Page 1

www.designworldonline.com August 2015

INSIDE: DEAN KAMEN: on making the world a better place through engineering PAGE 80

LINEAR MOTION: Don’t rule out lead screws PAGE 62

How to keep machines and people safe APR15-A&C Snipe_Snipe 3/13/15 2:39 PM Page 1

DESIGN FOR INDUSTRY: How timing belt propels h hovercraft PAGE 26

l r o r fo nt d Co e i l & l A n k n tio i Th ma to u A 72

Cover_DW_August 2015_FINAL VERSION.indd 1

8/10/15 12:27 PM


New, lower prices on LED message displays! Now starting at:

$435.00

(MD4-0112T) 12 characters/1 line

Six models to choose from: NEW PRICES $435 $613 Unit shown

$916

$916 .00

(MD4-0412T) 12 characters/4 line

$599

Industrial LED message displays keep your plant personnel in the know

$929 $1,551

Our low-priced ViewMarq LED message boards can display preformatted and real-time factory floor data messages sent by a PLC, PC, or other master device. The text message displays can be controlled by: ®

• ASCII strings through the RS232 or RS485 port • Modbus RTU messsages through the RS232 or RS485 port • Modbus TCP messages through the Ethernet port

The Viewmarq line offers: • One-, two-, and four-line displays

Use the FREE Viewmarq configuration software (online download) to configure the display; create, preview and send messages from a PC; or create ASCII strings that can be transferred to PLC instructions to control the Viewmarq.

• Viewing distances up to 400 feet and 140 degree viewing angle • (1) RS232, (1) RS485 and (1) Ethernet port standard on all models

Wall mount brackets for easy mounting

Connect to PLCs or other compatible master devices

• NEMA 4 / NEMA 12 extruded aluminum housings suitable for harsh environments

C-more Micro touch panels

• Chain and wall/ceiling mount brackets included

Research, price, buy at: www.automationdirect.com/viewmarq

Order Today, Ships Today! * See our Web site for details and restrictions. © Copyright 2014 AutomationDirect, Cumming, GA USA. All rights reserved.

Automation Direct 8-15.indd 1

C-more touch panels

Also Available

1-800-633-0405

the #1 value in automation

8/4/15 2:09 PM


Altech 8-15 (new).indd 1

8/4/15 2:21 PM


# Zero-Max_full_pgs_r10_Design World 2/12/10 4:02 PM Page 1

Your ball screw Your servomotor Our coupling

Together a winning combination for today’s servomotor applications. Our ServoClass® couplings have been recently redesigned to enable your actuator to go even faster and achieve the positional accuracy that will take your designs to the next level. Our couplings will do all this with low bearing loads. 3 New sizes now available. Now, size, select and see the right ServoClass® coupling solution for your application with Zero-Max 3D CAD files. Check our FAST deliveries.

www.zero-max.com 800.533.1731 © 2010 ZERO-MAX

Zero Max ad 10-14.indd 2

8/4/15 2:22 PM


JUNE15 A&C Sensors Ad (DW)_Design World 5/12/15 11:47 AM Page 1

Au

Reliable detection for your application.

tom 1 st ati Cho on ice an in dC on tr

ol

High-quality sensors from a high-service distributor.

More Premium Brands. More Products in Stock. More Solutions for You. See it all at thinkallied.com/industrialautomation

1.800.433.5700 © Allied Electronics, Inc 2015. ‘Allied Electronics’ and the Allied Electronics logo are trademarks of Allied Electronics, Inc.

Allied Electrical 7-15_Reliable detection.indd 3

An Electrocomponents Company.

8/4/15 2:23 PM


Insights FIRST in person When I sat down with Dean Kamen last December in his office, he talked about how our society makes heroes out of sports stars and celebrities—and those are the people our kids (and disadvantaged children in particular) look up to. His vision in creating FIRST was to take the old science fair idea and make it more exciting, like a sporting event or a rock concert. Get engineering-type mentors for kids, to help them build things and learn the value of teamwork. Visiting the FIRST Robotics Championships in St. Louis is like spending a couple of days in Kamen’s long desired STEM-centered universe. What FIRST has created over a couple of decades is pretty amazing. Held slightly ironically in the Edward James Dome— home of the St. Louis Rams—it’s hard not to get more than a little excited as the announcer shouts “1...2...3...TESLA! Goooooooo!!!!” and thousands of kids are cheering wildly. It’s like a science fair gone wild, mixed with thousands of kids for whom geeky is cool—my kind of kids, for sure. Young women proudly wear Rosie the riveter shirts. Guys wander the concourse holding blow up aliens and displaying Terminator shirts. On the competition floor, I’m more impressed. They all speak so well and seem grown up beyond their years. Rick Schlack, who works for Southco in Concordville, Pa., was volunteering because his son, Trevor, was in the competition. He said the experience has helped push Trevor toward a technical field of study. “It’s helped—he’s going to be a physicist, and he knows he wants to go through a doctorate, so he sees what’s going on here, and it’s definitely solidified that,” Schlack said. Kobe Greer, a 9th grader from Toronto, said he’d learned a lot. “It’s a great learning experience, it’s a great community, everyone’s really friendly,” he said. “So many teams have told us what not to do and what to do—and the rules. Without [the other teams], we’d have probably gotten disqualified. Lots of people are helping us out because we’re rookies and they made this real easy. I love it. We’re going to come back next year, and we’re going to come back the following years after that.” Manny Carbajal, in his final year of college studying Innovation & Design Engineering at

4

Insights 8-15_Vs3.MD.indd 4

Universidad Panamericana, was volunteering for a Mexico City school. “I started when I was 13 years old ... it was great and I was inspired by everything my mentors did for me. When you see an adult, an engineer, an important person, it inspires you. My first mentor was a GM electrical engineer and he was inspiring for me because he was always there. Everything I needed, he would always help me,” he said. I found Luke Gries as his team from Hauppauge, N.Y., was readying to pack up. Gries, a junior in high school, got involved when a few of his friends joined the team his freshman year. “I came the first night and I remember seeing the rebound rumble robot—and I was blown away by how cool it was. They were shooting all the baskets and it just made me want to join and build stuff,” he said. “I want to be a mechanical engineer. This changed my life. From freshman year to where I am now, it set me on a career path and helped me so much—I can’t even express how much.” Kayleigh Head, a 10th grader from Houston, Texas, and her all-female team, Iron Plaid, stood out in their white tops and plaid skirts. Their energy was infectious. “I joined FIRST because of a summer program—I discovered programming and I discovered a whole new world,” Head said. “STEM opens your eyes so much to the world around you and how it works, and I think about things in a totally different way now. And I think that what makes FIRST so cool, is that it brings STEM to high school students and you can experience this great world … and it prepares you so well for when you leave school.” Head said she wants to study to be a computer scientist or an engineer. I asked her what she’d say to Kamen if she ran into him one day. “I would thank him so much for establishing this program, because it has changed my life so much, and I know it’s impacted so many other people,” she said. “This program is the best thing that I think has ever happened to me.” Read my latest Q&A with Dean from after the FIRST championships starting on page 80.

Has your company gotten involved in FIRST?

Pa ul J. Heney - Edi tor i al D i re ctor

Comment on Paul’s blog on Pneumatic Tips, www.pneumatictips.com/blog

pheney@wtwhme di a.com

DESIGN WORLD

August 2015

On Twitter @ DW—Editor

8/4/15 2:26 PM


How To Keep Your Electronics Cool When hot weather causes the electronics inside a control cabinet to fail, there is a panic to get the machinery up and running again. There are several cooling options out there and it’s important to know the facts.

line up of coolers that are prone to bad behavior $$$$$$ $$$$$ $$$$ $$$ $$ $ ¢

Opening the panel door and aiming a fan at the circuit boards is a bad idea. • It is an OSHA violation that presents a shock hazard to personnel • The fan blows hot, humid, dirty air at the electronics • The cooling effect is minimal • It is likely to fail again since the environment is still hot

These coolers are prone to failure in dirty, industrial environments when dust and dirt clogs the filter.

• It takes almost a day to install • Vibration from machinery causes refrigerant leaks and component failures • Compressor life expectancy is typically 2.5 years of continuous operation • It requires a floor drain for the condensation • Average cost to replace a bad compressor is $750

Reliable and maintenance

free!

These have serious limitations. On hot summer days when the temperatures of the room and inside of the enclosure are about equal, there’s not enough difference for exchange. • They fail when dust and dirt clogs the filter • The cooling capacity is limited due to ambient conditions

The “plastic box cooler” from a competitor uses an inaccurate mechanical thermostat that’s designed for liquids. This thermostat has a poor ability to react quickly to changes in air temperature. It costs up to 85% more to operate than EXAIR’s ETC Cabinet Cooler® System with the same SCFM rating and Btu/hr. output. • Electronics can overheat before it turns on • It runs far longer than necessary before shutting off • Increased cycle time wastes compressed air

EXAIR Cabinet Cooler ® Systems

EXAIR has a complete line of Cabinet Cooler Systems to dependably cool and purge your electrical enclosures. They convert an ordinary supply of compressed air into clean, cold 20ºF air. They mount in minutes through an ordinary electrical knockout and have no moving parts to wear out. The compressed air filtration that is provided keeps water, oil and other contaminants out of the enclosure.

H C T A W ! EO D VI THE

44 05 8a.htm w w w.exair.com /5 8/ If you would like to discuss an application, contact an Application Engineer at:

Exair 8-15.indd 5

• There is no room air filter to clog • An accurate electrical thermostat control minimizes compressed air use • All Cabinet Coolers are UL Listed to US and Canadian safety standards • They are the only compressed air powered coolers that are CE compliant

www.exair.com/58/440a.htm

Manufacturing Intelligent Compressed Air® Products Since 1983

11510 Goldcoast Drive • Cincinnati, Ohio • 45249-1621 (800) 903-9247 • fax: (513) 671-3363 E-mail: techelp@exair.com • www.exair.com

MADE IN USA

@EXAIR

8/4/15 2:24 PM


Te s c h l e r o n To p i c

Zinger: Many energy efficiency measures aren’t economical There’s been a lot of bile spilled in the

The economists found that money spent on these measures did, indeed, reduce energy consumption. Problem was, investments in energy efficient technologies didn’t pay for themselves. In economic terms, the investments “have negative annual returns both privately and socially (meaning, when the monetized value of the green house gas savings are included),” wrote the economists. Perhaps even more disappointing, the recipients of WAP money didn’t seem to live more comfortably. The households increased their indoor temperatures by less than a single degree on average during the winter months. These revelations are not good news for those who sell pricey windows and weatherization measures. Predictably, they haven’t taken this news well. Some of the comments online come across as though the economists had claimed Santa Claus was really a vampire. Not surprisingly, internet kibitzers have suggested the study authors had a conservative political agenda. That’s an interesting claim; one of the authors is a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, sometimes described in the media as a liberal-centrist think tank. And UC Berkeley, from which two of the authors hail, is not exactly a bastion of conservative thinking. Other pundants in the green building space claim the study was too small. One I read was indignant that the researchers studied “only” a little over 600 households. In the spirit of generating more heat than light, it never

blogosphere recently about a group of economists at the University of California Berkeley and the University of Chicago. The researchers studied Michigan households participating in a Dept. of Energy effort called WAP (Federal Weatherization Assistance Program). WAP gives out grants that let low-income families install energy efficient furnaces, windows, insulation and other measures aimed at cutting expenses for heating, cooling and electricity.

seemed to have occurred to the writer that 600 might be a statistically significant number, given what the economists were trying to discern. But once you get past the invective and name calling, there are interesting truths illuminated by all the back-and-forth that’s spilling out online. One is that the engineering models contractors use to predict the pay-back of their energy efficiency solutions aren’t particularly accurate. On this score, here is a typical comment: “The NEAT (National Energy Audit Tool) used by the programs they (the researchers) studied regularly under-estimates the efficiency of existing heating equipment. … In the original paper, they estimate that the error in the NEAT tool to be about 25% (sic), since it was predicting heating energy use that was 25% higher than actually measured in those homes.” Consumers should be troubled that NEAT and similar programs are spewing overly rosy predictions; their models are key selling tools of contractors who peddle weatherization services. Worse, contractors have an incentive to shade the results of these energy audits toward fixes that entail spending significant sums of money. In contrast, the lesson from the economists is to stick with improvements that don’t cost much. One commentor may have summed it up best: “The study mirrors my personal experience. … Two years ago, I hired a contractor to nail down every board, caulk every gap, apply three coats of paint and blow insulation in the attic. … This improvement reduced my electricity usage by a third … a third! … Overall, … the biggest savings and the most cost-effective savings have come from paint, caulk, insulation and LED lightbulbs.” DW

Le la n d Te sc h le r - Exec u t i ve Edi to r ltesc h ler@wtwh m edi a .co m

On Twitter @ DW—LeeTeschler 6

DESIGN WORLD

Lee Teschler Column 8-15_Vs2.MD.indd 6

August 2015

8/4/15 2:25 PM


Helical 8-15.indd 7

8/4/15 2:27 PM


Follow the whole team on twitter @DesignWorld We don’t just sell the high end materials your company needs, we cut to order, so you are never stuck with wasted material again Cut to Width Roll Slitting Custom Lamination Custom Sheeting Custom Belting Custom Shape Die Cutting

With a comprehensive selection of specialized materials such as Teflon®, Kapton®, Silicone, PEEK, Kevlar®, FEP, and PTFE coated fabrics, if your application demands performance, we can provide a solution.

EDITORIAL

GRAPHICS

Editorial Director Paul J. Heney pheney@wtwhmedia.com @dw_editor

Director, Creative Services Mark Rook mrook@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_graphics

Managing Editor Leslie Langnau llangnau@wtwhmedia.com @dw_3DPrinting

Visual Design Manager Matthew Claney mclaney@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_designer

Executive Editor Leland Teschler lteschler@wtwhmedia.com @dw_LeeTeschler

Graphic Designer/Production Coordinator Margaret Schneider mschneider@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_Meg

Senior Editor Miles Budimir mbudimir@wtwhmedia.com @dw_Motion Senior Editor Mary Gannon mgannon@wtwhmedia.com @dw_marygannon Senior Editor Lisa Eitel leitel@wtwhmedia.com @dw_LisaEitel Associate Editor Mike Santora msantora@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_Michael Assistant Editor Michelle DiFrangia mdifrangia@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_Michelle

2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

Traffic Manager Mary Heideloff mheideloff@wtwhmedia.com Graphic Design Intern Erin Cawthorne ecawthorne@wtwhmedia.com

NEW MEDIA/WEB/ BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT Web Development Manager B. David Miyares dmiyares@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_webdave Web Development Specialist Patrick Amigo pamigo@wtwhmedia.com @amigo_patrick Video Manager John Hansel jhansel@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_jhansel

Business Development Manager Patrick Curran pcurran@wtwhmedia.com @wtwhseopatrick Online Coordinator Jennifer Calhoon jcalhoon@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_jennifer MARKETING Marketing Team Leader Stacy Combest scombest@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_Stacy Marketing Coordinator Carli Evilsizer cevilsizer@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_Carli Marketing and Events Coordinator Nicole Loepp nloepp@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_Nicole Marketing and Events Coordinator Jen Kolasky jkolasky@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_jen Content Associate Lexi Korsok lkorsok@wtwhmedia.com @medtech_lexi

Director, Audience Development Bruce Sprague bsprague@wtwhmedia.com

Video Coordinator Joshua Jones jjones@wtwhmedia.com @wtwh_josh Video Intern Neil Golias ngolias@wtwhmedia.com

Crain’s Cleveland Business Fast 50 2014

2014 Winner

WTWH Media, LLC 6555 Carnegie Ave., Suite 300, Cleveland, OH 44103 Ph: 888.543.2447 • FAX: 888.543.2447

WORLD A DESIGN WORLD RESOURCE

800 461 4161 Staff page 8-15_Vs1.indd 8

8

DESIGN WORLD

August 2015

8/4/15 3:43 PM


Graybar 7-15.indd 9

8/6/15 11:23 AM


HOW DO I KNOW IF I’M TALKING TO AN ENGINEER OR A SALESMAN? Ask Smalley. We have nothing against sales people. But when it comes to differentiating Inconel from Elgiloy or overcoming dimensional variations within a complex assembly, wouldn’t you rather work with an engineer? Our customers would. That’s why they collaborate directly with our world-class team of Smalley engineers—experienced professionals whose only focus is helping you specify or design the ideal wave spring, Spirolox® retaining ring or constant section ring for your precision application.

Smalley wave springs reduce spring operating height by 50%, saving space and weight, fitting tight radial and axial spaces. We offer more than 4,000 stock sizes in carbon and stainless steel.

Visit smalley.com for your no-charge test samples.

THE ENGINEER’S CHOICE™

38139_Smalley_BrandAd_DesignWorld.indd 1 Smalley 7-15_NEW AD.indd 10

6/11/15 9:51 PM AM 8/4/15 2:28


l Contributors Spotlight Take care of your machines and people with safety switches

ANDREW WAUGH Product Manager for Sensors and Safety AutomationDirect

72

ROBERT LIPSETT

62

Don’t rule out leadscrews From a young age, Lipsett has been interested in understanding how things worked, an interest that was fostered by his parents and resulted in him taking apart anything on which I could find a fastener or means to disassemble. “Most items went back together,” he quipped. An alumnus of UC San Diego (bachelor of science) and the University of Southern California (masters), Lipsett said he finds computers one of the most frustrating technologies, due to the short life span of hardware driven software. “As an ME, my passion is designing hardware that is robust and performs the required task in excess of the required life.” Lipsett, who has been in the linear motion industry for 20 years and holds multiple patents, including one for the new Glide Screw, said he often finds junior engineers excelling at analysis and modeling, but sometimes lack experience in manufacturing processes and an understanding of traditional design solutions. “This can result in out of the box thinking leading to breakthroughs,” he said, “but often junior engineers struggle to reinvent the wheel.”

Waugh, who holds a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Penn State, could not live without his TV streaming box and digital antenna. “Being a recent ‘cable cutter,’ my family has access to more HDTV than before and at a quarter of the cost. Shout-out to Roku, Tablo, Netflix, SlingTV and MLBTV!” Waugh has a lot of school pride, calling the engineering program “superior,” but wishes Penn State had put a larger emphasis on the importance of communication. “The ability to explain and share ideas, concerns and concepts is imperative in all business, including engineering and manufacturing,” he said. As someone who has 15 years of experience working with position and process sensors, Waugh would like to see the continuing evolution of smart manufacturing. “Smart homes with refrigerators that order food themselves and thermostats that learn trends and self-adjust—these products will become the norm for new machines and facilities in manufacturing,” he said. “Then there’s talk of Industry 4.0 where your sensors provide selfdiagnostics and tell the ERP to order replacements; motors communicate and schedule maintenance needs. Industrial Control Self Awareness? It is exciting, yet scary—Skynet!” Every job, every project, every day is a learning

my experience. You are either learning what works, advice or what doesn’t work. Both provide an opportunity for you to grow if you pay attention.

Site Leader and Engineering Manager Thompson Industries

When Lipsett’s had a stressful work week, he enjoys

fun fact getting away to the mountains to go skiing, biking and swimming.

Programmable Encoders: The Next Generation

JARROD ORSZULAK Product Manager Posital Fraba

56

At POSITAL, Orszulak coordinates an international team that develops custom products. He is especially enthusiastic about extending the uses for industrial motion and position sensors into new areas such as alternative energy and medical devices. “Ever since I was introduced to the field of Human Factors I have found it fascinating,” he said. “Understanding how people interact and understand technology is critical if it is to improve their lives.” He cites “lost knowledge” as one of the big issues engineers face today. “Whether it is baby boomer peers retiring or millennials jumping from one job to the next, with each individual turnover, knowledge is lost,” he explained. “Furthermore, CRM and advanced documenting tools can’t replace the wisdom and relationships previous employees had with other peers, customers and suppliers.” Speaking of baby boomers, Lipsett said advances in engineering will have an effect on them the most. “Smart homes will monitor medication, while Skype and Facetime will provide social interaction with family and friends,” he elaborated. “… Physicians will have a better understanding of a patient’s health and be able to intervene earlier. This all adds up to boomers living in their homes longer with a higher quality of life.” Lipsett and his wife love the great outdoors, where they can often be found

fun fact kayaking or hiking. “As prevalent as technology is, it is important to have some time off the grid,” he said.   

Contributor Page 8-15_Vs2.MD.indd 11

  

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

July 2015

DESIGN WORLD

11 11

8/6/15 4:39 PM


HMI + PLC in One The Most Efficient Automation Solution By combining PLC and HMI functions in one, the FT1A Touch makes it faster and easier to build smart machines. This integration reduces initial design and maintenance costs by eliminating extra components and duplicate programming. Just one HMI+PLC unit optimizes efficiency and productivity by providing the complete functionality of a separate PLC and HMI system. For more details and to read our Tech Note, visit www.IDEC.com/Touch

Embedded USB Mini-B Port

USB-A Port For data logging, recipe data and performing program updates

Analog Expansion Cartridges Add up to two analog expansion cartridges for an additional four analog I/O

RS232C and RS485 ports • Serial and PLC communication • Driver to communicate with other PLCs

Relay or Transistor Outputs 10A contact relay output, 300mA per channel transistor output

Analog Outputs Two 0-10V DC/4-20mA analog outputs

Digital, Analog and High-speed Inputs • Eight built-in digital inputs of which two can be configured as 0-10VDC/4-20mA analog inputs • 4 high-speed inputs (up to 10kHz)

800.262.4332

IDEC spread 7-15.indd 12

RJ45 Ethernet Port • Supports remote Ethernet communication and Modbus TCP • Driver to communicate with other PLCs

8/4/15 2:30 PM


Smart Products... Simple Solutions

3 Bezel Colors • Silver • Light gray • Dark gray

Screens • STN monochrome (740cd/m2) • 65K TFT color (400cd/m2)

Extreme Operating Temperature -20° C to 55° C

Flexible and Stress-free Programming • 5MB screen-editing memory • Over 7,000 symbol factory images

High Environmental & Safety Ratings • IP66f (water and oil tight) • NEMA 4X (indoor) and 13 • Class I, Division 2 for hazardous locations

www.IDEC.com/usa

IDEC spread 7-15.indd 13

8/4/15 2:30 PM


Co nten t s |

August 2015 • vol 10 no 8

|

designworldonline.com

F E AT U R E S CONTROL 56 MOTION Programmable encoders: The Next Generation The latest programmable encoders offer both incremental and absolute functionality on one hardware platform and can be programmed with a WiFi connection.

80

DEAN KAMEN Dean Kamen on making the world a better place through engineering What makes a true engineering leader?

62 LINEAR MOTION

Don’t rule out lead screws

A Supplement to Design World

Here we explain where lead screws excel in linear-motion applications. Then we explain

August 2015

A supplement of Design World • August 2015

Inside: 92

Expert viewpoint: How additive technology will affect

how to apply them.

manufacturing 96

Paper based 3D printing

72 Take care of your machines MECHATRONICS

Additively manufacturing a cranial implant

Design mission ready

reduces surgical time

devices and equipment faster, smarter, and under budget with TiPS

100

from leading suppliers

Aerospace cover 2015_main issue_FINAL.indd 105

PAGES 88 -103

and people with safety switches

8/5/15 2:08 PM

PAGES 105 -123

Operator safety is a top priority for machine and robot installations, and safety switches help to implement the desired level of protection.

ON THE COVER Safety switches are not just designed to protect operators, but machines as well. Photo: courtesy of AutomationDirect.

14

DESIGN WORLD

CONTENTS AUGUST 2015_first page_Vs4.LL.MD(1).indd 14

2014

2014

3

2014

3

3

8/7/15 9:34 AM


ODU-USA 8-15 (new).indd 15

8/5/15 4:07 PM


8. 20 1 5

Con te n ts

48

D E PA R T M E N T S 4 Insights 6 Teschler on Topic 11 Contributors 18 Green Engineering

34

22 Engineering Exchange 26 Design For Industry

42

34 Design Notes 42 CAE Solutions 48 Internet of Things 126 Product World

PiMotion

128 Ad Index

®

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

BLDC, Stepper & Voice Coil Controller & Driver Linear Driver for Low Electrical Noise Dependable 100base-T Network Interface Multi Unit Synchronization over LAN Network Cross-Platform Support - LINUX, WIN, MAC Mobile Device Support - iOS & Android Multi Language Support - C/C++, Python, Java Secure Communication Enabled - AES 256

26

May issue Market Trend article correction Note that IndraDrive Mi electric drives are from Bosch Rexroth, and they integrate into machines to let designers build compact designs. The decentralized supply and mains modules also let machine builders integrate all drive components directly into the machine without a control cabinet.   — Ed.

www.vena.com

16

Contents AUGUST_second page_Vs1.indd 16

DESIGN WORLD

August 2015

8/6/15 4:16 PM


FOR MOTION CONTROL INNOVATION, SOLUTION CITY NEVER SLEEPS.

