juanita Ballesteros LeeAnne Brown Lili Dai Moyan Chen Michael Clyde Johnson Nathan Nguyen Vidya Bhamidi Yao Shu Yuxi Wei


CONTENTS

Greater Bays: Urban Resilience by Design Studio Introduction

Abstract Studio Agenda  Structure & Methodology Studio Context Proposed Sites and Teams

1. Water-Aquaculture-Lau Fau Shan Abstract Site Climate Water Social-economics History

6

Projection

50

Framework Masterplan 8

Environment

8

Building System

11 20 28 38

2. Water-Water Infrastructure-Tsing Yi Island Abstract Site

64 66 67

History 40

Land

42

Transit & Water

43

Projection A - Tsing Yi 2100 Framework Densification Tectonics Building System

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2050 new highway

roadway

water route

2075

Projection B - A City of Rooms

86

Framework

4. Water-Food-Transportation Nansha Island

Program&Densification

2100

106 107

Flora and Fauna

Masterplan Tectonics & Building System

Tectonics Section Building System

146

Tectonics

Inundation

Framework & Densification

Masterplan

136

Masterplan

Soil

Initial Proposal

Projection - Scenario A

Projection - Scenario B

Socio-economics

Projection

Land

129

114

Section Scenario B //Building System

Seminar Fall 2018

156

urban

Abstract Site

104

Water

128

rural

3. Water-Water Economics-Hengqin Island

Abstract Site

MASTER PLAN

Building System

TIME PROJECTION

Tectonics

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Greater Bays: Urban Resilience by Design

GREATER BAYS: URBAN RESILIENCE BY DESIGN A COLLABORATION WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG AND UC BERKELEY

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The Greater Bays Urban Resilience by Design initiative is a four-year multi-disciplinary project focused on comparative analysis and design of regions and sites surrounding the Pearl River Delta and the San Francisco Bay. The combination of research seminars and design studios offers a unique collaboration between the University of Hong Kong Faculty of Architecture and the UC Berkeley College of Environmental Design.

strategies related to resilience. Our objective is to study, speculate, and offer prototypical design strategies in areas of resilience planning and design that hold the potential to move the public discussion forward in both metropolitan regions.

This book presents the body of work of the Interdisciplinary Studio NAVIGATING THE 2WS OF THE GLOBAL CITY-REGION imparted in Spring 2019 at UC Berkeley, led by Maria-Paz Gutierrez and Tomas McKay. The studio explored alterThe focus of the research studios native models of densification and and seminars is to improve Pacific Rim urban resilience through urban synergistic models to address the policy, planning, and design to help future of sealevel rise in the Greta these metropolitan regions adapt to Pearl River Delta. The studio Interclimate change by becoming more disciplinary Studio was imparted in energy-efficient and livable for res- collaboration with the University idents. Hong Kong is grappling with of Hong Kong. Both universities the emergent challenges of climate worked on issues of sea-level rise again in the spring looking at sites change and potential policy, planaround the Pearl River Delta. The ning, and design responses, while book also includes a brief collection experts in the Bay Area have also of the seminar imparted in fall 2018 been working to develop design

by Tomas Mckay in preparation for the Spring 2019 Interdisciplinary Studio.

The research and design collaboration of the work presented in this book is made possible by the generous support of: Lead Sponsor Nan Fung Group Sponsor Contact: Ray Zee, Chief Designer and General Manager Blake’s Sponsor Contact: Darrin Woo Chun Wo Construction Holdings Company Ltd Sponsor Contacts: Derrick Pang, Gary Chou, Edward Yueng Farron, Augustine & Alexander Ltd Sponsor Contact: Chris Lee The Luk Hoi Tong Company Sponsor Contact: Darrell Chan An anonymous private sponsor

Our special thanks to Darrell Chan Fall 2018 UCB Students: whose endless energies have honed the directions and potentials of this Diego Romero Evans Ana Carolina Lamela work. Jun Tanabe Liu Haikang The faculty who led the 19-20 research initiative include: Spring 2019 UCB Students: Renee Y. Chow, UCB M. Paz Gutierrez, UCB Alexandra Cortez Tomas McKay, UCB Caleb Bentley Deeksha Rawat Michael Kokora, HKU Juanita Ballesteros Sunnie S.Y. Lau, HKU LeeAnne Brown Dining Liu, HKU Lili Dai Ivan Valin, HKU Moyan Chen Michael Clyde Johnson Nathan Nguyen Vidya Bhamidi Yao Shu Yuxi Wei

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STUDIO INTRODUCTION

Studio Introduction

RIVERINE FLOOD AND SEA LEVEL RISE IN THE PEARL RIVER DELTA: NAVIGATING THE 2WS OF THE GLOBAL CITY-REGION ͞tĂƚĞƌŝƐŇƵŝĚ͕ƐŽŌ͕ĂŶĚLJŝĞůĚŝŶŐ͘ƵƚǁĂƚĞƌǁŝůůǁĞĂƌĂǁĂLJƌŽĐŬ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŝƐƌŝŐŝĚĂŶĚĐĂŶŶŽƚLJŝĞůĚ͘ƐĂƌƵůĞ͕ǁŚĂƚĞǀĞƌŝƐŇƵŝĚ͕ƐŽŌ͕ĂŶĚLJŝĞůĚŝŶŐǁŝůůŽǀĞƌĐŽŵĞǁŚĂƚĞǀĞƌŝƐƌŝŐŝĚĂŶĚŚĂƌĚ͘dŚŝƐŝƐĂŶŽƚŚĞƌƉĂƌĂĚŽdž͗ǁŚĂƚŝƐƐŽŌŝƐ ƐƚƌŽŶŐ͘͟>ĂŽdnjƵ

8

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Flood is at the very root of China’s history. The story of Yu’s Great Flood in folk tradition speaks of a major ancient deluge that gave rise to the first dynasty over 4,000 years ago (Allan, 1991). The story tells of how Yu directed efforts to dredge and channel rivers to drain the floodwaters. The story casts Yu’s triumph of human ingenuity (Lewis, 2006). Yu brings order to the land so that fields could be planted, setting the stage for the lowland agriculture that fueled the blossoming of Chinese civilization (Allan, 2001; Lewis, 2006). With success, Yu devised a system of flood control that instead of directly damming the rivers’ flow, consisted

of irrigation canals that conducted floodwater into fields and dredging the riverbed (Dai et al., 2002). In the tale, it took Yu and his followers decades to control the floodwaters. In the absence of geological evidence of Yu’s specific great inundation, some scholars have argued that the story is either a historicized version of an older myth or simply propaganda to justify the centralized power of imperial rule (Lewis, 2006). Recent studies argue that an enormous landslide dam break in 1922 ± 28 BCE coincided with the major cultural transition from the Late Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age in China, supporting curious de-

tails of Yu’s story (Wu et al., 2016). And although this study is contested (Chun et al., 2017), it is the triumph of human creativity on waterworks that remains essential for how to address the challenges of the flood. Four thousand years later, we face the threat of imminent great floods again. Unlike the single event of Yu’s period, the predicted impact of sea-level rise across various parts of the Great Pearl River Delta (GPRD), one of the most vulnerable hotspots on earth, will be frequent and of unprecedented scale (Tessler et al., 2015). Unmatchable urban expansion from a population

Figure 1 Composite Song Dynasty depictions of Yu the Great and the Yellow River floods. (National Palace Museum/PD-Art; Beijing Palace Museum/PD-Art)


Studio Introduction

STUDIO AGENDA

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densification and natural habitat depletion accompanies the projected vulnerabilities. Water resilience in Hong Kong and the Great Pearl River Delta region demands design ingenuity to address the highly complex physical, cultural, and socioeconomic challenges. Consequently, design inquiries cannot be addressed through single disciplines or scales of investigation. The collection of work presented in this book is framed based on this premise of interdisciplinary framework and agency across multiple scales of investigation. The Hong Kong interdisciplinary Studio focused on the ideation of the future of Navigating the 2Ws [Rising Wealth and Rising Water] in the Great Pearl River Delta. Teams of architecture, landscape architecture, and urban design graduate students of the College of Environmental Design of UC Berkeley developed site proposals in Tsing Yi,

Lau Fan Shan, Hengqin, and Nansha. The interdisciplinary Studio was structured in collaboration with the Department of Architecture of Hong Kong University.

The low lying basin of the PRD region is composed of constantly shifting agricultural, wetland, lowland, and urban habitats creating these quasi-continuous urbanized landscapes that make up this singular polycentric city-region. The future resilience of the PRD depends critically on advancements in resource and emergency management strategies on investments in flood protection infrastructure including natural habitats and developed shorelines. The planned political reunification with Hong Kong (2047) and Macau (2049) and recent infrastructures including the 31 miles Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge, provide an unmatchable opportunity to define strategies for water-energy-waste-agriculture nexus in the GRPD.

agency from urban and city planning to the local biomes and space and program. The studio investigated the multiple resource nexus of the context through a multiscale framework that centered on the physical, socioeconomic, historical, and cultural paradigms of the Pearl River Delta. The Studio framework, methodology, and structure were created around these multiple spheres of the design agency. Students established design inquiries at the intersection of shifting administrative, political, economic, and biophysical boundaries to strategically define planned insertions of higher densification from the inner delta to Hong Kong.

With a focus on sustainable freshwater in the GPRD region, the studio explored alternative The water-energy-waste-agriculture densification and infill strategies across scales intersecting artificial nexus was used as a framework to address densification strategies that and natural grounds for economic, spatial, and cultural strategies. The partake multiple spheres of design

multiscale framework fomented the exploration of infill strategies from the regional to the building component scale (Figure 2-Full pin-up Yuxi Wei | Water-Food-Transportation-Nansha Island) as socio-economic, environmental, and cultural imperatives. WATER EDGE - this theme centered on the spatial, cultural, economic, and environmental definition of vulnerability and adaptation to shape models of water edge resilience in the Hong Kong region. Students developed specific surveying and measurement processes of the complex spheres that make up the region. The measurement of physical variables explored traditional and emerging systems, including triangulation, wavelength-based registration (e.g., IR imaging, LIDAR), and vector-based (hydrodynamics). We used these processes to produce

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Studio Introduction

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Figure 2 Full pin-up Yuxi Wei | Water-Food-Transportation-Nansha Island


Studio Introduction

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alternative diagrams for understanding the site and defining boundaries. In parallel, to these investigations the studio focused on assessing data of soil taxonomies, topography of land & land-water water daily cycles and seasonal patterns; circulation, transportation; program, flora and fauna systems, typologies, current housing typologies, legal boundaries/zoning/ land use, climate daily and seasonal patterns; historic development, and future development by the corresponding municipalities. These studies culminated in various methodologies and scales of information. Examples include which ranged from comparative density studies in the region (Figure 3 Density Study Deeksha Rawat | Water-Water Economics-Hengqin Island) to the typological analysis of water border conditions based on orientation at the scale of plots (Figure 4 Lots DNA Yuxi Wei | Water-Food-Transportation-Nansha Island).

