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www.designworldonline.com

October 2019

inside:

ference direction: Looking into motor’s lead-exit end B

A

MOTION CONTROL: Get the commutation right

p. 86

N

Clockwise rotation Phases A, B, C

C

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under the sea

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AEROSPACE/

DEFENSE:

Parametric modeling:

What have we learned in 30 years?

Material science allows cables to be solution for 5G and aerospace test equipment

p. 60

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Not a rosy outlook in industrial markets Scott Hazelton of IHS Markit gave an overview of the industrial markets for hydraulics at the recent NFPA International Economic Outlook Conference in Chicago. His outlook wasn’t a sunny one (“not a lot of roses,” he said), dovetailing with many of the other economic speakers at the conference — with indications that a coming recession in the United States would be small in size, hitting just before mid-2020. He told the audience to look for a deceleration in manufacturing with risks on the upswing. After growing 2.7% in 2018, the stage is set for manufacturing output to expand a mere 0.3% this year. The annual growth will remain modest — roughly 1% — in both 2020-21. The total manufacturing orders rose 7% last year, but this year, the story is different, with a less than 1% rate through May. Orders of durable goods were up 8% in 2018, but only 1% through May. Similarly, nondurables orders were up 7% in 2018, but just 0.9% through May. As far as total industrial production and manufacturing, that output actually declined from Q4 2018 to Q1 2019, and Q2 2019 appears to be headed for another decline. Hazelton listed various signs of this coming manufacturing slowdown: • The U.S. dollar is expected to average 3% higher against its major trading partners during 2019 and remain generally strong through 2023. • Over the next five years, U.S. imports of goods should grow at a 3.4% average annual rate while exports are expected to grow 2.9%. • Domestic WTI oil prices should be down 9% this year and then rebound approximately 3% annually through 2023. • Natural gas prices should decline 16% during 2019 and another 7% in 2020. Hazelton said that the influence of the tax cut stimulus on the industrial markets has now ended. And he noted that it had a very limited impact on business investment. The ongoing uncertainty on trade, tariffs and other policy issues has reduced business confidence — and as a result, this has put many business investment plans on hold. Tariffs on aluminum and steel have made U.S. manufacturing less competitive compared to the rest of the world, he said. And the Chinese trade talks remain uncertain, as neither the Trump Administration nor Xi Jinping seem to want to budge on their stances. Hazelton expects the U.S. dollar to strengthen further, creating a major headwind for export growth and a stimulus for import penetration. Many U.S. manufacturers have lost business to foreign competition, and that will likely to continue into next year. DW

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Teschler on Topic

The 5G boogey man Since at least the late 1970s, there have been claims that radio frequency waves are hazardous to human health. Some of the first concerns arose because of RF levels produced by a Pave Paws (Precision Acquisition of Vehicle Entry Phased Array Warning System) installation in Cape Cod. The units operated at between 420 and 450 MHz with a pulse repetition rate of 18.5 Hz. Concerns arose because of a study funded by the FDA. The researchers had exposed cats to low-intensity fields at 450 MHz which were modulated at 16 Hz. The exposure altered the outflow of calcium ions from the cats’ brain tissue. (Things went back to normal once the fields were removed.) Thus low-intensity RF fields modulated at roughly the same frequency as Pave Paws could change the physiology of animals. Since then, several studies have looked at health concerns specific to Pave Paws. The conclusions have been that it doesn’t harm humans who stay far enough away to keep field intensity below permissible exposure limits. Nevertheless, the FDA study made people wonder about human exposure to other kinds of RF. There has been a vocal minority who claim even low-intensity RF causes various medical issues in humans. In recent times, the focus of their concern has shifted from radar and TV towers to cell phones. It’s possible to find studies of cell phone fields that report adverse effects in animals. One in particular was conducted by the National Toxicology Program of the National Institutes of Health and Public Health Service. Researchers there blasted rats with GSM or CDMA-modulated 900 MHz signals for over 18 hours daily and over periods ranging from weeks to a couple years. Researchers did indeed note conditions that included weight loss and the development of tumors. The thing to note, however, is that the tests subjected those poor rats to specific absorption rates (SAR) of as high as 9 W/kg, far exceeding the SAR specified for cell phones (1.4 W/kg). Unfortunately, a cottage industry has sprung up ready to sell fearful people gadgets said to ward off “harmful” electromagnetic fields arising from devices such as cell phones. The purveyors of this stuff will often cite the results of studies like that of the National Toxicology Program while obfuscating the fact that these tests took place in conditions that in no way resemble the real world. And that brings us to 5G networks now on the drawing boards. These will use much higher frequencies than those of today’s cell phones, up to 60 GHz. 5G millimeter waves don’t penetrate the body as deeply as cell phone frequencies. Where cell phone frequencies have been shown to penetrate three to four inches into the human body, millimeter waves are likely to penetrate no deeper than the skin. I suspect this fact won’t stop the RF scare mongers. But here’s an additional point to consider: Cell phone use has mushroomed. One might expect to see a rise in the rate of brain tumors if cell phones put out enough RF to cause them. Relax. According to the American Cancer Society 2018 Central Brain Tumor Registry of the U.S., and more recently a study in Australia, the rate of brain tumor occurrences has been flat since the 1990s. You might call that an inconvenient fact if you are in the RF scare mongering business. DW

Leland Teschler • Executive Editor lteschler@wtwhmedia.com On Twitter @ DW_LeeTeschler

6

October 2019

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Technology Forward How to solve the additive

manufacturing disconnect Remember your first computer? Mine was a Macintosh 128K back in 1984. It was amazing technology back then, but somewhat limited. If you remember, the biggest application was word processing. It took years, a decade or two even, to make it a bit more than a glorified typewriter. (Even today, many will argue that we are still not using the computer to its full capabilities.) It took years before this device became commonplace in a business environment. Technology doesn’t always immediately hit its stride. Additive manufacturing, AKA 3D printing, is just the latest example of this phenomenon. Many users still operate under the hype of what 3D printing is, and they don’t understand, truly, what are the cool applications, said Kunal Mehta, head of consulting at Blueprint, or even what are the basic applications, such as jigs, fixtures, and prototyping. “You need to learn in this space just like any space, just like any emerging technology, added Mehta. “You need to get your hands dirty, you need to get in there and figure it out, does it make sense, first, for you? And, if it does, try it, test it. It’s going to take time, like any emerging technology.” But, how do you get organizations, not just individuals, but organizations to buy into additive?

“We did a quick survey, around 200 business executives,” says Mehta. “The results were the same that we’re seeing from others. About 84% of people using additive want to move beyond prototyping, but that population was stuck. We have the data on this, that it’s the human aspect — the education that’s the biggest barrier. We have to figure a way past the common mindset. Some industries, such as aerospace and automotive, though, get it and have been exploring additive for decades. They know what they are doing. These are the users who push the boundaries. One could ask why is education such a such an issue? “We saw a disconnect,” notes Mehta. “First disconnect was between the how and the why of additive. There’s a disconnect in knowledge between the business person and the engineer and primarily in the form of vocabulary, the business opportunities, the design principles to connect the business folks and the engineers. And, this is a common theme in the technology world of IT and business. How do you connect the two together? The second issue involves the misconceptions due to the hype. Mehta refers to this as a disconnect of reality. While many like the idea of 3D printing, and would love the reality if they really knew what it was, they don’t

have this common vocabulary. So, they can’t talk to one another and drive innovation and growth. And, the last one is a disconnect of tactics. Additive does not solve every problem. And oftentimes, even when it’s done correctly, it actually might cause new issues. So, how do we get an organization best positioned to win, when to use additive, when not to use additive? Knowledge has been addressed in the marketplace primarily through Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM). But something more is needed. Education needs to move beyond the focused so you’re not focused on single technology solutions. Several companies are offering help to organizations, not just individuals. One is Blueprint, a strategic consultancy that focuses on additive. You can find out more on my blog at www.makepartsfast.com. DW

Leslie Langnau • Managing Editor llangnau@wtwhmedia.com On Twitter @ DW_3Dprinting

8

October 2019 www.designworldonline.com

Tech.Forward.10-19_Vs2.LL.indd 8

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Green Engineering

Promoting sustainability and safety in additive manufacturing Joseph Crabtree

• Ceo, Additive Manufacturing Technologies Ltd.

The concept of sustainability and safety in additive manufacturing (AM) has been discussed for years. However, with the shift in focus towards post-processing — which is today rightly considered to be a key barrier to the uptake of AM for production applications due to cost and time implications — the time is right to look at sustainability and safety in this area of the AM process more forensically. AM enables more cost-and resource-efficient small/medium scale production and is forcing manufacturers to reassess their approach to manufacturing. As a disruptive and an enabling technology, it opens up the ability to manufacture parts and products with almost unlimited complexity and atypical geometries and features. The AM process is less wasteful than conventional subtractive manufacturing processes, and allows for improved resource efficiency (manufacturing processes can be redesigned for AM); extended product life (through approaches to repair, remanufacture, and refurbishment — forging closer relationships between manufacturer and consumers); and reconfigured value chains (which are shorter, smaller, more localized, and more collaborative). Much of the emphasis on AM’s effect on sustainability has focused on reduced energy and material consumption. But AM’s effect on sustainability needs to assess how it enables more sustainable models of production and consumption. Looking at ways in which AM can enable more sustainable methods of production and consumption from a product

DESIGN WORLD

Green.Engineering.10-19_Vs2.LL.indd 11

lifecycle perspective, there are four key areas in which AM enables environmental sustainability benefits: product and process redesign; material input processing; make-to-order component and product manufacturing; and closing the loop (recovering and reusing AM materials, promoting the manufacture of parts when needed/reducing need for wasteful inventories). AM has a key role to play in a move to more environmentally sustainable industrial systems with its effect on consumption and production, but it also allows manufacturers to assess the sagacity of alternative business models. The move to direct digital manufacturing will mean that digital designs will be kept on file and can be reproduced as spare parts for repair and remanufacturing. This will mean product life extension and incentivize product-service business models. Such shifts would affect the distribution of manufacturing and begin to reconfigure value chains and simplify supply chains.

www.designworldonline.com  

October 2019

11

10/1/19 8:20 AM


Green Engineering AM post processing It is important when looking at the use of AM as a production technology to analyze all the steps involved form product design to final end-use product or component. Many manufacturers underestimate the post-processing requirements when using AM, and therefore it is often the Achilles heel of the process — and can be a huge barrier to the uptake of AM as a production tool. When using AM production applications, post-processing can be anything up to 60% of total cost per finished part. Surface finishing and other post-processing activities are often labor-intensive, and therefore cost- and time-consuming.

AMT focuses on providing a costand time-effective portfolio of postprocessing technologies that reduce the burden on manufacturers and increase the viability for manufacturers from across industry to use AM as a production tool. The post-processing puzzle needs to be addressed with an ecosystem approach to each individual AM production application — from end to end. This means joining the dots from product conception through to final product. Some post-processing issues can be reduced through diligent focus on design for AM (DfAM), but however good the design, it cannot negate the need for post-processing for all AM processes.

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AMT’s solutions are digital and automated post-processing solutions that increase efficiency and reduce the overall time and costs of production with AM, specifically with polymer AM processes and thermoplastic materials. Today, there are a plethora of thermoplastic materials available for use on a variety of AM platforms, but powder-bed processes require significant powder handling and removal post build, and also invariably require infiltration operations, as well as finishing and colouring processes, particularly if aesthetics are important alongside the strength advantages that the powder bed fusion technologies offer. Filament thermoplastic material processes, however sophisticated, always produce a stepping effect on built parts, which via conventional post-processing processes are hugely costly and timeconsuming to eliminate. AMT’s automated post-processing solution for smoothing high volumes of thermoplastic polymer parts to an injection-molded surface quality removes one of the biggest hurdles to the serial production process chain. Its PostPro3D range of hardware, which integrates new systems, software, and virtual services simply and efficiently removes the AM produced part from the machine, loads it onto a rack, and places it into the post-processing chamber. The user then selects the appropriate program and the process starts and runs for 90-120 minutes, after which the parts can be removed, inspected, and are fit for purpose. AMT’s post-processing technology is a physiochemical process that involves converting a proprietary solvent into vapor under precisely controlled vacuum and temperature conditions. This precisely refines the surface of each part to ensure a perfectly smooth finish, equivalent to that of an injectionmolded part. The company focuses on four pillars of sustainability to builds its core technologies from: no waste, better chemistries, less energy, less labor and consumables, Table 1. The chemicals used in the AMT smoothing process are a proprietary

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Green.Engineering.10-19_Vs2.LL.indd 13

mix of organic solvents developed by the University of Sheffield that are nonflammable and non-explosive. In fact, the chemicals have been carefully developed to be precursors and metabolites of those already used in the medical industry in FDA approved medical grade medicines thus minimising any potential issues with regard to human contact and environmental issues. The chemicals are inserted into the PostPro3D machine by way of a cartridge, and are used in a completely closed system, which means there is no chance of contact directly with the user. Subsequent to completion of the process parts are completely free from chemical residues, and indeed post-processed parts are certified and biocompatible for medical device use under ISO 10993, and also have been tested to show they have no cytotoxic effect. As the PostPro3D is a closed loop system, there is also no waste stream for operators to dispose of. The machines require periodic maintenance by qualified AMT technicians, during which recycled consumables and carbon filters are collected and changed. We are the only post-processing ecosystem in the world to not have any waste streams from our products or require the use of water. Additional safety features include multiple system redundancy and failsafe procedures with remote alarm transmission via internet connection, and 24/7 automatic remote monitoring of machine through the 3G cellular network. DW

Additive Manufacturing Technologies www.amtechnologies.com

WHAT DO YOU THINK? Connect and discuss this and other engineering design issues with thousands of professionals online

www.designworldonline.com 

October 2019

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Contents 10 • 2019

vol 14 no 10

designworldonline.com

96 86 _MOTION CONTROL

106 _3D CAD

Get the commutation right

Parametric modeling: Still going strong thirty-one years on

Addressing issues related to commutation alignment between AC PM servo motors and servo drive amplifiers — especially when motor and drive are from different manufacturers — can be quite challenging. Here we outline how to make that easier.

96 _LINEAR MOTION Actuators work reliably far under the sea

A new concept for a hybrid subsea valve actuator combines electromechanical and hydraulic methods into a compact unit for deep-sea applications.

102 _MECHANICAL The fall of friction in bearings?

Could the restructuring of newly found materials reduce friction on macroscopic scales? Here’s a look at how future surface treatments could enable better, or limitless, bearing wear.

| shutterstock.com

October 2019

Design equipment faster, smarter, and under budget with TiPS from leading suppliers. | Adobe Stock

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To get to parametric modeling and to the newer direct modeling, CAD has undergone such radical changes as to make the early systems look unrecognizable to today’s engineers.

112 _FLUID POWER The new distributed control

Smart hydraulic equipment is delivering IoT compatibility, better machine performance and precise control accuracy.

116 _ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING How 3D printing technology is advancing product design

The acceptance of 3D printing is growing, evidenced in part by the explosion of interest in 3D printing in engineering as well as popular culture in recent years.

ON THE COVER

CAD has been around since the 1960s; Parametric modeling since 1988. Much has changed through the years. | shutterstock.com

A Z B E E S A S B P E Aw a r d s o f E x c e l l e n c e

2019

BRONZE REGIONAL AWARD asbpe.org

14

October 2019 www.designworldonline.com

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10 .19

• contents departments 04 Insights 06 Teschler on Topic 08 Technology Forward 11 Green Engineering 20 Design For Industry 32 Design Notes 46 CAE Solutions 52

Internet of Things

124 Product World

128 Ad Index

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EVENTS

WEB DEV / DIGITAL

EDITORIAL

OPERATIONS

VP, Editorial Director Paul J. Heney pheney@wtwhmedia.com @dw_editor

Events Manager Jen Kolasky jkolasky@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_jen

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Senior Contributing Editor Leslie Langnau llangnau@wtwhmedia.com @dw_3dprinting

Event Exhibitor & Speaker Manager Michelle Flando mflando@wtwhmedia.com

Senior Digital Media Manager Patrick Curran pcurran@wtwhmedia.com @wtwhseopatrick

Executive Editor Leland Teschler lteschler@wtwhmedia.com @dw_leeteschler

PRODUCTION SERVICES

Front End Developer Melissa Annand mannand@wtwhmedia.com

Executive Editor Lisa Eitel leitel@wtwhmedia.com @dw_lisaeitel

Customer Service Manager Stephanie Hulett shulett@wtwhmedia.com

Software Engineer David Bozentka dbozentka@wtwhmedia.com

Senior Editor Miles Budimir mbudimir@wtwhmedia.com @dw_motion

Customer Service Representative Tracy Powers tpowers@wtwhmedia.com

DIGITAL MARKETING

Senior Editor Mary Gannon mgannon@wtwhmedia.com @dw_marygannon Associate Editor Mike Santora msantora@wtwhmedia.com @dw_mikesantora

VP, Digital Marketing Virginia Goulding vgoulding@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_virginia

Customer Service Representative JoAnn Martin jmartin@wtwhmedia.com

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Customer Service Representative Julie Ritchie jritchie@wtwhmedia.com Digital Production Manager Reggie Hall rhall@wtwhmedia.com

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FINANCE

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Design for Industry Energy

New standards steer design priorities for external power supplies

Power efficiency is key to lessening global impact to the environment

Rafal Kasikowski • Design Engineer/Power Specialist • TT Electronics

D

Due to the intensifying impact humans are inflicting on the environment, it is important that our devices work to counter these adverse effects resulting from daily life and business as usual. External power supplies (EPSs) provide a unique opportunity to positively influence this effort. Contained and operating outside the devices they power, EPSs play a substantial role in total global electricity consumption. Resolving power conversion inefficiencies, however, can add tangible environmental value across the globe, for example, slashing energy consumption and lowering CO2 emissions. Competitive value follows as well, with EPS designers authorized to redirect recovered kilowatts into different applications. Newer, more eco-friendly systems enable product differentiation, ultimately boosting market share. EPS designers must support the regulations and energy conservation initiatives at play and plan for continued advancement of ecological concerns worldwide. Grasping new and developing standards Many new, often parallel, regulations are advancing energy conservation in EPS design, formally acknowledging the relationship between today’s lifestyles and electrically powered devices. Overall, the goal is to certify EPS features with a high average energy efficiency and minimum no-load power consumption. Level VI standards, regulations developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), were instituted in 2016. The European Union (EU) followed with its Tier 1 and Tier 2 Code of Conduct (CoC) standards, created by the European Commission Joint Research Centre; while these standards are currently voluntary, it is anticipated they will become binding in the future. Lowering energy consumption via Level VI standards Two key performance criteria are outlined by the DOE’s Level VI regulations: no-load power consumption and minimum average efficiency limits in active mode. Measured at 25%, 50%, 75% and full load, these span a broad range of products including:

• Single-voltage external ac-dc power supply, basic-voltage (output voltage ≥6 V) • Single-voltage external ac-dc power supply, low-voltage (output voltage below 6 V) • Single-voltage external ac-dc power supply, basic-voltage (output voltage ≥6 V) • Single-voltage external ac-dc power supply, low-voltage (output voltage below 6 V) • Multiple-voltage external power supply October 2019 www.designworldonline.com 20

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Table 1 presents minimum average efficiency thresholds and the maximum standby power EPSs in the above classes.