Whatever keeps you up at night, we’ve got a solution—the largest selection of motors, pumps and air-moving devices available. Plus, one-of-a-kind solutions ready to be custom-engineered for your precision industrial, commercial, combustion or transportation application. If you can dream it, you’ll find it at Solution City.

100 East Erie Street Kent, OH 44240 ametekdfs.com

© 2015 by AMETEK Inc. All rights reserved.

AMETEKPMC Never Sleeps Ad_9x10.875.indd 1 AMETEK PMC 18611_City (Solutions City) 8-15 (NEW).indd 17

7/29/15 9:14 PM AM 8/4/15 2:32


» Gree n E n g i n e e ri n g

Reducing food processing plant’s energy costs Food processors in the U.S. face an unprecedented competitive environment and must look for ways to be profitable without negatively affecting the quality of finished products. The challenge of maintaining high product quality while simultaneously reducing production costs can often be met through investments in energy efficiency, which may include the purchase of energy-efficient technologies like high-efficiency motor systems. According to the Department of Energy (DOE), electric motor-driven systems are estimated to consume more than half of all electricity in the U.S. and more than 70% of all electricity in food and beverage manufacturing applications. These processing plants are large users of energy for refrigeration, cooking, heating, boilers and steam generation, sterilizing, conveyors and auxiliary equipment. However, because energy is typically viewed as peripheral to the business of production, efficiency projects have an uphill fight for capital and attention. Even if organizations adopt a more holistic approach to energy, managers and engineers often don’t have the time to analyze payback from various projects and prioritize them. But this should be one of the first places to look for reducing costs and improving productivity and profits. The typical industrial plant in the U.S. can reduce its electricity use by around 5 to 15% by improving the efficiency of its motor-driven systems. Process manufacturing has the highest absolute consumption of electricity, 419,587 GWh/year, and motor systems account for 71% of this total. A significant challenge in promoting high-efficiency motors is that motor buyers often misunderstand where the costs of motor ownership lie, and therefore do not account for these costs accurately. The greatest cost of motor ownership is that of operating the motor, which represents 97 to 98% of lifetime costs. Initial purchase price represents only an estimated 2 to 3%. Electric motors used in production facilities with conveyors are almost always on, driving the energy bill higher. But what if there was a way to reduce energy consumption and costs while increasing the efficiency level? There is—through the use of high-efficient motors. Energy efficient motors make economic sense: In an industrial application operating 4,000 hours/year, energyefficient motors earn back their initial cost in two years.

18

DESIGN WORLD

Green Engineering_8-15_Vs2.MD.indd 18

August 2015

8/4/15 4:03 PM


WHEN SPEED MATTERS THE MOST. And Affordability More than 1,000 motion solutions to choose from, most with same-day shipping option. Design your own, today!

• Brushed and Brushless DC motors • Planetary and Worm gearboxes options • Integral All-in-One BLDC • Diameter from 30 to 75mm • Power from 10 to 450 Watts • Motor stall torque up to 400Ncm (580 oz.in) • Gearbox output torque up to 160Nm (120 ft.lb) • Nema 17, 23, 34 flange options

dunkermotor.com/express

Dedicated to differentiating our customers’ products Dunkermotor is a leading manufacturer of customized rotary and linear motion solutions providing low-risk product development, lower total system cost and faster time to market for original equipment manufacturers in the automation, medical, solar, packaging, semiconductor and transportation industry segments.

Dunkermotor 8-15.indd 19

1500 Bishop Ct - Mt Prospect, IL 60056 Call: 773-289-5555 www.dunkermotor.com info@dunkermotor.com

8/4/15 2:33 PM


» Gre e n En gine e ri ng

Many state organizations and energy companies have created monetary rebate programs available to qualifying businesses. For example, the Wisconsin Food Processing Plant and Food Warehouse Investment Credit is a refundable tax credit for businesses that have invested to modernize or expand food processing plants or food warehouses in Wisconsin and who have been certified by the Wisconsin Department of Commerce. Tax credits are earned by incurring eligible expenses for modernization or expansion of a food processing plant or food warehouse. This includes constructing, improving or acquiring buildings or facilities, or acquiring equipment for food processing or food warehousing. Wisconsin also has the Meat Processing Facility Investment Credit program to support the modernization of the state’s meat processing industry. The tax credits build on the success of the state’s dairy modernization and investment tax programs. The program provides a tax credit for up to 10% of the expenditures meat processors invest in modernization or expansion. Eligible costs include construction, additions, utility upgrades, equipment, technology and other upgrades. In southern Indiana, Dubois REC and other local rural electric cooperatives, in a partnership with Hoosier Energy, have created a monetary rebate program for energy efficient upgrades. Local electric cooperatives have been offering rebates on energy efficiency upgrades through Hoosier Energy since 2009. DW Submitted by Cheryl Higgins, product marketing manager, LEESON Electric, www.leeson.com.

20

Green Engineering_8-15_Vs2.MD.indd 20

DESIGN WORLD

August 2015

8/4/15 4:04 PM


Your Catalyst to Innovative Motion Control Solutions A single resource for integrated mechanical, electronics, drives and software, with experienced customer support for the development of simple-to-sophisticated automation systems.

C

M

Y

CM

MY

CY

CMY

K

At Catalyst Motion Group, we are able to configure motion systems by utilizing our own component level supply. What this means for our clients is full accountability for customized solutions while realizing the improved efficiencies of a reduced supplier count and receiving fully tested and delivered solutions. We can provide you with the ultimate solution for almost any application, while managing scheduling demands, technical requirements and financial considerations. We are able to accomplish this through coordinated utilization of our extensive engineering resources and vertically integrated manufacturing resources. We put it all together – customized motion systems that include stepper motors, brush and brushless DC motors, linear mechanics, drives, electronics and an extensive array of peripheral system components. Our considerable and wide-ranging in-house manufacturing capabilities allow us full control of the entire process, from development of prototypes to delivery of fully tested production units. And, with our engineering capability, if we don't have it ...we can develop it! We have successfully developed and taken to production fully customized motion solutions for a wide variety of advanced technologies including: • Medical devices for diagnostics, surgical procedures, therapeutics and pharmaceuticals • Laboratory and analytical instrumentation and equipment • Industrial automation including robotics and production line processing operations MOTION GROUP We are innovative, flexible and most importantly a secure, reliable, and knowledgeable resource ready to respond to your most challenging motion control needs.

CATALYST

www.catalystmotiongroup.com Call 1 203 725 3852

AMETEK Catalyst 8-15 (New).indd 21

1500 Meriden Road • Waterbury, CT 06705 U.S.A.

8/4/15 2:34 PM


CONNECT

with Design World DIGITAL ISSUE Visit designworlddigital.com for our latest issue!

YOUTUBE

FACEBOOK

www.designworldonline.com August 2015

INSIDE: DEAN KAMEN: on making the world a better place through engineering PAGE 80

LINEAR MOTION: Don’t rule out lead screws PAGE 62

The concepts of inertia and momentum are often confused—possibly due to the similarity of their definitions. Inertia is generally described as an object’s resistance to motion, with momentum being the tendency of an object to continue moving. Both have implications for linear motion applications, but while inertia is a fundamental sizing parameter, momentum isn’t directly addressed in system calculations. To distinguish between the two and find out why that is, we’ll look at the definitions and uses of each. Posted by Danielle Collins, Contributing Editor

http://dwo.me/1O6COXZ

FOLLOW US

What is open architecture? Senior Motion Control Editor Miles Budimir discusses the variety of motion control networks such as Ethernet/IP and Sercos as well as design considerations such as scan or update rates.

http://dwo.me/1O6EKQd

ENGINEERING EXCHANGE The basics on mil spec connectors from ODU

http://dwo.me/1O6D74Y

Does the hydraulic industry need to consider the preservation of laminar flow? Laminar flow describes the ease of flow, and it describes how the desire of a fluid to travel is parallel straight lines, whenever possible.

Engineering Exchange 8-15_Vs1.indd 22

Find meaningful links and tweet along with us @DesignWorld.

Check the boards and see whats being pinned up at pinterest.com/ engineeringex.

Grow your network. Join the Design World group on LinkedIn.

GOOGLE+

http://dwo.me/1O6EUY0

Where is hydraulic bar stock used (besides in cylinder piston rods, of course)? DESIGN WORLD

Over 13,000 members - global educational engineering community - join today. engineeringexchange.com.

Connect with 339,805 engineers at facebook.com/ DesignWorldNetwork.

http://dwo.me/1O6DAnV

22

r ol fo tr ed Con Alli & k n in atio om

72

Th

Aut

What's the difference between inertia and momentum?

TWITTER

How to keep machines and people safe APR15-A&C Snipe_Snipe 3/13/15 2:39 PM Page 1

DESIGN FOR INDUSTRY: How timing belt propels h overcraft PAGE 26

Hot products and topics are streaming at youtube.com/DesignWorldVideo.

Hang out and track what's new at plus.google.com/ +DesignWorldOnline.

See shared slides at slideshare.net/ DesignWorldOnline.

8/7/15 9:49 AM


What’s 15 years to one of our blowers? A warm-up. Nothing moves air with more rock-solid reliability than AMETEK® Rotron regenerative blowers. Fifteen years’ service life is not unusual. These low-pressure, high-volume blowers feature rugged, compact construction and quiet operation. Their proven design makes them ideal in applications from chemicals, wastewater and furnaces to vapor recovery and more. Plus, they’re backed by the industry’s most knowledgeable engineering experts. AMETEK can customize your blower for harsh environments, high voltage and specialized applications, too. So make your next air-moving challenge a breeze. Call us at +1 330-673-3452 or visit our website to get started.

100 East Erie Street Kent, OH 44240 ametekdfs.com

© 2015 by AMETEK Inc. All rights reserved.

AMETEKDFS Regen Blower Ad_9x10.875.indd 1 AMETEK 6-15 (NEW AD).indd 23

6/1/15 5:03 PM 8/4/15 2:35 PM


Austin 2

0

1

5

NI Week Recap Lee Teschler A bicycle built for none A lot of interesting technology comes out of universities. In that regard, consider the driverless bicycle on display in the NI Week exhibit area. It was created by students at Tsinghua University in China and was partly sponsored by Baidu, the Chinese search engine. Ph.D. student Sotiris Stasinopoulos did much of the work on the sensors, the path planning, obstacle detection and path optimization. He explained that a remote operator steers the bicycle using a remote control as might be used for an ordinary radio controlled plane. A GPS sensor and gyroscope reside in the rear of the bike, rather than near the center of gravity, as is normally the case for systems that balance mechanical structures. The reason is that a gyroscope sitting near the bike center doesn’t generate enough of a torque signal to stabilize the bike. The rearmounted gyro mainly senses the roll angle as the bike moves. A maxon motor moves the front fork through a 9:1 gearbox to keep the bike upright. The bike contains two other motors, one for locomotion, the other for braking. Sotiris said it took students about seven months to perfect the stabilization algorithm.

Paul J. Heney This year’s NI Week continued to impress upon attendees that the Internet of Things (IoT) is coming—like a wave, like the Borg—and resistance is futile. Engineers need to over-design their products for future flexibility and realize that there is a “Cambrian explosion of data” coming (as Eric Starkloff, EVP of global sales and marketing put it so well). That means not just more data, but more diversity in the types of data that we will have to deal with. The IoT is also helping to create technology in things like software and sensors, and the varied applications on hand here in Austin certainly proved that. Engineers were treated to realworld uses of NI products in airplane testing, remote surgery, agricultural equipment, wearable technology, smart bracelets, GoPro cameras, the electrical grid, driverless cars, next generation wheelchairs, and a lot more. The interconnected world is here, and it’s only getting more exciting.

24

DESIGN WORLD

NI Week 8-15_Vs3.LL.MD.indd 24

August 2015

www.designworldonline.com

8/7/15 10:14 AM


Lisa Eitel The 2015 NI Week showcases hundreds of cutting-edge applications—5G networks, data super-positioned over live streams of real-world devices, smart-grid integration— and the daily keynotes continue to wow attendees. Behind these flashy scenes are also dozens of intensive training sessions for those just beginning to use NI software and hardware, as well as certification tracks for power users looking to further their LabVIEW programming and other design skills. According to NI, the sessions can help attendees cut coding time in half and spend 43% less time on code maintenance. NI Week also serves as a meeting for academics to share their latest research findings and discuss the future of engineering. One unifying theme is how participating students and professors from around the world use LabVIEW in their work, including everything from simulated veterinary biomechanics to complex control of robotic semiconductor machinery. One presentation particularly exciting for the motion-design world was from Daniel Mohsenizadeh, researcher at Center for Bioinformatics and Genomic Systems Engineering (CBGSE), Texas A&M University. In the presentation, Mohsenizadeh and others describe a new way to design PID controllers for linear controls based on frequency-response measurements. The technique requires no transfer function or state-space model, and can handle the design process directly from frequencydomain data. Attendees got to see how to use it for real-world applications and see the experimental PID controller work a servomechanism with NI and Quanser components.

Steve Meyers Firefly Equipment takes the world of agricultural machinery and makes it super high tech with the new ProSlab Harvester. It automatically cuts, removes and stacks pads of sod grass on wood pallets with incredible precision. The machine combines five axes of electric servo drives with multiple axes of hydraulic actuation, touch screen HMI and multiple networks to produce a smooth running system for growers that need to bring grass turf to the marketplace. The main controller is National Instruments Compact Rio with multiple networks to synchronize all the internal controls. In addition, it connects all the machine systems with remote cellular access, producing full monitoring and diagnostics.

  

NI Week 8-15_Vs3.LL.MD.indd 25

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

25

8/6/15 12:48 PM


military/aerospace

1

0

» Design for Industry

medical

Polycarbonate safety Several years ago, engineers were disuaded from using bisphenol A (BPA) as a material choice in many applications where people might use a product made from it. Here’s an argument for revisiting the use of this material.

The human body can survive for weeks without food. Without water, it’s only days. As such, access to clean, safe drinking water is absolutely vital. Perhaps at no time is this more evident than in the aftermath of natural disasters like floods, hurricanes and earthquakes. Disease can spread rapidly and people can quickly become dehydrated when the clean water infrastructure has been compromised or destroyed. In such situations, bottled water can mean the difference between life and death. Customers of 3- and 5-gal water bottles for home, office and retail delivery require a plastic that can meet market demand for sturdy, yet lightweight bottles that can be recycled. Bayer MaterialScience, a global polycarbonate supplier, offers a polycarbonate formulated to provide good flow, exemplary dimensional stability, high mechanical and impact strength, and excellent light transmission and transparency. Polycarbonate 3- and 5-gal water bottles can be washed and reused more than 50 times, one of the longest service lives of any water bottle in the field. Most importantly, the bottles, like all bottled water containers, are also sustainable. At the end of its life cycle, the polycarbonate can be recycled into near-virgin resin for second-life use in a variety of applications. Safe, reliable and rugged, polycarbonate is a proven packaging material. Still, one of its chief chemical building blocks, also known as a monomer, is BPA, and it is frequently misunderstood. The emotional controversy surrounding this monomer often means that reasonable, science-based questions that may be asked about any complex subject can quickly turn confusing. With that in mind, Bayer MaterialScience and the International Bottled Water Association (IBWA) have teamed up to encourage a fact-focused conversation about polycarbonate.

What is BPA? It is a chemical building block used primarily to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate has been the material of choice for food and beverage product containers for nearly 60 years because it is lightweight, highly shatter-resistant and transparent. It is widely used in various food containers and many other everyday items, such 26

DESIGN WORLD

DFI 8-15_Vs6.LL.MD.indd 26

August 2015

www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 9:12 AM


POWER TRANSMISSION

Âť Design for Industry

RETAINING DEVICES &

as eyeglasses and compact discs. For example, many bottled water companies use polycarbonate plastic for their 3- and 5-gal water cooler bottles. Because of less stringent toughness requirements in singleserve water bottle containers, polycarbonate is not used there. Science and experts agree: BPA is safe for its intended uses. Key government bodies around the world have issued favorable opinions on the safety of this monomer. The consensus among these international regulatory agencies, which include the U.S. FDA, Health Canada, the Japanese National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, World Health Organization/FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), and the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA), is that BPA is safe when used as intended. Many international studies have been conducted to assess the potential for trace levels of monomer to migrate from lined cans or polycarbonate bottles into foods or beverages. The conclusions from those studies and comprehensive safety evaluations by government bodies worldwide are that polycarbonate plastic water bottles are safe for consumer use. On Jan. 21, 2015, EFSA announced the findings of a comprehensive re-evaluation of BPA exposure and toxicity, concluding that dietary exposure to BPA poses no health concern to consumers of any age group, including unborn children, infants and adolescents. In addition, EFSA noted that exposure to BPA from the diet or from a combination of sources (such as diet, dust, cosmetics and thermal paper) is below the safe tolerable daily intake (TDI) level. On Jan. 6, 2015, the U.S. FDA updated its “Bisphenol A (BPA): Use in Food Contact Application� page on its website. The update references the newest FDA safety assessment of BPA for use in food contact applications conducted in 2014. The webpage states that, “FDA’s current perspective, based on its most recent safety assessment, is that BPA is safe at the current levels occurring in foods. Based on FDA’s ongoing safety review of scientific evidence, the available information continues to support the safety of BPA for the currently approved uses in food containers and packaging.� The fact is that international, independent and objective scientific research has repeatedly shown BPA, when used as a monomer for plastics in food contact applications, to be safe. The Bayer polycarbonate, Makrolon WB1239, used in water bottle applications, is approved by the U.S. FDA for use in water bottles, as well as other food contact applications. A variety of other grades of polycarbonate can be used in food-contact applications as well. DW

DFI 8-15_Vs6.LL.MD.indd 27

BEARLOK

SHOELOK

BEARLOK Shrink Disc

BEARHUG

CLAMPNUT

TANGENTLOK

PRECISION NUTS & WASHERS

INCH and METRIC THREADS LEFT HANDED as well as RIGHT -HANDED

ADAPTER SLEEVE ASSEMBLIES

Materials of: CARBON, ALLOY and HARDENED ALLOY STEELS Materials of: ALLUMINUM and CORROSION RESISTANT STEEL NUTS & WASHERS

HARDENED TONGUE WASHERS

SPLIT COLLAR

RETHREADING DIES

ADJUSTABLE SPANNER WRENCH

BEARING ASSEMBLY SOCKET

W

HI

TT

ET

-H

IG

GI

NS US

A

WHITTET-HIGGINS manufactures quality oriented, stocks abundantly and delivers quickly the best quality and largest array of adjustable, heavy thrust bearing, and torque load carrying retaining devices for bearing, power transmission and other industrial assemblies; and specialized tools for their careful assembly. Visit our website–whittet-higgins.com–to peruse the many possibilities to improve your assemblies. Much technical detail delineated as well as 2D and 3D CAD models for engineering assistance. Call your local                  or a good distributor.

Bayer Material Science materialscience.bayer

August 2015

maintenance & assembly tools

DESIGN WORLD

 

27

33 Higginson Avenue, Central Falls, Rhode Island 02863 Telephone: (401) 728-0700 • FAX: (401) 728-0703 E-mail: info@whittet-higgins.com Web: www.whittet-higgins.com

8/5/15 9:13 AM


2

0

material handling

» Design for Industry

Motors improve belted conveyor efficiency Whether a conveyor moves small or large parts, efficient and quiet operation are frequent requirements. For small part material handling applications, the 1100 Series conveyor platform now comes with upgraded fixed speed motors that are 50% quieter than the previous version, and still rated P114 8.5 x 4.75 HORIZONTAL TL ad.pdf

1

4/18/14

8:00 AM

®

C

M

Y

CM

MY

CY

CMY

K

P114

1-800-933-4915 • www.trimlok.com 28

DESIGN WORLD

DFI 8-15_Vs6.LL.MD.indd 28

August 2015

www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 9:44 AM


material handling

for 10,000 hours of operation. The motor is dimensionally identical to the pervious versions. The 1100 Series conveyor has a frame height of ¾ in. This low profile enables the conveyor to fit into tight spaces. It is suitable for applications requiring lightweight or small product movement and is Clean Room Class 100 Certified. The belt conveyor has a 5⁄8-in. roller transfer tail for accurate and efficient small-part end transfers; the conveyor belt is nearly flush with the frame for easy side transfers; and the patent-pending pinch drive allows for 15-lb load without the need for high belt tension.

A variable speed motor is also available. The fixed speed may have an on/off switch on the motor. The variable motor may have several control options including 24 Vdc or 115 Vac input power options. Additionally, users can interact with the variable speed motor from either the control panel, or it can be wired to be controlled remotely. DW

Dorner Conveyors dornerconveyors.com

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

Connect and discuss this and other design engineering issues with thousands of professionals online

F R E E C ATA L O G & B R O C H U R E

A global educational

engineering network,

WASHERS & STAMPINGS

Connect, share and

learn today.

Call (888)-WASHERS (888)-927-4377 • 612-729-9365 sales@bokers.com

Over 13,000 members - global educational engineering community - join today. engineeringexchange.com.

www.engineeringexchange.com

Connect with 339,805 engineers at facebook.com/ DesignWorldNetwork.

Find meaningful links and tweet along with us @DesignWorld.

Check the boards and see whats being pinned up at pinterest.com/ engineeringex.

Grow your network. Join the Design World group on LinkedIn.

Hot products and topics are streaming at youtube.com/DesignWorldVideo.

Hang out and track what's new at plus.google.com/ +DesignWorldOnline.

See shared slides at slideshare.net/ DesignWorldOnline.

BOKERS.COM/DW August 2015

DFI 8-15_Vs6.LL.MD.indd 29

DESIGN WORLD

29

8/5/15 9:46 AM


3

0

» Design for Industry

Offshore

Longest endless timing belts help propel hovercraft In two new hovercrafts, the British manufacturer Griffon Hoverwork relies on timing belts with carbon tensile from ContiTech Power Transmission Group. At 5,502 mm (216.6 in.) and 4,956 mm (195.1 in.), they are some of the longest endless polyurethane belts that have ever been produced. They drive the propellers and turbines of the giant hovercrafts, which are employed to connect Portsmouth (England) and the Isle of Wight. The belts are made in cooperation of ContiTech and Griffon Hoverwork at the ContiTech site in Dannenberg. The two new hovercrafts, which are currently under construction, each have two propellers and fans that interact to set the vessels in motion. The timing belts drive them. “Due to the high powers that are transmitted within the drives of the hovercrafts, the Synchrochain Carbon is the ideal belt for this application,” said Barrie Oldham, industrial sales director, ContiTech UK. The vessels are equipped with two engines with 793 kW (1,079 hp) of power; they take up roughly the area of a tennis court and carry up to 88 people. Griffon Hoverwork has equipped the drives of their 30

DESIGN WORLD

DFI 8-15_Vs6.LL.MD.indd 30

August 2015

hovercrafts with timing belts for quite some time. However, the use of the Synchrochain Carbon as well as endless timing belts, which exceed the 5-m mark, are new. The Synchrochain Carbon is wear-resistant and abrasionproof. It transmits high power reliably. The heart of the belt is the carbon tensile member, which, at the same load, stretches less than an aramid tensile member. In addition, the high stiffness of the cord minimizes pre-tension losses, enhancing drive efficiency. The belt is nearly maintenance free, which helps minimize costs in the area of maintenance and replacement. DW

ContiTech Power Transmission Group contitech.de

www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 9:15 AM


Smarter Embedded Designs, Faster Deployment

The combination of NI LabVIEW system design software and reconfigurable I/O (RIO) hardware helps small design teams with varied expertise develop demanding embedded applications in less time. Using this graphical system design approach, you can take advantage of the same integrated platform to program embedded processors and FPGAs for faster application development in industries ranging from energy to transportation, manufacturing, and life sciences.

LabVIEW system design software offers ultimate flexibility through FPGA programming, simplifies code reuse, and helps you program the way you think–graphically.