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Taipa Density 31,000 ppl/sqmi

Figure 4 Lots DNA Yuxi Wei | Water-Food-Transportation-Nansha Island

Hong Kong Density 6,735 ppl/sqmi Highest Density 155,200 ppl/sqmi

Figure 3 Density Study Deeksha Rawat | Water-Water Economics-Hengqin Island

Macau Density 73,350 ppl/sqmi


Studio Introduction

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THE SERIAL SECTION - Hong Kong is a city of distinctive sections birthed by the overlay of unique topography, culture, and built networks in the Z-axis. Built through complex vertical intersections of topography, local ecologies, history, and culture, the section of Hong Kong is constantly transforming. The vertical layering of the varied and distinctive juxtapositions are as much about the natural as the manmade constructs. From the vertically branching roots (Figure 5 Hong Kong Sections Queen’s Road West paths | MP Gutierrez) to the overlaid infrastructures, street markets, and high rises Hong Kong and the larger Great Pearl River Delta constitute an unmatchable opportunity to explore density, densification and sea-level rise in the vertical section. Sectional representation is the quintessential method by which architects register and convey space. Its power lies in the capacity to

provide a measure of internal and external space. The studio inquired techniques of representation implemented in architecture and in urban planning and landscape including diverse scales, wavelengths, and processes to address the complex layers of urban space, natural habitats in the context of sea-level vulnerability. The studio was compelled to explore the subtle and complex spatial and biophysical variations of the selected sites. Through documenting and representational exercises, the students investigated the theoretical implications of the section. Traditional and emerging sectional techniques were used across scales to analyze, construct, deconstruct, and reconstruct the section of manmade-natural territories in the Hong Kong region. These studies served as platforms for proposing land formations for water retention (Figure 9 Water-Food-Transporta-

tion-Nansha Island), densification strategies based on soil conditions including subsidence and erosion (Figure 7 Water-Aquaculture-Lau Fau Shan), and sectional inhabitation typologies (Figure 8 Water-Water Infrastructure-Tsing Yi Island).

Figure 5 Hong Kong Sections Queen’s Road West paths | MP Gutierrez

MATERIAL PROGRAMING - This component of the Studio’s agenda is bi-folded. Evaluating and exploring spatial conditions and logistics of local material culture (e.g., water networks fish Market; Figure 6 Material Culture LeeAnne Brown | Water-Aquaculture-Lau Fau Shan) and physical properties including of local ecologies make the basis of the Studio’s aims. Matter was investigated in an interdependent manner to form and culture. Students were prompted to work iteratively to diagnose, analyze, and develop material strategies. A spart of the prompts, students explored the behavior of local water edge organisms to assess conditions of adaptability and adversities for structural/membrane systems for water boundaries conditions (e.g., Figure 10 Salt filtration processes Moyan Chen | Water-Water Economics-Hengqin Island) and evaluating the erosion and sedimentation processes of local ecologies

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Figure 6 Material Culture LeeAnne Brown | Water-Aquaculture-Lau Fau Shan


Studio Introduction

Figure 7 Water-Aquaculture-Lau Fau Shan 18

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Figure 8 Water-Water Infrastructure-Tsing Yi Island

Figure 9 Water-Food-Transportation-Nansha Island


Studio Introduction

STRUCTURE & METHODOLOGY (e.g., Figure 11 Sediment material studies Nathan Nguyen | Water-Food-Transportation-Nansha Island). .,

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The programming of material performance emphasized looking into dynamic processes of adaptability and overcoming of adversity. Rather than focusing solely on form, students inquired biomechanical resilience through material processes of adaptation. The iterative studies in the one to one scale and macroscale enabled assessing the physical, aesthetic, and potential programmatic and cultural implications of the selected GRDP territory in an integrative manner. This process included exploring strategically material flows, disassembly, and deconstruction strategies, and synergies with local biomes.

Each team proposal was tasked with selecting defining the boundaries of the assigned general location for an alternative model to tiered densification for a one hundred year span. The program comprised of 5,000,000 sq ft. Masterplan with program defined based on the particular needs of each territory.

this text. PHASE 1 – MEASURE & APPROXIMATION

The selection of program and specific site boundaries was the fundamental aim of this phase. In this process, each group was asked to survey the site’s history, physical characteristics, cultural activities, The Studio structure comprised of three phases: MESURE & APPROXI- spatial phenomena, and planning. MATION; DENSIFICATION & INFILL; Architecture conforms to a system of standards and guidelines that alTECTONICS & WATER developed lows for the production of buildings. through the semester. During all However, architecture is also the phases, students worked both in practice of giving form to thought. groups and individually probing In the act of projection and creinto alternate design research and ation, we make visible the functions planning methodologies. All three disciplinary backgrounds [architec- of society in spatial, phenomenological, and sociopolitical terms functure, urban design and planning, tions, operations, and aspirations. and landscape architecture] were exercised through parallels streams Consequently, architecture is always shifting our conceptual process of and convergence of varying value perspectives and research protocols registration and surveying innovating new forms of representation which is manifested explicitly and and measurement. The Studio implicitly in the work presented in

Figure 10 Salt filtration processes Moyan Chen | Water-Water Economics-Hengqin Island 21

Figure 11 Sediment material studies Nathan Nguyen | Water-Food-Transportation-Nansha Island


Studio Introduction

wide range of site documentation. From alternative means in massing strategies (Figure 14 Massing Typologies Caleb Bentley & Michael Clyde Johnson | Water-Water Infrastructure-Tsing Yi Island) to iterative Access to growing and more surveying cladding details with culcomplex data and visualization tural relevance in Macao (Figure 12 processes from new modes of sensing and imaging from the scale Cladding Macao Alexandra Cortez of molecules to regions is leading us | Water-Water Economics-Hengqin Island), students explored new to redefine information and space models of densification and synerin new terms. To measure and be gistic interaction with seawater rise measured impinges not only on in the future. physical spheres but also sociopolitical and economic imperatives. A particular emphasis took place Reflecting on design values and around documenting and underperspectives on the role of how standing the time, physical, and we survey, count, measure, and economic makeup of current landfill represent information this studio models to establish an alternative explored various processes and standards to measure the complex masterplan response to sea-level spheres of urban space in the Hong rise and densification. Kong region. Students probed into Parallel to the team’s surveying promethods to measure the physical, cultural, socioeconomic, historical, cesses, students worked individually developing studies of local organand symbolic paradigms of the isms and material ecologies of the site. These studies culminated in a embraced measure as the method to tackle envision the future of the built environment which is in itself an art of approximation.

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water border. These studies focused on the evaluation of local organisms native to areas with inundation addressing evolved strategies designed in nature to overcome adversity. Explorations involved analysis of structural elements, material thicknesses, and dynamics (thermal, hydro/humidity, light, mechanical).

Figure 12 Cladding Macao Alexandra Cortez | Water-Water Economics-Hengqin Island Figure 13 Organism studies Alexandra Cortez | Water-Water Economics-Hengqin Island 23

Figure 14 Massing Typologies Caleb Bentley & Michael Clyde Johnson | Water-Water Infrastructure-Tsing Yi Island


Studio Introduction

PHASE II- DENSIFICATION & INFILL

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During this phase, students were asked to center on the articulation of the territory after defining the boundaries for intervention. This phase embraced an interdisciplinary convergence to define position the design problem of landfill and sea-level rise as a framework where broad scales are interdependently seamed with the common goal of performance integration. The design problem was understood to provide a cohesive medium for the challenging, complex nature of developing alternative land models that address a wide range of implications historic to biophysical processes of territories in the Great Pearl River Delta region. Students were prompted to fuel new infill models that explored the position of static versus Dynamic and Walls versus Landforms. As new infrastructure typologies, students investigated a combination and variation

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SITE FORMATION PROJECTION

Figure 15 Urban infill and vertical sediment accumulation Lili Dai | Water-Water Infrastructure-Tsing Yi Island

Figure 16 Aquaculture canals Type A & Type B Nathan Nguyen | Water-Food-Transportation-Nansha Island


Studio Introduction

Addressing Water Insecurity Hill area on site 30 sqkm

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of adaptation strategies aiming towards a broad range of benefits. As such, proposals incorporated wetlands, living breakwaters, membranes for sediments entrapments as vertical foundations (e.g., Figure 15 Urban infill and vertical sediment accumulation Lili Dai | Water-Water Infrastructure-Tsing Yi Island) and decentralized water intrusion canals for aquaculture functions in phased stages (e.g., Figure 16 Aquaculture canals Type A & Type B Nathan Nguyen | Water-Food-Transportation-Nansha Island). PHASE III- TECTONICS & WATER During the last phase, the studio centered on refining the economic model and the multiscale development of the proposal. For this aim, students focused on recalibrating the masterplan and the economic model of densification (Figure 17 Water Regeneration model | Water-Water Economics-Hengqin

Island). In tandem, students worked in developing building tectonics and the landscape strategies including the development of tectonics of water regeneration networks (Figure 18 Tectonics studies for foundation and water collection/ filtration systems Yao Shu | Water-Aquaculture-Lau Fau Shan) and of inhabitation to the scale of building components (e.g., Figure 20 Reclamation of tectonic system of traditional boat houses Nathan Nguyen | Water-Food-Transportation-Nansha Island) and refurbishing integration of industrial waste as building components (Figure 19 Building components Yuxi Wei | Water-Food-Transportation-Nansha Island).