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More stringent than previous regulations, the DOE’s Level VI legislation incorporates an entirely new category of multiple-voltage EPS options as well as a new 250 W output power level threshold. Table 1 describes a multiplevoltage EPS as ‘an external power supply designed to convert line voltage ac input into more than one simultaneous lower voltage output,’ while the ln(Pout) designation refers to the natural logarithm of an output power. The DOE ruling also differentiates between direct and indirect operation EPSs. For example, direct options consist of external power supplies capable of operating a consumer product that is not a battery charger, without the assistance of a battery. The majority of EPSs in the direct operation category

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Design for Industry Energy

Table 2

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must comply with the parameters illustrated in Table 1. The new standards (Level VI) apply to direct operation EPSs only, but not all have to be compliant as the standards state some exceptions. An indirect operation EPS may not power a consumer product (other than a battery charger) without the assistance of a battery. For example, when an enduse product only functions while drawing power from a battery, the EPS associated with that product is classified as an indirect operation EPS. DOE designed this method to differentiate between direct and indirect operation EPSs, which requires manufacturers to determine whether an EPS can operate its end-use product once the associated battery has been fully discharged. Understanding the changing EU Code of Conduct (CoC) Like the DOE, the EU recommends minimization of EPS energy consumption in both no-load and load circumstances. Currently under revision and pending formal legislative approval, the EU has defined two distinct sets of provisions,

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known as Tier 1 and Tier 2. Tier 1 most closely resembles the DOE’s Level VI rulings, with some important differences such as implementation of a new 10% measure and a four-point average efficiency in active mode. There is no distinction between direct and indirect EPSs, and high-power EPSs (Pout > 250 W) are not subject to the regulations. Tier 2’s CoC is more sweeping and stringent, increasing performance requirements above the DOE’s Level VI standards as well as the EU’s Tier 1 for both no-load power consumption and the minimum average. Planning for the future of EPS design A smart, proactive methodology implements up-to-the-minute technologies and topologies with inherently higher efficiencies and low standby power features. However, tackling these new standby and efficiency requirements must not hinder EPS performance quality. Technologies must be selected carefully, weighing all performance parameters for any specific applications. For example, switching

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regulators outfitted with frequencyreducing features to boost light-load efficiencies may worsen output voltage – these are the types of parameters that can initiate unexpected end-user impact, or even render the product incompatible for certain applications if the burst mode is within audible frequency range. Just as the DOE’s Level VI specifications became required, the EU’s Tier 1 and Tier 2 proposals will soon be formalized. Power supply design engineers and manufacturers must prepare for inevitable changes required to meet key performance criteria. In addition, compliance with these types of standards is likely to be an increasing challenge, as environmental concerns continue to take a front seat in legislation worldwide. In the design realm, environmental responsibilities will only rise, affording

engineers and manufacturers a unique opportunity in an evolving market. Compliant products will lower costs and empower new applications with recovered kilowatts. And shrinking energy consumption and CO2 emissions presents a highly competitive way to differentiate products, performance and market leadership. DW

TT Electronics www.ttelectronics.com

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Design for Industry Medical

6 trends in designing for aseptic

pharmaceutical manufacturing

G

Global pharmaceutical manufacturing is under siege from a number of issues, including quality control, uncertainty relating to the imposition of global standards, and cost increases. “One bright spot, though, is the advent of new technology with the potential to solve these issues by reducing costs and compliance risk, while improving quality and supply,” says Jeffrey Siterlet, Managing Director of Fedegari Technologies, a manufacturer of advanced sterilization, washing and bio-decontamination processing machinery for the pharmaceutical industry. Siterlet identified 6 trends in aseptic manufacturing that he believes will influence the future of all pharmaceutical manufacturing: 1 Reducing risk by completely isolating process lines. The production line of the future will be one completely isolated process. Raw materials will enter at limited points and the finished product will be produced and

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packaged in a controlled environment with little or no human interaction or outside influence. 2 Increasingly automated production processes. The workforce of the future will be robots, working together in isolated process lines. Robotics will not only complete production tasks, they will move the product down the line to the next steps and finish production, so the entire process can be enclosed. This shift will allow humans to focus on strategy and creativity boosting innovation and technological progress. 3 Increasing sophistication of IoT for connectivity and control. As machines and processes become more linked, they will need more advanced ways of communicating with each other in the form of 2-way conversations.

4 Advanced capabilities of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence will not only become more enhanced in its predictive capability, it will become more adept at administering solutions. AI will anticipate and solve problems without human interaction. 5 Elevating security for controllers and processors. As processes become more digital, the risk of sabotage becomes greater. As machines more openly communicate with other machines, they’ll need to be protected from negative outside influences. 6 Increasing the capability for reporting of more complex analytics. As more processes are linked, new forms of data collection and analysis will be developed to not only to track performance and meaningful KPI’s, but also to provide information in real-time.

According to Siterlet, “The manufacturing processes of the future will streamline new technologies, like robotics, artificial intelligence and IoT, into an increasingly closed and connected production process. By linking components, isolating the process and centralizing control, tomorrow’s manufacturing process will facilitate efficiency, safety and compliance while eliminating risk. DW

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The X90 controller for agricultural machinery includes integrated safety technology. To create the corresponding safety application, a user simply connects ready-made software components using ladder diagram. This brings all the advantages of networked safety technology without any traditional programming and makes it substantially easier to achieve compliance with the European Machinery Directive. The Power Panel T50 mobile operator terminal is versatile. The panel offers reliable operation of agricultural vehicles with IP67 protection. The die-cast aluminum housing provides mechanical stability and protection against all types of environmental influences. The Power Panel T50 mobile is available with display diagonals of 5”, 7” or 10.1”. The modular X90 control system is for implementing flexible automation concepts built from standard components. The heart of the X90 control system is an ARM processor and multifunction I/O channels. Standard features include interfaces for CAN, Ethernet and the real-time POWERLINK bus system. All products in the X90 family are for use in harsh industrial environments. They can handle operating temperatures from -40 to +85°C and are resistant to environmental factors such as shock and vibration, salt, UV light and oil. DW

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Design for Industry Semiconductor

Charge more types of devices faster

U

USB Type-C has become increasingly popular, and with the introduction of Power Delivery (PD), it is possible to charge more types of devices – and charge faster – than ever before. Two new solutions simplify USB Type-C PD for a range of applications. As one of the industry’s first USB-IF-certified USB 3.1 SmartHub devices with integrated support for Power Delivery (TID1212), the USB705x family enables fast device charging and introduces PD implementations called HostFlexing and PDBalancing. The UPD301A is a standalone USB Type-C PD controller that simplifies the implementation of basic USB Type-C PD charging functionality, making it suitable for applications from rear seat charging in vehicles to portable equipment to public charging stations. HostFlexing simplifies the user’s docking station experience by allowing all USB Type-C ports to function as the “notebook” port, eliminating the need for cryptic labels that try and explain overall functionality of each USB Type-C port. PDBalancing provides a methodology for manufacturers to manage overall system power through centralized control, ultimately saving money for consumers by being able to charge a number of PD enabled devices with less overall power.

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ISO 9001 • ISO 13485

EAGLE STAINLESS Tube & Fabrication, Inc. To meet consumer demand for faster mobile device charging and data streaming, the USB705x family combines native support for USB Type-C PD with the 5 Gbps SuperSpeed data rates of USB 3.1. For docks, PC monitors and automotive infotainment, the family – consisting of the USB7050, USB7051, USB7052 and USB7056 – provides a range of USB configurations to meet varying PD and USB Type-C design needs. For example, the USB7050 supports three PD-enabled upstream and downstream USB Type-C ports, while the USB7056 provides only one upstream port alongside five traditional Type-A downstream ports. The new hubs also support driver assistance applications that are available on all mobile handsets, allowing the graphical user interface of a phone to be displayed on a vehicle’s screen while simultaneously charging the mobile device. With smartphones increasingly requiring more than standard BC 1.2 power, designers of electronic systems need to be able to easily implement basic highpowered charging in systems. The UPD301A provides a simple, standalone solution for implementing USB Type-C PD charging in a variety of applications. The device supports both single- and dual-port operation and uses a pin-configurable implementation that focuses on ease of use. The UPD301 complements Microchip’s expansive family of USB hubs and enables solutions from charge-only to full data, video and power management. The USB705x and UPD301 come with a complete solution including the MPLAB Connect Configurator hub configuration tool, evaluation boards with schematics and Gerber files to reduce development time. DW

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Design for Industry Semiconductor

Support for third party debug probes

T

The Embedded Studio V4.20 adds fully configurable support for debug probes

using the GDB protocol. The new version can now be used with any debug probe that comes with a GDB Server. This new feature is included in all editions: ARM, Cortex-M, and RISC-V, on Windows, macOS, and Linux 32- and 64-bit platforms. Embedded Studio can automatically launch the 3rd party GDB Server upon starting a debug session, keeping debugging easy and convenient. Port number, host and protocol features are configurable for maximum flexibility. The GDB Server software is executed in a separate process and thus does not affect the stability of Embedded Studio. The new implementation is tested and ready-to-go with J-Link GDB Server, OpenOCD, as well as ST-LINK GDB Server on Windows. Embedded Studio can be easily downloaded from www.segger.com and fully evaluated without code size, feature or time limit. It can be used free of charge for educational and non-commercial purposes, without requirement to register. DW

SEGGER Microcontroller | https://www.segger.com/embeddedstudio 30

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Design Notes

How to create a dual-use

MOCVD platform Edited by Mike Santora • Associate Editor

With minor adjustments over a few days, the dual use Agilis can switch from growing beta gallium oxide to III-nitride materials – something no other MOCVD machine can do.

Improving the design of high-voltage switches in both consumer electronics and defense technologies for ships and aircraft, the semiconductor compound gallium oxide (Ga2O3) promises benefits across the electronics industries. However, the capabilities of this ultra-wide band gap compound must first be proven by researchers, such as Dr. Sriram Krishnamoorthy, assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Utah. “A required large-scale research effort is now beginning in the U.S.,” Krishnamoorthy says. “Several universities have teamed up to study the fundamental material science of gallium oxide.” One limitation for this kind of research is the quality of available Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) machines, which might not meet requirements to

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handle gallium oxide properly. While exploring new systems, Krishnamoorthy discovered the Agilis platform from the compound semiconductor research and development company Agnitron. Since the design process began in 2015, the goal for the Agilis has been to support customizable hardware and control through the Imperium-MOCVD DESIGN WORLD

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software from Agnitron, but the company recently released a dual-use machine that can grow multiple semiconductor material types. With minor adjustments over a few days, the dual use Agilis can switch from growing beta gallium oxide to III-nitride materials – something no other MOCVD machine can do. The challenges of creating a dualuse MOCVD platform and refurbishing legacy systems are similar: While cost and reliability are key, the design process begins and ends with modularity. From software to individual components, the machines must easily adapt user requirements, whether that means additional HMI features, increased I/O count, or enhanced processing power. The machine must communicate in real-time with existing systems in a lab or production facility. For Agnitron, this includes enabling development-reactor and showerhead designs for material production and rapid growth rates. “Supporting these MOCVD processes is key for scaling the technology to make it commercially successful,” Krishnamoorthy explains, adding this was an issue with Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) systems he used previously in research projects. Reliability in the world of semiconductors means that new components maintain the deposition recipes exactly as the legacy systems did while providing greater dependability, according to Dr. Dmitri Volovik, senior principal engineer for Agnitron. So, when Agnitron encountered reliability issues with a previous vendor’s automation and control systems, the company was on the verge of losing customers until Volovik began to explore new solutions from Beckhoff Automation. In an industry where many machines still use separate PLCs and PCs, PCbased controllers were an advantage for Agnitron. With modularity in mind, the Agilis system offers two solutions: The Beckhoff CX2042 Embedded PC with a quad-core, 2.2 GHz Intel Xeon processor and the CX2040 Embedded PC with a quad-core, 2.1 GHz Intel Core i7 processor.

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Agnitron Imperium control software uses TwinCAT 3 automation software from Beckhoff and the real-time Windows kernel. The time-critical diagnostic, safety, and process control tasks are executed by the TwinCAT real-time kernel with the tasks assigned to different cores of a multi-core Intel Xeon processor. These tasks continue to execute even if the Imperium software is closed by the user or is interrupted for any reason. The Imperium recipe and routines execution runs outside the Imperium software itself and is controlled by the TwinCAT real-time kernel, as it would be in a typical hardware PLC system. This approach leads to two product offerings. First is a complete portfolio of OEM MOCVD solutions, designed and manufactured for various materials and processes. Second is a stand-alone upgrade control package for a variety of legacy machines that run outdated and unsupported hardware and software. With combined technologies from Agnitron and Beckhoff, the upgraded controls for legacy equipment support both analog and digital devices simultaneously and provide seamless control software reconfiguration to reflect the upgraded hardware, such as digital mass flow controllers (MFCs), pressure controllers, pressure transducers, and pneumatic valve actuators. Using TwinCAT 3 automation software as the engineering environment and runtime on the Embedded PCs allows Agnitron engineers to write the machine control logic in C# using Microsoft Visual Studio while accessing the TwinCAT runtime and I/O system. As a Windowsbased device, the Embedded PC also allows them to install the Imperium control software and save data locally. The real-time networking capability of EtherCAT provides further benefits for the Agilis. High-density EL3318 EtherCAT Terminals connect Agilis to eight different thermocouples per terminal, which is crucial when working with beta gallium oxide and other complex semiconductor www.designworldonline.com  

materials. These, along with 16-channel I/O terminals, maintain a compact footprint. Space becomes incredibly tight inside control cabinets, especially on smaller R&D systems. As with TwinCAT 3, EtherCAT makes it easier to commission units and customize them in the field, and its flexibility to connect with legacy DeviceNet equipment is no small part. EtherCAT has become the leading semiconductor industry network and is a SEMI standard today, but DeviceNet was the industry’s widely accepted standard previously. The EL6752 DeviceNet Master/Slave Terminal creates a bridge between the Beckhoff controller, the EtherCAT network and DeviceNet field devices in customer facilities. Using auto-configuration capabilities, Agnitron engineers can easily connect new and legacy devices over EtherCAT without data loss. By using one controller rather than a separate PC and PLC, the Agilis machine saves roughly $10,000 on control hardware, not including the substantial reduction in service contract fees that other vendors charge. Also, TwinCAT 3 automation software can be downloaded online for free. Many refurbishment and retrofit projects also receive this benefit by incorporating the CX2040. However, when existing PLCs are in acceptable working condition, the company will simply replace the legacy PCs with a C5102 rack-mounted Industrial PC (IPC). In either case, the backwardcompatibility of Beckhoff hardware and software ensures semiconductor growth recipes are maintained. DW

Beckhoff Automation www.beckhoffautomation.com

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Design Notes The Aventics system technology permits up to six joysticks. Based on the size of the boat, Sunseeker opted for three joysticks on its latest model, the 76 Yacht, measuring just under 24 meters. The ship can be moved easily and securely from the bridge, flybridge, or quarterdeck.

Electronic remote control simplifies yacht navigation and docking

Edited by Mike Santora • Associate Editor

Sunseeker, a manufacturer of luxury yachts, recently equipped its new 76 Yacht with Marex electronic remote control and joystick systems from Emerson’s Aventics. Having this technology on board makes navigating, docking, and departing easier and safer. The Marex 3D joystick system allows captains with different skill levels and experiences to easily maneuver the mega yacht. Even in tight slips, they can dock and depart without fearing an accident. The yacht can be controlled from various locations on board. The Aventics system technology permits up to six joysticks. Based on the size of the boat, Sunseeker opted for three joysticks on its latest model, the 76 Yacht, measuring just under 24 m. The ship can be moved easily and securely from the bridge, flybridge or quarterdeck. Captains can choose which joystick they would like to use according to their personal experience and use of the decks, depending on the current weather or visibility.

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The three-axis Marex OS 3D joystick enables intuitive operation without having to coordinate the propulsion elements separately. Based The three-axis Marex OS 3D joystick enables intuitive operation without having to coordinate the propulsion elements separately. Based on the specific situation, the captain can choose whether to use the 3D mode, which actuates the main propulsion drives and bow and stern thrusters centrally, or to control only the thruster with the joystick in thruster mode. The Marex OS 3D joystick facilitates intuitive operation. This convenient, secure maneuvering at the tap of a finger is thanks to the control concept. The individual components of the Marex OS 3D can be combined based on the application and desired equipment. Starting with the joystick in a modern, ergonomic design, through to the preassembled cables to connect modules and the main computer via CAN bus, Marine Technology engineers at Emerson have seamlessly matched all technical elements to one another. The heart of the system is vector controlled by a marine propulsion controller. The MPC 3D processes the commands received by the joystick, calculating vectors that are required to control the main propulsion and thruster. In combination with an electronic compass, this technology makes maneuvering much easier, even when facing strong side winds or currents. Such adverse environmental conditions are no problem for the system thanks to its automatic heading compensation function, enabling effortless lateral or diagonal movements on the spot using the joystick. Local Emerson partner for marine technology, PME Group Ltd., delivered and commissioned the Marex OS 3D. The joystick is just one of the components Aventics offers for decentralized automation of ship controls. The modular concept includes a range of inter-compatible components, offering open interfaces for motor suppliers. This simplifies system installation and commissioning, enabling a faster time-tomarket. The company not only uses the joystick control in the 76 Yacht, but Sunseeker’s motor supplier has also integrated the Marex OS III ship control into its system. “The entire electrical control forms a powerful unit, ensuring all components are perfectly compatible,” Lean said, emphasizing that completion of a yacht on time is crucial. Offering both the ship control and the joystick system from a single manufacturer is a significant

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on the specific situation, the captain can choose whether to use the 3D mode, which actuates the main propulsion drives and bow and stern thrusters centrally, or to control only the thruster with the joystick in thruster mode.