>> Accelerate your productivity at ni.com/embedded-platform

800 453-6202 Š2013 National Instruments. All rights reserved. LabVIEW, National Instruments, NI, and ni.com are trademarks of National Instruments. Other product and company names listed are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies. 12114

Nat'l Instruments 4-15.indd 31

8/4/15 2:36 PM


4

0

safety

» Design for Industry

Sensor enhances driver safety Here’s a sensor that will help prevent operators from nodding off or losing focus when driving various types of vehicles. SensoFoil measures position and pressure; it can be added to any steering wheel. This sensing technology adds an extra dimension of safety to steering wheels for car and vehicle manufacturers. During normal driving, the operator is constantly moving their hands on the steering wheel, changing pressure as the fingers grip the wheel. However, by using SensoFoil inside the steering wheel, the vehicle can sense if the driver’s hands are no longer moving—if the operator has fallen asleep with their hands on the wheel or if their hands are no longer on the wheel. This can trigger the correct safety protocol to either wake up the driver or implement corrective measures. Traffic experts claim that about 25% of all 32

DESIGN WORLD

DFI 8-15_Vs6.LL.MD.indd 32

August 2015

accidents are caused by extreme fatigue while driving. This makes nodding-off, also referred to as “micro-sleep,” in combination with heart attacks, as the leading cause of accidents, exceeding the number of accidents caused by alcohol and drugs. Once alerted by the Smart Steering Wheel, the car can try to wake the driver or take control and steer the vehicle to a safe stop along the road. In case of medical emergency, the car could even drive itself to the closest medical emergency center while sending out an alert to the appropriate authorities. The sensor can also be programmed for pressure in certain locations. This can be used in a vehicle to control various location, emergency, entertainment or communication systems. This same feature

can be used in game controllers, aircraft and so on, as an economical way to add additional programmable capabilities to a controller or joystick device without the need for extra buttons or dials. SensoFoil cost-effectively provides extra features and capabilities to a diverse range of products,” said Jens Kautzor, CEO of Hoffman + Krippner. “In addition, this sensing technology requires very little external energy since power consumption is very low. The sensor system is insensitive to electromagnetic radiation and therefore ideal for the automotive, aerospace and medical sectors.” DW

Hoffmann + Krippner hoffmann-krippner.com

www.designworldonline.com

w

8/5/15 9:15 AM


StepSERVOTM combines the best features of stepper and servo systems.

Free samples for qualifying OEMS

Applied-Motion.com/StepSERVO

StepSERVOTM

Servo performance at step motor prices Closed loop for faster response, ideal for high throughput machines 50% more torque Runs cooler, saves power, lasts longer

866-916-6379 www.Applied-Motion.com Email: StepSERVO@applied-motion.com

Applied Motion 7-15.indd 33

Search or shop online today.

8/4/15 2:37 PM


» D e s i g n N o te s

Mike Santora • Associate Editor

team uses nix design o tr o rv e S The ear control ptive non-lin the HDC ada s of servo e CDHD serie th r fo m h rit algo controllers.

Servo controller finds the right “rhythm’’ Servo controllers commonly use a cascaded configuration, in which a velocity loop is nested within a position loop. The velocity controller is tuned first, then the position controller. The current control parameters are usually set automatically. The position controller typically consists of a simple proportional coefficient, while the velocity controller includes a proportional coefficient and an integral term. A drawback of this configuration is an intrinsic tracking error during movement proportional to the speed. Feed-forward methods tend to reduce this error, but at the expense of an overshoot or a longer settling time. To overcome these limitations, Servotronix Motion Control developed an adaptive non-linear control algorithm. Named HD Control (HDC), this algorithm uses a parallel configuration, in which all branches are on the same level and executed in each sampling period. On each branch, a variable gain parameter is introduced and automatically optimized for high gain and stability, minimizing position error and settling time. The algorithm consists of a variable gain module, which contributes to a low tracking error, and an adaptive feed-forward module, 34

DESIGN WORLD

Design Notes 8-15_Vs8.LL.MS.MD.indd 34

August 2015

www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 9:59 AM


ows This image sh agram of a simplified di HD Control.

which allows a short settling time. The variable gains (VGd, VGp, VGiv, VGi) are calculated internally and modified dynamically during operation by the HDC algorithm. Each gain is a specific function of the system variables, such as velocity and position error. During movement, the variable gains may reach values up to ten times higher than at stop. This produces highly accurate path-following during movement, together with quiet low-speed operation and standstill. System stiffness is more than tripled during movement, resulting in low tracking error. The four variable gains are balanced by a proprietary algorithm that maintains the stability of the system. The Kd (derivative) parameter branch is comparable to the velocity feedback loop, and serves to reduce velocity error. The Kp parameter branch is a proportional position feedback loop, for reducing position error. The Ki parameter branch is an integral of the position feedback loop, reducing standstill error. The Kiv parameter branch is unique to HDC and combines the effects of the Kp and Ki branches. It produces a stiffness more than double that of Kp, without creating oscillations.

It reduces the tracking error during both acceleration and standstill. It also eliminates standstill error, as does Ki, but with the rapid response time of Kp. The adaptive feed-forward module helps achieve a short settling time. During movement, the correspondence between acceleration and motor torque is monitored, and this relation is used during the deceleration phase to process the integral term. At the end of movement, the adaptive feed-forward algorithm modifies the content of the integral term according to the expected path acceleration, resulting in a zero settling time. HDC is integrated in the Servotronix CDHD servo drive series. Tuning is performed automatically by the CDHD interface software, ServoStudio. While autotuning is usually sufficient, certain applications may require manual fine tuning for the optimization of control parameters. Automatic and manual tuning is based on the same principle. During autotuning, the quality of the movement is measured and evaluated by the drive and the software. During manual tuning, the quality of movement is evaluated by the user. In either method,  

Design Notes 8-15_Vs8.LL.MS.MD.indd 35

the servo control parameters are modified progressively and the value that achieves the best performance is selected. HDC tuning is simple and is performed much like conventional PID tuning. Each variable gain is increased progressively until some oscillation occurs, then reduced about 10 to 20% to a safe value. For instance, one gantry robotic application required a sustained accuracy of 2 to 3 Âľm at maximum speed. Using the CDHD servo drive with the HDC algorithm, the maximum application speed was increased from 120 to 160 mm/sec while maintaining the required accuracy, and resulted in a 33% increase in machine throughput. HDC can be advantageous in applications requiring path tracking and low settling time, such as CNC and cutting, conveyor tracking, pick-and-place operations, PCB mounting and welding, as well as painting, coating and gluing. DW

Servotronix Motion Control servotronix.com

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

 

35

8/5/15 9:59 AM


» D e s i g n N o te s

Mike Santora • Associate Editor

How to make a temperature controller easy to use

The F4T’s color, graphical touchscreen user-interface and configuration software let OEMs and end users tailor the controller to specific applications.

I want one thing to do a lot of things. If there’s a mantra for the 21st-century consumer, this is it. Swiss Army knives are on the map for multi-purpose functions. It’s why we call smartphones smart. The problem is that consumers want all this multi-function wizardry and they want ease-of-use as well. These concerns topped the list when Watlow designed its new F4T temperature process controller. The primary goal for the development of the new device was to ensure that it would be easy to use without sacrificing application flexibility. Because many of Watlow’s target customers were already using its SERIES F4 controller, the bar was set high for ease-of-use. The F4T’s color, graphical touchscreen user-interface and configuration software had to let OEMs and end users tailor the controller to specific applications. The F4T controller combines the functions of many devices, including temperature PID, over/under temperature limit, power switching, math, logic, and timers and counters into one integrated system. The controller has field pluggable I/O, programmable function blocks and an ambient operating temperature of 0 to 122° F. For connectivity, the F4T has a graphical configuration PC software that connects with the controller through Ethernet. It 36

DESIGN WORLD

Design Notes 8-15_Vs8.LL.MS.MD.indd 36

August 2015

managers and line-maintenance technicians. also has agency certifications such as UL, People in these roles participated in testing FM, CE, RoHS, W.E.E.E. and NEMA 4X/IP65. to help the F4T team lay out the functions Communications options include Ethernet and features of the interface. For example, in Modbus TCP and SCPI and EIA 232/485 an initial card-sort test, the subjects sorted Modbus RTU. operations and functions, such as “changing Clearly, many challenges come into the temperature units,” into categories they play when developing a product with such defined themselves such as “operation,” “seta density of features. The F4T requires up” and “maintenance.” time critical measurements, advanced Based on these tests, the F4T team control algorithms, support for industrial developed a grouping of information communications protocol interfaces, management of multiple tasks in embedded and controls for each of the tasks. This organization served as a blueprint for the software, field pluggable I/O hardware, onboard agency-approved safety devices and interface. From there, a wire-frame prototype was developed with several iterations tested robust mechanical design. internally. Next, an HTML-based prototype User experience is often a factor for design teams, but it’s not always central to was developed and tested by samples of the the design efforts. The challenge for the F4T target user populations. team was to design for ease-of-use without The next challenge was getting a product that was still in development into the hands delaying product development. of test groups. The usability testing was The team started by defining their type performed through web-based conferences of users—operators, OEM engineers, lab www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 9:58 AM


with a moderator administering a scripted test in which subjects interacted with the prototype using a web browser and mouse. The moderator asked the subject to perform tasks such as, “Can you show me how you would change the humidity set point?” Measurements included successfully completed tasks in a preset amount of time and how often users made wrong turns. After each set of tasks, users were asked follow-up questions to determine if they understood what they had seen. They were then asked to rate the ease-of-use of the functions. These test sessions were observed by the F4T team so they could directly witness the users’ frustrations when features were not easy

The F4T process contro ller has field pluggable I/O, progra mmable function blocks and an am bient operating temperature of 0 to 122° F. The F4T also has graph ical configuration PC software that connects with the contro ller through Ethernet.

CNC Machining That Doesn’t Just Mill Around Never lose valuable development time again. Proto Labs uses CNC turning and three-axis CNC milling to manufacture engineering-grade metal and plastic prototypes in as fast as 24 hours.

Got a project? Get up to 200+ parts in 1 to 3 days. Get a free Rapid Manufacturing for Metal Parts white paper at go.protolabs.com/DW5PK ISO 9001:2008 Certified | ITAR Registered Major Credit Cards Accepted | © 2015 Proto Labs, Inc.

Design Notes 8-15_Vs8.LL.MS.MD.indd 37

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING CNC MACHINING INJECTION MOLDING

8/5/15 10:00 AM


Âť D e s i g n N o tes

The F4T conn ectivity options include two USB host ports, Ethernet Modbu s TCP and SCPI , 232/485 Modbu s RTU and a USB device port.

to use. The prototype was updated as they discovered the problem areas. The same process was applied to the Composer software that can be used to set up the F4T. The software testing also shed light on areas that could be adjusted. In one example, a subject was unable to find a button on a screen that was required to complete a task. By debriefing the participant and reviewing the recording, designers were able to determine that the color combination (white text on a grey background) and placement of the button (low on the screen) was causing a problem. The farsighted participant had trouble with this when using a laptop with an LCD monitor. To make the button easier to locate, the team moved the button and changed the color combination to a higher contrast (white text on dark blue). In future tests, this problem no longer occurred. After this testing, the F4T team refined the interface design before the product was 38

DESIGN WORLD

Design Notes 8-15_Vs8.LL.MS.MD.indd 38

August 2015

even created. Typically the user-interface is the last thing you can put in the product. But had the Watlow designers waited until the touchscreen was functioning to begin testing, it would have delayed the product and comprised the ease-of-use. Their approach is a great example of how to develop an interface parallel with the hardware and software. The testing and the prototypes cost much less than actual product iterations, saving time and money and creating better end results. DW Watlow watlow.com

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

Connect and discuss this and other design engineering issues with thousands of professionals online

www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 10:01 AM


DesignWorld_MDrive_ad_2015.ai

1

4/28/2015

9:33:15 AM

C

M

Y

CM

MY

CY

CMY

K

Schneider Electric 7-15.indd 39

8/6/15 1:59 PM


» D e s i g n N o tes

Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

odel U3440 Americarden M 000 Nm torque units feature 553, carburized steels capacity, special ing steel rollers. and custom bear

Universal joints help reduce mill vibration Steel producers worldwide continually refine their processes to serve the changing needs of their customers. For example, Federal emission standards and consumers demand more efficient vehicles without compromising performance and styling. In response, steel producers have begun to develop thinner, lighter weight auto gage steels that perform as well and look better than previous materials. However, producing a specialty steel cost effectively is always challenging, particularly when incorporating new alloy technology that is designed to be stronger yet lighter than previous steels. These thinner steels are much more sensitive to surface damage from vibrations of rotating mill rolls. To reduce the damage caused by vibration, operators often reduce the speed of their mills by up to 20%, which reduces production. That 20% production reduction can equate to one 20-ton coil of steel per hour that would have had a $50/ton profit, which would have delivered a $24,000 profit. Thus, the financial losses associated with steel surface damage due to mill vibration can be significant. To understand why mill operators are eager to convert to U-joints, consider the following example: Surface-critical exposed prime steel sells for approximately $850/ton. If the surface is marred or damaged, the steel is downgraded to secondary, non-exposed usage with a 20% ($170/ton) reduction in price. Typical annual cold mill production is around 3 mil tons. If only 2% of the product is downgraded, that equates to 60,000 tons. So, 60,000 tons minus $170/ton yields a total annual loss of a staggering $10.2 mil. 40

DESIGN WORLD

Design Notes 8-15_Vs9.LL.MS.MD.indd 40

August 2015

One steel producer was experiencing excessive wear and vibration of the gear spindles on their 5-stand tandem cold mill with various spindle brands lasting only six months. Two spindles on each mill stand connect the pinion gearboxes to the primary upper and lower work rolls that compress the steel in a cold condition. Over time the surface damage to the steel from the spindle vibration (chatter) caused the operator to either slow the mill down, reducing production by 20% to reduce the vibration, or replace the spindles completely. The motor drives a gear box that connects to the pinion stand single input shaft. The u-joints connect the two pinion stand outputs to the work rolls that roll the steel sheet. That’s why Ameridrives Power Transmission was called to provide a more reliable spindle. Soon after, Ameridrives’ application engineers approached the mill with a new idea. They recommended that all the gear spindles be converted to universal joints, which would reduce surface damaging vibration almost completely, while allowing the mill to run at faster speeds. After testing competitive models, the mill selected Americardan Model U3440 universal joints. The mill was then able to run at record-setting production levels with reduced vibration and minimal related surface damage. The new U-joints reduced lubrication manpower, lube and clean-up costs by approximately $120,000 annually compared to a grease lubricated gear spindle on a 5-stand mill. www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 10:12 AM


These graphs illustrate the reduction in vibration before and after using the Americarden universal joints.

Ameridrives engineers work closely with steel mill operators around the world to replace their cold mill gear spindles, which amplify vibration, as they drive the work rolls on the mill stands. Americardan universal joints operate at high misalignment angles up to 15° and are suitable for use in severe atmospheric conditions. Through materials and tight tolerances, the universal joints have proven to reduce vibration levels in rolling mills. Universal joint design features include closed eye one-piece yokes, replaceable inner race bearing package, zero radial clearance bearing package and built-in spring packs on the roll end knuckle. Spring packs are non-contacting in operation and are only engaged during roll change. You can mate the spline adapters to the gear spindle at the pinion end. This approach can be used without removing the adapter, which speeds installation. These units can be interchanged with any gear spindle in any mill stand, in top or bottom position, at any time. DW Altra Industrial Motion altracouplings.com • • • • • •

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

Pneumatic, hydraulic, and electric actuators Lowest cost of ownership 1-3 day delivery on most products Free online engineer tools MAC Distribution Network Modular solutions

And Now Even More... Clamps

Connect and discuss this and other design engineering issues with thousands of professionals online

To order a catalog and see more solutions, visit August 2015

Design Notes 8-15_Vs9.LL.MS.MD.indd 41

DESIGN WORLD

41

phdinc.com/dw815 1-800-624-8511

P.O. Box 9070 • Fort Wayne, IN 46899 USA

8/7/15 10:21 AM


»»

» CA E Solu t i o n s

Topology design program is faster, more accurate and supports assemblies

The latest generation of Inspire combines faster geometry functions with an updated user interface and expands the scope and complexity of problems it can address. Several new functions have been added based on the most common requests from the Inspire user community. These include: fasteners (bolts or screws), joints (pins or sliding pins), and contacts (bonded, contact or no contact). Leveraging these capabilities, users can easily model, optimize and analyze model assemblies. Inspire Rely lets users realistically simulate loading conditions. It also offers support for assembly optimization, which lets you incorporate a surrounding structure into the optimizations and gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between multiple components. Key updates include: • Fasteners and joints—Connect multiple parts in a model using bolts, screws, pins or sliding pins. Inspire’s workflow identifies areas in the model with aligned holes to make the process easy and intuitive. • Contacts—Designate whether neighboring parts should be bonded, contacting or have no contact for more realistic optimization results. • Gravity loads—Add G loads to a model through the Model Browser. • Updated user interface—A new ribbon-style interface organizes the tools into tabs. Customize the tabs to tailor the workflow to your process. • Faster geometry functions—Geometry functions in the program are running up to 300% faster than previous versions of Inspire. DW SolidThinking altair.com 42

DESIGN WORLD

CAE Solutions_Simulations 8-15_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 42

August 2015

8/13/15 3:08 PM


Your Custom Gearbox Solutions are CGI Standard Products.

Advanced Products for Robotics and Automation CGI Motion standard products are designed with customization in mind. We understand most off-the-shelf products or a complete in-house design may not fit your application, so our standard products are designed for functional flexibility. Our team of experts will work with you on selecting the optimal base product and craft a unique solution to help differentiate your product or application. So when you think customization, think standard CGI gearbox assemblies. Connect with us today to explore what CGI Motion can do for you.

copyrightŠ2015 cgi inc. all rights reserved. 0804stdp

CGI 8-15.indd 43

800.568.GEAR (4327) • www.cgimotion.com

8/6/15 2:20 PM


»»

» CA E Solu t i o n s

CAM education credentials Autodesk, developers of 3D design, engineering and entertainment software, and the National Institute for Metalworking Skills (NIMS) are partnering to develop the first set of industry recognized Computer Aided Manufacturing/ Machining (CAM) standards and credentials. These standards and credentials will enhance education and training programs to meet 21stcentury demands for skilled CAM programmers, designers and engineers, which will account for almost 100,000 new jobs by 2024. To stay competitive, manufacturers must maintain high standards of production at efficient cost while meeting the ever-changing customer demands for their products. CAM allows manufacturers to efficiently adjust their processes to identify optimal production paths that decrease cycle times, reduce scrapped parts and materials, and improve the quality of finished parts. Skilled CAM programmers, designers and engineers with extensive education and training are in high demand to plan, manage and control these sophisticated and costly machines. “Companies in technologically advanced industries are becoming more reliant on the use of information technology and automation through CAM software to develop high-value added products and materials. In the next decade, nearly a million jobs will require the technical skills needed to operate CAM software,” said NIMS Executive Director James Wall. This partnership will support the development of CAM training programs by creating industry standards for educating and training CAM programmers. To develop these standards, Autodesk and NIMS recruited industry leaders to participate in a Technical Work Group. The Technical Work Group kick-off meeting was held 44

DESIGN WORLD

CAE Solutions_Simulations 8-15_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 44

August 2015

at AutoDesk Headquarters in San Francisco, June 10–11, 2015. Industry experts from major companies including Google, NASA, DMG / MORI Seiki USA, HAAS Automation, Delcam, Parker Hannifin/Sandia National Laboratory, and Monkey Likes Shiny participated in the session and will lead the Technical Work Group. “CAM software is changing the way companies approach business processes and how educational institutions teach the next generation of programmers and engineers. It is critical that the skills and knowledge of industry leaders be captured in standards that will serve as the basis for training and educating the future CAM manufacturing workforce,” said Jeff Tiedeken, owner, Monkey Likes Shiny. After development of the skills standards, NIMS will conduct a rigorous national validation process, holding regional reviews of the standards by industrial professionals, before releasing the standards to the public. DW Autodesk autodesk.com NIMS nims-skills.org 

WHAT DO YOU THINK? Connect and discuss this and other engineering design issues with thousands of professionals online

www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 11:05 AM


Rapid Manufacturing with a Polite Disregard for Tradition Tech-driven injection molding, CNC machining and 3D printing for those who need parts tomorrow

Proto Labs uses proprietary software and a massive compute cluster to accelerate manufacturing of prototypes and production parts for every industry.

Request your free Digital Manufacturing For Dummies at go.protolabs.com/DW5TJ

Got a project? Get 1 to 10,000+ plastic, metal or liquid silicone rubber parts in as fast as 1 day.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified | ITAR Registered Major Credit Cards Accepted | Š 2015 Proto Labs, Inc.

Proto Labs 7-15_New.indd 45

8/5/15 11:07 AM


» CA E »Solu CA Et iSo onlut s ions

3D

CAD portal easier to use Version 4.0 of the 3D CAD download portal, PARTcommunity, includes new features, an improved look and feel, and a download portal optimized for mobile devices. The search possibilities for 3D CAD models have been expanded. Thus, the comparison of 3D CAD models when looking for a suitable part is easier. The properties of two or more parts can now be compared by means of a clearly arranged table. It also informs about the similarity or deviation in percent between the displayed CAD model and the comparison model. Moreover the “Top 10 downloads“ feature was further expanded with the new PARTcommunity version. The table shows 3D CAD models that had the most downloads in the last 30 days. Due to the new PARTcommunity version, the top downloads can be filtered for the first time

46

DESIGN WORLD

CAE Solutions_Simulations 8-15_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 46

August 2015

by manufacturer catalogs and countries. These downloads let others learn from the experience of users and see at a glance which parts are currently the most popular and readily used. PARTcommunity 4.0 is now optimized for mobile devices. Users of smartphones and tablets are automatically forwarded to the mobile version. Switching manually from the desktop to the mobile version is no longer necessary. This version was especially designed for smaller screens; the menu navigation was streamlined and the touch screen control was further improved. DW Cadenas PARTsolutions partcommunity.com

www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 11:05 AM


»»

» CAE Solu t i ons

Easy conversion of CAD to PDF With the introduction of a multi template PUBLISH mechanism, the Publish 3D V18.0 has new and improved features for the CATIA V5 user. Publish 3D V18.0 supports CATIA V5 R18 to R24 (V5.V6R2014) and seamlessly publishes CATIA V5 data to Theorem’s Publish 3D suite of products, giving the CATIA V5 user the ability to publish PDF documents containing interactive 3D representations of their data (3D PDF). In this release, Publish 3D function enhancements include the original TEMPLATE mechanism being replaced with the preferred PUBLISH mechanism. With the introduction of a Multi-template PUBLISH mechanism, the 3D data can now be written to one or many output PDF files with any additional meta data such as AVIs, hyperlinks and PowerPoint presentations. V18.0 for Publish 3D also features improved processing of data groups. This simplifies the assembly tree along with an added option that provides control over how the sub-ordinate data is processed by controlling the tessellation quality. There has also been added control for the lighting, render and activate modes and extra support for the Theorem Unified Interface. Theorem’s Publish 3D (recently rebranded from 3D PDF Publisher) easily creates and shares PDF documents containing embedded interactive 3D data published directly from native CAD data without the need for third party applications. Published interactive 3D models contained within a standard PDF document can then be viewed and interrogated. Components within assemblies can be turned on and off, shaded and rendered for technical

authoring, and viewed as either a solid, wireframe or cross-section, all using the freely available Adobe Acrobat Reader. Publish 3D for CATIA V5 supports 3D annotations and dimensions FTA (PMI) from CATIA V5 into 3D PDF as well as supporting model based definition (MBD) processes for downstream activities in manufacturing and for use by the supply chain. The working PDF document can be annotated, shared and additional media embedded. This could include text, PowerPoint files, spreadsheets, AVI movies and hyperlinks to additional online information. DW Theorem Solutions theorem.co.uk

www.designworldonline.com  

CAE Solutions_Simulations 8-15_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 47

WHAT DO YOU THINK? Connect and discuss this and other engineering design issues with thousands of professionals online

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD 

47

8/7/15 10:25 AM


Âť I n te rn e t of Th i n gs

Building a more secure network

48

DESIGN WORLD

Internet of Things 8-15_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 48

August 2015

www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 12:06 PM


As industrial markets evolve to unlock the promise of the Internet of Things (IoT), Rockwell Automation and Cisco announced additions to their Converged Plantwide Ethernet (CPwE) architectures to help operations technology (OT) and information technology (IT) professionals address constantly changing security practices. The latest CPwE security expansions, featuring technology from both companies, include design guidance and validated architectures to help build a more secure network across the

photo: istockphoto.com

plant and enterprise. The Industrial IoT is elevating the need for highly flexible, secure connectivity between things, machines, work-flows, databases and people, enabling new models of policybased plant-floor access. Potentially, through these new connections, machine data on the plant floor can be analyzed and applied to determine optimal operation and supply-chain work flows for more efficiencies and cost savings. A securely connected environment also enables organizations to mitigate risk with policy compliance, and protects intellectual property with secure sharing between global stakeholders. Core to the architectures is a focus on enabling OT and IT professionals to use security policies and procedures by forming multiple layers of defense. A defense-indepth approach helps manufacturers establish processes and policies that identify and contain evolving threats in industrial automation and control systems. The CPwE architectures leverage open industry standards, such as IEC 62443, and provide recommendations for securely sharing data across industry, as well as enforcing policies that control access to the plantwide wired or wireless network. “The key to industrial network security is in how you design and implement your infrastructure and holistically address security for internal and external threats,” said Lee Lane, business director, Rockwell Automation. “Security can’t be an afterthought in today’s plant environment. As we connect more devices and create more efficient ways of operating, we also create vulnerabilities,” said Bryan Tantzen, senior director, Cisco. “These new architectures and guides build on our collaboration by helping organizations recognize and proactively address today’s security concerns.” DW Rockwell Automation rockwellautomation.com

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

With state­of­the­art equipment, in­house R&D and our very own spring calculator app, Newcomb Spring offers the capabilities and manufacturing expertise required by today’s engineer. We offer a network of locations and are ready to put more than a century of experience to work for you. Our custom parts meet the strictest order requirements, with manufacturing capabilities that include:

• fast order turnaround • design assistance • advanced quality controls • standard & precious metals • full line of secondary processes • specialty packaging

Cisco Thenetwork.cisco.com Connect and discuss this and other design engineering issues with thousands of professionals online

Internet of Things 8-15_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 49

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD 

newcombspring.com 49

8/5/15 12:07 PM


» I n te r n e t o f Th i ngs

Integrate sensor drivers into IoT devices

The Sensor Network Partnership Program enables users to easily incorporate sensing functions into their products, whether their goal is to transmit the resulting sensor data to a mobile device or all the way to “the cloud.” Users do not need to be RF experts to go wireless. Atmosphere Sensors Partnership Program introduces a suite of proven sensor technologies and tools into Anaren’s wireless connectivity ecosystem. A key feature of the initiative is a new sensors element library, available within the Atmosphere tool, which allows non-RF and non-software savvy customers to develop wirelessly connected products and easily incorporate sensors and sensor assets, such as drivers and algorithms, into their wirelessly connected IoT projects. The inaugural member and primary sensor provider to the project is STMicroelectronics. ST will help Anaren provide OEMs with a streamlined path for connecting their sensor-generated data to the IoT throughs Anaren’s wireless tools. DW Anaren anaren.com

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

Connect and discuss this and other design engineering issues with thousands of professionals online

50

DESIGN WORLD

Internet of Things 8-15_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 50

August 2015

www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 12:07 PM


Complete Mechatronics Motion Solutions Under control and in motion

Toothed belt axis ELGA-RF

Secure firewall for OPC Classic FL mGuard security devices can protect OPC Classic applications. While traditional firewalls do not offer protection for this protocol, users of mGuard firmware version 8.1 and beyond can now upgrade to the OPC inspector license. The OPC inspector firmware looks into the transmitted data packets, analyzing and modifying them as necessary. The OPC inspector dynamically creates firewall rules matching the ports and directions used by OPC traffic. It identifies and blocks all non-OPC traffic. It also permits the use of network address translation (NAT) procedures, such as masquerading or 1:1 NAT routing.