Annual rainfall 918mm Yearly water capture on Hill 27 billion liters Yearly fresh water requirement for site population 5 billion liters Surplus water for sale to Macau and HK 22 billion liters

Figure 17 Water Regeneration model | Water-Water Economics-Hengqin Island

Figure 18 Tectonics studies for foundation and water collection/filtration systems Yao Shu | Water-Aquaculture-Lau Fau Shan

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Studio Introduction

STUDIO CONTEXT THE GREAT PEARL RIVER DELTA

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The Greater Pearl River Delta (GPRD) is the most polycentric global city-region in the world comprising eleven municipalities. Nine situated in mainland China (Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan, Foshan, Zhuhai, Jiangmen, Zhongshan, Zhaoqing, and Huizhou, jointly constituting the Pearl River Delta) and two consisting of Special Administrative Regions (Hong Kong and Macao). All of these municipalities have undergone very different historical trajectories which through a complex combination of socioeconomic and geopolitical factors have fomented Guangzhou, Macao, Hong Kong, and Shenzhen as the emerging as key cities within the region. Mutual interconnectedness among the various cities within the GPRD through various urban infrastructures and to production and R&D has grown to such an extent that scholars concur in its capacity as

global city-region with global city Hong Kong acting as a hinge to the global market. (Carlow, Jason, et al., 2017) (Schiler, Daniel, et al., 2015) (Tang, Dorothy, 2013) (A.J. Scott, 2001). Arguably, regional upgrading has affected the traditional division of labor between Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta following the ‘front shop–back factory’ model. The complementary roles of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta, regarding sectoral and functional specialization, appear to remain largely intact in recent years. Nevertheless, Guangzhou and Shenzhen appear to compete with Hong Kong by advancing their distinctive roles as attractive locations for low-end service functions. Political fragmentation has also acted as a barrier to vigorous further development since economic indicators show a relative decline compared to the Yangtze River (Schiler, Daniel, et al., 2015).

How are regional economic and administrative boundaries and roles and ecological boundaries bound to interact in the next decades? What role can and will floods from sea level rise, riverine, and groundwater shifts play in the economics and administrative boundaries and future densification strategies? Vulnerability to sea-level rise and inundation risk are not exclusive to the GRDP. However, the impact of inundation in the region cannot be measured by simple flood metrics due to its complexity. From extremely high population concentration, humanmade landfills with high densities in subsiding soils, to typhoons, and depletion of freshwater and habitats the interdependence of the rising wealth and rising water renders the GRDP region highly complex to address socioeconomic and environmental challenges of the XXI century.

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Figure 19 Building components Yuxi Wei | Water-Food-Transportation-Nansha Island

Figure 20 Reclamation of tectonic system of traditional boat houses Nathan Nguyen | Water-Food-Transportation-Nansha Island


Studio Introduction

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THE 2 Ws- RISING WEALTH; RISING Dongguan outweighed the sewage increases driven by economic scale. WATER According to Lei et al., the region was dubbed the factory floor” of This rapid economic developthe world has progressed into a less ment of GRDP has been coupled environmentally impactful phase of with an increase of 1/24 times in development, with more expendiurbanization leading to complex ture on environmental protection social, environmental, and spatial challenges (Wang and Shen 2017). and policy reform. The so-called 2Ws of the region While many studies differ with Lei Rising Wealth/Rising Water, (The Economist Magazine, 2017; Wright et al. ’s assessment (e.g., Tesslar et al., 2015; Wright and Nichols, and Nichols 2019). Worsening water problems have accompanied 2019), scholars concur that ensuring a sufficient and safe water the growth of the region during supply through industrial recycling the past three decades. Lei et al. demonstrated that during this peri- and public education, along with od, while the water dependency of even further pollution abatement is economic development went down essential for the sustainable growth to a significant extent, the efficiency of the region (Liu et al., 2015). The gains did not prevail over problems future resilience of the GPRD depends critically on advancement in caused by economic scale expanresource and emergency strategies sion (Lei et al., 2018). Nevertheand investments in flood protection less. From 2009 to 2015, Lei et al. reported that the sewage decreas- infrastructure. In particular, the improvements in water resource es driven by water dependency management for both long- and of Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and

short-range resilience is essential. Population growth, rising sea level, the impact of freshwater supply, and urbanization are placing populations in living delta regions under increased risk. Resilience and potential adaptation for these delta regions depend as much on socioeconomic and geophysical factors. Tessler et al. have carried the most extensive analysis of changes in regional vulnerability in the globe encompassing 48 deltas (Tessler et al., 2018). In their study, they determined that some deltas in countries with a high gross domestic product will be initially more resilient to these changes because they can perform expensive maintenance on infrastructure. However, they argue that short-term policies will become unsustainable if unaccompanied by long-term investments. In Tessler’s et al. ’s report, we see that the GPRD an increased exposure to the 100 Year Increase in Vulnerability.

RISING WEALTH In 1980, Deng Xiaoping established the Shenzhen and Zhuhai Special Economic Zone in the GPRD. The economy of the GPRD has grown since then at an explosive rate which averaged in the last decade to 12%. Economic development is defined as the process of structural transformation with continuous technological innovation and industrial upgrading with an increase in labor productivity. These developments are accompanied by improvements in infrastructure and institutions that reduce transaction costs. PRD is one of the world’s most successful economies with a GDP of more than $1.2 trillion. The GDP of the region has been growing at a rate of 12% in the last decade. Although PRD comprises only 1% of China’s territory and 5% of its population, the region generates 10% of the nation’s GDP. The rising wealth of the region has created a wide range of growth and benefits with a

it encompasses increasing importance of internal forces in driving economic development and shaping regional space, and upgrading and diversification (although with The GRDP is considered to be pitfalls) of local industries where the China’s most innovative economic ‘export-oriented growth’ and ‘front zone due to globalization and the shop–back factory’ model which promotion of free international trade. Amongst its outputs is being typified the early development the major manufacturing center for of the PRD is challenged (Zhang et al., 2016). Nevertheless, as the automobiles as well as high-tech primary driving force of what has products in Asia. Reflecting some been dubbed as the ‘workshop new trends of economic developof the world,’ manufacturing has ment in the GPRD, during the XXI century researchers have diversified still taken up the central position of these studies. Other relevant their measurement of economcomponents of economic studies in ic growth into the role of spatial the region, including services, have dynamics (Shen et al., 2000; Zhao et al., 2007; Yang et al., 2007; Yang only attracted marginal attention C. and Liao H. (2010); Lu L. and Wei (Yeh et al., 2005; Lin et al., 2005; Yi et al., 2011). Y. D. (2007); Meyer S., Schiller D. and Diez J. R. 2012; Lin 2009; Yang To assess economic growth and its 2012). These studies focus on a new phase of development in GRDP, interdependency with water, key aspects of the water and urbanizawhich is characterized by more complex industrial linkages with the tion nexus is critical. Urbanization global production system. As such, and industrialization processes GDP per capita of 1.5 times before later averages (Lam, Yang, and Yu 2017; Wang and Shen 2017).

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impacted by climate change impact the provision of freshwater to the River Delta and its cities. Projections predict that the salt-water intrusion will impact waterways, including the Dong River. This situation is primarily consequent to decreased stream flows and sea-level rise, in combination with agro and industrial pollution and extreme drought and rain cycles. The low lying basin of the Pearl River Delta region is composed of constantly shifting agricultural, wetland and lowland and urban habitats creating these quasi-continuous urbanized landscapes that make up this singular polycentric city-region (Figure 21). The planned political reunification with Hong Kong (2047) and Macau (2049) and recent infrastructures including the 31 miles Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge, provide an unmatchable opportunity to define strategies for water-energy-waste-agriculture nexus in the Greater Pearl River Delta.

Figure 21 The Pearl River Delta in 1979 and 2000. (China's Pearl River Delta, then and now at http://www.ecoclimax.com/2016/05/ chinas-pearl-river-delta-then-and-now.html)

Figure 22 Song Shi, chapter 67, containing a record of a typhoon strike in AD 975 (Liu et al., Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 91(3), 2001)

RISING WATER Amongst the most critical climate change impacts in GPRD is sea level rise due to its flat terrain and rapid urban development. The continuing urbanization in flood-prone areas is expected to increase flood frequency and aggravate both the scale and degree of flooding in the PRD area (Yang et al. 2015). Robust strategies of water resource management and evolving predictive models of storms, storm surges, and hydrology for both long- and short-range forecasting are critical to addressing flooding risk in the region. Ecosystems- The extensive urbanization areas and the degradation of natural habitats, including wetlands and impact on intertidal mudflats and various marine ecosystems, render the GRDP even more susceptible to sea-level rise, stormwater surge, and freshwater depletion. The main causes of environmental degradation in the region depend

on coastal erosion and land loss, saltwater intrusion, and reduced water quality related to pollution and sewerage overflows (Du et al., 2013). Over the past three decades, the Pearl River estuary wetlands have suffered from rapid industrialization and urbanization. Seven major large cities, including 35 districts, have been formed (Seto et al., 2002; Yu et al., 2007). The loss of natural habitats leads to saltwater penetration which exacerbated by sea-level rise impacts further the soil and water systems, as well as even further flora and fauna. Zhao et al. show that one-third of the total wetland area of the GRDP was lost from 1979 to 2009, showing the degradation of seven types of estuarine wetlands. Storm Surges, Typhoons, & Flood - The Pearl River enters into the southern China Sea through the estuary using eight river branches. These results in different types of

large wetlands. The climate of this region is warm and moist with a mean annual temperature of 22.1 °C with a northeast monsoon from October to April and a southwest monsoon from September to April bringing large amounts of rainfall (300–400 mm month) (Duan et al., 1998; Zhang et al., 2009). Recordings show a long history of monsoons in the region. Historical data shows at least 1,000 years of monsoons with registrations as early as the Song Shi, chapter 67, containing a record of a typhoon strike in AD 975 (Liu et al., Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 91(3), 2001) (Figure 22). The Northwest Pacific basin has the highest frequency and intensity of tropical cyclone occurrence in the world, with an average of 26.9 tropical cyclones occurs in the Northwest Pacific per year (Liu et al., 2001). Guangdong (including Hong Kong, is particularly vulnerable to catastrophic strikes by landfalling

typhoons. The frequency and height of flood events that regularly affect the GPRD are also expected to grow throughout this century (Wright and Wu, 2019). He et al., reported from altimetry data a mean sea-level rise of 3.72 mm/year (0.15 in./year) On the Pearl River Delta coast (He et al., 2014). Also, longer tide gage records from Hong Kong’s Victoria Harbor (Hong Kong Observatory, 2017) show that over the period 1954–2016, the average rate of sea-level rise was 3.1 mm/year (0.12 in./year) (Hong Kong Observatory, 2017). This data coincides with the IPCC 2013 report that predicts that, depending on which warming scenario prevails, the global average rate of sea-level rise over the coming decades is likely to be between 8 and 16 mm/year. Consequently, by 2100, the mean sea levels in the Pearl River Delta may be up to 1.3 m (4.3 ft) higher than now (Wright and Wu, 2019).