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Design Notes Local Emerson partner for marine technology, PME Group Ltd., delivered advantage. Along with the joystick system, Sunseeker also uses the Marex OS III for the adjustable propeller, jet propulsion, and reversing gear. For years it has been used on various mega and super yachts for efficient, safe, and simple propulsion system control. The hardware consists of only a few modular units with software preconfigured at the factory, meaning it can be installed quickly and easily. The control uses a self-monitored CAN bus for each of the maximum five parallel powertrains, increasing the system’s reliability. The functions in use have already found success in a wide range of applications. Marex systems have established their place on premium yachts thanks to the controller’s modern design combined with the ease of use of the operating elements. Sunseeker benefits from the fact that the Marex OS III doesn’t require any project-based programming. All that is needed to adapt the control to the current yacht conditions is to set a few TL Design World V1.pdf

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and commissioned the Marex OS 3D.

customer-specific parameters and add required functions using the integrated PLC as necessary. DW

Emerson Automation Solutions www.aventics.com/us

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Design Notes

Flex shafts help reduce noise in automotive interiors

Edited by Mike Santora • Associate Editor

S.S. White flocked flexible shafts can limit noise in automotive interiors.

The focus of today’s car interior design is to provide ergonomics and convenience with a high level of comfort. More and more gadgets are designed to enhance our driving experience, and many of them move, open, or adjust with the push of a button rather than manually. As the cabin includes an increasing number of moving parts, engineers benefit from flexible shafts that grant a freedom of design to separate the actuator motor from the driven component. However, using the wrong type of flexible shaft can create unwelcome noise. Flocked flexible shaft designs are one option for engineers seeking quieter accessory operation. Expectations for reduced in-cabin noise increased drastically over the last decade. Hybrids and electric vehicles became the benchmark in-vehicle noise. Conventional gas-powered cars followed, and better noise insulation and active noise canceling

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POWER TRANSMISSION

RETAINING DEVICES & maintenance & assembly tools

make the car interior quieter than ever. So, noise sources from within the cab — actuators for power seats, power adjustable pedals, power steering column adjustments, etc. — have to get quieter as well. Noise is not just a matter of decibels, but also of noise quality. Sounds that were acceptable only a few years ago are perceived today as too loud and obnoxious. Flex shafts do not create noise per se, but they do transmit vibrations from the actuator motor. By dampening these harmonics, a noise quality can be achieved that is not as disruptive or unpleasant. This noise dampening occurs when a layer of flock yarn—a felt-like material — is applied as the top layer of a flex shaft, giving it a pipe-cleaner-like appearance. In addition to dampening vibrations, flock yarn also eliminates the need to use grease or any other lubricant. Instead, engineers at S.S. White have designed flocked flexible shafts that operate dry inside the plastic tube that encases them. Now, the automotive interior continues to evolve further. Even in conventional cars, cabins will become more flexible, adjustable, and configurable in the future. Seats will be able to swivel to the outside for easy access. They will be even more adjustable, with sensors allowing the seats to adapt themselves to the physical characteristics of the driver or passenger who sits in them. A person’s preferred seating position might be stored in an app, so when he or she rents a car it’s already adjusted for them. Access to the rear seats in a coupe will happen with power easy-entry functions, and so will the fold and tumble of all seat rows in SUVs and minivans. Center consoles will slide back and forth by the push of a button. When considering the interiors of future self-driving vehicles, possibilities become almost endless. For all these challenges automotive interior engineers face, flexible shafts are a suitable component. They allow the motor to be detached from the driven part, allowing for freedom of design otherwise not possible. They also compensate misalignments, simplify component installation, and can overcome relative movement from one component to the other. The next generation of flocked flexible shafts is in development and under testing. These shafts will be lighter, rotate faster, offer less resistance, cost slightly less, and remain ecologically sustainable. Equipped with these new flocked flexible shafts, engineers will tackle new challenges to enable quiet, reliable, and efficient operation of motor-driven interior elements. DW

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Design Notes

Contactless touch sensing for safer interactions

Edited by Mike Santora • Associate Editor

An IR touch sensor using reflective technology has the interaction area raised above the screen.

Smartphones and other portable products have made touch the human machine interface (HMI) of choice for many other products. Touch sensing is easy to implement, easy to use, reliable, and cost-effective. However, there are many applications and situations where physically touching a device is not desired and, in some cases, must be avoided. Before discussing a solution to these more restrictive applications, a little touch sensing background is in order. According to a recent market report, there is a growing need for touch sensing [1]. The report projects the global touch sensors market will reach approximately USD 8.4 billion by 2023, growing at 12.8% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) over the forecast period 2018–2023. Typical touch sensing technologies include resistive, capacitive, surface acoustic wave (SAW), infrared (IR), optical imaging, and more recently, acoustic pulse recognition (APR). In their most common implementation, these approaches all require actual contact with the surface. However, applications exist that do not want or must avoid physical contact and necessitate a more sophisticated sensing approach.

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One possibility would be using a timeof-flight technology to identify mid-air interactions above a touchscreen [2]. Time-offlight is a ranging technique that resolves the distance between the sensor and an object by measuring the time it takes for light to travel to an object and back to the sensor. The accuracy is on the order of 1 cm, which makes it unsuitable for touch interaction purposes. Improving accuracy would generally mean a slower frame rate. Furthermore, this kind of sensor requires calibration and is sensitive to changes in temperature. Another alternative is infrared technology. Traditional infrared touch requires a frame surrounding the screen with emitters on two adjacent sides and receivers on the opposing sides. The touch interactive area is raised from the screen by simply raising the frame around the screen. However, the resulting rim around the screen would not only be difficult to incorporate aesthetically in a device, but it would also make the screen difficult to clean, thereby defeating one of the purposes for its usage.

zForce Designing Accommodating different display sizes is rather straightforward since the IR touch sensor is available in different lengths ranging from 43 to 346 mm. To evaluate and integrate touchless sensing into an existing or new design, support and design-in tools include a demo kit (see Figure 6), Sensor Module Explorer Kit with seven different length sensors, and connectivity software. Communication with the sensor can occur through the Neonode Workbench software for Windows, a USB HID Digitizer Mode, a USB HID Raw Mode, or the zForce SDK function library.

In the demo kit, the zForce AIR Sensor with reflective IR sensing technology easily connects with a USB port on a computer.

Solving the Contact Issue Infrared touch can be implemented using reflective technology by mounting a sensor along one edge of a display. The interaction area consists of a sheet of light which is projected out of the sensor and positioned a desired distance above the surface of the display, as shown in Figure 1. The infrared touch sensor consists of an array of alternating emitters and receivers, as shown in Figure 2. Laser emitters are preferred over LEDs since they are easier to collimate and generate less internal stray light within the sensor module. Any internal stray light needs to be kept to a minimum so that it does not interfere with the signal-generating light reflected from an object outside the detector. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) operating at 945 nm are used as emitters and silicon photodiodes are used as receivers. Molded polycarbonate lenses are used to collimate the light from the emitters and narrow the field of view of the receivers. Using shared optics for both the emitters and the receivers forces the receiver’s field of view to make an angle toward the direction of the emitted light, as shown in Figure 3 (a). This angle typically varies between 17 and 26° depending on the aspect ratio of the sensor’s detection area.

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The electrical block diagram of a reflective technology touch sensor shows the alternating laser emitters and photodiode receivers.

www.designworldonline.com  

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Design Notes With multiple emitters, the benefit of this geometry becomes more obvious. Each receiver looks across several emitters, and for each emitter an area exists where the emitted light and the receiver’s field of view (FOV) overlap, as shown in Figure 3 (b). It is only in this area that a detector can receive a signal from an object illuminated by the specific emitter. Outside this region, the detector will not receive any signal at all. Since each receiver is positioned between two emitters, the receiver will also detect light coming in through the optics shared with its other neighboring emitter. This enables the generation of a 2D-grid with overlapping regions. Operating Principle During a scan, each emitter is scanned consecutively, while multiple receiver signals are recorded simultaneously. In contrast to IR proximity detectors, which rely on signal strength for object positioning, the design of the reflective technology sensor has turned object positioning into a geometrical question. An object’s position is determined based on which emitter-receiver combinations generate a signal during a scan. Figure 4 shows the detection of an object close to the sensor as well as the detection of an object positioned further away from the sensor. Each detection is based on signals from two emitters and three receivers. The emitters are the same,

A

(a) The emitter and receiver share part of the same optics, forcing the receiver field of view to make an angle toward the emitted light. (b) Each receiver looks across multiple emitter beams. The central part of each area of overlap between an outgoing beam and the receiver’s field of view is marked with a filled circle.

B

but the receivers are different, which makes it possible to distinguish between the two object locations. All sensors share a common width (14.5 mm) and thickness (3.46 mm) (see Side Bar). Figure 5 shows a detailed view of the sensor and its internal components. Electrical integration is performed via the connector at the edge of the printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). There are eight contact pads and the PCB outline matches that of a standard 0.3-0.33-mm thick flexible flat

Depending on the object’s position, reflected light is detected by different receivers.

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Design Notes cable (FFC)/flexible printed circuit (FPC) connector with 1-mm pitch and topmounted connectors. This connection enables the sensor to communicate with a host system through a standard USB or I2C interface. Interact without Touching For many applications, it would be desirable to interact with a display or surface without actually touching it. A sensor based on reflective infrared technology provides a solution to contactless touch interaction. By controlling the spacing between the sensor and the display, the sheet of light projected by the sensor can be raised above the display. The resulting touch interaction area hovers above the display and makes the display responsive to touch without any physical contact between the user and the display. This touchless touch sensing provides safe

The internal structure of a reflective IR touch sensor shows how its components come together into a single structure.

interaction in medical applications, food dispensing, and any public area with frequent machine interfaces where the risk of pathogen transmission exists. DW [1] “Touch Sensors Market Research ReportGlobal Forecast till 2023,” https://www. marketresearchfuture.com/reports/touchsensor-market-897 [2] Richard Berglind, “Contactless touch – a safer method for interaction,” https://www. neonode.com/contactless-touch-a-safermethod-for-interaction/

Neonode | www.neonode.com

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CAE Solutions

CAMWorks ShopFloor streamlines the design to manufacturing process

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CAMWorks ShopFloor includes tools for companies to meet Smart Manufacturing and Industry 4.0 initiatives by moving beyond 2D drawings or static digital files. 3D digital models capture extensive data from the part design files and provide tools that machinists can use to produce parts with fewer miscommunications between the design and manufacturing departments. Because CAMWorks ShopFloor is run independently, the need to have a full CAD/CAM software license on the shop floor is eliminated. CAMWorks and SOLIDWORKS CAM license customers will be able to publish data to CAMWorks ShopFloor. This software reduces errors by eliminating the need to repeatedly transfer part data to 2D drawings or other formats. Upon completion of a CAD part file, the designer publishes a CAMWorks ShopFloor file, which is transferred to the machinist. The software includes

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a complete CAD viewer, allowing the machinist to display the native design model with GD&T dimensional information and annotations of the 3D part model. Machinists can rotate, zoom, pan and section view the model. They can also take linear, radial, angular, and area measurements. The MBD and PMI data can be viewed, searched and filtered. Delays caused by questions and material waste caused by machining an outdated version of a part are avoided because CAMWorks ShopFloor provides a single source of part data. All the information for a part is contained in one file and is viewed under a single interface. CAMWorks ShopFloor includes automatic file checking to detect changes in either the CAD or CAM file and alert the user to avoid machining the wrong revision of the part and maintain associativity along the digital thread. In addition to full toolpath simulation, CAMWorks ShopFloor includes a stepthrough simulation option for each operation or the entire program. This gives the machinist the option to review each operation at the machine, without the need to walk the machine through each cutting step or dry-running the program. A CNC Editor, with back-plotting capabilities, allows the machinist to review and make any final changes. The machinists can use CAMWorks ShopFloor to view and edit G-code, view the impact of the edits made, and then send the program to the CNC machine. Digital setup sheets and tool lists are also generated and can be sent along with the 3D part models and CNC programs. DW

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Key Features: Unlimited capacities for solving NURBS: Its optimization algorithm can solve virtually any NURBS surface in a matter of milliseconds (regardless of how complex the constraints are). High-quality surfaces: Its optimization algorithm uses energy-minimization method to generate the smoothest NURBS surfaces that satisfy all the inputted constraints. Easy-to-use: it uses one simple UI for all kinds of NURBS modeling. Native CAD surfaces: xNURBS generates native CAD surfaces, i.e., trimmed/untrimmed NURBS surfaces, which can be directly used for any CAD modeling operations. (You can view the animated images at www.3Dcadworldonline.com) DW

路 路 路 路

Car fender: For a demonstration purpose, one edge is set to G1 and all others are set to G0.

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Ansys Cloud gains momentum

E

Engineers are unlocking increased compute capacity to achieve advances in 5G, autonomous systems, electric vehicles, and other global megatrends with ANSYS Cloud high-performance computing (HPC), powered by Microsoft Azure. Following its initial release in February, ANSYS Cloud has gained marketplace momentum — with hundreds of customers taking advantage of its functionality. Small and medium-sized companies are leveraging hundreds of compute cores to solve challenging problems without onpremises HPC infrastructure. Larger enterprises with their own HPC resources are relying on ANSYS Cloud to offer extra capacity during peak usage. “We produced our large and complex cycling aerodynamics simulations on ANSYS Cloud, using Microsoft Azure Active Directory and Azure support for hybrid cloud scenarios, which delivered an easy, instantaneous and cost-effective connection to HPC whenever we needed it,” said Bert Blocken, professor at the Eindhoven University of Technology. “Our research team seamlessly linked to ANSYS Cloud on their desktops within ANSYS Fluent and conducted computationally difficult simulations with unparalleled speed. The simulation results were invaluable, revealing substantial aerodynamic gains that significantly advanced our research.” Announced in May, the integration of ANSYS Cloud within ANSYS Electronics Desktop, including ANSYS HFSS and ANSYS SIwave, enables electronics customers to obtain in-depth product performance data for critical and time-sensitive electronics engineering decisions. For example, a customer designing high-speed electronics products using the distributed HFSS matrix solver dramatically decreased hardware requirements on a

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| Adobe Stock

CAE Solutions

complex PCB — achieving an 85% per machine RAM reduction. In addition, the same distributed HFSS matrix solver was 2x faster in ANSYS Cloud and provided an overall 10x speed up. ANSYS Mechanical users benefit from easily accessible compute power to solve complex models beyond the reach of their desktop machines. “LPI, Inc. provides advanced engineering services to a range of industries and our team is often tasked with creating sophisticated, nonlinear structural models that are computationally intense,” said Evan Schickel, senior. engineer, LPI, Inc. “ANSYS Cloud provides us the flexibility to take on projects with compressed timetables and complicated models that would be otherwise impossible.” With the benefits of Azure, ANSYS Cloud users across industries are cutting costs with the usage-based licensing model for both hardware and ANSYS applications — purchasing only the HPC capacity they need and avoiding large, fixed-capital expenditures. ANSYS Cloud creates seamless and secure cloud access by combining ANSYS’ leading software with Azure’s services for enterprise-grade security. DW

ANSYS, Inc. | www.ansys.com DESIGN WORLD

9/27/19 10:44 AM


YOUR CUSTOM SOLUTIONS ARE CGI STANDARD PRODUCTS

Advanced Products for Robotic Applications CGI Motion standard products are designed with customization in mind. Our team of experts will work with you on selecting the optimal base product and craft a unique solution to help differentiate your product or application. So when you think customization, think standard CGI assemblies. Connect with us today to explore what CGI Motion can do for you.

800.568.GEAR (4327) • www.cgimotion.com

copyright©2019 cgi inc. all rights reserved. 025rbt

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Internet of Things

Study finds growing adoption of IoT enabled solutions for healthcare

T

The global Clinical Communication and Collaboration Market was valued at ~ US$ 240 Mn in 2014, and is expected to exceed ~ US$ 370 Mn mark by the end of the year 2019. The Clinical communication and collaboration market is projected to grow at a CAGR of nearly 14% during the forecast period, and is expected to reach a market value of ~ US$ 1.3 Bn by the end of the forecast year 2029.     Recent developments in this industry include: The increasing use of digitalization in the • Ashfield announced a global alliance with healthcare industry, in the form of smartphones, Asia’s largest multi-channel provider of wearable devices such as bands, badges in medical communications, marketing services, patients’ arms, and other sensor-based signals, events management, and drug information. has helped many hospitals improve their overall operational performance. This digitalization • NEC Corporation acquired OncoImmunity has led to hospitals developing custom Clinical AS, which develops exclusive machine-learning Documentation Improvements (CDI). CDI can software to help the fight against cancer. This minimize a patient’s physical efforts because acquisition is essential for enhancing the its clinical communication and collaboration capabilities and resources that support the feature enables patients, physicians and hospital growth of its individualized immunotherapy staff to share medical reports with each other. pipelines. These medical records and other patient related documents are loaded onto the Electronic Health • Uniphy Health Holding LLC partnered Record (EHR) systems. This feature is helping with Catholic Health Service (CHS), a Long drive the demand of clinical communication Island-based company, which is one of the and collaboration solutions during the forecast leading providers for the health services. period. Using this partnership, Uniphy Health Holding   A recent study segregated the clinical LLC launched a mobile application for communication and collaboration market down physicians who are associated with Catholic to three levels: Tier-I, Tier-II, and Tier-III. Tier-I Health Service (CHS). represents companies holding market shares   above 12% of the clinical communication and Some of the key players identified across the collaboration global market. Cisco Systems Inc. value chain of the global Clinical communication and Microsoft Corporation Are Tier-I companies and collaboration market include Uniphy Health in the global clinical communication and Holding LLC; Everbridge Inc.; Microsoft Corporation; collaboration market. Jive Software Inc.; Cisco Systems Inc.; Intelligent Tier-II represents companies holding market Business Communication; TigerText; and Vocera shares in the range of 6% to 12%. Companies, Communications Inc., among others. such as TigerText, Vocera Communications, Inc., and Jive Software, Inc., constitute the 2nd These insights are based on a report on Clinical tier of the global clinical communication and Communication and Collaboration Market by collaboration market. Persistence Market Research. DW   Tier-III represents companies holding market shares below 6%. Tier-III of the global clinical communication and collaboration market constitutes companies, such as Intelligent Business Communication – AGNITY, PerfectServe, Inc., and Ascom, among others.