The OPC Classic communication protocol is widely used in the automation industry. Instead of using fixed TCP port numbers, OPC Classic negotiates new port numbers within the first open connection. This means that intermediary firewalls can only be used with wide-open rules, greatly reducing the security and protection they provide. The mGuard OPC Inspector license counters this problem by using a deep-packet inspection for OPC Classic. DW

Integrated servo motor MTR-ECI

Mini H-Gantry EXCM

Phoenix Contact phoenixcontact.com

For more information: Call: 1-800-Go-Festo 1-800-463-3786 www.festo.com/us/mms

www.designworldonline.com  

Internet of Things 8-15_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 51

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD 

51

Global manufacturer of process control and factory automation solutions

8/6/15 10:34 AM


Âť I n te rn e t of Th i n gs

Browsing function for OPC UA

The new browsing function block allows OPC UA clients to easily determine which variables are available on a controller. With this function block, an OPC UA client can simply browse the variables available on a controller and then add them to a subscription. This capability was previously only possible when the name and structure of the variables were known in advance. It is suitable for implementing dynamic HMI applications that automatically adapt to the machine. Since communication takes place through OPC UA, the whole process operates independently of which vendors are used. DW

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

B&R Industrial Automation br-automation.com

Connect and discuss this and other design engineering issues with thousands of professionals online

5522

DESIGN DESIGNWORLD WORLD

Internet of Things 8-15_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 52

August June 2015 2015

www.designworldonline.com www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 12:08 PM


Performance on a Global Scale

The world’s most complete line of IEC motors is now available from Baldor. By offering an extensive variety of proven ABB IEC motor designs, OEMs, system integrators and MRO professionals now have a local stocking source to meet ANY industrial motor need. Plus, when you choose ABB IEC motors from Baldor, you can count on the highest level of performance, technical expertise and superior reliability known by industries throughout the world. You can count on Baldor and ABB to give you the performance you need on a global scale. baldor.com

479-646-4711

©2015 Baldor Electric Company

BALDOR 8-15.indd 53

• Complete Line of IEC Designs • Available Locally From Stock • Energy Efficient IE3 Designs Available • Custom Configurations & Modifications • Hazardous Duty & Explosion Proof • Local Sales With Global Service & Support

Download a QR reader app and scan this code for more information. http://esp.to/wIQscF

8/5/15 4:09 PM


» I n te rn e t of Th i n gs

Fast connection to PROFINET PROFINET plug connector, the HELUKAT RJ45 Cat5 IP20, has built-in fast connection technology. The Fieldbus-compatible plug comes in a linear and angled design. It is therefore suited for industrial use in tight installation spaces. HELUKAT has colored contact elements that prevent the installer from committing connection errors. The clear labeling matches the wire sequence of the PROFINET standard whose four single wires can be quickly connected. The metal housing enables it to be used in industrial applications. Transmission rates are up to 100 MHz Cat 5. The shielded plug connector comes in a linear 180° version and an angled 90° version. Designed to protection grade IP 20, it can withstand operating temperatures of -4 to 158° F (-20 to 70° C). The HELUKAT RJ45 Cat5 IP20 is compatible with AWG 22 and AWG 24 cables, and designed to be used with both bunched and solid wire conductor types. 54

DESIGN WORLD

Internet of Things 8-15_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 54

August 2015

The PROFINET plug connector can be easily and quickly installed without tools. The single wires must be arranged in accordance with the color-coding of the RJ45 plug and, in the folded-up guide element, inserted into the contact points up to the stop. To achieve a full connection, the user presses the guide element downward to the stop, closes the housing cover and fixes the front screw cap with a quarter rotation. The development of a 145° angled version, as well as an 8-pin variant, is currently in the planning process and will expand the product range once successfully completed. DW HELUKABEL USA helukabel.de/us/us/home

www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 12:09 PM


Embedded computer with removable SSD storage for data security The ARCX box is a rugged, small, form-factor embedded computer with expandable features that include PMC, XMC, mini PCIe, mSATA module slots, an optional solid-state drive, front I/O panel and secondary connectors. This SFF embedded computer was engineered rugged with Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) to address space requirements of vehicle electronics. Compatible with industry standards and manufactured to IP67 standards and shock and vibration tested to MIL-STD-810G, these computers are available as either a single PMC/XMC slot or double PMC/XMC slot version. The SFF computer comes equipped with a high-performance Intel 4th generation Core i7 CPU. The CPU allows programmable power limits, where heat and power are a concern. A rugged design includes thick circuit boards and high shock and vibration SODIMM hold-down mechanism and heat sink, plus it is cableless and fanless. It is designed and manufactured in the U.S. for military and aerospace deployable systems such as vetronics, C4ISR, payload management, and command and control applications. DW Acromag acromag.com

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

Connect and discuss this and other design engineering issues with thousands of professionals online

www.designworldonline.com  

Internet of Things 8-15_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 55

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD 

55

8/5/15 12:10 PM


M

56

o

t

DESIGN WORLD

Motion Control 8-15_Vs5.MD.indd 56

i

o

n

August 2015

C

o

n

t

r

o

l

www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 12:35 PM


The Next

Programmable Encoders:

Generation

The latest programmable encoders offer both incremental and absolute functionality on one hardware platform and can be programmed with a WiFi connection.

Jarrod Orszulak • Product Manager • POSITAL-FRABA

Programmable incremental encoders have become more common recently. This is largely due to the fact that the measurement characteristics of the device (number of pulses per rotation, output level and so on) can be modified through a software update without requiring any changes to physical components. Now, however, engineers at POSITAL have taken the programmability concept to a new level with the new generation of iXarC rotary encoders. These new encoders offer both incremental and absolute encoder functions on a single hardware platform; are available in a range of mechanical configurations and connector types; are supported by a range of configuration management tools that can be accessed by end users over the full working life of the encoder; and can be programmed by any WiFi-enabled electronic device.

>> A new generation of programmable encoders offers a lot more flexibility for users, providing both incremental

and absolute encoder functions on a common hardware platform, as well as programming through WiFi.

  

Motion Control 8-15_Vs5.MD.indd 57

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

57

8/5/15 12:35 PM


Bishop Wisecarver 8-15.indd 58

8/5/15 12:36 PM


M

o

t

i

o

n

C

o

n

t

r

o

l

>>

Traditional magnetic rotary encoders have had lower levels of precision and accuracy than high-quality optical encoders. However, newer encoder families combining Hall-effect sensing with optimized signal processing can rival the performance of optical encoders.

Of course, programmable encoders are not new. For instance, a traditional programmable encoder can allow users to program basic encoder parameters such as the resolution or the electronic interface level. Then there’s the method of programming itself. The simplest method may be with mechanical DIP switches. Others methods include using a simple serial interface such as USB or part of an integrated system connected with a PLC or HMI. What is new with these latest encoders is the kind of programmability as well as the way they are programmed. 

Benefits of programmable encoders Encoders are used to monitor position and motion within machines in many different industries. They are an essential interface between the mechanical components and the control system of a machine, so that functional requirements are as diverse as the range of applications. This diversity has led to a huge variety of available incremental and absolute encoders. With programmable encoders, much of the variety in measurement characteristics can be accommodated through software changes so that the range of hardware devices needed is significantly reduced. Distributors or system integrators can stock a limited number of hardware versions and still meet customer requirements quickly

1

2

4 3 1 FRAM

2 Revolutions 3 Hall Sensor

4 Angle

>>

The measurement principle for magnetic encoders is based on an array of Hall-effect sensors that measure the orientation of the magnetic field created by a permanent magnet fastened to the encoder’s shaft. A microprocessor interprets the signals from the Hall-effect sensors and calculates the rotational angle.

  

Motion Control 8-15_Vs5.MD.indd 59

and efficiently. This means that users and distributors can reduce their stock levels and spare-parts inventories significantly. Prior to delivery or installation, the encoder’s measurement characteristics can be set up quickly. Moreover, the same device can be easily updated at some future time if the machine is changed or upgraded. Once the encoder has been configured, it’s extremely useful to keep records of the configuration. This is especially important for the end user because a spare part might be required many years later. At this point in time, handwritten notes on the label might be difficult to read and the system integrator who did the original setup might no longer be available. Many programming tools on the market are unable to save and manage records of configuration data. Incremental or absolute? Or both? Traditionally, incremental and absolute encoders have been built around different design concepts. Moreover, features like resolution or multi-turn capability have been defined by different components such as code discs. The iXarC encoders are designed using a different approach. All electronic components of a multiturn encoder are integrated on a single 35-mm printed circuit board. No backup battery is required as this technology is capable of generating a sufficient amount of energy to record complete revolutions when the shaft of the encoder is turned. This energy generation does not depend on rotational speed. As a result, the encoder can be rotated for an indefinite number of times over long periods—with or without external power being available—without losing track of its absolute position. A powerful microcontroller and signalprocessing platform within the encoder is used to create incremental output signals and calculate absolute position data that are transmitted on an SSi interface for absolute measurements and TTL or HTL interfaces for incremental readings. By changing the software configuration, this encoder platform can become a pure incremental encoder, a single-turn encoder, a multiturn encoder or an encoder with SSi+ incremental output. August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

59

8/5/15 12:33 PM


Move cables, hoses, and more with ease

Rol E-Chain

All media in one reliable cable carrier: power, hoses, data, and more. Corrosion-free and resistant against chemicals and other liquid media. Long travels up to 2,700 ft. and speeds up to 20 ft./s possible with up to 57% lower required drive force. Light and modular.

igus 7-15_REV_use.indd 60

8/5/15 12:37 PM


M

POSITAL’s programmable encoders are available in a large variety of mechanical configurations, including 36, 42 and 58 mm flanges and a variety of shaft types (solid shaft or blind hollow shaft versions with a range of shaft diameters). Additional adapters and flanges ensure compatibility with all common standards in America, Asia and Europe. Radially or axially positioned connectors and cable outputs are both available. Heavy-duty versions with an IP protection class of up to IP69K and up to 300 g shock resistance are available in both aluminum and 316L grade stainless-steel housings. Because a small number of devices can be programmed to take on a wide range of measurement tasks, distributors of incremental encoders can reduce their inventory levels by up to 80%. OEM customers using a variety of different incremental and SSi encoders can now cover different applications with a small number of devices, greatly simplifying supply chain and inventory management. System integrators can decide at the last minute how to tailor the encoder to specific requirements on site and initiate the purchase of the encoders while final design requirements are still under discussion. End users can receive spare parts from a distributor or system integrator quickly, reducing both downtime costs and shipping costs. DW

POSITAL-FRABA posital.com

o

t

i

o

n

C

o

n

t

r

o

l

Greater Accuracy. Higher Performance.

Introducing

Actuator Options

Del-Tron’s High Precision Positioning Stages with B.Y.O.S. (Build Your Own Stage) Technology! Del-Tron’s new line of VB, VR and VS High Precision Positioning Stages take positional accuracy, performance and actuator flexibility to a new level. Utilizing Del-Tron’s proven ball and crossed roller technology and more than three decades of experience manufacturing linear slides and stages we offer three new model numbers and you can choose the method of actuation best suited for your application. Build your own High Precision Stage by simply picking out the ball or crossed roller stage that meets your application’s needs, choosing one of the 4 methods of actuation: Micrometer head, Fine thread adjustment, Lead screw or Motorized actuator.

Micrometer Head

Fine Adjustment Screw

Precision Linear Motion Required. Del-Tron Preferred. http://dwo.me/1OMVRYh

Mo bile I ntegrati on Powered B y

Travels range from .5” (12.5 mm) to 2” (50 mm).

Positioning accuracies range from 0.0001” to 0.00004” per inch of travel straight line accuracy.

Actuator mounting brackets are available in both center line and side drive configurations.

Choose from four methods of actuation.

Available in both Inch and Metric versions.

Order Today! 800.245.5013 Solid Models Available for all Del-Tron Model Numbers

August 2015

Motion Control 8-15_Vs5.MD.indd 61

DESIGN WORLD

Lead Screw

Motorized Actuator

www.buydeltron.com Designed & built in the U.S.A.

61

8/5/15 12:33 PM


L

i

n

e

a

r

M

o

t

i

o

n

rule out leadscrews Here we explain where leadscrews excel in linear-motion applications. Then we explain how to apply them.

Robert Lipsett • Site Leader and Engineering Manager • Thomson Industries Ballscrews are often the first choice for linear-motion applications because the use of recirculating ball bearings provides high efficiency, load capacity and positioning accuracy. However, with careful attention to selection and application, leadscrews can deliver efficiency that comes close to ballscrews on many applications—as well as high load capacity and positioning accuracy. What’s more, engineers can more easily tailor leadscrews to applications, thanks to a flexible configuration and form factor, the ability to operate without lubricant, quieter operation and lower cost.

62

DESIGN WORLD

Feat_Linear_Motion_8-15_Vs6.LL.LE.MD.indd 62

August 2015

8/5/15 12:50 PM


Leadscrews are versatile and economical linear-motion devices. Strengths include relatively straightforward geometry, reliability and a flexible form factor to adapt to most applications.

  

Feat_Linear_Motion_8-15_Vs6.LL.LE.MD.indd 63

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

63

8/5/15 12:50 PM


Li n e a r M ot io n

These are Thomson BSA lead- and ballscrews. Some applications require the stiffness, thrust capacity, and accuracy of ball screws, but engineered lead screws can often meet all important performance requirements at substantially lower cost.

Leadscrews use the helix angle of the thread to convert rotary motion to linear motion. Leadscrew performance is heavily dependent on the coefficient of friction between the nut and the screw, which in turn depends upon the material of the nut and screw. Leadscrews typically use nuts made of internally lubricated plastic or bearing-grade bronze. Plastic nuts usually travel on stainless-steel screws, while bronze nuts often run on carbon steel screws. With bearinggrade bronze nuts, stainless-steel screws are an option. Engineers can determine if leadscrews are a good fit for an application (and select the most appropriate leadscrew features) in a few simple steps.

Leadscrew load capacity In considering whether leadscrews or ballscrews are the best for an application, begin by looking at the required load capacity. Plastic nuts are suitable for light loads of less than 100 lb, although plastic nut designs for 300 lb and beyond are possible. Bronze nuts, on the other hand, are useful for applications in excess of several thousand pounds. Ballscrews generally provide equal or better load capacity than leadscrews, so are a better choice if load requirements exceed leadscrew capabilities. Leadscrew efficiency Ballscrews offer higher efficiency because rolling contact provides a lower coefficient of friction than sliding contact. The efficiency of ballscrews is relatively constant and is typically better than 90%. In contrast, the efficiency of leadscrews typically ranges from 20 to 80% ... a value highly 64

DESIGN WORLD

Feat_Linear_Motion_8-15_Vs6.LL.LE.MD.indd 64

August 2015

dependent upon helix angle. Helix angle is the arctangent of the lead divided by the pitch diameter. It is the angle of advancement of the thread. As a general rule, higher helix angles mean higher efficiency. A higher helix angle is more efficient because less of the energy driving the leadscrew goes into overcoming friction. This is because the number of times the screw must rotate to get a given linear displacement is lower on a high helix screw. One disadvantage of high helix angle is that it necessitates more torque to turn the screw. Note that when the efficiency of a leadscrew exceeds 50%, the leadscrew becomes back-drivable, which means it can be driven backward by the load. Back-drivability is a disadvantage in many applications because its forces engineers to incorporate a brake to support the load ... especially if the screw mounts vertically. On the other hand, back-drivability is a plus in some applications. For example, one requirement for many doors in passenger railcars is that they let riders force them open. Here, door engineers can configure the drive with a high helix angle leadscrew so that a motor can rapidly close the doors … and passengers can get out during an emergency.

Leadscrew speed Ballscrews are commonly available in medium leads between 0.200 to 0.500 in./ rev, although high-helix products exist. Leadscrews come in a wide range of leads, from less than 0.050 to 2.00 in./rev or more. The use of a wide range of leads can

deliver a wide variation in jog speeds up to 70 in./sec. This leadscrew feature can provide advantages in many applications. For example, devices that must accurately position payloads can use a leadscrew with a low helix angle to get high positioning resolution. Other applications benefit from fast jog speeds and low screw rpm, providing quiet operation and long life. The maximum rotational speed of a leadscrew is limited by the critical speed of the screw—the speed at which resonance occurs. Leadscrew nuts can be driven at very high rpm, but depending on the applied load, heat buildup may occur, which in turn limits duty cycle. The critical speed of the screw shaft also limits ballscrews, and these linearmotion devices are also limited by how fast the balls can travel through the nut returns without damaging the components. This is known as the DN rating.

Leadscrew duty cycle Ballscrews easily provide constant motion at load … and because they generate low frictional heat, their duty cycle is practically unlimited. In contrast, plastic and stainless-steel leadscrew assemblies are typically limited to a duty cycle of 50% under the rated load. Leadscrew assemblies that use bronze nuts have higher load capacities, but these heavier loads increase frictional heat so their duty cycles must be lower, often as low as 10%. This can be calculated more accurately using the PV relationship. (Refer to the section in this

8/5/15 12:50 PM


Linear automation solutions begin with Mike. Meet Mike—your expert on call at Nook Industries. Mike is one of our many seasoned engineers who take the time to listen, brainstorm and help solve your linear motion component challenges—with a catalog or customized solution. For more than 45 years, Nook has delivered high quality engineered systems from people like Mike. It’s no wonder Nook is the go-to partner for linear motion systems in aerospace, medical, automotive and other industries.

Mike Cook Business Development Manager 8 years

support.nookinfo.com 800•321•7800 Nook Industries, Cleveland, OH USA

NOO-052_Mike_DW_2.indd Nook Industries 8-15.indd 651

7/7/15 12:38 9:21 AM 8/5/15 PM


Load on nut

Li n e a r M ot io n

Payloads can backdrive ball-bearing screws, forcing the nut to rotate the screw thanks to inherently high efficiency of 90% or better. But if an application needs backdriving functionality, leadscrews can deliver it, too … the designers must simply pick a lead that’s greater than one-third the screw diameter. (Ideally the lead is equal to or larger than the screw diameter.)

article titled, “A final note on the pressurevelocity factor” for more information.) Leadscrews can operate at 100% duty cycle at light loads and moderate speeds, or they can run at lower duty with either high load and low rpm or low load and high rpm, but not both. High load and high rpm relative to a given thread size and nut design causes overheating and failure.

Leadscrew backlash Backlash is significant consideration in applications where positioning accuracy is important. Standard ballscrew and leadscrew configurations typically have backlash ranging from 0.002 to 0.010 in. Anti-backlash lead nuts eliminate free play and increase repeatability. Most designs place a compression spring or other compliant member between two nut halves to remove radial clearance. Preload between the nut halves must equal or exceed the applied axial load in the direction in which the assembly is loaded through the take-up mechanism to prevent lost motion. The result is a higher torque requirement which typically necessitates a larger motor. Some proprietary anti-backlash nuts remove free play between a nut and screw without introducing excessive drag torque. Cam surfaces on a biasing spacer let it rotate and translate relative to the mating nut halves, accommodating clearances from wear of the nut threads. The angle of the cam surfaces let the two parts self-lock, preventing ramp down or backlash from developing under load. A torsional spring inside the cam between the half-nuts provides sufficient torque for nut biasing. 66

DESIGN WORLD

Feat_Linear_Motion_8-15_Vs6.LL.LE.MD.indd 66

August 2015

During back-driving, the effect of loading is screw turning.

Load on nut Td In this arrangement, the load moves.

Only when wear at the nut-thread interface creates clearance will the cam advance to eliminate backlash. The self-locking action prevents cam movement except during load reversals.

Leadscrew noise Ballscrews are prone to a certain amount of noise because of ball-bearing recirculation. On the other hand, leadscrews are quiet … although frictional impedance from sliding can produce chatter or squeal in the absence of lubrication. Leadscrew corrosion resistance Ballscrews made of carbon steel (a common choice) may be sensitive to certain corrosive environments. On the other hand, leadscrews with a stainless-steel screw and plastic nut or are highly corrosion resistant. However, the plastic nut may be limited to temperatures between 30 and 150° F. Leadscrews with a stainless-steel screw and bronze nut also resist corrosion well.

Standard ballscrew and leadscrew configurations typically have backlash ranging from 0.002 to 0.010 in. Anti-backlash lead nuts eliminate freeplay and increase repeatability.

Leadscrew design freedom and cost Ballscrews have a relatively rigid form factor. In contrast, leadscrews give engineers more design freedom. Designers can pick from myriad form factors and helix angles to www.designworldonline.com

8/6/15 3:21 PM


Mechatronics Enabled

Bring mechanical design & electronic motion control together with an optimized solution from PBC Linear®. SIMO® Series

Industrial Strength Linear Actuators

Constant Force Technology

Motor Options

Lead Screw with Anti-Backlash Nut

Motor Mounted Amplifier

Large Build Area 1000 x 1000 x 500 mm

Application Focus: 3DP Unlimited is a manufacturer of large format, industrial class 3D printers with the capability of achieving layer resolutions as fine as 70 microns.