33


Studio Introduction

34

The most recent Typhoon Hato that directly hit the GPRD region in 2017. This typhoon was the strongest within the last fifty years in southeastern China. Zhao et al. analyzed the storm surges affecting the western region of Guangdong Province generated by Typhoons Rammasun (TR) and Kalmaegi (TK) in 2014. (Zhao et al., 2016). The study results presented that although the two storms were of similar strength, TR generated a storm surge less than 2 m (6.56 ft) high while TK generated a 4.5 m (14.76 ft) storm surge. Zhao et al. attributed the difference to the fact that TK was moving across the shelf at a much higher speed than TR, and that speed roughly matched the speed over the shelf of a long wave. The most relevant factor is that Storm surges propagating up the funnel-shaped Pearl River Estuary are typically amplified more than the surges examined by Zhao et al. and often exceed 5 m (16.4

ft) or more in height (Zhao et al., 2016). Storm surges in the GPRD have intensified over the past 20 years. Current storm surges are reported now, typically as 0.76 m (2.49 ft) higher than in the past (Du et al., 2013). The storm surges cause not only inundation but also significant upstream intrusions of saltwater. According to He and Yang, rainstorms are responsible for 63% of the economic losses in Shenzhen, while typhoons directly account for 33% (He and Young, 2011). This phenomenon is particularly consequent to urban water runoff caused by built impervious surfaces and the depletion of natural habitats. Flooding at recurrent high tides will be common before 2050 (Wright and Nichols, 2019). The tides that affect the Pearl River Estuary and Delta are mixed-semidiurnal with a large diurnal inequality in range

with average tides being less than 2 m (6.56 ft), but the spring tide range (full and new moons) can be up to 2.3 m (7.54 ft) and perigean “King Tides” can have a range up to 2.7 m (8.86 ft) (Mao et al., 2004). The latter can cause street flooding under normal weather conditions (Hansen, 2017). vw Sinking & Flood - The intense and recurrent rainstorms that now cause more frequent episodic flooding are to become even more problematic due to the soil subsidence (Yang et al., 2014). The region’s sinking average rate combined with rising sea level increases the intensity of impact from typhoons and storm surge. The mean elevation of the Pearl River Delta is less than 2 m (6.56 ft) (Chen et al. 2014). However, subsidence in the region can reach up to maxima of up to 15 mm/year (0.59 in./year) in some locations (Ao et al., 2015). The

projected sea-level rise for 2100 can exceed 2 m (6.6 ft) in some areas of the GRDP. Long-term geological subsidence showed a possible 30 cm (11.81 in.) rise in relative sea-level rise at the mouth of the Pearl River (Huang et al. 2004). In the 19th century, Guangzhou had numerous intertidal canals, which quickly drained away floodwaters. Subsequent paving of intertidal canal systems has resulted in impeded drainage (Du et al., 2013). As sites are subject to the superimposition of storm surges on recurrent inundation events, the outcomes are extremely costly from various angles. Freshwater- Urbanization and industrialization processes impacted by climate change lurk the provision of freshwater to the River Delta and its cities. Currently, most of Hong Kong and Shenzhen’s freshwater comes from the Dong River. Projections

foresee that the Dong River will be impacted by salt-water intrusion due to decreased stream flows and sea-level rise, in combination with agro and industrial pollution and extreme drought and rain cycles. The spatial and temporal patterns in the annual maximum and minimum water level in the GPRD region are highly variable. Zhang et al., researched 18 gauging stations in the PRD region, demonstrating nine stations with decreasing annual maximum water levels and ten stations with decreasing minimum water levels. In the study, the temporal water level trends demonstrate a spatial tendency: for the West River Delta, there is no obvious trend for the annual maximum water level in the upper region, while the stations in the middle region exhibit an increasing pattern and a significant upward trend in the lower region (Figure 23). The minimum water levels display an obvious downward

35

Figure 23 Trend results for the annual minimum water level during 1980-2010 (Zhang et al., 2009).

trend in the upper and middle regions of the West River Delta. Almost all of the stations in the middle and downstream areas show increasing trends, with some being highly significant. Long-term and large-scale sand excavation initiated in the 1980s around a wide range of the GPRD region directly affected the hydrological variables, including the annual extreme water level. In-


Studio Introduction

36

PROGRAM

Department, 2005). Density measures the degree of compactness or concentration commonly defined In ‘Asian Urbanization, A Hong Kong Casebook’ (Dwyer, 1971), the concerning urban population and building density (Clark and Moir, compactness of Hong Kong has 2015). On a territorial scale, Hong occurred ‘because of a system of Kong has an average population lease revision, extracting high premiums but granting large permitted density of about 6,800 persons/ increases of volume on reconstruc- km2 (2015). The average population Zhang et al. report that while the density is about 27,330 persons/ tion.’ With the highest land cost in East River–Shenzhen water supply project is designed as a solution to the world, development maximizes km2 accounting for only the builtup area. Hong Kong is currently the water demand from Hong Kong, the plot ratio to gain the greatest one of the densest developed cities profit to cover the high premium the continuously decreasing mini(population density) and is anticimum water levels in the East River (Karakiewicz and Kvan, 2011). This pated to remain at the top in 2025 will have negative impacts on water condition favors densification in (Bloomberg, 2016). Hong Kong as all metropolis in the intake by cities. Hence, the proworld. posed solution is inadequate. The Population density varies in differcurrent infrastructure is particularly ent parts of the span of GRPD in inadequate to respond to the pres- In Hong Kong, leases of urban particular in Hong Kong. According sites belong to the Government. sures of sinking, storm surge, and to the 2011 Population Census, the sea-level rise demands. Most dikes A land lease is a contract between most populated districts in Hong on the Great Pearl River Delta were the Government and the Landlord Kong concentrate in the main urban which denotes the conditions of built for 1 in 20-year flood events areas. This particularly the case of ignoring the effect of sea-level rise the site development. The conditions can consist of land use, height Kowloon. In 2011, the three densest (Woodroffe et al.,2006). populated districts were Kwun Tong limits, gross floor area, vehicular access and non-building area (Lands (about 55,200 persons/km2), Wong creases in the extreme water levels are also evident in the middle part, primarily due to the backwater. Likewise, land reclamation is likely to have a relatively greater effect on increasing the extreme water levels of the stations near the estuary.

Tai Sin (about 45,200 persons/km2 ) and Yau Tsim Mong (about 44,000 persons/km2 ). Regarding new towns, based on the same Census data, the most densely populated new town was Tin Shui Wai New Town (about 67,000 persons/km2). The morphology of the region is also highly complex and varied with different topographies, water inlets, and soils. Likewise, the program and zoning of the region are highly diverse and complex (Tieben, 2013; Siu, 2013; Hong Kong Transport and Housing Bureau,’2016). The first attempt to capture macro-scale urban design considerations into a strategic framework in Hong Kong was the Metroplan (1991). This masterplan aimed towards intersecting the spatial relationship between urban form and our natural contexts, in particular of the Victoria Harbour and the Harbourfront and the landscape around the ridgelines that defined

the limits of the Metro Area. These structural considerations were revised in the Metroplan Review (1998, 2003). The revision incorporated broader urban design considerations, including protection of designated strategic public views, a further refinement on the ridgeline protection policy with stepped building height profiles, the recognition of unique built characters in certain districts, and measures to improve pedestrian paths. The last territorial development strategy, ‘Hong Kong 2030 Planning Vision and Strategy’ developed in 2007, represented an additional interest to promote livability. However, the degree of structural and approach transformations required by sea-level rise, storm surge, and subsidence require radical transformations in how we approach the human-made and natural habitats across scales. The students explored through multidimensional frameworks from

the scale of material ecologies to the urban masterplan new strategies to shape the water border with alternative models of densification. The physical and cultural contextual conditions required students to establish a clear conceptual framework for selecting the type of program which had to include 5,000,000 sq ft of densification. The proposal had to incorporate tiered densification alternatives to the current sq ft-height ratio in the region. The site is composed of the full Great Pear River Region with eight prototypical conditions, as presented in Figure 24. The Studio sought to explore the varying typologies from a geopolitical and spatial perspective. As discussed, the GPRD region is subject to increasing biophysical challenges, including storm surge, typhoons, soil subsidence, freshwater scarcity, coupled with the severe loss of natural habitats and rapid densification.

37


Studio Introduction

PROPOSED SITES AND TEAMS

Guangzhou Shenzhen Jiangmen Zhongshan

Hong Kong 38

39

Zhuhai Macau

1

Water-AquacultureLau Fau Shan LeeAnne Brown Vidya Bhamidi Yao Shu

Figure 24 Four proposed sites for the Studio research in the full range of the GRPD region

2

Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island Caleb Bentley Lili Dai Michael Clyde Johnson

3

Water-Water EconomicsHengqin Island Alexandra Cortez Deeksha Rawat Moyan Chen

4

Water-Food-TransportationNansha Island Juanita Ballesteros Nathan Nguyen Yuxi Wei


1

WATER-AQUACULTURE LAU FAU SHAN resource

Water-Aquaculture Lau Fau Shan

operation

location

LeeAnne Brown | Master of Architecture 2020 Vidya Bhamidi | Master of City Planning 2019 Yao Shu | Master of Landscape Architecture 2020

40

41


Water-Aquaculture Lau Fau Shan

Abstract

42

Lau Fau Shan is one of the last remaining fishing villages in Hong Kong with a thriving aquaculture industry and aquafarming history. Local villagers have shaped a long history of farming, which has shaped a series of differentiated neighborhoods across the water edge and inland. At present, its burgeoning fish markets and oyster farming confront the radically changing landscape of Shenzhen. This proposal explores potential spatial, idiosyncratic, and economic paths by reclaiming the traditional aquaculture characteristics of the site from the material ecologies and spatial relationship with water, the shaping of its edge, and empowering of villagers to address ongoing and future pressures of Sea Level Rise and densification.

Site //Climate

and Yuen Long South. In conjunction with these economic and land use pressures, it is foreseeable that Sea Level Rise will impact the local economy, traditional livelihoods, and ecological habitats. The rise of coastal waters is anticipated to generate climate change displacement of the entire Lau Fau Shan zone, which would entail an irrecoverable loss of social and cultural capital. Although aquaculture in direct terms is not a primary contributor to overall GDP, the government has recognized it as being important from food security and economic diversification point of view. The site is crucial for migratory birds.