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READY TO ROLL Compact, rigid and easy to install, IKOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s crossed roller bearings can handle complex loads in any axisâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;making them a great fit for motion systems with high load capacities, including robot, machine tool and other industrial applications.

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Internet of Things

Siemens speeds the digital future of industry with Xcelerator

X

Xcelerator is an integrated portfolio of software, services and application development platform that can be personalized and adapted to fit customer and industry-specific needs to help companies of all sizes become digital enterprises. It combines the full portfolio of Siemens’ software for design, engineering and manufacturing with an expanded Mendix low-code, multiexperience application development platform. The Mendix platform includes cloud and app services for digital engineering and Internet of Things (IoT) powered by MindSphere the cloud-based, open IoT operating system from Siemens, in addition to Mendix’s market-leading unified low-code and nocode development environments. The platform drives digital transformation by enabling anyone in the ecosystem, including citizen developers and engineers to easily build, integrate and extend their existing data and systems.   Xcelerator brings together and integrates many parts of the Siemens portfolio with embedded tools and databases that connect to existing Information Technology, Operational Technology and Engineering Technology environments. This enables

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workflows that leverage a range of Siemens technology. Capital software, from Mentor, has been embedded into NX software to allow experts across engineering disciplines to create new products collaboratively. Siemens Opcenter solution has been integrated with Valor software to expand the digital thread from design to manufacturing, providing continuous quality improvement, and Siemens recently integrated multiple automotive validation tools to create the PAVE360 pre-silicon autonomous validation environment. This open integration allows for rapid innovation and validation of products and operations by creating the most precise digital twin, which melds model-based simulations with test data and real performance analytics.   The Xcelerator portfolio is comprised of multiple applications and solutions for Product Lifecycle Management (PLM), Electronic Design Automation (EDA), Application Lifecycle Management (ALM), Manufacturing Operations Management (MOM), Embedded Software and Internet of Things (IoT). This integrated portfolio supports automation of a business from top floor to shop floor, orchestrates the flow of information between all Xcelerator ecosystem participants to create a traceable digital thread and enables an open and collaborative environment with speed and agility.   Following last year’s acquisition of Mendix, the global leader in low-code and no-code application development for the enterprise, Siemens is expanding the Mendix platform to bring the power of the cloud and its market-leading rapid application development environment to its customers to help them build apps that can integrate and extend their current solutions with new types of data, systems and to new users. With the addition of app services for IoT powered by MindSphere, digital engineering, and system integrations, the Mendix platform can now be used to unlock even more data from any system, and bi-directionally connect it to applications and devices. The Mendix platform offers Xcelerator customers the ability to build multi-experience apps and share data on any device, from any location, on any cloud and any platform and more quickly realize the benefits of digital transformation.   With the ability to build apps that consume and expose data from a broad range of IT systems and applications, Xcelerator enables companies of all sizes and in any point in the supply chain, to digitally transform their businesses through software solutions that are personalized, adaptable and support new ways of working. Whether organizations require on-premise solutions, seek a mix of cloud-connected solutions, or want to work exclusively on the cloud, Xcelerator helps enterprises realize their digital futures at the pace and configuration that best suits them. DW   

Siemens Digital Industries Software www.sw.siemens.com

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Internet of Things

Cartridge Check Valves

Waterproof, antivibration, and PLC compliant Ethernet switch

Designed for Installation into Plastics

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• 100% Performance Tested • Simple Press-In Installation • Wide Range of Cracking Pressures • 2.5, 5.5, and 8 mm Sizes • All Stainless Steel

Ethernet Switch EKI-2528I-M12 is a waterproof, anti-vibration and PLC compliant device for any harsh environment with dust, high humidity and vibration.

For more information, contact The Lee Company or see us at MD&M Minneapolis, Booth #2329 The Lee Company 2 Pettipaug Road Westbrook, CT 06498 USA Tel: 860-399-6281 sitemanm@theleeco.com www.leeimh.com

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Key Bellevilles, Inc. LARGEST MANUFACTURER OF DISC SPRINGS IN THE WORLD Live Load with Belleville Disc Springs

LARGEST STOCK OF STAINLESS STEEL AND INCONEL SPRINGS IN THE WORLD HIGH TEMPERATURE FLANGE BOLT

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MANUFACTURED TO DIN AND NACE SPECS Metric and English sizes available

The EKI-2528I-M12 is designed with high IP67 degree of protection, working perfectly under moisture conditions to guarantee users a waterproof, dustproof and anti-corrosive network environment. Being compliant with IEC 600682-6: 5G standards further allows it to work against severe, continuous vibration. Thus, the EKI-2528I-M12 is suitable for traditional machine tools, numerical control (NC), and computer numerical control (CNC) and DNC. IEC 61131, was known as IEC 113, is an IEC standard especially for programmable controllers (PLCs). The EKI2528I-M12 fully complies with the IEC-61131-2:2017 that specifies functional and electromagnetic compatibility and related verification tests, so as to be suitable for PLC and PAC applications and their associated peripherals. The high port density feature of the EKI-2528I-M12 makes it possible to support up to eight M12 port connections within a compact (62*25*194) housing. It is best for confined space since no extra room for wire deployment is required. Users simply need to screw it firmly on the wall or cabinet before enjoy the instant network communication service. DW

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D


Space constraints? Central’s new low profile Schottky Bridge Rectifiers are the answer Central Semiconductor’s CBRDFSH Schottky Bridge Rectifier series is designed to meet designers’ requirements for smaller and lower profile devices needed to reduce overall product size. Each device is packaged in the low profile (1.22mm) BR DFN surface mount case and features highly desirable energy efficiency. Ideal for applications requiring space-saving and energy efficient Schottky bridge rectifiers, including Power over Ethernet (PoE), intelligent lighting, and power adapters. Custom solutions are possible.

Top View

Bottom View

BR DFN

RoHS & REACH Compliant Maximum Ratings (TA = 25˚C) Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25˚C unless otherwise noted)

Central Part No.

IO

VRRM

TJ, Tstg

VF

@ IF

(A) MAX

(V) MAX

(˚C) MAX

(mV) TYP

(mV) MAX

(A)

(µA) TYP

(µA) MAX

(V)

CBRDFSH1-40

1.0

40

-55 to +125

490

500

1.0

10

200

40

CBRDFSH1-60

1.0

60

-55 to +125

600

700

1.0

10

200

60

CBRDFSH1-100

1.0

100

-55 to +125

800

850

1.0

1.0

200

100

CBRDFSH2-40

2.0

40

-55 to +125

490

520

2.0

25

200

40

CBRDFSH2-60

2.0

60

-55 to +125

600

700

2.0

10

200

60

CBRDFSH2-100

2.0

100

-55 to +125

800

850

2.0

0.5

200

100

CBRDFSH3-40*

3.0

40

-55 to +125

530

550

3.0

10

200

40

CBRDFSH3-60*

3.0

60

-55 to +125

670

700

3.0

5.0

200

60

IR

@VR

Package profile comparison: BR DFN has a 54% lower profile than HD DIP.

2.7mm 1.2mm HD DIP

BR DFN

* Devices currently under development, preliminary data

Connect with Central to learn more:

www.centralsemi.com | 1.631.435.1110 |

Central Semiconductor 10-19_DW.indd 57

inquiry@centralsemi.com

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October 2019

Design equipment faster, smarter, and under budget with TiPS from leading suppliers. | Adobe Stock

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Aerospace/Defense

Material science

allows cables to be solution for 5G and aerospace test equipment

W. L. Gore & Associates (Gore) played a key role in the Apollo 11 mission, and the company’s contributions to space exploration began very early in its history. In just ten years, the company went from a Delaware basement where the company was founded in 1958, to the moon with multiple products contributing to the success of the July 1969 Apollo 11 moon landing. Gore wire and cable supported getting men to the moon, was involved in the seismographic experiments on the moon, and helped the astronauts to navigate back home. From the first seismographic testing on the moon through today, the company has maintained a commitment to product performance in many businesses, including aerospace and semiconductor industries. In the 50 years since the Apollo 11 mission, Gore has supported more than 100 spaceflight programs, including manned spaceflight programs and satellites that provide communications and scientific benefits to the world. Throughout all, the products have had a 100% success-rate in space. “Our 60 years of material science expertise has allowed us to create products with distinct properties well suited for aerospace, as well as for many other applications that cross a variety of industries,” said marketing communications leader, Jennifer Haupt. “During this anniversary year, we are highlighting our involvement with this historic event as a way to demonstrate our legacy not only in space exploration but also our continued efforts in materials science that are making a difference today and into the future.” 5G testing continues to bring increased complexity, with higher frequency test components above 6 GHz and more ports to address. Multiple functions are integrated into a component and frequent calibration is required. At the same time, tests need to deliver highly accurate measurements for faster throughput, less calibration and downtime, and reduced overall costs. To address these demanding requirements, Gore offers Gore Phaseflex Microwave/RF Test Assemblies, the smallest,

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October 2019

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Innovation in Miniature

WHEN IT COMES TO PERFORMANCE,

WE’RE YOUR WINGMAN.

PEACE OF MIND, SINCE 1948. Count on The Lee Company for relentless support and unsurpassed reliability. That’s been our approach for over 70 years, which has placed our field-proven Microhydraulic fluid control components on board every military and commercial aircraft flying today. So, whether you need a standard or custom-engineered solution, choose The Lee Company and relax. We’ve got your back.

Your Microhydraulics Flight Manual. The Lee Technical Hydraulic Handbook has, for decades, served as the industrystandard engineering reference for hydraulic components. Request your free copy today at www.theleeco.com/new-hydraulic-handbook

The Lee Company

860-399-6281 • www.TheLeeCo.com

WESTBROOK• LONDON •PARIS•FRANKFURT• MILAN• STOCKHOLM

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Aerospace/Defense lightest, most internally ruggedized assembly on the market for modular, multi-port, and multi-site test applications. “Our purple cables are reliable, durable, and flexible,” said Haupt. “This is so crucial for our customers working with 5G applications. We continue to focus on making test assemblies that allow our customers to trust the test.”  Defense and aerospace testing is another area where the company features innovative. “We continue to play a key role in educating our aerospace customers on testing best practices within Aerospace,” said product specialist Chris Ericksen. “I tell them you can’t trust the performance if you can’t trust the test.”  AD

“Our 60 years of material science expertise has allowed us to create products with distinct properties well suited for aerospace, as well as for many other applications that cross a variety of industries.”

W. L. Gore & Associates | www.gore.com/cables-materials

LASER EVERYTHING laser welding

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laser anything

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Octans Aircraft reaches new heights with software

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Aerospace/Defense

Having more security, reliability and availability of its products has led Octans Aircraft, a Brazilian manufacturer of small aircraft, to adopt solutions from Siemens Digital Industries Software throughout its product development process. The company is producing its first aircraft model that will undergo the certification process, the 300A, with capacity for five seats. The company plans to achieve positive results by reducing the time and cost of its processes through the implentation of key technology from Siemens. In 2013, Milton Roberto Pereira, a great aviation enthusiast and entreprenuer from the financial market, acquired control of Inpaer, an experimental aircraft manufacturer, to give a new direction to the business. “We decided to move to small approved aviation. For this, we had to invest heavily in the professionalization and in the processes of governance of the company,” said Pereira. That was how Octans Aircraft was born. Investments of $20 million were used to modernize the company’s plant, located a few hours from São Paulo, to acquire new technological resources, and to professionalize the team. Among these changes included adding solutions from Siemens Digital Industries Software.

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FOTOFABULOUS PARTS Fotofab has over 50 years experience in photochemical etching.

“In 2017, with the evolution of the 300A project to the detailing phase, the company needed tools to support the evolution, in addition to the development and validation of complex products, version management, revisions and also to link the product and documentation that supports your certification. We saw in Teamcenter the ideal platform to support the process of development and also certification of the products of Octans Aircraft,” said Leonardo de Pádua Andrade Filho, engineering manager. In addition to the Teamcenter portfolio, Octans Aircraft also implemented NX software for computeraided design and manufacturing, and solutions from the Simcenter portfolio including Femap software and Simcenter Testlab Structures Testing software. The investment in using Teamcenter was made with the objective of facilitating the control and traceability processes of the project. “Certified products require strict configuration and traceability control, and Siemens’ technology is crucial for these controls to be effective throughout the product lifecycle, helping enable customers and Octans more security, reliability and availability of their products,” said Allan Peluzzi, business manager. “In line with Octans’ global strategy, Siemens’ tools help enable the organization to establish branch offices and partnerships around the world, reducing the time and cost of new developments, validations and improvements to our products. Through agile development methodologies and using simultaneous engineering, in addition to the digital twin, we can reduce design and manufacturing time with simulations and studies still in the development phase.” As a result of their digitalization, Octans Aircraft has seen a 40% reduction in time in the new product development cycle and 100% integration and transparency between the Development and Process

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Aerospace/Defense

“Certified products require strict configuration and traceability control, and Siemens’ technology is crucial for these controls to be effective throughout the product lifecycle, helping enable customers and Octans more security, reliability and availability of their products.” teams through the application of Simultaneous Engineering — which previously was not possible in the conventional method of work, due to network limitations and permissions.

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Octans has also seen more clarity and agility in the distribution of tasks with use of workflows, standardization and process standardization based on good practices already experienced in the aerospace segment; absolute control of versions and revisions, improvement in the interactions between CAD and Simulation teams; the construction of a digital twin capable of fully integrating system, structural, process and manufacturing developments, reducing assembly time, product improvements, and overhauls by up to 45%. “With this system we have been able to go through the entire product development and manufacturing cycle, with greater control of versions, in line with established market practices widely used by other aviation players, improving engineering interactions in the development phase, streamlining our project releases and enabling traceability at each stage of the process,” said Filho. AD Siemens Digital Industries www.siemens.com/plm

October 2019 www.designworldonline.com

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HELI-CAL FLEXURE COMPONENTS MACHINED FROM ONE PIECE MEANS ZEROBACK LASH Flexible motion couplings & springs for smooth movement

Flexible Couplings

U-Joints

Machined Springs

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Applications: • • • •

Machine Tools Encoders CNC Machines Motors

• • • •

Power Generation Instrumentation Robotics Petrochemical

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Aerospace/Defense

New radiation-resistant LVDT position sensors NewTek has introduced a new line of Radiation Resistant LVDTs that provide critical position measurements in autoclaves, particle accelerators, nuclear power plants, submarines, spacecraft and other applications with radiation exposure. Constructed of radiation-tolerant and hardened materials, these AC-operated linear position sensors operate continuously in demanding radiation environments without failure or decay. Units are rated to withstand up to 100 MRad total integrated flux and have been successfully tested for high levels of radiation exposure. The most common applications for these LVDTs include measuring the position of nuclear fuel rods, control rods, steam and control valves in nuclear power plants, along with missile fins, submarine valves and fins. They are also suited for use in actuators and components of objects in space. For example, in a power plant that contains numerous control valves, these radiation resistant displacement sensors provide accurate and reliable feedback on valve position to increase operating efficiency. NewTek offers radiation resistant options on most standard and semi-custom AC-operated LVDTs and on position sensors with temperature ratings from cryogenic to 500° C. The company also offers hermetically-sealed versions of its units. Without any internal electronic circuity, linear position sensors operate in irradiated areas where

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radiation values can exceed limits of DCoperate sensors with internal electronics. Associated signal conditioning electronics can remain safe in a shielded location — sometimes hundreds of feet away from the sensor. The Radiation Resistant Position Sensors feature high resolution, excellent repeatability, shock and vibration resistance, as well as high Mean Time Between Failures. AD

NewTek Sensor Solutions www.newteksensors.com

DESIGN WORLD

9/27/19 2:03 PM


RELIABLE MOTION SOLUTIONS. QUIET, EFFICIENT, BRUSHLESS MOTORS DESIGNED FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS. Medical equipment requires high performance motors. Moog Silencer® series brushless DC motors offer unique designs that deliver results. Ultra-quiet functionality, smooth operation at various speeds and the advantage of high torque at a low cost. Learn more about Moog’s solutions for ventilators, centrifuges and other medical devices. Standard and custom motor models are available with options. Contact us to discuss your requirements, email mcg@moog.com.