Read the Design World feature article “5 Keys to Mechatronics Made Easy” at www.designworld-digital.com/designworld/september_2014#pg61

The 3DP1000 utilizes mechatronics from PBC Linear, including SIMO Series linear actuators, lead screws with Constant Force anti-backlash nuts, and motor mounted amplifiers.

Learn how SIMO Series linear actuators can solve your next design dilemma at www.pbclinear.com.

Learn about 3DP Unlimited at www.3DPunlimited.com

1-800-962-8979 • www.pbclinear.com • 6402 Rockton Road, Roscoe, IL 61073 USA

PBC Linear 7-15.indd 67

8/5/15 12:39 PM


250

Li n e a r M ot io n

225

Leadscrew life calculations There is no reliable closed form solution for calculating the life of a leadscrew because wear from friction can be nonlinear. A single wear coefficient is often insufficient to predict performance throughout the life of a leadscrew assembly. Life is estimated by case study under controlled operating conditions. In the case where the combination of loading, speed and duty cycle exceeds a certain limit, failure is predictable and will occur rapidly. For applications that operate near the recommended design load at greater than 500 rpm, check with the applications engineering depart-

DESIGN WORLD

August 2015

Pressure (psi)

optimize them to application requirements. In addition, the cost of a new ballscrew design is typically $10,000 to $20,000 versus $3,000 to $5,000 for a comparable leadscrew.

68

200 175 100,000 PV load line

150 125 100 75

13,000 PV load line

50 25 0

0

10

20

30

Velocity (ft/min.)

40

50

The pressure velocity (PV) factor is the product of the pressure and velocity between the nut and screw. It defines the load, speed and duty cycle that the nut can handle. Plastic materials have an intrinsic PV rating, the point at which frictional heat causes permanent deformation of the plastic.

UPDATED Feat_Linear_Motion_8-15_Vs6.LL.LE.MD.indd 68

Pressure-velocity (PV) chart: Load versus linear velocity

www.designworldonline.com

3/27/2015 4:00 PM 8/5/15 12:52 PM


FOR MAINTENANCE-FREE LINEAR WAY PERFORMANCE, HEAD STRAIGHT FOR IKO TECHNOLOGY.

BALL

BALL SPLINE

ROLLER

IKO C-LUBE LINEAR WAY SERIES Our linear motion rolling guide lineup scores big with maintenance-free performance in a wide variety of applications. Maintenance will never slide with our self-lubricating C-Lube maintenancefree rolling guides that run up to five years. Our C-Lube family of linear motion rolling guides offers you great load capacity, high rigidity, superior running accuracy

Lubricant is deposited directly to the surface of the rolling elements.

and smooth motion for machine tools, semi conductor and liquid crystal manufacturing applications. These great performers make different from others, providing superior cost performance for your machines and offer an unending run of long term maintenance-free lubrication for up to 5 years or 20,000 km.

IKO International, Inc.

5 YEARS 12,500 MILES MAINTENANCE FREE

www.ikont.co.jp/eg/

New York: 800-922-0337 / E-mail: eco@ikonet.co.jp • Chicago: 800-323-6694 / E-mail: mwo@ikonet.co.jp Atlanta: 800-874-6445 / E-mail: seo@ikonet.co.jp • Dallas: 800-295-7886 / E-mail: swo@ikonet.co.jp Los Angeles: 800-252-3665 / E-mail: wco@ikonet.co.jp • Silicon Valley: 800-252-3665 / E-mail: wco@ikonet.co.jp

IKO 7-15 (Back in 5 yrs).indd 69

8/6/15 4:17 PM


Li n e a r M ot io n

A full complement of lubricants satisfies myriad lead-screw application needs. These include low vapor pressure greases for clean room and vacuum applications. Case in point: Thomson TriGel offerings meet lubrication needs for a wide range of linearmotion applications.

FROM PRECISION INDEXING TO SMALL PRODUCT TRANSFERS,

SMART SOLUTIONS MOVING YOUR PRODUCT WITH SPEED AND CARE.

ment of your leadscrew supplier. They can calculate the pressure velocity (PV) factor, which is a key design factor in proper sizing and selection of leadscrew assemblies that use polymer nuts.

A final note on the pressure-velocity factor The PV factor is the product of the pressure and velocity between the nut and screw. It helps determine the load, speed and duty cycle that the nut can handle. Plastic materials have an intrinsic PV rating, the point at which frictional heat causes permanent deformation of the plastic. So, the more load applied to a leadscrew assembly, the slower it must be turned to avoid exceeding the nut’s PV limit. Likewise, the faster the nut is turned, the lower the available load capacity. The primary modes of failure for plastic nuts are wear and PV. Wear failure occurs more slowly than a PV failure and can be accounted for through application of case studies and testing. Leadscrew lubrication All ballscrews need lubrication to provide reasonable life. Leadscrew mechanisms using bronze nuts also need lubricant, usually in the form of a thick damping grease. In contrast, leadscrew assemblies with plastic nuts can run well without lubricant due to the internal lubricants in the nut material, but the use of gel-type lubricant increases allowable loading and extends life by reducing friction between nut and screw. For moderate loading, speed and duty cycle in an office environment, lubrication should last between 500,000 and 2,500,000 in. Harsh environments reduce grease life. Tip for end users: If particulate

Booth C-1847

800.397.8664 www.dorner.com/dwm 70

Feat_Linear_Motion_8-15_Vs6.LL.LE.MD.indd 70 Dorner_DesignWrldAd_715.indd 1

7/14/15 6:46 AM

DESIGN WORLD

August 2015

8/5/15 12:53 PM


5

is present, clean the screw before reapplying lubricant. Reapply when there is no visible film remaining on the flanks of the screw thread. More guidelines: Don’t use grease in environments with significant particulate or debris that can load the grease and turn it into abrasive slurry. In this type of application, use dry-film lubricant instead. PTFE coating is a dry film that creates a lubrication barrier between a metal substrate and a polymer bushing or lead nut. It is suited for use with plastic nuts and stainless-steel leadscrews. Such pairings eliminate the need for lubrication maintenance … and the coating does not attract particulate like a gel lubricant.

Online selection and sizing Today, online tools greatly reduce the time engineers need to spend on picking a suitable leadscrew. In some cases, the user enters key application parameters, including mounting configuration, loading conditions, life requirement, orientation, speed and stroke. The online software then filters choices with a comprehensive set of calculations. Then it presents a listing of products that meet the application requirements ranked by smallest to largest screw size. Users can further filter results on parameters such as accuracy, repeatability, environment and nut style. Outputs include product specifications, dimensions, 3D models, quote request form and ordering information. DW

Personal CNC Prototyping - Product Design - R&D - Engineering Eisertech, a medical device company in San Diego, CA, designs and manufactures spinal implants and surgical instruments with the help of their Tormach PCNC 1100. What started out as garage shop prototypes has grown into a successful medical device product line. To read more about this story, and to see what others are doing with their PCNC mills, visit www.tormach.com/design. PCNC 1100 Series 3

Titanium bone screws and surgical spinal implants manufactured by Eisertech LLC.

Thomson Industries thomsonlinear.com

http://dwo.me/1Scf2jH

Mobi l e Inte g ra tio n Po we re d By

PCNC 770 Series 3 PCNC mills shown here with optional stand and accessories.

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

Feat_Linear_Motion_8-15_Vs6.LL.LE.MD.indd 71

www.tormach.com/design

71

8/5/15 12:54 PM


M e c h a t r o n i c s Operator safety is a top priority for machine and robot installations, and safety switches help implement the desired level of protection.

Take care of

your machines and people with

safety switches

Andrew Waugh • Product Manager for Sensors and Safety at AutomationDirect.com

Protecting an operator from safety hazards should be at the top of the list for all designers of automated equipment such as machines and robots. Once the appropriate safety guarding level is defined, access to the automated equipment is only permitted through properly interlocked doors and other access points. To control access, safety switches and other related components must be specified to meet specification and installation requirements. Safety switches are available in a variety of mechanical options such as tongue interlock, hinge interlock, cable pull and limit. These contact switches work well in many applications, as do non-contact safety switches in other instances. But before we get into a detailed discussion of safety switches, let’s look at some of the applicable standards.

72

DESIGN WORLD

Mechatronics 8-15_Vs10.MG.LL.MD.indd 72

August 2015

8/5/15 12:56 PM


Figure 2: Robotic work cells connect safety switches to safety-rated controllers to protect workers while still allowing access for maintenance and repairs.

www.designworldonline.com

Mechatronics 8-15_Vs10.MG.LL.MD.indd 73

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

73

8/5/15 12:56 PM


M e c h a t r o n i c s

Figure 1: Many different types of safety switches are available to meet the variety of needs in various industrial automation applications.

Standards and specs A variety of personnel operate automated production equipment, from experienced manufacturing engineers to the newly hired production workers. All of these employees need protection from machine operating hazards, which can be provided by following safety specifications defined by several national and international specifications (Table 1). Specifications such as 29 CFR 1910.212 identify a variety of machines that usually

Table 1: Safety specifications related to the use of safety switches

• 29 CFR 1910.212, Occupational Safety and Health Standards, Machinery and

Machine Guarding, General Requirements for all Machines.

• ANSI/NFPA 79-1991, Electrical Standard for Industrial Machinery • ANSI/RIA R15.06-1986, Industrial Robots and Robot Systems • ISO 13849-1, protection level up to PLe depending on system architecture • EN 62061, protection level up to SIL3 depending on system architecture 74

DESIGN WORLD

Mechatronics 8-15_Vs10.MG.LL.MD.indd 74

August 2015

require point-of-operation guarding. ANSI/ NFPA 79-1991 and ANSI/RIA R15.06-1986 also discuss guarding requirements, as do ISO 13849-1 and EN 62061. These specifications make it clear that machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from hazards. These hazards include those that are created by point of operation, pinch points, rotating machinery, flying debris and sparks. Barrier guards are commonly used to protect machine operators and maintenance technicians. These barrier guards are designed and constructed to prevent plant personnel from having any part of their body in hazardous areas during machine cycles. These barrier guards typically include a gate or guard door to protect the operator from machine hazards. These gates must be in the closed position before the machine can cycle. To confirm the gate or guard door is closed, safety switches are used; there are many choices to satisfy regulatory requirements and provide a safe working environment. Safety levels As these safety switches are designed into the automated equipment and control system, machinery safety standards such as ISO 13849-1 and EN 62061 must be taken into account to ensure compliance. It is important to understand the performance levels and risk factors, such as severity of injury, frequency of exposure and possibility of avoidance. These machinery safety standards help define the reliability, redundancy and fault detection of the safety system. When specifying safety switches, understand the needed category, for example PLe or SIL3. The category depends on the application, and some judgment must be used, so a good rule-of-thumb is to go to a higher category when in doubt. Safety Integrity Level (SIL) is a measure of safety system performance in terms of probability of failure on demand. There are four levels: SIL 1, SIL 2, SIL 3 and SIL 4. Performance Level (PL) is a similar measure to SIL, with levels of PL a, b, c, d or e. Higher SIL numbers or PL letters indicate

8/5/15 12:57 PM


M e c h a t r o n i c s

Table 2: Advantages of non-contact safety switches over mechanical safety switches

• Reduced wear • More tolerant to guard door misalignment • Excellent resistance to contamination • Longer service life • Higher level of protection • Simpler installation • Smaller size safer and more expensive protection regimes. Specifically, the higher the SIL number or the PL letter, the safer the system, as there is a lower probability the system will fail to perform properly. As the SIL number or PL letter increases, the installation and maintenance costs and complexity of the system also usually increase. Mechanically actuated safety switches It is always the designer’s responsibility to ensure compliance with the safety requirements of an application and to select the correct protection level. Here are some suggestions for guard door safety switches that provide point-of-access protection for operators and meet protection level requirements. A variety of safety switches are available in the market (Figure 1). Single or dual contacts from each of these switches are connected to a safety controller (safety relay, safety programmable relay or safetyrated PLC) as inputs. When the switch is activated, the safety controller’s outputs remove energy, such as power or air, from motion-causing devices including motors, solenoids and pneumatic actuators. Tongue interlock safety switches are often used to monitor door position. With these devices, a key is mounted on a door, and it mechanically engages and actuates the switch when the door is shut. Locking tongue guard switches are similar to tongue interlock safety switches, but use a spring and solenoid. These locking tongue guard switches can be configured to unlock/release the tongue when energized or de-energized. Hinge interlock switches can also be used to guard doors, and are available in different styles. Some mount to a pin on the top of the door, while others mount to the hinge pin and monitor the position of the door. A commonly used safety device on a machine or production line is a cable pull switch. These switches August 2015

Mechatronics 8-15_Vs10.MG.LL.MD.indd 75

DESIGN WORLD

DesignWrld_5_12x8_37_Layout 1 1/8/15 5:19 PM Page 1

Stock & Custom Springs 22,000+ Products Available • FREE Standard Ground Shipping in the Continental US on Stock Parts • Engineering and Technical Support Available • FREE CAD Downloads at leespring.com • Prototypes Through Large Production Runs •

Request a Free Catalog Today! Over 300 pages of Parts, Specifications and Pricing

Call: 888-777-4647 Visit: leespring.com Fax: 888-426-6655 Email: sales@leespring.com

75

8/6/15 3:23 PM


M e c h a t r o n i c s

CUSTOM ENGINEERED SPINDLE / SLIDE COMBINATIONS DESIGNED & MANUFACTURED TO YOUR SPECIFICATIONS

monitor the tension on a cable stretched along an open machine or conveyor. If the cable is pulled or cut, tension is respectively increased or released from the cable and the switch breaks (opens) the safety circuit connected to the safety controller. Safety switches are not just designed to protect operators, but machines as well. Over travel, or drift on machine travel stops, can cause catastrophic damage to equipment, even when these conditions don’t directly jeopardize operator safety. Safety limit switches are used to prevent these types of problems. They can have the same form as common limit switches with levers, rockers, plungers and rollers—and are designed with safety standards in mind to ensure that possible machine failures are detected early.

Safety switches are not just designed to protect operators, but machines as well. Over travel, or drift on machine travel stops, can cause catastrophic damage to equipment, even when these conditions don’t directly jeopardize operator safety. Non-contact safety switches are another option. Although they perform the same function as tongue interlock switches, they provide several advantages since the switch and actuator do not come in contact.

www.setco.com/customize Let Us Help You 1-800-543-0470

Non-contact switch advantages Non-contact safety switches offer several advantages over standard mechanically interlocked safety switches (Table 2). They work well in applications with poor guard alignment and high maintenance requirements, and where long mechanical life is required. Non-contact safety switches allow easy and unobtrusive installation because they are small and have a variety of mounting footprints and actuation paths. Because the actuator and the switch of non-contact devices are not mechanically engaged, these 76

Mechatronics 8-15_Vs10.MG.LL.MD.indd 76

DESIGN WORLD

August 2015

8/6/15 3:23 PM


Design World 2015 FPB.pdf

Design 2 Part 7-15.indd 77

1

11/20/14

12:47 PM

8/5/15 1:01 PM


M e c h a t r o n i c s

THE PERFECT BALANCE! TSUBAKI CABLES, THE PERFECT COMPLEMENT TO YOUR CABLE CARRIER!

TRAXLINE CABLES

Only Tsubaki Carriers matched with superior Tsubaki Cables can offer you the perfect balance of flexibility, endurance, and resistance in even the harshest production environments. That’s what makes this the ultimate package and the first choice of the most discriminating customers from around the globe. Both Carrier and Cable are designed and engineered with the same high standards of quality, reliability and performance you can depend on. So why compromise your mission-critical application with anything less than the perfect match: Tsubaki Carriers and Tsubaki Traxline® Cables? Go with the single source provider of cables and carriers that you can trust in any condition – Tsubaki.

ROLLER CLASS CHAINS • BACKSTOPS • SPROCKETS • CABLE & HOSE CARRIERS • POWER TRANSMISSION PRODUCTS ROLLERCHAINS CHAINS• •ENGINEERING ENGINEERING CLASS CHAINS • CAM CLUTCHES • SPROCKETS • CABLE & HOSE CARRIERS • PT COMPONENTS ®

Total Package

Figure 3: This conveyor gate switch safely stops the conveyor when the gate is open, protecting the operator from moving pallets. (Image: AutomationDirect.com)

units have zero mechanical wear and, therefore, a long service life. These switches typically also have increased environmental protection, making them less susceptible to water and dirt ingress. Another advantage of non-contact safety switches is their flexibility with respect to alignment of the actuator and switch. Unlike conventional interlocks where one must carefully align the key (tongue) path to enter and actuate the switch, non-contact switches can have upward of ½ in. of misalignment—so a sagging guard door, tight swing radiuses and awkward angles won’t pose a problem. The main challenge with non-contact switches is their inability to mechanically lock a door or other moving part. However, there are options available that use electromagnets that provide

USTSUBAKI.COM

©2015 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC All Rights Reserved.

Mechatronics 8-15_Vs10.MG.LL.MD.indd 78

78

DESIGN WORLD

August 2015

8/7/15 11:08 AM


up to 1,500 N of force to hold a door closed or a moving part in a designated position. Although the metal actuator and electromagnet do come in verifiable contact, there is no engaging key as with contact switches. Most non-contact switches can be purchased as non-coded or coded, depending on the level of required safety, and can use a variety of different methods to provide protection. Non-contact type switch technologies Non-contact safety switches are available in a number of styles and configurations. Non-coded switches are simple magnets, while coded switches can be magnetic- or RFID-coded to provide a higher level of safety. Non-coded switches use a redundant reed switch for safety. When the magnet actuator is present, it pulls in, or closes, the switch contacts. These units do not require separate power and act like dry contacts in

an electrical circuit when used as inputs to safety controllers. Coded, non-contact switches require additional power, but in turn provide a digital output, LED indication and increased levels of detection if plant personnel try and defeat the switch. Personnel defeat safety devices for a variety of reasons, but doing so is never a good idea, and coded switches can be used to help deter these detrimental actions. The switch actuator in a coded noncontact switch is composed of a series of magnets whose poles are placed in a particular pattern (for example N-S-N). The switch is set to only see this particular magnetic pattern; therefore, it cannot be defeated by a generic magnet. RFID-coded switches provide an additional layer of defeat prevention. The actuator is composed of an RFID tag that the switch is programmed to detect. These switches can be master coded (detecting all RFID tags) or uniquely coded (seeing only one tag). With the unique coded RFID tags only seeing the actuator that comes with it, the possibility of defeating them is reduced even further. Here’s an example of how these safety switches can be used in machine and robot protection schemes: A common application involving a locking safety switch is a guarded robotic work cell (Figure 2). The maintenance access door is held closed while the robot is in cycle by a solenoid-operated locking tongue interlock safety switch. An operator would request access to the guarded area by pressing a push button. The push button would activate an input on the safety controller, which would issue a cycle stop request. This request would signal the robot to finish its cycle and stop. Once the robot’s cycle completes and it’s stopped, the safety controller is notified www.designworldonline.com  

Mechatronics 8-15_Vs10.MG.LL.MD.indd 79

by a discrete signal input. One of the safety controller’s outputs then energizes the safety switch solenoid, releasing the door lock. When the guard door unlocks, the robot’s guard safety circuit is disabled. This inhibits robot motion unless the robot is placed in manual mode and the dead man’s switch, on the handheld pendant, is actuated. The operator can then safely open the door for maintenance and can operate the robot manually if need be. Using the locking safety switch in this application allows the robot to stop in a controlled and predictable manner, which prevents possible machine damage or harm to personnel. It also makes it easier to restart the system as it was automatically stopped in a known state by the safety controller. There are many machine and robot applications, and each must be examined to determine the required protection level. Once this level is determined, the right type of safety switches, safety devices and safety controllers must be selected to meet the protection level requirements, and to provide protection to personnel and machinery. DW AutomationDirect automationdirect.com

http://dwo.me/1I7bMfA

Mobile Integrati on Powered By

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

79

8/7/15 11:08 AM


L

e

a

d

e

r

s

h

i

p

Dean Kamen

on making the world a better place through engineering Paul J. Heney • Editorial Director

For the January issue’s Leadership spotlight, Editorial Director Paul J. Heney profiled master inventor and engineer Dean Kamen. Kamen is also well known for creating the successful FIRST program for inspiring kids to engineer solutions to problems, using everything from LEGOs to robots. Kamen invited Heney to the FIRST Championships this spring in St. Louis, to witness firsthand what was happening with the program. (See Heney’s Insights column on Page 4 of this issue.) After the Championships, the two spoke about this year’s event and the future. Heney: What was your takeaway from this

Heney: Did you have any memorable

year’s championship? Was there anything in particular that surprised you?

interactions with a student or team?

Kamen: I think, like every year, it was bigger

and better than the year before … With more than 80 countries sending teams, the idea that the two teams that ended up in the final championship round from the little FIRST LEGO League kids, one team happened to come from Jordan and the other team came from Israel. To watch Israel and Jordan competing with 8 year old kids and at the end of the round, the teams ran out and hugged each other. It gives you hope for what the world could be like for smart and rational people. 80

DESIGN WORLD

Dean Kamen 8-15_Vs8.LL.MD.indd 80

August 2015

Kamen: They’re nonstop. You typically have a

kid run up to you and explain that FIRST has changed her or his life, and they’re now going off to college. One of Will.i.am’s kids, Cynthia, is Hispanic, who is just this incredible kid, has been working for 10 years, since she was 6 years old, with the obsession to become a great engineer and to go off to MIT. It turns out that she wins one of the 10 positions of Dean’s List students. Of course, with 182 universities all lined up … giving out tens of millions of dollars in scholarships, they announce that she’s won Dean’s List. She comes running up. She’s

8/5/15 1:03 PM


Photography by: Stu Garfield

www.designworldonline.com  

Dean Kamen 8-15_Vs8.LL.MD.indd 81

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

81

8/5/15 1:04 PM


Le a d e r s hip

hysterical. I see her, and I said, “What are you going to do now?” She said, “Now I’m Dean’s List. I’m applying to MIT. I want to go to MIT.” I turned around and I see Stu Schmill there, who happens to be the Dean of Admissions of MIT. I turn around and say, “Stu, meet Cynthia. Cynthia, meet Stu. By the way, Cynthia, Stu is the Dean of Admissions of MIT.” He puts out his hand, shakes hands and says, “Let’s talk.” I thought she was going to pass out. There’s just no end of incredible stories that happen. In fact, most of them, people wouldn’t believe. They think this doesn’t happen in the real world, this is cornier than a tearjerking movie. What’s so exciting about it is it’s all real, and it happens to thousands and thousands and thousands of kids. Heney: You told me when we met in December

that you thought that FIRST should excite kids in a similar way to how our society treats sporting events. I think there definitely was that kind of excitement in the building. Is this the way you envisioned FIRST 25 years ago, or do you think the vision that you and the other people involved in FIRST had has changed over the years? Kamen: I would tell you probably one thing that

I never let change. We grow, we evolve; I hope we improve. I started FIRST for a single mission. I

entertainment, and the Academy Awards and Hollywood. Every famous role model that kids, particularly women and minorities can relate to, comes from Hollywood or professional sports. No wonder they gravitate to that. No wonder they gravitate away from the lifelong efforts you have to put in, starting as a kid, to learn math and science, to become a great engineer and innovator. I said, “Let’s figure out how to celebrate the superheroes of technology, even once in a while, the way we do superstars of sports. Let’s use the model that they use in other sports to create, among kids, the same kind of passion for science and technology as

“We don’t have an education crisis in this country, we have a culture crisis.” started FIRST with a single premise. The premise was, despite what lots of people say, we don’t have an education crisis in this country. We have a culture crisis. We have a culture in which kids are free to do whatever they want, and in a free culture, you get the best of what you celebrate. We’ve grown into a culture that celebrates, to obsession, the worlds of sports, NFL and NBA and World Series, Super Bowl, and the worlds of

82

DESIGN WORLD

Dean Kamen 8-15_Vs8.LL.MD.indd 82

August 2015

they have for bouncing the ball or jumping on a stage.” Twenty-five years ago, I named the organization FIRST: For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology. The word education isn’t in our name. We’re about inspiring kids. We’re about recognizing the importance and the fun and the accessibility of science and technology. From the beginning, I said we’re

not competing with the Science Fair, we’re competing with the Super Bowl. We’re competing for the hearts and minds of kids, and we have to convince kids, particularly women and minorities, that if they’re willing to put their passion to it, science and engineering are every bit as much fun and every bit as accessible as bouncing a ball. The big difference is every kid on every team in FIRST can turn pro, because there are millions and millions of jobs out there for qualified people that have a passion for technology. There are very, very, very few jobs open every year in the NBA. From year one until today, I have not changed, and I won’t let anybody else change the mission of FIRST. Let the schools teach. Let the educators educate. We are a coalition of industry, parents, government and teachers that want to celebrate and develop a passion among kids for the hard work that it takes, and for the gratification that you get from mastering science, engineering, math and technology. I believe that FIRST is successful because we are igniting a passion among kids, in the same way they can be inspired to work so hard at, frankly, what are really pastimes. They can develop, over their youth, an obsession for sports and entertainment. It will not give them career

www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 1:04 PM


AUG15 Switches NC Ad (DW)_Design World 7/15/15 4:50 PM Page 1

The Only Switch that Matters Is the One You Need And We’ve Got It

In stock and ready-to-ship. See it all at thinkallied.com/switches

1.800.433.5700 © Allied Electronics, Inc 2015. ‘Allied Electronics’ and the Allied Electronics logo are trademarks of Allied Electronics, Inc.