As sea levels continue to rise and climate change threatens fragile environmental systems, coastal villages dependent on the water will be forced to retreat from the Development pressures of the larger Hong Kong area have reached edge. Not only will this disrupt new towns like Tin Shui Wai & Yuen hundreds or thousands of years of culture, history, and social bonds Long, as well as, ongoing HSK NDA

for villagers, but also the economic, environmental, and cultural benefits to the greater region of Hong Kong and China. Lau Fau Shan in northern Hong Kong is one of these threatened villages, with a proposed Sea Level Rise of 2.8 meters by 2100 that will inundate its central market and residential area. The distinctive oyster farming tradition in the Deep Bay of Shenzhen is under threat by ongoing water pollution and worsening typhoons. An equivalent risk is anticipated for Lau Fau Shan. The Yuen Long District of the new Hong Kong Territories contains the largest alluvial plains of the region with a constellation of traditional aquafarming villages that borders Shenzhen. The region has a characteristic lower density compared to other enclaves of the Great Pearl River Delta and adjacent areas such as Tin Shui Wai. The gross net density of Yuen Long

43

Existing Conditions

Projected Sea Level Rise


Water-Aquaculture Lau Fau Shan

Site //Water

44

District is below 30,000 people/ sq km2, unlike Tin Shui Wai New Town of 30,000 people/ sq km2 [Population Densities (Gross and Net) by New Towns in 2011]. Together Tin Shui Wai and Yuen Long District accrue a total population of over 500,000 and differ significantly in culture and morphologies. Yuen Long New Town developed from the traditional market town of Yuen Long Town from the late 1970s. Tin Shui Wai New Town has developed since the early 1990s and is built on land reclaimed from former fish ponds once common in the district. Tin Shui Wai is known as the city of sadness. In 2015, a total of 200 hectares were identified as brownfield parcels within the New Towns of the larger Hong Kong district. Each of the parcels averaged a total of 0.55 hectares. We take this data in conjunction with the varying local densities and ecologies of Tin Shui

Wai to propose an alternative use of the waterfront that reclaims aqua- On the water edge, our strategy comprises building “piers” out into culture traditions while promoting the Deep Bay to prevent displacecontrol of toxicity and erosion. ment from immediate areas and maintaining villagers close to the Addressing the fundamental water, which is essential for local historical shifts from wetlands, culture and promotes sustainable aquaculture, to contrasting vilsedimentation and erosion conlage aquafarming and infill with trol. We also propose redeveloplarge densification, we propose ing the existing village preserving an alternative model of Deep Sea the unique conditions of interior inhabitation and village culture reclamation. We propose a “devel- corridors and transitional spaces oper line” that acts as a “safe zone.” which are fundamental architecturThis strategy will be supported by a al conditions of the day to day life main new transportation spine that of the village. Our alternative model divides the lands on either side with proposes a rehabilitation that incorporates placing villagers into the villagers and local aquaculture dominating the edge-side with low- the Bay rather than inland as typical Sea Level Rise strategies. Preserving rise + high-density development the aquaculture and neighborhood and market-rate, and high-rise + scale in a future scenario of Sea high-density development domiLevel rise demanded exploring an nating the hill-side. In this model, the profits from the sale of land and alternative spatial, material, and scale strategy to retreating and development rights would help to densifying inland. finance the shaping of the edge, specifically on the edge side.

45

Hydrology

Topography


Water-Aquaculture Lau Fau Shan

Site //Socialeconomics

The proposed program includes a system of canals and reservoirs that widen the edge condition between land and water. The Canals would provide immediate access to water for those living in the new development and create an irrigation system for controlling seawater for aquaculture as a primary architectural constituent. 46

When typhoons bring heavy rains, the filigree system of water infrastructure - including canals + reservoirs + bordering wetland areas + open buffer zones / public space – will serve as catchment areas, reinstating the traditional flood plain status of the area. This development contrasts with other forms of urbanization that have created large areas of impervious surfaces that result in flooding in residential areas. In turn, the wetland areas will cleanse water runoff before it re-enters the polluted bay. In tandem, the reservoirs can hold excess water until water levels recede, and it is safe to release it for decontamination as it travels back out the canals. Over time the architecture’s ground level scaffolding system and textured facade help accumulate sediment when the water rises and serves as a protected substrate for mangrove growth. The buildings and environment would work symbiotically to protect the inland areas as storms worsen due to the projected Sea Level Rise.

47

Transportation

Population

Habitats


2019

Site //History

Water-Aquaculture Lau Fau Shan

1975

2100 1936

1975

48

49

1936 2019 Site Photos

2100 History


Water-Aquaculture Lau Fau Shan

Projection //Framework

50

51

Phasing

Site Model


Water-Aquaculture Lau Fau Shan

Projection //Masterplan

52

53

Shenzhen Edges

Lau Fau Shan Edges

Masterplan


Water-Aquaculture Lau Fau Shan

Projection //Environment

54

55

SITE PLAN 100’ GRID

Material and Organism Study Models

Zoom-in Site Plan

CANAL + RESERVOIR TYPOLOGIES


Water-Aquaculture Lau Fau Shan

Projection //Building System

56

57

BUILDING PLAN + CANAL 100’ GRID

Material and Organism Study Models

Schematic Architecture Plan


Water-Aquaculture Lau Fau Shan

Projection //Building System

58

59

BUILDING PLAN + CANAL 25’ GRID

Material and Organism Study Models

Zoom-in Architecture Plan


Water-Aquaculture Lau Fau Shan

Projection //Building System CANAL + RESERVOIR TYPOLOGIES

CANAL + RESERVOIR TYPOLOGIES

LONGITUD

LONGITUDINAL LANDSCAPE SECTION

60

61

1/8” = 1’-0” BUILDING ELEVATION

Building System Sections

1/8” = 1’-0” BUILDING ELEVATION

1/8” = 1’-0” BUILDING CROSS SECTION

Building System Sections

1/8” = 1’-


Water-Aquaculture Lau Fau Shan

62

63

Render

Render


2

WATER-WATER INFRASTRUCTURETSING YI ISLAND resource

Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

operation

location

Caleb Bentley | Master of Architecture 2021 Lili Dai | Master of Urban Design 2019 Michael Clyde Johnson | Master of Architecture and Master of City Planning 2021

64

65


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Abstract

The work presented for this site comprises of two main proposals [A and B] as alternative models to address landfill strategies in the future of Tsing Yi’s sea-level rise and densification pressures. 66

PROPOSAL A- Tsing Yi 2100 [Lili Dai] This proposal develops a vision for the next 100 years of what could, should as an alternative model for urban landfill strategies. The proposal addresses the anticipated transformations in the built environment of Hong Kong. Projections concur in serious impacts of sea-level rise and storm surge risks, as well as urgent needs for inhabitable land and clean water. Multiple interrogations stem from these predictions. How can city dwellers including human beings and all the organisms living in the city, move away from highly-dense impervious surfaces and reclaim an active ur-

Site //History

mensional structure which it could capture sediment aggregation from the greater bay area and form new islands for future development. In future phases, the original individual vertical clusters would expand the geography of the land in Tsing Material and formal studies, such as Yi into new island territories. The constructed landscape permeability vertical tubes which are a combination of a soft membrane with rigid and biocompatibility, were invespillars, would not only stabilize the tigated as drivers for new landfill structures but also serve as water strategies. From studies of local detoxification and vertical distribuaquatic organisms to cladding and tion system. These water networks vertical densification processes of sediment entrapping this proposal are inspired by capillary actions creates densification as a cluster of of pressure differentiation of the xylem of plants. vertical points that shift and grow through time as a result of material Growing and transforming horizonecologies. The fundamental pillars tally and vertically, each mega-scale of this proposal are the coordiinfrastructure is projected to sustain nation of cohabitation of various habitats evolving through time for species with sedimentation and the wide range of native species erosion control. while addressing the ongoing water pollution of the larger Hong Kong The proposed urban prototype aims to defend, adapt and mitigate region. In the early phase, the sea-level rise by its porous three-di- infrastructure would comprise of

Historical Maps

ban environment in multiple scales? What would be effective landfill strategies for the future demands of the region? How can ecological processes govern the future urban models of densification and landfill?

67

History


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Site //Land

68

to be methods to achieve this mediation. In southern China and elsewhere, the built environment was long thought to be a means by PROPOSAL B - A City of Rooms: A which to mitigate climatic condiProposal for a New Tsing Yi tions to increase human comfort, [Michael Clyde Johnson, Caleb such as traditional villages built in Bentley] a close-in grid pattern to minimize Introduction: Between Nature and direct sunlight penetration and maximize wind ventilation in the Culture hot, humid climate. Now, in what we understand to be the AnthroIn his Ten Books on Architecture, Vitruvius first theorized what would pocene, Vitruvius’s origin story persists, as architecture is tasked with eventually become an ongoing concern within the discipline of ar- adapting the built environment to a Stemming from the process of chitecture: as a mediation between changing climate and rising seas. cohabitation, the proposed model nature and culture. For Vitruvius, establishes spaces for human ocThe Sectional City: The Urban Concupation and vertical densification. the act of architecture was meant dition of Hong Kong to achieve a harmony between The proposed program comprises of vertical residential and mix-used humanity and the environment through the use of proper propor- In addition to negotiating a changspaces with the primary circulation, a conception which would be ing landscape, our proposal seeks tion systems along with the water later be revived in the Renaissance to foreground two characteristics of network distribution located at by Alberti. With the advent of mod- Hong Kong: a multi-layered system its center. The densification and transformation process is projected ernism came a desire for machinic of circulation –– the “sectional city” –– and the inhabitation and control, while, later, data and a in phases that can span centuries based on the principles of evolution diagramming of flows were thought use of all space in the city –– “the pre-fabricated pillars as foundations in the water. During the phase of development, the structure underneath water would attract and attach local plankton and shellfish. As the vertical structure grows based on densification demands, it also will reclaim larger surfaces with water and water-air plants as part of the cladding system which in turn will also favor other aquatic organisms such as crabs and migratory air species including birds.

Reclaimed Land

Proposed Site, Tsing Yi Island

Reclaimed Land Land Use

Proposed Site Lot Lease Ownership

and adaptation.