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Concurrent

design

of confidential vehicles Harry Makrygiannis â&#x20AC;˘ Pailton Engineering

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Aerospace/Defense

The military vehicle industry relies on concurrent design of all critical components from specialist military-grade manufacturers. While multiple organizations optimize their own contributions simultaneously however, confidentiality must be maintained throughout the supply chain. From a productivity standpoint, concurrent design is a no-brainer. Spending additional time developing and testing new products comes at a great expenditure, whereas parallelizing the design and manufacturing process allows products to be completed much more quickly. In theory, this method is suitable for supplying low-risk vehicle components, like sun visors or wing mirrors. The story is completely different when you are responsible for a safety-critical aspect of the vehicle, such as the steering system. Steering systems for military vehicles must be equipped to deal with a wide range of climates and conditions. Difficult terrains, deep wading and searing temperatures are just some of the challenges these systems will face during service. Simultaneous engineering and concurrent design of military steering systems provides clear advantages. It allows a multi-disciplinary collaboration between the manufacturers of other parts. For instance, engineers can clearly envision how changes to the steering systems design could impact other elements of the vehicle’s suspension and ensure the end product is manufactured correct. This means that issues can be identified and rectified before a vehicle starts being physically built. Needless to say, getting it right the first time, every time, is of the utmost importance. However, concurrent design is not without its risks. Have you ever wondered why so many brand-new vehicles are recalled? Often, this is due to tight deadlines and reduced time-to-market expectations. Whether the recall is due to an attempt to reduce the cost for consumers, or an error in engineering — for military vehicles, running the risk of a recalls is out of the question. When dealing with military customers, there are also a lot of pressures to face in terms of data security from the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). It’s rare to hear news about innovations from the military sector, and there’s good reason for it. Information security is one of the most important aspects of today’s military operations — and the design and engineering data of vehicle for warfare is among the most sensitive information. A balance must be struck to enable the advantages of concurrent design in this sector, without compromising on quality or exposing confidential vehicle data. For suppliers to the sector, care must be taken to what kind of data is shared, and the method used to do so. AD Pailton Engineering | pailton.com

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Aerospace/Defense

New seals and materials launched for aerospace industry Freudenberg Sealing Technologies introduced several new material and sealing innovations at the 2019 International Paris Air Show, products designed to help aerospace customers address ever increasing safety and performance requirements in the industry. The company showcased a new hightemperature, fireproof material; a new Omegat OMS-CS cap seal; and new ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) and a fluoroelastomer (FKM) developmental materials. “Our aerospace customers strive continuously to be faster, safer and more efficient, which in turn requires us to innovate to help them reach those goals — a challenge we enthusiastically embrace,” said Vinay Nilkanth, VP, Global Mobility Sector, Freudenberg Sealing Technologies. “The launch of several new products aimed at improved performance underscores Freudenberg’s commitment to being a global leader and development partner to the industry.” The company’s new proprietary fireproof sealing fabric is made to withstand to the extremes. Tested on standard aerospace bulb seals and passing AC20-135 fireproof requirements, the fabric acts as a barrier, providing up to 15 minutes for necessary corrective action. The fabric performs as well as other industry standard solutions but is much more cost effective. For use in dynamic, reciprocating applications where low friction is required, the new Omegat OMS-CS cap seal is a two-piece rod seal set consisting of an engineered polytetrafluoroethylene

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(PTFE) ring and an O-ring energizer. The seal offers low breakaway and running friction and is chemically compatible with aerospace fluids and greases. It also provides excellent wear and extrusion characteristics and has angled blow-by notches and lubrication grooves. The new developmental EPDM LM426288 material is for use in low pressure static sealing to -77° C and has excellent resistance to, and swell behavior in, AS1241 phosphate ester hydraulic fluids. The material offers high temperature compression set resistance and short-term resistance to 150° C for high temperature hydraulic systems such as hydraulic braking. The FKM LM426776 developmental material for use in low pressure static sealing to -67° C shows excellent resistance to several aerospace media, including jet turbine and gearbox lubricants, high and low aromatic content jet fuels, and fireresistant hydrocarbon hydraulic fluids. The material offers short-term high temperature resistance to 270° C and long-term compression set resistance at 200° C. AD Freudenberg Sealing Technologies www.fst.com DESIGN WORLD

9/27/19 2:08 PM


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Solving tough

mechanical motion control problems

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9/27/19 2:10 PM


Aerospace/Defense

Since beginning work for the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), Cablecraft Motion Controls has saved the U.S. government more than $10 million including $2 million on the maintenance of the A-10 Thunderbolt (Warthog). These savings are a result of a government program known as Source Approval Request, or SAR. The program encourages potential manufacturers to submit proposals which include all of the Engineering Support Activity (ESA) required to produce an item that is equal to, or better than, the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) part. The goals of this program are to reduce price, correct delivery issues and/ or address quality/reliability issues. Reduce price: Single-source suppliers tend to increase price over time. By definition, these manufacturers have no competition; therefore, they aren’t subject to normal free-market checks and balances — and prices often rise as a result. Delivery issues: Some suppliers are not meeting Government On Time Delivery (OTD) requirements. Delivery issues can place critical defense systems in jeopardy. In a monopoly situation, a given supplier may take the “where else will the government go?” approach and have a diminished sense of urgency for on-time deliveries. Quality/reliability issues: In other situations, suppliers are not delivering consistent, high quality products. In these cases, the parts are not holding up over time. When this happens, reverse engineering often can add enhancements to reduce or eliminate the root quality and/or reliability issues. To reverse engineer these complex assemblies, a highly functional cross-functional team is required. Cablecraft’s design and manufacturing engineering, supply chain, quality, accounting and sales teams all work together to complete these SAR projects. Samples are ordered, dimensions taken (Coordinate Measurement Machine, laser & manually) materials are analyzed for composition, destructive testing completed, drawings/3D models created, components identified, and component suppliers researched. For the a recent program, the Hanger-release, supply chain market test quoted and sourced 14 new components. Once the design is finalized assembly tooling design is completed/ ordered, the assembly process created, inspection methods identified and documented. It is a relatively straightforward process building products to print and the company does this for many clients. It is quite different to be handed a finished assembly and figure out how to manufacture it with no drawings, material specifications, manufacturing or assembly methods and no context as to the other connected components, assemblies or systems. AD Cablecraft Motion Controls | www.cablecraft.com

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Oerlikon AM and MT Aerospace join forces The companies Oerlikon AM and MT Aerospace are partnering to accelerate the use of additive parts in the aerospace and defense industries. The partnership aims to bring efficiency and cost savings to the aerospace and defense market by providing endto-end solutions to their customers.

Bionically optimized bracket for possible space application. | Courtesy Oerlikon AM

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Additively manufactured components, also called 3D-printed or digitized components due to the precision with which they are made, are lighter and better designed than components made in traditional manufacturing. Incorporating digitization in both air and space will enable new advances in the industry. In addition to MT Aerospace’s heritage in designing highly stressed and lightweight metal structures and Oerlikon’s materials, design, 3D-printing and postprocessing capabilities, the partnership offers aerospace customers a notable advantage by realizing synergies between construction/design, manufacturing and part inspection and qualification. “With their bundled expertise, the two partner companies cover the entire value chain from component design and manufacturing to testing and qualification,” said Hans J. Steininger, CEO of MT Aerospace AG, a subsidiary of Bremen-based OHB SE aerospace company. “In this way, we can offer customers a ‘onestop shop’ solution from product specification to the finished, qualified part.”

October 2019 www.designworldonline.com

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Aerospace/Defense

Additive manufactured interlocking end fitting for load introduction into a hybrid driveshaft. | Courtesy Oerlikon AM

Additive manufacturing is driving the next industrial revolution. Instead of using traditional techniques, casting, machining, joining and assembly, it allows complete freedom to create complex integrated shapes that are optimized for function, performance and cost. “Through this partnership, we look forward to continuing to lead innovation and digitization trends in the aerospace industry by accelerating and scaling up the process from concept to operational delivery,” said Prof. Dr. Michael Süss, Chairman of the Board of Directors of Oerlikon. “To advance the application of additive manufacturing, collaboration with key players like MT Aerospace is essential. We are looking forward to bringing more additively manufactured parts to aerospace.” By bundling their capabilities, Oerlikon AM and MT Aerospace are setting a path for their customers to unleash the full potential of additive manufacturing. The ability to optimally design specific parts or components provides obvious design and manufacturing benefits. AD Oerlikon AM www.oerlikon.com MT Aerospace www.mt-aerospace.de

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DESIGN WORLD

9/27/19 2:25 PM


Cadence, Inc. New Game Changing Technology: All-In-One Manufacturing Combining conventional Swiss machining with laser processing is a cost-effective alternative to multi-operational manufacturing. This single machine platform allows Cadence to perform several processes in just one step which reduces part handling and improves its precision. This game changing technology combines CNC machining, laser cutting, laser drilling, laser marking, and laser welding. Additional benefits include rapid prototyping, higher quality, and significant cost savings. LaserSwiss machining provides endless possibilities for new product development!

Cadence, Inc. 9 Technology Drive Staunton, VA sales@cadenceinc.com www.cadenceinc.com Tel: 540-248-2200 Fax: 540-248-4400

Equipto The first modular, isolated system for testing wireless devices without an anechoic chamber. With the MUT, manufacturers of wireless products for 5g cellular networks and handsets, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee and other wireless protocols can lower test costs by as much as 90%, vs. third-party testing. Other applications include: robotics, tele-medicine, military communications and drones. This “MUT” is a thoroughbred! • Based on the proven technology of Equipto that exceeds • requirements of toughest TEMPEST MIL standards • Controllable wireless testbed emulates RF environments • Compact, modular design adapts to test requirements • Completely blocks outside signals and isolates internal tests • Eliminates time consuming open-air testing • Custom-sized and configured to individual requirements • 120dB shielding up to 6 GHz, 100dB deep into microwave • Provides the confidence you need for certification success

800-204-7225 Ext. 9 630-859-7840 email: sales@equiptoelec.com www.equiptoelec.com

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FOTOFAB Photo Chemical Etching of Custom Metal Parts in Prototype & Production Quantities Fotofab is a leader in manufacturing custom metal components in metals like light-weight Titanium, high-tensile Tungsten, and corrosionresistant Stainless Steel and Elgiloy. Whether your project is a simple flat spring or a complex fuel cell, our engineers and drafters can help get the part in your hands fast and at low cost. We are also able to provide finishing options such as forming and plating, to ship parts ready-to-use. We hold our work to the highest standards of quality, and are proud to be AS9100D/ISO 9001:2015 certified and ITAR registered. Let us be A Part In Your Plan

Fotofab 3758 W. Belmont Ave. Chicago, IL 60618 www.fotofab.com P: 773.463.6211

J.W. Winco, Inc. JW Winco Offers Ball Ended Set Screws As part of its complete line of products, JW Winco offers Socket Head Cap or Set Screws with ball end for use when securing clamping or support of workpieces and fixtures. Product features include… • Full ball for contact point clamping • Flat ball for clamping of non-parallel surfaces • Serrated safety twist ball for clamping with flat faced side at all times • Steel or stainless steel • Inch or metric Explore JW Winco’s full product range online at JWWinco.com or contact us with your application requirements.

J.W. Winco, Inc. Phone 800-877-8351 sales@jwwinco.com www.jwwinco.com

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DESIGN WORLD

9/27/19 2:31 PM


Drives for Complex Flight Systems maxon’s quality drives are found in complex flight systems. For example in autopilot systems for controlling flight altitude via mechanical control surfaces, in auto throttle systems as well as in the force feedback joystick of fly-by-wire flight control systems. To meet the requirements of the aviation industry, maxon has developed new production methods to electronically record the data of each individual product automatically during the manufacturing. This means even the highest certification requirements may be met. maxon’s brushless ECX series combined with planetary gearheads are ideal for such applications featuring: • High power packed into extremely small space • Precise speed or position control • Very high output torque • Narrow tolerances in the motor parameters • Easily modified to meet DO-160 ambient condition requirements • Learn more about the maxon solutions and visit aerospace.maxongroup.us

maxon precision motors, inc. 125 Dever Drive Taunton, MA 02780 Phone: 508.677.0520 www.maxongroup.us info.us@maxongroup.com

New England Wire Technologies Advancing innovation for over 100 years Why accept a standard product for your custom application? NEWT is committed to being the premier manufacturer of choice for customers requiring specialty wire, cable and extruded tubing to meet existing and emerging worldwide markets. Our custom products and solutions are not only engineered to the exacting specifications of our customers, but designed to perform under the harsh conditions of today’s advanced manufacturing processes. Cables we specialize in are LITZ, multi-conductor cables, hybrid configurations, coaxial, twin axial, miniature and micro-miniature coaxial cables, ultra flexible, high flex life, low/high temperature cables, braids, and a variety of proprietary cable designs. Contact us today and let us help you dream beyond today’s technology and achieve the impossible.

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Contact info: New England Wire Technologies www.newenglandwire.com 603.838.6624

October 2019

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Renishaw Renishaw’s Full Range of Stylus for All Applications Renishaw offers a comprehensive range of precisionengineered styli and stylus accessories. Our styli can be used on Renishaw’s CMM, Machine Tool, Scanning Probes and Equator™ Gauging Systems, as well as for sensors from other manufactures, to ensure maximum measurement accuracy. The importance of successful gauging depends very much on the ability of the probe’s stylus to access a feature and then maintain accuracy at the point of contact. At Renishaw, we have expertise in probe and stylus design to develop a comprehensive range of CMM and machine tool styli to offer you the greatest possible precision. We offer standard, custom, highperformance, and additive manufactured styli. Whatever your styli requirements, Renishaw has the solution for you.

Renishaw, Inc. 1001 Wesemann Drive West Dundee, IL 60118 usa@renishaw.com www.renishaw.com (847) 286-9953

The Lee Company Miniature Latching Solenoid Valve for Power Sensitive Applications The Lee Company’s new Latching Solenoid Valve is the ideal solution for power sensitive applications. By incorporating permanent magnets into the coil design, this miniature solenoid valve offers a dramatic reduction in overall power consumption, particularly when operating with extended “ON” periods. Unlike traditional designs that require continuous voltage to energize the valve from its natural state, this latching solenoid requires only a momentary pulse of less than a Joule to switch to and remain in state. Available in both 2-way and 3-way configurations, this 2 position latching solenoid valve features Lee’s unique and patented MultiSeal™ technology which radically simplifies port layout, offers significant space savings, reduces machining costs and provides superior reliability over traditional sealing methods.

The Lee Company 2 Pettipaug Road P.O. Box 424 Westbrook, CT 06498

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inquiry@theleeco.com www.theleeco.com Tel: 860-399-6281 Fax: 860-399-2270

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This area has long been one of the most read and sought after by our engineering audience! From screws to bolts and adhesives to springs, these critical but often overlooked components are the key to every successful design. FastenerEngineering.com will serve readers in the mechanical design engineering space, providing news, product developments, application stories, technical how-to articles, and analysis of engineering trends. This site will focus on key issues facing the engineering markets around fastener technology, along with technical background on selected components. ADDITIONAL RESOURCES: • Fastener Engineering Handbook — December 2019 & December 2020 • Special print section in select issues of Design World — April 2020, July 2020 and September 2020 • Fastener Engineering monthly newsletter

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M o t i o n

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Addressing issues related to commutation alignment between AC PM servomotors and servo drive amplifiers — especially when motor and drive are from different manufacturers — can be quite challenging. Here we outline how to make that easier. Hurley Gill • Senior applications and systems engineer • Kollmorgen

In this article, we’ll start by confirming the identification of a servomotor’s leads. Then we’ll move to confirming the identity of specific leads for a new drive’s phases — one for which firmware function labels have not yet been verified at the drive’s outputs. This will illustrate the basic issues of and solutions for ensuring commutation alignment. The first question is motor related.

How can we confirm a manufacturer’s phase identification for a given permanent magnet (PM) AC servomotor? The best way to confirm a motor’s phase identification is with an oscilloscope (OSC). But first let’s set four ground rules: Motor rule one: We’ll identify the motor-phase nodes as A, B, and C (A, B,

C) and assume the back or counter-electromotive force (Bemf) voltage at phase A leads that of phase B by 120° … and Bemf voltage at phase B leads that of phase C by 120° … and phase C Bemf voltage leads phase-A Bemf voltage by 120° relative to a defined direction of rotation of the motor’s rotor. Of course,

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these phases (nodes) could just as easily be identified as R, S, T or U, V, W. Motor rule two: We will also identify phase A as the motor phase in which the feedback alignment is referenced — making it the motor’s anchor phase. Motor rule three: Because the phases A, B, and C identify physical leads (nodes) of the motor’s Bemf or power source, we will identify the first positive or positive-going nodal voltage as phase A relative to the other node voltages. This will set a fixed starting point of the anchor phase — so we can approach analysis as if power was just applied and always started with phase A relative to the other phases. DESIGN WORLD

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Consistent labeling of motor and drive for proper use

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Understanding typical design challenges can help engineers tackle motor phase-sequencing issues.

Motor rule four: Phase-A voltage will be the positive leading voltage on every initial sequence under consideration — whether we are investigating the Bemf of a motor or the power source to a motor. Phase A, B, C, clockwise (CW) rotation relative to a given direction of motor-rotor rotation — whether the reference is established by looking into the lead exit end of the motor or by its typical opposite end (the torque endbell) — does not matter as long as we are consistent. For the purposes of this article, we use phases A, B, and C for a clockwise (CW) rotation of the motor’s rotor as when viewed from the motor’s lead-exit end. Identifying a servomotor’s phases is straightforward with a dual-channel oscilloscope. The latter allows engineers to check the relative relationship of a motor’s phases (Bemf waveforms) with the defined rotor rotation. For complete instructions of how this can be accomplished, refer to this article’s section titled, Deep dive

In this article, we use phases A, B, and C for a clockwise (CW) rotation as viewed from the leadexit end of the housed motor.

Reference direction: Looking into motor’s lead-exit end

on using an oscilloscope to observe motor waveforms.

Then by investigating how the Bemf node voltages relate to each other (VAB, VBC, VCA, VAB, VBC, and so on) your motor’s phases will successfully identified and labeled A, B, C as the servomotor’s rotor is rotated in its manufacturer’s defined direction. For this article, we assume this direction is CW when looking into the lead exit end or rear endbell of our servomotor. On a related note, the node VAB or VAB should be read as the voltage at node A with respect to node B. Each node is labeled for future reference this way — with only one specifically identified letter. There is good reason for this.

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N Clockwise rotation Phases A, B, C

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Our second question is drive related. Assume we have just designed a new servo drive and wish to maintain feedback commutation offsets and alignments so that harmony between products (including feedback commutation angles and so forth) is consistent. What is the best procedure for maintaining such harmony between products? This is a good question — and for this example case, we had a permanent magnet (PM) AC synchronous motor that we want to drive as a servomotor — before having the drive amplifier. So as with our motor investigation, let’s answer our drive-related question by establishing some ground rules.

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Drive rule one: Ensure that your past products’ motors and drives adhere to the identification methods of the motor phases you establish. These are a function of the motor’s Bemf generated when rotated in a defined direction.

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Drive rule two: We must identify a specifically identified phase as an anchor we set as P1 (for the purposes of this article) with a feedback device. This anchor supply phase has a positive leading voltage on every initial sequence under consideration … as if power was just applied and always started with said anchor phase relative to all other phases. Again, this is something we assume for the purposes of this article. In actual operation the identified three phases are circling ... defining one phase as an anchor just sets a reference from which the hardware, software, and firmware are designed or can be designed (as for this example).