Allied #2ad 8-15.indd 83

An Electrocomponents Company.

8/5/15 1:11 PM


Le a d e r s hip options. Or, they can develop, while they are young, a passion for learning science and math and solving tough engineering problems under pressure, and that prepares them for the real world of technology. It prepares them to take on any career they want. People think we have a job shortage in this country. I’ve been saying for a long time, there’s no job shortage, there are skill shortages, and kids that don’t have the skills to do tech are going to see less and less and less exciting career options available to them. The boring careers, the physical labor careers, the dangerous

careers are going away. They’re being done by robots and computers. The only exciting, expanding area for kids to have great new careers inevitably requires more and more confidence in, and comfort with, technology. FIRST is creating that among a whole generation of kids. That has never changed, and I think it’s more important than ever. Heney: Do you see 3D printing playing

a bigger role in the coming years in the program?

“We’re about inspiring kids. We’re about recognizing the importance and the fun and the accessibility of science and technology.”

BUMPERS. PINS. GRIPPERS.

Supreme 3HTND-2DA Ideal for die attach applications

• Rubber and urethane bumpers provide load bearing protection • Ball-lock pins for fastening, locating and alignment • Gripping contact points in a variety of styles and surfaces for secure holding Call us at 888.794.8687 or visit us online for ordering, specs and CAD files.

One part compound

No mixing/freezing needed

www.fixtureworks.net

Ideal dispensing profile

No tailing or bleed out

www.masterbond.com 84

DESIGN WORLD

Dean Kamen 8-15_Vs8.LL.MD.indd 84

August 2015

www.designworldonline.com FXW-091 4.25x5.indd 1

7/1/15 1:52 PM

8/7/15 11:13 AM


“...Every kid on every team in FIRST can turn pro, because there are millions of jobs out there for qualified people that have a passion for technology.”

Kamen: Oh, yes, 3D printing fits perfectly

with FIRST because A, it’s an advanced technology—I love to show off to kids how exciting advanced technologies are—and B, 3D printing allows you to make parts really quickly, and there’s very few places where that matters more than in a competition where you have only a matter of weeks to design and build a solution to a complex problem. In fact, some of the robots that were there, the entire robot base was 3D printed. A couple of companies were exited to show that they built one and they didn’t like it, so they just changed a few aspects of it overnight and reprinted another robot. Ten years ago, that would have been something that NASA couldn’t do, that the Department of Defense couldn’t do, that the most advanced engineering labs in the world couldn’t do. Now we’ve got high school kids 3D printing entire robots overnight.

℀ 圀 伀 圀

Heney: Are there any challenges at the state

or local level that stand in the way of FIRST succeeding? Kamen: I think the problem is most large

systems, and education is a very large system, most large systems that have taken 100 or more years to develop in a society are very hard to change, even though everybody knows they need to change. Even though certain aspects of them everybody knows are broken or inefficient. They’re just hard to change. Bringing FIRST into every school is going to require changing various aspects of almost all the different layers of education, from school boards to superintendents to principals to teachers. It’s a lot of work, and people resist change. I think we have to keep pushing hard to make FIRST available everywhere. Heney: Dean, if you could have the ear of one

person for 15 minutes to sell them on why they should support FIRST, who would it be and why? Kamen: That’s a very good question. Actually, I was lucky enough to get invited by the President of the United States to have lunch with him, and I did have more than that amount of time, and I did spend some of my time trying to convince the president, who I think is already a huge believer in tech and a

䔀瘀攀渀 戀攀琀琀攀爀 琀栀愀渀 攀砀瀀攀挀琀攀搀⸀ 䐀漀渀ᤠ琀 礀漀甀 氀漀瘀攀 椀琀 眀栀攀渀 礀漀甀ᤠ爀攀 猀甀爀瀀爀椀猀攀搀 ᐠ 椀渀 愀 最漀漀搀 眀愀礀㼀 伀甀爀 ㄀㔀ᴠ 䜀爀愀瀀栀椀挀 䠀䴀䤀猀 漀昀琀攀渀 栀愀瘀攀 琀栀愀琀 攀昀昀攀挀琀⸀                       䌀漀洀瀀愀爀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀攀 挀漀洀瀀攀琀椀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 眀攀 漀昀昀攀爀 㨀   

∠  䈀攀琀琀攀爀 瀀爀椀挀椀渀最Ⰰ 漀渀氀礀 ␀㄀㔀㐀  ∠  䴀漀爀攀 洀攀洀漀爀礀 ∠  䘀愀猀琀攀爀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀漀爀 ∠  䈀爀椀最栀琀攀爀 搀椀猀瀀氀愀礀 ∠  䐀愀琀愀 氀漀最最椀渀最 愀渀搀 琀爀攀渀搀椀渀最 ∠  䌀漀洀瀀愀琀椀戀氀攀 眀椀琀栀 ㄀㔀 ⬀ 倀䰀䌀猀 䔀渀樀漀礀 愀 眀椀搀攀 爀愀渀最攀 漀昀 猀椀稀攀猀 ⠀㐀⸀㌀ᴠⴀ㄀㔀ᴠ⤀Ⰰ  焀甀愀渀琀椀琀礀 搀椀猀挀漀甀渀琀猀 愀瘀愀椀氀愀戀氀攀⸀

䌀愀氀氀 甀猀 愀渀搀 戀攀 猀甀爀瀀爀椀猀攀搀 琀漀搀愀礀⸀ 

㄀㔀ᴠ  䠀䴀䤀㔀㄀㔀 堀䰀

夀漀甀爀 䤀渀搀甀猀琀爀椀愀氀 䌀漀渀琀爀漀氀 匀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀  簀  洀愀瀀氀攀猀礀猀琀攀洀猀⸀挀漀洀  簀   㐀㈀㔀⸀㜀㐀㔀⸀㌀㈀㈀㤀 August 2015

Dean Kamen 8-15_Vs8.LL.MD.indd 85

DESIGN WORLD 

85

8/5/15 1:25 PM


Part Solutions 7-15_REVISED.indd 86

8/5/15 1:13 PM


Le ade rshi p huge believer that the best solution to everything from what’s going on in Baltimore to what went on in Ferguson, the best solution to all those things is give all kids equal access to great education, particularly STEM education that can lead to great career options for them. I did tell the president, “You know what, there’s lots of problems out there, and you can treat them one at a time. Ignorance, teenage pregnancy, drug addiction, poverty, bigotry. You treat every one of those one at a time, and you’re treating a symptom.” Why are people addicted to drugs? Why do we have so much teenage pregnancy? Why is there hatred, bigotry and fear? You can treat all of those as if they’re a problem, or you can recognize those are a symptom, and the core problem is lack of education. You give a kid a great education, which gives them self-confidence, which gives them the capability to turn dreams into reality, which gives them great career choices to pursue and be satisfied by. Those kids will not end up with all those other problems we just talked about. I suggested to the president that he help us make FIRST available to every kid in this country, and eventually, every kid around the world. Certainly he didn’t argue that that was a bad goal. DW

Endlessly Inventive. Heating Elements and LED Modules for Aerospace and Defense OEMs.

Precise, uniform heat.

FIRST usfirst.org

http://dwo.me/1I7cHN4

Light. Exactly where you need it.

Mo bile Integrati on Powered B y

www.heatron.com • 913.651.4420 • sales@heatron.com ISO 9001:2008 August 2015

Dean Kamen 8-15_Vs8.LL.MD.indd 87

DESIGN WORLD

87

8/5/15 1:25 PM


For an instant online quote on parts, visit www.3dsystems.com/quickparts or call us at +1 770.901.3200 Š 2015 by 3D Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Quickparts, QuickQuote and the 3D Systems logo are registered trademarks of 3D Systems, Inc.

3D Systems 8-15_MPF.indd 88

8/5/15 1:33 PM


A supplement of Design World • August 2015

Inside: 92

Expert viewpoint: How additive technology will affect manufacturing 96

Paper based 3D printing

Additively manufacturing a cranial implant

reduces surgical time

COVER_MPF 8-15_FINAL.indd 89

100

8/4/15 4:44 PM


Rapid Manufacturing with a Polite Disregard for Tradition Tech-driven injection molding, CNC machining and 3D printing for those who need parts tomorrow

Proto Labs uses proprietary software and a massive compute cluster to accelerate manufacturing of prototypes and production parts for every industry.

Got a project? Get 1 to 10,000+ plastic, metal or liquid silicone rubber parts in as fast as 1 day. Request your free Design Cube at go.protolabs.com/DW5GA ISO 9001:2008 Certified | ITAR Registered Major Credit Cards Accepted | Š 2015 Proto Labs, Inc.

Proto Labs 8-15_Man.indd 90

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING CNC MACHINING INJECTION MOLDING

8/5/15 1:34 PM


Le s li e La n g n a u M a n ag i n g Edi to r

Ed i to ri a l

lla n g n a u @wtwh m edi a .co m

The fall and rise of 3D printing If you listen to the investor community about 3D printing/additive manufacturing (3DP/AM), you may find yourself skeptical about the viability of this industry. Recent reports, as of this writing, claim that the stock prices of the major public vendors are at an all-time low. It’s time to revisit the Gartner Technology Hype Scale. Now that the hype about 3D printing is clearly winding down, we are entering the phase known as the Trough of Disillusionment, at least as far as the stock market/investor community is concerned. Good. Now, let’s move on to the next phase (enlightenment), which promises even better advances and developments in 3DP/AM technology. In my opinion, the stock analysts never really understood this market. Like many others, they fell for the click-bait headlines: 3D printing an organ, 3DP will revolutionize the home, and so on. Stock investors seemed to get completely caught up in home-based 3DP and ignored the business and manufacturing side of this industry. In addition, some stockbrokers were deliberately short-selling 3DP stocks, betting the stock prices would fall, so that they could make money. You might think the stock market is a good indicator of the viability of a company or industry, until you look into the ignorance that becomes the basis of buy-and-sell decisions and the stock manipulations that go on.

www.makepartsfast.com  

Leslie.Vs2.MD.indd 91

Business uses of 3DP/AM systems may not grab attention, but these uses are the ones that will help build this industry. They include: • making custom medical parts and devices tailored to individuals • making 3D-printed versions of surgical areas for pre-surgery planning • reducing weight from parts, especially for aerospace and automotive • adding new mechanical properties to parts, aerospace and automotive • creating lower cost molds for injection molding • fast development of fixtures and other tooling for machining and assembly operations These applications may not have the “sex appeal” of a cosmetic Iron Man or Spider Man prosthetic hand, but they deliver a needed function. Based on Gartner’s Technology Hype Scale, the best is yet to come for 3DP/AM. n MPF

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

91

8/5/15 1:35 PM


E

x

p

e

r

t

V

i

e

w

p

o

i

n

t

How additive technology will affect manufacturing

Leslie Langnau • Managing Editor

92

DESIGN WORLD

Lead feature for MPF 8-15_Vs6.LL.MD.indd 92

August 2015

8/5/15 1:38 PM


» The Exer i a l syst e m offers a completely automated line that could go

into a high volume production (100,000 to

500,000 parts per year) factory and deliver

parts in an automated way to an assembly

process. It contains multiple industrial

stations that allow for continuous

production and simultaneous processing.

For 16 years, ExOne has focused its efforts on developing additive machines for use in manufacturing. ExOne President Dave Burns explores this shift of 3D printing into additive manufacturing and how it will affect design engineers. Before the majority of U.S. manufacturing was transferred to other countries, economics dictated that you produce hundreds to hundreds of thousands of the same item. The faster you were able to accomplish this feat, the less it ultimately cost you. Custom, one-of-a-kind products were expensive to make. Items made on CNCs or that were injection molded had to conform to certain geometries, or had to be built into parts requiring assembly. Certain cuts, certain moves were impossible when cutting, stamping, drilling or forming parts. Today, there is hope for the costeffective manufacture of custom, geometrically complex parts. That hope comes from 3D printing as it matures into additive manufacturing (AM). As recently as a couple of years ago, the idea of using the current additive technology for productionstyle manufacturing was a dream. Speed, reproducible accuracy and www.makepartsfast.com  

Lead feature for MPF 8-15_Vs6.LL.MD.indd 93

the too-small array of materials were seen as limitations not easily overcome. These limitations are gradually disappearing as curiosity, experimentation and creative thinking are producing new machines. Thus, many in the AM industry are focusing less on prototyping and much more on how to incorporate additive machines into manufacturing. At the recent RAPID 2015 show, I had a chance to talk with Dave Burns to discuss this shift in the AM industry. ExOne has been developing production focused AM machines since 1999. When evaluating AM machines for production applications, many treat these machines as separate from other manufacturing machines, assuming that the production speed and material availability will inherently limit their use in manufacturing. But ExOne’s focus is different. August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

93

8/5/15 1:39 PM


Expert Viewpoint

» “We’ve been focused not on competing with other 3D printing companies,” said Burns, “but on understanding that our real competition is conventional manufacturing processes and being able to match productivity and cost with traditional process.” As Burns noted, manufacturing plant managers track a lot of data on the manufacturing process—quality, productivity, orders in, orders out and so on. “But not one of the ones I know has a chart saying how much 3D printing they did last week. Plant managers don’t really care how much 3D printing they use, so being cool and being a 3D printing company

flexibility, design freedom and a shorter supply chain, because now you can print on demand. If you hard-tool parts, then you must run 100,000 or more to amortize the cost. With additive, you need only run one part to amortize the cost because 3D printing is totally independent of volume,” he said. Many analysts may find the news that traditional machine tool manufacturers, such as Mazak and Trumpf, plan on entering the additive market as a bit of a surprise, as well as encouraging to the additive market. For Burns, though, news of the big guys coming in was totally predictable.

“We’ve been focused not on competing with other 3D printing companies,” said Burns, “but on understanding that our real competition is conventional manufacturing processes and being able to match productivity and cost with traditional process.” doesn’t matter much to a plant manager.” Getting the product out the door is a plant manager’s main concern, whatever technology is used to accomplish that goal. Burns is in favor of additive machines competing side by side with CNC and injection molding machines. ExOne’s recent introduction of Exerial exemplifies that view. Noted Burns, some additive machines (like Exerial) are now within a few percentage points of the cost of using hard tooled automated lines. “But you get all the other advantages of 3D printing, such as complete 94

DESIGN WORLD

Lead feature for MPF 8-15_Vs6.LL.MD.indd 94

August 2015

“When you consider the overall size of the manufacturing industry, recently valued as a $90 billion market, the current list of additive machine vendors is too small to supply enough machines to such a huge market. That’s why it was totally predictable that more traditional machine tool vendors would have an interest.” The current offerings from companies like Mazak and DMG are more of a hybrid type of additive machine. Said Burns, “I think we are a long way from seeing truly additive machine tools capable

of multifunction. Two recent introductions from Japan are true additive machines. They were built from scratch and were made by machine tool builders.” A persistent idea you hear about additive machinery is that it will replace CNC machining and potentially injection molding in many applications. Experienced additive users disagree. Rather than replace an optimized process (CNC machining for example) with a relatively new process (AM), better opportunities lie with using AM to create what you have not been able to accomplish with CNCs. Therefore, do different designs and projects with AM. Said Burns, “I see additive coexisting with traditional manufacturing operations occurring within five years. Service bureaus are already doing this.” As companies bring manufacturing back to the U.S., AM presents interesting questions about possible changes in operations and processes, as well as design. “Additive manufacturing, almost by definition, is a locally deployed technology,” said Burns. “You want to use it where you want parts, so what do you do now? For U.S.-based companies, additive manufacturing presents an interesting question about possible change, especially in reintroducing manufacturing to the U.S.” Change includes how to sequence part production. The automotive companies, for example, are exploring how AM can speed product changeover. What if you could build one part, then change to another part, and continually change parts using one machine? CNCs and injection molding systems are less

8/7/15 9:19 AM


flexible about part changeover than an AM machine. Plus, you can build one part on an additive machine without worrying about amortization or inventory building. You can even design the manufacturing/fabrication process such that every part coming in is synchronized within the process and assembly. Said Burns, “We aggregate our jobs all the time. Our server is loaded with files, each one different. We print an average of 1,000 unique parts every day. The size of the parts varies. In many cases, we can print different parts simultaneously, depending on part and build size. You can’t run ten different parts on a CNC at the same time.” Such benefits are not possible with subtractive technology. When designing for additive, it’s important to know that additive has its own “set of rules.” For example, the concept of design optimization is changing. It is no longer about whether you put an undercut in the design or not. It’s more about taking out excess weight while making the part physically stronger. While you can reduce the weight of many parts by as much as 50 to 75%, the real win may be in taking out as little as five pounds in thousands of one part that is made multiple times. But the AM set of design rules has yet to be written. Organizations and standards bodies are working on them, but it is still very much a work in progress. n MPF ExOne exone.com

WHAT DO YOU THINK? Connect and discuss this and other engineering design issues with thousands of professionals online

August 2015

Lead feature for MPF 8-15_Vs6.LL.MD.indd 95

DESIGN WORLD

95

8/7/15 9:19 AM


Additively manufacturing a cranial implant Edited by: Leslie Langnau • Managing Editor

Cranial implants must meet many stringent criteria. In the case of an Argentine patient who required a particularly large implant after stroke-related surgery, the project called for a level of design that was as close to perfect as one can imagine: from the highest degree of precision and compatibility to the integration of biological functions. The 3D-printing service provider Alphaform relied on EOS technology to create this successful cranial implant, developed by partner firm Novax DMA.

96

DESIGN WORLD

EOS Medical MPF 8-15_Vs6.LL.MD.indd 96

August 2015

8/6/15 3:33 PM


A

d

d

i

t

i

v

e

M

a

n

u

f

a

c

t

u

r

i

n

g

EOS_A

CAP: T titanium require Applica

»

The porosity of the

implant is 95%, so liquids can flow through with the least possible resistance and the bone tissue optimally coalesces with the outer edges. (Photo courtesy of EOS)

If a person requires an implant in the skull, then external factors—in particular, the implant itself—should aid, not hinder, the healing process. Most importantly, the implant should have the most perfect fit possible—a classic requirement of additive manufacturing (AM) applications. The production process, which uses a laser to build up the material (in this case titanium) piece by piece, offers maximum individualization in both form and size.

The doctors involved provided medical technology experts from Novax DMA and Alphaform with further challenges. High on the list, due to the size of the hole in the patient’s bone structure, was the integration of biological functions and the lowest possible degree of heat dissipation into the cerebral tissue. Titanium has excellent biocompatibility with the human body. Nonetheless, because it is a metal, it could generate too much heat inside the body in the event of high exposure to sunlight. Another potential problem is that www.makepartsfast.com  

EOS Medical MPF 8-15_Vs6.LL.MD.indd 97

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

97

8/7/15 11:20 AM


Additive Manufacturing

g

» The additive manufactured implant made of a biocompatible titanium alloy was placed in the skull of a patient in Argentina who required it after strokerelated surgery. (Courtesy of Novax DMA).

a titanium structure could be impermeable to tissue fluid from the brain. The doctors also stipulated special postmanufacturing processes for the implant. Controlled and optimal post-processing, particularly in terms of cleaning, facilitates the use of the part. This is vital because stray particles might lead to possible infections or even rejection. In addition, absolute sterility is central to successful acceptance of the implant by the body. Only a porous structure would be capable of meeting the required characteristics. A lattice-structured implant with skullintegrated, screw-in fixings facilitates both the passage of fluids and fusion with the bone of the skull itself. In addition, such a design would have an insulation effect such that the heat dissipation into the cranial cavity would be minimized. The dimensions of the pores 98

DESIGN WORLD

EOS Medical MPF 8-15_Vs6.LL.MD.indd 98

August 2015

themselves are approximately 1 mm in size, while the cell-links are about 0.2 mm thick. Daniel Fiz, CEO of Novax DMA, said, “Time played an important role, since patients should receive their implants as quickly as possible. Once we had the dimensions data, we began construction immediately.” For the 3D design of the implant, they employed software from Within. “It allowed us not only to define the basic form quickly, but also the porous structure itself,” said Kaveh Mahdavi, director of business development at Within. As soon as the CAD work was complete, Alphaform took on the manufacture of the implant, using an EOSINT M 280 system from EOS. The build time was just a matter of hours. “We had already successfully completed many products with the

8/6/15 3:34 PM


EOS system,” said Christoph Erhardt, director of additive manufacturing at Alphaform. “However, we are particularly proud of this implant, not only because of the precise realization of the form, but especially because we were able to optimize the cleaning processes.” Porous structures in particular, with their small interior hollow spaces, are extremely hard to clean. The process is relatively sensitive. Basically, Alphaform applied a multi-step process of abrasive and mechanical cleaning, rinsing, and ultrasound to meet the medically required standards. The perfectly tailored implant meets all clinical requirements. Its porosity level reaches 95%, which means liquids could flow through with the least possible resistance. In addition, the bone tissue is able to penetrate the outer edges of the implant and grow together with it. At the same time, the metal is stable enough to return the patient to the

desired level of normality in everyday life. The structure, constructed in the form of a regular lattice, also provides the desired level of thermal conductivity—so the patient can even enjoy time in the sun. Time to market is a key strength of AM in industry, but time is even more critical in medicine. The implant was in the operating theater in just three weeks. The largest block of time was taken up by transportation, which took a week. Data preparation and then construction were completed within just two and a half days. The remaining time was split among various processes, including logistics and coordination. The two companies verified the purity levels of the implant through comprehensive measurements. Erhardt and his team carried out extensive tests, including particle and cytotoxicity testing. They also undertook a gas-chromatography analysis. “All of the analyses confirmed that the implant produced through additive manufacturing fulfilled the necessary requirements to stabilize and protect the patient‘s skull,” he said. “The one and a half hour surgery went smoothly. The patient left the hospital after two days and the wound was healed within three weeks. Since then, there have been no complications.” n MPF EOS eos.info Alphaform AG alphaform.de

WHAT DO YOU THINK? Connect and discuss this and other engineering design issues with thousands of professionals online

Novax DMA novaxdma.com August 2015

EOS Medical MPF 8-15_Vs6.LL.MD.indd 99

DESIGN WORLD

99

8/6/15 3:34 PM


A

d

d

i

t

i

v

e

M

a

n

u

f

a

c

t

u

r

i

n

g

Paper based 3D printing reduces surgical time

Leslie Langnau • Managing Editor

Time is critical when a patient is undergoing surgery. The longer the patient’s internal tissue is exposed, the greater the risk. The sooner a patient can be closed up and begin recovery, the greater the chances for a healthy recovery. Maxillofacial surgeons at the Cliniques universitaires SaintLuc, Université catholique de Louvain (UCL) in Belgium, often need to reconstruct bones in a patient’s skull. Recent examples include patients with a jaw ravaged by cancer or an eye socket crushed in a car accident. 100

DESIGN WORLD

Aug MPF Mcor Case History 8-15_Vs5.LL.MD.indd 100

August 2015

8/5/15 2:03 PM


» M a x i llo f a c i a l s u r g eo n s , often need to reconstruct bones in a patient’s

skull, for example, a jaw ravaged by cancer

or an eye socket crushed in a car accident.

The use of paper 3D printing technology

from Mcor Technologies to create models

»

of facial features helps surgeons recoup

hours from traditional surgical procedures.