69

Hong Kong United Dockyards Ltd

Shell Tsing Yi Installation DSL Chevron Hong Kong Limited Tsing Yi Terminal YiuLian Dockyards Limited Kwai Tsing Container Terminals

Styron (Hong Kong) Limited Tsing Yi Site Euroasia Dockyard

Hen Chu (Tsing Yi) Industrial Centre Clp Tsing Yi Centre

ExxonMobil Hong Kong Limited Tsing Yi Terminal (West)

Streets

Open Space

Water

Residential

Commercial

Cemeteries

Parks

Military

Industrial

Sinopec Hong Kong Oil Terminal

Lots 0’

Land Use

ExxonMobil Hong Kong Limited Tsing Yi Terminal (East)

1000’

0’

Land Ownership

Buildings

1000’


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Site //Transit & Water Transit

70

city as living room.” In Hong Kong, the single, conventional ground is corrupted by exterior space and avenues of circulation, which operate on multiple horizontal data. Driven by the steep hillsides, adjacency to water, and density of population, the people and the city have generated a dynamic and unconventional urban environment facilitated by the mechanization of vertical circulation.

teristics. Refiguring the Sectional City: Towards a New Development in Hong Kong

Thus, this project refigures the sectional city of isolated housing estate islands into a truly connected city of rooms — an enfilade, one room after another — through a planimetric operation. Rooms become corridors and streets, as well as fulfilling the requirements Yet current development in Hong Kong –– the construction of isolat- of many programs. By privileging ed high-rise towers and the process the ground plane, the project increases the number of inhabof land reclamation in the Pearl itable horizontal datum while River Delta –– limits this sectional increasing many-times over the connectivity that the city desires. sectional connectivity. Built on the Thus our proposal for “a city of rooms”: a form of development in edge of the mountain and sea, the contrast to the status quo, and one project accumulates silt deposits, constructing landscape within. In meant to formalize latent charac-

this way, it allows for inhabitation by both people and landscape, accommodating fluctuating uses over time and becoming an accumulation of both sediment and people achieved through a single architecture. Like the Course of Empire, this project imagines the lifetime of an architecture as it is constructed, inhabited by people, slowly entwined with nature, and then finally eroded back to the earth. This proposal is then not simply an alternative to the conventional land reclamation process, but ultimately, in refiguring the city from section to plan, it takes the existing conditions of Hong Kong and foregrounds them: the habitation of public space, the stacking of rooms, and the vertical circulation connecting multiple data.

Circulation

Railways

Subways

Subway Stations

Bus Stations

Train Stations

0’

1000’

Transit Watersheds and Stream Segments

Pedestrian

Streets

Water

Freeways

Parking

Watersheds

1000’

0’

1000’

2100 Mean Sea Level 0’

Watershed

0’

Circulation Projected Sea Level and Storm Surge

Stream Segments

1000’

2011 Mean Sea Level

2100 Storm Surge

Projected Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge

71


Elevation Elevation

72

Elevation Elevation

Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Site //Existing Conditions

73


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Projection A- Tsing Yi 2100 //Framework

74

75

Traditional Infill Strategy

Proposed Infill Strategy

Masterplan

Phasing


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

76

77

Site Model

Site Model


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Projection A- Tsing Yi 2100 //Densification

78

79

Densification Strategy

Densification Study Models


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Projection A- Tsing Yi 2100 //Tectonics

80

81

Organism and Material Study - Ecology Model

Material Study - Bio-Strategy


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Projection A- Tsing Yi 2100 //Building System

82

83

Formal Study Section Model

Prototype Section


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Projection A- Tsing Yi 2100 //Building System

84

85

Prototype Sections

Prototype Sections


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Projection B- A City of Rooms //Framework

86

87

Site Mode and Site Massing

Framework


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Projection B- A City of Rooms //Program & Densification

88

89

Phases of Silt Accumulation

Prof Macdonald

Prof Macdonald

Organism and Material Study

Organism and Material Study Organism and Material Study


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Projection B- A City of Rooms //Program & Densification

90

91

Study Models


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Projection B- A City of Rooms //Tectonics

92

93

Material Study Models

Material Study


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Projection B- A City of Rooms //Tectonics

94

95

Material Study

Material Study Models


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Projection B- A City of Rooms //Building System

96

97

Material Study Models

Density

Formal Study

Planimetric diagram of pilotis system


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Projection B- A City of Rooms //Building System

98

99

Derivation of the Arch

Material Study Models

Material Formal Study Study


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Projection B- A City of Rooms

100

101

Organism Study

Render


Water-Water InfrastructureTsing Yi Island

Projection B- A City of Rooms

102

103

Site Model

Material Study Models


3

WATER-WATER-ECONOMICS HENGQIN ISLAND resource

Water - Water Economics Hengqin Island

operation

location

Alexandra Cortez | Master of Architecture 2020 Deeksha Rawat | Master of City Planning 2019 Moyan Chen | Master of Landscape Architecture 2020

104

105


Water - Water Economics Hengqin Island

Abstract

106

Hengqin Island, Zhuhai has a unique advantage due to its location in the Pearl River Delta. Being adjacent to Macau, within a forty-minute drive to Hong Kong and being designated a Special Economic Zone by China, allows the area the opportunity to capitalize on economic growth and development. The landmass is the result of large scale reclamation and infill, which combines two islands leaving it very vulnerable to the projected impacts of climate change and sea-level rise. Climate change is affecting the freshwater availability in the region which is already freshwater scare. Saltwater intrusions have left Zhuhai and Macau in need to ration freshwater in the past. Excessive rainfall and flooding are projected to rise in subsequent years. Hence, Hengqin Island faces massive developmental pressures in a land scare region along with being extremely vulnerable to climate change.

Site //Flora and Fauna

This proposal plans to challenge rampant urbanization while understanding the socio-economic impacts of ecology on development, and harness existing resources to their sustainable potential to create resilient communities. The development strategy comprises two aspects - utilizing the land tenure system of the region to address sea-level rise and harvesting the rainfall received by the island, especially the two hills which make up thirty square kilometers of the landmass. The two decentralized water regeneration systems of the proposal provide onsite treatment of storm and grey water opposing centralized collection and distribution that is economically ineffective and environmentally inadequate due to aquifer impacts. Our proposal for Hengin Island questions the predominant high rise models as deficient hyper densification with

local culture neglect and only short term economic benefits. Through our combined resource management and strategic densification, we propose a sustainable long term benefit. 107

Part A- [Moyan Chen] This component of the proposal comprises of a water management system adaptive to the rising projected water levels for Hengqin Island for the phases of development in the short, mid, and long term. The strategy creates spaces designed to capture rain and stormwater in between and through the development. This system allows for the rise of water levels, with groundwater rising in the freshwater reservoirs and seawater making the connection between the water channel and the reservoirs, creating an integrated water system. The third phase of development enacts the retreat strategy, where

Flora and Fauna


Water - Water Economics Hengqin Island

Site //Socioeconomics

Economic Trends in Zhuhai

marine life and freshwater animals. A bio-realm and ecological corridor are make up our vision of an alternative model for the island.

1

2

3

4

Source: CEIC Data.

1

Imports in SEZ

1

Exports in SEZ

2

Secondary sector GDP

2

Tertiary sector GDP

3

Tourism revenue - International

3

Tourism revenue- Domestic

4

Real estate investment

Economic Trends in Zhuhai Water Resource in PDR

Rainfall Record (hourly) at Hong Kong Observatory

Water Resource per Capita

Water Use per Capita

4500

150

4000

140

Running hourly rainfall record (mm)

108

the water is pumped back to the building for daily use. The volume proposed in our design creates a freshwater surplus based on the projected population growth. We propose to utilize the excess water Part B – [Alexandra Cortez] as an economic advantage by selling the freshwater to Macau and Hong This strategy proposes a self-susKong who will be under progressive taining water supply for the island extreme water pressures. Through by developing two prototypes to deal with the great amount of water this loop, we create a financial model for lower-density development. on the island. One is a directed Part A focuses specifically on system that loops water from the mitigating sea level rise and tidal changes by creating a “soft” condi- infrastructure to the buildings. This The building strategy deployed on-site, reinterprets the cladding process enables firstly collecting tion along the edge of the watertypologies characteristic in Hengqrunoff and greywater through mefront through a phytoremediation in’s surrounding cities of Macau, chanical filtration that utilizes the process. During the densification force of gravity to cleanse and treat and Hong Kong. The personalization process large open space will be of window and balcony railings in stormwater runoff and greywater created in between, which is the major vegetated area with dynamic from particulate matter. The regen- Macau contrasted with the sea of repetitive surface articulation in eration of greywater incorporates tidal fluctuation. By utilizing a grareplaceable fiber filters underneath Hong Kong gave precedent to the dient texture of different wetland housing ambitions of this proposal vegetation (from native mangroves the built structures and subsequently transferring the water into on Hengqin Island. The cladding to salt marsh, and freshwater species), the flow is mitigated, and the ponds that comprise photocatalysis typologies reinterprets the cultural expressions and opportunities for sloped area is used to reconcile and (UV radiation) for final detoxifithe unique program as transitional create dynamic habitats for the rich cation. After full detoxification, the low-density development in the path of water (developed on a 50-year lease) is relinquished to the rising waters. In this development, density is transferred partially to the high-density belt through the transfer of development rights and partially to new medium density development on the gentle slope of the hills.

3500

130

3000

120

2500

110

2000

100

National Avg Water Resource per Capita - 2,039m3

1500

90

1000

80

World Bank Water Poverty Mark - 1,000m3

500

70

0

60 1880

1890

1900

1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

Shenzhen

Dongguan Zhongshan

Foshan

Guangzhou

Zhuhai

Jiangmen

Huizhou

Zhaoqing

Year Source: Adapted from HKO, 2010

Rainfall Record (hourly) at Hong Kong Observatory

Source: China Water Risk. Water resources and water use figures are based on NBSC, Guangdong Statistical Yearbook 2016 & Hong Kong WSD Statistics.

Water Resource in PRD

Provincial average

Hong Kong

109


Water - Water Economics Hengqin Island

Site //Soil

the particle removal process, the water enters the building distribution system as filtered greywater. Purification of the water inside the building uses gravity through the site’s topography and a sequential A system for water retention, filtration, and deployment defines process of filtration and detoxificatogether with transitional pubtion through membranes. The regenerated greywater is subsequentlic-semi private spaces as the core ly distributed in a decentralized of the proposed building’s design. Pressurized water in the foundation manner to its inhabitants. The roof of the building collects storm and travels through variations in aperture openings to capture particulate water runoff and integrates into the same purification system as the wamatter in multiple zones. After public-private spaces. These aperture systems are essential for the local culture of daily activities and communal exchange.