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Drive rule three: For the purposes of this

article, we define our drive phases as P1, P2, and P3 for a positive direction of rotation. That means the power supply for said positive direction of rotation includes output phase P1 leading P2 by 120° … and phase P2 leading P3 by 120° … and P3 leading P1 by 120°. Of course, we want the servo drive phases labeled A, B, and C on the released product — for labels consistent with the motor with which it integrates. However,

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Oscilloscope plot of motor hand-turned as generator

until our programing within the drive has been confirmed, we are assigning the drive’s output phases as P1, P2, and P3 — where P1 is the drive’s anchor phase from which all hardware, software, firmware is designed and referenced with the expected feedback signal internal to the drive. Drive rule four: We assume the drive will see a feedback signal counting up (positive) for the defined positive direction rotation (as set in drive rule three above) of the supplied phases. We also assume this positive commutation direction is the same as the motor’s defined commutation (CW) direction. We also assume all feedback connections are functionally the same as previous drives and motors. (They should be.) Note: The commutation-angle setting on the drive depends on the alignment between the motor’s phases and feedback hardware.

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After adjusting the oscilloscope’s timebase and voltage amplitude, you should get a scope plot that looks similar to the one here.

Phase A

Phase B

However, this setting is also a function of how the firmware and software within the drive is written; the number of motor pole pairs (electrical cycles) in one 360° motorrotor rotation; and its original feedback alignment relative to motor phases. One common mistake is to assign the drive phases A, B, and C with no intermediary step (of labeling them P1, P2, and P3) to confirm correct labeling and

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Phase C missing

function. Another common mistake is to assign the drive phases A, B, and C with no upfront determination of how the motor needs to be supplied power for it to rotate in its defined direction. At this stage it would be common and conceivably logical for the designer to establish the drive software, firmware, and physical circuitry so that positive electrical rotation output places a positive voltage at

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the proposed motor’s anchor phase A (our P1) relative to phase B (our P2) … and then at phase B (P2) relative to phase C (our P3) …and finally, at phase C (P3) relative to phase A (P1). Expected feedback for the positive electrical-source rotation would count up and commutation phasing would be set with phase P1 as the drive’s anchor. However, when drive phases are assigned upfront in this way, the prima facie (first impression) drive-to-motor connections are A to A, B to B, and C to C. This will quickly expose the connection fallacy — because the system won’t work. Why? Such an assignment won’t work because supply voltages must be presented to each motor phase opposite the motor’s generated Bemf (for that same defined direction of rotation) as used to determine the individual motor phase (single letter) identification. We found motor phases A, B, C by the motor’s Bemf VAB, VBC, VCA, VAB, VBC, and so on specifically using a defined direction of rotation — a method utilized throughout

the servomotor industry. However, for the supply power to counter or appear, in opposition to the motor’s emf (Bemf for the defined direction of rotation) the drive’s output phase voltages must be presented to the motor as VAC, VBA, VCB, VAC, VBA, and so on against the Bemf of the motor. So, from the standpoint of our defined anchor phase, we must switch its reference — and not the anchor phase. Note that the node VAC or VAC is read as the voltage at node A with respect to node C. This also demonstrates why only a single letter is used to define a specific motor and drive phase once appropriately defined. The other item that is absolutely critical to maintaining commutation harmony between products is the identified drive phase anchor (herein P1) for matching up with the motor’s phase anchor (phase A). Note that the drive phase P1 does not have to be the anchor. In reality, one would want to assign the drive’s anchor phase in harmony with the anchor phase of the motor for which

commutation alignment is to be maintained. One might assume we can correct the problem by switching motor phase connections A and B at the drive. However, this will mismatch the motor’s anchor phase A against the drive’s anchor phase P1 and produce a commutation phase angle offset of ±120° against all previously manufactured motor-drive product line combinations … and it won’t meet our original requirements. Of course, switching motor phases A and B is a common practice in the electrical industry for changing direction of rotation of an AC induction motor. But this solution is undesirable because our goal is to have consistent and sequential drive connection labels A, B, and C … and not B, A, and C as they appear on the drive. Just relabeling connections B, A, and C to A, B, and C (or C, B, and A) maintains an undesirable commutation-phase-angle offset against all previously manufactured motor-drive product line combinations (unless corrected within the drive’s software and firmware or

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by the circuit layout). So, what would be the best way to avoid or correct this initial fallacy? First, let’s return to the common and conceivably logical case of the drive designer establishing the drive’s software, firmware, and physical circuitry such that a positive electrical rotation would present an output effectively placing a positive voltage at the drive’s initially labeled output phase P1 relative to P2 … then phase P2 relative to phase P3 … and then phase P3 relative to phase P1. Expected feedback for the positive electrical-source rotation would count up with anchor phase established as P1. Assuming drive-to-motor connections are P1 to motor phase A, P2 to B, and P3 to C will yield a similar fallacy by suppling phase voltages with the Bemf relative to the desired defined direction rather that against the motor’s Bemf. So, what is the best way to correct and maintain the anchor phase of the drive P1 and the established motor anchor phase A? The answer is that we flip the drive’s reference phase (so P2 connects to motor phase C) such that the drive’s supplied voltage is presented against the motor’s Bemf … and allowing the first phase (anchor P1) to be maintained per drives rule two listed above. This means drive phase P3 connects to motor phase B … and P1 to motor phase A is maintained. Our progression for a final topology would be something like that seen in the figure, Progression for a final topology. There are multiple connection scenarios that will produce a lack of desired operation during the design of a new drive. These different scenarios end up being of one variation or another of the one presented above. Usually the most important factor to respect during relabeling is the alignment of the drive’s anchor phase with the motor’s anchor phase. Otherwise, there’s a ±120° offset and no possibility of product harmony with any older product lines. Additional note: Whether or not the third labeling shown in the figure titled, Progression for a final topology requires some software and firmware changes will depend on the specifics of how the software and firmware was originally written or intended to work.

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Hall signals shown in phase with motor Bemf phases

Also note that if Hall-effect devices (Halls) are being used, their drive association with their specific motor phase will also need to change depending on how the original firmware was written. If only the source reference for the anchor phase A is an issue, then redefining Hb (Hall-b) to be H_P3 and Hc to be H_P2 may complete the fix relative to drive P2 and P3. Review the Kollmorgen white paper titled, Servomotor Phasing with Hall Commutation (pages T20-T22) at kollmorgen.com for more on this. Observations: Product harmony between products should help sustain and improve product quality and safety — and ensure technology compliance between customers and suppliers for sustainable design and manufacturing practices. To use a metaphor, the identified anchor phase during design should be as fixed as the Sword of the Stone — impossible for a non-rightful claimant to take. “If the sword is moved, it moves with the stone, it being fixed within.”

Hall-effect devices (sometimes just called Halls) often simplify six-step drive commutation for BLDC servomotors — or establish a drive’s commutation offset for a sinewavecommutated AC PM servo motor.

Of course, there are many ways to mix and match motor phases, Hall signals, resolver signals, and other feedback devices to get a working system. Manufacturers that supply logical relationships between drive and motor phases with all feedback types will minimize the time required to understand and setup motion designs — because they make connection tasks more straightforward. This also enhances designs that leverage unique features with mixed-and-matched products; makes corrections of any bugs in controller and drive firmware or HMI software less difficult; and gives end users positive perceptions of the supplier and component manufacturer.

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Progression for a final topology M o t i o n

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Multiple connection scenarios will yield nonfunctioning motor-drive designs. Most are variations of issues we outline in this article.

Using an oscilloscope to observe motor waveforms To determine motor phase labels A, B, C while adhering to the ground rules outlined in this article’s first section (How can we confirm a manufacturer’s phase identification) we essentially will use the Bemf of the permanent magnet (PM) AC servomotor as an alternator. We will do this by connecting an oscilloscope to the motor, physically rotating the armature by hand, and monitoring the voltage waveforms generated relative to each other. 1 Label phase A of the motor per manufacturer’s documentation. This phase-A label is now your anchor or stake in the ground. Do not change or remove the phase A label. 2 Connect Channel 1 of the dual-channel oscilloscope to phase A. 3 Invert (INV) Channel 2 of the oscilloscope and connect either of the two remaining motor-phase wires to Channel 2. 4 Connect the ground clips of both oscilloscope probes to the remaining motor phase lead (terminal). 5 Set oscilloscope coupling (both channels) to DC and Channel 1 as the trigger for the capture of the oscilloscope traces with a positive going edge. A positive-going trigger just above zero should work just fine. 6 Start by setting the oscilloscope Channel 1 and 2 timebase to between 5 to 40 msec per division. Then set Channel 1 and 2 amplitudes between: 2 and 20 V per division. Then adjust as needed for Step 7. 7 Rotate the motor’s shaft in the CW

direction. For the example we’ve used in this article, this is when looking into the lead-exit

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Initial (often assumed) connections:

Drive Motor P1 (anchor) .................. Phase A P2 ............................ Phase B P3 ............................ Phase C But the motor is trying to run in the opposite direction due to power phase-A sequence identified with the motor’s Bemf ... VAB versus source VAC.

Drive (phase) Motor P1 (anchor) ........ Phase A (anchor) P3 .............................. Phase B P2 ................................Phase C From the first try, the drive’s anchor-phase reference is now flipped between P2 and P3. Harmony with other company products is maintained.

Finalizing drive-connection labels: Drive (phase) Motor P1 (A) (anchor)............................Phase A (anchor) P3 (B)...............................Phase B P2 (C)...............................Phase C If hardware is already fixed or labeled, it’s best to reidentify (within the software) P2 with operations of P3 ... ... and P3 operations with P2 — leaving physical alignment inline.

end of the motor — typically the rear endbell of a housed motor. This means when looking into the opposite end (the mounting end bell) of the motor, it will be necessary to rotate the rotor shaft CCW to maintain harmony with our example. In fact, you’ll need to do this repeatedly (for the best scope rendering) while adjusting the oscilloscope volts/division and timebase. 8 After adjusting the oscilloscope’s timebase and voltage amplitude, you should get a scope plot that looks similar to that in the figure titled, Oscilloscope plot of motor hand-turned as generator (without the green dotted line). If available, using the oscilloscope’s capture-and-hold feature can be very helpful at this stage. 9 If present Bemf waveforms look like Channel 1 and 2 (blue leading red respective to the trigger in the figure titled, Oscilloscope plot of motor hand-turned as generator) label the wire going to Channel 2 as phase C, and the wire connected to the oscilloscope ground clips as Phase B. If your Channel 2 waveform looks like it is shifted to the right over the dotted green line shown in the figure, label the wire going to Channel 2 as phase B … and the wire connected to the oscilloscope ground clips as phase C.

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Corrected connections:

Poka yoke: Double-checking motor wiring

For the ninth step above (for using an oscilloscope to observe motor waveforms) switch the wires between the oscilloscope ground clips and Channel 2 and verify the waveforms now look like Channel 1 and Channel 2 as noted. if not, you have made a mistake somewhere along the line. Here, do make sure you’re rotating the rotor in the correct direction and that Channel 2 has been inverted. Once output appears as expected, motor phases can be successfully identified and labeled A, B, and C by outlining how node voltages relate — VAB, VBC, VCA, VAB, VBC, and so on from the motor’s Bemf as the servomotor’s rotor is rotated in its defined direction. In our example, this is clockwise when looking into the rear endbell. Note that the node VAB or VAB should be read as the voltage at node A with respect to node B. Then each node is labeled for future reference with only one specifically identified letter. Again, there is good reason for this. DW Kollmorgen www.kollmorgen.com

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actuators work reliably far under the sea A new concept for a hybrid subsea valve actuator combines electromechanical and hydraulic methods into a compact unit for deep-sea applications. Dr. Alexandre Orth • Head of Marine & Subsea Technologies Amadeu Placido Neto • Test Engineer Bosch Rexroth Corporation

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Actuators come in many shapes, sizes and types; from screw-based mechanical actuators to electric motor-driven styles, to hydraulic and pneumatic designs. Each type has pros and cons and uses for which it is best suited. There’s even a well-known debate pitting older hydraulic systems (which traditionally offer the largest actuation forces) against newer electromechanical models that promise to replace hydraulic actuators in some applications. One application, oil and gas production many thousands of feet below the surface of the sea, has especially demanding requirements. In oil and gas subsea production systems, a so-called subsea “Christmas tree” is mounted on the wellheads. Each “tree” controls the oil and gas production of its respective well via multiple process valves. Each process valve is actuated by a subsea valve actuator (SVA) that must be able to safely close the valve in every operating state, even during power failure.

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Considering all the actuators used to operate a subsea field, a huge cost saver for the electric infrastructure alone (power cable, transformer, frequency converters, etc.) can be obtained using hybrid subsea valve actuators compared to using electromechanical actuators, for example.

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The requirements for subsea production systems are extremely demanding. Operational availability and safety are especially important for underwater systems that produce oil and gas, to protect people and environments. Additionally, protecting the sea from pollution caused by the disposal of hydraulic fluid used in conventional SVAs is now also becoming a key priority. A new concept for a hybrid SVA combines electromechanics and electrohydraulics in a compact unit for deep-sea applications, such as the operation of two-inch gate valves. This hybrid type SVA is designed to meet safety requirements up to SIL3, withstand an external pressure of up to 300 bar in a saltwater environment, consume up to 75 percent less energy, and operate 24 hours per day over a 25year lifetime with limited maintenance possibilities.

A new concept for a hybrid subsea valve actuator combines electromechanics and electrohydraulics in a compact unit for deep-sea applications.

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Self-contained axes with a hydrostatic drive Newly developed SVAs provide an energy-efficient and safe alternative to the previously used traditional hydraulic or electromechanical actuators that open and close the gate valve. Hybrid SVAs are self-contained modules with their own closed fluid circuit containing just a few liters of environmental-friendly hydraulic fluid. A variable-speed electric motor drives a durable hydraulic pump, which generates the flow required to actuate a hydraulic cylinder. The cylinderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rod is mechanically coupled with the wellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s gate valve stem to open or close it as needed. A safety valve with a mechanical spring inside the SVA ensures the cylinder also retracts safely into the fail-safe position if the power fails,

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without the need for external power supply or batteries. The cylinder can also be driven externally by an underwater robot via an override. All key components of the drive train are installed redundantly. Altogether, SVAs provide safety on different levels with the redundant controls, the fail-safe spring and the intervention options from outside. Hybrid SVAs offer quite a few benefits compared with the current state of actuator technology, especially hydraulic systems. The vast majority of underwater actuators used around the world are still based on conventional hydraulics. This common structure has proven its durability and long-term safety over the past 50 years. However, operators want to reduce the effort needed to manage the well valve because conventional hydraulics typically require big, central hydraulic power units (HPU) on the topside. These supply the well valve actuators with fluid via lines, known as umbilicals, and jumpers that can be kilometers long. At a working depth of 3,000 meters, several hundred liters of fluid can accumulate in the lines alone. Furthermore, that conventional setup requires additional hydraulic accumulators and directional valves to control and command the actuation. As an initial alternative, equipment suppliers tried to design purely electromechanical solutions. These only need to be supplied via power cables and connected via a data line to an actuator control module (ACM) located either topside or on the seabed. However, because they have no options for external mechanical intervention for adjustments, electromechanical solutions have safetyrelated disadvantages. And, due to their lower power density vs. hydraulic systems, they also require bigger housings and electrical batteries. The design results in high friction, causing mechanical wear on the power transmission and reducing the required 25-year operating period. For these reasons, electromechanical solutions are at a critical disadvantage for subsea applications needing a fail-safe emergency closure.

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Lowering energy consumption The hybrid SVA combines the benefits of both hydraulic and electromechanical actuation and eliminates the existing disadvantages. The decentralized selfcontained fluid circuit means the topside HPU, subsea hydraulic control module and kilometer-long umbilical lines are no longer required for the fluid. The SVA only requires a power supply and a data line – as specified by the Subsea Instrumentation Interface Standardization (SIIS) – similar to the electromechanical actuators. During operation, a high-efficiency fixed displacement/variable rotating hydraulic pump generates flow to drive the lowfriction cylinder. The hydraulic system is simplified because proportional valves are not required, which significantly increases energy efficiency. Compared with purely electromechanical actuators, SVAs consume

Newly developed subsea valve actuators provide an energyefficient and safe alternative to the previously used traditional hydraulic or electromechanical actuators that open and close the gate valve.

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The recently developed subsea valve actuator provides an energy-efficient and safe alternative to the previously used traditional hydraulic or electromechanical actuators that open and close gate valves.

up to 75 percent less power at peak performance. Considering all the actuators used to operate a subsea field, a huge cost saving for the electric infrastructure alone (power cable, transformer, frequency converters, etc.) is possible in contrast with using electromechanical actuators, for example. The electric motor driving the hydraulic pump can then be configured considerably smaller but with the same adjustment force of the actuators, which in turn saves installation space and cost. More cost savings can also result from substituting the hydraulic umbilical with an electric umbilical, and there’s no need to dispose of hydraulic fluid that’s required for conventional hydraulic actuators. The SVA also offers conditionmonitoring capabilities, with built-in sensor technology that continuously records the operating states within the actuator and reports them to the higher-level master controller. Trends can then be analyzed, allowing deviations to be identified and solved early.

Proven technology from industrial applications The operating principle for the SVA comes from the accepted use of self-contained axes often found in industrial applications. Individual components for the SVA are manufactured in large-scale series under quality management systems such as the ones used in industrial machines. This standardization reduces costs and creates 100

long-term availability for production. In addition, the sensors and electronics used in the SVA have proven reliability from use in automotive vehicle applications. Where required, modifications have been made to the components to qualify for deep-sea use at depths up to 6,000 meters. The system and core components also meet special requirements of the different classification societies for marine, offshore and subsea use. Within the SVA, there are two bars of overpressure at every depth because of the redundant pressure compensation system. This prevents the penetration of saltwater and the need for large housings with a pressure-neutral design. In addition to the standard requirements, only subsea-rated wiring and connections are used within the axis. All electrical components that are not subsea-rated are also mechanically and electrically encapsulated with pressureresistant parts. Working closely with leading equipment suppliers and operators, the latest simulation technology was used to create the “proof of concept” and prototypes for field trials. This innovative drive technology combines the best of electromechanics and hydraulics to help ensure safe and reliable motion control on the seafloor, helping to bring the vision of an “all subsea factory” into reality. DW

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The fall of friction in bearings? Design engineers have long searched for material coating methods to reduce friction. But, could the restructuring of newly found materials reduce friction on macroscopic scales? Here, Chris Johnson, managing director of EZO bearings supplier SMB Bearings, explains how future surface treatments, including innovations in graphene and graphenerelated materials (GRM) could enable better, or limitless, bearing wear. Edited by Mike Santora

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Frequently encountered in many industries and sectors, friction is a fact of life. Rolling, rotating or sliding contact interfaces in every human-made, natural, or biological system will generate friction. If not reduced or controlled effectively, excess friction often leads to higher wear losses and ultimately, poor reliability and lifespan.

Frictionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most basic definition is the force that prevents smooth and easy movement of two moving surfaces in contact with each other. With friction comes wear and tear, and thus, lubricants in a liquid or solid form are DESIGN WORLD

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A proper lubricant will reduce friction between the internal sliding surfaces of the bearing’s components and reduce or prevent metal-to-metal contact of the rolling elements within their raceways.

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Because graphene is ultrathin even with multiple layers, it can be applied to systems with oscillating, rotating and sliding contacts to reduce friction and wear, as well as protecting bearings from corrosion when exposed to water, a process commonly known as tribo-corrosion.

needed to prevent this. However, friction can be a complex problem for engineers — bearing friction is not constant and is addressed using certain tribological phenomena that occur in the lubricant film between the rolling elements, raceways, and cages. A proper lubricant will reduce friction between the internal sliding surfaces of the bearing’s components and reduce or prevent metal-to-metal contact of the rolling elements within their raceways. While this is a good way of reducing wear and preventing corrosion, there are new materials that, when used on bearings, dramatically reduce friction compared to the lubrication and surface treatment options that are currently on the market. Superlubricity On the macroscale, friction is the result of microscopic imperfections in surfaces. On the atomic-scale, however, friction concerns the attractive forces between individual atoms. This relationship opens up the phenomenon of superlubricity; where the atomic-scale structural mismatch makes it impossible for multiple atoms in one surface to get

Graphene and its tribological potential as a lubricant remains relatively unexplored, with few investigations into its use as a self-lubricated solid or as an additive for lubricating oils. 104

close to atoms in the other, leading to extraordinarily low friction. Since superlubricity was first proposed in 1990, several groups have observed the effect, but it has been difficult to scale because of the inconsistency between macroscopic surfaces. That is, until now. Graphite was used in early investigations due to its layered lattice-like properties. Imagine egg cartons; when the cartons are aligned, they stick together inside one another, but if they’re out of alignment, they do not stick, and they can easily slide over one another. Graphite’s lattice composition, somewhat comparable to these stacks of egg cartons, makes a great candidate to further these investigations into superlubricity. Graphene and GRM Graphene and its tribological potential as a lubricant remains relatively unexplored, with few investigations into its use as a self-lubricated solid or as an additive for lubricating oils. With graphene being a two-dimensional material, it offers unique friction and wear properties that are typically not seen conventionally. Besides its wellestablished thermal, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties, graphene can serve as a liquid or colloidal lubricant for bearings and can even be applied as flakes to the surface. Because graphene is ultrathin even with multiple layers, it can be applied to systems with oscillating, rotating and sliding contacts to reduce friction and wear, as well as protecting bearings from corrosion when exposed to water, a process commonly known as tribo-corrosion. This is due to graphene exhibiting a slippery texture, which could potentially make it an excellent lubricant.

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•• •• •• As well as being low shear and highly protective, the application of graphene in bearings prevents oxidation of the steel surfaces due to its relative lack of permeability to liquids and gases. Research shows that the small number of layers in graphene not only reduces friction in steel seven times more but also wear-andtear 10,000 times more, reducing tribocorrosion. The process of adding a graphene coating to bearings is relatively simple compared to adding a traditional lubricant — graphene does not require any additional processing steps, other than just sprinkling a small amount of solution or spraying the solution on the surface, making this process simple, environmentally friendly and costeffective. As well as not being harmful to the environment, graphene flakes that are added to the surface of a bearing can last a considerable amount of time, due to the ability of the flakes to reorient themselves during the initial wear cycles, providing a very low coefficient of friction (COF). In a study on the potential of graphene as a new emerging lubricant, researchers estimated that the reduced loss of energy to friction offered by new materials would yield potential energy savings of 2.46 billion kilowatt-hours per year, equivalent to 1.5 million barrels of oil. It is evident that innovations in graphene and newly discovered materials have potential as both solid and liquid lubricants for bearings. Once fully developed, these new lubrication options could have positive impacts on many applications that could lead to tremendous energy savings. DW SMB | smbbearings.com

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To get to parametric modeling and to the newer direct modeling, CAD has undergone such radical changes as to make the early systems look unrecognizable to todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s engineers.

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Jean Thilmany | Senior Editor

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Parametric Modeling:

Still going strong thirty-one years on | PTC Creo

Last year, parametric modeling turned thirty.

Ivan Sutherland created his Sketchpad system, the first program to use a graphical user interface to interact with users in 1963. The program comprised an x-y plotter display and the recently invented light pen, a computerinput device shaped like a wand. Sketchpad and Sutherland w_ early graphics system

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“Parametric modeling made solid modeling practical for the first time and was a huge time saver,” says Jon Hirschtick, chief executive officer at OnShape, a CAD software company. “The beauty of feature-based parametric modeling was that engineers could create solid models with an ordered list of understandable modeling features like sketch, extrude, fillet, and shell. By changing dimension values—or adding, editing, reordering or deleting features—a solid part’s geometry would automatically update,” he says. Now, direct modeling has joined parametric design as a modelbuilding maneuver, and other techniques join their repertoire. Yet, parametric modeling continues to roll along. Mostly because, as Hirschtick points out, it works well. To get to parametric modeling and to the newer direct modeling, CAD has undergone such radical changes as to make the early systems look unrecognizable to today’s engineers.

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PTC Creo delivers a scalable range of 3D CAD product development packages and tools. Its variety of specific features and capabilities help engineers imagine, design, and create products better. | PTC Creo

With the kinds of advances Hirschtick and others have made to CAD software through the years, it sometimes can be difficult to remember the technology has only been around since the 1960s, and parametric modeling since 1988.

“The beauty of feature-based parametric modeling was that engineers could create solid models with an ordered list of understandable modeling features like sketch, extrude, fillet, and shell. By changing dimension values— or adding, editing, reordering or deleting features—a solid part’s geometry would automatically update,”

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the workings of an Etch-a-Sketch (which is, in fact, a simplified vector plotter), says Bernhard Bettig, a mechanical engineering professor at the West Virginia University who has taught a course on CAD history. The phosphate that displayed the The Wayback Machine drawings tended to fade so users had to Ivan Sutherland is often credited with creating continually refresh the display. With very the modern graphical user interface and kicking complicated displays they’d have to refresh off CAD. He essentially came up with the idea of often, he says. “And the system blinked a drawing on a screen. lot and when you got really complicated, In 1963 while still a Ph.D. student at you got a lot of blinking,” Bettig says. “But the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, you still had lines on a screen, so it was a big Sutherland created his Sketchpad system, the deal.” first program to use a graphical user interface The systems allowed engineers to work to interact with users. The program comprised out potential manufacturing errors on an x-y plotter display and the recently invented screen, to readily update their designs, and light pen, a computer-input device shaped like a to render designs faster than they could by wand. hand,” Bettig says. “These were wireframe “In the past, we have been writing letters to, drawings, which couldn’t depict volume and rather than conferring with, our computers,” that could oftentimes lead to confusion.” Sutherland wrote in his thesis. “For many types “Did a part open from the top, from the of communication, such as describing the left, the right? It was ambiguous in terms of shape of a mechanical part or the connections where the surfaces were. You didn’t know of an electrical circuit, typed statements can how to look at it,” he says. prove cumbersome. The Sketchpad system, by The 1970s saw the advent of 3D eliminating typed statements in favor of line modeling. Those early systems were based drawings, opens up a new area of man-machine on solid modeling and stem from the work communication.” of two men on two continents who worked Sutherland’s system displayed vector graphics on separate approaches at about the same rather than the raster graphics we’re used to time. In 1976, mechanical engineering today. Sketchpad users controlled the cathode ray professor Herbert Voelcker’s group at the tube’s electron beam via light pen to draw vectors University of Rochester in New York used a on screen, creating shapes line by line. It was process that came to be called constructive like operating a ray gun. You’d turn it on, draw solid geometry, essentially a molding and a line, turn it off, move to the next point, and joining of shapes. turn it on again in a process not entirely unlike Also in the middle 1970s, Ian Braid at

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Cambridge University in England released his solid modeler, Build, which delineated the boundary between solids and nonsolids to create models. As their methods varied, so did the eventual CAD systems based on those methods. Still, their underlying principle was much the same, writes David Weisberg in his 2008 self-published book “The Engineering Design Revolution: The People, Companies and Computer Systems that Changed Forever the Practice of Engineering.” Yet, 3D CAD systems met with resistance from designers who said it was difficult to use. “It was not until the introduction of parametricbased CAD that this resistance began to melt away,” writes Jami Shah in the book “Theoretical and Computational Basis Toward Advanced CAD Applications (Springer, 2001). Shah is an Ohio State University professor of engineering design. In parametric design, the relationship between each element is used to inform the design of what will become complex geometries and structures. When using a CAD system driven by this method, engineers are called upon to build a geometry piece by piece, based on parameters like the depth of a hole, the diameter of a circle, or the thickness of a shape, Weisberg says. One important and defining feature: the software tracks each step in the building process. When an engineer modifies the value of a dimension, the shape of the model changes accordingly. That single change can ripple through the model to automatically update each area affected. Engineers needn’t isolate and make those changes themselves. In 1988, Parametric Technology Corporation, founded three years earlier by mathematician Samuel Geisberg, released the first commercially successful parametric modeling software, Pro/ Engineer, Weisberg writes. The goal was to create a system flexible enough to encourage engineers to consider a variety of designs, with the cost of making design changes as close to zero as possible, he says. Pro/Engineer was implemented from the start as a solids-based system. Everything was done with double-precision solid geometry and NURBS surfaces. To create a model, the user typically started by creating a profile of the object. This shape was then converted into a solid model by translating it through space or revolving it around a centerline. Additional geometry could be added or subtracted

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from the base model. Some of the geometry was in the form of features such as holes, bosses, and ribs, Weisberg writes. “A key characteristic of Pro/Engineer was that as the model was created, the software recorded each step the operator took. This was referred to as a ‘history tree.’ The software also recoded geometric aspects of the model such as whether two surfaces were parallel or the fact that a hole was a specified distance from the edge of the part. Each dimension used to define the part was also recorded. If the user placed a through hole in a block and the thickness of the block was later increased,” he says. The program was successful from the start in part because it didn’t have to support the legacy minicomputer and mainframebased software that its competitors did at the time, Weisberg says. “PTC developed Pro/Engineer from the start to be hosted on networked UNIX workstations. Its software was written in a higher-level language and the system used the latest software architecture techniques,” he writes. Another modeling method That’s the point at which things more or less rested until around the turn of the most recent century, which saw the introduction of a new method called direct modeling. CAD systems driven by direct modeling don’t require engineers to use parameterdriven regenerations of a solid model. Instead, an engineer changes a solid model by pulling it, stretching it, and moving it as needed, rather like working directly with clay, says Holly Ault, mechanical engineering professor at Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Mass. Alternate terms for direct modeling include synchronous modeling and dynamic modeling, she adds. “Direct modeling is an intuitive approach to creating geometry without the burden of history-based dependencies,” Ault says. “Construction methods are similar to those used in conventional solid modeling. The user can design a 2D profile and then develop the model using commands like extrude, revolve, mill, and bore. Without the presence of a parameterized history tree, manipulation of the geometry is greatly

simplified. The approach allows engineers to design directly on the model’s geometry, she adds. Direct modeling creates geometry rather than features, so it’s prefect for conceptual modeling where the designer doesn’t want to be tied down with the interdependencies of features and the ramifications making a change might have,” Ault says. CAD into the future Of course, CADmakers don’t stand still. Many are looking at ways to include artificial intelligence to increase the ways engineers can use CAD tools for design. Last year, for example, Autodesk released generative design to subscribers of its Fusion 360 Ultimate product development software. The design concept allows engineers to define design parameters such as material, size, weight, strength, manufacturing methods, and cost constraints–before they begin to design. Then, using artificialintelligence-based algorithms, the software presents an array of design options that meet the predetermined criteria, says Ravi Akella, who headed the product management team for Autodesk’s generative manufacturing solutions before moving last year to become director of product development at Roblox. The feature focuses on helping designers define the problem they’re trying to solve, he says. “The software asks the user preliminary questions. ‘What sorts of materials would you consider for your design? Where does it connect with other things as part of an assembly? What are the loads? What are the pieces of geometry?’” Akella says. After a short period of time, the software then presents designers and engineers with an array of design options that best meet their requirements. Designers choose the best design. Or, if none of the options meet their needs, they can begin the generative process again, this time offering slightly different inputs. CAD software will continue to evolve and who knows how AI will influence design. But it will be an interesting journey. DW

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The new distributed control Smart hydraulic equipment is delivering IoT compatibility, better machine performance and precise control accuracy.

John Kimmel | chief engineer, power and motion control products | Eaton

Industrial machine end users are looking to equipment manufacturers to deliver better machine performance, state-of-the-art diagnostic capabilities and Internet of Things (IoT) compatibility. Equipment manufacturers are looking for faster commissioning and cost savings without sacrificing accuracy or power density. Through the rise of intelligent components, faster communication protocols and automated decision making, smart hydraulic equipment is delivering all of this with more precise control accuracy than ever before. Distributing the computing resources out of the PLC (programmable logic controller) control cabinet directly onto intelligent hydraulic components is a key alternative for equipment manufacturers and end users to attain these targets.

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Intelligent valves like Eatonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s AxisPro proportional valves enable closed-loop control without the need for a separate motion control processor or for the PLC to close position control loops.

Distributed versus centralized control Most industrial machines utilize a PLC controller. Traditional control systems use only a centralized controller with input/output (I/O) modules. With this architecture, one PLC performs all required computing tasks for the entire machine. Take the example of a cylinder that needs to be repositioned. In a centralized control system, the PLC sends a spool position command to the valve, which in turn positions the spool to allow fluid to

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move to the cylinder. The PLC monitors the cylinder position and slowly commands the spool position back to neutral as the cylinder approaches the desired position. With this approach, the PLC needs a digitalto-analog converter to command the valve, and it needs the electronics necessary to read the cylinder position sensor. The PLC programmer has to design www.designworldonline.comâ&#x20AC;&#x192;â&#x20AC;&#x192;

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Eaton is calling its component-level motion control embedded control, in which sensors and intelligence are embedded directly into machine components, such as valves and cylinders. This takes the control responsibilities for the machine beyond the PLC cabinet to the individual components.

Most industrial machines use a centralized PLC controller with input/output (I/O) modules. With this architecture, one PLC performs all required computing tasks for the entire machine.

In distributed control, dedicated motion control processors were added to the PLC cabinet to help offload the computing requirements from the PLC.

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the sequencing for the machine and also develop and tune the cylinder position control loops for each axis. There was a time when machines were simple enough that all computing tasks could be managed by a single, centralized PLC. As complexity has increased, this has changed. Dedicated motion control processors emerged, which were added to the PLC cabinet to help offload the computing requirements from the PLC. With these motion control processors, the first generation of distributed control was born. Going back to our cylinder example, the PLC now provides just the desired final cylinder position value to the motion control processors. The motion control processor takes care of commanding the spool position of the valve to achieve the desired cylinder position. The PLC programmer no longer needs to design, implement and tune the position control loop — that task is now done on the motion control processors. Now, manufacturers like Eaton are looking beyond the motion control cabinet, distributing machine control even further. Relocating machine control Component-level motion control is the next iteration of distributed control. By embedding sensors and intelligence into machine components, such as valves and cylinders, the control responsibilities for the machine are spread beyond the PLC cabinet to the individual components. Intelligent valves enable closed-loop control without the need for a separate motion control processor or for the PLC to close position control loops.

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At Eaton, we call this embedded control, and we work with our customers to help them realize the benefits of moving control loops closer to the action. These benefits include reduced cabling, customizable operation, easier and faster commissioning, the availability of real-time diagnostics and cost savings. Reduced cabling — Machines with

embedded control require less cabling — sometimes even half as much — as compared to traditional control architecture. A sensor installed on a cylinder would typically require a cable to run all the way back to the PLC cabinet. With embedded control, the cable needs only run from the cylinder back to the intelligent valve. Customizable operation — Embedded control allows machines to run custom software applications that have been tailored precisely to the machine on which they are installed. Every machine’s duty cycle can vary, and with embedded control the duty cycle sequencing can be done at the component level. This simplifies the requirements of the central PLC. Easier and faster commissioning — Components like Eaton’s AxisPro

proportional valve allow machine builders to program one axis at a time, without needing the complete PLC code running at once. Configuration software enables engineers to quickly program the valve using parameterbased tuning. With no specific programming language expertise required, the software allows the user to easily input key settings

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like relief pressure, hose volumes, cylinder stroke, and cap and rod diameters to quickly and easily tune the valve to meet specifications. The intuitive graphical software makes the process easier and faster than adjusting parameters one by one. Setting up the controls so that the machine behaves as intended no longer needs to be the most difficult part of commissioning a new machine. Real-time diagnostics and IoT — Onboard sensors and digital communication in embedded controls provide real-time diagnostic information to end users, providing vital machine health monitoring that helps maximize uptime. By monitoring for key process variables or even custom-set faults, component-level intelligence can improve throughput and quality, and can alert maintenance staff when essential repairs are needed. Cost savings — All of the benefits highlighted here add up to cost savings in building and operating the machine. Faster commissioning gets the machine up and running quicker, and real-time diagnostics can help end users perform maintenance sooner, both of which help maximize machine uptime and reduce operating costs. Reducing cabling and eliminating the need for dedicated motion control processors lowers costs for the machine build.