3D printing physical bone models The surgeons use paper 3D printing technology from Mcor Technologies to recoup hours from traditional surgical procedures. Working from the digitally scanned contours of patients’ bones, doctors push a button to create full-size 3D physical models they can use as surgical guides. Since the model is a facsimile of the patient’s actual physiology, surgeons can use it to precisely shape metal inserts that fit along a patient’s residual bone. The insert might be a plate that supports a damaged mandible

or a titanium mesh for reconstructing a damaged eye socket. Without 3D physical models to work from, surgeons would be forced to rely on timeconsuming trial and error to shape the metal implants and risk potential tissue damage. “With each procedure, we can easily win an hour in the operating room, and that’s a major benefit for the patient,” said Professor Raphael Olszewski, a surgeon and head of the university’s oral and maxillofacial surgery research lab www.makepartsfast.com  

Aug MPF Mcor Case History 8-15_Vs5.LL.MD.indd 101

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

101

8/5/15 2:03 PM


Additive Manufacturing

(OMFS Lab, UCL). “We open the patient up, slide in the device, check the fit and start the patient’s recovery.” The 3D physical skull and mandible models are produced by an Mcor Matrix paper-based 3D printer. To create a 3D model, Olszewski’s team takes a CT or cone-beam CT scan of the patient and uses Maxilim software to export the section of bone they’re interested in. They quickly transform the 3D file into a printable, watertight solid and print the bone model with ease. Making a Change The team purchased the Mcor 3D printer after five years of using a ZPrinter (resin powder-based 3D printer). One reason for the change in printers was that models from the ZPrinter required an extensive post-processing step that used toxic chemicals (cyanoacrylate). The chemicals

required a special license to handle and a special room for the post-processing. Olszewski’s team found the chemicals incompatible with education and healthcare. “We went looking for an ecofriendly solution and found Mcor,” said Olszewski. Mcor 3D printers create models from paper (standard Letter/A4 sheets). When the sheets are cut and bound together, the model is tough, durable and stable—no infiltration is required. After use, models can be disposed of in the recycling bin for cradle-to-grave sustainability. Mcor 3D printers use water-based adhesive—no toxic fumes, lasers, airborne powder or toxic resins— enabling the machine to easily coexist in an office or classroom. Part cost is 5% of other technologies’ costs, and total cost of Mcor ownership is a

» To create a 3D model, researchers took a CT or cone-beam CT scan of the patient and used Maxilim software to export the section of bone they were interested in. They quickly transformed the 3D file into a printable, watertight solid and printed the bone model with ease.

102

DESIGN WORLD

Aug MPF Mcor Case History 8-15_Vs5.LL.MD.indd 102

August 2015

8/5/15 2:04 PM


» The model is a facsimile of the patient’s actual physiology. Thus, surgeons can use it to precisely shape metal inserts that fit along a patient’s residual bone. Without these

fraction of that of the competition. Olszewski estimates that a model made with Mcor costs about half that of the ZPrinter and about onetenth that of stereolithography. With Olszewski’s team making models every day, that’s a savings of more than 20,000 € (≈$21,930) per year. The Future “The Mcor 3D printer gives us a really affordable 3D model that opens up many possibilities for 3D modeling in maxillofacial surgery,” said Olszewski. In addition to creating models of surgical patients, Olszewski’s team creates models for the lab. The team is constantly refining its processes so that surgical guide use is increasingly precise. One way the team does this is by CT scanning models and superimposing the images on CT scans of patients. This way, the

models to work from, surgeons would have to rely on trial and error to shape the metal implants and risk potential tissue damage.

team can gauge the accuracy of modeling and improve the success of the surgeries. The ease and affordability of producing 3D physical skull models is enabling Olszewski’s team to constantly expand the range of procedures that can be accelerated using 3D printed surgical guides. Though powerful, the Mcor 3D printer is intuitive, noted Olszewski, even for busy surgeons who need to constantly focus on their craft. The team has also discovered that Mcor models, though paper, can be sterilized. That means surgeons will soon be bringing them into the

www.makepartsfast.com  

Aug MPF Mcor Case History 8-15_Vs5.LL.MD.indd 103

operating room. As 3D printing’s role quickly evolves, Olszewski sees 3D printing as a powerful, affordable and accessible alternative to highly expensive neuro-navigation systems that ensure accuracy in surgery. “There are many potential applications in medicine for Mcor’s affordable and eco-friendly process,” said Olszewski. “Look for 3D paper printing not only in surgery, but in medical equipment engineering and biomedical engineering. We’re really at the beginning.” n MPF Mcor Technologies mcortechnologies.com

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

103

8/7/15 11:23 AM


ANATOMY

OF

A

GREAT

IDEA

MACHINED SPRINGS FROM TAYLOR DEVICES Available in virtually unlimited configurations, Machined Springs from Taylor Devices offer unique capabilities to solve your application challenges. Examine the difference.

High precision, lightweight tension/compression Extremely long life Made from a wide variety of materials including high strength steel, stainless steel, aluminum, and titanium Exact/consistent spring rate Precise alignment Up to 16 inches in diameter

Contact us today to see how we can provide a better solution for your engineering application.

90 Taylor Drive, P.O. Box 748 North Tonawanda, NY 14120 - 0748 Phone: 716.694.0800 Fax: 716.695.6015

www.taylordevices.com

TAYOR-006170 MachSprg_9x10_875 DesWorld_Mech.indd 1 Taylor Devices 8-15.indd 104

7/10/15 12:17 PM 8/5/15 2:05 PM


A Supplement to Design World

August 2015

Design mission ready devices and equipment faster, smarter, and under budget with TiPS from leading suppliers

Aerospace cover 2015_main issue_FINAL.indd 105

8/5/15 2:08 PM


Aerospace/Defense

Submersible technology

in demand as wartime arenas move underwater In this era of counter-terrorism, the need for small teams of Special Operations warfighters is continually increasing. To stay a step ahead of the enemy, these forces must be equipped with the best and most durable equipment that today’s technology can offer. Recognizing this, many recent USSOCOM Requests for Proposals for submersible equipment now require operational capability at a depth of 20 m, a substantial increase from the 1-m requirement prevailing as recently as five years ago. This increased operating depth requirement implies other essential characteristics, such as the ability to withstand much greater surface pressure. SEAL missions frequently involve infiltrating enemy lines through coastal waters, using their well-known SEAL Delivery Vehicles (SDVs). Unlike full-sized submarines, the SDV is a “wet” submersible vehicle capable of carrying up to six SEALs. The occupants are seated in an open cockpit, wearing their diving

106

DESIGN WORLD

Aerospace 7 - ODU MG.MD.indd 106

August 2015

8/5/15 2:25 PM


gear and ready for immediate action upon arrival at their destination. While in the vehicle, they are able to breathe from either an onboard compressed air supply or from their own air tanks. In 2009, USSOCOM renewed its interest in underwater operational capabilities with the announcement of the Shallow Water Combat Submersible (SWCS) program, allocating an estimated budget of $530 million over a nine-year period. The SWCS (Figure 2) is scheduled to go into service in 2017. It will replace the current SDV Mark 8 Mod 1.

Operational characteristics of SEAL equipment In addition to increasing the range from which the SEALs can initiate their missions, the SDV allows them to carry more equipment than they could otherwise take with them. The actual equipment they might use is classified, but some likely items include weapons and munitions, navigation and communications devices, surveillance equipment, battery-powered tools, positioning and measuring devices, and perhaps even medical instruments for search and rescue missions. While some of this equipment may be entirely self-contained and watertight, it is likely that much of it will comprise multiple units interconnected through external lowvoltage electrical cables, such as those used for data transfer. If these I/O cables themselves contain connectors, then those connectors must meet stringent performance standards to avoid being a dangerously weak link in the system. In many commercial systems, cable connectors are the most significant points of failure, particularly over prolonged periods of time. Such single points of failure are unacceptable in the extreme conditions under which SEALs operate. At a depth of 20 m, the ambient pressure is three times greater than the atmospheric pressure at sea level. This means that submersible equipment,

and in particular the seals that give the equipment its watertight property, must be designed to withstand the higher pressure over prolonged periods of submersion. This is just one of the parameters by which the operational characteristics of submersible equipment can be measured. This and others, along with relevant standards, include: • Water protection—International Protection rating IP68 (as defined in international standard IEC 60529). The “6” indicates a completely dustproof seal, while the “8” indicates waterproof at depths greater than 1 m. No specific standards exist for greater depths. • Temperature—Ocean temperatures decrease with depth, but the difference in temperature between the surface and 20 m is not significant. More important is the actual location, since water temperatures can vary between -2° C in polar regions and 36° C in tropical regions. • Corrosion resistance—The dissolved salts in sea water, primarily sodium chloride, have a corrosive effect on metals and rubber compounds over prolonged exposure. The ASTM G52 standard provides the procedure for evaluating corrosion resistance in sea water. • Electromagnetic Interference shielding—Critical data passing through the shielded cable must be immune to external sources of Electromagnetic Interference (MILSTD-464A). Conversely, the shielding must prevent signal transmission from the cable, since any such leakage might be detected by the enemy (MILSTD-461F). When evaluating cable connectors specifically, other factors must also be considered. These include: • ease of physical mating and separation

www.designworldonline.com   

Aerospace 7 - ODU MG.MD.indd 107

• •

maximum number of mating cycles without failure, and diversity of electrical interface standards supported.

There are numerous Military Specifications (MIL-SPECs) covering a wide range of electrical connectors, and there are several companies that offer connectors designed to meet these specifications. Smaller companies in the field focus on specific niche markets, producing a subset of the MIL-SPEC connectors. Larger companies offer comprehensive ranges of connectors, capable of meeting the majority of military equipment needs. One company, ODU, has focused on meeting these requirements for some of their submersible connectors capable of operating at the 20-m depth. The durability and reliability of these connectors are battlefield tested; right-angle connectors were used in the Atlantic Signal Dominator headsets worn by members of SEAL Team 6 during several of their top missions.

Broader market for submersible equipment Although the Navy SEALs have a history spanning back to 1962, many of the missions they carry out today simply would not have been possible in past decades. The technologies essential to the equipment they use today did not exist—digital cameras, GPS tracking, micro-miniature electronics and computers, lithiumion batteries, nanotechnology, panoramic night-vision goggles and many more. Some of the modern electronic equipment carried by SEALs is selfcontained, requiring no external cables and hence no exposed electrical connectors. However, in today’s data-centric world, connectivity is fast becoming a prerequisite. Night-vision goggles and a headset connected to a secure tactical radio could, for example, allow

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

107

8/7/15 11:29 AM


Aerospace/Defense remote visual and audio monitoring of every move each SEAL makes, with the data being transmitted in real time to skilled navy personnel aboard the host submarine—a second set of eyes and ears to assist the SEAL if necessary. The same audio/visual data would also be

recorded for use in future mission simulations and training exercises. Currently, only a few 20-m submersible products are available that would be suitable for such an

COATED AEROSPACE DEVICE

application. Examples of those that do exist include the Harris RF-5800MHH Multiband Tactical Handheld Radio, HTMI AN/PAS-23 Mini Thermal Monocular, and Atlantic Signal MH180-H-AA Tactical Headset. The lack of such products opens the door for innovation. When new opportunities emerge as a result of military RFQs, industry suppliers typically respond with a range of products that go beyond just a single model designed to meet the military requirement. There’s a good reason for this: In the past, government procurement budgets often included funds for development of new types of products. However, with today’s economic climate and budget constraints, military RFQs for smaller or less specialized items place the development costs back in the hands of would-be suppliers. Communications and surveillance devices, such as the three mentioned above, are examples of products for which a 20-m submersible capability is, or may soon be, required. Other potential categories of interest to the SEALs likely include handheld computing devices (tablets and pads), miniaturized cameras, short-range underwater drones, navigation and GPS devices, tools, medical devices and, of course, weaponry. ODU Group odu-usa.com

WHAT DO YOU THINK?

The Leader in Coating Aerospace, Medical, and Industrial Components.

Connect and discuss this and other solar issues with thousands of professionals online

51 Parmenter Road, Hudson, MA 01749 (800) 258-0110 | www.boydcoatings.com/DW

108

Aerospace 7 - ODU MG.MD.indd 108

DESIGN WORLD

August 2015

8/5/15 2:26 PM


maxon EC motor Brushless, dynamic, compact.

maxon drives in autopilots.

When it really matters. Our drive systems are also used in the airline industry. You'll find them, for instance, in modern autopilots, where they enable the thrust lever to be properly positioned according to flight parameters.

The maxon product range is built on an extensive modular system, encompassing: brushless and brushed DC motors with the ironless maxon winding, planetary, spur and special gearheads, feedback devices and control electronics.

Maxon Motors 8-15_Aerospace.indd 109

maxon motor is the world’s leading supplier of high-precision drives and systems of up to 500 watts power output. Rely on the quality of the highly specialized solutions which we develop with and for you. www.maxonmotorusa.com

8/5/15 2:31 PM


Aerospace/Defense

Drones start to look like flying smartphones

110

DESIGN WORLD

Drones_Aerospace Supp_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 110

August 2015

www.designworldonline.com

8/6/15 3:40 PM


The average small UAV drone sports an electronic controller that isn’t much more complicated than that on an ordinary radio-controlled plane. This processor generally doesn’t do much more than control flight surfaces and manage power as the craft proceeds along a flight path. But the next generation of drones is likely to need a significant upgrade in smarts. The reason is that these vehicles will take on tasks that involve a lot of computational analysis, such as image recognition, and communication with computing resources in the cloud. One indication of this trend is a recent development at

PrecisionHawk, a maker of UAVs that collect information through a variety of spectral, thermal and radar sensors. The collected data is typically used for agricultural planning, ecology and surveying infrastructure. PrecisionHawk worked with Intel to devise a version of Intel’s Atom E3845 processor that is optimized specifically for use in UAVs. The Atom processor is typically found in smartphones and tablets. It is a quad-core design that runs at 1.6 GHz with a graphics engine running at 200 MHz. PrecisionHawk VP of Product Development, Philip Ferguson, said the Intel collaboration helped customize the detailed I/O needed for

the UAVs, particularly USB 3 and Gigabit Ethernet, along with special interfacing that allows the processors to work with sensors often used for imaging. “The first versions of our bird could do calculations of the wind and some basic flight planning. We wanted to take that up a step so the aircraft truly understands what it is looking at,” he said. “For example, the UAV might look at a field, realize it is late-stage corn, and alter its flight based on what it sees. That requires high-level image analysis and an ability to move a lot of data from the aircraft to storage media. The onboard processor must detect features, change detection modes, stitch together images and detect thresholds in images. That’s not possible August 2015

Drones_Aerospace Supp_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 111

DESIGN WORLD

111

8/6/15 3:41 PM


Aerospace/Defense

{

with low-end processors, but it is possible with the Atom.” PrecisionHawk demoed its Intel onboard processing technology at the recent AUVSI Unmanned Systems conference. To show how the craft might communicate over the Internet in flight, technicians gave the UAV two target objects to locate as potential landing locations. During flight, teams on the ground sent tweets directly to the UAV, which then calculated what spot got the highest number of votes and landed accordingly. In addition, the UAV tweeted flight details from the air, such as aerial images, target

Despite the success of the demo, Ferguson doesn’t foresee the UAVs exchanging tweets in real applications. A more likely use for Internet communications would be beaming back compressed image data.

Aurora-Where_the_Action_Is:Aurora 11/5/10 1:10 PM Page 1

Rod Ends and Spherical Bearings designed and manufactured to Aurora's exacting standards for quality and durability. Registered and Certified to ISO-9001 and AS9100. From economy commercial to aerospace approved, we've got it all !

location and altitude. Despite the success of the demo, Ferguson doesn’t foresee the UAVs exchanging tweets in real applications. A more likely use for Internet communications would be beaming back compressed image data. “We want to use the Atom to do pre-analysis on the aircraft, so instead of sending back gigabytes of image data to the cloud, we might get it down to a few hundred kilobytes,” he said. “We might just send back field coordinates or locations of plants that are diseased. That information can be encapsulated in less than a megabyte.” UAVs equipped with Atom processors will also resemble flying smartphones. “For tracking and avoidance, we will transmit aircraft location over an LTE network to a central database managed by the FAA and its Canadian counterpart,” Ferguson said. “They would watch the position of all the aircraft and do high-level traffic management. At the aircraft level, you need a processor that can accept messages from a central system. The FAA might tell the UAV it is entering restricted airspace. The onboard flight planner would tell the autopilot the flight plan has become invalid and needs to change.” Surprisingly, the toughest technical hang-up associated with fielding such advanced UAVs may not be in the aerodynamics or processing. Rather, heat could be the main obstacle. “We want the UAV to be allweather. That means keeping humid air out of it,” said Ferguson. “The electronics dissipates up to 10 W and sits in a small volume, so it can get hot. When it gets hot, the processor runs more slowly. So trying to bring in dry air to cool the electronics can be an interesting challenge.” PrecisionHawk precisionhawk.com

Aurora Bearing Company 901 Aucutt Road Montgomery IL. 60538 Complete library of CAD drawings and 3D models available at:

w w w . a u r o r a b e a r i n g . c o m 112

DESIGN WORLD

Drones_Aerospace Supp_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 112

August 2015

www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 4:05 PM


© 2014 SCHUNK GmbH & Co. KG

90 %

SWS Quick-Change System faster gripper change

SRH-plus

IP 67

Swivel Head

standard protection class

PGN-plus The No.

1

2-Finger Parallel Gripper

with multi-tooth guidance

Your automated handling system. It’s time to make use of your machine’s full potential. www.us.schunk.com/machine-potential Jens Lehmann, Brand Ambassador of SCHUNK, the family-owned company

Schunk 8-15 (Aerospace supp).indd 113 AnzSynergie_PGNplus_SRH_SWS-I_US_0413_235x282-5.indd 1

8/7/15 11:40 AM 31.03.14 13:57


Aerospace/Defense

114

DESIGN WORLD

Belden_Aerospace Supp_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 114

August 2015

www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 2:43 PM


How to creatively replace discontinued

universal joints

A global designer, manufacturer and integrator of precision motion control products needed universal joints for sensor applications of aircraft wing high lift actuation systems (HLAS). Because the company’s original universal joint vendor discontinued the product, it had to locate a new supplier who could satisfy an extremely tight production schedule quickly and skillfully. The new vendor had to be thoroughly familiar with manufacturing standards specific to the commercial aerospace industry. AS9100 qualification, which is scarce among universal joint manufacturers,

was an additional requirement. Aircraft universal joints must be manufactured to withstand the most demanding operating conditions—and the harshest working environments— with as little maintenance in the field as possible. Thus, low deflection rates, high strength-to-weight ratios and long service life are all essential. The company chose Belden Universal, a manufacturer with extensive experience in designing custom universal joints for aerospace applications—including high lift actuation, flap opening, and steering and control mechanisms.

Engineering and quality management teams on both sides carefully reviewed design details and associated standards. The requested universal joints were to be used in aircraft fail-safe systems. Among the customer’s specifications were inprocess control and marking requirements, along with performance and dimensional criteria. One of the challenges was that the original product had been manufactured from a material only available through a European supplier. However, sourcing raw material from overseas would have resulted in critical time loss, making production from scratch out of the August 2015

Belden_Aerospace Supp_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 115

DESIGN WORLD

115

8/5/15 2:44 PM


Aerospace/Defense question. To circumvent these time constraints, Belden’s design engineers proposed an innovative solution: Applying a few minor modifications to the manufacturer’s existing Military Specification joints would allow them to stay true to the original part and still meet the customer’s Class 2 flightcritical application requirements. These joints are manufactured according to “MIL-J-6193” requirements. As a MilSpec “Qualified Product Listed” manufacturer, Belden had the necessary qualifications to manufacture the final product. Existing components in a suitable stage of the production process were rerouted, which allowed

AntiVibration Mounts

for the necessary modifications and supported the tight timeline. To ensure optimal performance, every lot of these joints are also required to undergo MIL-J-6193 Group A Lot Compliance testing. Inhouse testing delivered immediate results, ensuring consistently high quality and reliability of the universal joints along with reduced lead times, when compared to outsourced testing. The manufacturing process was further supported by a paperless inspection platform, allowing for easier maintenance of data. As opposed to traditional paper records where the operator manually checks off inspection and tool requirements, the platform automates, simplifies and speeds up procedures and enables all members of the production team to view live data at any time. It specifies what features to measure, the proper tools for measuring and selects inspection specifications for the various features and pieces. The end result was a universal joint that fit, formed and functioned in the same fashion as the obsolete part, delivered on schedule and in compliance with the stringent specifications of the aerospace industry. Belden Universal beldenuniversal.com

• Absorb kinetic energy on impact • Prevent damage shock and rebound • Use as bumpers, leveling feet, or sound dampers Scan to see these products

Visit www.jwwinco.com to see our line of these useful products.

WHAT DO YOU THINK? Connect and discuss this and other engineering design issues with thousands of professionals online

2815 S. Calhoun Road New Berlin, WI 53151 Phone: 800-877-8351 Fax: 800-472-0670 Sales@jwwinco.com

116

DESIGN WORLD

Belden_Aerospace Supp_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 116

August 2015

www.designworldonline.com

8/5/15 2:44 PM


Micromo 8-15_Aerospace Supp.indd 117

8/7/15 11:50 AM


Aerospace/Defense

Micro stepping linear motors help imaging research

Aircraft and spacecraft carry high-resolution thermal imaging systems that were not available a few years ago. Today’s systems are the result of research using X-ray crystal diffraction for crystal characterization. These crystals are then used in the high-resolution or short-wave thermal imaging systems. The wavelengths of visible light are too long to see features and effects at molecular or atomic levels. Shorter wavelengths allow crystal lattices to be measured, which helps engineers design crystals for specific purposes. These crystals become the key components for short wavelength measurement equipment that, combined with differential interference techniques, provide today’s higher level of imagery. For example, the ability to characterize crystals using high energy X-rays is a direct outgrowth of large beam line facilities like the Advanced Light Source located at Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. These imaging systems must use short wavelengths to “see” neutrons. Other large facilities use the intense beams of high energy X-rays to support research of items with feature sizes much smaller than wavelengths of visible light, including molecular structures. However, the X-ray beam is confined to a small diameter. The beam line is operated in a vacuum. To make full use of the beam crystal, samples must be positioned and manipulated in the beam. Given the tiny features under research, it was necessary to build multi-axis scanning devices that can operate in a vacuum, 118

DESIGN WORLD

AWE_Aerospace Supp_Vs3.LL.MD.indd 118

August 2015

handle intense X-ray radiation, and still provide high precision and high positional resolution. LG Motion recently designed and built a 6-axis scanner for AWE Aldermaston, where it is to be used to determine properties of x-ray diffraction crystals prior to their installation into x-ray sensitive diagnostics for fielding on laser plasma experiments. The PC-controlled Two-Crystal Characterization Positioning System includes three stepper motor driven rotary tables and a 350-mm travel stepper driven linear axis that combines to support optical diffraction mounts and sensors—with two manually adjustable linear stages (35 mm travel) used to preposition static optical equipment. The goal of the mechanical system is to allow remote motion control to sub-micron resolutions in the vacuum chamber. This was achieved using 25,000 steps per revolution micro stepping motor drives in combination with custom vacuum/radiation resistant motors supplied by Empire Magnetics.    Empire Magnetics empiremagnetics.com LG Motion lg-motion.co.uk AWE Aldermaston awe.co.uk

8/5/15 2:50 PM


Bellows for Defense and Aerospace Featuring Premium Alloy FlexNickel®

Lightweight | Tight Tolerances | Custom Designs Applications: • • • • • • • •

Actuators Air Speed Measurement Altimeters Barometers Oxygen Systems Cryogenic Cooling Systems Landing Gear Systems Pressure and Temperature Instrumentation • Valve Controls • Waveguides • And more!

Contact Us for Engineering Assistance.

ISO 9001:2008 Certified RoHS Compliant ITAR

Making the Impossible....Possible! (973) 785-4630 | servometer.com

Servometer 8-15 (Aerospace supplement).indd 119

8/5/15 2:47 PM


BOYD COATINGS Hydrophobic Coating Also Effectively Protects Against Corrosion and Chemical Agents Boyd Coatings Research Co., Inc. has developed the CRC 6000-line Hydrophobic Coating, a customized coating used primarily on radomes, satellite dishes and other communication installations to prevent water film from building up and hindering signals. CRC 6000 is currently employed on ground installations in every climate from the earth’s deserts to the arctic; it is also used on seagoing vessels as well as rotary and fixed wing aircraft. CRC 6000 is a solid dispersion of fluorocarbon polymer and an aliphatic, moisture-cure, two-part polyurethane that creates a hard film with superior UV-resistance and long-term water repellency. In addition to maintaining clear communications signals, CRC 6000 provides excellent resistance to corrosion, abrasion, chemicals and impact, and is self-cleaning in most environments. CRC 6000 can be applied directly to most composite substrates (including DuPont Tedlar® and reinforced epoxies) and, with appropriate primers, to virtually any surface. Additionally, CRC 6000 has CARC (Chemical Agent Resistant Coating) properties which make it ideal for military applications. Boyd Coatings Research Co. applies a wide variety of high-performance coatings, specializing in the medical, industrial and aerospace markets. In addition to applying virtually every coating from every manufacturer on the market, Boyd manufactures a line of custom-developed fluoropolymer coatings for specialty applications. Boyd Coatings is an ISO 9001:2008 certified, registered and licensed applicator for Teflon®, Whitford, 3M and hundreds of popular coatings and finishes providing non-stick, heat resistant, conductive, insulative, hydrophobic or many other desirable properties. Boyd is a Licensed Industrial Applicator of Teflon® fluoropolymers including PTFE, ECTFE, ETFE, FEP, PFA, PVDF.