110

Hong Kong Density 6,735 ppl/sqmi Highest Density 155,200 ppl/sqmi

Macau Density 73,350 ppl/sqmi

ter collected at its foundation. The regenerated water surplus serves as the capital for the long term sustainability of the neighborhood together with the pools system of Part A of the masterplan. 111

Taipa Density 31,000 ppl/sqmi

Soil Section Study


Water - Water Economics Hengqin Island

Site //Inundation

112

113

Traditional Circular Pond-Dyke Agroecosystem versus Hybrid Eco Friendly development

Projected Inundation for 2100: 5.1 m


Water - Water Economics Hengqin Island

Projection // Initial Proposal

114

115

Material Studies and Bio-Strategy Models (Desalinating infrastructure for water)

Initial Site Plan

Study Model


Water - Water Economics Hengqin Island

Projection //Framework & Densification

Low Density 7,000 ppl/sqmi

High Density 40,000 ppl/sqmi

Medium Density 15,000 ppl/sqmi

Low Density 7,000 ppl/sqmi

High Density 40,000 ppl/sqmi

High Density 40,000 ppl/sqmi

Medium Density 15,000 ppl/sqmi

Medium Density 15,000 ppl/sqmi

Retreat at the end of the 50 year lease period

Added residential density

Leave space for water to collect and rise

Seawater rising along designated greenways to join inland water

Phase 1 - 2025

Phase 2 - 2075

Added commercial density

Continued rising levels of sea water

Phase 3 - 2100

116

117

Land displacement Study Models

Framework


Water - Water Economics Hengqin Island

Projection //Masterplan

Addressing Water Insecurity Hill area on site 30 sqkm Annual rainfall 918mm Yearly water capture on Hill 27 billion liters 118

119

Yearly fresh water requirement for site population 5 billion liters Surplus water for sale to Macau and HK 22 billion liters

Water Process Axon

Sectional Study Models and Site Model

Tidal Design


Water - Water Economics Hengqin Island

Projection //Tectonics & Building System

Building Systems Study Models

Primary Structure (Canals)

120

121

Flexible Protuberance

Organism Study

Secondary Network (Semi-Permeable Membrane)


Water - Water Economics Hengqin Island

Projection //Tectonics & Building System

122

123

Building Typology

Building System - Plan, Section and Axon


Water - Water Economics Hengqin Island

Projection //Tectonics & Building System

Geometric Exploration of Canals

124

125

Geometric Exploration Models Building Facade Study Models


rural

126

water route

urban

MASTER PLAN

resource

operation

location

Juanita Ballesteros | Master of City Planning and Master of Landscape Architecture 2020 Nathan Nguyen | Master of Architecture 2020 Yuxi Wei | Master of Architecture 2020

new highway

roadway

4

WATER-FOOD-TRANSPORTATION NANSHA ISLAND

Water-Food-Transportation Nansha Island

127


Water-Food-Transportation Nansha Island

Abstract

128

agricultural land reclamation has been part of the history of PRD for the past three hundred years, the largely unsustainable land use infill strategies of the region have only been on the rise for the past thirty years. Current landfill strategies carry various complications from disrupting local ecologies to water contamination and land erosion. Although agriculture is crucial to the culture and history of the area, the current government proposal for the site is to turn it into an international shipping zone as part of the Guangdong Pilot Free Trade The future development of Nansha Zone. This zone especially the port, takes over some of the functions is subject to the ongoing pressures of housing due to population of the Hong Kong and Macau Free growth and urbanization demands Trade Zones. In response, the main question arises: How can we preof China in particular of the PRD region. Such demands are frequent- serve and advance both productive ly met at the expense of agricultural systems, agriculture, and port activities in Nansha? land. Much like much of the PRD, Nansha has reclaimed the ocean There are several challenges presby transforming it into a producent at the site. Nansha is thoroughly tive agricultural landscape. While Our proposal is situated in Nansha, a small island south of Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The current land usage of the island comprises two systems: the western half of the island is predominantly agricultural land, and the eastern half is the port of Nansha. Our project addresses the ongoing and future regional pressures on food production. Specifically, it focuses on agriculture as it comprises a major portion of the island and provides produce to the larger PRD region.

Site //Water

flat, low-lying land. As such, it is subject to tidal fluctuation and very vulnerable to sea-level rise. Also, the high precipitation patterns in the region will only increase with climate change impact, and the site will be especially vulnerable to high precipitation rates during typhoon season. The future of the site will be dependent on water level increase and the continuing depletion of local ecologies.

Land Salinity - High Tide

Land Salinity - Low Tide

Tidal Impact

Urban verse Rural

Our project focuses specifically on how to increase productivity using sea-level rise as a given. Two primary strategies are proposed: 1) relinquish to protect the land and 2) to utilize the sea for agricultural productivity. The relinquishment of land will allow for selective and targeted protection of land preservation, while the relinquished land serves double-duty as a buffer and agricultural productive zone. The skeleton of the proposal is

129


TRANSECT

cultivation + harvesting

tĂƚĞƌͲ&ŽŽĚͲdƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĂƟŽŶ EĂŶƐŚĂ/ƐůĂŶĚ

drying production

Site //Existing Conditions transportation

seaweed mussel farming

NANSHA

INSTRUCTORS: PAZ GUTIERREZ + TOMAS MCKAY TEAM: J. BALLESTEROS, N. NGUYEN, Y. WEI

vertical agriculture

SALINITY MAP: HIGH TIDE

SALINITY MAP: LOW TIDE

INFILL MA

agriculture urban wetlands commercial port

1979 - 1990 1990 - 2000

1979 - 1990 1979 - 1990

2000 - 2013

TRANSPORTATION MAP

130

created through the increased presence of canals and through the wetland spine that runs through the middle of the island. The canals facilitate the flow of seawater through the island and increase resiliency by working with, rather than against, rising waters. The wetland spine serves as a natural buffer to changing tides, a filtration mechanism between the port and agricultural zone, and a habitat and recreation space. Our envisioned future for Nansha is primarily agricultural. By accepting and using the sea level rise, the site can maintain and even increase its productivity as an aquaculture hub. The addition of seaweed farming and mollusk farming can create a sustainable and productive agriculture system to replace the current resource-intensive agriculture. The benefits of seaweed farming are multiple. The production is economically sound like a growing

the Pearl River Delta is a high contributor to boosting China’s economy. The PRD Economic Zone has accounted for 20% of China’s GDP and 39% of the nation’s total trade in 2019. The site is of high value for political, economic, and industrial purposes. However, projections concur, pointing impending crises on various fronts in the future. Anticipated political conflicts between China and other nations are escalating, including but not limited to trade war, Southern China Sea, and more recently Hong Kong legal policies. In tandem, the regions are expected to be highly impacted by climate change and may reach a tipping point in the span of one hundred years for habitable land on We propose two alternative scenari- its water edges. From this perspective, our site Nansha demands os [A and B] for the masterplan of radical planning that encompasses seaweed farming in Nansha. sustainable political, economic, and environmental strategies. This Scenario A [Yuxin Wei] proposal embraces this challenge The high level of industrialization of by repositioning the use of the port market, it helps to deacidify ocean water, it improves wildlife habitat, it incurs minimal start-up cost, and it requires no input for initiation. Current systems rely on freshwater, fertilizer, pesticides, amongst other land-intensive high maintenance strategies. Seaweed farming and other saltwater aquaculture systems thrive on ocean water and support over time the detoxification and control of ocean acidification a primary anthropogenic climate change driver. Rather than seeing sea-level rise as a catastrophic endeavor that needs to be fought, we propose a system that uses increased saltwater presence as an economic and ecological advantage.

0” 3’3’- -0”

URBAN V RURAL MA

1979 - 1990 1990 - 2000

mud mud

0” 8’8’- -0”

1979 - 1990 2000 - 2013

gravel gravel

EXISTING LAND DIVISION

cultivation + harvesting

TIDAL IMPACT

roadway new highway water route

INFILL AXON

urban rural

MASTER 131PLAN

TRANSECT

drying

production

transportation

seaweed

2020

2025

mussel farming

vertical agriculture

agriculture

urban

wetlands

Site Photos

commercial

port

2050


Water-Food-Transportation Nansha Island

132

infrastructure while embracing the generators. The reuse of existing masterplan for seaweed production. vessels serves as the fieldwork probes. I propose the reconstruction of a The combined program functions new system that is resilient to natto repurpose large scale industrial ural hazards refurbishing the ship factories and industrial waste of the waste (e.g., port cranes), provide an adaptable mechanical and ecologiregion as abundant local materical system that adapts as infrastrucal for a wide range of scales and applications. The cargo cranes and ture as sea level rises while providshipping cranes (about 130 feet tall) ing housing and research units. are ideal for the primary structure Scenario B [Nathan Ngyen] of a program that combines living and seaweed manufacturing processes and R &D and education. The Nansha, Guanzhou, is an artificial island with a rich history in agriprogram comprises of a “neutral culture and cargo transportation. space” and innovation hubs. The site topography is gradually flat with few one-story residences and a -Neutral Space: the multi-use occupation for living and production, cargo port. As its existing condition addressing the demands of densifi- is vulnerable to climate change, the island will soon be flooded by cation and agricultural production the sea level rise and the insurgent (raw material processing). of dirty water from the port. The current planning strategies for the -Innovation Units: The innovation units are hubs for research and de- future development of Nansha velopment laboratories and power does consider this urgency. Instead,

it focuses only on densifying the island to become the next biggest economic hub where its agriculture and transportation identity will no longer exist. However, research has shown that agricultural land of the region is shrinking. The need for agriculture production and is replacing by housing, infrastructure, and commercial uses. Sooner or later, the demand for agriculture production will increase and will become limited for the entire region. Therefore, agriculture and densification were the basis for the proposal. A series of walls are installed extending along the cross-sections of the island, serve as a foundation, and a framework for future housing and agriculture uses. Over time, a massive rainwater harvesting double roofs grow atop of the wall to capture clean, freshwater for farming and residential. The core concept can be described as redefining, refurbish, and resilient. Redefine -Reorganize the agriculture

land division to diversify agricultural production and densification. Seaweed production is introduced as a new crop to better fit the environmental condition of the region in the future. 133

Refurbish-Maximize productivity by renewing horizontal farming to vertical, reuse pre-existing canals system as the primary circulation and transportation and reapply the vernacular material such as timber and palm leaf to retain the regional identity. Resilient Wetlands is constructed between the walls to trap sediment for soil stabilization and to keep dirty water from moving inward. These constructed wetlands will also attract wildlife, generating an ecosystem between nature, humans, and projected sea-level rise. Land Typology Study


TRANSECT TRANSECT Water-Food-Transportation Nansha Island cultivation + cultivation + harvesting harvesting

Site //Land drying drying

production production transportation transportation

seaweed

seaweed

mussel farming

mussel farming

vertical agriculture

vertical agriculture

agriculture

agriculture

urban

urban

wetlands

wetlands

commercial port commercial

134

Transect Diagram

135 port

Land DNA


Water-Food-Transportation Nansha Island

Projection Scenario A //Masterplan

136

137

Components

Masterplan


tĂƚĞƌͲ&ŽŽĚͲdƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĂƟŽŶ EĂŶƐŚĂ/ƐůĂŶĚ