In industrial machinery, complexity is increasing and end users are looking for fast and accurate motion control solutions without the added complexity during commissioning. Eaton has solved this by further distributing the control logic to the component level. The AxisPro valve and the recently released configuration software, Pro-FX Configure 2.0, are making increased precision and faster commissioning the norm in the industry. DW Eaton | eaton.com

Connect and discuss this and other engineering design issues with thousands of professionals online

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How 3D printing technology

is advancing product design Robert F. Zubrickie | Manager of 3D Printing and Prototyping Center | TE Connectivity

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P R I N T I N G

Although 3D printing has been around for more than 30 years, the acceptance has not advanced as quickly as one might anticipate given its benefits. But that is changing, evidenced in part by the explosion of interest in 3D printing in engineering as well as popular culture in recent years.

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3D printing has the power to radically change prototyping in component

manufacturing. Today’s additive manufacturing technologies result in workable, finished components made of high-quality materials in less time and with less labor

TE Connectivity’s 3D printing capabilities create models, almost instantly, of product solutions. These 3D models demonstrate the key attributes of the company’s portfolio and enhance some of the product features, so customers can clearly identify key design elements. Above is an example of a 3D model of TE Connectivity’s standard FASTON terminals.

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input than traditional (subtractive) manufacturing techniques. The benefits of 3D printing to production also extend to prototyping, with additional advantages for the prototyping process. While the benefits of 3D printing for finished products are becoming widely known, there is less awareness of its benefits to the design and prototyping phases. But 3D printing itself is a somewhat misunderstood technology — beginning with the idea that it is a single technology or technique. A diverse collection of different processes that have evolved over decades is what make up 3D printing today. And, understanding these processes is critical to understanding how 3D printing enhances the entire lifecycle of a product.

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P R I N T I N G

3D printing techniques The main considerations for determining which 3D printing method works for a particular design include the volume and type of material, which will ultimately impact the speed of production. For example, a subtractive technique would be more appropriate for larger projects, while 3D printing techniques are more appropriate for smaller parts. Additive manufacturing is also appropriate for highly specialized parts that require short production time or are based on complex and intricate designs. These parts may have a hollow interior so they may be lightweight but still durable enough to support the end-product. Fused Filament Fabrication (also known as Fused Deposition Modeling under a Stratasys trademark) is among the most common 3D printing techniques. FFF is the process of extruding layer upon layer of materials such as acrylonitrile

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TE Connectivity has invested in a portfolio of 3D-printing technologies, including Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) machines for printing with engineering polymers, and Jetting and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) machines that use photopolymers. Additionally, Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) machines for metals printing as well as Digital Light Processing (DLP) printers using photopolymers with strengths analogous to engineering polymers | Courtesy of TE Connectivity

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butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic and polycarbons. This method establishes the foundation for some of the most dynamic designs. Other advanced materials are available as well. As with all technologies, using FFF technique has advantages and disadvantages. FFF allows for a thermoplastic process involving the remelting of material ensuring a stable, durable end-product. On the other hand, it is important to be mindful of the orientation. Certain orientations strengthen a part, others can weaken it. While the FFF process is most frequently used because of the price point of the materials, another, more commercial level solution is the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process. This isotropic process ensures a product’s strength in all orientations because the powder material (such as nylon) is sintered to a previous layer with a laser to melt powder particles into a solid. Usually, no additional supports are added to hold elements together during printing. Unlike other process, SLS typically results in finished pieces that don’t need sanding or additional alteration after production. A recent technology introduced by HP, Multi Jet Fusion (MJF), is testing the limits of production time with powder technology. Relying on similar materials to the SLS process, MJF actually builds faster than SLS and results in more aesthetically pleasing final products. The improved final product is due in part to the textured, sand-blasted finishes that MJF produces. Additionally, this technique offers designers and engineers the opportunity to infuse color into the powder raw materials, allowing for custom pieces. With the speed and opportunity for creativity in the designs, many see MJF as the future standard for additive manufacturing. To create dense and corrosion-resistant components made of stainless steel, tool steel, bronze, aluminum, or titanium, Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) is a process to consider. DMLS is another additive technology that 3D prints metal parts directly from CAD data without the need for tooling. Components are built with support structures for added stability and thermo-cooling which are then removed for a machine end-product. This technique is best for mold inserts, production tooling, brackets, fixtures, implants, jewelry, gears, housings, and turbines. The latest, fastest growing technology within additive manufacturing is Digital Light Projection (DLP) 3D printing. DLP requires a photoreactive substance (or a blend) that forms compounds, which ultimately activate the polymerization process, creating the cross-links that form the solid printed DESIGN WORLD

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object. The machine itself has simple components that are easily replaceable, resulting in a dependable and cost-effective solution. This technology shows the most promise in the industry for the future printing of final, workable products like connectors, wire covers, or housing cases. As the technology evolves, engineers and researchers will develop a greater understanding of how DLP-printed products perform in terms of durability and heat tolerance in their end-use applications. The benefits of these technologies to the prototyping process stem from the ways additive manufacturing sidesteps limitations of traditional prototyping and subtractive manufacturing while maintaining quality.

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By providing teams access to 3D-printers, TE Connectivity enables problem solving around connectivity challenges and designing options for different and complex geometries. | Courtesy of TE Connectivity

Conceptualization Building realistic prototypes has advanced considerably from sketching on a piece of paper or creating 3D computer renderings. Perhaps the greatest feature of 3D printing is the freedom from the limitations in design and machining that come with standard manufacturing practices. In 3D printing, complexity is essentially free. The result is that engineers are free to imagine and test design concepts that were difficult, expensive or impossible using subtractive techniques. They can actually produce what they design, instead of designing what can be made through a standard manufacturing process. This is especially important to newer engineers, whose thinking hasn’t been constrained by traditional manufacturing limitations. Young or old, designers who prototype using 3D printing receive the additional benefit of being able to touch, feel and hold DESIGN WORLD

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their design. For all of the advances in computer technology that let us create intricate 3D renderings on our screens, nothing quite compares to holding a product in your hand. You can often tell very quickly if it’s the right size, shape and weight. Knowing this early on speeds up the conceptualization and iteration processes, ultimately getting designs to production faster. Efficiency and speed In addition to reducing conceptualization time by putting realistic products in the hands of designers early on, 3D printing is simply faster. Depending upon the design in question, 3D printing can produce a prototype in hours or days rather than several weeks or months. Designs require less material to produce since products are printed with cored-out interiors and a honeycomb structure. Essentially, there is minimal investment from a staffing perspective because, once the digital design is loaded into the machine, the process runs itself. Quality From the early days when liquid resins were common, to today’s advanced plastics, 3D printing techniques create strong prototypes that can actually be installed and included in complex designs. Essentially, the difference between the prototype and the final product is one of design instead of quality and durability. Until recently, that quality was dependent upon expensive inputs and raw materials, which was seen as a significant drawback. As interest in 3D printing technologies grows, the number of suppliers on the market and the amount of competition is exerting a moderating force on overall cost. The result is a price tag that is much more appealing. Although 3D printing has been around for 30 years, the technologies involved have not advanced as quickly as one might anticipate given its benefits. But that is changing, evidenced in part by the explosion of interest in 3D printing in engineering as well as popular culture in recent years. Engineers should embrace all the benefits of 3D printing by considering a 3D-first approach to their designs. Further investment in R&D and maintaining the high expectations we have for this technology will push engineers to incorporate 3D-printing first in their designs and maintain this quality standard in the industry for next-level innovations. DW TE Connectivity | www.te.com

WHAT DO YOU THINK? Connect and discuss this and other engineering design issues with thousands of professionals online

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D


hIgh

PerformaNce

Densi-Pak® Water & Dust Resistant Battery Holders

• IP65 rated to withstand water and dust • Cover gasket seals out water and dust • Equipped with a built-in, sealed, on-off switch for additional security • Holders include coil spring contacts • Sealed, 6” long, pre-tinned wire leads • For “AA” batteries in two, three, and four cell configurations (Wired in series)

It’s what’s on the InsIde that counts ® e l e c t r o N I c s

www.keyelco.com

(516) 328-7500

c o r P.

(800) 221-5510

request catalog!

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Product World Pre-set torque value for consistent machine operation Zero-Max zero-max.com The Zero-Max Torq-Tender is an enclosed device with no external adjustment features. It has a pre-set torque value and once installed, cannot be changed. This feature safeguards against improper or unauthorized torque adjustments.

Designed to avoid system damage, Torq-Tenders provide

Fail safe braking

dependable overload protection. When a jam-up or excessive loading occurs, the built-in Torq-Tender will quickly release to prevent system damage. Proper torque setting ensures that the machine operates and reacts the way it was intended to operate. The Torq-Tender’s pre-set torque with no external adjustment feature ensures the proper torque setting is maintained. Additional features: • Standard Torq-Tenders are bi-directional. Torque values remain the same regardless of rotation. • If specified, the Torq-Tender can be configured at the factory to release at different torque ratings for different rotational directions. • When used as a coupling, the Torq-Tender fulfills two functions: (1) as a flexible shaft coupling and (2) as a mechanical torque limiter.

Miki-Pulley mikipulley-us.com “Lock-In-Place” Brakes provide long-term positioning for direction control wheels on picking forklifts and similar applications. Designed for both braking and holding, these Power-Off engaged BXH model brakes are opened using an electromagnetic field, and hold in a default closed position with compression springs. They have double the torque of similar brakes for dynamic braking purposes. They provide braking when the power is disengaged and excellent performance in long-term holding applications.

These brakes provide power-off, fail-safe braking in the most

demanding applications. The primary moving part in this robust brake design is the armature plate. To open the brake and allow free rotation, current is applied to the stator coil producing an electromagnetic field, attracting the armature plate to the stator and away from the rotor disc. When no current is applied (poweroff), recessed compression springs push the armature plate back into the rotor disc to halt and hold rotation. This feature provides fail-safe braking and allows the brake to maintain position over long periods without power consumption.

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For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @ www.designworldonline.com

Firmware update enhances secure remote access with VPN Opto 22 opto22.com Firmware update 1.4.1 for the groov EPIC Edge Programmable Industrial Controller, expands the capabilities of this next-generation industrial control system. Engineers and developers will find new networking options and tools, plus new software choices for their automation and IIoT applications. For secure remote access to the groov EPIC, the system now offers VPN (virtual private network) client technology to connect to an OpenVPNbased VPN server. This option is a rare feature in programmable controllers and a key to creating secure data communication architectures, particularly with geographically dispersed systems.

For example, an OEM embedding groov EPIC in

their machine design could benefit from establishing a remote connection to their equipment using

The Industry Leader in Test Point Technology for More Than 70 Years Components Corporation’s signature line of printed circuit board test points delivers top-fight performance and cost-efciency. • Cost-efective, time-saving solution for PCB test applications.

industry-standard, IT-friendly VPN technology for diagnostics and predictive service. Likewise, a system integrator could use the VPN technology to provide continuous integration services after

• Mission critical performance in the harshest of test environments.

equipment is installed at a plant or location.

• Broad range of product oferings for specifc design requirements. • RoHs/Reach/Confict Materials compliant. DesIgneD for VaLue. VaLueD for PerforMance.

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COMPONENTS CORPORATION

6 Kinsey Place, Denville, NJ 07834-2692 866-426-6726 www.componentscorp.com

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Product World Mounting clamp line expansion JW Winco jwwinco.com As many users have used the twistable two-way mounting clamps GN 475 to arrange attachment rods in parallel, JW Winco was inspired by this application to create the mounting clamps GN 474.1 with two parallel clamping holes.

The new stainless steel retaining rods GN 480.3

and GN 480.5 also help make the system easier to use as their offset or angled shape eliminates the need to combine multiple straight elements. With its barbed fitting, the hose adapter GN 480.7 permits the direct connection of hoses on one side and thread-based mounting of an outlet nozzle on the other side. As a result, lubricants, coolant, or compressed air are transported more effectively to the parts of a system where they are needed.

Also new in the mounting clamps range: T-clamp, base plate, and simple swivel mounting clamps can be assembled into a freely

configurable articulated mounting clamp using the clamping kit GN 511.1. The clamping kit centers and connects the two mounting clamps with a screw or adjustable hand lever such that they are still free to swivel. Even used individually, the swivel mounting clamps offer a range of fastening and mounting options.

ZrO2 zirconia ceramic radial ball bearings LM76 lm76.com A new line of radial ball bearings with ZrO2 (Zirconia) ceramic balls has been released. To expand this range of linear bearings that are FDA/UDSA/3A Dairy compliant, as well as linear bearings for extreme environments, the following have been added: Deep Groove bearings which accommodate radial and axial loads, Angular Contact bearings for simultaneously handling radial and axial loads, Spherical Bearings which are self-aligning, and Thrust Bearings for high axial loads. Each of the four types of metric bearings are available in a range of sizes.

The advantages of ZrO2 ceramic balls are: FDA/USDA/3A Dairy/Caustic washdown compliant, lighter than steel balls, and can be used at extreme RPMs. They also withstand higher loads without spalling, have a lower coefficient of friction, are inert to chemicals, have no magnetic signature, and are non-conductive.

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DISPLAYS, TOUCH, EMBEDDED & SYSTEM SOLUTIONS

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Ad Index Accumold ............................................... 58 ACE Controls ..........................................26 Allied Electronics .................... Cov,3,120 Allied Moulded Products ...................54 AllMotion .................................................... 4 Altech Corporation ................................. 1 AS-Interface Organization North America ...................................23 Aurora Bearing Company .................55 Automation24, Inc. ................................. 9 AutomationDirect .................... Gatefold Bimba .......................................................... 5 Bodine Electric Company ................. 115 Canfield Connector .............................121 Carlo Gavazzi .........................................44 Central Semiconductor Corp. ..........57 CGI Motion ...............................................51 Chieftek Precison ................................... 6 Clippard .................................................. BC Components Corporation ............... 125 CS Hyde Company ................................21 Data Modul Inc. ....................................127 Del-tron ................................................... 88 Digi-key ................................................15,111 Dorner .......................................................92 Eagle Stainless Tube ..........................29 Elesa U.S.A. Corp ..................................22 Encoder Products Company ........... 99 EZAutomation ................................ Insert FAULHABER MICROMO .................... IBC Fixtureworks ............................................12 icotek Corp ..............................................55 IKO International ...................................53 John Evansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Sons, Inc. ...................... 89

SALES

Keller America ........................................37 Key Bellevilles ....................................... 56 Keystone Electronics Corp. ........ 17,123 KNF USA ..................................................47 Madison Co. ........................................... 90 Memory Protection Devices .............27 Moog Animatics ................................... 110 MW Industries Accurate Screw Machine ..............31 MW Industries - Atlantic Spring ..... 95 NBK America LLC ................................109 Neugart ................................................... 101 OKW ............................................................13 Oriental Motor .......................................42 PBC Linear ........................................24,25 Phoenix Contact ....................................18 PolySource ............................................ 118 Regent Controls ....................................16 ROLEC .......................................................19 Rotor Clip ............................................... 122 Ryco ......................................................... 49 Schneider Electric Motion USA ........91 Smalley Steel Ring ................................10 Smart Products USA ............................. 7 Sorbothane ............................................35 The Lee Company .............................. 56 Tormach .................................................. 119 Traco Power ...........................................45 Trim Lok ....................................................36 US Tsubaki ............................................ 105 Whittet-Higgins .....................................39 Xcentric Mold & Engineering ............93 Zero-Max, Inc. .......................................... 2

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Mike Caruso

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bcrowley@wtwhmedia.com 610.420.2433

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mfrancesconi@wtwhmedia.com Scott McCafferty smccafferty@wtwhmedia.com 630.488.9029 310.279.3844 @SMMcCafferty David Geltman dgeltman@wtwhmedia.com EVP 516.510.6514 Marshall Matheson @wtwh_david mmatheson@wtwhmedia.com 805.895.3609 Neel Gleason @mmatheson ngleason@wtwhmedia.com 312.882.9867 @wtwh_ngleason

Aerospace & Defense Supplement

October 2019

Design equipment faster, smarter, and under budget with TiPS from leading suppliers. | Adobe Stock

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Cadence Inc. ......................................................... 63 Equipto Electronics ............................................. 80 Fotofab .....................................................................67 J.W. Winco, Inc. ...................................................... 68 Renishaw ................................................................. 66 maxon ........................................................................75 MOOG, Inc. ................................................................ 71 MW Industries - Helical ....................................... 69 New England Wire Technologies & New England Tubing Technologies ..........79 The Lee Company ................................................62

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Expanding the universe of motion MICROMO is now FAULHABER MICROMO

WE CREATE MOTION

As a member of the FAULHABER Group since its inception, FAULHABER MICROMO’s long-standing partnership and coordination with FAULHABER Drive Systems is now amplified. Reorganized as a united, fully-integrated part of FAULHABER Drive Systems, FAULHABER MICROMO now has expanded design and engineering capabilities, providing improved customer support, faster lead times on products, and additional motion control expertise for OEMs in the North American market.

FAULHABER MICROMO · Clearwater, FL USA 800-807-9166 · www.faulhaberUSA.com

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Take Control with Cordis E L E C T R O N I C P R E S S U R E R E G U L AT I O N

• Resolution ≤5 mV • Accuracy ±0.25% of full scale • Real-time adjustable PID control • Integrated 0 to 10 VDC, 4-20 mA signal, or 3.3 VDC serial communication

The future of proportional control has arrived— and it’s digital. The Clippard Cordis is a revolutionary microcontroller primed for escape velocity from a proportional control market that has grown stagnant. With unparalleled performance and flexibility not possible with current analog proportional controllers, the Cordis makes everything from calibration, to sensor variety, to future development opportunities more accessible and less complicated.

• 0 to 10 VDC feedback pressure monitor • Virtually silent • No integral bleed required • Multiple pressure ranges from vacuum to 150 psig • 2.7 to 65 l/min flow control

Precise, Linear Digital Pressure Control Contact your distributor today to learn more about how the Cordis can provide precise, real-time control for your application, or visit clippard.com to request more information.

877-245-6247 CINCINNATI • BRUSSELS • SHANGHAI

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DESIGN WORLD OCTOBER 2019  

Parametric modeling: What have we learned in 30 years? Motion Control: Get the commutation right. Linear Motion: Actuators work reliably far...

DESIGN WORLD OCTOBER 2019  

Parametric modeling: What have we learned in 30 years? Motion Control: Get the commutation right. Linear Motion: Actuators work reliably far...

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