Boyd Coatings Research Co., Inc. 51 Parmenter Road, Hudson, MA 01749

Contact: Dick Downey Phone: 800-258-0110 • Fax: 978-562-9622 Email: downey@boydcoatings.com www.boydcoatings.com

HEATRON, INC. Heatron Delivers Precision Heating Elements and LED Modules For Aerospace and Defense OEMs. Aerospace applications demand the highest performance standards in their electronic components. That’s why Heatron’s client-oriented design and manufacturing services are perfect for aerospace and defense industry OEMs. With specialized technologies for aerospace and defense, Heatron heaters and LED modules are found in most commercial and military aircraft applications.

Heating Elements

LED Lighting Modules

Air and Surface Heaters Cockpit Galley Threshold Passenger Cabin Bulk Cargo Equipment Heaters Flight Instruments Beverage Makers Water Heaters Freeze and Ice Protection Pitot Tubes De-Icers

Interior Passenger Cabin Crew and Galley Exterior Tail and Wing Navigation PAPI, Landing, Taxi, Runway

Technologies Flexible Heaters Cartridge Heaters Thick Film Heaters LED Lighting Modules

ISO 9001:2008 and build to MIL-SPEC

120

DESIGN WORLD

A&D supp pages 8-15_Vs1.indd 120

August 2015

To find out how Heatron can help you with your heating or lighting project, contact a specialist today! 877.553.9070 913.651.4420 sales@heatron www.heatron.com

www.designworldonline.com

8/6/15 1:06 PM


Innovation in Miniature

WHEN IT COMES TO PERFORMANCE,

WE’RE YOUR WINGMAN.

PEACE OF MIND, SINCE 1948. Count on The Lee Company for relentless support and unsurpassed reliability. That’s been our approach for over 65 years, which has placed our field-proven Microhydraulic fluid control components on board every military and commercial aircraft flying today. So, whether you need a standard or custom-engineered solution, choose The Lee Company and relax. We’ve got your back.

Your Microhydraulics Flight Manual. The Lee Technical Hydraulic Handbook has, for decades, served as the industry-standard engineering reference for hydraulic components. Request your free copy today.

The Lee Company

860-399-6281 • www.TheLeeCo.com

WESTBROOK•LONDON•PARIS•FRANKFURT•MILAN•STOCKHOLM

The Lee Company 8-15.indd 121 LEE_Wingman_DesignWorld_AUG2015.indd 1

8/7/15 8/5/15 11:51 11:43 AM AM


J.W. Winco, Inc. Achieve torque-free, rapid clamping and releasing with J.W. Winco, Inc.’s clamping levers with eccentrical cam. These RoHS-compliant, ergonomically designed components are designed to insure movement cannot exceed maximum clamping position. They are offered in inch and metric sizes, fixed or adjustable, tapped or stud types, in steel or stainless steel, and can obtain forces up to 1800 lbs. of force. Handles are steel, stainless steel, or zinc die cast with plastic coated, abrasion-proof epoxy resin finish. Applications for these components include workholding, quick change applications on the factory floor, and adjustable elements of equipment such as camera apparatus and medical devices. www.jwwinco.com/products/section11/index. html#cam-units-and-cam-levers

J.W. Winco, Inc. 2815 S. Calhoun Road New Berlin, WI 53151 800-877-8351

www.jwwinco.com sales@jwwinco.com

THE LEE COMPANY Miniature Solenoid Valve Sets New Standards The Lee Company’s new 250 Series Solenoid Valve sets a new standard in reducing space, weight and power consumption. Designed for 28 volt systems, this 2 position, 3-way miniature piloting solenoid valve features Lee’s field proven Piloting Solenoid coil, as well as Lee’s unique and patented MultiSeal technology. The one-piece MultiSeal provides reliable sealing both axially and radially, minimizing the size of the hydraulic interface. It’s omni-directional design allows porting flexibility without the need for O-Rings or anti-Extrusion Rings. This new 250 Series Solenoid Valve is available in both single and dual coil, as well as normally open and normally closed models. The single coil valve weighs only 0.14 pounds and consumes just 7.8 watts at 28 Vdc.

2 Pettipaug Road, P.O. Box 424 Westbrook, CT 06498 Tel: 860-399-6281 Fax: 860-399-2270 inquiry@theleeco.com www.theleeco.com

122

DESIGN WORLD

A&D supp pages 8-15_Vs1.indd 122

August 2015

www.designworldonline.com

8/6/15 1:07 PM


SERVOMETER A Fifty-five Year Tradition of Design and Manufacturing Excellence Since 1957 Servometer® has been manufacturing precision, electrodeposited nickel bellows, bellows assemblies, flexible couplings, electrical contacts and lightweight, structurally rigid electroforms. Servometer custom designed, miniature metal bellows can be made as small as .020 inch (0.5 mm) in diameter and still retain full sensitivity and flexibility. They offer superb performance in applications such as metallic hermetic seals, volume compensators, pressure and temperature sensors and flexible connectors. Our zero-backlash, flexible shaft couplings meet rigorous needs in precision rotary positioning systems, where high flexibility, sensitivity and extreme accuracy in dimensional tolerances and concentricity are critical. O.D.’s from 0.252 to 2.40 inches. Overall lengths from 0.5 to 2.44 inches. Servometer self-aligning spring contacts meet critical solderless connection needs in miniature electronic applications, and feature negligible insertion and inductance loss. Ideal for repetitive connect and disconnect. O.D.’s from 0.037 to 0.245 inches are available from stock. Custom contacts can be designed with bellows diameters as small as 0.020 inch. Our lightweight, structurally rigid electroforms are the ideal solution for needs involving unusual shapes, close tolerances, high strength and ultra-thin walls.Diameters range from 0.020 to 9 inches. To learn more about our proprietary bellows technology, visit our website, or contact us directly by phone. Phone: (973) 785-4630 Email: sales@servometer.com www.servometer.com

maxon precision motors, inc. maxon motor takes to the skies Motors for Aerospace applications differ greatly from standard motors. They have to withstand greater temperatures and vibrations, have a longer life span and have to be very reliable. In Boeing’s 787, also known as the Dreamliner, a special airconditioning system using maxon DC brushless motors ensure a comfortable climate at great heights. Specific motor modifications were required and included drives for the cabin ventilation, for cooling the electronics and for closing and opening the air inlet on the outside of the aircraft. The motors were required to withstand temperatures of -55 °C to +85 °C and the vibrations during take-off and landing - throughout the decades of the aircraft’s service life. The cabin ventilation system consists of 36 shut-off valves that are driven by maxon EC 45 flat motors. These light brushless motors have been designed to fit into even the smallest spaces and have proven to be the ideal choice for aerospace design. For more information visit www.maxonmotorusa.com Contact info: maxon precision motors, inc. 101 Waldron Road Fall River, MA 02720 Tel: 508-677-0520

www.designworldonline.com  

A&D supp pages 8-15_Vs1.indd 123

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

123

8/6/15 1:09 PM


Pro duc t World Programmable blowers and fans

Electric drives

AMETEK PMC Ametekdfs.com

Bosch Rexroth Boschrexroth-us.com

AMETEK

Motor-integrated

Windjammer and

and near-motor

Nautilair blowers and

IndraDrive Mi

fans use Intelligen

electric drives

II controller

integrate right

technology with

into machines.

embedded software. Onboard signal level controllability

Designers can now

allows end users to vary speed (0 to 100% variation)

build compact,

without any adjustments from the main input power supply.

cabinet-free machines that are more modular than ever.

Electronic motor/blower controllers can be designed

More specifically, decentralized supply and mains modules

to accept continuously variable input voltage levels,

let machine builders integrate all drive components

specifically 83 to 264 Vac, while maintaining similar product

directly into the machine without a control cabinet. Up

performance across the input range.

to 20 IndraDrive Mi units connect in series in a cable harness to 200 m long, so controls can switch more of the drives in series. In adjacent drives, hybrid connectors (for

Motion control software

communication and power) reduce assembly work. IEC 61131-3 standards-based motion logic controls complex motion tasks; the drive-based control coordinates up to

Elmo Motion Control Elmomc.com

nine IndraDrive Mi units as slaves in real time.

This free Remote Practice

Easy maintenance gearboxes

System (RPS) lets users configure actual machines with a motion controller (Elmo’s Gold Maestro),

Bonfiglioli Bonfiglioliusa.com

three Elmo servo drives and motors, and Elmo’s Application Studio (EASII) software.

A new output hollow shaft

The RPS offers a series of tutorials and exercises

allows the FZP and FDK 300

organized in top-level categories and subcategories.

Series of gearboxes to assemble

Pre-written sequences walk the user through step-by-

and disassemble quicker and

step configuration and calibration of motion-control

safer than before. The hollow shaft

parameters. Users can then watch the response of a

with two keys at 120° permits full-rated and max torque

preconfigured motion-control hardware setup through

transmissions. Sizes for the FDK versions range from

a live camera feed.

300 to 310; FZP versions range from 311 to 325. An axial locking ring with threaded holes completes the design. A new shrink disk prevents accidental mounting errors. The series has a torque range of 1,000 to 1,287,000 Nm and gear ratios of 3.4 to 5,234.

124

DESIGN WORLD

Product World_8-15_Vs5.MD.indd 124

August 2015

8/6/15 2:33 PM


For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @ www.designworldonline.com

Software development kit

Low-profile load cells

Opto 22 Opto22.com

OMEGA Engineering Omega.com

The .NET Controller Software Development Kit (SDK) for SNAP PAC supports modern .NET frameworks and Visual Studio environments, which reduces

The LCHD Series

the time and cost of software development and testing. Applications can

intrinsically safe load

read from and write to integer, float, and string variables and tables, as

cells are FM rated for use

well as analog and discrete input and output points. The .NET Controller

in hazardous locations. They

SDK is compatible with Microsoft Windows 7 Professional (32- and 64-

are available with five different

bit), Windows 8.1 Professional (32- and 64-bit) and Windows Server 2012

electrical terminations: three con-

R2. The SDK supports Microsoft's .NET frameworks 4.0 through 4.5 and

nector options and two cable options, one of which

Visual Studio 2010 to 2013; includes sample .NET code and comprehensive

is a submersible waterproof cable. Standard models

documentation for packages and classes; and is available as a 100%

have an amplified 4 to 20 mA output for uni-direc-

managed DLL.

tional applications and a 4-12-20 mA output for bi-directional applications. The cells are made of stainless steel and have an operating temperature range of -40 to 75° C (60 to 160° F). Their excitation voltage ranges from 10 to 28 Vdc.

Linear guide system

Serial system

PBC Linear Pbclinear.com

Pentair Pentair.com

With a 23-mm standard height, the low-profile, Compact Series linear guide system is suitable for applications such as lab

The ratification of the revised PICMG CPCI.S-0

automation, medical, automated delivery systems, dispensing

specification led Pentair to extend their product

robotics and electronic board manufacturing.

portfolio by introducing a new 4U, 19-in.-wide CPCI Serial System. The modular design of this

The product line offers a variety of options including:

chassis family guarantees scalability, enabling

bearing: gliding surface technology with smooth and quiet

individual configurations without complexity.

operation with a low cost, self-lubricating and maintenance free

The backplane, cooling and power supply can be

liner, or profile rail technology providing rigid performance

adapted to suit the needs of its user. In addition to

leadscrew: 6- and 10-mm diameter leadscrews available in a

reduced development costs, the user also profits

variety of leads

from short development and manufacturing times.

• •

nut: Constant Force anti-backlash nut, or a standard fixed nut

motor: integrated NEMA 17 or 23 stepper motors, motor mount options or manual hand knob

www.designworldonline.com  

Product World_8-15_Vs5.MD.indd 125

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

125

8/6/15 2:33 PM


Pro duc t World Dual-rated PLC relays Phoenix Contact Phoenixcontact.com

Ac vector drives

Dual rated for ATEX and Class 1, Div. 2 hazardous locations, the new PLC relays from Phoenix Contact are available in two designs. The single-pole, double-throw relays measure only 6.2 mm wide, while the double-pole,

Nord Gear Nord.com

double-throw relays are 14 mm wide. The replacement relays are hot-swappable for easy maintenance. The

The SK 180E Series of compact and decentralized ac vector drives is said to fill the gap between simple motor starters and complex ac drives. Suitable for pumps and conveyor 3 digital inputs, 2 digital outputs, 2 analog inputs and an integrated 24-V power supply •

input power range of 115 V (single-phase) to 480 V (three-phase) operation

isolation of coils and contacts according to DIN EN 50178. They

technology, the series features: •

relay modules feature RTIII-sealed relays and safe

are available with screw or spring-cage terminations for easy installation in crowded switching cabinets.

0.33 to 3.0 hp

AS interface onboard

energy saving function

operating software (NORD CON) for controlling, programming and diagnosis

Linear slides PHD, Inc. Phdinc.com Optimax actuators are drop-in replacement linear slides for the OEM market. OSW Dual-Bore Pneumatic Slide Tables provide high power in compact spaces. Six bore sizes are available in incremental travel lengths and a roller bearing guide provides precise motion and high-load capacity. OSP Compact Pneumatic Thruster Slides are designed for high-performance applications where slide length is a concern. These actuators feature magnets for switch sensing capability and standard shock pads that reduce end of travel impact. Eight bore sizes are available in incremental travel lengths up to 100 mm. 126

DESIGN WORLD

Product World_8-15_Vs5.MD.indd 126

August 2015

www.designworldonline.com

8/6/15 3:42 PM


For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @ www.designworldonline.com

CANopen absolute encoders

Position hinge for heavy devices

Pepperl+Fuchs pepperl-fuchs.us

Reell Reell.com

CVM42H CANopen Multi-Turn Absolute Encoders feature a stainless-steel housing, flange and shaft, and use magnetic sampling to deliver 24-bit resolution

Precise and sustained positioning of heavy devices and end-products with long-

position value through the CANopen protocol.

moment arms is now possible with the

They offer axial and radial shaft load

PS-100 Position Hinge. With a 360°-range

capacity to 270 N, are vibration

of motion, the hinge is easily adjustable and

resistant to 30 g, and shock

maintains a selected position for as long as

resistant to 300 g. They are

necessary. It also features a compact axial

rated for use in operating

package offering 7.0 to 11.5 N-m (61.9 to

temperatures from -40 to

101.8 lb-in.) of torque in increments of 1.5

85° C (-40 to 185° F).

N-m (13.2 lb-in.). The hinge is currently engineered with symmetric torque (the same torque in both directions) and will additionally be available later in the year with patent pending “One-way” torque (high torque in one direction with virtually no

Single-board computer

torque in the other).

GE Ge.com The SBC347A rugged 3U OpenVPX single-board computer (SBC) is designed for demanding applications in harsh, SWaP (size, weight and power) constrained military environments. It benefits from two channels of 10 Gbase-T connectivity and supports up to 16 GB of soldered ECC memory. The SBC374A is available in five build levels, from benign environment (air cooled) to fully rugged (conduction cooled), and supports Microsoft Windows, Open Linux and VxWorks.

www.designworldonline.com  

Product World_8-15_Vs5.MD.indd 127

August 2015

DESIGN WORLD

127

8/6/15 2:32 PM


SALES

Ad In dex All Motion .........................................................4 Allied Electronics ..............................Cover,3,83 Altech Corporation ............................................1 AMETEK PMC/Dynamic Fluid Solutions .......17 AMETEK Catalyst Motion Group ....................21 AMETEK PMC/Dynamic Fluid Solutions........23 Applied Motion Products, Inc. .......................33 AutomationDirect .......................................... IFC Baldor Electric Company ...............................53 Bird Precision ..................................................16 Bishop Wisecarver ........................................ 58 Bison Gear & Engineering Corp. ...................IBC BOKER’S, Inc. ..................................................29 CADENAS PARTsolutions ............................... 86 CGI, Inc. ............................................................43 Clippard Instrument Laboratory ...................BC CS Hyde .............................................................8 Del-Tron Precision, Inc. ...................................61 Design2Parts ..................................................77 Dorner ..............................................................70 Dunkermotor, part of AMETEK ......................19 EXAIR Corporation ............................................5 Festo ................................................................51 Firestone Industrial Products....................... 20 Fixtureworks .................................................. 84 Graybar ..............................................................9 Heatron Inc. ....................................................87 Helical Products Company Inc. .......................7 IDEC .............................................................12.13 igus ................................................................. 60 IKO International, Inc. ....................................69 Lee Spring .......................................................75 Maple Systems ...............................................85 Master Bond ................................................... 84 National Instruments .....................................31 Newcomb Spring Corp ...................................49 Nook Industries ..............................................65 ODU-USA ..........................................................15 PBC Linear .......................................................67 Peninsular Cylinder Co. ................................ 68 PHD Inc. ...........................................................41 Proto Labs, Inc. ..........................................37,45 Schneider Electric Motion USA ......................39

Setco ................................................................76 Smalley Steel Ring Company ........................10 Taylor Devices .............................................. 104 Tormach LLC ....................................................71 Trim-Lok, Inc. ................................................. 28 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC..........78 Vena Engineering Corporation ......................16 Whittet-Higgins Company .............................27 Zero-Max, Inc. ....................................................2

VP of EE Product Development Mike Caruso mcaruso@wtwhmedia.com 469.855.7344

Regional Sales Manager Jessica East jeast@wtwhmedia.com 330.319.1253 @wtwh_MsMedia

General Manager Todd Christenson tchristenson@wtwhmedia.com 440.381.9048 @wtwh_todd VP, Business Development David Geltman dgeltman@wtwhmedia.com 516.510.6514 @wtwh_david

A supplement of Design World • August 2015

Inside: 92

Expert viewpoint: How additive technology will affect manufacturing 96

Additively manufacturing a cranial implant

reduces surgical time

Regional Sales Manager Neel Gleason ngleason@wtwhmedia.com 312.882.9867 @wtwh_ngleason

VP, Business Development Michael Ference mference@wtwhmedia.com 408.769.1188 @mrference

Make Part s Fas t Su p p lem en t

Paper based 3D printing

VP Sales Todd Tidmore ttidmore@wtwhmedia.com 512.626.8263 @wtwh_ttidmore

Key Account Manager Jim Powers jpowers@wtwhmedia.com 312.925.7793 @jpowers_media

100

3D Systems, Inc.............................................. 88 Proto Labs, Inc. ............................................... 90 SolidThinking................................................... 95

Regional Sales Manager Tom Lazar tlazar@wtwhmedia.com 408.701.7944 @wtwh_Tom

Aeros pace & D efen se Su p p lem en t

Regional Sales Manager Courtney Seel cseel@wtwhmedia.com 440.523.1685 @wtwh_CSeel

A Supplement to Design World

August 2015

Regional Sales Manager Megan Hollis mhollis@wtwhmedia.com 440.821.2941 @wtwh_Megan Business Development Michelle Flando mflando@wtwhmedia.com 440.670.4772 @mflando

LEADERSHIP TEAM Publisher Mike Emich memich@wtwhmedia.com 508.446.1823 @wtwh_memich Managing Director Scott McCafferty smccafferty@wtwhmedia.com 310.279.3844 @SMMcCafferty EVP Marshall Matheson mmatheson@wtwhmedia.com 805.895.3609 @mmatheson

Design mission ready devices and equipment faster, smarter, and under budget with TiPS from leading suppliers

Aerospace cover 2015_main issue_FINAL.indd 105

8/5/15 2:08 PM

Aurora Bearing Company ............................112 Boyd Coatings Research Co., Inc. .............. 108 J.W. Winco, Inc. .............................................116 Maxon Precision Motors ............................. 109 MICROMO .......................................................117 SCHUNK, INTEC .............................................113 Servometer/Bellowstech ............................119 The Lee Company .........................................121

CONNECT WITH US!

Follow the whole team on twitter @DesignWorld

DESIGN WORLD does not pass judgment on subjects of controversy nor enter into dispute with or between any individuals or organizations. DESIGN WORLD is also an independent forum for the expression of opinions relevant to industry issues. Letters to the editor and by-lined articles express the views of the author and not necessarily of the publisher or the publication. Every effort is made to provide accurate information; however, publisher assumes no responsibility for accuracy of submitted advertising and editorial information. Non-commissioned articles and news releases cannot be acknowledged. Unsolicited materials cannot be returned nor will this organization assume responsibility for their care. DESIGN WORLD does not endorse any products, programs or services of advertisers or editorial contributors. Copyright© 2015 by WTWH Media, LLC. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, or by recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher. Subscription Rates: Free and controlled circulation to qualified subscribers. Non-qualified persons may subscribe at the following rates: U.S. and possessions: 1 year: $125; 2 years: $200; 3 years: $275; Canadian and foreign, 1 year: $195; only US funds are accepted. Single copies $15 each. Subscriptions are prepaid, and check or money orders only. Subscriber Services: To order a subscription or change your address, please email: designworld@halldata.com, or visit our web site at www.designworldonline.com DESIGN WORLD (ISSN 1941-7217) is published monthly by: WTWH Media, LLC; 6555 Carnegie Ave., Suite 300, Cleveland, OH 44103. Periodicals postage paid at Cleveland, OH & additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: Design World, 6555 Carnegie Ave., Suite 300, Cleveland, OH 44103

128

DESIGN WORLD

Ad Index 8-15_Vs1.indd 128

August 2015

www.designworldonline.com

8/7/15 12:21 PM


THE BEST JUST GOT BETTER...

DC

AC Runs Cooler & Longer Lasting than Traditional Right Angle Gearmotors AC and DC options available now 1/15 - 1/2 HP; 35-1780 in-lbs • AC MOTOR OPTIONS: 115V 1PH, 115/230V 1PH 230V 3PH Inverter Duty, 230/400-460 50/60HZ 3PH • DC MOTOR OPTIONS 720 frame size: 12V, 24V, 90V, 130V and 180V 725 frame size: 12V, 24V, 90V, 130V and 180V 730 frame size: 24V, 90V and 130V • Maximum power density means a compact profile without compromising performance • Ground gearing provides whisper quiet operation, low backlash precision • Latest hypoid gear technology ensures less friction/heat and extends product life • Versatile mounting interchangeability to easily upgrade your installed drives • Exclusive PowerSTAR® EP lubricant for extended life To learn more about PowerSTAR® right-angle gearmotors, please visit Bison’s NEW WEBSITE at www.bisongear.com or call 1-800-AT-BISON.

©2014 Bison Gear and Engineering Corp.

Bison Gear 7-15.indd 1

We make your products go.™

8/5/15 2:56 PM


Pneumatic Cylinder Swap

The Great Vegas Cylinder Swap of 2015! PACKEXPO Booth C-2425

Swap your existing pneumatic cylinder with the Preferred Clippard brand. • Providing a level of credibility above the competition • Durable, economical construction • Exceptionally long cycle life • Interchangeable design • Many stroke and bore sizes • Proudly made in the USA

Many Styles, Materials, Bore Sizes & Strokes Available.

For over 50 years, Clippard has been providing quality cylinders for thousands of applications around the world. Cylinders that are responsible for millions of production cycles. Cylinders that provide outstanding performance and payback. Cylinders that quickly became the preferred brand!

Clippard Instrument Laboratory, Inc. 877-245-6247 • www.clippard.com

Visit PACKEXPO booth C-2425 to have your existing pneumatic cylinder swapped for the trusted Clippard brand. (Please present the existing competitive product, item number, photo, prototype or current application. Offer valid on standard models, bore sizes and materials September 28 through 30, 2015.)

Clippard 8-15.indd 1

8/5/15 2:58 PM

Design world august 2015  

How to keep machines and people safe Dean Kamen: making the world a better place through engineering Don't rule out leadscrews How timing...