Projection Scenario A //Tectonics

138

139

Material Study Models

Material Study Models


Water-Food-Transportation Nansha Island

Projection Scenario A //Section

140

141

Site Section

Site Section


Water-Food-Transportation Nansha Island

Projection Scenario A //Building System

142

143

Site Models

Render


Water-Food-Transportation Nansha Island

Projection Scenario A //Building System

144

145

Building System Models

Render


tĂƚĞƌͲ&ŽŽĚͲdƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĂƟŽŶ EĂŶƐŚĂ/ƐůĂŶĚ

Projection Scenario B //Masterplan

146

147

Axon

SITE FORMATION PROJECTION

Masterplan


Water-Food-Transportation Nansha Island

Projection Scenario B //Tectonics

148

149

Material Study Models

Material Study Models


tĂƚĞƌͲ&ŽŽĚͲdƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĂƟŽŶ EĂŶƐŚĂ/ƐůĂŶĚ

Projection Scenario B //Section

150

151 PLAN PLAN :: 0’ 0’ -- 1/8” 1/8” = = 1’ 1’ -- 0” 0”

CROSS CROSS SECTION SECTION :: 0’ 0’ -- 1/4” 1/4” = = 1’ 1’ -- 0” 0”

LONG LONG SECTION SECTION :: 0’ 0’ -- 1/8” 1/8” = = 1’ 1’ -- 0” 0”

Site Section

Site Section


Water-Food-Transportation Nansha Island

Projection Scenario B //Building System

152

153

Site Models

Render


Water-Food-Transportation Nansha Island

Projection Scenario B //Building System

154

155

Building System Model

Render


Seminar Introduction

SEMINAR FALL 2018 (STUDIO PREPARATION)

156

In preparation for the Studio presented in this book, the seminar “Special Topics in Architectural Design / Greater Bays: Adapting to Rapid Change” was conducted in the Fall semester of 2018. This seminar focused on the sea level rise challenges and potential solutions for the San Francisco Bay Area. This seminar worked on identifying, describing, mapping, and analyzing systemic environmental changes in the Bay area. The goal was to gather, critique, and then generate new information in ways that highlight rapid or significant changes that have implications for the transformation of San Francisco and other cities along coasts. In parallel, a graduate seminar at HKU was conducting similar research and design exercises for the Pearl River Delta, serving as a comparison to understand both what is global and what is local.

This seminar moved through the current state of the art in confronting sea-level rise and precipitation volatility, discussing design approaches to the Bay Area´s urbanism. Then new tactics and planning structures considering housing, infrastructure and design solutions for an adaptive future were formulated, working on strategies that will both solve current problems and be prepared for an uncertain future. It’s about the evolution and adaptation of an urban landscape, driven by environmental flows and their progress over time.

the capacities of some infrastructure in the bay area. Here four cases are presented. The seminar was organized in a series of modules, counting with lectures of Kristina Hill, Daniel Rodriguez, Elizabeth Macdonald, Nicholas de Monchaux and Renee Chow. Tomas McKay served as coordinator.

The research was mostly focused on infrastructure as an opportunity for adaptation to climate change. This emphasis helped the students to frame challenges at a larger scale and to have a multipurpose approach, allowing the city to get adapted to upcoming changes. Each student prepared a case study as a strategy of adaptation, rethinking

INSTRUTOR Tomas McKay STUDENTS Diego Romero Evans Ana Carolina Lamela Jun Tanabe Liu Haikang

157

Figure 1 Both Bays


Seminar Introduction

Diego Romero Evans Mobility Infrastructure as an Opportunity to Produce Multi-Ecological and Social Benefits.

158

and redevelop this dynamic area in a much denser multilayer strategy producing multi-benefits with simultaneous impacts such as biodiversity (natural) and bio-cultural (social). The layers from the ocean This research mostly focused on to the city are Dynamic edge, green hydrological and transportation belt, new topography, an ecological systems. It considered the interstitial spaces between the railway and hybrid infrastructure of mobility the highways, to design adaptation and the creek. strategies to climate change with The macro strategy is to alternate motivations from the dialectical interactions between an ecological three zones, a dynamic in the curand social perspective. After super- rent shore with the ocean, followed imposing the layers of information, by a static and then a hybridization of both materializing the new urban 14 points of vulnerability were edge of the Bay. In this area is recognized. proposed to use cultivation crops, housing and transport systems The proposal on a regional scale gradually in the following way: is configurated by a BIG O like an ecological-transportation corridor Crops > Horizontal Levee > Soft > system. This ring proposes hybrid Dynamic zones of temporal gradualism in areas that transform the potential Housing > Channels/Ponds > Mix threat of the rises in the ground/ > Static sea level into an opportunity. Opportunity to rethink, redefine,

Transport > Pillars > Hard > Hybrid The strategy is changing over time, as a matter of design. First phase will be to move inland the highway 101 and build it elevated on the current line of the railway. Then in the second phase the current railway also rises, becoming a high-speed train. The strategy is designed as an open system that receives multiple uses, under and above it with housing, community, commercial and sports facilities.

159

Figure 2 The Big O and the 14 points of action

Figure 3 Cross section for the Big O strategy


Seminar Introduction

Ana Carolina Lamela Adapting Union City, California’s Water Systems to Climate Change

160

Water treatment processes must evolve along with a planet that self-regulates and constantly changes. They need to be able to adapt to an increasing Sea Level Rise and Flooding vulnerability. The focus of this project is how can wastewater and Stormwater treatment processes adapt to the future scenarios of the San Francisco Bay.

The process of cleaning and reusing water is tied with the capacities of the system for storing sediments for wetland restoration and storing water for wildfire mitigation.

After stormwater has filled the tank/s, the stormwater will also connect with a Potable Water Distribution System, designed as part of the proposal for the Wastewater Facility. Here, treated wastewater and stormwater will join and provide potable water for the Union City Community. Furthermore, considering only the amount of water treated in the wastewater system, This research explores the capacities of the wastewater treatment fa- we could provide drinking water to cilities to be reframed in the urban 330,000 people. fabric as a way of dealing with the A wastewater and stormwater challenges of climate change and system as a treat-reuse system is sea-level rise. proposed as an alternative model to Social inclusion and public access the predominantly used treat-disare guiding a proposal that also charge system. Providing another includes the environmental restoration of the creeks involved in the source of potable water could be a solution to stop abusing our proposal.

groundwater resources as water supply. Also, to stop exposing people from the unhealthy exposure of Arsenic from these groundwater resources. Similarly, the wastewater system will arrive by gravity to the new located Wastewater Treatment Facility. And after passing through a Membrane Bioreactor system, will be pumped through the Potable Water Supply System along with the treated stormwater distribution explained above. Additional features of this research consider trails and pathways, renewable energy and recovery of streams and marshes.

Figure 4 Site plan of the proposal at the Alvarado Wastewater Treatment Plant

Figure 5 Cross section of the proposed strategy

161


Seminar Introduction

Jun Tanabe Embarcadero Seawall Project

162

land transportation and keeping environment. Preceding proposals the scenery of the estuary from the tend to rely on one type of solution in terms of shoreline type and Embarcadero for pedestrians. failing to provide an area-wide plan In this proposal, it’s explored the San Francisco Embarcadero seawall that combines resiliency and adaptation depending on necessity. Also, as part of the urban fabric in its dense and expensive market. Reliev- most proposals are ignoring the risk of groundwater level rise that can ing the stress of a single structure and enlarging the capacities of this be associated with sea-level rise border, the idea is to incorporate The idea is to provide a wall-altergreen infrastructure for changing the paradigm of this interface so it native protection structure, that will can be adapted to future challeng- be mostly defined for the historic wetland area of the previous es. As a stress factor of the seashoreline. The area of the previous wall, it was considered three risks; seismic, sea-level rise risk, and the shoreline is almost the same that will be covered by a 10ft sea level groundwater rise risk. rise zone. Then, this area will be This proposal considers Embarcade- dealing not just with a high risk of ro seawall not as a single line struc- sea-level rise but also with a high level of seismic risk from liquefacture, but as an adaptation zone. The goal is to protect the economic tion. The area is divided into three zones that will have different stratactivities and the infrastructure of the city, enhancing the public space egies and scope of development. and proposing an evolutive strategy The plan aims to keep the identity of the Embarcadero, supporting its for the city by using a mixed strucfreight network, the connection to ture of coastline types and built

163

Figure 6 Embarcadero plan and the three areas of action

Figure 7 Cross section for one of the proposed strategies


Seminar Introduction

164

as a transition stage to a final total Liu Haikang Imagining the Future of Airports in relocation of the airports to somewhere else in the Bay Area restoring the Bay Area the former wetlands as part of the One of the most affected facilities in greater restoration effort. the Bay Area is airports. Airports are The proposal is divided into five located adjacent to the water and stages to address 200 years. In their ecological environments are the first 50 years, the project will strictly controlled and supervised for airplanes landing and taking off. use San Bruno Creek and Colma Creek to increase their social and In the case of bay area airports, SFO, Oakland International are both ecological role, but also increasing their water-holding capacities. The built on filled land, which makes it even more subject to sea-level rise seawalls will be built according to and its coupling flooding instances. the plan to enable the airport to With the premise that airports will function properly as before. In 100 be relocated to the Bay Area in the years, the shoreline wetlands will near future, this proposal explores become more mature to withstand stronger flood and the extended the plan for this to be done. In the floating platforms will be built and process, the land is restored to wetlands and airports get devoid of connected to the current runways to allow for continuing sea-level rise its functionality. risks. The two runways, which are not extended, begin to take on less The proposal to address the sea level rise issue in the SFO airport is and less work until total abandonto extend the runways onto the sea ment. In 150 years, the runways continue to extend themselves to make them floating platforms

onto the estuary and the circled wetlands will have expanded itself until in 200 years when the airport is abandoned, and the runways are detached from the land. Thus, the shoreline comes back to become part of the ring of wetlands around San Francisco Bay.

165

Figure 8 Evolution of the strategy for the next 200 years


166

Part of ARCH 202 Studio in Hong Kong / March 2019


Profile for wursterlife

2Ws - Rising Wealth Rising Water: Hong Kong Interdisciplinary Studio Spring 2019  

Maria Paz Gutierrez & Tomas McKay

2Ws - Rising Wealth Rising Water: Hong Kong Interdisciplinary Studio Spring 2019  

Maria Paz Gutierrez & Tomas McKay

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